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30 Mar 2023 at 01:39
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Bibliography on: Biofilm


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 30 Mar 2023 at 01:39 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( biofilm[title] NOT 28392838[PMID] NOT 31293528[PMID] NOT 29372251[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-03-29

Fathil MAM, H Katas (2023)

Antibacterial, Anti-Biofilm and Pro-Migratory Effects of Double Layered Hydrogels Packaged with Lactoferrin-DsiRNA-Silver Nanoparticles for Chronic Wound Therapy.

Pharmaceutics, 15(3): pii:pharmaceutics15030991.

Antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation in diabetic foot infections worsened during the COVID-19 pandemic, resulting in more severe infections and increased amputations. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a dressing that could effectively aid in the wound healing process and prevent bacterial infections by exerting both antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and lactoferrin (LTF) have been investigated as alternative antimicrobial and anti-biofilm agents, respectively, while dicer-substrate short interfering RNA (DsiRNA) has also been studied for its wound healing effect in diabetic wounds. In this study, AgNPs were complexed with LTF and DsiRNA via simple complexation before packaging in gelatin hydrogels. The formed hydrogels exhibited 1668% maximum swellability, with a 46.67 ± 10.33 µm average pore size. The hydrogels demonstrated positive antibacterial and anti-biofilm effects toward the selected Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria. The hydrogel containing AgLTF at 125 µg/mL was also non-cytotoxic on HaCaT cells for up to 72 h of incubation. The hydrogels containing DsiRNA and LTF demonstrated superior pro-migratory effects compared to the control group. In conclusion, the AgLTF-DsiRNA-loaded hydrogel possessed antibacterial, anti-biofilm, and pro-migratory activities. These findings provide a further understanding and knowledge on forming multipronged AgNPs consisting of DsiRNA and LTF for chronic wound therapy.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Liu X, Yao H, Zhao X, et al (2023)

Biofilm Formation and Control of Foodborne Pathogenic Bacteria.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 28(6): pii:molecules28062432.

Biofilms are microbial aggregation membranes that are formed when microorganisms attach to the surfaces of living or nonliving things. Importantly, biofilm properties provide microorganisms with protection against environmental pressures and enhance their resistance to antimicrobial agents, contributing to microbial persistence and toxicity. Thus, bacterial biofilm formation is part of the bacterial survival mechanism. However, if foodborne pathogens form biofilms, the risk of foodborne disease infections can be greatly exacerbated, which can cause major public health risks and lead to adverse economic consequences. Therefore, research on biofilms and their removal strategies are very important in the food industry. Food waste due to spoilage within the food industry remains a global challenge to environmental sustainability and the security of food supplies. This review describes bacterial biofilm formation, elaborates on the problem associated with biofilms in the food industry, enumerates several kinds of common foodborne pathogens in biofilms, summarizes the current strategies used to eliminate or control harmful bacterial biofilm formation, introduces the current and emerging control strategies, and emphasizes future development prospects with respect to bacterial biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Richter AM, Konrat K, Osland AM, et al (2023)

Evaluation of Biofilm Cultivation Models for Efficacy Testing of Disinfectants against Salmonella Typhimurium Biofilms.

Microorganisms, 11(3): pii:microorganisms11030761.

Within the European Union, Salmonella is frequently reported in food and feed products. A major route of transmission is upon contact with contaminated surfaces. In nature, bacteria such as Salmonella are often encountered in biofilms, where they are protected against antibiotics and disinfectants. Therefore, the removal and inactivation of biofilms is essential to ensure hygienic conditions. Currently, recommendations for disinfectant usage are based on results of efficacy testing against planktonic bacteria. There are no biofilm-specific standards for the efficacy testing of disinfectants against Salmonella. Here, we assessed three models for disinfectant efficacy testing on Salmonella Typhimurium biofilms. Achievable bacterial counts per biofilm, repeatability, and intra-laboratory reproducibility were analyzed. Biofilms of two Salmonella strains were grown on different surfaces and treated with glutaraldehyde or peracetic acid. Disinfectant efficacy was compared with results for planktonic Salmonella. All methods resulted in highly repeatable cell numbers per biofilm, with one assay showing variations of less than 1 log10 CFU in all experiments for both strains tested. Disinfectant concentrations required to inactivate biofilms were higher compared to planktonic cells. Differences were found between the biofilm methods regarding maximal achievable cell numbers, repeatability, and intra-laboratory reproducibility of results, which may be used to identify the most appropriate method in relation to application context. Developing a standardized protocol for testing disinfectant efficacy on biofilms will help identify conditions that are effective against biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

da Silva AA, Galego L, CM Arraiano (2023)

New Perspectives on BolA: A Still Mysterious Protein Connecting Morphogenesis, Biofilm Production, Virulence, Iron Metabolism, and Stress Survival.

Microorganisms, 11(3): pii:microorganisms11030632.

The BolA-like protein family is widespread among prokaryotes and eukaryotes. BolA was originally described in E. coli as a gene induced in the stationary phase and in stress conditions. The BolA overexpression makes cells spherical. It was characterized as a transcription factor modulating cellular processes such as cell permeability, biofilm production, motility, and flagella assembly. BolA is important in the switch between motile and sedentary lifestyles having connections with the signaling molecule c-di-GMP. BolA was considered a virulence factor in pathogens such as Salmonella Typhimurium and Klebsiella pneumoniae and it promotes bacterial survival when facing stresses due to host defenses. In E. coli, the BolA homologue IbaG is associated with resistance to acidic stress, and in Vibrio cholerae, IbaG is important for animal cell colonization. Recently, it was demonstrated that BolA is phosphorylated and this modification is important for the stability/turnover of BolA and its activity as a transcription factor. The results indicate that there is a physical interaction between BolA-like proteins and the CGFS-type Grx proteins during the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters, iron trafficking and storage. We also review recent progress regarding the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which BolA/Grx protein complexes are involved in the regulation of iron homeostasis in eukaryotes and prokaryotes.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Marra D, Perna I, Pota G, et al (2023)

Nanoparticle Coatings on Glass Surfaces to Prevent Pseudomonas fluorescens AR 11 Biofilm Formation.

Microorganisms, 11(3): pii:microorganisms11030621.

Microbial colonization of surfaces is a sanitary and industrial issue for many applications, leading to product contamination and human infections. When microorganisms closely interact with a surface, they start to produce an exo-polysaccaridic matrix to adhere to and protect themselves from adverse environmental conditions. This type of structure is called a biofilm. The aim of our work is to investigate novel technologies able to prevent biofilm formation by surface coatings. We coated glass surfaces with melanin-ZnO2, melanin-TiO2, and TiO2 hybrid nanoparticles. The functionalization was performed using cold plasma to activate glass-substrate-coated surfaces, that were characterized by performing water and soybean oil wetting tests. A quantitative characterization of the antibiofilm properties was done using Pseudomonas fluorescens AR 11 as a model organism. Biofilm morphologies were observed using confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis techniques were used to obtain quantitative morphological parameters. The results highlight the efficacy of the proposed surface coating to prevent biofilm formation. Melanin-TiO2 proved to be the most efficient among the particles investigated. Our results can be a valuable support for future implementation of the technique proposed here in an extended range of applications that may include further testing on other strains and other support materials.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Rühl-Teichner J, Jacobmeyer L, Leidner U, et al (2023)

Genomic Diversity, Antimicrobial Susceptibility, and Biofilm Formation of Clinical Acinetobacter baumannii Isolates from Horses.

Microorganisms, 11(3): pii:microorganisms11030556.

Acinetobacter (A.) baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen that causes severe infections in humans and animals, including horses. The occurrence of dominant international clones (ICs), frequent multidrug resistance, and the capability to form biofilms are considered major factors in the successful spread of A. baumannii in human and veterinary clinical environments. Since little is known about A. baumannii isolates from horses, we studied 78 equine A. baumannii isolates obtained from clinical samples between 2008 and 2020 for their antimicrobial resistance (AMR), clonal distribution, biofilm-associated genes (BAGs), and biofilm-forming capability. Based on whole-genome sequence analyses, ICs, multilocus (ML) and core-genome ML sequence types (STs), and AMR genes were determined. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by microbroth dilution. A crystal violet assay was used for biofilm quantification. Almost 37.2% of the isolates were assigned to IC1 (10.3%), IC2 (20.5%), and IC3 (6.4%). Overall, the isolates revealed high genomic diversity. We identified 51 different STs, including 22 novel STs (ST1723-ST1744), and 34 variants of the intrinsic oxacillinase (OXA), including 8 novel variants (OXA-970 to OXA-977). All isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cephalexin, cefpodoxime, and nitrofurantoin. IC1-IC3 isolates were also resistant to gentamicin, enrofloxacin, marbofloxacin, tetracycline, and trimethoprim/sulfamethoxazole. All isolates were susceptible to imipenem. Thirty-one multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates mainly accumulated in the IC1-IC3 groups. In general, these isolates showed less biofilm formation (IC1 = 25.0%, IC2 = 18.4%, IC3 = 15.0%) than the group of non-IC1-IC3 isolates (58.4%). Isolates belonging to the same ICs/STs revealed identical BAG patterns. BAG blp1 was absent in all isolates, whereas bfmR and pgaA were present in all isolates. At the level of the IC groups, the AMR status was negatively correlated with the isolates' ability to form a biofilm. A considerable portion of equine A. baumannii isolates revealed ICs/STs that are globally present in humans. Both an MDR phenotype and the capability to form biofilms might lead to therapeutic failures in equine medicine, particularly due to the limited availability of licensed drugs.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Ioannidis A, Chatzipanagiotou S, Vassilaki N, et al (2023)

Biofilm-Forming Bacteria Implicated in Complex Otitis Media in Children in the Post-Heptavalent Pneumococcal Conjugate Vaccine (PCV7) Era.

Microorganisms, 11(3): pii:microorganisms11030545.

Background: Chronic media with effusion (COME) and recurrent acute otitis media (RAOM) are closely related clinical entities that affect childhood. The aims of the study were to investigate the microbiological profile of otitis-prone children in the post-PCV7 era and, to examine the biofilm-forming ability in association with clinical history and outcome during a two-year post-operative follow-up. Methods: In this prospective study, pathogens from patients with COME and RAOM were isolated and studied in vitro for their biofilm-forming ability. The minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of both the planktonic and the sessile forms were compared. The outcome of the therapeutic method used in each case and patient history were correlated with the pathogens and their ability to form biofilms. Results: Haemophilus influenzae was the leading pathogen (35% in COME and 40% in RAOM), and Streptococcus pneumoniae ranked second (12% in COME and 24% in RAOM). Polymicrobial infections were identified in 5% of COME and 19% of RAOM cases. Of the isolated otopathogens, 94% were positive for biofilm formation. Conclusions: This is the first Greek research studying biofilm formation in complex otitis media-prone children population in the post-PCV7 era. High rates of polymicrobial infections, along with treatment failure in biofilms, may explain the lack of antimicrobial efficacy in otitis-prone children.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Li S, Duan L, Zhao Y, et al (2023)

Analysis of Microbial Communities in Membrane Biofilm Reactors Using a High-Density Microarray.

Membranes, 13(3): pii:membranes13030324.

Membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs) have attracted more and more attention in the field of wastewater treatment due to their advantages of high mass transfer efficiency and low-carbon emissions. There are many factors affecting their nitrogen removal abilities, such as operation time, electron donor types, and operation modes. The operation time is directly related to the growth status of microorganisms, so it is very important to understand the effect of different operation times on microbial composition and community succession. In this study, two parallel H2-based MBfRs were operated, and differences in microbial composition, community succession, and NO3[-]-N removal efficiency were investigated on the 30th day and the 60th day of operation. The nitrogen removal efficiency of MBfRs with an operation time of 60 days was higher than that of MBfRs with an operation time of 30 days. Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum in both MBfRs; however, the composition of the microbial community was quite different. At the class level, the community composition of Proteobacteria was similar between the two MBfRs. Alphaproteobacteria was the dominant class in MBfR, and Betaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were also in high proportion. Combined with the analysis of microbial relative abundance and concentration, the similarity of microbial distribution in the MBfRs was very low on day 30 and day 60, and the phylogenetic relationships of the top 50 dominant universal bacteria and Proteobacteria were different. Although the microbial concentration decreased with the extension of the operation time, the microbial abundance and diversity of specific functional microorganisms increased further. Therefore, the operation time had a significant effect on microbial composition and community succession.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Alenazy R (2023)

Antimicrobial Activities and Biofilm Inhibition Properties of Trigonella foenumgraecum Methanol Extracts against Multidrug-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 13(3): pii:life13030703.

Multidrug-resistant bacteria are becoming the leading cause of death globally due to their resistance to many currently used antibiotics. Bacteria naturally have intrinsic resistance or acquired resistance to certain commonly used antibiotics. Therefore, searching for novel compounds has become necessary. Trigonella foenumgraecum extract was evaluated for antimicrobial and antibiofilm activities against multidrug-resistant bacteria Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli. The minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration of the extract were also determined. Moreover, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis was used to identify the phytochemical components present in the extract. GC-MS analysis revealed that T. foenumgraecum extract contains major compounds such as Phenol, 2-methoxy-3-(2-propenyl)-, n-Hexadecanoic acid, and 9,12,15-Octadecatrienoic acid. Both bacterial strains showed resistance to some of the antibiotics tested. T. foenumgraecum showed inhibitory activity against the tested bacterial strains with a MIC of 500 µg/mL and MBC of 1000 µg/mL. The methanol extract decreased the biofilm activity of both E. coli and S. aureus below the sub-minimum inhibitory concentration. The extract showed antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against the tested bacterial pathogens.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Maione A, Imparato M, Buonanno A, et al (2023)

Anti-Biofilm Activity of Phenyllactic Acid against Clinical Isolates of Fluconazole-Resistant Candida albicans.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(3): pii:jof9030355.

Commonly found colonizing the human microbiota, Candida albicans is a microorganism known for its ability to cause infections, mainly in the vulvovaginal region, and is responsible for 85% to 90% of vulvovaginal candidiasis (VVC) cases. The development of drug resistance in C. albicans isolates after long-term therapy with fluconazole is an important complication to solve and new therapeutic strategies are required to target this organism and its pathogenicity. In the present study, phenyllactic acid (PLA) an important broad-spectrum antimicrobial compound was investigated for its antifungal and antivirulence activities against clinical isolates of C. albicans. Previously characterized strains of C. albicans isolates from women with VVC and C. albicans ATCC90028 were used to evaluate the antimicrobial and time dependent killing assay activity of PLA showing a MIC 7.5 mg mL[-1] and a complete reduction of viable Candida cells detected by killing kinetics after 4 h of treatment with PLA. Additionally, PLA significantly reduced the biomass and the metabolic activity of C. albicans biofilms and impaired biofilm formation also with changes in ERG11, ALS3, and HWP1 genes expression as detected by qPCR. PLA eradicated pre-formed biofilms as showed also with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) observations. Furthermore, the compound prolonged the survival rate of Galleria mellonella infected by C. albicans isolates. These results indicate that PLA is a promising candidate as novel and safe antifungal agents for the treatment of vulvovaginal candidiasis.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Li Y, Chen X, Xu X, et al (2023)

Deletion of pbpC Enhances Bacterial Pathogenicity on Tomato by Affecting Biofilm Formation, Exopolysaccharides Production, and Exoenzyme Activities in Clavibacter michiganensis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(6): pii:ijms24065324.

Penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) are considered essential for bacterial peptidoglycan biosynthesis and cell wall assembly. Clavibacter michiganensis is a representative Gram-positive bacterial species that causes bacterial canker in tomato. pbpC plays a significant role in maintaining cell morphological characteristics and stress responses in C. michiganensis. The current study demonstrated that the deletion of pbpC commonly enhances bacterial pathogenicity in C. michiganensis and revealed the mechanisms through which this occurs. The expression of interrelated virulence genes, including celA, xysA, xysB, and pelA, were significantly upregulated in △pbpC mutants. Compared with those in wild-type strains, exoenzyme activities, the formation of biofilm, and the production of exopolysaccharides (EPS) were significantly increased in △pbpC mutants. It is noteworthy that EPS were responsible for the enhancement in bacterial pathogenicity, with the degree of necrotic tomato stem cankers intensifying with the injection of a gradient of EPS from C. michiganensis. These findings highlight new insights into the role of pbpC affecting bacterial pathogenicity, with an emphasis on EPS, advancing the current understanding of phytopathogenic infection strategies for Gram-positive bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

François P, Schrenzel J, F Götz (2023)

Biology and Regulation of Staphylococcal Biofilm.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(6): pii:ijms24065218.

Despite continuing progress in medical and surgical procedures, staphylococci remain the major Gram-positive bacterial pathogens that cause a wide spectrum of diseases, especially in patients requiring the utilization of indwelling catheters and prosthetic devices implanted temporarily or for prolonged periods of time. Within the genus, if Staphylococcus aureus and S. epidermidis are prevalent species responsible for infections, several coagulase-negative species which are normal components of our microflora also constitute opportunistic pathogens that are able to infect patients. In such a clinical context, staphylococci producing biofilms show an increased resistance to antimicrobials and host immune defenses. Although the biochemical composition of the biofilm matrix has been extensively studied, the regulation of biofilm formation and the factors contributing to its stability and release are currently still being discovered. This review presents and discusses the composition and some regulation elements of biofilm development and describes its clinical importance. Finally, we summarize the numerous and various recent studies that address attempts to destroy an already-formed biofilm within the clinical context as a potential therapeutic strategy to avoid the removal of infected implant material, a critical event for patient convenience and health care costs.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Lopez-Gigosos RM, Mariscal-Lopez E, Gutierrez-Bedmar M, et al (2023)

Effect of Long-Term Use of Alcohol-Containing Handwashing Gels on the Biofilm-Forming Capacity of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(6): pii:ijerph20065037.

The spread of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has promoted the use of hand sanitizers among the general population as recommended by health authorities. Alcohols, which are used in many hand sanitizers, have been shown to promotes the formation of biofilms by certain bacteria and to increase bacterial resistance to disinfection. We investigated the effect of continued use of alcohol-based gel hand sanitizer on biofilm formation by the Staphylococcus epidermidis resident strain isolated from the hands of health science students. Hand microbes were counted before and after handwashing, and the ability to produce biofilms was investigated. We found that 179 (84.8%) strains of S. epidermidis isolated from hands had the ability to form biofilm (biofilm-positive strains) in an alcohol-free culture medium. Furthermore, the presence of alcohol in the culture medium induced biofilm formation in 13 (40.6%) of the biofilm-negative strains and increased biofilm production in 111 (76.6%) strains, which were classified as low-grade biofilm-producing. Based on our findings, there is no clear evidence that the continued use of alcohol-based gels results in the selection of strains with the capacity to form biofilms. However, other disinfectant formulations that are more commonly used in clinical settings, such as alcohol-based hand-rub solutions, should be tested for their long-term effects.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Shahab M, Danial M, Khan T, et al (2023)

In Silico Identification of Lead Compounds for Pseudomonas Aeruginosa PqsA Enzyme: Computational Study to Block Biofilm Formation.

Biomedicines, 11(3): pii:biomedicines11030961.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic Gram-negative bacterium implicated in acute and chronic nosocomial infections and a leading cause of patient mortality. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are frequently associated with the development of biofilms, which give the bacteria additional drug resistance and increase their virulence. The goal of this study was to find strong compounds that block the Anthranilate-CoA ligase enzyme made by the pqsA gene. This would stop the P. aeruginosa quorum signaling system. This enzyme plays a crucial role in the pathogenicity of P. aeruginosa by producing autoinducers for cell-to-cell communication that lead to the production of biofilms. Pharmacophore-based virtual screening was carried out utilizing a library of commercially accessible enzyme inhibitors. The most promising hits obtained during virtual screening were put through molecular docking with the help of MOE. The virtual screening yielded 7/160 and 10/249 hits (ZINC and Chembridge). Finally, 2/7 ZINC hits and 2/10 ChemBridge hits were selected as potent lead compounds employing diverse scaffolds due to their high pqsA enzyme binding affinity. The results of the pharmacophore-based virtual screening were subsequently verified using a molecular dynamic simulation-based study (MDS). Using MDS and post-MDS, the stability of the complexes was evaluated. The most promising lead compounds exhibited a high binding affinity towards protein-binding pocket and interacted with the catalytic dyad. At least one of the scaffolds selected will possibly prove useful for future research. However, further scientific confirmation in the form of preclinical and clinical research is required before implementation.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Zanetta P, Squarzanti DF, di Coste A, et al (2023)

Growth Conditions Influence Lactobacillus Cell-Free Supernatant Impact on Viability, Biofilm Formation, and Co-Aggregation of the Oral Periodontopathogens Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis.

Biomedicines, 11(3): pii:biomedicines11030859.

Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis human periodontopathogens play a leading part in oral squamous cell carcinoma through cell proliferation, invasion, and persistent inflammation promotion and maintenance. To explore how the activity of Lactobacillus-derived cell-free supernatants (CFSs) can be influenced by growth medium components, CFSs were produced both in the standard MRS and the novel animal-derivative-free "Terreno Industriale Lattobacilli" (TIL) media, and in vitro screened for the containment of F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis both single and co-cultured and also for the interference on their co-aggregation. The viability assay demonstrated that the Limosilactobacillus reuteri LRE11 and Ligilactobacillus salivarius LS03 MRS-produced CFSs were significantly more effective against single and co-cultured pathogens. All the other CFSs significantly improved their efficacy when produced in TIL. Both MRS- and TIL-produced CFSs significantly inhibited the single and co-cultured pathogen biofilm formation. Only Levilactobacillus brevis LBR01 CFS in MRS specifically reduced F. nucleatum and P. gingivalis co-aggregation, while viable LBR01, LS03, and LRE11 in MRS significantly co-aggregated with the pathogens, but only LS03 cultivated in TIL improved this effect. This work paves the way to better consider environmental growth conditions when screening for probiotic and postbiotic efficacy as crucial to pathogen aggregation, adhesion to the host's niches, and exclusion.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

El-Hossary D, Mahdy A, Elariny EYT, et al (2023)

Antibiotic Resistance, Virulence Gene Detection, and Biofilm Formation in Aeromonas spp. Isolated from Fish and Humans in Egypt.

Biology, 12(3): pii:biology12030421.

The genus Aeromonas is widely distributed in aquatic environments and is recognized as a potential human pathogen. Some Aeromonas species are able to cause a wide spectrum of diseases, mainly gastroenteritis, skin and soft-tissue infections, bacteremia, and sepsis. The aim of the current study was to determine the prevalence of Aeromonas spp. in raw fish markets and humans in Zagazig, Egypt; identify the factors that contribute to virulence; determine the isolates' profile of antibiotic resistance; and to elucidate the ability of Aeromonas spp. to form biofilms. The examined samples included fish tissues and organs from tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus, n = 160) and mugil (Mugil cephalus, n = 105), and human skin swabs (n = 51) and fecal samples (n = 27). Based on biochemical and PCR assays, 11 isolates (3.2%) were confirmed as Aeromonas spp. and four isolates (1.2%) were confirmed as A. hydrophila. The virulence genes including haemolysin (hyl A) and aerolysin (aer) were detected using PCR in A. hydrophila in percentages of 25% and 50%, respectively. The antimicrobial resistance of Aeromonas spp. was assessed against 14 antibiotics comprising six classes. The resistance to cefixime (81.8%) and tobramycin (45.4%) was observed. The multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) index ranged between 0.142-0.642 with 64.2% of the isolates having MAR values equal to 0.642. Biofilm formation capacity was assessed using a microtiter plate assay, and two isolates (18.1%) were classified as biofilm producers. This study establishes a baseline for monitoring and controlling the multidrug-resistant Aeromonas spp. and especially A. hydrophila in marine foods consumed in our country to protect humans and animals.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Akinduti PA, George OW, Ohore HU, et al (2023)

Evaluation of Efflux-Mediated Resistance and Biofilm formation in Virulent Pseudomonas aeruginosa Associated with Healthcare Infections.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(3): pii:antibiotics12030626.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a significant pathogen identified with healthcare-associated infections. The present study evaluates the role of biofilm and efflux pump activities in influencing high-level resistance in virulent P. aeruginosa strains in clinical infection. Phenotypic resistance in biotyped Pseudomonas aeruginosa (n = 147) from diagnosed disease conditions was classified based on multiple antibiotic resistance (MAR) indices and analysed with logistic regression for risk factors. Efflux pump activity, biofilm formation, and virulence factors were analysed for optimal association in Pseudomonas infection using receiver operation characteristics (ROC). Age-specificity (OR [CI] = 0.986 [0.946-1.027]), gender (OR [CI] = 1.44 [0.211-9.827]) and infection sources (OR [CI] = 0.860 [0.438-1.688]) were risk variables for multidrug resistance (MDR)-P. aeruginosa infection (p < 0.05). Biofilm formers caused 48.2% and 18.5% otorrhea and wound infections (95% CI = 0.820-1.032; p = 0.001) respectively and more than 30% multidrug resistance (MDR) strains demonstrated high-level efflux pump activity (95% CI = 0.762-1.016; p = 0.001), protease (95% CI = 0.112-0.480; p = 0.003), lipase (95% CI = 0.143-0.523; p = 0.001), and hemolysin (95% CI = 1.109-1.780; p = 0.001). Resistance relatedness of more than 80% and 60% to cell wall biosynthesis inhibitors (ceftazidime, ceffproxil, augumentin, ampicillin) and, DNA translational and transcriptional inhibitors (gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, nitrofurantoin) were observed (p < 0.05). Strong efflux correlation (r = 0.85, p = 0.034) with MDR strains, with high predictive performances in efflux pump activity (ROC-AUC 0.78), biofilm formation (ROC-AUC 0.520), and virulence hierarchical-clustering. Combine activities of the expressed efflux pump and biofilm formation in MDR-P. aeruginosa pose risk to clinical management and infection control.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Rajapaksha DC, Edirisinghe SL, Nikapitiya C, et al (2023)

The Antimicrobial Peptide Octopromycin Suppresses Biofilm Formation and Quorum Sensing in Acinetobacter baumannii.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(3): pii:antibiotics12030623.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic bacterial pathogen that causes severe infections in immunocompromised individuals. A. baumannii forms biofilm and produces extracellular matrix, which supports bacteria to survive under harsh conditions and be resistant to antibacterial treatments. In the present study, we investigated the biofilm and quorum-sensing inhibitory effects of antimicrobial peptide, octopromycin in A. baumannii. Field emission-scanning electron microscopy results clearly showed significantly reduced biofilm mass and caused a collapse in biofilm architecture at the minimum inhibitory concentration (50 µg/mL) and minimum bactericidal concentration (200 µg/mL) of octopromycin. Antibiotic-resistant persister cells of A. baumannii were successfully killed by octopromycin treatment, and it inhibited violacein production in Chromobacterium violaceum in a concentration-dependent manner. Octopromycin also inhibited alginate production, surface movements (swarming and swimming), and twitching motility of A. baumannnii, confirming its anti-quorum-sensing activity. Multiple metabolic pathways, two-component regulation systems, quorum-sensing, and antibiotic synthesis-related pathways in A. baumannii biofilms were strongly affected by octopromycin treatment. The collective findings indicate that the antibacterial peptide octopromycin may control A. baumannii biofilms through multi-target interactions. Octopromycin could be a desirable therapeutic option for the prevention and control of A. baumannii infections.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Kuppusamy R, Yasir M, Yu TT, et al (2023)

Tuning the Anthranilamide Peptidomimetic Design to Selectively Target Planktonic Bacteria and Biofilm.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(3): pii:antibiotics12030585.

There is a pressing need to develop new antimicrobials to help combat the increase in antibiotic resistance that is occurring worldwide. In the current research, short amphiphilic antibacterial and antibiofilm agents were produced by tuning the hydrophobic and cationic groups of anthranilamide peptidomimetics. The attachment of a lysine cationic group at the tail position increased activity against E. coli by >16-fold (from >125 μM to 15.6 μM) and greatly reduced cytotoxicity against mammalian cells (from ≤20 μM to ≥150 μM). These compounds showed significant disruption of preformed biofilms of S. aureus at micromolar concentrations.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Praseetha S, Sukumaran ST, Dan M, et al (2023)

The Anti-Biofilm Potential of Linalool, a Major Compound from Hedychium larsenii, against Streptococcus pyogenes and Its Toxicity Assessment in Danio rerio.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(3): pii:antibiotics12030545.

The anti-biofilm and anti-virulence potential of the essential oil (E.O.) extracted from Hedychium larsenii M. Dan & Sathish was determined against Streptococcus pyogenes. A crystal violet assay was employed to quantify the biofilm. Linalool, a monoterpene alcohol from the E.O., showed concentration-dependent biofilm inhibition, with a maximum of 91% at a concentration of 0.004% (v/v). The AlamarBlue[TM] assay also confirmed Linalool's non-bactericidal anti-biofilm efficacy (0.004%). Linalool treatment impeded micro-colony formation, mature biofilm architecture, surface coverage, and biofilm thickness and impaired cell surface hydrophobicity and EPS production. Cysteine protease synthesis was quantified using the Azocasein assay, and Linalool treatment augmented its production. This suggests that Linalool destabilizes the biofilm matrix. It altered the expression of core regulons covRS, mga, srv, and ropB, and genes associated with virulence and biofilm formation, such as speB, dltA, slo, hasA, and ciaH, as revealed by qPCR analysis. Cytotoxicity analysis using human kidney cells (HEK) and the histopathological analysis in Danio rerio proved Linalool to be a druggable molecule against the biofilms formed by S. pyogenes. This is the first report on Linalool's anti-biofilm and anti-virulence potential against S. pyogenes.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Regulski M, Myntti MF, GA James (2023)

Anti-Biofilm Efficacy of Commonly Used Wound Care Products in In Vitro Settings.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(3): pii:antibiotics12030536.

Considering the prevalence and pathogenicity of biofilms in wounds, this study was designed to evaluate the anti-biofilm capabilities of eight commercially available wound care products using established in vitro assays for biofilms. The products evaluated included dressings with multiple delivery formats for ionic silver including nanocrystalline, gelling fibers, polyurethane (PU) foam, and polymer matrix. Additionally, non-silver-based products including an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS)-dissolving antimicrobial wound gel (BDWG), a collagenase-based debriding ointment and a fish skin-based skin substitute were also evaluated. The products were evaluated on Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa mixed-species biofilms grown using colony drip flow reactor (CDFR) and standard drip flow reactor (DFR) methodologies. Anti-biofilm efficacy was measured by viable plate counts and confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM). Four of the eight wound care products tested were efficacious in inhibiting growth of new biofilm when compared with untreated controls. These four products were further evaluated against mature biofilms. BDWG was the only product that achieved greater than 2-log growth reduction (5.88 and 6.58 for S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, respectively) of a mature biofilm. Evaluating both biofilm prevention and mature biofilm disruption capacity is important to a comprehensive understanding of the anti-biofilm efficacy of wound care products.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Bomfim de Barros D, de Oliveira E Lima L, Alves da Silva L, et al (2023)

α-Pinene: Docking Study, Cytotoxicity, Mechanism of Action, and Anti-Biofilm Effect against Candida albicans.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(3): pii:antibiotics12030480.

Candida albicans is associated with serious infections in immunocompromised patients. Terpenes are natural-product derivatives, widely studied as antifungal alternatives. In a previous study reported by our group, the antifungal activity of α-pinene against C. albicans was verified; α-pinene presented an MIC between 128-512 µg/mL. In this study, we evaluate time-kill, a mechanism of action using in silico and in vitro tests, anti-biofilm activity against the Candida albicans, and toxicity against human cells (HaCaT). Results from the molecular-docking simulation demonstrated that thymidylate synthase (-52 kcal mol[-1]), and δ-14-sterol reductase (-44 kcal mol[-1]) presented the best interactions. Our in vitro results suggest that α-pinene's antifungal activity involves binding to ergosterol in the cellular membrane. In the time-kill assay, the antifungal activity was not time-dependent, and also inhibited biofilm formation, while rupturing up to 88% of existing biofilm. It was non-cytotoxic to human keratinocytes. Our study supports α-pinene as a candidate to treat fungal infections caused by C. albicans.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Li F, Huang K, Wang J, et al (2023)

A dual functional Ti-Ga alloy: inhibiting biofilm formation and osteoclastogenesis differentiation via disturbing iron metabolism.

Biomaterials research, 27(1):24.

BACKGROUND: Although biomedical implants have been widely used in orthopedic treatments, two major clinical challenges remain to be solved, one is the bacterial infection resulting in biofilm formation, and the other is aseptic loosening during implantation due to over-activated osteoclastogenesis. These factors can cause many clinical issues and even lead to implant failure. Thus, it is necessary to endow implants with antibiofilm and aseptic loosening-prevention properties, to facilitate the integration between implants and bone tissues for successful implantation. To achieve this goal, this study aimed to develop a biocompatible titanium alloy with antibiofilm and anti-aseptic loosening dual function by utilizing gallium (Ga) as a component.

METHODS: A series of Ti-Ga alloys were prepared. We examined the Ga content, Ga distribution, hardness, tensile strength, biocompatibility, and anti-biofilm performance in vitro and in vivo. We also explored how Ga[3+] ions inhibited the biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli) and osteoclast differentiation.

RESULTS: The alloy exhibited outstanding antibiofilm properties against both S. aureus and E. coli in vitro and decent antibiofilm performance against S. aureus in vivo. The proteomics results demonstrated that Ga[3+] ions could disturb the bacterial Fe metabolism of both S. aureus and E. coli, inhibiting bacterial biofilm formation. In addition, Ti-Ga alloys could inhibit receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand (RANKL)-dependent osteoclast differentiation and function by targeting iron metabolism, then suppressing the activation of the NF-κB signaling pathway, thus, showing their potential to prevent aseptic loosening.

CONCLUSION: This study provides an advanced Ti-Ga alloy that can be used as a promising orthopedic implant raw material for various clinical scenarios. This work also revealed that iron metabolism is the common target of Ga[3+] ions to inhibit biofilm formation and osteoclast differentiation.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Ebrahimi MT, Hedayati MA, Pirlar RF, et al (2023)

Investigation of the biofilm formation in extra-intestinal pathogenic Escherichia coli ST131 strains and its correlation with the presence of fimH, afa, and kpsMSTII genes.

Journal of applied genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Escherichia coli sequence type 131 (ST131) is a multidrug-resistant strain with the global dissemination. Biofilm formation-related factors include the most important virulence factors in extra-intestinal pathogenic E. coli (ExPEC) ST131 strains causing infections with treatment-limited subjects. This study aims to investigate the biofilm formation ability and its correlation with the presence of fimH, afa, and kpsMSTII genes in clinical isolates of ExPEC ST131. In this regard, the prevalence and characteristics of these strains collected and evaluated. The results revealed strong, moderate, and weak attachment abilities related to biofilm formation attributes in 45%, 20%, and 35% of strains, respectively. In the meantime, the frequency of the fimH, afa, and kpsMSTII genes among the isolates was observed as follows: fimH positive: 65%; afa positive: 55%; and kpsMSTII positive: 85%. The results convey a significant different of biofilm formation ability between clinical E. coli ST131 and non-ST131 isolates. Furthermore, while 45% of ST131 isolates produced strong biofilms, only 2% of non-ST131 isolates showed the ability to form strong biofilms. The attending of fimH, afa, and kpsMSTII genes in the majority of ST131 strains demonstrated a key role leading to biofilm formation. These findings suggested the application of fimH, afa, and kpsMSTII gene suppressors for treating biofilm infections caused by drug-resistant ST131 strains.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Wang M, Muhammad T, Gao H, et al (2023)

Targeted pH-responsive chitosan nanogels with Tanshinone IIA for enhancing the antibacterial/anti-biofilm efficacy.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(23)01071-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Persistent bacterial infection caused by biofilms is one of the most serious problems that threatened human health. The development of antibacterial agents remains a challenge to penetrate biofilm and effectively treat the underlying bacterial infection. In the current study, chitosan-based nanogels were developed for encapsulating the Tanshinone IIA (TA) to enhance the antibacterial and anti-biofilm efficacy against Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). The as-prepared nanogels (TA@CS) displayed excellent encapsulation efficiency (91.41 ± 0.11 %), uniform particle sizes (393.97 ± 13.92 nm), and enhanced positive potential (42.27 ± 1.25 mV). After being coated with CS, the stability of TA under light and other harsh environments was greatly improved. In addition, TA@CS displayed pH responsiveness, allowing it to selectively release more TA in acidic conditions. Furthermore, the positively charged TA@CS were equipped to target negatively charged biofilm surfaces and efficiently penetrate through biofilm barriers, making it promising for remarkable anti-biofilm activity. More importantly, when TA was encapsulated into CS nanogels, the antibacterial activity of TA was enhanced at least 4-fold. Meanwhile, TA@CS inhibited 72 % of biofilm formation at 500 μg/mL. The results demonstrated that the nanogels constituted CS and TA had antibacterial/anti-biofilm properties with synergistic enhanced effects, which will benefit pharmaceutical, food, and other fields.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Tian H, Li Y, Chen H, et al (2023)

Aerobic biodegradation of quinoline under denitrifying conditions in membrane-aerated biofilm reactor.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 326:121507 pii:S0269-7491(23)00509-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Aerobic denitrification is being investigated as a novel biological nitrogen removal process, yet the knowledge on aerobic denitrification is limited to pure culture isolations and its occurrence in bioreactors remains unclear. This study investigated the feasibility and capacity of applying aerobic denitrification in membrane aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) for biological treatment of quinoline-laden wastewater. Stable and efficient removals of quinoline (91.5 ± 5.2%) and nitrate (NO3[-]) (86.5 ± 9.3%) were obtained under different operational conditions. Enhanced formation and function of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) were observed at increasing quinoline loadings. MABR biofilm was highly enriched with aerobic quinoline-degrading bacteria, with a predominance of Rhodococcus (26.9 ± 3.7%) and secondary abundance of Pseudomonas (1.7 ± 1.2%) and Comamonas (0.94 ± 0.9%). Metagenomic analysis indicated that Rhodococcus contributed significantly to both aromatic degradation (24.5 ± 21.3%) and NO3[-] reduction (4.5 ± 3.9%), indicating its key role in aerobic denitrifying quinoline biodegradation. At increasing quinoline loadings, abundances of aerobic quinoline degradation gene oxoO and denitrifying genes of napA, nirS and nirK increased; there was a significant positive correlation of oxoO with nirS and nirK (p < 0.05). Aerobic quinoline degradation was likely initiated by hydroxylation, encoded by oxoO, followed by stepwise oxidations through 5,6-dihydroxy-1H-2-oxoquinoline or 8-hydroxycoumarin pathway. The results advance our understanding of quinoline degradation during biological nitrogen removal, and highlight the potential implementation of aerobic denitrification driven quinoline biodegradation in MABR for simultaneous removal of nitrogen and recalcitrant organic carbon from coking, coal gasification and pharmaceutical wastewaters.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

de Oliveira Martinez JP, Vazquez L, Takeyama MM, et al (2023)

Novel biochemical aspects of lugdulysin, a Staphylococcus lugdunensis metalloprotease that inhibits formation and disrupts protein biofilm of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry pii:7087274 [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus lugdunensis produces lugdulysin, a metalloprotease that may contribute to its virulence. This study aimed to evaluate the biochemical aspects of lugdulysin and investigate its effect on Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. The protease was isolated and characterized for its optimal pH and temperature, hydrolysis kinetics, and influence of metal cofactor supplementation. The protein structure was determined via homology modelling. The effect on S. aureus biofilms was assessed by the micromethod technique. The protease optimal pH and temperature were 7.0 and 37°C, respectively. EDTA inhibited protease activity, confirming it as a metalloprotease. Lugdulysin activity was not recovered by divalent ion supplementation post-inhibition and supplementation with divalent ions did not change enzymatic activity. The isolated enzyme was stable for up to 3 hours. Lugdulysin significantly inhibited the formation and disrupted pre-established protein-matrix MRSA biofilm. This preliminary study indicates that lugdulysin has a potential role as a competition mechanism and/or modulation of staphylococcal biofilm.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Yahya AH, Harston SR, Colton WL, et al (2023)

Distinct Screening Approaches Uncover PA14_36820 and RecA as Negative Regulators of Biofilm Phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA14.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa commonly infects hospitalized patients and the lungs of individuals with cystic fibrosis. This species is known for forming biofilms, which are communities of bacterial cells held together and encapsulated by a self-produced extracellular matrix. The matrix provides extra protection to the constituent cells, making P. aeruginosa infections challenging to treat. We previously identified a gene, PA14_16550, which encodes a DNA-binding TetR-type repressor and whose deletion reduced biofilm formation. Here, we assessed the transcriptional impact of the 16550 deletion and found six differentially regulated genes. Among them, our results implicated PA14_36820 as a negative regulator of biofilm matrix production, while the remaining 5 had modest effects on swarming motility. We also screened a transposon library in a biofilm-impaired ΔamrZ Δ16550 strain for restoration of matrix production. Surprisingly, we found that disruption or deletion of recA increased biofilm matrix production, both in biofilm-impaired and wild-type strains. Because RecA functions both in recombination and in the DNA damage response, we asked which function of RecA is important with respect to biofilm formation by using point mutations in recA and lexA to specifically disable each function. Our results implied that loss of either function of RecA impacts biofilm formation, suggesting that enhanced biofilm formation may be one physiological response of P. aeruginosa cells to loss of either RecA function. IMPORTANCE Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a notorious human pathogen well known for forming biofilms, communities of bacteria that protect themselves within a self-secreted matrix. Here, we sought to find genetic determinants that impacted biofilm matrix production in P. aeruginosa strains. We identified a largely uncharacterized protein (PA14_36820) and, surprisingly, RecA, a widely conserved bacterial DNA recombination and repair protein, as negatively regulating biofilm matrix production. Because RecA has two main functions, we used specific mutations to isolate each function and found that both functions influenced matrix production. Identifying negative regulators of biofilm production may suggest future strategies to reduce the formation of treatment-resistant biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-03-29
CmpDate: 2023-03-29

Ousey K, L Ovens (2023)

Comparing methods of debridement for removing biofilm in hard-to-heal wounds.

Journal of wound care, 32(Sup3b):S4-S10.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Aljohani AM, El-Chami C, Alhubail M, et al (2023)

Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 inhibits biofilm formation and mitigates virulence in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1108273.

In the quest for mitigators of bacterial virulence, cell-free supernatants (CFS) from 25 human commensal and associated bacteria were tested for activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Among these, Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 CFS significantly inhibited biofilm formation and dispersed extant pseudomonas biofilms without inhibiting planktonic bacterial growth. eDNA was reduced in biofilms following exposure to E. coli Nissle CFS, as visualized by confocal microscopy. E. coli Nissle CFS also showed a significant protective effect in a Galleria mellonella-based larval virulence assay when administrated 24 h before challenge with the P. aeruginosa. No inhibitory effects against P. aeruginosa were observed for other tested E. coli strains. According to proteomic analysis, E. coli Nissle CFS downregulated the expression of several P. aeruginosa proteins involved in motility (Flagellar secretion chaperone FliSB, B-type flagellin fliC, Type IV pilus assembly ATPase PilB), and quorum sensing (acyl-homoserine lactone synthase lasI and HTH-type quorum-sensing regulator rhlR), which are associated with biofilm formation. Physicochemical characterization of the putative antibiofilm compound(s) indicates the involvement of heat-labile proteinaceous factors of greater than 30 kDa molecular size.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Delaney C, Short B, Rajendran R, et al (2023)

An integrated transcriptomic and metabolomic approach to investigate the heterogeneous Candida albicans biofilm phenotype.

Biofilm, 5:100112.

Candida albicans is the most prevalent and notorious of the Candida species involved in bloodstream infections, which is characterised by its capacity to form robust biofilms. Biofilm formation is an important clinical entity shown to be highly variable among clinical isolates. There are various environmental and physiological factors, including nutrient availability which influence the phenotype of Candida species. However, mechanisms underpinning adaptive biofilm heterogeneity have not yet been fully explored. Within this study we have profiled previously characterised and phenotypically distinct C. albicans bloodstream isolates. We assessed the dynamic susceptibility of these differing populations to antifungal treatments using population analysis profiling in addition to assessing biofilm formation and morphological changes. High throughput methodologies of RNA-Seq and LC-MS were employed to map and integrate the transcriptional and metabolic reprogramming undertaken by heterogenous C. albicans isolates in response to biofilm and hyphal inducing serum. We found a significant relationship between biofilm heterogeneity and azole resistance (P < 0.05). In addition, we observed that in response to serum our low biofilm forming (LBF) C. albicans exhibited a significant increase in biofilm formation and hyphal elongation. The transcriptional reprogramming of LBF strains compared to high biofilm forming (HBF) was distinct, indicating a high level of plasticity and variation in stress responses by heterogenous strains. The metabolic responses, although variable between LBF and HBF, shared many of the same responses to serum. Notably, a high upregulation of the arachidonic acid cascade, part of the COX pathway, was observed and this pathway was found to induce biofilm formation in LBF 3-fold. C. albicans is a highly heterogenous bloodstream pathogen with clinical isolates varying in antifungal tolerance and biofilm formation. In addition to this, C. albicans is capable of highly complex and variable regulation of transcription and metabolic pathways and heterogeneity across isolates further increases the complexity of these pathways. Here we have shown with a dual and integrated approach, the importance of studying a diverse panel of C. albicans isolates, which has the potential to reveal distinct pathways that can harnessed for drug discovery.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Kang MG, Khan F, Tabassum N, et al (2023)

Inhibition of Biofilm and Virulence Properties of Pathogenic Bacteria by Silver and Gold Nanoparticles Synthesized from Lactiplantibacillus sp. Strain C1.

ACS omega, 8(11):9873-9888.

The emergence of antibiotic resistance in microbial pathogens necessitates the development of alternative ways to combat the infections that arise. The current study used nanotechnology as an alternate technique to control virulence characteristics and biofilm development in Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus. Furthermore, based on the acceptance and biocompatibility of the probiotic bacteria, we chose a lactic acid bacteria (LAB) for synthesizing two types of metallic nanoparticles (NPs) in this study. Using molecular techniques, the LAB strain C1 was isolated from Kimchi food samples and identified as Lactiplantibacillus sp. strain C1. The prepared supernatant from strain C1 was used to produce gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs). C1-AuNPs and C1-AgNPs were characterized physiochemically using a variety of instruments. C1-AuNPs and C1-AgNPs had spherical shapes and sizes of 100.54 ± 14.07 nm (AuNPs) and 129.51 ± 12.31 nm (AgNPs), respectively. C1-AuNPs and C1-AgNPs were discovered to have high zeta potentials of -23.29 ± 1.17 and -30.57 ± 0.29 mV, respectively. These nanoparticles have antibacterial properties against several bacterial pathogens. C1-AuNPs and C1-AgNPs significantly inhibited the initial stage biofilm formation and effectively eradicated established mature biofilms of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus. Furthermore, when P. aeruginosa was treated with sub-MIC levels of C1-AuNPs and C1-AgNPs, their different virulence features were significantly reduced. Both NPs greatly inhibited the hemolytic activity of S. aureus. The inhibition of P. aeruginosa and S. aureus biofilms and virulence features by C1-AuNPs and C1-AgNPs can be regarded as viable therapeutic strategies for preventing infections caused by these bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Nguyen HTT, Nguyen TH, M Otto (2023)

Corrigendum to "The staphylococcal exopolysaccharide PIA - Biosynthesis and role in biofilm formation, colonization, and infection" [Comput Struct Biotechnol J 4/18 (2020) 3324-3334].

Computational and structural biotechnology journal, 21:2035 pii:S2001-0370(23)00111-3.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1016/j.csbj.2020.10.027.].

RevDate: 2023-03-27

He C, Li B, Gong Z, et al (2023)

Polyphosphate kinase 1 is involved in formation, the morphology and ultramicrostructure of biofilm of Mycobacterium smegmatis and its survivability in macrophage.

Heliyon, 9(3):e14513.

The most unique characteristic of Mycobacterium tuberculosis is persistence in the human host, and the biofilm formation is related to the persistance. Polyphosphate (polyP) kinase 1 (PPK1) is conserved in Mycobacteria and is responsible for polyP synthesis. polyP is a chain molecule linked by high-energy phosphate bonds, which is considered to play a very important role in bacterial persistence. However, the relationship of PPK1 and mycobacterial biofilm formation is still adequately unclear. In current study, ppk1-deficient mutant (MT), ppk1-complemented (CT) and wild-type strains of M. smegmatis mc[2] 155 were used to investigate the formation, morphology and ultramicrostructure of the biofilm and to analyze the lipid levels and susceptibility to vancomycin antibiotic. And then WT, MT and CT strains were used to infect macrophages and to analyze the expression levels of various inflammatory factors, respectively. We found that PPK1 was required for M. smegmatis polyP production in vivo and polyP deficiency not only attenuated the biofilm formation, but also altered the phenotype and ultramicrostructure of the biofilm and reduced the cell lipid composition (except for C16.1 and C17.1, most of the fatty acid components from C8-C24). Moreover, the ppk1-deficient mutant was also significantly more sensitive to vancomycin which targets the cell wall, and its ability to survive in macrophages was decreased, which was related to the change of the expression level of inflammatory factors in macrophage. This study demonstrates that the PPK1 can affect the biofilm structure through affecting the content of short chain fatty acid and promote intracellular survival of M. smegmatis by altering the expression of inflammatory factors. These findings establish a basis for investigating the role of PPK1 in the persistence of M. tuberculosis, and provide clues for treating latent infection of M. tuberculosis with PPK1 as a potential drug target.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Majeed N, F Ismail (2023)

In vitro characteristics of fungal biofilm formation and the influence of physiological stress on biofilm growth.

Pakistan journal of pharmaceutical sciences, 36(1):103-109.

Fungal biofilms are a growing clinical concern associated with high mortality rates. This study included three fungal groups, dimorphic fungi (Candida albicans), Dermatophytes (Trichophyton mentagrophytes) and non-dermatophytes (Acremonium sclerotigenum, Aspergillus niger). This research describes the in vitro characteristics of biofilm formation in three fungal groups. The influence of osmotic, oxidative and pH stress environment on biofilm growth was also focused. Biofilm characteristics in A. sclerotigenum and A. niger were studied for the first time. In vitro qualitative and quantitative approaches were used to evaluate biofilm development including the test tube method, tissue culture plate method in addition to staining with crystal violet and safranin. All the isolates were able to form biofilm. Biofilm development under different pH range showed maximum growth at neutral pH. At a concentration of 5mM hydrogen peroxide and 2M NaCl biofilm formation was maximum for all three fungal groups under an oxidative and osmotic stress respectively. Study revealed that biofilm production was increased under osmotic and oxidative stress. All isolates respond to oxidative and osmotic stress by changing the cell wall composition with a rich exopolymeric matrix in order to survive in stress environment.

RevDate: 2023-03-26

Liu Q, Hou J, Zeng Y, et al (2023)

Fabrication of an intimately coupled photocatalysis and biofilm system for removing sulfamethoxazole from wastewater: Effectiveness, degradation pathway and microbial community analysis.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(23)00774-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is an extensively applied antibiotic frequently detected in municipal wastewater, which cannot be efficiently removed by conventional biological wastewater processes. In this work, an intimately coupled photocatalysis and biodegradation (ICPB) system consisting of Fe[3+]-doped graphitic carbon nitride photocatalyst and biofilm carriers was fabricated to remove SMX. The results of wastewater treatment experiments showed that 81.2 ± 2.1% of SMX was removed in the ICPB system during the 12 h, while only 23.7 ± 4.0% was removed in the biofilm system within the same time. In the ICPB system, photocatalysis played a key role in removing SMX by producing hydroxyl radicals and superoxide radicals. Besides, the synergism between photocatalysis and biodegradation enhanced the mineralization of SMX. To understand the degradation process of SMX, nine degradation products and possible degradation pathways of SMX were analyzed. The results of high throughput sequencing showed that the diversity, abundance, and structure of the biofilm microbial community remained stable in the ICPB system at the end of the experiments, which suggested that microorganisms had accommodated to the environment of the ICPB system. This study could provide insights into the application of the ICPB system in treating antibiotic-contaminated wastewater.

RevDate: 2023-03-26

Zhang H, Gong W, Xue Y, et al (2023)

Municipal wastewater contains antibiotic treatment using O2 transfer membrane based biofilm reactor: Interaction between regular pollutants metabolism and sulfamethoxazole degradation.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01679-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The antibiotic sulfamethoxazole (SMX) is frequently detected in wastewater treatment plant effluents and has attracted significant attention owing to its significant potential environmental effects. We present a novel O2 transfer membrane based biofilm reactor (O2TM-BR) to treat municipal wastewater to eliminate containing SMX. Furthermore, conducting metagenomics analyses, the interactions in biodegradation process between SMX and regular pollutants (NH4[+]-N and COD) were studied. Results suggest that O2TM-BR yields evident advantages in SMX degradation. Increasing SMX concentrations did not affect the efficiency of the system, and the effluent concentration remained consistent at approximately 17.0 μg/L. The interaction experiment showed that heterotrophic bacteria tend to consume easily degradable COD for metabolism, resulting in a delay (>36 h) in complete SMX degradation, which is 3-times longer than without COD. It is worth noting that the taxonomic and functional structure and composition in nitrogen metabolism were significantly shifted upon the SMX. NH4[+]-N removal remained unaffected by SMX in O2TM-BR, and the expression of K10944 and K10535 has no significant difference under the stress of SMX (P > 0.02). However, the K00376 and K02567 required in the nitrate reductase is inhibited by SMX (P < 0.01), which hinders the reduction of NO3[-]-N and hence the accumulation of TN. This study provides a new method for SMX treatment and reveals the interaction between SMX and conventional pollutants in O2TM-BR as well as the microbial community function and assembly mechanism.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Zhong J, Liu J, Hu R, et al (2023)

Performance of nitrification-denitrification and denitrifying phosphorus removal driven by in-situ generated biogenic manganese oxides in a moving bed biofilm reactor.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00383-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Simultaneous removal of NH4[+]-N, NO3[-]-N, COD, and P by manganese redox cycling in nutrient wastewater was established with two moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) with in-situ generated biogenic manganese oxides (BioMnOx) and non-BioMnOx. In-situ generated BioMnOx preferentially promoted the denitrification, and the average removal of NO3[-]-N, NH4[+]-N, and TN in the experimental MBBR with BioMnOx increased to 89.00%, 70.64%, and 76.06% compared with the control MBBR with non-BioMnOx. The relevant enzymes activity, extracellular polymeric substance (EPS), electron transport system activity (ETSA), and reactive oxygen species (ROS) were investigated. The element valence and morphology of purified BioMnOx were characterized by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), as well as the effect of BioMnOx on nitrogen and phosphorus removal. The results suggested that BioMnOx could improve nitrogen conversion. Electrochemical characteristic and microbial community were detected. This study provided a new strategy for nutrients removal in BioMnOx-mediated wastewater treatment.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Gao S, Sun Y, Lu Z, et al (2023)

Synergistic antibacterial and biofilm eradication activity of quaternary-ammonium compound with copper ion.

Journal of inorganic biochemistry, 243:112190 pii:S0162-0134(23)00072-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotics overuse and misuse increase the emergence of multidrug-resistant bacterial strains, which often leads to the failure of conventional antibiotic therapies. Even worse, the tendency of bacteria to form biofilms further increases the therapeutic difficulty, because the extracellular matrix prevents the penetration of antibiotics and triggers bacterial tolerance. Therefore, developing novel antibacterial agents or therapeutic strategies with diverse antibacterial mechanisms and destruction of bacteria biofilm is a promising way to combat bacterial infections. In the present study, the combination of quaternary ammonium compound poly(diallyl dimethyl ammonium chloride) (PDDA) with Cu[2+] was screened out to fight common pathogenic Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) through multi-mechanisms. This combination appeared strong synergistic antibacterial activity, and the fractional inhibitory concentration index was as low as 0.032. The synergistic antibacterial mechanism involved the destruction of the membrane function, generation of intracellular reactive oxygen, and promotion more Cu[2+] into the cytoplasm. Further, the combination of PDDA and Cu[2+] reduced the extracellular polysaccharide matrix, meanwhile killing the bacteria embedded in the biofilm. The biocompatibility study in vitro revealed this combination exhibited low cytotoxicity and hemolysis ratio even at 8 times of minimum bactericidal concentration. This work provides a novel antibacterial agents combination with higher efficiency to fight planktonic and biofilm conditions of S. aureus.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Zhang X, Ji B, Tian J, et al (2023)

Development, performance and microbial community analysis of a continuous-flow microalgal-bacterial biofilm photoreactor for municipal wastewater treatment.

Journal of environmental management, 338:117770 pii:S0301-4797(23)00558-3 [Epub ahead of print].

This work reported the development, performance and microbial community of microalgal-bacterial biofilms cultivated in a continuous-flow photoreactor for municipal wastewater treatment under various conditions. Results showed that microalgal-bacterial biofilms were successfully developed at a HRT of 9 h without external aeration, with a biofilm concentration of around 4690 mg/L being achieved in the steady-state. It was found that further increase of HRT to 12 h did not improve the overall accumulation of biofilm, whereas the growth of microalgae in biofilms was faster than bacteria in the initial stage, indicated by an increased chlorophyll-a&b content in biofilms. After which, the chlorophyll-a&b content in biofilms gradually stabilized at the level comparable with the seed, suggesting that there was a balanced distribution of microalgae and bacteria in biofilms. About 90% of TOC, 71.4% of total nitrogen and 72.6% of phosphorus were removed by microalgal-bacterial biofilms mainly through assimilation in the steady-state photoreactor run at the HRT of 12 h with external aeration. The community analysis further revealed that Cyanobacteria and Chloroflexi were the main components, while Chlorophyta appeared to be the dominant eukaryotic algal community in biofilms. This study could offer new insights into the development of microalgal-bacterial biofilms in a continuous-flow photoreactor for sustainable low-carbon municipal wastewater treatment.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Zhao J, Dong X, Su H, et al (2023)

Rapid start-up of PN/A process and efficient enrichment of functional bacteria: a novel aerobic-biofilm/anaerobic-granular nitrogen removal system (OANRS).

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00370-X [Epub ahead of print].

Reactor configuration, control strategy and inoculation method were key factors affecting the rapid start-up of partial nitrification/anammox (PN/A) process and the efficient enrichment of functional bacteria (anammox and ammonia oxidizing bacteria). At present, PN/A process was generally operated through single factor rather than forming a system. In this study, a novel aerobic-biofilm/anaerobic-granular nitrogen removal system (OANRS) was constructed, which consisted of a multi-stage aerobic-biofilm/anaerobic-granular baffle reactor (MOABR) and a control strategy on pH/aeration time. PN process was started within 10d, and PN/A process was started on the basis of stable PN process within 41d. The simultaneous enrichment of functional bacteria was achieved by combining the advantages of single-stage and two-stage PN/A process. The results of high-throughput sequencing showed that Candidatus Kuenenia (20.42±15.88%) was highly enriched in each compartment at day 98, and the relative abundance of Candidatus Kuenenia in the anaerobic compartment R4 was as high as 43.13%.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Li M, Perez-Calleja P, Kim B, et al (2023)

Unique stratification of biofilm density in heterotrophic membrane-aerated biofilms: An experimental and modeling study.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(23)00768-3 [Epub ahead of print].

We consistently find a band of high cell density develop within heterotrophic membrane-aerated biofilms. This study reports and attempts to explain this unique behavior. Biofilm density affects volumetric reaction rates, biofilm growth rates, substrate diffusion, and mechanical behavior. Yet the mechanisms and dynamics of biofilm density development are poorly understood. In this study, a membrane-aerated biofilm, where O2 was supplied from the base of the biofilm and acetate from the bulk liquid, was used to explore spatial and temporal patterns of density development. Biofilm density was assessed by optical coherence tomography. After inoculation, the biofilm quickly increased in thickness, with a low density throughout. However, as the biofilm reached a stable thickness of around 1000 μm, a high-density layer developed in the biofilm interior. The layer slowly expanded over time. Oxygen microprofiles in the biofilm showed this layer coincided with the most metabolically active zone, resulting from counter-diffusing O2 and acetate. The formation of this dense layer appeared to be related to changes in growth rates. Initially, high growth rates throughout the biofilm presumably led to fast-growing, low-density biofilms. As the biofilm became thicker, and as substrates became limiting in the biofilm interior, growth rates decreased, resulting in new growth at a higher density. A 1-D mathematical model with variable biofilm density was developed by linking the rates of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) production to the growth rate. The model captured the initial fast growth at a low density, followed by a slower, substrate-limited growth in the biofilm interior, producing a dense band within the biofilm. Together, these results suggest that low growth rates can lead to high-density zones within the interior of counter-diffusional biofilms. These findings should also be relevant to conventional, co-diffusional biofilms, although differences in density may be less obvious.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Johnston W, Rosier BT, Carda-Diéguez M, et al (2023)

Longitudinal changes in subgingival biofilm composition following periodontal treatment.

Journal of periodontology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Current periodontal treatment involves instrumentation using hand and/or ultrasonic instruments, which are used either alone or in combination based on patient and clinician preference, with comparable clinical outcomes. This study sought to investigate early and later changes in the subgingival biofilm following periodontal treatment; to identify whether these changes were associated with treatment outcomes; and to investigate whether the biofilm responded differently to hand compared with ultrasonic instruments.

METHODS: This was a secondary-outcome analysis of a randomised controlled trial. Thirty-eight periodontitis patients received full-mouth subgingival instrumentation using hand (n = 20) or ultrasonic instrumentation (n = 18). Subgingival plaque was sampled at baseline and 1, 7 and 90 days following treatment. Bacterial DNA was analysed using 16S rRNA sequencing. Periodontal clinical parameters were evaluated before and after treatment.

RESULTS: Biofilm composition was comparable in both (hand and ultrasonics) treatment groups at all timepoints (all genus and species; p[adjusted]>0.05). Large-scale changes were observed within-groups across timepoints. At days 1 and 7, taxonomic diversity and dysbiosis were reduced, with an increase in health-associated genera including Streptococcus and Rothia equating to 30-40% of the relative abundance. When reassessed at day 90 a subset of samples reformed a microbiome more comparable with baseline, which was independent of instrumentation choice and residual disease.

CONCLUSIONS: Hand and ultrasonic instruments induced comparable impacts on the subgingival plaque microbiome. There were marked early changes in the subgingival biofilm composition, although there was limited evidence that community shifts associated with treatment outcomes. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Kilic T, EB Bali (2023)

Biofilm control strategies in the light of biofilm-forming microorganisms.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 39(5):131.

Biofilm is a complex consortium of microorganisms attached to biotic or abiotic surfaces and live in self-produced or acquired extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs). EPSs are mainly formed by lipids, polysaccharides, proteins, and extracellular DNAs. The adherence to the surface of microbial communities is seen in food, medical, dental, industrial, and environmental fields. Biofilm development in food processing areas challenges food hygiene, and human health. In addition, bacterial attachment and biofilm formation on medical implants inside human tissue can cause multiple critical chronic infections. More than 30 years of international research on the mechanisms of biofilm formation have been underway to address concerns about bacterial biofilm infections. Antibiofilm strategies contain cold atmospheric plasma, nanotechnological, phage-based, antimicrobial peptides, and quorum sensing inhibition. In the last years, the studies on environmentally-friendly techniques such as essential oils and bacteriophages have been intensified to reduce microbial growth. However, the mechanisms of the biofilm matrix formation are still unclear. This review aims to discuss the latest antibiofilm therapeutic strategies against biofilm-forming bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Bech PK, Zhang SD, Henriksen NNSE, et al (2023)

The potential to produce tropodithietic acid by Phaeobacter inhibens affects the assembly of microbial biofilm communities in natural seawater.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 9(1):12.

Microbial secondary metabolites play important roles in biotic interactions in microbial communities and yet, we do not understand how these compounds impact the assembly and development of microbial communities. To address the implications of microbial secondary metabolite production on biotic interactions in the assembly of natural seawater microbiomes, we constructed a model system where the assembly of a natural seawater biofilm community was influenced by the addition of the marine biofilm forming Phaeobacter inhibens that can produce the antibiotic secondary metabolite tropodithietic acid (TDA), or a mutant incapable of TDA production. Because of the broad antibiotic activity of TDA, we hypothesized that the potential of P. inhibens to produce TDA would strongly affect both biofilm and planktonic community assembly patterns. We show that 1.9 % of the microbial composition variance across both environments could be attributed to the presence of WT P. inhibens, and especially genera of the Bacteriodetes were increased by the presence of the TDA producer. Moreover, network analysis with inferred putative microbial interactions revealed that P. inhibens mainly displayed strong positive associations with genera of the Flavobacteriaceae and Alteromonadaceae, and that P. inhibens acts as a keystone OTU in the biofilm exclusively due to its potential to produce TDA. Our results demonstrate the potential impact of microbial secondary metabolites on microbial interactions and assembly dynamics of complex microbial communities.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Racioppo A, Speranza B, Altieri C, et al (2023)

Ultrasound can increase biofilm formation by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Bifidobacterium spp.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1094671.

The main goal of this research was to study the effect of an Ultrasound (US) treatment on biofilm formation of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (strains c19 and DSM 1055), Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis DSM 10140, Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum DSM 20219, and Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis DSM 20088. From a methodological point of view, each microorganism was treated through six US treatments, different for the power (10, 30, or 50% of the net power, 130 W), the duration (2, 6, or 10 min) and the application of pulses (0 or 10 s). After the treatment, a biofilm of the strains was let to form on glass slides and the concentration of sessile cells was analyzed for 16 days. Biofilms formed by untreated microorganisms were used as controls. As a first result, it was found that US significantly increased the concentration of sessile cells of B. longum subsp. infantis, while for some other strains US treatment could not affect the formation of biofilm while improving its stability, as found for L. plantarum DSM1055 after 16 days. The variable mainly involved in this positive effect of US was the duration of the treatment, as biofilm formation and stability were improved only for 2 min-treatments; on the other hand, the effect of power and pulses were strain-dependent. In conclusion, the results suggest practical implication of a US pre-treatment for various fields (improvement of adhesion of microorganisms useful in food or in the gut, biomedical and environmental industries), although further investigations are required to elucidate the mode of action.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Liang J, Huang TY, Mao Y, et al (2023)

Biofilm formation of two genetically diverse Staphylococcus aureus isolates under beta-lactam antibiotics.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1139753.

PURPOSE: Our aim was to evaluate the biofilm formation of 2 genetically diverse Staphylococcus aureus isolates, 10379 and 121940, under different concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics on biomass content and biofilm viability.

METHODS: Biofilm formation and methicillin resistance genes were tested using PCR and multiplex PCR. PCR was combined with bioinformatics analysis to detect multilocal sequence typing (MLST) and SCCmec types, to study the genetical correlation between the tested strains. Then, the crystal violet (CV) test and XTT were used to detect biomass content and biofilm activity. Antibiotic susceptibility was tested using a broth dilution method. According to their specific MIC, different concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics were used to study its effect on biomass content and biofilm viability.

RESULTS: Strain 10379 carried the icaD, icaBC, and MRSA genes, not the icaA, atl, app, and agr genes, and MLST and SCCmec typing was ST45 and IV, respectively. Strain 121940 carried the icaA, icaD, icaBC, atl, and agr genes, not the aap gene, and MLST and SCCmec typed as ST546 and IV, respectively. This suggested that strains 10379 and 121940 were genotypically very different. Two S. aureus isolates, 10379 and 121940, showed resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, penicillin, ampicillin, meropenem, streptomycin and kanamycin, some of which promoted the formation of biofilm and biofilm viability at low concentrations.

CONCLUSION: Despite the large differences in the genetic background of S. aureus 10379 and 121940, some sub-inhibitory concentrations of beta-lactam antibiotics are able to promote biomass and biofilm viability of both two isolates.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Wang M, Wang J, Li T, et al (2023)

Penicillin-binding protein 1b encoded by mrcB gene mediates the enhancement of biofilm formation by sub-inhibitory concentrations of cefotaxime in monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium strain SH16SP46.

FEMS microbiology letters pii:7084015 [Epub ahead of print].

Development of cefotaxime-resistance and biofilm formation increase the difficulty to prevent and control the infection and contamination of Salmonella, one of the most important foodborne and zoonotic bacterial pathogen. Our previous study observed that 1/8 MIC of cefotaxime induced the enhancement of biofilm formation and filamentous morphological change by a monophasic Salmonella Typhimurium strain SH16SP46. This study was designed to explore the role of three penicillin-binding proteins (PBPs) in mediating the induction effect of cefotaxime. Three deletion mutants of the genes mrcA, mrcB, and ftsI, encoding the proteins PBP1a, PBP1b, and PBP3, respectively, were constructed using the parental Salmonella strain SH16SP46. Gram staining and scanning electron microscopy showed that these mutants showed normal morphology comparable to the parental strain without cefotaxime treatment. However, under the stress of 1/8 MIC of cefotaxime, the strains WT, ΔmrcA, and ΔftsI, rather than ΔmrcB, exhibited filamentous morphological change. Moreover, cefotaxime treatment significantly enhanced biofilm formation by the strains WT, ΔmrcA, and ΔftsI, but not by the ΔmrcB strain. The complement of mrcB gene in the ΔmrcB strain recovered the enhanced biofilm formation and filamentous morphological change induced by cefotaxime. Our results suggest that PBP1b encoded by mrcB gene may be a binding target of cefotaxime for initiating the effect on Salmonella morphology and biofilm formation. The study will contribute to further understanding of the regulatory mechanism of cefotaxime on Salmonella biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Cheng L, Yang W, Liang H, et al (2023)

Nitrogen removal from mature landfill leachate through enhanced Partial Nitrification-Anammox process in an innovative multi-stage fixed biofilm reactor.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01577-2 [Epub ahead of print].

In the current integrated PN/A method/process for mature landfill leachate treatment, microbial inhibition and low nitrogen removal capacity are the big barriers due to high ammonia concentration and low C/N. This study aimed to evaluate the performance of a high-rate nitrogen removal lab-scale reactor, which combines pre-denitrification and Partial Nitrification-Anammox (PN/A) in a multi-stage fixed biofilm reactor (MFBR), for mature landfill leachate treatment. A nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) of 90.43 % and an average nitrogen removal rate (NRR) of 0.94 kg/m[3]·d were observed at an influent NH+ 4-N concentration of 2274.39 mg/L during the last operational phase. The nitrogen mass balance showed that the nitrogen concentration gradually decreases along the course, and nitrogen was mainly removed in the aerobic chambers, in which Anammox contributed to 86.4 % of the removed nitrogen, while the front anoxic chamber is mainly used to remove NO- 3-N from the recirculation. Redundancy analysis showed that the variation in NH+ 4-N concentration along the course was the main factor affecting microbial community succession, which shows that the reactor configuration enables efficient cooperation and distribution of different microorganisms. Moreover, economic analysis of MFBR process showed that the energy consumption and carbon addition were reduced by 58.9 % and 100 %, respectively. Therefore, the MFBR established in this study, with its new configuration, achieves efficient treatment of landfill leachate in a single reactor and is environmentally friendly, and could be considered as a reference for full-scale landfill leachate treatment.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Wu M, Lai CY, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Microbial nitrate reduction in propane- or butane-based membrane biofilm reactors under oxygen-limiting conditions.

Water research, 235:119887 pii:S0043-1354(23)00323-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Nitrate contamination has been commonly detected in water environments and poses serious hazards to human health. Previously methane was proposed as a promising electron donor to remove nitrate from contaminated water. Compared with pure methane, natural gas, which not only contains methane but also other short chain gaseous alkanes (SCGAs), is less expensive and more widely available, representing a more attractive electron source for removing oxidized contaminants. However, it remains unknown if these SCGAs can be utilized as electron donors for nitrate reduction. Here, two lab-scale membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs) separately supplied with propane and butane were operated under oxygen-limiting conditions to test its feasibility of microbial nitrate reduction. Long-term performance suggested nitrate could be continuously removed at a rate of ∼40-50 mg N/L/d using propane/butane as electron donors. In the absence of propane/butane, nitrate removal rates significantly decreased both in the long-term operation (∼2-10 and ∼4-9 mg N/L/d for propane- and butane-based MBfRs, respectively) and batch tests, indicating nitrate bio-reduction was driven by propane/butane. The consumption rates of nitrate and propane/butane dramatically decreased under anaerobic conditions, but recovered after resupplying limited oxygen, suggesting oxygen was an essential triggering factor for propane/butane-based nitrate reduction. High-throughput sequencing targeting 16S rRNA, bmoX and narG genes indicated Mycobacterium/Rhodococcus/Thauera were the potential microorganisms oxidizing propane/butane, while various denitrifiers (e.g. Dechloromonas, Denitratisoma, Zoogloea, Acidovorax, Variovorax, Pseudogulbenkiania and Rhodanobacter) might perform nitrate reduction in the biofilms. Our findings provide evidence to link SCGA oxidation with nitrate reduction under oxygen-limiting conditions and may ultimately facilitate the design of cost-effective techniques for ex-situ groundwater remediation using natural gas.

RevDate: 2023-03-24
CmpDate: 2023-03-24

Trindade SC, Lopes MPP, Oliveira TTMC, et al (2023)

Single nucleotide variants in the IL33 and IL1RL1 (ST2) genes are associated with periodontitis and with Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans in the dental plaque biofilm: A putative role in understanding the host immune response in periodontitis.

PloS one, 18(3):e0283179.

The Interleukin (IL)-33 is important in several inflammatory diseases and its cellular receptor is the Interleukin 1 receptor-like 1 (IL1RL1), also called suppression of tumorigenicity 2 ligand (ST2L). This study investigated associations between single nucleotide variants (SNVs) in the IL33 gene and in the IL1RL1 (ST2) gene with periodontitis. Additionally, aimed to determine the role of Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans (Aa) relative amount in the subgingival biofilm in these associations. A cross-sectional study was carried out with 506 individuals that answered a structured questionnaire used to collect their health status, socioeconomic-demographic, and behavioral characteristics. Periodontal examination was performed to determine the presence and severity of periodontitis, and subgingival biofilm samples were collected to quantify the relative amount of Aa by real time polymerase chain reaction. Human genomic DNA was extracted from whole blood cells and SNV genotyping was performed. Logistic regression estimated the association measurements, odds ratio (OR), and 95% confidence interval (95%CI), between the IL33 and ST2 genes with periodontitis, and subgroup analyses assessed the relative amount of Aa in these associations. 23% of individuals had periodontitis. Adjusted measurements showed a statistically significant inverse association between two SNVs of the ST2; rs148548829 (C allele) and rs10206753 (G allele). These two alleles together with a third SNV, the rs11693204 (A allele), were inversely associated with moderate periodontitis. One SNV of the IL33 gene also showed a statistically significant inverse association with moderate periodontitis. Nine SNVs of the ST2 gene were inversely associated with the relative amount of Aa. In the high Aa subgroup, there was a direct association between 11 SNVs of the ST2 gene and moderate periodontitis and two SNVs of the ST2 gene and severe periodontitis, and eight SNVs of the ST2 gene and periodontitis. These exploratory findings of genetic variants in IL-33/ST2 axis support the concept that the different tissue responses among individuals with periodontitis may be modulated by the host's genetics, influencing the physiopathology of the disease.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Johnston EL, Zavan L, Bitto NJ, et al (2023)

Planktonic and Biofilm-Derived Pseudomonas aeruginosa Outer Membrane Vesicles Facilitate Horizontal Gene Transfer of Plasmid DNA.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) produced by Gram-negative bacteria package various cargo, including DNA that can be transferred to other bacteria or to host cells. OMV-associated DNA has been implicated in mediating horizontal gene transfer (HGT) between bacteria, which includes the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes within and between bacterial species. Despite the known ability of OMVs to mediate HGT, the mechanisms of DNA packaging into OMVs remain poorly characterized, as does the effect of bacterial growth conditions on the DNA cargo composition of OMVs and their subsequent abilities to mediate HGT. In this study, we examined the DNA content of OMVs produced by the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in either planktonic or biofilm conditions. Analysis of planktonic growth-derived OMVs revealed their ability to package and protect plasmid DNA from DNase degradation and to transfer plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance genes to recipient, antibiotic-sensitive P. aeruginosa bacteria at a greater efficiency than transformation with plasmid alone. Comparisons of planktonic and biofilm-derived P. aeruginosa OMVs demonstrated that biofilm-derived OMVs were smaller but were associated with more plasmid DNA than planktonic-derived OMVs. Additionally, biofilm-derived P. aeruginosa OMVs were more efficient in the transformation of competent P. aeruginosa bacteria, compared to transformations with an equivalent number of planktonic-derived OMVs. The findings of this study highlight the importance of bacterial growth conditions for the packaging of DNA within P. aeruginosa OMVs and their ability to facilitate HGT, thus contributing to the spread of antibiotic resistance genes between P. aeruginosa bacteria. IMPORTANCE Bacterial membrane vesicles (BMVs) mediate interbacterial communication, and their ability to package DNA specifically contributes to biofilm formation, antibiotic resistance, and HGT between bacteria. However, the ability of P. aeruginosa OMVs to mediate HGT has not yet been demonstrated. Here, we reveal that P. aeruginosa planktonic and biofilm-derived OMVs can deliver plasmid-encoded antibiotic resistance to recipient P. aeruginosa. Additionally, we demonstrated that P. aeruginosa biofilm-derived OMVs were associated with more plasmid DNA compared to planktonic-derived OMVs and were more efficient in the transfer of plasmid DNA to recipient bacteria. Overall, this demonstrated the ability of P. aeruginosa OMVs to facilitate the dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes, thereby enabling the survival of susceptible bacteria during antibiotic treatment. Investigating the roles of biofilm-derived BMVs may contribute to furthering our understanding of the role of BMVs in HGT and the spread of antibiotic resistance in the environment.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Sójka O, Keskin D, van der Mei HC, et al (2023)

Nanogel-based coating as an alternative strategy for biofilm control in drinking water distribution systems.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm formation and detachment in drinking water distribution systems (DWDS) can lead to several operational issues. Here, an alternative biofilm control strategy of limiting bacterial adhesion by application of a poly(N-isopropylmethacrylamide)-based nanogel coating on DWDS pipe walls was investigated. The nanogel coatings were successfully deposited on surfaces of four polymeric pipe materials commonly applied in DWDS construction. Nanogel-coated and non-coated pipe materials were characterized in terms of their surface hydrophilicity and roughness. Four DWDS relevant bacterial strains, representing Sphingomonas and Pseudomonas, were used to evaluate the anti-adhesive performance of the coating in 4 h adhesion and 24 h biofilm assays. The presence of the nanogel coating resulted in adhesion reduction up to 97%, and biofilm reduction up to 98%, compared to non-coated surfaces. These promising results motivate further investigation of nanogel coatings as a strategy for biofilm prevention in DWDS.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Zhang Z, Liao H, Yang M, et al (2023)

[Levofloxacin combined with cellulase can eradicate bacille Calmette-Guerin biofilm infection].

Nan fang yi ke da xue xue bao = Journal of Southern Medical University, 43(2):257-264.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the inhibitory effects of levofloxacin (LEV) combined with cellulase against bacille CalmetteGuerin (BCG) biofilms in vitro.

METHODS: The mature growth cycle of BCG biofilms was determined using the XTT method and crystal violet staining. BCG planktonic bacteria and BCG biofilms were treated with different concentrations of LEV and cellulose alone or jointly, and the changes in biofilm biomass were quantified with crystal violet staining. The mature BCG biofilm was then treated with cellulase alone for 24 h, and after staining with SYTO 9 and Calcofluor White Stain, the number of viable bacteria and the change in cellulose content in the biofilm were observed with confocal laser scanning microscopy. The structural changes of the treated biofilm were observed under scanning electron microscopy.

RESULTS: The MIC, MBC and MBEC values of LEV determined by broth microdilution method were 4 μg/mL, 8 μg/mL and 1024 μg/mL, respectively. The combined treatment with 1/4×MIC LEV and 2.56, 5.12 or 10.24 U/mL cellulase resulted in a significant reduction in biofilm biomass (P < 0.001). Cellulase treatments at the concentrations of 10.24, 5.12 and 2.56 U/mL all produced significant dispersion effects on mature BCG biofilms (P < 0.001).

CONCLUSION: LEV combined with cellulose can effectively eradicate BCG biofilm infections, suggesting the potential of glycoside hydrolase therapy for improving the efficacy of antibiotics against biofilmassociated infections caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Brothers KM, Parker DM, Taguchi M, et al (2023)

Dose optimization in surgical prophylaxis: sub-inhibitory dosing of vancomycin increases rates of biofilm formation and the rates of surgical site infection.

Scientific reports, 13(1):4593.

Antibiotic stewardship is viewed as having great public health benefit with limited direct benefit to the patient at the time of administration. The objective of our study was to determine if inappropriate administration of antibiotics could create conditions that would increase the rates of surgical infection. We hypothesized that sub-MIC levels of vancomycin would increase Staphylococcus aureus growth, biofilm formation, and rates of infection. S. aureus MRSA and MSSA strains were used for all experiments. Bacteria were grown planktonically and monitored using spectrophotometry. Quantitative agar culture was used to measure planktonic and biofilm bacterial burden. A mouse abscess model was used to confirm phenotypes in vivo. In the planktonic growth assay, increases in bacterial burden at ¼ MIC vancomycin were observed in USA300 JE2 by 72 h. Similar findings were observed with ½ MIC in Newman and SH1000. For biofilm formation, USA300 JE2 at ¼ and ½ MIC vancomycin increased biofilm formation by approximately 1.3- and 2.3-fold respectively at 72 h as compared to untreated controls. Similar findings were observed with Newman and SH1000 with a 2.4-fold increase in biofilm formation at ½ MIC vancomycin. In a mouse abscess model, there was a 1.2-fold increase with sub-MIC vancomycin at 3 days post infection. Our study showed that Sub-optimal vancomycin dosing promoted S. aureus planktonic growth and biofilm formation, phenotypic measures of bacterial virulence. This phenotype induced by sub-MIC levels of vancomycin was also observed to increase rates of infection and pathogenesis in our mouse model. Risks of exposure to sub-MIC concentrations with vancomycin in surgical procedures are greater as there is decreased bioavailability in tissue in comparison to other antibiotics. This highlights the importance of proper antibiotic selection, stewardship, and dosing for both surgical prophylaxis and treatment of infection.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Kognou ALM, Chio C, Khatiwada JR, et al (2023)

Characterization of Potential Virulence, Resistance to Antibiotics and Heavy Metals, and Biofilm-forming Capabilities of Soil Lignocellulolytic Bacteria.

Microbial physiology pii:000530228 [Epub ahead of print].

Soil bacteria participate in self-immobilization processes for survival, persistence and producing virulence factors in some niches or hosts through their capacities of autoaggregation, cell surface hydrophobicity, biofilm formation, and antibiotic and heavy metal resistance. This study investigated potential virulence, antibiotics and heavy metals resistance, solvent adhesion, and biofilm-forming capabilities of six cellulolytic bacteria isolated from soil samples: Paenarthrobacter sp. MKAL1, Hymenobacter sp. MKAL2, Mycobacterium sp. MKAL3, Stenotrophomonas sp. MKAL4, Chryseobacterium sp. MKAL5 and Bacillus sp. MKAL6. Strains were subjected to phenotypic methods, including heavy metal and antibiotic susceptibility and virulence factors (protease, lipase, capsule production, autoaggregation, hydrophobicity and biofilm formation). The effect of ciprofloxacin was also investigated on bacterial susceptibility over time, cell membrane and biofilm formation. Strains MKAL2, MKAL5 and MKAL6 exhibited protease and lipase activities, while only MKAL6 produced capsules. All strains were capable of aggregating, forming biofilm and adhering to solvents. Strains tolerated high amounts of chromium, lead, zinc, nickel and manganese and were resistant to lincomycin. Ciprofloxacin exhibited bactericidal activity against these strains. Although the phenotypic evaluation of virulence factors of bacteria can indicate their pathogenic nature, an in-depth genetic study of virulence, antibiotic and heavy metal resistance genes is required.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Archambault L, Koshy-Chenthittayil S, Thompson A, et al (2023)

Corrected and Republished from: "Understanding Lactobacillus paracasei and Streptococcus oralis Biofilm Interactions through Agent-Based Modeling".

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

As common commensals residing on mucosal tissues, Lactobacillus species are known to promote health, while some Streptococcus species act to enhance the pathogenicity of other organisms in those environments. In this study we used a combination of in vitro imaging of live biofilms and computational modeling to explore biofilm interactions between Streptococcus oralis, an accessory pathogen in oral candidiasis, and Lactobacillus paracasei, an organism with known probiotic properties. A computational agent-based model was created where the two species interact only by competing for space, oxygen, and glucose. Quantification of bacterial growth in live biofilms indicated that S. oralis biomass and cell numbers were much lower than predicted by the model. Two subsequent models were then created to examine more complex interactions between these species, one where L. paracasei secretes a surfactant and another where L. paracasei secretes an inhibitor of S. oralis growth. We observed that the growth of S. oralis could be affected by both mechanisms. Further biofilm experiments support the hypothesis that L. paracasei may secrete an inhibitor of S. oralis growth, although they do not exclude that a surfactant could also be involved. This contribution shows how agent-based modeling and experiments can be used in synergy to address multiple-species biofilm interactions, with important roles in mucosal health and disease. IMPORTANCE We previously discovered a role of the oral commensal Streptococcus oralis as an accessory pathogen. S. oralis increases the virulence of Candida albicans infections in murine oral candidiasis and epithelial cell models through mechanisms which promote the formation of tissue-damaging biofilms. Lactobacillus species have known inhibitory effects on biofilm formation of many microbes, including Streptococcus species. Agent-based modeling has great advantages as a means of exploring multifaceted relationships between organisms in complex environments such as biofilms. Here, we used an iterative collaborative process between experimentation and modeling to reveal aspects of the mostly unexplored relationship between S. oralis and L. paracasei in biofilm growth. The inhibitory nature of L. paracasei on S. oralis in biofilms may be exploited as a means of preventing or alleviating mucosal fungal infections.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Archambault L, Koshy-Chenthittayil S, Thompson A, et al (2023)

Correction for Archambault et al., "Understanding Lactobacillus paracasei and Streptococcus oralis Biofilm Interactions through Agent-Based Modeling".

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Alharbi MS, Alshehri FA, Alobaidi AS, et al (2023)

High molecular weight hyaluronic acid reduces the growth and biofilm formation of the oral pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis.

The Saudi dental journal, 35(2):141-146.

BACKGROUND: Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) is viewed as a keystone microorganism in the pathogenesis of periodontal and peri-implant diseases. Hyaluronic acid (HA) is believed to exert antimicrobial activity. The aim of this study is to assess the in-vitro growth and biofilm formation of P. gingivalis under HA and compare the effect of HA to that of azithromycin (AZM) and chlorhexidine (CHX).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In each material, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), 50% MIC, 25% MIC, and 12.5% MIC were tested. The growth of P. gingivalis was evaluated by absorbance spectrophotometry after 48 h. A biofilm inhibition assay was performed on a 72-hour culture by washing planktonic bacterial cells, fixing and staining adherent cells, and measuring the variation in stain concentrations relative to the untreated control using absorbance spectrophotometry.

RESULTS: The results show that the overall growth of P. gingivalis after 48 h was 0.048 ± 0.030, 0.008 ± 0.013, and 0.073 ± 0.071 under HA, AZM, and CHX, respectively, while the untreated control reached 0.236 ± 0.039. HA was also able to significantly reduce the biofilm formation of P. gingivalis by 64.30 % ± 22.39, while AZM and CHX reduced biofilm formation by 91.16 %±12.58 and 88.35 %±17.11, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: High molecular-weight HA significantly inhibited the growth of P. gingivalis. The overall effect of HA on the growth of P. gingivalis was similar to that of CHX but less than that of AZM. HA was also able to significantly reduce the biofilm formation of P. gingivalis. However, the ability of HA to prevent the biofilm formation of P. gingivalis was generally less than that of both AZM and CHX.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Mohanta YK, Chakrabartty I, Mishra AK, et al (2022)

Nanotechnology in combating biofilm: A smart and promising therapeutic strategy.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1028086.

Since the birth of civilization, people have recognized that infectious microbes cause serious and often fatal diseases in humans. One of the most dangerous characteristics of microorganisms is their propensity to form biofilms. It is linked to the development of long-lasting infections and more severe illness. An obstacle to eliminating such intricate structures is their resistance to the drugs now utilized in clinical practice (biofilms). Finding new compounds with anti-biofilm effect is, thus, essential. Infections caused by bacterial biofilms are something that nanotechnology has lately shown promise in treating. More and more studies are being conducted to determine whether nanoparticles (NPs) are useful in the fight against bacterial infections. While there have been a small number of clinical trials, there have been several in vitro outcomes examining the effects of antimicrobial NPs. Nanotechnology provides secure delivery platforms for targeted treatments to combat the wide range of microbial infections caused by biofilms. The increase in pharmaceuticals' bioactive potential is one of the many ways in which nanotechnology has been applied to drug delivery. The current research details the utilization of several nanoparticles in the targeted medication delivery strategy for managing microbial biofilms, including metal and metal oxide nanoparticles, liposomes, micro-, and nanoemulsions, solid lipid nanoparticles, and polymeric nanoparticles. Our understanding of how these nanosystems aid in the fight against biofilms has been expanded through their use.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Zhu X, Dou F, Long M, et al (2023)

Electron shuttle-dependent biofilm formation and biocurrent generation: Concentration effects and mechanistic insights.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1070800.

INTRODUCTION: Electron shuttles (ESs) play a key role in extracellular electron transfer (EET) in Shewanella oneidensis MR-1. However, the quantification relationship between ES concentration, biofilm formation, and biocurrent generation has not been clarified.

METHODS: In this study, 9,10-anthraquinone-2-sulfonic acid (AQS)-mediated EET and biofilm formation were evaluated at different AQS concentrations in bioelectrochemical systems (BESs) with S. oneidensis MR-1.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Both the biofilm biomass (9- to 17-fold) and biocurrent (21- to 80-fold) were substantially enhanced by exogenous AQS, suggesting the dual ability of AQS to promote both biofilm formation and electron shuttling. Nevertheless, biofilms barely grew without the addition of exogenous AQS, revealing that biofilm formation by S. oneidensis MR-1 is highly dependent on electron shuttling. The biofilm growth was delayed in a BES of 2,000 μM AQS, which is probably because the redundant AQS in the bulk solution acted as a soluble electron acceptor and delayed biofilm formation. In addition, the maximum biocurrent density in BESs with different concentrations of AQS was fitted to the Michaelis-Menten equation (R [2] = 0.97), demonstrating that microbial-catalyzed ES bio-reduction is the key limiting factor of the maximum biocurrent density in BESs. This study provided a fundamental understanding of ES-mediated EET, which could be beneficial for the enrichment of electroactive biofilms, the rapid start-up of microbial fuel cells (MFCs), and the design of BESs for wastewater treatment.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Xie J, Zhang H, Li Y, et al (2023)

Transcriptome analysis of the biofilm formation mechanism of Vibrio parahaemolyticus under the sub-inhibitory concentrations of copper and carbenicillin.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1128166.

Biofilm formation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus enhanced its tolerance to the environment, but caused many serious problems to food safety and human health. In this paper, the effects of copper and carbenicillin (CARB) stress on the formation of the biofilms of V. parahaemolyticus organisms were studied, and RNA sequencing technology was used to compare the differences in transcriptome profiles of the biofilm-related genes of V. parahaemolyticus organisms under different sub-inhibitory stresses. The results proved that V. parahaemolyticus had a large growth difference under the two stresses, copper and CARB at 1/2 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), and it could form a stable biofilm under both stress conditions. The amount of biofilm formed under CARB stress was significantly higher than that of copper stress (p < 0.05). Based on the analysis of transcriptome sequencing results 323, 1,550, and 1,296 significantly differential expressed genes were identified in the three treatment groups namely 1/2 MIC CARB, Cu[2+], and Cu[2+]+CARB. Through COG annotation, KEGG metabolic pathway analysis and gene expression analysis related to biofilm formation, the functional pathways of transcriptome changes affecting V. parahaemolyticus were different in the three treatment groups, and the CARB treatment group was significantly different from the other two groups. These differences indicated that the ABC transport system, two-component system and quorum sensing were all involved in the biofilm formation of the V. parahaemolytic by regulating flagellar motility, extracellular polysaccharides and extracellular polymer synthesis. Exploring the effects of different stress conditions on the transcriptome of V. parahaemolyticus could provide a basis for future research on the complex network system that regulates the formation of bacterial biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Mao T, Chai B, Xiong Y, et al (2023)

In Vitro Inhibition of Growth, Biofilm Formation, and Persisters of Staphylococcus aureus by Pinaverium Bromide.

ACS omega, 8(10):9652-9661.

Biofilm or persister cells formed by Staphylococcus aureus are closely related to pathogenicity. However, no antimicrobials exist to inhibit biofilm formation or persister cells induced by S. aureus in clinical practice. This study found that pinaverium bromide had antibacterial activity against S. aureus, with the MIC50/MIC90 at 12.5/25 μM, respectively. Pinaverium bromide (at 4 × MIC) showed a rapid bactericidal effect on S. aureus planktonic cells, and it was more effective (at least 1-log10 cfu/mL) than linezolid, vancomycin, and ampicillin at 4 h of the time-killing test. Pinaverium bromide (at 10 × MIC) significantly inhibited the formation of S. aureus persister cells (at least 3-log10 cfu/mL) than linezolid, vancomycin, and ampicillin at 24, 48, 72, 96, and 120 h of the time-killing test. Biofilm formation and adherent cells of S. aureus isolates were significantly inhibited by pinaverium bromide (at 1/2 or 1/4 × MICs). The fluorescence intensity of the membrane polarity of S. aureus increased with the treatment of pinaverium bromide (≥1 × MIC), and the MICs of pinaverium bromide increased by 4 times with the addition of cell membrane phospholipids, phosphatidyl glycerol and cardiolipin. The cell viabilities of human hepatocellular carcinoma cells HepG2 and Huh7, mouse monocyte-macrophage cells J774, and human hepatic stellate cells LX-2 were slightly inhibited by pinaverium bromide (<50 μM). There were 54 different abundance proteins detected in the pinaverium bromide-treated S. aureus isolate by proteomics analysis, of which 33 proteins increased, whereas 21 proteins decreased. The abundance of superoxide dismutase sodM and ica locus proteins icaA and icaB decreased. While the abundance of global transcriptional regulator spxA and Gamma-hemolysin component B increased. In conclusion, pinaverium bromide had an antibacterial effect on S. aureus and significantly inhibited the formation of biofilm and persister cells of S. aureus.

RevDate: 2023-03-21
CmpDate: 2023-03-21

Arismendi D, Vera I, Ahumada I, et al (2023)

A thin biofilm of chitosan as a sorptive phase in the rotating disk sorptive extraction of triclosan and methyl triclosan from water samples.

Analytica chimica acta, 1252:341053.

The features and nature of the sorptive phase may be the stage that determines the scope of microextraction techniques. In search of new alternatives, materials of natural origin have recently been explored to establish greener analytical strategies. Based on that search, this research proposes the use of chitosan as a sorptive phase, which was assessed in the rotating disk sorptive extraction of emerging contaminants from aqueous systems. Chitosan is a biopolymer of animal origin that is usually found in the shells of crustaceans. The main characteristic of this material is the presence of a high number of nitrogenous groups, which gives it high reactivity, but its main disadvantage is associated with its high swelling capacity. In this research, chitosan was crosslinked with a low concentration of glutaraldehyde to form thin films that were easily immobilized on the surface of the rotating disk. The main advantage of this modification is the considerable decrease in the swelling capacity, which prevents loss and rupture of the sorbent during high rotation of the disk. In addition, it not only improved the physical characteristics of chitosan but also increased its extraction capacity. With regard to its use as a sorptive phase, all the variables associated with the microextraction of the analytes were studied, and optimal variables were found to be: pH 4, 20% NaCl (salting out effect), 30-45 min as equilibrium time and elution of analytes with a mixture of methanol:ethyl acetate (1:1). Validation of the methodology for the determination of methyl triclosan and triclosan was carried out, and relative recoveries between 89 and 96% and relative standard deviations less than 14% were found. The detection limits were 0.11 and 0.20 μg L[-1], respectively. Through its application in real samples (natural and residual waters), triclosan was quantified between 0.7 and 1.3 μg L[-1]. Finally, the "green" properties of the phase were evaluated, demonstrating that it is reusable for at least three cycles and biodegradable. Compared to its efficiency with a commercial phase (in this case, the styrene divinyl benzene phase), the proposed biosorbent provided a similar and even higher sorptive capacity (depending on the analyte).

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Bayani M, Raisolvaezin K, Almasi-Hashiani A, et al (2023)

Bacterial biofilm prevalence in dental unit waterlines: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

BMC oral health, 23(1):158.

BACKGROUNDS: Numerous studies have shown that dental unit water lines (DUWLs) are often contaminated by a wide range of micro-organisms (bacteria, fungi, protozoa) and various prevalence have been reported for it in previous studies. Therefore, this review study aims to describe the prevalence of bacterial biofilm contamination of DUWLs.

METHODS: This is a systematic review and meta-analysis in which the related keywords in different international databases, including Medline (via PubMed) and Scopus were searched. The retrieved studies were screened and the required data were extracted from the included studies. Three standard methods including American Dental Association (ADA), The Center for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and contaminated > 100 CFU/ml(C-100) standards were used to assess the bacterial biofilm contamination of DUWLs. All studies that calculated the prevalence of bacterial biofilm contamination of DUWLs, and English full-text studies were included in the meta-analysis. Studies that did not have relevant data or used unusual laboratory methods were excluded. Methodological risk of bias was assessed by a related checklist and finally, the data were pooled by fixed or random-effect models.

RESULTS: Seven hundred and thirty-six studies were identified and screened and 26 related studies were included in the meta-analysis. The oldest included study was published in 1976 and the most recent study was published in 2020. According to the ADA, CDC and C-100 standards, the prevalence of bacterial contamination was estimated to be 85.0% (95% confidence interval (CI): 66.0-94.0%), 77.0% (95%CI: 66.0-85.0%) and 69.0% (95%CI: 67.0-71.0%), respectively. The prevalence of Legionella Pneumophila and Pseudomonas Aeruginosa in DUWLs was estimated to be 12.0% (95%CI: 10.0-14.0%) and 8.0% (95%CI: 2.0-24.0%), respectively.

CONCLUSION: The results of this review study suggested a high prevalence of bacterial biofilm in DUWLs; therefore, the use of appropriate disinfecting protocol is recommended to reduce the prevalence of contamination and reduce the probable cross-infection.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Yang J, Sim YB, Moon Kim S, et al (2023)

Enhanced Continuous Biohydrogen Production using Dynamic Membrane with Conductive Biofilm Supporter.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00326-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The present study investigated the effect of a conductive biofilm supporter on continuous production of biohydrogen in a dynamic membrane bioreactor (DMBR). Two lab-scale DMBRs were operated: one with a nonconductive polyester mesh (DMBR I) and the other with a conductive stainless-steel mesh (DMBR II). The highest average hydrogen productivity and the yield were 16.8% greater in DMBR II than in DMBR I, with values of 51.64 ± 0.66 L/L-d and 2.01 ± 0.03 mol H2/mol hexoseconsumed, respectively. The improved hydrogen production was concurrent with a higher NADH/NAD[+] ratio and a lower ORP (Oxidation-reduction potential). Metabolic flux analysis implied that the conductive supporter promoted H2-producing acetogenesis and repressed competitive NADH-consuming pathways, such as homoacetogenesis and lactate production. Microbial community analysis revealed that electroactive Clostridium sp. were the dominant H2 producers in DMBR II. Conclusively, conductive meshes may be useful as biofilm supporters of dynamic membranes during H2 production for selectively enhancing H2-producing pathways.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Wu J, McAuliffe O, CP O'Byrne (2023)

Trehalose transport occurs via TreB in Listeria monocytogenes and it influences biofilm development and acid resistance.

International journal of food microbiology, 394:110165 pii:S0168-1605(23)00081-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Listeria monocytogenes is a pathogenic bacterium that can inhabit a diverse range of environmental niches. This is largely attributed to the high proportion of carbohydrate-specific phosphotransferase system (PTS) genes in its genome. Carbohydrates can be assimilated as sources of energy but additionally they can serve as niche-specific cues for L. monocytogenes to shape its global gene expression, in order to cope with anticipated stresses. To examine carbon source utilization among wild L. monocytogenes isolates and to understand underlying molecular mechanisms, a diverse collection of L. monocytogenes strains (n = 168) with whole genome sequence (WGS) data available was screened for the ability to grow in chemically defined media with different carbon sources. The majority of the strains grew in glucose, mannose, fructose, cellobiose, glycerol, trehalose, and sucrose. Maltose, lactose, and rhamnose supported slower growth while ribose did not support any growth. In contrast to other strains, strain1386, which belonged to clonal complex 5 (CC5), was unable to grow on trehalose as a sole carbon source. WGS data revealed that it carried a substitution (N352K) in a putative PTS EIIBC trehalose transporter, TreB, while this asparagine residue is conserved in other strains in this collection. Spontaneous mutants of strain 1386 that could grow in trehalose were found to harbour a reversion of the substitution in TreB. These results provide genetic evidence that TreB is responsible for trehalose uptake and that the N352 residue is essential for TreB activity. Moreover, reversion mutants also restored other unusual phenotypes that strain 1386 displayed, i.e. altered colony morphology, impaired biofilm development, and reduced acid resistance. Transcriptional analysis at stationary phase with buffered BHI media revealed that trehalose metabolism positively influences the transcription of genes encoding amino acid-based acid resistance mechanisms. In summary, our results demonstrated that N352 is key to the function of the sole trehalose transporter TreB in L. monocytogenes and suggest that trehalose metabolism alters physiology to favour biofilm development and acid stress resistance. Moreover, since strain 1386 is among the strains recommended by the European Union Reference Laboratory for conducting food challenge studies in order to determine whether or not L. monocytogenes can grow in food, these findings have important implications for food safety.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Chen Q, Qi M, Shi F, et al (2023)

Novel Twin-Crystal Nanosheets with MnO2 Modification to Combat Bacterial Biofilm against Periodontal Infections via Multipattern Strategies.

Advanced healthcare materials [Epub ahead of print].

Nowadays the multifunctional approaches to kill oral bacteria based on various nanocomposites have made great progress against periodontal infections, while the material structure and its functional integration are still insufficient. Herein, we proposed a therapeutic strategy of chemodynamical therapy (CDT) and photothermal therapy (PTT) in monocrystals to effectively enhance the synergistic treatment. The CuS/MnS@MnO2 consisting of hexagonal CuS/MnS nano-twin-crystal with a shell layer of MnO2 was developed. In this nanosystem, the purpose of synergistic treatment of periodontitis by combining PTT/CDT has been achieved within CuS/MnS monocrystal, where CuS served to achieve photothermal conversion, dissipate the biofilm and transfer the heat in situ to the integrated MnS, thus promoting the Mn[2+] -mediated CDT process. Meanwhile, the CDT process could generate the highly toxic hydroxyl radical to destroy extracellular DNA by utilization of endogenous H2 O2 produced by Streptococci in oral biofilm, cooperating with PTT to dissipate bacterial biofilm. With the design of outer shell of MnO2 , the selective bacteria-killing can be realized by producing oxygen which can protect the periodontal non-pathogenic aerobic bacteria and threatened the survival of anaerobic pathogens Therefore, such design via multipattern strategies to combat microorganisms would provide a bright prospect for the clinical treatment of bacterial infections. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Wang F, Yuan J, Wang X, et al (2023)

Antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities of chinese Propolis essential oil microemulsion against Streptococcus mutans.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7080144 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: To solve the shortcomings of poor solubility, easy volatilization and decomposition, propolis essential oil microemulsion (PEOME) was prepared. The antibacterial, anti-biofilm activities and action mechanism of PEOME against Streptococcus mutans was analyzed.

METHODS: PEOME was prepared using anhydrous ethanol and Tween-80 as the cosurfactant and surfactant respectively. The antibacterial activity of PEOME against Streptococcus mutans was evaluated using the agar disk-diffusion method and broth microdilution method. The effects of PEOME on S. mutans biofilm was detected through the assays of crystal violet (CV), XTT reduction, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH) and calcium ions leaking, live/dead staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). And the anti-biofilm mechanism of PEOME was elaborated by the assays of extracellular polysaccharide (EPS) production and glucosyltransferase (GTF) activity.

RESULTS: The inhibition zone diameter (DIZ) of PEOME against S. mutans was 31 mm, while the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) was 2.5 µL mL-1. CV and XTT assays showed that PEOME could prevent fresh biofilm formation and disrupt preformed biofilm through decreasing the activities and biomass of biofilm. The leaking assays for LDH and calcium ions, as well as the live/dead staining assay, indicated that PEOME was able to damage the integrity of bacterial cell membranes within the biofilm. SEM revealed that PEOME had a noticeable inhibitory effect on bacterial adhesion and aggregation through observing the overall structure of biofilm. The assays of EPS production and GTF activity suggested that PEOME could reduce EPS production by inhibiting the activity of GTFs, thus showing an anti-biofilm effect.

CONCLUSIONS: The significant antibacterial and anti-biofilm activities against S. mutans of PEOME meant that PEOME has great potential to be developed as a drug to prevent and cure dental caries caused by S. mutans.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Sindelo A, Sen P, T Nyokong (2023)

Photoantimicrobial activity of Schiff-base Morpholino phthalocyanines against drug resistant micro-organisms in their planktonic and biofilm forms.

Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy pii:S1572-1000(23)00247-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation (aPDI) is an alternative treatment for the eradication of drug-resistant micro-organisms. One of the advantages of this technique, it that there is no possibility of microbial resistance. Hence, herein, the preparation and characterization of novel neutral and cationic morpholine containing Schiff base phthalocyanines are reported. The cationic complexes (4 and 5) gave moderate singlet oxygen quantum yields (ΦΔ) of ∼0.2 in aqueous media. Conversely, the neutral complexes generated very low ΦΔ values making them very poor candidates for antimicrobial studies. The cationic phthalocyanines showed excellent photodynamic activity against planktonic cells of all micro-organisms (Candida albicans, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella enterica subspecies enterica serovar Choleraesuis, vancomycin-resistant E. faecium, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus). The efficiency of aPDI was shown to be both concentration and light-dose-dependent. Mono biofilms were susceptible when treated with 200 µM of cationic Pcs at 108 J/cm[2]. However, ∼10% of the mixed biofilm survived after treatment.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Yazıcı BC, Bakhedda N, N Akçelik (2023)

Effect of nisin and p-coumaric acid on autoinducer-2 activity, biofilm formation, and sprE expression of Enterococcus faecalis.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

Quorum sensing (QS) is an inter- and intracellular communication mechanism that regulates gene expression in response to population size. Autoinducer-2 (AI-2) signaling is a QS signaling molecule common to both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria. Enterococcus faecalis is one of the leading causes of nosocomial infections worldwide. There has been an increasing interest in controlling infectious diseases through targeting the QS mechanism using natural compounds. This study aimed to investigate the effect of nisin and p-coumaric acid (pCA), on biofilm formation and AI-2 signaling in E. faecalis. Their effect on the expression of the QS-regulated virulence encoding gene sprE was also investigated. Nisin exhibited a MIC ranging from 0.25 to 0.5 mg/mL, while the MIC of pCA was 1 mg/mL. The luminescence-based response of the reporter strain Vibrio harveyi BB170 was used to determine AI-2 activity in E. faecalis strains. Nisin was not effective in inhibiting AI-2 activity, while pCA reduced AI-2 activity by ≥ 60%. Moreover, pCA and nisin combination showed higher inhibitory effect on biofilm formation of E. faecalis, compared to the treatment of pCA or nisin alone. qRT-PCR analysis showed that nisin alone and the combination of nisin and pCA, at their MIC values, led to a 32.78- and 40.22-fold decrease in sprE gene expression, respectively, while pCA alone did not have a significant effect. Considering the demand to explore new therapeutic avenues for infectious bacteria, this study was the first to report that pCA can act like a quorum sensing inhibitor (QSI) against AI-2 signaling in E. faecalis.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Baghiat Esfahani M, Khodavandi A, Alizadeh F, et al (2023)

Biofilm-associated genes as potential molecular targets of nano-Fe3O4 in Candida albicans.

Pharmacological reports : PR [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: There are few effective treatments for Candida biofilm-associated infections. The present study demonstrated changes in the expression of biofilm-associated genes in Candida albicans treated with magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles (denoted as nano-Fe3O4).

METHODS: Nano-Fe3O4 was biologically synthesized using Bacillus licheniformis, Bacillus cereus, and Fusarium oxysporum. Additionally, the biologically synthesized nano-Fe3O4 was characterized by visual observation; ultraviolet-visible spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction spectroscopy, and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy. The biologically synthesized nano-Fe3O4 was tested for growth and biofilm formation in C. albicans. Furthermore, quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) was used to study the inhibition of biofilm-associated genes in C. albicans treated with nano-Fe3O4.

RESULTS: The production of biologically synthesized nano-Fe3O4 was confirmed using extensive characterization methods. The nano-Fe3O4 inhibited growth and biofilm formation. Nano-Fe3O4 exhibited growth inhibition with minimum inhibition concentrations (MICs) of 50 to 200 μg mL[-1]. The anti-biofilm effects of nano-Fe3O4 were shown by 2,3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5 sulfophenyl)-5-[(phenylamino) carbonyl]-2H-tetrazolium hydroxide (XTT) reduction assay, crystal violet staining, and light field microscopy. The gene expression results showed that the downregulation of BCR1, ALS1, ALS3, HWP1, and ECE1 genes inhibited the biofilm formation in C. albicans. ALS1 reduction was greater than others, with downregulation of 1375.83-, 1178.71-, and 768.47-fold at 2 × MIC, 1 × MIC, and ½ × MIC of nano-Fe3O4, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Biofilm-associated genes as potential molecular targets of nano-Fe3O4 in C. albicans may be an effective novel treatment strategy for biofilm-associated infections.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Du X, Ma M, Zhang Y, et al (2023)

Synthesis of Cationic Biphen[4, 5]arenes as Biofilm Disruptors.

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) [Epub ahead of print].

Since bacteria in biofilms are inherently resistant to antibiotics and biofilm-associated infections pose serious threat to global public health, new therapeutic agents and schemes are urgently needed to meet clinical requirements. Here two quaternary ammonium-functionalized biphen[n]arenes (WBPn, n = 4, 5) were designed and synthesized with excellent anti-biofilm potency. Not only could they inhibit assembly of biofilm, but also eradicate intractable mature biofilm formed by Gram-positive S. aureus and Gram-negative E. coli bacterial strains. Moreover, they could strongly complex a conventional antibiotic, cefazolin sodium (CFZ) with complex stability constants of (7.41 ± 0.29) × 104 M-1 for CFZ/WBP4 and (4.98 ± 0.49) × 103 M-1 for CFZ/WBP5. Combination of CFZ by WBP4 and WBP5 synergistically enhanced biofilm eradication performance in vitro and statistically improved healing efficacy on E. coli-infected mice models, providing novel supramolecular strategy for combating biofilm-associated infections.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Kobayashi A, Nakamura M, Tsujii M, et al (2023)

Two cyanobacterial response regulators with diguanylate cyclase activity, Rre2 and Rre8, participate in biofilm formation.

Molecular microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Phototrophic bacteria face diurnal variations of environmental conditions such as light and osmolarity, that affect their carbon metabolism and ability to generate organic compounds. The model cyanobacterium, Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 forms a biofilm when it encounters extreme conditions like high salt stress, but the molecular mechanisms involved in perception of environmental changes that lead to biofilm formation are unknown. Here, we studied two two-component regulatory systems (TCSs) that contain diguanylate cyclases (DGCs), which produce the second messenger c-di-GMP, as potential components of the biofilm-inducing signaling pathway in Synechocystis. Analysis of single mutants provided evidence for involvement of Rre2 and Rre8 in biofilm formation. A bacterial two-hybrid assay showed that the response regulators, Rre2 and Rre8 each formed a TCS with a specific histidine kinase, Hik12 and Hik14, respectively. The in vitro assay showed that Rre2 had DGC activity regardless of its de/phosphorylation status, whereas Rre8 required phosphorylation for DGC activity. Hik14-Rre8 likely functioned as an inducible sensing system in response to environmental change. Biofilm assays with Synechocystis mutants suggested that pairs of hik12-rre2 and hik14-rre8 responded to high salinity-induced biofilm formation. Inactivation of hik12-rre2 and hik14-rre8 did not affect the performance of the light reactions of photosynthesis. These data suggest that Hik12-Rre2 and Hik14-Rre8 participate in biofilm formation in Synechocystis by regulating c-di-GMP production via the DGC activity of Rre2 and Rre8.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

El-Naggar NE, Dalal SR, Zweil AM, et al (2023)

Artificial intelligence-based optimization for chitosan nanoparticles biosynthesis, characterization and in‑vitro assessment of its anti-biofilm potentiality.

Scientific reports, 13(1):4401.

Chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs) are promising biopolymeric nanoparticles with excellent physicochemical, antimicrobial, and biological properties. CNPs have a wide range of applications due to their unique characteristics, including plant growth promotion and protection, drug delivery, antimicrobials, and encapsulation. The current study describes an alternative, biologically-based strategy for CNPs biosynthesis using Olea europaea leaves extract. Face centered central composite design (FCCCD), with 50 experiments was used for optimization of CNPs biosynthesis. The artificial neural network (ANN) was employed for analyzing, validating, and predicting CNPs biosynthesis using Olea europaea leaves extract. Using the desirability function, the optimum conditions for maximum CNPs biosynthesis were determined theoretically and verified experimentally. The highest experimental yield of CNPs (21.15 mg CNPs/mL) was obtained using chitosan solution of 1%, leaves extract solution of 100%, initial pH 4.47, and incubation time of 60 min at 53.83°C. The SEM and TEM images revealed that CNPs had a spherical form and varied in size between 6.91 and 11.14 nm. X-ray diffraction demonstrates the crystalline nature of CNPs. The surface of the CNPs is positively charged, having a Zeta potential of 33.1 mV. FTIR analysis revealed various functional groups including C-H, C-O, CONH2, NH2, C-OH and C-O-C. The thermogravimetric investigation indicated that CNPs are thermally stable. The CNPs were able to suppress biofilm formation by P. aeruginosa, S. aureus and C. albicans at concentrations ranging from 10 to 1500 µg/mL in a dose-dependent manner. Inhibition of biofilm formation was associated with suppression of metabolic activity, protein/exopolysaccharide moieties, and hydrophobicity of biofilm encased cells (r ˃ 0.9, P = 0.00). Due to their small size, in the range of 6.91 to 11.14 nm, CNPs produced using Olea europaea leaves extract are promising for applications in the medical and pharmaceutical industries, in addition to their potential application in controlling multidrug-resistant microorganisms, especially those associated with post COVID-19 pneumonia in immunosuppressed patients.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Bird LJ, Leary DH, Hervey J, et al (2023)

Marine Biofilm Engineered to Produce Current in Response to Small Molecules.

ACS synthetic biology [Epub ahead of print].

Engineered electroactive bacteria have potential applications ranging from sensing to biosynthesis. In order to advance the use of engineered electroactive bacteria, it is important to demonstrate functional expression of electron transfer modules in chassis adapted to operationally relevant conditions, such as non-freshwater environments. Here, we use the Shewanella oneidensis electron transfer pathway to induce current production in a marine bacterium, Marinobacter atlanticus, during biofilm growth in artificial seawater. Genetically encoded sensors optimized for use in Escherichia coli were used to control protein expression in planktonic and biofilm attached cells. Significant current production required the addition of menaquinone, which M. atlanticus does not produce, for electron transfer from the inner membrane to the expressed electron transfer pathway. Current through the S. oneidensis pathway in M. atlanticus was observed when inducing molecules were present during biofilm formation. Electron transfer was also reversible, indicating that electron transfer into M. atlanticus could be controlled. These results show that an operationally relevant marine bacterium can be genetically engineered for environmental sensing and response using an electrical signal.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Estes Bright LM, Garren MRS, Douglass M, et al (2023)

Synthesis and Characterization of Nitric Oxide-Releasing Ampicillin as a Potential Strategy for Combatting Bacterial Biofilm Formation.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm formation on biomaterial interfaces and the development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria have decreased the effectiveness of traditional antibiotic treatment of infections. In this project, ampicillin, a commonly used antibiotic, was conjugated with S-nitroso-N-acetylpenicillamine (SNAP), an S-nitrosothiol compound (RSNO) used for controlled nitric oxide (NO) release. This novel multifunctional molecule is the first of its kind to provide combined antibiotic and NO treatment of infectious pathogens. Characterization of the molecule included NMR, FTIR, and mass spectrometry. NO release behavior was also measured and compared to pure, unmodified SNAP. When evaluating the antimicrobial efficacy, the synthesized SNAPicillin molecule showed the lowest MIC value against Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus compared to ampicillin and SNAP alone. SNAPicillin also displayed enhanced biofilm dispersal and killing of both bacterial strains when treating a 48 h biofilm preformed on a polymer surface. The antibacterial results combined with the biocompatibility of the molecule show great promise for infection prevention and treatment of polymeric interfaces to reduce medical device-related infections.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Varma A, Warghane A, Dhiman NK, et al (2023)

The role of nanocomposites against biofilm infections in humans.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1104615.

The use of nanomaterials in several fields of science has undergone a revolution in the last few decades. It has been reported by the National Institutes of Health (NIH) that 65% and 80% of infections are accountable for at least 65% of human bacterial infections. One of their important applications in healthcare is the use of nanoparticles (NPs) to eradicate free-floating bacteria and those that form biofilms. A nanocomposite (NC) is a multiphase stable fabric with one or three dimensions that are much smaller than 100 nm, or systems with nanoscale repeat distances between the unique phases that make up the material. Using NC materials to get rid of germs is a more sophisticated and effective technique to destroy bacterial biofilms. These biofilms are refractory to standard antibiotics, mainly to chronic infections and non-healing wounds. Materials like graphene and chitosan can be utilized to make several forms of NCs, in addition to different metal oxides. The ability of NCs to address the issue of bacterial resistance is its main advantage over antibiotics. This review highlights the synthesis, characterization, and mechanism through which NCs disrupt Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial biofilms, and their relative benefits and drawbacks. There is an urgent need to develop materials like NCs with a larger spectrum of action due to the rising prevalence of human bacterial diseases that are multidrug-resistant and form biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Sterniša M, Gradišar Centa U, Drnovšek A, et al (2023)

Pseudomonas fragi biofilm on stainless steel (at low temperatures) affects the survival of Campylobacter jejuni and Listeria monocytogenes and their control by a polymer molybdenum oxide nanocomposite coating.

International journal of food microbiology, 394:110159 pii:S0168-1605(23)00075-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas spp. are widely distributed bacteria on surfaces in the food production and processing environment, where they form extracellular polymeric substance rich biofilms that interact with other bacteria. In this study, the influence of biofilm of Pseudomonas fragi ATCC 4973 on Listeria monocytogenes ATCC 19115 and Campylobacter jejuni NCTC 11168 was investigated at 5 °C and 15 °C on stainless steel in broth and food homogenates (fish or chicken meat). Stainless steel was then coated with PVDF-HFP/PVP/MoO3 nanocomposite and examined for surface changes (scanning electron microscope, static contact angle, Vickers hardness and elastic modulus). The effect of the prepared nanocomposite coating on P. fragi and on L. monocytogenes and C. jejuni was evaluated in mono- and co-culture. P. fragi produced more biofilm at 15 °C than at 5 °C, especially when food homogenates were used as growth media. Co-cultivation with pathogens did not affect biofilm production by P. fragi, but significant changes were observed in L. monocytogenes and C. jejuni, resulting in a decrease and increase, respectively, in the determined number of culturable biofilm cells. The first change was probably due to competition for the surface, and the second to the oxygen gradient. Stainless steel was then coated with a PVDF-HFP/PVP/MoO3 nanocomposite, which was characterised by lower roughness and higher wettability, but lower hardness compared to uncoated stainless steel. The prepared nanocoating showed bactericidal activity when tested in phosphate buffered saline. When used in food homogenates, a reduction of over 95 % in bacterial counts was observed. An abundant biofilm of P. fragi proved protective to L. monocytogenes and C. jejuni against the functionalised nanocomposite surface when tested in food homogenates. The control of spoilage Pseudomonas spp., which are common in the food production and processing environment, is important for reducing the contamination of food with spoilage bacteria and with pathogens such as L. monocytogenes and C. jejuni, which may be present in the same environment. The PVDF-HFP/PVP/MoO3 nanocomposite showed good potential for use as a coating for food contact surfaces, but possible migration of nanoparticles from the nanocomposite coating to food should be evaluated before its commercial use.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Diaz A, Dixit AR, Khodadad CL, et al (2023)

Biofilm formation is correlated with low nutrient and simulated microgravity conditions in a Burkholderia isolate from the ISS water processor assembly.

Biofilm, 5:100110.

The International Space Station (ISS) Water Processor Assembly (WPA) experiences intermittent dormancy in the WPA wastewater tank during water recycling events which promotes biofilm formation within the system. In this work we aimed to gain a deeper understanding of the impact of nutrient limitation on bacterial growth and biofilm formation under microgravity in support of biofilm mitigation efforts in exploration water recovery systems. A representative species of bacteria that is commonly cultured from the ISS WPA was cultured in an WPA influent water ersatz formulation tailored for microbiological studies. An isolate of Burkholderia contaminans was cultured under a simulated microgravity (SμG) treatment in a vertically rotating high-aspect rotating vessel (HARV) to create the low shear modeled microgravity (LSMMG) environment on a rotating wall vessel (RWV), with a rotating control (R) in the horizontal plane at the predetermined optimal rotation per minute (rpm) speed of 20. Over the course of the growth curve, the bacterial culture in ersatz media was harvested for bacterial counts, and transcriptomic and nutrient content analyses. The cultures under SμG treatment showed a transcriptomic signature indicative of nutrient stress and biofilm formation as compared to the R control treatment. Further analysis of the WPA ersatz over the course of the growth curve suggests that the essential nutrients of the media were consumed faster in the early stages of growth for the SμG treatment and thus approached a nutrient limited growth condition earlier than in the R control culture. The observed limited nutrient response may serve as one element to explain a moderate enhancement of adherent biofilm formation in the SμG treatment after 24 h. While nutrients levels can be modulated, one implication of this investigation is that biofilm mitigation in the ISS environment could benefit from methods such as mixing or the maintenance of minimum flow within a dormant water system in order to force convection and offset the response of microbes to the secondary effects of microgravity.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Ji C, Wang H, Cui H, et al (2023)

Characterization and evaluation of substratum material selection for microalgal biofilm cultivation.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm cultivation is considered a promising method to achieve higher microalgae biomass productivity with less water consumption and easier harvest compared to conventional suspended cultivation. However, studies focusing on the selection of substratum material and optimization of the growth of certain microalgae species on specific substratum are limited. This study investigated the selection of membranous and fabric fiber substrata for the attachment of unicellular microalgae Scenedesmus dimorphus and filamentous microalgae Tribonema minus in biofilm cultivation. The results indicated that both algal species preferred hydrophilic membranous substrata and nitrate cellulose/cellulose acetate membrane (CN-CA) was selected as a suitable candidate on which the obtained biomass yields were up to 10.24 and 7.81 g m[-2] day[-1] for S. dimorphus and T. minus, respectively. Furthermore, high-thread cotton fiber (HCF) and low-thread polyester fiber (LPEF) were verified as the potential fabric fiber substrata for S. dimorphus (5.42 g m[-2] day[-1]) and T. minus (5.49 g m[-2] day[-1]) attachment, respectively. The regrowth of microalgae biofilm cultivation strategy was applied to optimize the algae growth on the fabric fiber substrata, with higher biomass density and shear resistibility achieved for both algal species. The present data highlight the importance to establish the standards for selection the suitable substratum materials in ensuring the high efficiency and sustainability of the attached microalgal biomass production. KEY POINTS: • CN-CA was suitable membranous substratum candidate for algal biofilm cultivation. • HCF and LPEF were potential fabric fiber substrata for S. dimorphus and T. minus. • Regrowth biofilm cultivation was effective in improving algal biomass and attachment.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Yadav S, Tripathi S, Purchase D, et al (2023)

Development of a biofilm-forming bacterial consortium and quorum sensing molecules for the degradation of lignin-containing organic pollutants.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(23)00410-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Due to presence of lignin along with other pollutants makes effluent more complex which is discharged from Pulp and paper mills. The present study investigates the use of biofilm-forming bacteria isolated from pulp paper mill effluent contaminated sites (PPMECSs) for lignin degradation. Isolated biofilm-forming and lignin-degrading bacteria were identified as Bacillus subtilis, Enterobacter cancerogenus, and Bacillus licheniformis by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Thin liquid chromatography (TLC) analysis showed that the consortium of bacteria produced acyl-homoserine lactone (AHL) as quorum sensing molecules and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) that protect the bacterial consortium under unfavorable conditions. The potential consortium was able to reduce lignin (900 ppm) by 73% after 8 days of incubation in a minimal salt medium containing kraft lignin and glucose at pH 7.0 and 37 °C as compared to individual strains. The degradation by-products were identified as amides, alcohols, and acids. The major organic pollutants in the effluent were reduced after treatment of the constructed consortium, thus confirming active biotransformation and biodegradation of the lignin. Microscopic examination also indicated the presence of lignin induced biofilm formation. Hence, the constructed biofilm-forming bacterial consortia based on quorum sensing offered a sustainable and effective solution to treat lignin-containing complex pollutants.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Yang L, Pang S, Zhou J, et al (2023)

Biological Reduction and Hydrodechlorination of Chlorinated Nitroaromatic Antibiotic Chloramphenicol under H2-Transfer Membrane Biofilm Reactor.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)00307-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Chlorinated nitroaromatic antibiotic chloramphenicol (CAP) is a persistent pollutant that is widely present in environments. A H2 transfer membrane biofilm reactor (H2-MBfR) and short-term batch tests were setup to investigate the co-removal of CAP and NO- 3. Results showed that the presence of CAP (< 10 mg L[-1]) has no effect on the denitrification process while 100% removal efficiency of CAP can be obtained when nitrate was absent. Nitroaromatic reduction and completely dechlorination were successfully realized when CAP was removed. The CAP transformation product p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA) was detected and batch tests revealed that the hydroxy carboxylation was far faster than nitroaromatic reduction when p-nitrobenzyl alcohol (PNBOH) was conversed to p-aminobenzoic acid (PABA). The path way of CAP degradation was proposed based on the intermediate's analysis. Microbial community analysis indicated that Pleomorphomonadaceae accounts for the dechlorination of CAP.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Zeng X, Mo Z, Zheng J, et al (2023)

Effects of biofilm and co-culture with Bacillus velezensis on the synthesis of esters in the strong flavor Baijiu.

International journal of food microbiology, 394:110166 pii:S0168-1605(23)00082-X [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm plays an important role in resisting the adverse environment, improving the taste and texture, and promoting the synthesis of flavor substances. However, to date, the findings on the effect of biofilm and dominating bacteria Bacillus on the ester synthesis in the Baijiu field have been largely lacked. Therefore, the objectives of the present study were to primarily isolate biofilm-producing microbes in the fermented grains, evaluate the stress tolerance capacity, and unveil the effect of biofilm and co-culture with Bacillus on the ester synthesis in the strong flavor Baijiu. Results indicated that after isolation and evaluation of stress-tolerance capacity, bacterial strain BG-5 and yeast strains YM-21 and YL-10 were demonstrated as mediate or strong biofilm-producing microbes and were identified as Bacillus velezensis, Saccharomycopsis fibuligera, and Zygosaccharomyces bailii, respectively. Solid phase microextraction/gas chromatography-mass spectrometer indicated that biofilm could enhance the diversity of esters while reduce the contents of ester. The scanning electron microscopy showed an inhibitory effect of B. velezensis on the growth of S. fibuligera, further restraining the production of esters. Taken together, both biofilm and B. velezensis influence the ester synthesis process. The present study is the first to reveal the biofilm-producing microorganisms in fermented grains and to preliminarily investigate the effect of biofilm on the ester synthesis in the Baijiu field.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Al-Shamiri MM, Wang J, Zhang S, et al (2023)

Probiotic Lactobacillus Species and Their Biosurfactants Eliminate Acinetobacter baumannii Biofilm in Various Manners.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Acinetobacter baumannii is a critical biofilm-forming pathogen that has presented great challenges in the clinic due to multidrug resistance. Thus, new methods of intervention are needed to control biofilm-associated infections. In this study, among three tested Lactobacillus species, Lactobacillus rhamnosus showed significant antimaturation and antiadherence effects against A. baumannii biofilm. Lactic acid (LA) and acetic acid (AA) were the most effective antibiofilm biosurfactants (BSs) produced by L. rhamnosus. This antibiofilm phenomenon produced by LA and AA was due to the strong bactericidal effect, which worked from very early time points, as determined by colony enumeration and confocal laser scanning microscope. The cell destruction of A. baumannii appeared in both the cell envelope and cytoplasm. A discontinuous cell envelope, the leakage of cell contents, and the increased extracellular activity of ATPase demonstrated the disruption of the cell membrane by LA and AA. These effects also demonstrated the occurrence of protein lysis. In addition, bacterial DNA interacted with and was damaged by LA and AA, resulting in significantly reduced expression of biofilm and DNA repair genes. The results highlight the possibility and importance of using probiotics in clinical prevention. Probiotics can be utilized as novel biocides to block and decrease biofilm formation and microbial contamination in medical equipment and during the treatment of infections. IMPORTANCE A. baumannii biofilm is a significant virulence factor that causes the biofilm colonization of invasive illnesses. Rising bacterial resistance to synthetic antimicrobials has prompted researchers to look at natural alternatives, such as probiotics and their derivatives. In this study, L. rhamnosus and its BSs (LA and AA) demonstrated remarkable antibiofilm and antimicrobial characteristics, with a significant inhibitory effect on A. baumannii. These effects were achieved by several mechanisms, including the disruption of the cell envelope membrane, protein lysis, reduced expression of biofilm-related genes, and destruction of bacterial DNA. The results provide support for the possibility of using probiotics and their derivatives in the clinical prevention and therapy of A. baumannii infections.

RevDate: 2023-03-15
CmpDate: 2023-03-15

Nguyen Trang P, Thi Anh Ngoc T, Masuda Y, et al (2023)

Biofilm Formation From Listeria monocytogenes Isolated From Pangasius Fish-processing Plants.

Journal of food protection, 86(3):100044.

Biofilm formation of Listeria monocytogenes in food processing environments cause potential source of cross-contamination to foodstuffs; hence, the control of biofilm is currently addressed to find effective solutions for preventing biofilm formation or eliminating the established one. Forty-five strains of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from Pangasius fish-processing plants were studied for their capability to form a biofilm on 96-well microtiter plate by using the conventional crystal violet staining. Additionally, the inhibitory effect of biofilm formation by food additives including monascus pigment and ε-polylysine was examined. The average OD value showing biofilm mass of all 45 strains L. monocytogenes increased with an increasing temperature and time (p < 0.05). Monascus pigment and ε-polylysine significantly decreased biofilm formation by 80 ± 5.5% and 20 ± 5.9%, respectively, at the tested concentration (p < 0.05) Further, the effects of lysozyme (0.1 mg/mL) alone or in combination with slightly acidic hypochlorous water (SAHW) with 40 mg/L available chlorine or sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) with 100 mg/L available chlorine against 7-d established biofilm of L. monocytogenes were investigated. The results indicated that slightly acidic hypochlorous water alone exhibited significant antibacterial activity (p < 0.05), decreasing the viable count by 5.2 ± 0.5 log CFU/mL. It seems that sequential treatment of lysozyme and SAHW showed an additional efficacy against biofilm of L. monocytogenes on polystyrene plate surface, reducing 70% of biomass of biofilm and 7.6 ± 0.3 log of biofilm viable cells (p < 0.05). Additionally, SAHW exhibited greater bactericidal activity against viable biofilm cells than NaOCl did. This result reveals that SAHW is a promising disinfectant agent against L. monocytogenes and the potential alternative to NaOCl in practice.

RevDate: 2023-03-15
CmpDate: 2023-03-15

Bano N, Iqbal D, Al Othaim A, et al (2023)

Antibacterial efficacy of synthesized silver nanoparticles of Microbacterium proteolyticum LA2(R) and Streptomyces rochei LA2(O) against biofilm forming meningitis causing microbes.

Scientific reports, 13(1):4150.

Actinobacteria obtained from the least explored Indian regions were studied for their ability to suppress meningitis-causing bacteria in nanoparticle form. Drug-resistant bacteria and long-term treatment with different medications make meningitis control complicated. Thus, new meningitis drugs are required to combat MDR bacteria. In this study, secondary metabolites isolated from actinomycetes strains, Microbacterium proteolyticum LA2(R) and Streptomyces rochei LA2(O), were employed to synthesize silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) at 37 °C for seven days incubation. UV-Vis spectroscopy, TEM, FTIR, and HPLC studies were used for the confirmation of the synthesis of AgNPs. Furthermore, these NPs demonstrated antibacterial and antibiofilm activities against meningitis-causing bacteria. The average size of LA2(R) and LA2(O) isolated secondary metabolites mediated AgNPs was observed to be 27 ± 1and 29 ± 2 nm by TEM analysis. FTIR study of RAgNPs and OAgNPs revealed that presence of peaks with positions of 1637.17 cm[1] and 1636.10 cm[1] for C=O amide group appearances in the amide I linkage. These NPs were effective against bacterial pathogens such as S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and N. meningitidis and confirmed by their MICs, i.e., 109.4, 120.60, and 138.80 μg/ml of RAgNPs and 105.80, 114.40 and 129.06 μg/ml of OAgNPs, respectively. Additionally, the production of biofilms is impeded by these nanoparticles on S. pneumoniae, H. influenzae, and N. meningitidis by 73.14%, 71.89% and 64.81%, respectively. These findings confirm the potential role of synthesized AgNPs against biofilm forming meningitis causing Multidrug resistance (MDR) microbes.

RevDate: 2023-03-15
CmpDate: 2023-03-15

Wang D, Fletcher GC, Gagic D, et al (2023)

Comparative genome identification of accessory genes associated with strong biofilm formation in Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 166:112605.

Vibrio parahaemolyticus biofilms on the seafood processing plant surfaces are a potential source of seafood contamination and subsequent food poisoning. Strains differ in their ability to form biofilm, but little is known about the genetic characteristics responsible for biofilm development. In this study, pangenome and comparative genome analysis of V. parahaemolyticus strains reveals genetic attributes and gene repertoire that contribute to robust biofilm formation. The study identified 136 accessory genes that were exclusively present in strong biofilm forming strains and these were functionally assigned to the Gene Ontology (GO) pathways of cellulose biosynthesis, rhamnose metabolic and catabolic processes, UDP-glucose processes and O antigen biosynthesis (p < 0.05). Strategies of CRISPR-Cas defence and MSHA pilus-led attachment were implicated via Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) annotation. Higher levels of horizontal gene transfer (HGT) were inferred to confer more putatively novel properties on biofilm-forming V. parahaemolyticus. Furthermore, cellulose biosynthesis, a neglected potential virulence factor, was identified as being acquired from within the order Vibrionales. The cellulose synthase operons in V. parahaemolyticus were examined for their prevalence (22/138, 15.94 %) and were found to consist of the genes bcsG, bcsE, bcsQ, bcsA, bcsB, bcsZ, bcsC. This study provides insights into robust biofilm formation of V. parahaemolyticus at the genomic level and facilitates: identification of key attributes for robust biofilm formation, elucidation of biofilm formation mechanisms and development of potential targets for novel control strategies of persistent V. parahaemolyticus.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Rožman M, Lekunberri I, Grgić I, et al (2023)

Effects of combining flow intermittency and exposure to emerging contaminants on the composition and metabolic response of streambed biofilm bacterial communities.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01434-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Freshwater ecosystems are characterised by the co-occurrence of stressors that simultaneously affect the biota. Among these, flow intermittency and chemical pollution severely impair the diversity and functioning of streambed bacterial communities. Using an artificial streams mesocosm facility, this study examined how desiccation and pollution caused by emerging contaminants affect the composition of stream biofilm bacterial communities, their metabolic profiles, and interactions with their environment. Through integrative analysis of the composition of biofilm communities, characterization of their metabolome and composition of the dissolved organic matter, we found strong genotype-to-phenotype interconnections. The strongest correlation was found between the composition and metabolism of the bacterial community, both of which were influenced by incubation time and desiccation. Unexpectedly, no effect of the emerging contaminants was observed, which was due to the low concentration of the emerging contaminants and the dominant impact of desiccation. However, biofilm bacterial communities modified the chemical composition of their environment under the effect of pollution. Considering the tentatively identified classes of metabolites, we hypothesised that the biofilm response to desiccation was mainly intracellular while the response to chemical pollution was extracellular. The present study demonstrates that metabolite and dissolved organic matter profiling may be effectively integrated with compositional analysis of stream biofilm communities to yield a more complete picture of changes in response to stressors.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Bajaj A, Abutoama M, Isaacs S, et al (2023)

Biofilm growth monitoring using guided wave ultralong-range Surface Plasmon Resonance: A proof of concept.

Biosensors & bioelectronics, 228:115204 pii:S0956-5663(23)00146-X [Epub ahead of print].

Unwelcomed biofilms are problematic in food industries, surgical devices, marine applications, and wastewater treatment plants, essentially everywhere where there is moisture. Very recently, label-free advanced sensors such as localized and extended surface plasmon resonance (SPR) have been explored as tools for monitoring biofilm formation. However, conventional noble metal SPR substrates suffer from low penetration depth (100-300 nm) into the dielectric medium above the surface, preventing the reliable detection of large entities of single or multi-layered cell assemblies like biofilms which can grow up to a few micrometers or more. In this study, we propose using a plasmonic insulator-metal-insulator (IMI) structure (SiO2-Ag-SiO2) with a higher penetration depth based on a diverging beam single wavelength format of Kretschmann configuration in a portable SPR device. An SPR line detection algorithm for locating the reflectance minimum of the device helps to view changes in refractive index and accumulation of the biofilm in real-time down to 10[-7] RIU precision. The optimized IMI structure exhibits strong penetration dependence on wavelength and incidence angle. Within the plasmonic resonance, different angles penetrate different depths, showing a maximum near the critical angle. At the wavelength of 635 nm, a high penetration depth of more than 4 μm was obtained. Compared to a thin gold film substrate, for which the penetration depth is only ∼200 nm, the IMI substrate provides more reliable results. The average thickness of the biofilm after 24 h of growth was found to be between 6 and 7 μm with ∼63% live cell volume, as estimated from confocal microscopic images using an image processing tool. To explain this saturation thickness, a graded index biofilm structure is proposed in which the refractive index decreases with the distance from the interface. Furthermore, when plasma-assisted degeneration of biofilms was studied in a semi-real-time format, there was almost no effect on the IMI substrate compared to the gold substrate. The growth rate over the SiO2 surface was higher than on gold, possibly due to differences between surface charge effects. On the gold, the excited plasmon generates an oscillating cloud of electrons, while for the SiO2 case, this does not happen. This methodology can be utilized to detect and characterize biofilms with better signal reliability with respect to concentration and size dependence.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Yan X, Sun J, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Low-rate ferrate dosing damages the microbial biofilm structure through humic substances destruction and facilitates the sewer biofilm control.

Water research, 235:119834 pii:S0043-1354(23)00269-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The microbial activities in sewer biofilms are recognized as a major reason for sewer pipe corrosion, malodor, and greenhouse gas emissions. However, conventional methods to control sewer biofilm activities were based on the inhibitory or biocidal effect of chemicals and often required long exposure time or high dosing rates due to the protection of sewer biofilm structure. Therefore, this study attempt to use ferrate (Fe(VI)), a green and high-valent iron, at low dosing rates to damage the sewer biofilm structure so as to enhance sewer biofilm control efficiency. The results showed the biofilm structure started to crush when the Fe(VI) dosage was 15 mg Fe(VI)/L and the damage enhanced with the increasing dosage. The determination of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) showed that Fe(VI) treatment at 15-45 mgFe/L mainly decreased the content of humic substances (HS) in biofilm EPS. This is because the functional groups, such as C-O, -OH, and C=O, which held the large molecular structure of HS, were the primary target of Fe(VI) treatment as suggested by 2D-Fourier Transform Infrared spectra. As a result, the coiled chain of EPS maintained by HS was turned to extended and dispersed and consequently led to a loosed biofilm structure. The XDLVO analysis suggested that both the microbial interaction energy barrier and secondary energy minimum were increased after Fe(VI) treatment, suggesting that the treated biofilm was less likely to aggregate and easier to be removed by the shear stress caused by high wastewater flow. Moreover, combined Fe(VI) and free nitrous acid (FNA) dosing experiments showed for achieving 90% inactivation, the FNA dosing rate could be reduced by 90% with the exposure time decreasing by 75% at a low Fe(VI) dosing rate and the total cost was substantially decreased. These results suggested that applying low-rate Fe(VI) dosing for sewer biofilm structure destruction is expected to be an economical way to facilitate sewer biofilm control.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Bing J, Guan Z, Zheng T, et al (2023)

Clinical isolates of Candida auris with enhanced adherence and biofilm formation due to genomic amplification of ALS4.

PLoS pathogens, 19(3):e1011239 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-22-02201 [Epub ahead of print].

Candida auris is an emerging multidrug-resistant fungal pathogen and a new global threat to human health. A unique morphological feature of this fungus is its multicellular aggregating phenotype, which has been thought to be associated with defects in cell division. In this study, we report a new aggregating form of two clinical C. auris isolates with increased biofilm forming capacity due to enhanced adherence of adjacent cells and surfaces. Unlike the previously reported aggregating morphology, this new aggregating multicellular form of C. auris can become unicellular after treatment with proteinase K or trypsin. Genomic analysis demonstrated that amplification of the subtelomeric adhesin gene ALS4 is the reason behind the strain's enhanced adherence and biofilm forming capacities. Many clinical isolates of C. auris have variable copy numbers of ALS4, suggesting that this subtelomeric region exhibits instability. Global transcriptional profiling and quantitative real-time PCR assays indicated that genomic amplification of ALS4 results in a dramatic increase in overall levels of transcription. Compared to the previously characterized nonaggregative/yeast-form and aggregative-form strains of C. auris, this new Als4-mediated aggregative-form strain of C. auris displays several unique characteristics in terms of its biofilm formation, surface colonization, and virulence.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Ürer EK, Aslantaş Ö, Tek E, et al (2023)

Antimicrobial susceptibility and biofilm forming ability of staphylococci from subclinical buffalo mastitis.

The Journal of dairy research pii:S0022029923000080 [Epub ahead of print].

The starting objective of this research communication was to determine the prevalence of subclinical mastitis in buffalo in Turkey. We also seeked to isolate and identify staphylococci, determine their antimicrobial susceptibilities and biofilm-forming abilities as well as investigating the presence of biofilm-related genes and microbial surface components recognizing adhesive matrix molecules. A total of 107 (66.9%) staphylococci (28 S. aureus and 79 coagulase-negative staphylococci, CoNS) were isolated from 160 mastitic milk samples collected from 200 lactating water buffalos. The staphylococci were especially resistant to beta-lactams except for cefoxitin but were less resistant to the other antimicrobials that were tested. Based on the Congo red agar method, 92.9% of the S. aureus and 70.9% of the CoNS isolates were positive for biofilm-forming ability, while all S. aureus and 97.5% of CoNS isolates were positive by a microtiter plate analysis. The presence of icaA and icaD genes was not always correlated with biofilm synthesis, and even in the absence of these genes, the isolates were able to synthesize biofilm.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Fukushima S, Yamamoto K, Nakano Y, et al (2023)

Biofilm-associated candidal thrombophlebitis.

IDCases, 31:e01733.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Kim JY, Moon EC, Kim JY, et al (2023)

Lactobacillus helveticus HY7801 ameliorates bacterial vaginosis by inhibiting biofilm formation and epithelial cell adhesion of Gardnerella vaginalis.

Food science and biotechnology, 32(4):507-515.

UNLABELLED: Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is caused by a microbial imbalance in the vaginal ecosystem, which causes genital discomfort and a variety of potential complications in women. This study validated the potential of Lactobacillus helveticus HY7801 as a probiotic to benefit vaginal health. In vivo, HY7801 reduced the number of Gardnerella vaginalis (GV) and pro-inflammatory cytokines in the vagina of GV-induced BV mice and ameliorated vaginal histological changes. In vitro, HY7801 exhibited positive resistance to simulated gastrointestinal conditions, showed excellent adherence ability to the female genital epithelium, and had high lactic acid and H2O2 production capacity. Furthermore, it was found that HY7801 can alleviate BV because it can suppress the expression of virulence factor genes of GV involved in epithelial cell adhesion and biofilm formation along with antibacterial activity against GV. These results indicate that HY7801 can be used as a promising probiotic strain for the maintenance of a healthy vaginal physiological state.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: The online version contains supplementary material available at 10.1007/s10068-022-01208-7.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Fleeman RM, Mikesh M, BW Davies (2023)

Investigating Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm preservation for scanning electron microscopy.

Access microbiology, 5(2):.

Klebsiella pneumoniae biofilm formation is associated with chronic and relapsing infections. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) is a powerful tool for characterizing biofilm structure and studying their formation. Reliable visualization of biofilm structure requires careful sample preservation, otherwise there may be loss of non-covalent interactions that are susceptible to damage during the dehydration and washing preparation steps. However, no standard procedure has been adopted in the literature to fix K. pneumoniae biofilm for scanning electron microscopy studies. This lack of standardization makes it challenging to compare results between studies and determine the degree to which native structures have been preserved. To advance this critical area of study, we investigated different scanning electron microscopy fixation methods for K. pneumoniae biofilm preservation. Our study reveals the impact preparation steps can have on retaining in biofilm architecture observed using scanning electron microscopy. Using fixation methods developed through our studies, we show that although species that overproduce capsular extracellular polysaccharides produced more robust biofilms, K. pneumoniae can form a developed biofilm in the absence of capsular polysaccharides.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Mirzaei R, Esmaeili Gouvarchin Ghaleh H, R Ranjbar (2023)

Antibiofilm effect of melittin alone and in combination with conventional antibiotics toward strong biofilm of MDR-MRSA and -Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1030401.

INTRODUCTION: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens are being recognized as a critical threat to human health if they can form biofilm and, in this sense, biofilm-forming MDR-methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and -Pseudomonas aeruginosa strains are a worse concern. Hence, a growing body of documents has introduced antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as a substitute candidate for conventional antimicrobial agents against drug-resistant and biofilm-associated infections. We evaluated melittin's antibacterial and antibiofilm activity alone and/or in combination with gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, rifampin, and vancomycin on biofilm-forming MDR-P. aeruginosa and MDR-MRSA strains.

METHODS: Antibacterial tests [antibiogram, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC)], anti-biofilm tests [minimum biofilm inhibition concentration (MBIC), and minimum biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC)], as well as synergistic antibiofilm activity of melittin and antibiotics, were performed. Besides, the influence of melittin alone on the biofilm encoding genes and the cytotoxicity and hemolytic effects of melittin were examined.

RESULTS: MIC, MBC, MBIC, and MBEC indices for melittin were in the range of 0.625-5, 1.25-10, 2.5-20, and 10-40 μg/ml, respectively. The findings found that the combination of melittin AMP with antibiotics was synergistic and fractional biofilm inhibitory concentration index (FBICi) for most tested concentrations was <0.5, resulting in a significant reduction in melittin, gentamicin, ciprofloxacin, vancomycin, and rifampin concentrations by 2-256.4, 2-128, 2-16, 4-64 and 4-8 folds, respectively. This phenomenon reduced the toxicity of melittin, whereby its synergist concentration required for biofilm inhibition did not show cytotoxicity and hemolytic activity. Our findings found that melittin decreased the expression of icaA in S. aureus and LasR in P. aeruginosa genes from 0.1 to 4.11 fold for icaA, and 0.11 to 3.7 fold for LasR, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Overall, the results obtained from our study show that melittin alone is effective against the strong biofilm of MDR pathogens and also offers sound synergistic effects with antibiotics without toxicity. Hence, combining melittin and antibiotics can be a potential candidate for further evaluation of in vivo infections by MDR pathogens.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Cassin EK, Araujo-Hernandez SA, Baughn DS, et al (2023)

OprF impacts Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix eDNA levels in a nutrient-dependent manner.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.03.01.530729.

UNLABELLED: The biofilm matrix is composed of exopolysaccharides, eDNA, membrane vesicles, and proteins. While proteomic analyses have identified numerous matrix proteins, their functions in the biofilm remain understudied compared to the other biofilm components. In the Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm, several studies have identified OprF as an abundant matrix protein and, more specifically, as a component of biofilm membrane vesicles. OprF is a major outer membrane porin of P. aeruginosa cells. However, current data describing the effects of OprF in the P. aeruginosa biofilm is limited. Here we identify a nutrient-dependent effect of OprF in static biofilms, whereby Δ oprF cells form significantly less biofilm than wild type when grown in media containing glucose or low sodium chloride concentrations. Interestingly, this biofilm defect occurs during late static biofilm formation and is not dependent on the production of PQS, which is responsible for outer membrane vesicle production. Furthermore, while biofilms lacking OprF contain approximately 60% less total biomass than those of wild type, the number of cells in these two biofilms is equivalent. We demonstrate that P. aeruginosa Δ oprF biofilms with reduced biofilm biomass contain less eDNA than wild-type biofilms. These results suggest that the nutrient-dependent effect of OprF is involved in the maintenance of mature P. aeruginosa biofilms by retaining eDNA in the matrix.

IMPORTANCE: Many pathogens form biofilms, which are bacterial communities encased in an extracellular matrix that protects them against antibacterial treatments. The roles of several matrix components of the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been characterized. However, the effects of P. aeruginosa matrix proteins remain understudied and are untapped potential targets for antibiofilm treatments. Here we describe a conditional effect of the abundant matrix protein OprF on late-stage P. aeruginosa biofilms. A Δ oprF strain formed significantly less biofilm in low sodium chloride or with glucose. Interestingly, the defective Δ oprF biofilms did not exhibit fewer resident cells but contained significantly less extracellular DNA (eDNA) than wild type. These results suggest that OprF is involved in matrix eDNA retention in mature biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Hamad PA (2023)

Phenotypic and Molecular Detection of Biofilm Formation in Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated from Different Clinical Sources in Erbil City.

Mediterranean journal of hematology and infectious diseases, 15(1):e2023016.

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus is an important causative pathogen. The production of biofilms is an important factor and makes these bacteria resistant to antimicrobial therapy.

OBJECTIVES: the current study aimed to assess the prevalence of resistance to antibacterial agents and to evaluate the phenotypic and genotypic characterization of biofilm formation among S. aureus strains.

METHODS: This study included 50 isolates of Methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) and Methicillin-Susceptible S. aureus (MSSA). S. aureus was identified by molecular and conventional methods, and antimicrobial resistance was tested with a disc diffusion method. The biofilm formation was performed through the Microtiter plate method. Strains were subjected to PCR to determine the presence of nuc, mecA, icaA, icaB, icaC, and icaD genes.

RESULTS: Of the 50 S. aureus isolates, 32(64%) and 18(36%) were MRSA and MSSA, respectively. A large number of MRSA and MSSA isolates showed resistance to Penicillin and Azithromycin, and a lower number of MRSA and MSSA isolates showed resistance to Amikacin Gentamicin. None of the isolates was resistant to Vancomycin. The MRSA strains had significantly higher resistance against antibiotics than MSSA strains (P = 0.0154). All isolates (MRSA and MSSA) were able to produce biofilm with levels ranging from strong (31.25 %), (16.6%) to moderate (53.12%), (50%) to weak (15.6%), (33.3%) respectively. The MRSA strains had a significantly higher biofilm formation ability than the MSSA strains (P = 0.0079). The biofilm-encoding genes were detected among isolates with different frequencies. The majority of S. aureus isolates, 42 (84%), were positive for the icaA. The prevalence rates of the icaB, icaC and icaD genes were found to be 37 (74%), 40 (80%) and 41 (82%), respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The prevalence of biofilm encoding genes associated with multidrug resistance in S. aureus strains is high. Therefore, identifying epidemiology, molecular characteristics, and biofilm management of S. aureus infection would be helpful.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Maurya A, Kumar R, A Raj (2023)

Biofilm-based technology for industrial wastewater treatment: current technology, applications and future perspectives.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 39(5):112.

The microbial community in biofilm is safeguarded from the action of toxic chemicals, antimicrobial compounds, and harsh/stressful environmental circumstances. Therefore, biofilm-based technology has nowadays become a successful alternative for treating industrial wastewater as compared to suspended growth-based technologies. In biofilm reactors, microbial cells are attached to static or free-moving materials to form a biofilm which facilitates the process of liquid and solid separation in biofilm-mediated operations. This paper aims to review the state-of-the-art of recent research on bacterial biofilm in industrial wastewater treatment including biofilm fundamentals, possible applications and problems, and factors to regulate biofilm formation. We discussed in detail the treatment efficiencies of fluidized bed biofilm reactor (FBBR), trickling filter reactor (TFR), rotating biological contactor (RBC), membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), and moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) for different types of industrial wastewater treatment. Besides, biofilms have many applications in food and agriculture, biofuel and bioenergy production, power generation, and plastic degradation. Furthermore, key factors for regulating biofilm formation were also emphasized. In conclusion, industrial applications make evident that biofilm-based treatment technology is impactful for pollutant removal. Future research to address and improve the limitations of biofilm-based technology in wastewater treatment is also discussed.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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An examination of the research and translational application to prevent and treat biofilm-associated diseases In the decade since the first edition of Microbial Biofilms was published, the interest in this field has expanded, spurring breakthrough research that has advanced the treatment of biofilm-associated diseases. This second edition takes the reader on an exciting, extensive review of bacterial and fungal biofilms, ranging from basic molecular interactions to innovative therapies, with particular emphasis on the division of labor in biofilms, new approaches to combat the threat of microbial biofilms, and how biofilms evade the host defense.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )