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28 Feb 2021 at 01:34
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Bibliography on: Biofilm


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 28 Feb 2021 at 01:34 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: biofilm[title] NOT 28392838[PMID] NOT 31293528[PMID] NOT 29372251[PMID] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-02-27

Qiao Y, Jia R, Luo Y, et al (2021)

The inhibitory effect of Ulva fasciata on culturability, motility, and biofilm formation of Vibrio parahaemolyticus ATCC17802.

International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The outbreak of vibriosis from Vibrio parahaemolyticus (V. parahaemolyticus) is one of common pathogenic diseases found in the mariculture environment. In this study, the inhibitory effect of Ulva fasciata (U. fasciata) on the culturability, motility, and biofilm formation of V. parahaemolyticus ATCC17802 was examined by co-culturing system. Results showed that both of secretion and live tissue of U. fasciata could convert culturable V. parahaemolyticus ATCC17802 to non-culturable, both reaching more than 99% of inhibition rate after 3-day co-culture, and higher density (12 g L-1) of U. fasciata exhibited stronger inhibition. The twitching behavior of V. parahaemolyticus ATCC17802 was more easily affected by U. fasciata than the swimming behavior after 3-day co-culture, with the inhibitory rates varying at the ranges of 1.70-30.29% (twitching behavior) and 10.06-44.86% (swimming behavior) under the different environmental factors (salinity, NO3--N and PO43--P concentrations), but no significant correlation was found. The greatest inhibition effect on V. parahaemolyticus ATCC17802 biofilm formation occurred at 12 h, with inhibition rates at the range of 11.03-67.10 %, while there was still no significant correlation between inhibition rate and the three environmental factors. The different environmental factors might induce U. fasciata to excrete different levels of secondary metabolites, which caused the various inhibitory effect on the cultivability, motility, and biofilm formation of V. parahaemolyticus ATCC17802.

RevDate: 2021-02-27

Matsumoto A, Koga R, Kanaly RA, et al (2021)

Identification of a diguanylate cyclase that facilitates biofilm formation on electrodes by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.00201-21 [Epub ahead of print].

In many bacteria, cyclic diguanosine monophosphate (c-di-GMP), synthesized by diguanylate cyclase (DGC), serves as a second messenger involved in the regulation of biofilm formation. Although studies have suggested that c-di-GMP also regulates the formation of electrochemically active biofilms (EABFs) by Shewanella oneidensis MR-1, DGCs involved in this process remained to be identified. Here we report that the SO_1646 gene, hereafter named dgcS, is upregulated under medium-flow conditions in electrochemical flow cells (EFCs), and its product (DgcS) functions as a major DGC in MR-1. In vitro assays demonstrated that purified DgcS catalyzed the synthesis of c-di-GMP from GTP. Comparisons of intracellular c-di-GMP levels in the wild-type strain and a dgcS-deletion mutant (ΔdgcS) showed that production of c-di-GMP was markedly reduced in ΔdgcS when cells were grown in batch cultures and on electrodes in EFCs. Cultivation of ΔdgcS in EFCs also revealed that the loss of DgcS resulted in impaired biofilm formation and decreased current generation. These findings demonstrate that MR-1 uses DgcS to synthesize c-di-GMP under medium-flow conditions, thereby activating biofilm formation on electrodes.IMPORTANCEBioelectrochemical systems (BESs) have attracted wide attention owing to their utility in sustainable biotechnology processes, such as microbial fuel cells and electro-fermentation systems. In BESs, electrochemically active bacteria (EAB) form biofilms on electrode surfaces, thereby serving as effective catalysts for the interconversion between chemical and electric energy. It is therefore important to understand mechanisms for the formation of biofilm by EAB grown on electrodes. Here we show that a model EAB, S. oneidensis MR-1, expresses DgcS as a major DGC, thereby activating the formation of biofilms on electrodes via c-di-GMP-dependent signal transduction cascades. The findings presented herein provide the molecular basis for improving electrochemical interactions between EAB and electrodes in BESs. The results also offer molecular insights into how Shewanella regulates biofilm formation on solid surfaces in the natural environment.

RevDate: 2021-02-26

di Biase A, Kowalski MS, Devlin TR, et al (2021)

Modeling of the attached and suspended biomass fractions in a moving bed biofilm reactor.

Chemosphere, 275:129937 pii:S0045-6535(21)00406-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The performance, kinetics, and stoichiometry of three high-rate moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs) were evaluated. A constant surface area loading rate (SALR) and three different hydraulic retention times (HRTs) were utilized to create scenarios where the attached and suspended biomass fractions would differentiate, despite the main design parameter remaining constant. Performance was simulated using BioWin™ 6.0 software. The objective was to evaluate whether a calibrated/validated model could accurately predict experimental results. Initially, a sensitivity analysis was performed to determine influential parameters. The calibration/validation of influential parameters was then conducted via steady-state simulations for two base cases: 1) highest HRT; and 2) lowest HRT. Both sets of calibrated/validated parameters were substantiated using: 1) steady-state simulations at the other HRTs; and 2) dynamic simulations to evaluate the kinetic rates of attached and suspended biomass fractions at all HRTs. Results demonstrated that the model could be calibrated/validated for a single HRT, but could not accurately predict the performance, kinetics, or stoichiometry at other HRTs.

RevDate: 2021-02-26

Dong Y, Wang L, Yuan K, et al (2021)

Magnetic Microswarm Composed of Porous Nanocatalysts for Targeted Elimination of Biofilm Occlusion.

ACS nano [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm is difficult to thoroughly cure with conventional antibiotics due to the high mechanical stability and antimicrobial barrier resulting from extracellular polymeric substances. Encouraged by the great potential of magnetic micro-/nanorobots in various fields and their enhanced action in swarm form, we designed a magnetic microswarm consisting of porous Fe3O4 mesoparticles (p-Fe3O4 MPs) and explored its application in biofilm disruption. Here, the p-Fe3O4 MPs microswarm (p-Fe3O4 swarm) was generated and actuated by a simple rotating magnetic field, which exhibited the capability of remote actuation, high cargo capacity, and strong localized convections. Notably, the p-Fe3O4 swarm could eliminate biofilms with high efficiency due to synergistic effects of chemical and physical processes: (i) generating bactericidal free radicals (•OH) for killing bacteria cells and degrading the biofilm by p-Fe3O4 MPs; (ii) physically disrupting the biofilm and promoting •OH penetration deep into biofilms by the swarm motion. As a demonstration of targeted treatment, the p-Fe3O4 swarm could be actuated to clear the biofilm along the geometrical route on a 2D surface and sweep away biofilm clogs in a 3D U-shaped tube. This designed microswarm platform holds great potential in treating biofilm occlusions particularly inside the tiny and tortuous cavities of medical and industrial settings.

RevDate: 2021-02-26

Berlec A, Janež N, Sterniša M, et al (2021)

Expression of NanoLuc Luciferase in Listeria innocua for Development of Biofilm Assay.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:636421.

Studies of biofilm formation by bacteria are crucial for understanding bacterial resistance and for development of novel antibacterial strategies. We have developed a new bioluminescence biofilm assay for Listeria innocua, which is considered a non-pathogenic surrogate for Listeria monocytogenes. L. innocua was transformed with a plasmid for inducible expression of NanoLuc luciferase (Nluc). Concentration-dependent bioluminescence signals were obtained over a concentration range of more than three log units. This biofilm assay enables absolute quantification of bacterial cells, with the necessary validation. For biofilm detection and quantification, this "Nluc bioluminescence" method has sensitivity of 1.0 × 104 and 3.0 × 104 colony forming units (CFU)/mL, respectively, with a dynamic range of 1.0 × 104 to 5.0 × 107 CFU/mL. These are accompanied by good precision (coefficient of variation, <8%) and acceptable accuracy (relative error for most samples, <15%). This novel method was applied to assess temporal biofilm formation of L. innocua as a function of concentration of inoculant, in comparison with conventional plating and CFU counting, the crystal violet assay, and the resazurin fluorescence assay. Good correlation (r = 0.9684) of this Nluc bioluminescence assay was obtained with CFU counting. The limitations of this Nluc bioluminescence assay include genetic engineering of bacteria and relatively high cost, while the advantages include direct detection, absolute cell quantification, broad dynamic range, low time requirement, and high sensitivity. Nluc-based detection of L. innocua should therefore be considered as a viable alternative or a complement to existing methods.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Xing F, Xi H, Yu Y, et al (2021)

Anode biofilm influence on the toxic response of microbial fuel cells under different operating conditions.

The Science of the total environment, 775:145048 pii:S0048-9697(21)00114-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The response of microorganisms in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) to toxic compounds under different operating conditions, such as flow rate and culture time, was investigated herein. While it has been reported that MFCs can detect some toxic substances, it is unclear if operating conditions affect MFCs toxicity response. In this study, the toxic response time of MFCs decreased when the flow rate increased from 0.5 mL/min to 2 mL/min and then increased with 5 mL/min. The inhibition rates at 0.5 mL/min, 2 mL/min, and 5 mL/min were 8.4% ± 1.6%, 45.1% ± 5.3%, and 4.9% ± 0.3%, respectively. With the increase of culture time from 7 days to 90 days, the toxic response time of MFCs gradually increased. The inhibition rates at culture times of 7 days, 45 days, and 90 days were 45.1% ± 5.3%, 32.6% ± 6.6%, and 23.2% ± 1.3%, respectively. Increasing the culture time will reduce the sensitivity of MFC. The results showed that MFCs can respond quickly at a flow rate of 2 mL/min after cultivation for 7 days. Under these conditions, the power density can reach 1137.0 ± 65.5 mW/m2, the relative content of Geobacter sp. is 57%, and the ORP of the multilayers changed from -159.2 ± 1.6 mV to -269.9 ± 1.7 mV within 200 μm biofilm thickness. These findings show that increasing the flow rate and shortening the culture time are conducive for the toxicity response of MFCs, which will increase the sensitivity of MFCs in practical applications.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

M W, I T (2021)

The hospital built environment - biofilm, biodiversity and bias.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Silva NBS, de Andrade Marques L, D von Dolinger de Brito Röder (2021)

Diagnosis of biofilm infections: current methods used, challenges and perspectives for the future.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The diagnosis of biofilms continues to be a challenge, and there is no standardized protocol for such a diagnosis in clinical practice. In addition, some proposed methodologies are expensive to require significant amounts of time and a high number of trained staff, making them impracticable for clinical practice. In recent years, mass spectrophotometry/MALDI-TOF has been applied it in biofilm studies. However, due to several problems and limitations of the technique, MALDI-TOF is far from being the gold standard for identifying biofilm formation. The omics analysis may prove to be a promising strategy for the diagnosis of biofilms in clinical laboratories since it allows the identification of pathogens in less time than needed for conventional techniques and in a more specific manner. However, omic tools are expensive and require qualified technical expertise and an analysis of the data obtained needs to be careful not to neglect sub-populations in the biofilm. More studies must therefore be developed for creating a protocol that guarantees rapid biofilm identification, ensuring greater chances of success in infection control. This review discusses the current methods of microbial biofilm detection and future perspectives for its diagnosis in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2021-02-25

Vincent-Bugnas S, Borsa L, Gruss A, et al (2021)

Prioritization of predisposing factors of gingival hyperplasia during orthodontic treatment: the role of amount of biofilm.

BMC oral health, 21(1):84.

BACKGROUND: The mechanism of gingival growth that may occur during fixed orthodontic treatment is not yet fully understood and the amount of dental plaque is often incriminated. The objective of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of gingival growth during multi-attachment orthodontic treatment and to prioritize its predicting factors, especially the quantity of biofilm.

METHODS: This comprehensive cross-sectional descriptive study was conducted on orthodontic patients aged 9 to 30 years, in good health, treated by a fixed appliance. Periodontal clinical parameters such as plaque index, gingival index, probing pocket depth, periodontal phenotype and gingival enhancement index were recorded. Likewise, the brushing habits and the date of the last scaling were noted. The orthodontic parameters studied were the duration of the treatment, the type of bracket, the alloys used for the arches and the type of ligatures. Descriptive statistics were carried out, and variables presenting p value < 0.25 were included in a multivariate analysis to calculate the Odds Ratio (OR) of gingival enlargement".

RESULTS: A total of 193 patients were included (16.38 ± 4.89 years). Gingival growth occurred for 49.7% of patients included. The predisposing factors for this pathology during fixed orthodontic treatment were conventional metal brackets (p = 0.021), mouth breathing (p = 0.040), male gender (p = 0.035), thick periodontal phenotype (p = 0.043), elastomeric ligations (p = 0.007), duration of treatment (p = 0.022) and presence of plaque (p = 0.004). After achievement of the logistic regression, only two factors remained related to gingival enlargement: metallic brackets (OR: 3.5, 95% CI: 1.1-10.55) and duration of treatment (OR: 2.03, 95% CI: 1.01-4.08). The amount of plaque would not be directly related to the development of gingival increase during orthodontic treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Among the predisposing factors that underlie gingival growth during multi-attachment therapy, the amount of plaque is not found. The qualitative assessment of the plaque and its evolution during treatment could clarify the role of the biofilm in the occurrence of gingival overgrowth.

RevDate: 2021-02-24

Sriwiriyarat T, S Kuhakaew (2021)

Effects of cations on biofilm formation and characteristics in integrated fixed film activated sludge process at different carbon and nitrogen loadings.

Chemosphere, 275:130002 pii:S0045-6535(21)00471-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Both divalent cations including calcium and magnesium play important roles for microbial aggregates in binding to negatively charged functional groups on bacterial surfaces, in extracellular polymeric substances (EPS), and on inorganic materials in flocs and biofilms. Monovalent cations such as sodium and potassium deteriorate the floc structure and physical properties. The Integrated Fixed Activated Sludge (IFAS) process employs fixed film media in the aerobic zone; therefore, both monovalent and divalent cations are involved in the process performances. In this study, the effects of cations indicated as the monovalent to divalent cations (M/D) ratio on the biofilm formation and characteristics, and on the IFAS performances for carbon and ammonium removals were evaluated. The experiments were conducted in three IFAS systems feeding with the same wastewater but different M/D ratios and two carbon and nitrogen loadings. The findings revealed that high monovalent with low divalent cations at the M/D ratios higher than 2.0 produced excessive polysaccharides in EPS resulting in high viscosity of activated sludge flocs causing viscous bulking with high SVI values, decreasing the biofilm formation, and increasing the biofilm sloughing. Increasing of both monovalent and carbon loading increased more polysaccharides in the EPS leading to the failures of IFAS system. Nitrification failed at higher M/D ratios because of less nitrifiers in flocs and biofilm. The M/D ratio less than 2.0 is suggested to minimize the excessive EPS production in the IFAS system, especially at high organic loading.

RevDate: 2021-02-24

Khan MF, CD Murphy (2021)

3-Hydroxytyrosol regulates biofilm growth in Cunninghamella elegans.

Fungal biology, 125(3):211-217.

In contrast to yeast biofilms, those of filamentous fungi are relatively poorly understood, in particular with respect to their regulation. Cunninghamella elegans is a filamentous fungus that is of biotechnological interest as it catabolises drugs and other xenobiotics in an analogous manner to animals; furthermore, it can grow as a biofilm enabling repeated batch biotransformations. Precisely how the fungus switches from planktonic to biofilm growth is unknown and the aim of this study was to shed light on the possible mechanism of biofilm regulation. In dimorphic yeasts, alcohols such as tyrosol and 2-phenylethanol are known to control the yeast-to-hypha switch, and a similar molecule might be involved in regulating biofilm in C. elegans. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of crude ethyl acetate extracts from supernatants of 72 h planktonic and biofilm cultures revealed 3-hydroxytyrosol as a prominent metabolite. Further quantification revealed that the amounts of the compound in planktonic cultures were substantially higher (>10-fold) than in biofilm cultures. In the presence of exogenous 3-hydroxytyrosol the growth of aerial mycelium was inhibited, and there was selective inhibition of biofilm when it was added to culture medium. There was no biotransformation of the compound when it was added to 72 h-old cultures, in contrast to the related compounds tyrosol and 2-phenylethanol, which were oxidised to a number of products. Therefore, we propose that 3-hydroxytyrosol is a new signalling molecule in fungi, which regulates biofilm growth.

RevDate: 2021-02-23

Tkachenko AG, Kashevarova NM, Sidorov RY, et al (2021)

A synthetic diterpene analogue inhibits mycobacterial persistence and biofilm formation by targeting (p)ppGpp synthetases.

Cell chemical biology pii:S2451-9456(21)00044-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial persistence coupled with biofilm formation is directly associated with failure of antibiotic treatment of tuberculosis. We have now identified 4-(4,7-DiMethyl-1,2,3,4-tetrahydroNaphthalene-1-yl)Pentanoic acid (DMNP), a synthetic diterpene analogue, as a lead compound that was capable of suppressing persistence and eradicating biofilms in Mycobacterium smegmatis. By using two reciprocal experimental approaches - ΔrelMsm and ΔrelZ gene knockout mutations versus relMsm and relZ overexpression technique - we showed that both RelMsm and RelZ (p)ppGpp synthetases are plausible candidates for serving as targets for DMNP. In vitro, DMNP inhibited (p)ppGpp-synthesizing activity of purified RelMsm in a concentration-dependent manner. These findings, supplemented by molecular docking simulation, suggest that DMNP targets the structural sites shared by RelMsm, RelZ, and presumably by a few others as yet unidentified (p)ppGpp producers, thereby inhibiting persister cell formation and eradicating biofilms. Therefore, DMNP may serve as a promising lead for development of antimycobacterial drugs.

RevDate: 2021-02-23

Püning C, Su Y, Lu X, et al (2021)

Molecular Mechanisms of Campylobacter Biofilm Formation and Quorum Sensing.

Current topics in microbiology and immunology, 431:293-319.

Even though Campylobacter spp. are known to be fastidious organisms, they can survive within the natural environment. One mechanism to withstand unfavourable conditions is the formation of biofilms, a multicellular structure composed of different bacterial and other microbial species which are embedded in an extracellular matrix. High oxygen levels, low substrate concentrations and the presence of external DNA stimulate the biofilm formation by C. jejuni. These external factors trigger internal adaptation processes, e.g. via regulating the expression of genes encoding proteins required for surface structure formation, as well as motility, stress response and antimicrobial resistance. Known genes impacting biofilm formation will be summarized in this review. The formation of biofilms as well as the expression of virulence genes is often regulated in a cell density depending manner by quorum sensing, which is mediated via small signalling molecules termed autoinducers. Even though quorum sensing mechanisms of other bacteria are well understood, knowledge on the role of these mechanisms in C. jejuni biofilm formation is still scarce. The LuxS enzyme involved in generation of autoinducer-2 is present in C. jejuni, but autoinducer receptors have not been identified so far. Phenotypes of C. jejuni strains lacking a functional luxS like reduced growth, motility, oxygen stress tolerance, biofilm formation, adhesion, invasion and colonization are also summarized within this chapter. However, these phenotypes are highly variable in distinct C. jejuni strains and depend on the culture conditions applied.

RevDate: 2021-02-23

Harada AMM, MS Nascimento (2021)

Effect of dry sanitizing methods on Bacillus cereus biofilm.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

Bacillus cereus is a relevant foodborne pathogen and biofilm producer which can contaminate and persist in the processing environment of both high and low water activity foods. Because of this, it is crucial to understand better the resistance of this pathogen biofilm to different sanitation methods. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of dry sanitizing treatments against B. cereus biofilm formed on stainless steel (SS) and polypropylene (PP). Biofilm formation was held through the static method at 25 °C. After 4 days of incubation, coupons were exposed for up to 30 min to UV-C light, dry heat, gaseous ozone, 70% ethanol, and a commercial sanitizer. Sodium hypochlorite (200 mg/l) was also tested in two different pH values (7 and 11) for comparison purposes. In general, the surface material did not influence (p > 0.05) the performance of the treatments. From 10 min of exposure, 70% ethanol and the commercial product caused the lowest reductions on both surfaces. In addition, dry heat exhibited a poor performance on PP, with reductions < 1 log CFU/cm2. UV-C light on SS and PP and ozone on PP achieved reductions around 2 log CFU/cm2 after 30 min. The same level of reduction was obtained after 5 or 10 min using sodium hypochlorite (200 mg/l). Therefore, the results showed that dry sanitizing methods are not as effective as sodium hypochlorite against B. cereus biofilms. Further studies to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of dry methods are necessary.

RevDate: 2021-02-23

Villa-García LD, Márquez-Preciado R, Ortiz-Magdaleno M, et al (2021)

Antimicrobial effect of gold nanoparticles in the formation of the Staphylococcus aureus biofilm on a polyethylene surface.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

The main of this study was to evaluate the inhibitory effect on the in vitro formation of the Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formed on a polyethylene (PE) surface with a nanostructured Gold (Au) coating for medical devices. An experimental in vitro study was carried out using PE discs with an Au nanoparticle coating (AuNPs) on one side (experimental group) and without coating on the other (control group); the discs were mounted in the CDC biofilm reactor adding broth of yeast-dextrose-peptone (YPD) sterile culture inoculated with S. aureus in a cell suspension (5 × 108 cells/ml). The specimens were evaluated at different times (6, 12, 24, 48, 72 h) and stained with the Live/Dead Bacterial Viability Kit (Invitrogen) for observation, analysis, and quantification with confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results showed that as evaluation time passed an increasing of S. aureus biofilm formation was observed in the control group, in the experimental group, a statistically significant biofilm inhibition was observed with respect to the AuNPs uncoated specimens (p ≤ 0.05) and showed a ratio of almost 4:1 viable/nonviable in the biofilm of the uncoated surfaces, with a difference > 5 Log10 in the CFU counts. The PE with AuNP coating showed an inhibitory effect on the biofilm formation of S. aureus.

RevDate: 2021-02-23

Kniha K, Heussen N, Modabber A, et al (2021)

The effect of zirconia and titanium surfaces on biofilm formation and on host-derived immunological parameters.

International journal of oral and maxillofacial surgery pii:S0901-5027(21)00040-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The aim of this study was to analyse the effect of zirconia and titanium surfaces on biofilm formation and host-derived parameters. Studies comparing zirconia and titanium surfaces were selected up to September 1, 2019. The outcome measures were surface roughness, contact angle, bacterial count, bacterial adherence, biofilm thickness, bacterial distribution, and specifically investigated biofilm and specific host-derived immunological parameters. Random-effects meta-analyses of in vitro and in vivo studies were conducted. A total of 39 studies were included for data extraction. In the systematic review data, 10 studies stated that zirconia accumulated less initial oral biofilm parameters, 16 investigations showed negligible inter-material differences, and only one study showed that zirconia attracted the most biofilm. However, in the meta-analysis, the bacterial coverage was found to be significantly superior for zirconia surfaces (P< 0.00001); the other outcome measures did not show any statistically significant differences between zirconia and titanium for the remaining parameters and the studies presented a substantial degree of heterogeneity. Overall, on the basis of the meta-analysis, the current data situation does not allow a clear preference for the use of zirconia or titanium.

RevDate: 2021-02-23

Li P, Gao Z, Tan Z, et al (2021)

New developments in anti-biofilm intervention towards effective management of orthopedic device related infections (ODRI's).

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Orthopedic device related infections (ODRI's) represent a difficult to treat situation owing to their biofilm based nature. Biofilm infections once established are difficult to eradicate even with an aggressive treatment regimen due to their recalcitrance towards antibiotics and immune attack. The involvement of antibiotic resistant pathogens as the etiological agent further worsens the overall clinical picture, pressing on the need to look into alternative treatment strategies. The present review highlightes the microbiological challenges associated with treatment of ODRI's due to biofilm formation on the implant surface. Further, it details the newer anti-infective modalities that work either by preventing biofilm formation and/or through effective disruption of the mature biofilms formed on the medical implant. The study, therefore aims to provide a comprehensive insight into the newer anti-biofilm interventions (non-antibiotic approaches) and a better understanding of their mechanism of action essential for improved management of orthopedic implant infections.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Scarabotti F, Rago L, Bühler K, et al (2021)

The electrode potential determines the yield coefficients of early-stage Geobacter sulfurreducens biofilm anodes.

Bioelectrochemistry (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 140:107752 pii:S1567-5394(21)00015-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Geobacter sulfurreducens is the model for electroactive microorganisms (EAM). EAM can use solid state terminal electron acceptors (TEA) including anodes via extracellular electron transfer (EET). Yield coefficients relate the produced cell number or biomass to the oxidized substrate or the reduced TEA. These data are not yet sufficiently available for EAM growing at anodes. Thus, this study provides information about kinetics as well as yield coefficients of early-stage G. sulfurreducens biofilms using anodes as TEA at the potentials of -200 mV, 0 mV and +200 mV (vs. Ag/AgCl sat. KCl). The selected microorganism was therefore cultivated in single and double chamber batch reactors on graphite or AuPd anodes. Interestingly, whereas the lag time and maximum current density within 12 days of growth differed, the anode potential does not influence the coulombic efficiency and the formal potential of the EET, which remains constant for all the experiments at ~ -300 to -350 mV. We demonstrated for the first time that the anode potential has a strong influence on single cell yield coefficients which ranged from 2.69 × 1012 cells mole--1 at -200 mV and 1.48 × 1012 cells mole--1 at 0 mV to 2.58 × 1011 cells mole--1 at +200 mV in single chamber reactors and from 1.15 × 1012 cells mole--1 at -200 mV to 8.98× 1011 cells mole--1 at 0 mV in double chamber reactors. This data can be useful for optimization and scaling-up of primary microbial electrochemical technologies.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Pu Y, Pan J, Yao Y, et al (2021)

Ecotoxicological effects of erythromycin on a multispecies biofilm model, revealed by metagenomic and metabolomic approaches.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 276:116737 pii:S0269-7491(21)00317-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The presence of antibiotics such as erythromycin, even in trace amounts, has long been acknowledged for negatively impacting ecosystems in freshwater environments. Although many studies have focused on the impact of antibiotic pollution at a macroecological level, the impact of erythromycin on microecosystems, such as freshwater biofilms, is still not fully understood. This knowledge gap may be attributed to the lack of robust multispecies biofilm models for fundamental investigations. Here, we used a lab-cultured multispecies biofilm model to elucidate the holistic response of a microbial community to erythromycin exposure using metagenomic and metabolomic approaches. Metagenomic analyses revealed that biofilm microbial diversity did not alter following erythromycin exposure. Notably, certain predicted metabolic pathways such as cell-cell communication pathways, amino acid metabolism, and peptidoglycan biosynthesis, mainly by the phyla Actinobacteria, Alpha/Beta-proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, and Verrucomicrobia, were found to be involved in the maintenance of homeostasis-like balance in the freshwater biofilm. Further untargeted metabolomics data highlighted changes in lipid metabolism and linoleic acid metabolism and their related molecules as a direct consequence of erythromycin exposure. Overall, the study presented a unique picture of how multispecies biofilms respond to single environmental stress exposures. Moreover, the study demonstrated the feasibility of using lab simulated multispecies biofilms for investigating their interaction and reactivity of specific bioactive compounds or pollutants at a fundamental level.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Mea HJ, Yong PVC, EH Wong (2021)

An overview of Acinetobacter baumannii pathogenesis: Motility, adherence and biofilm formation.

Microbiological research, 247:126722 pii:S0944-5013(21)00028-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen Acinetobacter baumannii has gain notoriety in recent decades, primarily due to its propensity to cause nosocomial infections in critically ill patients. Its global spread, multi-drug resistance features and plethora of virulence factors make it a serious threat to public health worldwide. Though much effort has been expended in uncovering its successes, it continues to confound researchers due to its highly adaptive nature, mutating to meet the needs of a given environment. Its persistence in the clinical setting allows it to be in close proximity to a potential host, where contact can be made facilitating infection and colonization. In this article, we aim to provide a current overview of the bacterial virulence factors, specifically focusing on factors involved in the initial stages of infection, highlighting the role of adaptation facilitated by two-component systems and biofilm formation. Finally, the study of host-pathogen interactions using available animal models, their suitability, notable findings and some perspectives moving forward are also discussed.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Tao R, Zheng X, Guo X, et al (2021)

Pilot-scale enrichment of anammox biofilm using secondary effluent as source water.

Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 83(4):894-905.

Enough biomass of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria is essential for maintaining a stable partial nitrification/anammox (PN/A) wastewater treatment system. Present enrichment procedures are mainly labor-intensive and inconvenient for up-scaling. A simplified procedure was developed for enrichment of anammox biofilm by using secondary effluent as source water with no supplement of mineral medium and unstrict control of influent dissolved oxygen (DO). Anammox biofilm was successfully enriched in two pilot-scale reactors (XQ-cul and BT-cul) within 250 and 120 days, respectively. The specific anammox activity increased rapidly during the last 2 months in both reactors and achieved 2.54 g N2-N/(m2·d) in XQ-cul and 1.61 g N2-N/(m2·d) in BT-cul. Similar microbial diversity and community structure were obtained in the two reactors despite different secondary effluent being applied from two wastewater treatment plants. Anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria genera abundance reached up to 37.4% and 43.1% in XQ-cul and BT-cul biofilm, respectively. Candidatus Brocadia and Ca. Kuenenia dominated the enriched biofilm. A negligible adverse effect of residual organics and influent DO was observed by using secondary effluent as source water. This anammox biofilm enrichment procedure could facilitate the inoculation and/or bio-augmentation of large-scale mainstream PN/A reactors.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Zhang Y, Ge H, Lin W, et al (2021)

Effect of different disinfection treatments on the adhesion and separation of biofilm on stainless steel surface.

Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 83(4):877-885.

Attachment and separation of sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB) biofilm on stainless steel (SS) in simulated cooling water with and without different sterilization treatments was investigated by calculation of surface energy, theoretical work of adhesion and analysis of Scanning Electron Microscope/Energy Dispersive Spectrometer. Two types of biocides, glutaraldehyde and Polyhexamethylene guanidine (PHMG), and electromagnetic treatment were used in this paper. The results show that PHMG had the best bactericidal performance, followed by glutaraldehyde, and electromagnetic treatment was the lowest one. The theoretical work of adhesion was used to quantitatively evaluate the adhesion of biofilm on the surface of the metal. Theoretical work of adhesion between biofilm and SS in simulated cooling water increased with time. The theoretical adhesion work and adhesive capacity of biofilm to SS surface increased after treating with glutaraldehyde while decreasing after treating with PHMG and electromagnetic field. As the theoretical adhesion work decreased, the biofilm was gradually removed from the stainless steel surface. On the contrary, the biofilm adhered more firmly. The results of SEM were also consistent with the calculation results of theoretical adhesion work. The results obtained indicated that electromagnetic treatment had the lowest effect in sterilization but the best in biofilm separation.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Su C, Ye Y, Qiu H, et al (2021)

Solvent-Free Fabrication of Self-Regenerating Antibacterial Surfaces Resisting Biofilm Formation.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm formation on indwelling medical devices is a major cause of hospital-acquired infections. Monofunctional antibacterial surfaces have been developed to resist the formation of biofilms by killing bacteria on contact, but the adsorption of killed bacterial cells and debris gradually undermines the function of these surfaces. Here, we report a facile approach to produce an antibacterial surface that can regenerate its function after contamination. The self-regenerating surface was achieved by sequential deposition of alternating antibacterial and biodegradable layers of coating using a solvent-free initiated chemical vapor deposition method. As the top antibacterial layer gradually loses its killing ability due to the accumulation of debris, the underlying biodegradable layer degrades, shedding off the top surface layers and exposing another fresh antibacterial surface. Urinary catheters coated with monofunctional and self-regenerating antibacterial coatings both showed more than 99% bacterial killing ability at the initial antibacterial test, but the monofunctional surface lost its killing ability after continued exposure to concentrated bacterial solution, whereas the self-regenerating surfaces regained strong bacterial killing ability after prolonged exposure. Employing poly(methacrylic anhydride) and its copolymers with varied composition as the degrading layer, the degradation kinetics can be well-tailored and the self-regeneration duration spanned from minutes to days. The designed self-regenerating antibacterial surfaces could provide an effective approach to resist biofilm formation and extend the service life of indwelling medical devices.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Quan K, Jiang G, Liu J, et al (2021)

Influence of interaction between surface-modified magnetic nanoparticles with infectious biofilm components in artificial channel digging and biofilm eradication by antibiotics in vitro and in vivo.

Nanoscale [Epub ahead of print].

Magnetic targeting of antimicrobial-loaded magnetic nanoparticles to micrometer-sized infectious biofilms is challenging. Bacterial biofilms possess water channels that facilitate transport of nutrient and metabolic waste products, but are insufficient to allow deep penetration of antimicrobials and bacterial killing. Artificial channel digging in infectious biofilms involves magnetically propelling nanoparticles through a biofilm to dig additional channels to enhance antimicrobial penetration. This does not require precise targeting. However, it is not known whether interaction of magnetic nanoparticles with biofilm components impacts the efficacy of antibiotics after artificial channel digging. Here, we functionalized magnetic-iron-oxide-nanoparticles (MIONPs) with polydopamine (PDA) to modify their interaction with staphylococcal pathogens and extracellular-polymeric-substances (EPS) and relate the interaction with in vitro biofilm eradication by gentamicin after magnetic channel digging. PDA-modified MIONPs had less negative zeta potentials than unmodified MIONPs due to the presence of amino groups and accordingly more interaction with negatively charged staphylococcal cell surfaces than unmodified MIONPs. Neither unmodified nor PDA-modified MIONPs interacted with EPS. Concurrently, use of non-interacting unmodified MIONPs for artificial channel digging in in vitro grown staphylococcal biofilms enhanced the efficacy of gentamicin more than the use of interacting, PDA-modified MIONPs. In vivo experiments in mice using a sub-cutaneous infection model confirmed that non-interacting, unmodified MIONPs enhanced eradication by gentamicin of Staphylococcus aureus Xen36 biofilms about 10 fold. Combined with the high biocompatibility of magnetic nanoparticles, these results form an important step in understanding the mechanism of artificial channel digging in infectious biofilms for enhancing antibiotic efficacy in hard-to-treat infectious biofilms in patients.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

de Arruda CNF, Salles MM, Oliveira VC, et al (2021)

Using denture cleansers to control biofilm from dentures and brushes: A randomized crossover clinical trial.

The International journal of prosthodontics [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: To evaluate the effects of 0.2% sodium hypochlorite, Efferdent (Prestige Consumer Healthcare), and 6.25% Ricinus communis on biofilm removal and antimicrobial action on dentures and brushes using nonimmersion or immersion protocols for the brushes.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of 45 denture wearers were randomly assigned to a denture immersion protocol for 7 days: 0.85% saline solution for 20 minutes (control); 0.2% sodium hypochlorite for 20 minutes (SH); Efferdent for 3 minutes; or 6.25% Ricinus communis for 20 minutes (RC). The participants were also randomized to immersion (n = 23) or no immersion (n = 22) of their brushes with their dentures in the same solutions. For biofilm evaluation, the dentures were stained and photographed, and the area of the biofilm was measured using Image Tool 3.0 (University of Texas Health Science Center). To evaluate microbial load on dentures and brushes, the biofilm was collected, and the Candida spp and Streptococcus mutans colonies were counted.

RESULTS: The SH, Efferdent, and RC groups showed reduced biofilm and Candida spp on dentures regardless of the immersion protocol for the brushes. However, no difference was found in the Candida spp counts collected from the brushes immersed compared to the brushes not immersed in the solutions. The SH and Efferdent groups showed reduced S mutans on both dentures and brushes, except for in the nonimmersion subgroups.

CONCLUSION: All solutions reduced denture biofilm and microbial load. However, immersion of brushes in the solutions did not contribute to reducing the microbial load.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Silva BG, Oliveira JMS, Damianovic MHRZ, et al (2021)

Foam aerated biofilm reactor (FABR): a novel counter-diffusional process for COD and nitrogen removal from low COD/N effluents.

Environmental technology [Epub ahead of print].

Counter-diffusional biofilms are efficient in the removal of nitrogen from low strength wastewaters. Although counter-diffusion is usually stablished using expensive gas-permeable membranes, a polyurethane sheet is used to separate the aerobic and anoxic environments in the novel foam aerated biofilm reactor (FABR). Foam sheets with thicknesses of 10, 5 and 2 mm and synthetic wastewater with COD/N ratios of 5 and 2.5 were evaluated. The 2 mm thick foam reactor did not show good biomass adherence and, therefore, did not show N removal efficiency. The 5 and 10 mm reactors, in both COD/N ratios, showed similar total nitrogen and COD removal performance, up to 60% and 80%, respectively. The denitrification efficiency was close to100% throughout the experimental period. Nitrification efficiency decreased with microbial growth, which was recovered after removal of excessive biomass. Lower values of polyurethane foam thickness and COD/N ratio did not provide a higher nitrification rate, as expected. The increase in resistance to mass transfer was associated with the growth of biomass attached to the foam rather than to its thickness and resulted in specialization of the microbial communities as revealed by 16S amplicon sequencing. FABR reveals as a promising alternative for simultaneous removal of nitrogen and COD from low COD/N ratio wastewaters.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Shastry RP, Ghate SD, Sukesh Kumar B, et al (2021)

Vanillin derivative inhibits quorum sensing and biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa: a study in a Caenorhabditis elegans infection model.

Natural product research [Epub ahead of print].

Vanillin and its derivative, (4-((E)-(4-hydroxy-2-methylphenylimino) methyl)-2-methoxyphenol (MMP) were showed clear inhibition of violacein and pyocyanin at sub-MICs indicating a possible quorum quenching effect of both the compounds. MMP was able to inhibit the biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 at 125 μg/mL (p < 0.05), while vanillin at 250 μg/mL (p < 0.05) indicating that they act against quorum sensing regulated biofilm formation. The inhibition of biofilm was confirmed by visualization through fluorescence microscopy followed by docking analysis of molecules against quorum sensing activator proteins. Caenorhabditis elegans survival assay revealed that vanillin and MMP were able to increase survival of C. elegans from P. aeruginosa PAO1 infection. The study showed that the potent features of the MMP and vanillin in inhibiting the quorum sensing regulated virulence and biofilm, which was proved in C. elegans infection model as well as molecular docking studies.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Kuiper JWP, Hogervorst JMA, Herpers BL, et al (2021)

The novel endolysin XZ.700 effectively treats MRSA biofilms in two biofilm models without showing toxicity on human bone cells in vitro.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

In this in vitro study the effect of XZ.700, a new endolysin, on methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms grown on titanium was evaluated. Biofilms of S. aureus USA300 were grown statically and under flow, and treatment with XZ.700 was compared with povidone-iodine (PVP-I) and gentamicin. To evaluate the cytotoxic effects of XZ.700 and derived biofilm lysates, human osteocyte-like cells were exposed to biofilm supernatants, and metabolism and proliferation were quantified. XZ.700 showed a significant, concentration dependent reduction in biofilm viability, compared with carrier controls. Metabolism and proliferation of human osteocyte-like cells were not affected by XZ.700 or lysates, unlike PVP-I and gentamicin lysates which significantly inhibited proliferation. Using time-lapse microscopy, rapid biofilm killing and removal was observed for XZ.700. In comparison, PVP-I and gentamicin showed slower biofilm killing, with no apparent biofilm removal. In conclusion, XZ.700 reduced MRSA biofilms, especially under flow condition, without toxicity for surrounding bone cells.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Ruiz A, Herráez M, Costa-Gutierrez SB, et al (2021)

The architecture of a mixed fungal-bacterial biofilm is modulated by quorum sensing signals.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Interkingdom communication is of particular relevance in polymicrobial biofilms. In this work, the ability of the fungus Ophiostoma piceae to form biofilms individually and in consortium with the bacterium Pseudomonas putida, as well as the effect of fungal and bacterial signal molecules on the architecture of the biofilms was evaluated. P. putida KT2440 is able to form biofilms through the secretion of exopolysaccharides and two large extracellular adhesion proteins, LapA and LapF. It has two intercellular signalling systems, one mediated by dodecanoic acid and an orphan LuxR receptor that could participate in the response to AHL-type quorum sensing molecules (QSMs). Furthermore, the dimorphic fungus O. piceae uses farnesol as QSM to control its yeast to hyphae morphological transition. Results show for the first time the ability of this fungus to form biofilms alone and in mixed cultures with the bacterium. Biofilms were induced by bacterial and fungal QSMs. The essential role of LapA-LapF proteins in the architecture of biofilms was corroborated, LapA was induced by farnesol and dodecanol, while LapF by 3-oxo-C6-HSL and 3-oxo-C12-HSL. Our results indicate that fungal signals can induce a transient rise in the levels of the secondary messenger c-di-GMP, which control biofilm formation and architecture. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Rather MA, Gupta K, Bardhan P, et al (2021)

Microbial biofilm: A matter of grave concern for human health and food industry.

Journal of basic microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Pathogenic microorganisms have adapted different strategies during the course of time to invade host defense mechanisms and overcome the effect of potent antibiotics. The formation of biofilm on both biotic and abiotic surfaces by microorganisms is one such strategy to resist and survive even in presence of antibiotics and other adverse environmental conditions. Biofilm is a safe home of microorganisms embedded within self-produced extracellular polymeric substances comprising of polysaccharides, extracellular proteins, nucleic acid, and water. It is because of this adaptation strategy that pathogenic microorganisms are taking a heavy toll on the health and life of organisms. In this review, we discuss the colonization of pathogenic microorganisms on tissues and medically implanted devices in human beings. We also focus on food spoilage, disease outbreaks, biofilm-associated deaths, burden on economy, and other major concerns of biofilm-forming pathogenic microorganisms in food industries like dairy, poultry, ready-to-eat food, meat, and aquaculture.

RevDate: 2021-02-22

Loss M, Thompson KG, Agostinho-Hunt A, et al (2020)

Noninflammatory comedones have greater diversity in microbiome and are more prone to biofilm formation than inflammatory lesions of acne vulgaris.

International journal of dermatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The ability of Cutibacterium acnes strains to form biofilms has been correlated with their virulence.

OBJECTIVE: This study examined biofilm and skin microbiota in acne patients in order to understand their role in the development of acne lesions.

METHODS: Thin sections of punch biopsy specimens of (i) uninflamed comedones, (ii) inflammatory lesions, and (iii) uninvolved adjacent skin of acne patients were examined. Epiflourescence and confocal laser scanning microscopy were used for biofilm detection, and pyrosequencing with taxonomic classification of 16s rRNA gene amplicons was used for microbiota analysis.

RESULTS: Of the 39 skin specimens from patients with mild-moderate acne (n = 13) that were studied, nine (23%) contained biofilm. Among these specimens, biofilm was most frequently detected in comedones (55.6%) and less frequently in inflammatory papules (22.2%) and uninvolved skin (22.2%). Comedones demonstrated the highest mean alpha diversity of all the lesion subtypes. The relative abundance of Staphylococcus was significantly higher in comedones (11.400% ± 12.242%) compared to uninvolved skin (0.073% ± 0.185%, P = 0.024).

CONCLUSIONS: The microenvironment of the comedone differs from that of inflammatory lesions and unaffected skin. The increased frequency of biofilm in comedones may account for the lack of host inflammatory response to these lesions.

RevDate: 2021-02-21

Chen CL, Dudek A, Liang YH, et al (2021)

d-mannose-sensitive pilus of Acinetobacter baumannii is linked to biofilm formation and adherence onto respiratory tract epithelial cells.

Journal of microbiology, immunology, and infection = Wei mian yu gan ran za zhi pii:S1684-1182(21)00021-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Acinetobacter baumannii is an important nosocomial pathogen. To better understand the role of CsuA/BABCDE pilus of A. baumannii in virulence, bacterial biofilm formation, adherence and carbohydrate-mediated inhibition were conducted.

METHODS: CsuA/BABCDE pilus-producing (abbreviated Csu pilus) operon of A. baumannii ATCC17978 was cloned for analysis of biofilm formation on an abiotic plastic plate, bacterial adherence to respiratory epithelial human A549 cells and carbohydrate-mediated inhibition. The carbohydrates used for inhibition of biofilm formation and adherence to A549 cells included monosaccharides, pyranosides, and mannose-polymers.

RESULTS: The Csu pilus of A. baumannii ATCC17978 was cloned and expressed into a non-pilus-producing Escherichia coli JM109, and was knocked out as well. The recombinant Csu (rCsu) pilus on E. coli JM109/rCsu pilus-producing clone observed by both electro-microscopy and atomic force microscopy showed abundant, while Csu-knockout A. baumannii ATCC17978 mutant appeared less or no pilus production. The E. coli JM109/rCsu pilus-producing clone significantly increased biofilm formation and adherence to A549 cells; however, the Csu-knockout mutant dramatically lost biofilm-making ability but, in contrast, increased adherence. Moreover, both of biofilm formation and adherence could be significantly inhibited by d-mannose and methyl-α-d-mannopyranoside in Csu pilus-producing E. coli JM109, whereas in A. baumannii ATCC17978, high concentration of carbohydrates was required for the inhibition, suggesting that Csu pilus is sensitive to d-mannose.

CONCLUSION: This is the first study confirming that Csu pilus of A. baumannii belongs to mannose-sensitive type 1 pilus family and contributes to biofilm formation and bacterial adherence to human epithelial cells.

RevDate: 2021-02-20

Miao L, Gao Y, Adyel TM, et al (2021)

Effects of biofilm colonization on the sinking of microplastics in three freshwater environments.

Journal of hazardous materials, 413:125370 pii:S0304-3894(21)00333-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Microplastics (MPs) have frequently been detected in freshwater environments, and there is growing concern about their ecological effects, especially the influence of the "plastisphere" on the freshwater ecosystems. The colonization of microbes on MPs would significantly alter their transport behavior, i.e., buoyancy, in fresh water. In this research, we studied the effects of biofilm colonization on the sinking and floating of three MPs, i.e., polyethylene terephthalate (PET), polypropylene (PP), and polyvinyl chloride (PVC), after 44 days of incubation in three freshwater systems (the Niushoushan River, the Qinhuai River, and East Lake) in China. The results showed that the biofilms attached to the three MPs contained different biomass and chlorophyll-a levels were related to water environmental conditions and physicochemical properties of MPs, based on redundancy analysis. Generally, PET and PVC sinking, with density higher than water, tended to increase after biofilm formation. Thereafter, the settling velocity of biofouled PET and PVC squares became faster than that of the virgin ones. In summary, our study suggested that biofouling does affect the sinking of MPs in fresh water and consequently influences the transport behavior and the distribution characteristics of MPs in freshwater environments, and this issue deserves more scientific attention.

RevDate: 2021-02-20

Shatila F, Yaşa İ, HT Yalçın (2021)

Biofilm Formation by Salmonella enterica Strains.

Current microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm formation by five different Salmonella enterica strains was assessed qualitatively and quantitatively under different incubation conditions. The strains exhibited different adherence abilities to test tubes. The isolates revealed Red Dry and Rough (RDAR) and Brown Dry and Rough (BDAR) morphotypes when cultured on Congo Red Agar (CRA). The pellicles formed by the tested strains ranged from strong to fragile when incubated in LB without NaCl at 27 °C. Smooth and White (SAW) morphotype on CRA and very weak pellicles were observed when the bacterial strains were incubated at 37 °C. The effect of temperature and media on biofilm formation by the tested strains was significant. Among the five Salmonella isolates, S. enteritidis TM 6 and S. enteritidis TM 68 formed strong biofilms when incubated in LB without NaCl at 27 °C for 24 h and consequently selected to be analysed under scanning electron microscope (SEM). Scanning electron micrographs revealed that S. enteritidis TM 6 formed more complex colonies when compared to those formed by S. enteritidis TM 68. As far as we know, this is the first study that provides quantitative and qualitative data for 5 Salmonella enterica isolates in different media mimicking four different nutritional conditions at two different temperatures after 24 and 48 h. The strains included two serovars S. bredeney and S. anatum, which are rarely accounted for. Additionally, the studies that described S. enteritidis biofilms under SEM are extremely limited, which makes it among the first comprehensive studies that screened for S. enteritidis biofilms.

RevDate: 2021-02-20

Zuo XS, Liu Y, Cai X, et al (2021)

Association of different Candida species with catheter-related candidemia, and the potential antifungal treatments against their adhesion properties and biofilm-forming capabilities.

Journal of clinical laboratory analysis [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: To compare the adhesion properties and biofilm-forming capabilities of 27 Candida isolates obtained from catheter-related candidemia patients and to evaluate the inhibitory effects of antifungal agents on different Candida species.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seven C. albicans, six C. parapsilosis, five C. guilliermondii, five C. tropicalis, and four C. glabrata clinical isolates were investigated. We quantified the adherence of these Candida species by flow cytometric method and evaluated the formation of biofilms by XTT reduction and crystal violet methods. Actions of micafungin (MF), fluconazole (FZ), and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) on the adhesion and biofilm formation of different Candida species were determined.

RESULTS: Non-albicans Candida species were demonstrated to have stronger adhesion abilities compared with C. albicans. The biofilm-forming capabilities of different Candida species were varied considerably, and the degree of biofilm formation might be affected by different assay approaches. Interestingly, C. parapsilosis displayed the highest biofilm formation abilities, while C. glabrata exhibited the lowest total biomass and metabolic activity. Furthermore, the inhibitory activities of MF, FZ, and NAC on fungal adhesion and biofilm formation were evaluated, and the results indicated that MF could reduce the adhesion ability and biofilm metabolism more significantly (p < 0.05), and its antifungal activity was elevated in a dose-dependent manner.

CONCLUSION: Non-albicans Candida species, especially C. guilliermondii, C. tropicalis, and C. parapsilosis, exhibited higher adhesion ability in catheter-related candidemia patients. However, these Candida species had varied biofilm-forming capabilities. MF tended to have stronger inhibitory effects against both adhesion and biofilm formation of different Candida species.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Loera-Muro A, Guerrero-Barrera A, Tremblay D N Y, et al (2021)

Bacterial biofilm-derived antigens: a new strategy for vaccine development against infectious diseases.

Expert review of vaccines [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Microorganisms can develop into a social organization known as biofilms and these communities can be found in virtually all types of environment on earth. In biofilms, cells grow as multicellular communities held together by a self-produced extracellular matrix. Living within a biofilm allows for the emergence of specific properties for these cells that their planktonic counterparts do not have. Furthermore, biofilms are the cause of several infectious diseases and are frequently inhabited by multi-species. These interactions between microbial species are often critical for the biofilm process. Despite the importance of biofilms in disease, vaccine antigens are typically prepared from bacteria grown as planktonic cells under laboratory conditions. Vaccines based on planktonic bacteria may not provide optimal protection against biofilm-driven infections.

AREAS COVERED: In this review, we will present an overview of biofilm formation, what controls this mode of growth, and recent vaccine development targeting biofilms.

EXPERT OPINION: Previous and on-going research provides evidence that vaccine formulation with antigens derived from biofilms is a promising approach to prevent infectious diseases and can enhance the protective efficacy of existing vaccines. Therefore, research focusing on the identification of biofilm-derived antigens merits further investigations.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Rajapakse S, Giardino MA, Kulasekara HD, et al (2020)

An Ayurvedic Herbal Extract Inhibits Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation and Disrupts Preformed Biofilms in vitro.

Journal of traditional medicine & clinical naturopathy, 9(4):.

Objective: Sudantha® (SUD), a natural proprietary mixture of herbal extracts that has been incorporated into toothpaste, has been shown in two separate placebo controlled human clinical studies to promote gingival health; and reduce gingival bleeding and plaque formation. However, the herbal based anti-gingivitis mechanisms of Sudantha are not fully understood. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of Sudantha on dental plaque biofilms by investigating its effect on mono-culture biofilms of a primary colonizer, Streptococcus mutans, in vitro.

Results: This study found that SUD contributes to the maintenance of oral health through the inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation. In addition, SUD disrupted preformed S. mutans biofilms after exposure to SUD for 4 hours. Together, this pilot data suggests the inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation and disruption represents one potential mechanism by which the herbal extract is able to reduce the oral bacterial biofilm resulting in its effective against gingivitis and its potential use in countering biofilm associated oral disease.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Rostamifar S, Azad A, Bazrafkan A, et al (2021)

New Strategy of Reducing Biofilm Forming Bacteria in Oral Cavity by Bismuth Nanoparticles.

BioMed research international, 2021:6695692.

Objective: Enterococcus faecalis and Streptococcus salivarius are the most important species in dental decay and producing biofilm. Treatment with chlorhexidine 2% mouthwash for 7 days is the best way to eliminate these bacteria. However, due to the ability of these bacteria to survive in harsh environments, increasing emergence of bacterial resistance against available antibiotics, and favorable properties of nanoparticles including broad spectrum antimicrobial activity and lower toxicity, we decided to evaluate reducing biofilm forming bacteria in oral cavity by bismuth nanoparticles.

Materials and Methods: This was a cross-sectional study of 40 samples isolated from the patients visiting dental clinics in Shiraz in 2019. Samples, which showed growth, were cultured on blood agar plates and incubated for the PCR procedure. Nanoparticle powder was dissolved in high-purity water, and the final concentration of bismuth nanoparticles (BiNPs) was measured with a spectrophotometer. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) of BiNPs against E. faecalis and S. salivarius was determined by the microbroth dilution method according to methods for antimicrobial susceptibility tests. Also, bactericidal assays were conducted in a Mueller-Hinton broth medium and reported as the concentration of BiNPs that reduced the viable bacterial count by 99.9%. Statistical analysis was carried out using SPSS 21 and one-way analysis of variance, and P values less than 0.05 were considered significant.

Results: MICs of BiNP suspension against Streptococcus salivarius and Enterococcus faecalis were 2.5 and 5 μg/ml, respectively. Minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBC) of BiNP suspension against Streptococcus salivarius and Enterococcus faecalis were 5 and 10 μg/ml, respectively. Antibacterial activity of BiNPs was compared with chlorhexidine 2%. MICs of BiNPs against Streptococcus salivarius and Enterococcus faecalis were one-twentieth less than those of chlorhexidine. MBC of BiNPs against both pathogens was one-tenth less than those of chlorhexidine.

Conclusion: BiNPs were more effective than chlorhexidine, and MIC and MBC of bismuth nanoparticles are lower than those of chlorhexidine.

RevDate: 2021-02-19

Harrell JE, Hahn MM, D'Souza SJ, et al (2020)

Salmonella Biofilm Formation, Chronic Infection, and Immunity Within the Intestine and Hepatobiliary Tract.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:624622.

Within the species of Salmonella enterica, there is significant diversity represented among the numerous subspecies and serovars. Collectively, these account for microbes with variable host ranges, from common plant and animal colonizers to extremely pathogenic and human-specific serovars. Despite these differences, many Salmonella species find commonality in the ability to form biofilms and the ability to cause acute, latent, or chronic disease. The exact outcome of infection depends on many factors such as the growth state of Salmonella, the environmental conditions encountered at the time of infection, as well as the infected host and immune response elicited. Here, we review the numerous biofilm lifestyles of Salmonella (on biotic and abiotic surfaces) and how the production of extracellular polymeric substances not only enhances long-term persistence outside the host but also is an essential function in chronic human infections. Furthermore, careful consideration is made for the events during initial infection that allow for gut transcytosis which, in conjunction with host immune functions, often determine the progression of disease. Both typhoidal and non-typhoidal salmonellae can cause chronic and/or secondary infections, thus the adaptive immune responses to both types of bacteria are discussed with particular attention to the differences between Salmonella Typhi, Salmonella Typhimurium, and invasive non-typhoidal Salmonella that can result in differential immune responses. Finally, while strides have been made in our understanding of immunity to Salmonella in the lymphoid organs, fewer definitive studies exist for intestinal and hepatobiliary immunity. By examining our current knowledge and what remains to be determined, we provide insight into new directions in the field of Salmonella immunity, particularly as it relates to chronic infection.

RevDate: 2021-02-18

Nishiuchi Y (2021)

Ultrastructure of the Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis Biofilm.

Microbes and environments, 36(1):.

Mycobacterium avium subsp. hominissuis (MAH) is one of the most common nontuberculous mycobacterial pathogens responsible for chronic lung disease in humans. It is widely distributed in biofilms in natural and living environments. It is considered to be transmitted from the environment. Despite its importance in public health, the ultrastructure of the MAH biofilm remains largely unknown. The ultrastructure of a MAH-containing multispecies biofilm that formed naturally in a bathtub inlet was herein reported along with those of monoculture biofilms developed from microcolonies and pellicles formed in the laboratory. Scanning electron microscopy revealed an essentially multilayered bathtub biofilm that was packed with cocci and short and long rods connected by an extracellular matrix (ECM). Scattered mycobacterium-like rod-shaped cells were observed around biofilm chunks. The MAH monoculture biofilms that developed from microcolonies in vitro exhibited an assembly of flat layers covered with thin film-like ECM membranes. Numerous small bacterial cells (0.76±0.19‍ ‍μm in length) were observed, but not embedded in ECM. A glycopeptidolipid-deficient strain did not develop the layered ECM membrane architecture, suggesting its essential role in the development of biofilms. The pellicle biofilm also consisted of flat layered cells covered with an ECM membrane and small cells. MAH alone generated a flat layered biofilm covered with an ECM membrane. This unique structure may be suitable for resistance to water flow and disinfectants and the exclusion of fast-growing competitors, and small cells in biofilms may contribute to the formation and transmission of bioaerosols.

RevDate: 2021-02-18

Dier-Pereira AP, Trevizani Thihara IR, Duarte FC, et al (2021)

Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus haemolyticus Displaying Reduced Susceptibility to Vancomycin and High Biofilm-Forming Ability.

Infectious disorders drug targets pii:IDDT-EPUB-114308 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus haemolyticus is one of the most frequently coagulase-negative staphylococci isolated from healthcare-associated infections, mainly those related to implanted medical devices.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to determine the antimicrobial susceptibility profile and biofilm forming capacity of S. haemolyticus isolated from bloodstream infections.

METHODS: A total of 40 S. haemolyticus isolates were characterized according to their genetic relatedness by repetitive element sequence based-PCR (REP-PCR), antimicrobial susceptibility profile, SCCmec typing, ability to form biofilm on abiotic surface and occurrence of putative genes related to biofilm formation.

RESULTS: One S. haemolyticus was susceptible to all antimicrobials. The other isolates (n=39) were resistant to cefoxitin; and among them 34 (87.2%) harbored the mecA gene into the SCCmec type I (5.9%), type III (29.4%), type IV (5.9%) and type V (20.6%); and 38.2% isolates were designated as NT. Apart from cefoxitin, 94.9% of the isolates were resistant to at least four antimicrobial classes, and 32.5% displayed minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) values higher than 4.0 µg/mL for vancomycin. All isolates formed biofilm on polystyrene surface and were classified as strong biofilm-producers, except for one isolate. All isolates were negative for icaA gene, and the prevalence of the other genes was as follows: atl, 100%; fbp, 92.5%; aap, 90.0%; and bap, 20.0%.

CONCLUSION: This study reports a high prevalence of methicillin-resistant S. haemolyticus displaying decreased susceptibility to vancomycin with the ability to form strong biofilms on abiotic surface. The results support the importance of controlling the adequate use of antimicrobials for the treatment of staphylococcal infections.

RevDate: 2021-02-17

Moghaddam-Taaheri P, Leissa JA, Eppler HB, et al (2021)

Histatin 5 variant reduces Candida albicans biofilm viability and inhibits biofilm formation.

Fungal genetics and biology : FG & B pii:S1087-1845(21)00013-X [Epub ahead of print].

Candida albicans is a commensal organism and opportunistic pathogen that can form biofilms that colonize surfaces such as implants, catheters, and dentures. Compared to planktonic C. albicans cells, cells in biofilms exhibit increased resistance to treatment. Histatin 5 (Hst-5) is an antimicrobial peptide that is natively secreted by human salivary glands and has strong antifungal activity against C. albicans. However, C. albicans produce secreted aspartic proteases (Saps) that can cleave and inactivate Hst-5, limiting its antifungal properties. We previously showed that residue substitutions K11R and K17R within Hst-5 improve its antifungal activity and prevent proteolytic degradation by Saps when treating planktonic C. albicans. We investigated the use of the K11R-K17R peptide as an alternative therapeutic against C. albicans biofilms by assessing its ability to reduce viability of pre-formed biofilms and to inhibit the formation of biofilms and showed that K11R-K17R had improved activity compared to Hst-5. Based on these results, we incorporated K11R-K17R and Hst-5 into polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) surface coatings and demonstrated that films functionalized with K11R-K17R reduced the formation of C. albicans biofilms. Our results demonstrate the therapeutic potential of the K11R-K17R Hst-5 variant in preventing and treating biofilms.

RevDate: 2021-02-17

Arjes HA, Willis L, Gui H, et al (2021)

Three-dimensional biofilm colony growth supports a mutualism involving matrix and nutrient sharing.

eLife, 10: pii:64145 [Epub ahead of print].

Life in a three-dimensional biofilm is typical for many bacteria, yet little is known about how strains interact in this context. Here, we created essential-gene CRISPRi knockdown libraries in biofilm-forming Bacillus subtilis and measured competitive fitness during colony co-culture with wild type. Partial knockdown of some translation-related genes reduced growth rates and led to out-competition. Media composition led some knockdowns to compete differentially as biofilm versus non-biofilm colonies. Cells depleted for the alanine racemase AlrA died in monoculture but survived in a biofilm-colony co-culture via nutrient sharing. Rescue was enhanced in biofilm-colony co-culture with a matrix-deficient parent, due to a mutualism involving nutrient and matrix sharing. We identified several examples of mutualism involving matrix sharing that occurred in three-dimensional biofilm colonies but not when cultured in two dimensions. Thus, growth in a three-dimensional colony can promote genetic diversity through sharing of secreted factors and may drive evolution of mutualistic behavior.

RevDate: 2021-02-17

Kowalski CH, Morelli KA, Stajich JE, et al (2021)

A Heterogeneously Expressed Gene Family Modulates the Biofilm Architecture and Hypoxic Growth of Aspergillus fumigatus.

mBio, 12(1):.

The genus Aspergillus encompasses human pathogens such as Aspergillus fumigatus and industrial powerhouses such as Aspergillus niger In both cases, Aspergillus biofilms have consequences for infection outcomes and yields of economically important products. However, the molecular components influencing filamentous fungal biofilm development, structure, and function remain ill defined. Macroscopic colony morphology is an indicator of underlying biofilm architecture and fungal physiology. A hypoxia-locked colony morphotype of A. fumigatus has abundant colony furrows that coincide with a reduction in vertically oriented hyphae within biofilms and increased low oxygen growth and virulence. Investigation of this morphotype has led to the identification of the causative gene, biofilm architecture factor A (bafA), a small cryptic open reading frame within a subtelomeric gene cluster. BafA is sufficient to induce the hypoxia-locked colony morphology and biofilm architecture in A. fumigatus Analysis across a large population of A. fumigatus isolates identified a larger family of baf genes, all of which have the capacity to modulate hyphal architecture, biofilm development, and hypoxic growth. Furthermore, introduction of A. fumigatusbafA into A. niger is sufficient to generate the hypoxia-locked colony morphology, biofilm architecture, and increased hypoxic growth. Together, these data indicate the potential broad impacts of this previously uncharacterized family of small genes to modulate biofilm architecture and function in clinical and industrial settings.IMPORTANCE The manipulation of microbial biofilms in industrial and clinical applications remains a difficult task. The problem is particularly acute with regard to filamentous fungal biofilms for which molecular mechanisms of biofilm formation, maintenance, and function are only just being elucidated. Here, we describe a family of small genes heterogeneously expressed across Aspergillus fumigatus strains that are capable of modifying colony biofilm morphology and microscopic hyphal architecture. Specifically, these genes are implicated in the formation of a hypoxia-locked colony morphotype that is associated with increased virulence of A. fumigatus Synthetic introduction of these gene family members, here referred to as biofilm architecture factors, in both A. fumigatus and A. niger additionally modulates low oxygen growth and surface adherence. Thus, these genes are candidates for genetic manipulation of biofilm development in aspergilli.

RevDate: 2021-02-17

Sun W, Yu Y, Chen J, et al (2021)

Light Signaling Regulates Aspergillus niger Biofilm Formation by Affecting Melanin and Extracellular Polysaccharide Biosynthesis.

mBio, 12(1):.

Light is an important signal source in nature, which regulates the physiological cycle, morphogenetic pathways, and secondary metabolites of fungi. As an external pressure on Aspergillus niger, light signaling transmits stress signals into the cell via the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Studying the effect of light on the biofilm of A. niger will provide a theoretical basis for light in the cultivation of filamentous fungi and industrial applications. Here, the characterization of A. niger biofilm under different light intensities confirmed the effects of light signaling. Our results indicated that A. niger intensely accumulated protective mycelial melanin under light illumination. We also discovered that the RlmA transcription factor in the MAPK signaling pathway is activated by light signaling to promote the synthesis of melanin, chitin, and other exopolysaccharides. However, the importance of melanin to A. niger biofilm is rarely reported; therefore, we knocked out key genes of the melanin biosynthetic pathway-Abr1 and Ayg1 Changes in hydrophobicity and electrostatic forces resulted in the decrease of biofilm caused by the decrease of melanin in mutants.IMPORTANCE As an important industrial filamentous fungus, Aspergillus niger can perceive light. The link between light signaling and A. niger biofilm is worthy of further study since reports are lacking in this area. This study found that light signaling promotes biofilm production in A. niger, wherein melanin plays an important role. It was further discovered that the RlmA transcription factor in the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway was mediated by light signaling to promote the synthesis of melanin and extracellular polysaccharides. These findings set the stage for light signal regulation of biofilm in filamentous fungi and provide a theoretical basis for the development of a new light-controlled biofilm method to improve biofilm-based industrial fermentation.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Rajasekar V, Darne P, Prabhune A, et al (2021)

A curcumin-sophorolipid nanocomplex inhibits Candida albicans filamentation and biofilm development.

Colloids and surfaces. B, Biointerfaces, 200:111617 pii:S0927-7765(21)00061-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen that is highly resistant to contemporary antifungals, due to their biofilm lifestyle. The ability of C. albicans to invade human tissues is due to its filamentation. Therefore, inhibition of biofilms and filamentation of the yeast are high value targets to develop the next-generation antifungals. Curcumin (CU) is a natural polyphenol with excellent pharmacological attributes, but limitations such as poor solubility, acid, and enzyme tolerance have impeded its practical utility. Sophorolipids (SL) are biologically-derived surfactants that serve as efficient carriers of hydrophobic molecules such as curcumin into biofilms. Here, we synthesised a curcumin-sophorolipid nanocomplex (CUSL), and comprehensively evaluated its effects on C. albicans biofilms and filamentation. Our results demonstrated that sub-inhibitory concentration of CUSL (9.37 μg/mL) significantly inhibited fungal adhesion to substrates, and subsequent biofilm development, maturation, and filamentation. This effect was associated with significant downregulation of a select group of biofilm, adhesins, and hyphal regulatory genes. In conclusion, the curcumin-sophorolipid nanocomplex is a potent inhibitor of the two major virulence attributes of C. albicans, biofilm formation and filamentation, thus highlighting its promise as a putative anti-fungal agent with biofilm penetrative potential.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Cardoso A, Fernandes JT, Bussadori SK, et al (2021)

Use of the optical fluorescence method for the diagnosis of dental biofilm in young permanent molars - a case series.

BACKGROUND: Fluorescence appears clearly in oral biofilm in red tones, showing the presence of microorganisms in regions where there is biofilm accumulation. This study aims to evaluate the applicability and effectiveness of the diagnosis of oral biofilm with the optical fluorescence technique using the EVINCE (Evidenciador Clínico - MMOptics, São Carlos, SP, Brazil) equipment. Furthermore, to compare the efficacy of the optical fluorescence diagnostic method with the traditional method of clinical disclosure of Fuchsin-based dye biofilm and to observe their combined use.

METHODS: Sixteen children, aged between 7 and 12, were included in this case series, following the Oral Hygiene Index - Simplificated (OHI-S) evaluation. They were evaluated by 3 different professionals. The 1 st evaluator checked the OHI-S observing only with EVINCE. In the second stage, a 2nd evaluator performed the traditional disclosure technique with Fucsina, and finally a 3rd evaluator who observed with EVINCE the teeth previously stained in stage 2, combining the two methods. Descriptive analysis of the variables was performed and comparative tests of repeated measures to evaluate differences between the results of the three evaluation methodologies.

RESULTS: There is no significant difference between the observation made only with EVINCE and with the traditional methodology of plaque disclosure. However, there is a difference when the two techniques are used in the third evaluation moment, showing that the combination could provide better results.

CONCLUSIONS: The association of both the conventional method and the use of EVINCE showed a very satisfactory result in the diagnosis of the presence of biofilm.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Michael H, Paim FC, Miyazaki A, et al (2021)

Escherichia coli Nissle 1917 administered as a dextranomar microsphere biofilm enhances immune responses against human rotavirus in a neonatal malnourished pig model colonized with human infant fecal microbiota.

PloS one, 16(2):e0246193 pii:PONE-D-20-32708.

Human rotavirus (HRV) is a leading cause of diarrhea in children. It causes significant morbidity and mortality, especially in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs), where HRV vaccine efficacy is low. The probiotic Escherichia coli Nissle (EcN) 1917 has been widely used in the treatment of enteric diseases in humans. However, repeated doses of EcN are required to achieve maximum beneficial effects. Administration of EcN on a microsphere biofilm could increase probiotic stability and persistence, thus maximizing health benefits without repeated administrations. Our aim was to investigate immune enhancement by the probiotic EcN adhered to a dextranomar microsphere biofilm (EcN biofilm) in a neonatal, malnourished piglet model transplanted with human infant fecal microbiota (HIFM) and infected with rotavirus. To create malnourishment, pigs were fed a reduced amount of bovine milk. Decreased HRV fecal shedding and protection from diarrhea were evident in the EcN biofilm treated piglets compared with EcN suspension and control groups. Moreover, EcN biofilm treatment enhanced natural killer cell activity in blood mononuclear cells (MNCs). Increased frequencies of activated plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDC) in systemic and intestinal tissues and activated conventional dendritic cells (cDC) in blood and duodenum were also observed in EcN biofilm as compared with EcN suspension treated pigs. Furthermore, EcN biofilm treated pigs had increased frequencies of systemic activated and resting/memory antibody forming B cells and IgA+ B cells in the systemic tissues. Similarly, the mean numbers of systemic and intestinal HRV-specific IgA antibody secreting cells (ASCs), as well as HRV-specific IgA antibody titers in serum and small intestinal contents, were increased in the EcN biofilm treated group. In summary EcN biofilm enhanced innate and B cell immune responses after HRV infection and ameliorated diarrhea following HRV challenge in a malnourished, HIFM pig model.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Falkinham JO (3rd) (2021)

Corrigendum to "Disinfection and cleaning of heater-cooler units: suspension- and biofilm-killing" [Journal of Hospital Infection 105 (2020) 552-557].

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Deshamukhya C, Das BJ, Chetri S, et al (2020)

Use of Fluorescence Foldscope as an Effective Tool for Detection of Biofilm Formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Indian journal of medical microbiology, 38(3-4):397-400.

PURPOSE: Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen with biofilm-forming ability, by the virtue of which they can evade the immune response and antimicrobial chemotherapy. Several methods have been designed for the detection of biofilms but require sophisticated instrumentation and expertise. The present study, therefore, used an improvised device, 'fluorescence foldscope' which is an origami-based fluorescence microscope as an easy and effective tool to detect biofilm formation.

METHODOLOGY: Three representatives of P. aeruginosa of clinical origin were taken for the study along with two reference strains PA01 and ATCC27853. The strains were cultured in Luria Bertani (LB) broth with and without carbapenem (imipenem and meropenem) and cephalosporin (ceftazidime, cefotaxime and ceftriaxone) pressure, respectively. The cultures were diluted to 1:100 in LB; seeded with sterile glass slides at 90° angle and incubated for 5 consecutive days. The slides were observed with fluorescence foldscope.

RESULTS: Fluorescence emission was observed in two test isolates CD1 and CD2 at 48 and 72 h, respectively, whereas no fluorescence was observed in CD3. The fluorescence observed in the isolates was not affected by 2 μg/ml carbapenem pressure, while with 2 μg/ml ceftazidime stress, a change in fluorescence was observed in CD2 in comparison to the fluorescence observed under normal growth condition.

CONCLUSION: Fluorescence foldscopy is an effective and reliable tool for the detection of biofilm formation in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa under different laboratory conditions. Biofilm-forming P. aeruginosa worsens the medical condition and is difficult to eradicate. The present study came up with an effective and reliable tool for the detection of biofilm formation in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Das AK, Dudeja M, Kohli S, et al (2020)

Biofilm Synthesis and other Virulence Factors in Multidrug-Resistant Uropathogenic enterococci Isolated in Northern India.

Indian journal of medical microbiology, 38(2):200-209.

PURPOSE: Enterococci express high degree of resistance towards wide range of antibiotics. Production of biofilm and many virulence factors along with drug resistance makes it difficult to eradicate the infection from urinary tract. The present study detected the expression of such factors including biofilm production by multidrug-resistant (MDR) enterococci.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Drug susceptibility of 103 uropathogenic enterococci was performed followed by estimation of minimum inhibitory concentration of high-level gentamicin and vancomycin by microbroth dilution method. Vancomycin-resistant genes were detected by multiplex polymerase chain reaction. Production of virulence factors such as haemagglutination, caseinase, lipase, gelatinase, haemolysin and β-lactamase was detected by phenotypic methods in MDR strains. Biofilm production was detected by calcofluor-white fluorescence staining and semi-quantitative adherence assay.

RESULTS: 45% and 18.4% of the isolates were high-level gentamicin-resistant and vancomycin-resistant enterococci (VRE), respectively. vanA gene was detected in 14 and vanB gene in 5 strains. Biofilm, caseinase and gelatinase were the most expressed virulence factor. Expression of caseinase, gelatinase and lipase was significantly higher in Enterococcus faecalis (P < 0.05). Expression of haemagglutination, gelatinase and haemolysin among the vancomycin-resistant isolates was significantly higher (P < 0.05).

CONCLUSION: VanA and vanB are the prevalent genotypes responsible for vancomycin resistance. The high prevalence of MDR enterococcal strains producing biofilm and virulence determinants raises concern. asa1, hyl, esp, gelE, cyl and other genes are known to express these factors and contribute to biofilm formation. Most uropathogenic enterococci expressed biofilm at moderate level and can be detected effectively by calcofluor-white staining. No correlation was noted between vancomycin resistance and biofilm production.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Ralte Z, Naina P, Amladi A, et al (2019)

Determination of Biofilm-Forming Capacity of Otopathogens Isolated from Discharging Ears in Children with Chronic Otitis Media.

Indian journal of medical microbiology, 37(3):442-445.

Chronic otitis media is a common disease of the developing world with persistent ear discharge, leading to major complications. This study describes the microorganisms isolated from the middle ear and nasopharynx of children with chronically discharging ears. Middle ear and nasopharyngeal swabs from 89 children were studied, and the microorganisms isolated were assessed for biofilm-forming ability. Methicillin-susceptible Staphylococcus aureus was common in the nasopharynx, while the middle ear showed predominantly pseudomonas and Methicillin-resistant S. aureus. Pseudomonas aeruginosa showed strong biofilm formation, whereas Escherichia coli, Proteus sp. and Providentia sp. were weak biofilm producers. S. aureus isolates were negative for biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Del Peso Santos T, Alvarez L, Sit B, et al (2021)

BipA exerts temperature-dependent translational control of biofilm-associated colony morphology in Vibrio cholerae.

eLife, 10: pii:60607.

Adaptation to shifting temperatures is crucial for the survival of the bacterial pathogen Vibrio cholerae. Here, we show that colony rugosity, a biofilm-associated phenotype, is regulated by temperature in V. cholerae strains that naturally lack the master biofilm transcriptional regulator HapR. Using transposon-insertion mutagenesis, we found the V. cholerae ortholog of BipA, a conserved ribosome-associated GTPase, is critical for this temperature-dependent phenomenon. Proteomic analyses revealed that loss of BipA alters the synthesis of >300 proteins in V. cholerae at 22°C, increasing the production of biofilm-related proteins including the key transcriptional activators VpsR and VpsT, as well as proteins important for diverse cellular processes. At low temperatures, BipA protein levels increase and are required for optimal ribosome assembly in V. cholerae, suggesting that control of BipA abundance is a mechanism by which bacteria can remodel their proteomes. Our study reveals a remarkable new facet of V. cholerae's complex biofilm regulatory network.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Shadkam S, Goli HR, Mirzaei B, et al (2021)

Correlation between antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation capability among Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Iran.

Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials, 20(1):13.

BACKGROUND: Klebsiella pneumoniae is a common cause of nosocomial infections. Antibiotic resistance and ability to form biofilm, as two key virulence factors of K. pneumoniae, are involved in the persistence of infections. The purpose of this study was to investigate the correlation between antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation capability among K. pneumoniae strains isolated from hospitalized patients in Iran.

METHODS: Over a 10-month period, a total of 100 non-duplicate K. pneumoniae strains were collected. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined by Kirby-Bauer disk diffusion method according to CLSI. Biofilm production was assessed by tissue culture plate method. Finally, polymerase chain reaction was conducted to detect four families of carbapenemase: blaIMP, blaVIM, blaNDM, blaOXA-48; biofilm formation associated genes: treC, wza, luxS; and K. pneumoniae confirming gene: rpoB.

RESULTS: Most of the isolates were resistant to trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (52 %), cefotaxime (51 %), cefepime (43 %), and ceftriaxone (43 %). Among all the 100 isolates, 67 were multidrug-resistant (MDR), and 11 were extensively drug-resistant (XDR). The prevalence of the blaVIM, blaIMP, blaNDM, and blaOXA-48 genes were 7 , 11 , 5 , and 28 %, respectively. The results of biofilm formation in the tissue culture plate assay indicated that 75 (75 %) strains could produce biofilm and only 25 (25 %) isolates were not able to form biofilm. Among these isolates, 25 % formed fully established biofilms, 19 % were categorized as moderately biofilm-producing, 31 % formed weak biofilms, and 25 % were non-biofilm-producers. The antimicrobial resistance among biofilm former strains was found to be significantly higher than that of non-biofilm former strains (p < 0.05). Molecular distribution of biofilm formation genes revealed that 98 , 96 , and 34 % of the isolates carried luxS, treC, and wza genes, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: The rise of antibiotic resistance among biofilm-producer strains demonstrates a serious concern about limited treatment options in the hospital settings. All of the data suggest that fundamental actions and introduction of novel strategies for controlling of K. pneumoniae biofilm-related infections is essential.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Tarabal VS, Silva FG, Sinisterra RD, et al (2021)

Impact of DMPEI on biofilm adhesion on latex urinary catheter.

Recent patents on biotechnology pii:BIOT-EPUB-114184 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Microorganisms can migrate from the external environment to the patient's organism through the insertion of catheters. Despite being indispensable medical devices, the catheter surface can be colonized by microorganisms and become a starting point for biofilm formation. Therefore, new technologies are being developed in order to modify surfaces to prevent the adhesion and survival of microorganisms.Patents with the use of DMPEI have been filed.

OBJECTIVE: In the present work, we coated latex catheter surfaces with 2 mg mL-1 DMPEI in different solvents, evaluated the wettability of the surface and the anti-biofilm activity of the coated catheter against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans.

METHODS: We coated the inner and outer catheter surface with 2 mg mL-1 of DMPEI solubilized in butanol, dime-thylformamide, and cyclohexanone and were analyzed visually. Contact angle measurement allowed the analysis of the wettability of the surfaces. The CFU mL-1 counting evaluated E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans adhesion onto the control and treated surfaces.

RESULTS: The contact angle decreased from 50.48º to 46.93º on the inner surface and 55.83º to 50.91º on the outer surface of latex catheters coated with DMPEI. The catheter coated with DMPEI showed anti-biofilm activity of 83%, 88%, and 93% on the inner surface and 100%, 92%, and 86% on the outer surface for E. coli, S. aureus, and C. albicans, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Latex catheter coated with DMPEI efficiently impaired the biofilm formation both in the outer and inner surfaces showing a potential antimicrobial with high anti-biofilm activity for medical devices.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Araujo TT, Camiloti GD, Valle AD, et al (2021)

A sugarcane cystatin (CaneCPI-5) alters microcosm biofilm formation and reduces dental caries.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

The antimicrobial and anticaries effects of CaneCPI-5 were evaluated. Ninety bovine enamel samples were treated for 60 s with either phosphate-buffered-saline (PBS), 0.12% chlorhexidine (CHX), 0.05 mg ml-1 CaneCPI-5, 0.1 mg ml-1 CaneCPI-5 or 0.5 mg ml-1 CaneCPI-5. They were incubated with inoculum (human saliva + McBain's saliva) for the first 8 h. From then until the end of the experiment, the enamel was exposed to McBain saliva with sucrose and, once a day, for 5 days, they were treated with the solutions. At the end of the experimental period, resazurin and viable plate count assays were performed. Enamel demineralization was also measured. All concentrations of CaneCPI-5 and CHX significantly reduced the activity of biofilms compared with PBS. For viable plate counts, all treatments similarly reduced the lactobacilli and total streptococci; for the mutans streptococci, 0.05 mg ml-1 CaneCPI-5 performed better than CHX. All CaneCPI-5 concentrations significantly reduced the integrated mineral loss. This study represents the first step regarding the use of CaneCPI-5 within the concept of acquired enamel pellicle and biofilm engineering to prevent dental caries.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Mathlouthi A, Saadaoui N, Pennacchietti E, et al (2021)

Essential oils from Artemisia species inhibit biofilm formation and the virulence of Escherichia coli EPEC 2348/69.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Enteropathogenic Escherichia coli E2346/69 (EPEC) has caused foodborne outbreaks worldwide and the bacterium forms antimicrobial-tolerant biofilms. The anti-biofilm formation of various components of essential oils extracted from selected medicinal plants were investigated and tested on EPEC and wild strains of E. coli. Oils extracted from the family Asteraceae and their major common constituents at 0.031 and 0.062% (V/v) were found to significantly inhibit biofilm formation without affecting the growth of planktonic cells. In addition, three plants belonging to this family (Artemisia herba alba, Artemisia campestris and Artemisia absinthium) played important roles in the antimicrobial activity. Interestingly, their essential oils reduced the ability of E. coli (the EPEC and K12 strains) to form a biofilm. The crystal violet reduction assay showed that the plant extracts tested reduced biofilm formation with the inhibition of bacterial attachment up to 45% for EPEC and 70% for E. coli K-12 after 24 h treatment at 0.62 mg ml-1, demonstrating that Artemisia oils had a high anti-biofilm activity on the bacteria tested. The results indicate that the locus of enterocyte effacement (LEE) acquired by horizontal transfer promotes the formation of the attaching and effacing (A/E) lesion and increases the capacity of the photogen strain (EPEC) to form a biofilm. The chemical composition of the volatile compounds was obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis, which showed that the essential oils consisted of thirty-four compounds. Chamazulene (39.21%), β-pinene (32.07%), and α-thujone (29.39%) were the main constituents of the essential oils of A. herba alba, A. absinthium and A. campestris, respectively.

RevDate: 2021-02-15

Semai A, Plewniak F, Charrié-Duhaut A, et al (2021)

Characterisation of hydrocarbon degradation, biosurfactant production, and biofilm formation in Serratia sp. Tan611: a new strain isolated from industrially contaminated environment in Algeria.

Antonie van Leeuwenhoek [Epub ahead of print].

A novel bacterial strain was isolated from industrially contaminated waste water. In the presence of crude oil, this strain was shown to reduce the rate of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) up to 97.10% in 24 h. This bacterium was subsequently identified by 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and affiliated to the Serratia genus by the RDP classifier. Its genome was sequenced and annotated, and genes coding for catechol 1,2 dioxygenase and naphthalene 1,2-dioxygenase system involved in aromatic hydrocarbon catabolism, and LadA-type monooxygenases involved in alkane degradation, were identified. Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of crude oil after biological treatment showed that Serratia sp. Tan611 strain was able to degrade n-alkanes (from C13 to C25). This bacterium was also shown to produce a biosurfactant, the emulsification index (E24) reaching 43.47% and 65.22%, against vegetable and crude oil, respectively. Finally, the formation of a biofilm was increased in the presence of crude oil. These observations make Serratia sp. Tan611 a good candidate for hydrocarbon bioremediation.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Joshi RV, Gunawan C, R Mann (2021)

We Are One: Multispecies Metabolism of a Biofilm Consortium and Their Treatment Strategies.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:635432.

The ecological and medical significance of bacterial biofilms have been well recognized. Biofilms are harder to control than their planktonic free-living counterparts and quite recently, the focus of the study has shifted to the multispecies consortia, which represent the vast majority of real-case infection scenarios. Studies have begun to explore the complex interspecies interactions within these biofilms. However, only little attention is currently given to the role of cellular metabolites in the cell-to-cell communication. The concentration gradients of metabolic substrates and products affect the spatial growth of bacteria in multispecies biofilm. This, if looked into more deeply, can lead to identification of potential therapies targeting the specific metabolites and hence the coordinated protection in the bacterial community. Herein, we review the interspecies communications, including their metabolic cross-talking, in multispecies biofilm, to signify the importance of such interactions on the initial formation and subsequent growth of these biofilms. Multispecies biofilms with their species heterogeneity are more resilient to antimicrobial agents than their single species biofilm counterparts and this characteristic is of particular interest when dealing with pathogenic bacteria. In this Review, we also discuss the treatment options available, to include current and emerging avenues to combat pathogenic multispecies biofilms in the clinical, environmental, as well as industrial settings.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Scheper H, Wubbolts JM, Verhagen JAM, et al (2021)

SAAP-148 Eradicates MRSA Persisters Within Mature Biofilm Models Simulating Prosthetic Joint Infection.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:625952.

Prosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a severe complication of arthroplasty. Due to biofilm and persister formation current treatment strategies often fail. Therefore, innovative anti-biofilm and anti-persister agents are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides with their broad antibacterial activities may be such candidates. An in vitro model simulating PJI comprising of rifampicin/ciprofloxacin-exposed, mature methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilms on polystyrene plates, titanium/aluminium/niobium disks, and prosthetic joint liners were developed. Bacteria obtained from and residing within these biofilms were exposed to SAAP-148, acyldepsipeptide-4, LL-37, and pexiganan. Microcalorimetry was used to monitor the heat flow by the bacteria in these models. Daily exposure of mature biofilms to rifampicin/ciprofloxacin for 3 days resulted in a 4-log reduction of MRSA. Prolonged antibiotic exposure did not further reduce bacterial counts. Microcalorimetry confirmed the low metabolic activity of these persisters. SAAP-148 and pexiganan, but not LL-37, eliminated the persisters while ADEP4 reduced the number of persisters. SAAP-148 further eradicated persisters within antibiotics-exposed, mature biofilms on the various surfaces. To conclude, antibiotic-exposed, mature MRSA biofilms on various surfaces have been developed as in vitro models for PJI. SAAP-148 is highly effective against persisters obtained from the biofilms as well as within these models. Antibiotics-exposed, mature biofilms on relevant surfaces can be instrumental in the search for novel treatment strategies to combat biofilm-associated infections.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Melian C, Castellano P, Segli F, et al (2021)

Proteomic Analysis of Listeria monocytogenes FBUNT During Biofilm Formation at 10°C in Response to Lactocin AL705.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:604126.

Listeria monocytogenes is one of the major food-related pathogens and is able to survive and multiply under different stress conditions. Its persistence in industrial premises and foods is partially due to its ability to form biofilm. Thus, as a natural strategy to overcome L. monocytogenes biofilm formation, the treatment with lactocin AL705 using a sublethal dose (20AU/ml) was explored. The effect of the presence of the bacteriocin on the biofilm formation at 10°C of L. monocytogenes FBUNT was evaluated for its proteome and compared to the proteomes of planktonic and sessile cells grown at 10°C in the absence of lactocin. Compared to planktonic cells, adaptation of sessile cells during cold stress involved protein abundance shifts associated with ribosomes function and biogenesis, cell membrane functionality, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism, and transport. When sessile cells were treated with lactocin AL705, proteins' up-regulation were mostly related to carbohydrate metabolism and nutrient transport in an attempt to compensate for impaired energy generation caused by bacteriocin interacting with the cytoplasmic membrane. Notably, transport systems such as β-glucosidase IIABC (lmo0027), cellobiose (lmo2763), and trehalose (lmo1255) specific PTS proteins were highly overexpressed. In addition, mannose (lmo0098), a specific PTS protein indicating the adaptive response of sessile cells to the bacteriocin, was downregulated as this PTS system acts as a class IIa bacteriocin receptor. A sublethal dose of lactocin AL705 was able to reduce the biofilm formation in L. monocytogenes FBUNT and this bacteriocin induced adaptation mechanisms in treated sessile cells. These results constitute valuable data related to specific proteins targeting the control of L. monocytogenes biofilm upon bacteriocin treatment.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Bharti S, Maurya RK, Venugopal U, et al (2020)

Rv1717 Is a Cell Wall - Associated β-Galactosidase of Mycobacterium tuberculosis That Is Involved in Biofilm Dispersion.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:611122.

Understanding the function of conserved hypothetical protein (CHP)s expressed by a pathogen in the infected host can lead to better understanding of its pathogenesis. The present work describes the functional characterization of a CHP, Rv1717 of Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). Rv1717 has been previously reported to be upregulated in TB patient lungs. Rv1717 belongs to the cupin superfamily of functionally diverse proteins, several of them being carbohydrate handling proteins. Bioinformatic analysis of the amino acid sequence revealed similarity to glycosyl hydrolases. Enzymatic studies with recombinant Rv1717 purified from Escherichia coli showed that the protein is a β-D-galactosidase specific for pyranose form rather than the furanose form. We expressed the protein in Mycobacterium smegmatis (Msm), which lacks its ortholog. In Msm Rv1717 , the protein was found to localize to the cell wall (CW) with a preference to the poles. Msm Rv1717 showed significant changes in colony morphology and cell surface properties. Most striking observation was its unusual Congo red colony morphotype, reduced ability to form biofilms, pellicles and autoagglutinate. Exogenous Rv1717 not only prevented biofilm formation in Msm, but also degraded preformed biofilms, suggesting that its substrate likely exists in the exopolysaccharides of the biofilm matrix. Presence of galactose in the extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) has not been reported before and hence we used the galactose-specific Wisteria floribunda lectin (WFL) to test the same. The lectin extensively bound to Msm and Mtb EPS, but not the bacterium per se. Purified Rv1717 also hydrolyzed exopolysaccharides extracted from Msm biofilm. Eventually, to decipher its role in Mtb, we downregulated its expression and demonstrate that the strain is unable to disperse from in vitro biofilms, unlike the wild type. Biofilms exposed to carbon starvation showed a sudden upregulation of Rv1717 transcripts supporting the potential role of Rv1717 in Mtb dispersing from a deteriorating biofilm.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Kim D, Kim W, J Kim (2021)

New Bacterial Surface Display System Development and Application Based on Bacillus subtilis YuaB Biofilm Component as an Anchoring Motif.

Biotechnology and bioprocess engineering : BBE [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial surface display system has been adopted in various biotechnological applications. In the case of Bacillus subtilis, most of the studies have been developed using spore based surface display system utilizing the inherent rigidity of spore against heat, alkali, and shear stress. But, spore harvest, purification and separation need additional cost and labor. To eliminate this procedure and to use the gram-positive nature of B. subtilis, YuaB, which is one of the major B. subtilis biofilm components and locates in the cell wall, based cell surface display system, is developed. P43 promoter driven overexpression of YuaB-His6 tag does not hamper bacterial cell growth and promoted biofilm formation of recombinant strain. Flow cytometry of recombinant strain and its protoplast using FITC-Anti His6 antibody, verified that YuaB locate in plasma membrane and protrude to the outside of cell wall, which means YuaB can be used as very efficient anchoring motif. Using surface expressed YuaB-His6 tag, removal of divalent metal ion, Cu2+ and Ni2+, was tried to test its possibility for the environmental application of developed system.

RevDate: 2021-02-15

Okamoto-Shibayama K, Yoshida A, K Ishihara (2021)

Inhibitory Effect of Resveratrol on Candida albicans Biofilm Formation.

The Bulletin of Tokyo Dental College [Epub ahead of print].

Candida albicans is the primary candidiasis-causing fungal pathogen in humans, and one of its most important virulence factors is the ability to form biofilms. Moreover, these biofilms are often resistant to antifungal agents, so there is a need to develop alternative elimination strategies and therapeutic agents for such infections. The antifungal activity of resveratrol, a phytoalexin polyphenolic compound, impairs the morphological transition of C. albicans under various hypha-inducing conditions and inhibits growth of the yeast-form and mycelia. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of resveratrol against C. albicans biofilm formation. The developmental, sustained, and mature stages of biofilm formation were affected or inhibited by resveratrol. Exposure to resveratrol at the developmental stage inhibited growth of C. albicans in a dose-dependent manner. A >30% reduction was observed in sustained biofilm growth in the presence of 200 μg/ml resveratrol in comparison with in its absence. In terms of disruption of matured biofilm, 6.25-100 μg/ml resveratrol significantly reduced cell viability of C. albicans compared with in a control sample (p<0.05). The present results indicate that resveratrol has the potential to serve as an anti-Candida treatment and preventive tool which functions by inhibiting existing or under-forming C. albicans biofilms.

RevDate: 2021-02-14

Xiong K, Chen X, Zhu H, et al (2021)

Anticaries activity of GERM CLEAN in Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans dual-species biofilm.

Oral diseases [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the anti-microbial effects of a peptide containing novel oral spray GERM CLEAN on dual-species biofilm formed by Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans and to investigate whether GERM CLEAN inhibits the demineralization procedure of bovine enamel in vitro.

METHODS: The anti-microbial effects of GERM CLEAN on dual-species biofilm were analyzed by initial adherence rate calculation, water-insoluble exopolysaccharides quantification, total biomass quantification and colony forming units (CFUs) counting. Scanning electron microscopy and confocal laser scanning microscopy were applied to evaluate the impacts of GERM CLEAN on the biofilm structure. Further, the effects of GERM CLEAN on acidogenicity of dual-species were appraised via glycolytic pH drop analysis and hydroxyapatite dissolution measurement. The percentage of Surface Microhardness Reduction (%SMHR) evaluation, Atomic Force Micrograph (AFM) examination and Transverse Microradiography (TMR) analysis after pH cycling were used to determine whether GERM CLEAN inhibited the demineralization of bovine enamel.

RESULTS: GERM CLEAN decreased the adherence rate, water-insoluble EPS production, biofilm formation and acidogenicity of the dual-species. Moreover, GERM CLEAN significantly inhibited the demineralization status of bovine enamels.

CONCLUSION: This peptide containing novel oral spray GERM CLEAN has anti-microbial potential toward the dual-species. GERM CLEAN can also impede the demineralization procedure of enamel.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Greve D, Moter A, Kleinschmidt MC, et al (2021)

Rothia aeria and Rothia dentocariosa as biofilm builders in infective endocarditis.

International journal of medical microbiology : IJMM, 311(2):151478 pii:S1438-4221(21)00007-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Rothia sp. are Gram-positive bacteria in the class of Actinobacteria that are part of the physiological oral flora. In rare cases, Rothia aeria and Rothia dentocariosa can cause infective endocarditis (IE). The biofilm potential of Rothia in endocarditis is unknown.

METHODS: Specimen from two cases of Rothia endocarditis were obtained during cardiac surgery. One of the patients suffered mitral valve IE from Rothia aeria. In the other case, IE of a prosthetic pulmonary valve was caused by Rothia dentocariosa. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) was used for visualization of microorganisms within heart valve tissues in combination with PCR and sequencing (FISHseq).

RESULTS: The two heart valve specimens featured mature biofilms of bacteria that were identified by FISHseq as Rothia aeria and Rothia dentocariosa, respectively. FISH showed in situ biofilms of both microorganisms that feature distinct phenotypes for the first time ex vivo. Both of our reported cases were treated successfully by heart valve surgery and antibiotic therapy using beta-lactam antibiotics.

CONCLUSION: The biofilm potential of Rothia sp. must be taken into account. The awareness of Rothia aeria and Rothia dentocariosa as rare but relevant pathogens for infective endocarditis must be raised. Use of biofilm-effective antibiotics in Rothia IE should be discussed.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Wang F, Xu S, Liu L, et al (2021)

One-stage partial nitrification and anammox process in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor: Start-up, nitrogen removal performance and bacterial community dynamics in response to temperature.

The Science of the total environment, 772:145529 pii:S0048-9697(21)00597-0 [Epub ahead of print].

A one-stage partial nitrification and anammox (PN/A) process was started up and operated under varying temperatures in a lab-scale sequencing batch biofilm reactor. The start‑up phase took 110 days with an intermittent aeration strategy, and the removal efficiencies of ammonia‑nitrogen and total nitrogen were found to be 92.22% and 76.07%, respectively. The total nitrogen removal efficiency (NRE) increased by 9.49% when temperature decreased from 30 °C to 25 °C, but declined by 83.84% from 25 °C to 20 °C. The PN process was inhibited and subsequently limited the nitrogen removal performance at 20 °C. When temperature returned to 28 °C, the NRE recovered to 67.27%, but it was still lower than the value before the decrease in temperature (79.40%). Microbial community analysis showed that the predominant ammonia oxidation bacteria and anammox bacteria were Nitrosomonas and Candidatus Kuenenia, respectively. Nitrosomonas grew, while the relative abundance of Candidatus Kuenenia increased as temperature decreased and vice versa.

RevDate: 2021-02-15

Torkzadeh H, Zodrow KR, Bridges WC, et al (2021)

Quantification and modeling of the response of surface biofilm growth to continuous low intensity UVC irradiation.

Water research, 193:116895 pii:S0043-1354(21)00093-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Though germicidal UV radiation is widely applied for disinfection of water and food, it may also be used to prevent bacterial growth and colonization on surfaces within engineered systems. Emerging UV source technologies, such as ultraviolet-C (UVC) LEDs, present new opportunities for deterring biofilms within certain devices, including medical equipment, food equipment, and potentially in plumbing fixtures for prevention of opportunistic respiratory pathogen infections. Rational design for incorporation of UVC sources into devices with complex internal geometries is currently hampered by the lack of an engineering framework for predicting reductions in biofilm growth rates in response to continuous low-intensity irradiation. Herein we have developed an experimental apparatus and method for growing biofilms under concurrent UV irradiation and quantifying the resulting suppression of surface growth. Under accelerated growth conditions over 48 h, E. coli surface biovolume was reduced by 95% compared to control biofilms (grown in the dark) by a UV intensity of 50.5 µW/cm2 (254 nm). The required intensity for biofilm prevention was higher than expected, given the UV dose response of the bacteria employed and the cumulative doses delivered to the test surfaces. The results indicate that biofilms can establish even under irradiation conditions that would result in complete inactivation of planktonic cells, likely due to the shielding effects of colloidal material and microbial exudates. A pseudo-mechanistic model was also developed which correlated UV intensity to the resultant reduction in specific surface biovolume.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Zan F, Guo G, Zheng T, et al (2021)

Biofilm development in a pilot-scale gravity sewer: Physical characteristics, microstructure, and microbial communities.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(21)00132-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The existence of abundant biofilms on sewer pipeline walls can lead to negative environmental impacts, such as poisonous gas release and pipe corrosions through transforming various pollutants. Investigating the formation process of sewer biofilms is of importance in advancing knowledge of sewer operation and maintenance. In this study, the changes in physical characteristics, microstructure, and microbial communities of sewer biofilm were analyzed in-depth in a pilot-scale gravity sewer during a 45-day operation. The results show that a high specific surface area at the early stage could channel the substrates for stimulating the primary colonizers (e.g., Cytophagia, Sphingobacteriia, Alpha-, and Betaproteobacteria), and could further excrete an extracellular matrix to facilitate biofilm growth. The sewer biofilms were gradually formed with 62 g VS/m2 organic content, 1.2 mm biofilm thickness, and 89 mg/cm3 dry density after 45 days operation. Moreover, the biofilm growth promoted the emergence of facultative bacteria and anaerobes (affiliated with Flavobacteriia, Gemmatimonadetes, Deltaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria). Microelectrode analysis further verified that an anaerobic zone existed in mature biofilm with a negative oxidation-reduction potential (-105 mV), where approximately 0.1 μmol/L of sulfide was produced. Our results suggest that the migration of the microbial community correlated with the changes in the evolved physical characteristics and microstructure of sewer biofilm, and can contribute to the strategies for sulfide control for improving sewer maintenance.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Walker JN, T Myckatyn (2021)

Commentary on: Biofilm Formation on Breast Implant Surfaces by Major Gram-Positive Bacterial Pathogens.

Aesthetic surgery journal pii:6134583 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Fourie R, Cason ED, Albertyn J, et al (2021)

Transcriptional response of Candida albicans to Pseudomonas aeruginosa in a polymicrobial biofilm.

G3 (Bethesda, Md.) pii:6134339 [Epub ahead of print].

Candida albicans is frequently co-isolated with the Gram-negative bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa. In vitro, the interaction is complex, with both species influencing each other. Not only does the bacterium kill hyphal cells of C. albicans through physical interaction, it also affects C. albicans biofilm formation and morphogenesis, through various secreted factors and cell wall components. The present study sought to expand the current knowledge regarding the interaction between C. albicans and P. aeruginosa, using transcriptome analyses of early static biofilms. Under these conditions, a total of 2537 open reading frames (approximately 40% of the C. albicans transcriptome) was differentially regulated in the presence of P. aeruginosa. Upon deeper analyses it became evident that the response of C. albicans towards P. aeruginosa was dominated by a response to hypoxia, and included those associated with stress as well as iron and zinc homeostasis. These conditions may also lead to the observed differential regulation of genes associated with cell membrane synthesis, morphology, biofilm formation and phenotypic switching. Thus, C. albicans in polymicrobial biofilms with P. aeruginosa have unique transcriptional profiles that may influence commensalism as well as pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-02-15

Valliammai A, Selvaraj A, Mathumitha P, et al (2021)

Polymeric antibiofilm coating comprising synergistic combination of citral and thymol prevents methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation on titanium.

Materials science & engineering. C, Materials for biological applications, 121:111863.

Biomaterial associated microbial infections are complicated and mostly lead to revision surgery or removal which are painful to the patients and quite expensive. These infections are difficult to treat with antibiotics as it is often related to biofilm formation. Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is the leading pathogen in biomaterial associated infections and well known to form biofilm on foreign materials. To reduce the risk of biomaterial associated infections, recent treatment strategies focus on modification of the implant surface to prevent the adhesion of bacteria. Antibiofilm coating is the effective approach than coating with antimicrobials as antibiofilm agents will not create selective pressure thereby excludes possibility of drug resistance. The current study identified and validated the synergistic antibiofilm activity of citral (CIT) and thymol (THY) by crystal violet quantification and microscopic analysis without alteration in growth and metabolic viability of MRSA. Polymeric antibiofilm coating with CIT + THY as active ingredients was formulated and coated on titanium surface by the process of spin coating. Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis confirmed the effective blending of polymeric formulation and the presence of CIT and THY. Atomic force microscopy (AFM) images revealed the homogenous coating and reduced surface roughness and thickness of the coating was measured by surface profilometer. Antibiofilm coating released CIT and THY in a sustained manner for 60 days. Antibiofilm coating effectively inhibited MRSA adherence in vitro and antibiofilm activity of coating was not affected by plasma conditioning. In addition, antibiofilm coating was non-hemolytic and non-toxic to PBMC. Thus, the current study demonstrated the effectual strategy to prevent biomaterial associated infections and proposes the prospective role of antibiofilm coating in clinical applications.

RevDate: 2021-02-15

Topka-Bielecka G, Dydecka A, Necel A, et al (2021)

Bacteriophage-Derived Depolymerases against Bacterial Biofilm.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 10(2): pii:antibiotics10020175.

In addition to specific antibiotic resistance, the formation of bacterial biofilm causes another level of complications in attempts to eradicate pathogenic or harmful bacteria, including difficult penetration of drugs through biofilm structures to bacterial cells, impairment of immunological response of the host, and accumulation of various bioactive compounds (enzymes and others) affecting host physiology and changing local pH values, which further influence various biological functions. In this review article, we provide an overview on the formation of bacterial biofilm and its properties, and then we focus on the possible use of phage-derived depolymerases to combat bacterial cells included in this complex structure. On the basis of the literature review, we conclude that, although these bacteriophage-encoded enzymes may be effective in destroying specific compounds involved in the formation of biofilm, they are rarely sufficient to eradicate all bacterial cells. Nevertheless, a combined therapy, employing depolymerases together with antibiotics and/or other antibacterial agents or factors, may provide an effective approach to treat infections caused by bacteria able to form biofilms.

RevDate: 2021-02-12

Jung CJ, Hsu CC, Chen JW, et al (2021)

PspC domain-containing protein (PCP) determines Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation through bacterial extracellular DNA release and platelet adhesion in experimental endocarditis.

PLoS pathogens, 17(2):e1009289 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-20-02010 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial extracellular DNA (eDNA) and activated platelets have been found to contribute to biofilm formation by Streptococcus mutans on injured heart valves to induce infective endocarditis (IE), yet the bacterial component directly responsible for biofilm formation or platelet adhesion remains unclear. Using in vivo survival assays coupled with microarray analysis, the present study identified a LiaR-regulated PspC domain-containing protein (PCP) in S. mutans that mediates bacterial biofilm formation in vivo. Reverse transcriptase- and chromatin immunoprecipitation-polymerase chain reaction assays confirmed the regulation of pcp by LiaR, while PCP is well-preserved among streptococcal pathogens. Deficiency of pcp reduced in vitro and in vivo biofilm formation and released the eDNA inside bacteria floe along with reduced bacterial platelet adhesion capacity in a fibrinogen-dependent manner. Therefore, LiaR-regulated PCP alone could determine release of bacterial eDNA and binding to platelets, thus contributing to biofilm formation in S. mutans-induced IE.

RevDate: 2021-02-15

Allkja J, AS Azevedo (2021)

Characterization of Social Interactions and Spatial Arrangement of Individual Bacteria in MultiStrain or Multispecies Biofilm Systems Using Nucleic Acid Mimics-Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2246:97-109.

Biofilms are often composed of different bacterial and fungal species/strains, which form complex structures based on social interactions with each other. Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) can help us identify the different species/strains present within a biofilm , and when coupled with confocal scanning laser microscopy (CSLM), it enables the visualization of the three-dimensional (3D) structure of the biofilm and the spatial arrangement of each individual species/strain within it. In this chapter, we describe the protocol for characterizing multistrain or multispecies biofilm formation using NAM-FISH and CSLM.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Elgueta E, Mena J, PA Orihuela (2021)

Hydroethanolic Extracts of Haplopappus baylahuen Remy and Aloysia citriodora Palau Have Bactericide Activity and Inhibit the Ability of Salmonella Enteritidis to Form Biofilm and Adhere to Human Intestinal Cells.

BioMed research international, 2021:3491831.

We analysed whether the hydroethanolic extracts from leaves of Haplopappus baylahuen Remy (bailahuen) and Aloysia citriodora Palau (cedron) inhibit the growth and ability of Salmonella Enteritidis to form biofilms and to adhere to human intestinal epithelial cells. Herein, we first determined the total phenolic content and antioxidant and antibacterial activities of the extracts. Then, Salmonella Enteritidis was treated with the extracts to analyse biofilm formation by scanning electronic microscopy and the violet crystal test. We also measured the efflux pump activity of Salmonella Enteritidis since biofilm formation is associated with this phenomenon. Furthermore, the human intestinal cell line Caco-2 was infected with Salmonella Enteritidis pretreated with the extracts, and 30 min later, the number of bacteria that adhered to the cell surface was quantified. Finally, we determined by qPCR the expression of genes associated with biofilm formation, namely, the diguanilate cyclase AdrA protein gene (adrA) and the BapA protein gene (bapA), and genes associated with adhesion, namely, the transcriptional regulator HilA (hilA). The phenolic content and antioxidant and bactericide activities were higher in bailahuen than in the cedron extract. Biofilm formation was inhibited by the extracts in a dose-dependent manner, while the activity of efflux pumps was decreased only with the cedron extract. Adhesion to Caco-2 cells was also inhibited without differences between doses and extracts. The extracts decreased the expression of adrA; with the cedron extract being the most efficient. The expression of hilA is affected only with the cedron extract. We concluded that hydroethanolic extracts of bailahuen and cedron differentially inhibit the growth of Salmonella Enteritidis and affect its the ability to form biofilms and to adhere to human intestinal epithelial cells. These results highlight the presence of molecules in bailahuen and cedron with a high potential for the control of the Salmonella Enteritidis pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-02-14

Mori DI, Schurr MJ, DP Nair (2020)

Selective Inhibition of Streptococci Biofilm Growth via a Hydroxylated Azobenzene Coating.

Advanced materials interfaces, 7(15):.

Strategies to engineer surfaces that can enable the selective inhibition of bacterial pathogens while preserving beneficial microbes can serve as tools to precisely edit the microbiome. In the oral microbiome, this selectivity is crucial in preventing the proliferation of cariogenic species such as Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans). In this communication, coatings consisting of a covalently tethered hydroxylated azobenzene (OH-AAZO) on glassy acrylic resins are studied and characterized for their ability to selectively prevent the attachment and growth of oral Streptococci biofilms. The coating applied on the surface of glassy resins inhibits the growth and proliferation of cariogenic S. mutans and S. oralis biofilms while A. actinomycetemcomitans, S. aureus, and E. coli biofilms are unaffected by the coating . The antibacterial effect is characterized as a function of both the OH-AAZO concentration in the coatings (≥50 mg mL-1) and the structure of the monomer in the coating. Preliminary mechanistic results suggest that the targeted bactericidal effect against Streptococci species is caused by a disruption of membrane ion potential, inducing cell death.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Akinola SA, Tshimpamba ME, Mwanza M, et al (2020)

Biofilm Production Potential of Salmonella Serovars Isolated from Chickens in North West Province, South Africa.

Polish journal of microbiology, 69(4):427-439.

Bacterial biofilms have recently gained considerable interest in the food production and medical industries due to their ability to resist destruction by disinfectants and other antimicrobials. Biofilms are extracellular polymer matrices that may enhance the survival of pathogens even when exposed to environmental stress. The effect of incubation temperatures (25°C, 37°C, and 40°C) and Salmonella serotype on biofilm-forming potentials was evaluated. Previously typed Salmonella serotypes (55) isolated from the gut of chickens were accessed for biofilms formation using a standard assay. Salmonella Typhimurium ATCC 14028TM and Salmonella Enteritidis ATCC 13076TM (positive controls), Escherichia coli (internal control) and un-inoculated Luria Bertani (LB) broth (negative control) were used. The isolates formed no biofilm (11.86-13.56%), weak (11.86-45.76%), moderate (18.64-20.34%), strong biofilms (23.73-54.24%) across the various temperatures investigated. Serotypes, Salmonella Heidelberg and Salmonella Weltevreden were the strongest biofilm formers at temperatures (25°C, 37°C, and 40°C, respectively). The potential of a large proportion (80%) of Salmonella serotypes to form biofilms increased with increasing incubation temperatures but decreased at 40°C. Findings indicate that average temperature favours biofilm formation by Salmonella serotypes. However, the influence of incubation temperature on biofilm formation was greater when compared to serotype. A positive correlation exists between Salmonella biofilm formed at 25°C, 37°C and 40°C (p ≥ 0.01). The ability of Salmonella species to form biofilms at 25°C and 37°C suggests that these serotypes may present severe challenges to food-processing and hospital facilities.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Kİlİc T (2020)

Biofilm-Forming Ability and Effect of Sanitation Agents on Biofilm-Control of Thermophile Geobacillus sp. D413 and Geobacillus toebii E134.

Polish journal of microbiology, 69(4):411-419.

Geobacillus sp. D413 and Geobacillus toebii E134 are aerobic, non-pathogenic, endospore-forming, obligately thermophilic bacilli. Gram-positive thermophilic bacilli can produce heat-resistant spores. The bacteria are indicator organisms for assessing the manufacturing process's hygiene and are capable of forming biofilms on surfaces used in industrial sectors. The present study aimed to determine the biofilm-forming properties of Geobacillus isolates and how to eliminate this formation with sanitation agents. According to the results, extracellular DNA (eDNA) was interestingly not affected by the DNase I, RNase A, and proteinase K. However, the genomic DNA (gDNA) was degraded by only DNase I. It seemed that the eDNA had resistance to DNase I when purified. It is considered that the enzymes could not reach the target eDNA. Moreover, the eDNA resistance may result from the conserved folded structure of eDNA after purification. Another assumption is that the eDNA might be protected by other extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and/or extracellular membrane vesicles (EVs) structures. On the contrary, DNase I reduced unpurified eDNA (mature biofilms). Biofilm formation on surfaces used in industrial areas was investigated in this work: the D413 and E134 isolates adhered to all surfaces. Various sanitation agents could control biofilms of Geobacillus isolates. The best results were provided by nisin for D413 (80%) and α-amylase for E134 (98%). This paper suggests that sanitation agents could be a solution to control biofilm structures of thermophilic bacilli.

RevDate: 2021-02-13

Wang Y, Pei Z, Lou Z, et al (2021)

Evaluation of Anti-Biofilm Capability of Cordycepin Against Candida albicans.

Infection and drug resistance, 14:435-448.

Introduction: The opportunistic pathogen Candida albicans can form biofilms, resulting in drug resistance with great risk to medical treatment.

Methodology: We investigated the ability of C. albicans to form biofilms on different materials, as well as the inhibitory and eradicating effects of cordycepin on biofilm. The action mechanism of cordycepin against biofilm was studied by crystal violet staining, XTT [2, 3-bis (2-methoxy-4-nitro-5-sulfophenyl)-2H-tetrazolium-5-carboxanilide] reduction method, phenol-sulfuric acid method, cellular superficial hydrophobicity (CSH) assay, and confocal laser scanning microscope observation. We also evaluated the acute toxicity of cordycepin in vivo.

Results: The results showed facile formation of biofilms by C. albicans on polypropylene. The 50% minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC50) of cordycepin was 0.062 mg/mL. A concentration of 0.125 mg/mL significantly decreased biofilm formation, metabolic activity, secretion of extracellular polysaccharides, and relative CSH. Cordycepin could inhibit biofilm formation at low concentration without affecting fungal growth. In addition, cordycepin effectively eradicated 59.14% of mature biofilms of C. albicans at a concentration of 0.5 mg/mL. For acute toxicity, the LD50 (50% of lethal dose) of cordycepin was determined as higher than 500 mg/kg for mice.

Conclusion: The results of this study show that cordycepin significantly inhibited and eradicated biofilms by decreasing metabolic activity, the ratio of living cells, the hydrophobicity, and damaging the extracellular polysaccharides of biofilm. These findings should facilitate more effective application of cordycepin and suggest a new direction for the treatment of fungal infections.

RevDate: 2021-02-14

Ishihama H, Ishii K, Nagai S, et al (2021)

An antibacterial coated polymer prevents biofilm formation and implant-associated infection.

Scientific reports, 11(1):3602.

To prevent infections associated with medical implants, various antimicrobial silver-coated implant materials have been developed. However, these materials do not always provide consistent antibacterial effects in vivo despite having dramatic antibacterial effects in vitro, probably because the antibacterial effects involve silver-ion-mediated reactive oxygen species generation. Additionally, the silver application process often requires extremely high temperatures, which damage non-metal implant materials. We recently developed a bacteria-resistant coating consisting of hydroxyapatite film on which ionic silver is immobilized via inositol hexaphosphate chelation, using a series of immersion and drying steps performed at low heat. Here we applied this coating to a polymer, polyetheretherketone (PEEK), and analyzed the properties and antibacterial activity of the coated polymer in vitro and in vivo. The ionic silver coating demonstrated significant bactericidal activity and prevented bacterial biofilm formation in vitro. Bio-imaging of a soft tissue infection mouse model in which a silver-coated PEEK plate was implanted revealed a dramatic absence of bacterial signals 10 days after inoculation. These animals also showed a strong reduction in histological features of infection, compared to the control animals. This innovative coating can be applied to complex structures for clinical use, and could prevent infections associated with a variety of plastic implants.

RevDate: 2021-02-12

Huang J, Fan Q, Guo M, et al (2021)

Octenidine dihydrochloride treatment of a meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-infected mouse wound.

Journal of wound care, 30(2):106-114.

OBJECTIVE: This study sought to estimate the effect of a liquid octenidine dihydrochloride (OCT)-impregnated gauze dressing in the treatment of meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) biofilm-infected wounds.

METHOD: In this animal study, a six-millimetre punch full-thickness wound on each mouse back was inoculated with MRSA suspension, and then covered with a Tegaderm (3M Health Care, US) dressing for an established biofilm model. Animals were divided into three groups for topical application: control group (treated with phosphate-buffered saline, PBS); mupirocin group (treated with 2% mupirocin); and OCT group (treated with OCT). All applications were administrated once 24 hours post-wounding. The bioburden was determined by counting colony-forming units (cfus) and the biofilm architecture was viewed using fluorescent staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) on day two. The tissue repair was evaluated histologically and the related genes were detected by reverse transcription quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) on day 15.

RESULTS: The results suggested OCT accelerated healing and reduced by >3.6 log cfu/g bacterial counts on the wounds relative to the PBS-treated control (p<0.05). Histological analysis showed OCT-treated tissue exhibited lower burden of the inflammatory cells, more mature collagen fibres and well-defined epithelialisation. LIVE/DEAD fluorescent staining and SEM confirmed OCT induced a substantial destruction to biofilm structure. RT-qPCR further demonstrated that OCT therapy could inhibit the expression of MRSA and its biofilm genes by nearly 100% (p<0.05).

CONCLUSION: This investigation provides a rare in vivo experimental basis for OCT improvement on MRSA-infected wound healing and the superior efficacy implies OCT topical application may represent an ideal choice to address established bacterial biofilm in hard-to-heal wounds.

RevDate: 2021-02-12

Perveen K, Husain FM, Qais FA, et al (2021)

Microwave-Assisted Rapid Green Synthesis of Gold Nanoparticles Using Seed Extract of Trachyspermum ammi: ROS Mediated Biofilm Inhibition and Anticancer Activity.

Biomolecules, 11(2): pii:biom11020197.

Green synthesis of metal nanoparticles using plant extracts as capping and reducing agents for the biomedical applications has received considerable attention. Moreover, emergence and spread of multidrug resistance among bacterial pathogens has become a major health concern and lookout for novel alternative effective drugs has gained momentum. In current study, we synthesized gold nanoparticles using the seed extract of Trachyspermum ammi (TA-AuNPs), assessed its efficacy against drug resistant biofilms of Listeria monocytogenes and Serratia marcescens, and evaluated its anticancer potential against HepG2 cancer cell lines. Microwave-assisted green synthesis of gold nanoparticles was carried out and characterization was done using UV-vis spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), and dynamic light scattering (DLS). Most nanoparticles were observed as spherical and spheroidal with few anisotropies with an average crystalline size of 16.63 nm. Synthesized TA-AuNPs demonstrated significant biofilm inhibitory activity against L. monocytogenes (73%) as well as S. marcescens (81%). Exopolysaccharide (EPS), motility, and CSH, key elements that facilitate the formation and maintenance of biofilm were also inhibited significantly at the tested sub-minimum inhibitory concentrations (sub-MICs). Further, TA-AuNPs effectively obliterated preformed mature biofilms of S. marcescens and L. monocytogenes by 64% and 58%, respectively. Induction of intracellular ROS production in TA-AuNPs treated bacterial cells could be the plausible mechanism for the reduced biofilm formation in test pathogens. Administration of TA-AuNPs resulted in the arrest of cellular proliferation in a concentration-dependent manner. TA-AuNPs decrease the intracellular GSH in HepG2 cancer cell lines, cells become more prone to ROS generation, hence induce apoptosis. Thus, this work proposes a new eco-friendly and rapid approach for fabricating NPs which can be exploited for multifarious biomedical applications.

RevDate: 2021-02-12

He X, Li Q, Wang N, et al (2021)

Effects of an EPS Biosynthesis Gene Cluster of Paenibacillus polymyxa WLY78 on Biofilm Formation and Nitrogen Fixation under Aerobic Conditions.

Microorganisms, 9(2): pii:microorganisms9020289.

Exopolysaccharides (EPS) are of high significance in bacterial biofilm formation. However, the effects of EPS cluster(s) on biofilm formation in Paenibacillus species are little known. In this study, we have shown that Paenibacillus polymyxa WLY78, a N2-fixing bacterium, can form biofilm. EPS is the major component of the extracellular matrix. The genome of P. polymyxa WLY78 contains two putative gene clusters (designated pep-1 cluster and pep-2 cluster). The pep-1 cluster is composed of 12 putative genes (pepO-lytR) co-located in a 13 kb region. The pep-2 cluster contains 17 putative genes (pepA-pepN) organized as an operon in a 20 kb region. Mutation analysis reveals that the pep-2 cluster is involved in EPS biosynthesis and biofilm formation. Disruption of the pep-2 cluster also leads to the enhancement of motility and change of the colony morphology. In contrast, disruption of the pep-1 cluster does not affect EPS synthesis or biofilm formation. More importantly, the biofilm allowed P. polymyxa WLY78 to fix nitrogen in aerobic conditions, suggesting that biofilm may provide a microaerobic environment for nitrogenase synthesis and activity.

RevDate: 2021-02-15

Parolia A, Kumar H, Ramamurthy S, et al (2021)

Effect of Propolis Nanoparticles against Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm in the Root Canal.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26(3):.

To determine the antibacterial effect of propolis nanoparticles (PNs) as an endodontic irrigant against Enterococcus faecalis biofilm inside the endodontic root canal system. Two-hundred-ten extracted human teeth were sectioned to obtain 6 mm of the middle third of the root. The root canal was enlarged to an internal diameter of 0.9 mm. The specimens were inoculated with E. faecalis for 21 days. Following this, specimens were randomly divided into seven groups, with 30 dentinal blocks in each group including: group I-saline; group II-propolis 100 µg/mL; group III-propolis 300 µg/mL; group IV-propolis nanoparticle 100 µg/mL; group V-propolis nanoparticle 300µg/mL; group VI-6% sodium hypochlorite; group VII-2% chlorhexidine. Dentin shavings were collected at 200 and 400 μm depths, and total numbers of CFUs were determined at the end of one, five, and ten minutes. The non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests were used to compare the differences in reduction in CFUs between all groups, and probability values of p < 0.05 were set as the reference for statistically significant results. The antibacterial effect of PNs as an endodontic irrigant was also assessed against E. faecalis isolates from patients with failed root canal treatment. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) were also performed after exposure to PNs. A Raman spectroscope, equipped with a Leica microscope and lenses with curve-fitting Raman software, was used for analysis. The molecular interactions between bioactive compounds of propolis (Pinocembrin, Kaempferol, and Quercetin) and the proteins Sortase A and β-galactosidase were also understood by computational molecular docking studies. PN300 was significantly more effective in reducing CFUs compared to all other groups (p < 0.05) except 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX (p > 0.05) at all time intervals and both depths. At five minutes, 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX were the most effective in reducing CFUs (p < 0.05). However, no significant difference was found between PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at 10 min (p > 0.05). SEM images also showed the maximum reduction in E. faecalis with PN300, 6% NaOCl, and 2% CHX at five and ten minutes. CLSM images showed the number of dead cells in dentin were highest with PN300 compared to PN100 and saline. There was a reduction in the 484 cm-1 band and an increase in the 870 cm-1 band in the PN300 group. The detailed observations of the docking poses of bioactive compounds and their interactions with key residues of the binding site in all the three docking protocols revealed that the interactions were consistent with reasonable docking and IFD docking scores. PN300 was equally as effective as 6% NaOCl and 2% CHX in reducing the E. faecalis biofilms.

RevDate: 2021-02-14

Jung JI, Baek SM, Nguyen TH, et al (2021)

Effects of Probiotic Culture Supernatant on Cariogenic Biofilm Formation and RANKL-Induced Osteoclastogenesis in RAW 264.7 Macrophages.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26(3):.

Postbiotics are a promising functional ingredient that can overcome the limitations of viability and storage stability that challenge the production of probiotics. To evaluate the effects of postbiotics on oral health, eight spent culture supernatants (SCSs) of probiotics were prepared, and the effects of SCSs on Streptococcus mutans-induced cariogenic biofilm formation and the receptor activator of the nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL)-induced osteoclastogenesis were evaluated in RAW 264.7 macrophages. SCS of Lactobacillus salivarius MG4265 reduced S. mutans-induced biofilm formation by 73% and significantly inhibited tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, which is a biomarker of mature osteoclasts in RAW 264.7 macrophages. The suppression of RANKL-induced activation of mitogen activated the protein kinases (c-Jun N-terminal kinase, extracellular signal-regulated kinase, and p38) and nuclear factor κB pathways, as well as the upregulation of heme oxygenase-1 expression. The suppression of RANK-L-induced activation of mitogen also inhibited the expression of transcriptional factors (c-fos and nuclear factor of activated T cells cytoplasmic 1) and, subsequently, osteoclastogenesis-related gene expression (tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase-positive (TRAP), cathepsin K, and matrix metalloproteinase-9).Therefore, SCS of L. salivarius MG4265 has great potential as a multifunctional oral health ingredient that inhibits biofilm formation and suppresses the alveolar bone loss that is associated with periodontitis.

RevDate: 2021-02-12

Kelar Tučeková Z, Vacek L, Krumpolec R, et al (2021)

Multi-Hollow Surface Dielectric Barrier Discharge for Bacterial Biofilm Decontamination.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26(4): pii:molecules26040910.

The plasma-activated gas is capable of decontaminating surfaces of different materials in remote distances. The effect of plasma-activated water vapor on Staphylococcus epidermidis, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Escherichia coli biofilm contamination was investigated on the polypropylene nonwoven textile surface. The robust and technically simple multi-hollow surface dielectric barrier discharge was used as a low-temperature atmospheric plasma source to activate the water-based medium. The germicidal efficiency of short and long-time exposure to plasma-activated water vapor was evaluated by standard microbiological cultivation and fluorescence analysis using a fluorescence multiwell plate reader. The test was repeated in different distances of the contaminated polypropylene nonwoven sample from the surface of the plasma source. The detection of reactive species in plasma-activated gas flow and condensed activated vapor, and thermal and electrical properties of the used plasma source, were measured. The bacterial biofilm decontamination efficiency increased with the exposure time and the plasma source power input. The log reduction of viable biofilm units decreased with the increasing distance from the dielectric surface.

RevDate: 2021-02-16

Zhou L, Ou P, Zhao B, et al (2021)

Assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate reduction in the bacterial diversity of biofoulant from a full-scale biofilm-membrane bioreactor for textile wastewater treatment.

The Science of the total environment, 772:145464 pii:S0048-9697(21)00532-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate reduction (ASR and DSR) are the core bacterial sulfate-reducing pathways involved in wastewater treatment. It has been reported that sulfate-reducing activities could happen within biofoulants of membrane bioreactors during wastewater treatment. Biofoulants are mainly microbial products contributing membrane fouling and subsequent rising energy consumption in driving membrane filtration. Biofoulants from a full-scale biofilm-membrane bioreactor (biofilm-MBR) treating textile wastewater were investigated in this study. During a 10-month operation, sulfate concentrations in the effluent of the biofilm-MBR gradually decreased alongside with the creeping up sulfite concentrations when biofoulants were also building up on membrane modules. Sulfide had no apparent increases in the effluent during this period. Metagenomic analysis revealed diverse microbial communities residing in the biofoulants. Further analysis on their genetic traits revealed abundant ASR's and DSR's functional genes. A plethora of sulfate-reduction bacteria (SRB), including the well-known Desulfovibrio, Desulfainum, Desulfobacca, Desulfobulbus, Desulfococcus, Desulfonema, Desulfosarcina, Desulfobacter, Desulfobacula, Desulfofaba, Desulfotigum, Desulfatibacillum, Desulfatitalea, Desulfobacterium, were detected in the biofoulants. They were believed to play some important carbon and sulfur-cycling roles in our study. Based on metagenomic analysis, we also deduced that ASR was a functionally more important sulfate-reducing route because of the high abundance of assimilatory sulfate reductases detected. Also, the "AMP (adenosine monophosphate)→sulfite" step was a key reaction shared by both ASR and DSR in the biofoulant. This step might be responsible for the sulfite accumulation in the biofilm-MBR effluent. Overall, ASR functional genes in the biofoulants were more abundant. But the bacteria possessing complete DSR pathways caused the sulfide production in the biofilm-MBR.

RevDate: 2021-02-11

Kamauchi H, Kimura Y, Ushiwatari M, et al (2021)

Synthesis and antifungal activity of polycyclic pyridone derivatives with anti-hyphal and biofilm formation activity against Candida albicans.

Bioorganic & medicinal chemistry letters pii:S0960-894X(21)00071-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Thirty-five pyridone derivatives were synthesized, with derivatization conducted on polycyclic pyridone scaffolds, including cis- or trans-oxydecalin and other cyclic structures, by domino-Knoevenagel-electrocyclic reactions. The anti-fungal activities of the synthesized compounds were tested against Candida albicans. Ten compounds inhibited hyphal formation without inhibiting growth. Pyridones with anti-hyphal formation activity (4c, 6d, 12a and 12c) were tested for their ability to inhibit biofilm formation. Compound 6d showed both anti-hyphal and biofilm inhibition activity.

RevDate: 2021-02-11

Pérez-Calpe AV, Larrañaga A, von Schiller D, et al (2021)

Interactive effects of discharge reduction and fine sediments on stream biofilm metabolism.

PloS one, 16(2):e0246719 pii:PONE-D-20-22278.

Discharge reduction, as caused by water diversion for hydropower, and fine sediments deposition, are prevalent stressors that may affect multiple ecosystem functions in streams. Periphytic biofilms play a key role in stream ecosystem functioning and are potentially affected by these stressors and their interaction. We experimentally assessed the interactive effects of discharge and fine sediments on biofilm metabolism in artificial indoor channels using a factorial split-plot design with two explanatory variables: water discharge (20, 39, 62, 141 and 174 cm3 s-1) and fine sediments (no sediment or 1100 mg L-1 of sediments). We incubated artificial tiles for 25 days in an unpolluted stream to allow biofilm colonization, and then placed them into the indoor channels for acclimation for 18 days. Subsequently, we manipulated water discharge and fine sediments and, after 17 days, we measured biofilm chlorophyll-a concentration and metabolism. Water velocity (range, 0.5 to 3.0 cm s-1) and sediment deposition (range, 6.1 to 16.6 mg cm-2) increased with discharge, the latter showing that the effect of increased inputs prevailed over sloughing. In the no-sediment treatments, discharge did not affect biofilm metabolism, but reduced chlorophyll-a. Sediments, probably as a consequence of nutrients released, promoted metabolism of biofilm and chlorophyll-a, which became independent of water discharge. Our results indicate that pulses of fine sediments can promote biofilm algal biomass and metabolism, but show interactive effects with discharge. Although discharge reduction can affect the abundance of basal resources for food webs, its complex interactions with fine sediments make it difficult to forecast the extent and direction of the changes.

RevDate: 2021-02-12

Park S, Dingemans J, Gowett M, et al (2021)

Glucose-6-Phosphate Acts as an Extracellular Signal of SagS To Modulate Pseudomonas aeruginosa c-di-GMP Levels, Attachment, and Biofilm Formation.

mSphere, 6(1):.

In Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the orphan two-component sensor SagS contributes both to transition to biofilm formation and to biofilm cells gaining their heightened tolerance to antimicrobials. However, little is known about the identity of the signals or conditions sensed by SagS to induce the switch to the sessile, drug-tolerant mode of growth. Using a modified Biolog phenotype assay to screen for compounds that modulate attachment in a SagS-dependent manner, we identified glucose-6-phosphate to enhance attachment in a manner dependent on the glucose-6-phosphate concentration and SagS. The stimulatory effect was not limited to the attachment since glucose-6-phosphate likewise enhanced biofilm formation and also enhanced the expression of select biofilm marker genes. Moreover, exposure to glucose-6-phosphate coincided with decreased swarming motility but increased cellular cyclic-di-GMP (c-di-GMP) levels in biofilms. No such response was noted for compounds modulating attachment and biofilm formation in a manner independent of SagS. Modulation of c-di-GMP in response to glucose-6-phosphate was due to the diguanylate cyclase NicD, with NicD also being required for enhanced biofilm formation. The latter was independent of the sensory domain of NicD but dependent on NicD activity, SagS, and the interaction between NicD and SagS. Our findings indicate that glucose-6-phosphate likely mimics a signal or conditions sensed by SagS to activate its motile-sessile switch function. In addition, our findings provide new insight into the interfaces between the ligand-mediated two-component system signaling pathway and c-di-GMP levels.IMPORTANCE Pathogens sense and respond to signals and cues present in their environment, including host-derived small molecules to modulate the expression of their virulence repertoire. Here, we demonstrate that the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa responds to glucose-6-phosphate. Since glucose-6-phosphate is primarily made available due to cell lysis, it is likely that glucose-6-phosphate represents a cross-kingdom cell-to-cell signal that enables P. aeruginosa to adapt to the (nutrient-poor) host environment by enhancing biofilm formation, cyclic-di-GMP, and the expression of genes linked to biofilm formation in a concentration- and SagS-dependent manner.

RevDate: 2021-02-11

Delfani S, Rezaei F, Soroush S, et al (2021)

The Staphylococcal Cassette Chromosome mec (SCCmec) Analysis and Biofilm Formation of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus cohnii Isolated from Clinical Samples in Tehran, Iran.

Recent patents on anti-infective drug discovery pii:PRI-EPUB-114068 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant coagulase-negative staphylococci is responsible for hospital and community-acquired infections.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate the antibiotic-resistance patterns, antibiotic-resistance genes, namely, ermA, ermB, ermC, blaZ, msrA, tetK, tetM, mup, and vanA, biofilm formation, and prevalence of different SCCmec types among the Staphylococcus cohniistrains isolated from clinical samples in Tehran, Iran.

METHODS: In this study,S. cohniiisolates were screened from the clinical samples from March 2012 to February 2013 in Tehran, Iran.Antimicrobial susceptibility test and inducible clindamycin resistance were evaluated by disc diffusion method, andresistance genes were examined using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) assays. Then, biofilm formation assay was analyzed by Microtiter-plate test to detect the icaA and icaDgenes. The SCCmec and the Arginine Catabolite Mobile Element (ACME) typing were performed using the PCRmethod.

RESULTS: FromtwentyS. cohnii, all isolates were resistant to cefoxitin. 95% of the S. cohnii was defined as multidrug resistance (MDR)strains. The ermB, ermC, and vanA genes were not detected in any isolates; however, the blaZ gene had the highest frequency.95% of the S. cohnii isolates produced biofilm. Also, 4 SCCmec types, including V, IV, III+ (C2), VIII+ (AB1), were identified. Therefore, the majority of SCCmec were untypable. Based on the ACME typing, arcA and opp3 genes were positive in 13 (65%) and 1 (5%) isolates, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Due to the high antimicrobial resistance and the spread of untypableSCCmecamong the isolates studied, the control and treatment of methicillin-resistantS. cohnii in hospitals and public health centers is a significant concern.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Han C, Song J, Hu J, et al (2021)

Smectite promotes probiotic biofilm formation in the gut for cancer immunotherapy.

Cell reports, 34(6):108706.

Administration of probiotics to regulate the immune system is a potential anti-tumor strategy. However, oral administration of probiotics is ineffective because of the poor inhabitation of exogenous bacteria in host intestines. Here we report that smectite, a type of mineral clay and established anti-diarrhea drug, promotes expansion of probiotics (especially Lactobacillus) in the murine gut and subsequently elicits anti-tumor immune responses. The ion-exchangeable microstructure of smectite preferentially promotes lactic acid bacteria (LABs) to form biofilms on smectite in vitro and in vivo. In mouse models, smectite laden with LAB biofilms (Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) inhibits tumor growth (when used alone) and enhances the efficacy of chemotherapy or immunotherapy (when used in combination with either of them) by activating dendritic cells (DCs) via Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2) signaling. Our findings suggest oral administration of smectite as a promising strategy to enrich probiotics in vivo for cancer immunotherapy.

RevDate: 2021-02-12
CmpDate: 2021-02-12

Chervinets VM, Chervinets YV, Leont'eva AV, et al (2021)

The microbiome of oral cavity patients with periodontitis, adhesive and biofilm forming properties.

Klinicheskaia laboratornaia diagnostika, 66(1):45-51.

The microbiome of oral cavity in healthy people and patients with periodontitis was analyzed to determine their adhesive properties and the ability to form biofilms. The study involved 2 groups: healthy, 18 people, and an experimental group, 20 patients with chronic generalized periodontitis moderate severity of the disease. The average age of the studied people was 35-45 years. Material - dental plaque, scraping from the mucous membrane of the back of the tongue, the contents of the periodontal groove and periodontal pocket, as well as oral fluid. The main method of diagnostic was bacteriological. The average adhesion index (AAI) was used to determine adhesion level of microorganisms to epithelial cells of oral cavity's mucous membrane. The microbiota's ability to form biofilm was tested on glass and plastic surface. The microbiota of oral cavity of patients with periodontitis was characterized by decrease in the frequency of bacteria of the genera: Streptococcus, Peptostreptococcus, Peptococcus, and an increase in Staphylococcus aureus, Veillonella spp., Bacillus spp. The microbiota of the oral cavity of patients with generalized periodontitis has a greater ability to adhere to the cells of the mucous membrane than in healthy people, while their ability to form biofilms and exhibit pathogenic properties is enhanced. The biofilm formation of microorganisms in healthy and sick people differs both on glass and on plastic surfaces.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Ugya YA, Hasan DB, Tahir SM, et al (2021)

Microalgae biofilm cultured in nutrient-rich water as a tool for the phycoremediation of petroleum-contaminated water.

International journal of phytoremediation [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed at studying the phycoremediation of petroleum-contaminated water using microalgae biofilm cultured in nutrient-rich water. Microalgae biofilm was grown in a photobioreactor containing water rich in calcium nitrate, manganese chloride, sodium potassium tartrate, calcium phosphate, and ammonium sulfate. Petroleum contaminated water was poured into a photobioreactor, and the substrate containing microalgae biofilm was inserted into the photobioreactor and allowed for eight weeks for biofilm formation. Physicochemical parameters (pH, turbidity, conductivity, sulfate, alkalinity, chloride, TDS, TSS, nitrate, salinity, iron, potassium, phosphate, chlorine, chromium, magnesium, zinc, COD, BOD, and total petroleum hydrocarbon (TPH) of the petroleum contaminated water before and after treatment were determined. The microalgae biofilm used for the treatment was characterized before and after treatment using a Scanning Electron Microscope, X-Ray Fluorescence, and Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy. The phytochemical constituent of the microalgae biofilm was also determined before and after treatment of the petroleum-contaminated water. The result obtained shows highest removal efficiency of physicochemical parameters (turbidity (81%), conductivity (51.2), sulfate (17.5%), alkalinity 28.4%), chloride (14.6%), TDS (7.9), TSS (26%), nitrate (33%), salinity (23.4), iron (16%), potassium (22%), phosphate (28.2%), chlorine (14%), chromium (13.6%), magnesium (30.3%), zinc (40.5%), COD (8%), BOD (16.7%) and total petroleum hydrocarbon (15%)). The microalgae's characterization shows microalgae biofilm's ability to adsorb pollutants in petroleum-contaminated water due to the presence of microspores and larger surface area of the cells of the microalgae forming the biofilm or due to the absorption efficiency of the extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The analysis of the microalgae biofilm's phytochemical parameters shows the involvement of the chemicals components in pollutants degradation and antioxidant response of the microalgae to counteract the oxidative effect resulting from the exposure of the microalgae to the contaminated water. NOVELTY STATEMENT This is the first study that attempts the phycoremediation of petroleum contaminated water using microalgae biofilm. The reduction efficiency of the parameters treated in this study is very low compared to that reported in the literature but increases with the retention day. This low reduction efficiency is attributed to the slow assimilation of organic and inorganic pollutants due to the initial growth condition. This study is the first to re-affirm that microalgae biofilm can phycoremediate petroleum-contaminated water by adsorption and assimilation due to the presence of microspores and a larger surface area the cells of the microalgae forming the biofilm or the extracellular polymetric surface covering the biofilm. Several studies have reported that phytochemicals present in microalgae play an antioxidant response role to prevent the microalgae from oxidative damage resulting from water pollution. However, this study is the first to strongly link phytochemicals to the enhancement of pollutants degradation and adsorption by microalgae biofilm.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Renz N, Trampuz A, W Zimmerli (2021)

Controversy about the Role of Rifampin in Biofilm Infections: Is It Justified?.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 10(2): pii:antibiotics10020165.

Rifampin is a potent antibiotic against staphylococcal implant-associated infections. In the absence of implants, current data suggest against the use of rifampin combinations. In the past decades, abundant preclinical and clinical evidence has accumulated supporting its role in biofilm-related infections.In the present article, experimental data from animal models of foreign-body infections and clinical trials are reviewed. The risk for emergence of rifampin resistance and multiple drug interactions are emphasized. A recent randomized controlled trial (RCT) showing no beneficial effect of rifampin in patients with acute staphylococcal periprosthetic joint infection treated with prosthesis retention is critically reviewed and data interpreted. Given the existing strong evidence demonstrating the benefit of rifampin, the conduction of an adequately powered RCT with appropriate definitions and interventions would probably not comply with ethical standards.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Zhao N, Mou H, Zhou Y, et al (2021)

Upgrading Solid Digestate from Anaerobic Digestion of Agricultural Waste as Performance Enhancer for Starch-Based Mulching Biofilm.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26(4): pii:molecules26040832.

Developing a green and sustainable method to upgrade biogas wastes into high value-added products is attracting more and more public attention. The application of solid residues as a performance enhancer in the manufacture of biofilms is a prospective way to replace conventional plastic based on fossil fuel. In this work, solid digestates from the anaerobic digestion of agricultural wastes, such as straw, cattle and chicken manures, were pretreated by an ultrasonic thermo-alkaline treatment to remove the nonfunctional compositions and then incorporated in plasticized starch paste to prepare mulching biofilms by the solution casting method. The results indicated that solid digestate particles dispersed homogenously in the starch matrix and gradually aggregated under the action of a hydrogen bond, leading to a transformation of the composites to a high crystalline structure. Consequently, the composite biofilm showed a higher tensile strength, elastic modulus, glass transition temperature and degradation temperature compared to the pure starch-based film. The light, water and GHG (greenhouse gas) barrier properties of the biofilm were also reinforced by the addition of solid digestates, performing well in sustaining the soil quality and minimizing N2O or CH4 emissions. As such, recycling solid digestates into a biodegradable plastic substitute not only creates a new business opportunity by producing high-performance biofilms but also reduces the environmental risk caused by biogas waste and plastics pollution.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Gherasim O, Grumezescu AM, Grumezescu V, et al (2021)

Bioactive Coatings Based on Hydroxyapatite, Kanamycin, and Growth Factor for Biofilm Modulation.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 10(2): pii:antibiotics10020160.

The occurrence of opportunistic local infections and improper integration of metallic implants results in severe health conditions. Protective and tunable coatings represent an attractive and challenging selection for improving the metallic devices' biofunctional performances to restore or replace bone tissue. Composite materials based on hydroxyapatite (HAp), Kanamycin (KAN), and fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2) are herein proposed as multifunctional coatings for hard tissue implants. The superior cytocompatibility of the obtained composite coatings was evidenced by performing proliferation and morphological assays on osteoblast cell cultures. The addition of FGF2 proved beneficial concerning the metabolic activity, adhesion, and spreading of cells. The KAN-embedded coatings exhibited significant inhibitory effects against bacterial biofilm development for at least two days, the results being superior in the case of Gram-positive pathogens. HAp-based coatings embedded with KAN and FGF2 protein are proposed as multifunctional materials with superior osseointegration potential and the ability to reduce device-associated infections.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Szczypta A, Talaga-Ćwiertnia K, Kielar M, et al (2021)

Investigation of Acinetobacter baumannii Activity in Vascular Surgery Units through Epidemiological Management Based on the Analysis of Antimicrobial Resistance, Biofilm Formation and Genotyping.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(4): pii:ijerph18041563.

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: The genus Acinetobacter demonstrates resistance to antibiotics and has been shown to spread in the hospital environment causing epidemic outbreaks among hospitalized patients. The objectives of the present study was to investigate the antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and clonality among Acinetobacter baumannii strains.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved 6 (I Outbreak) and 3 (II Outbreak) A. baumannii strains isolated from patients hospitalized in vascular surgery unit.

RESULTS: All tested A. baumannii strains were extensively drug resistant (XDR) and all the isolates were carbapenem-resistant and among them, all carried the blaOXA-51 gene, the blaOXA-24 gene, as well as the blaOXA-23 gene. All of the investigated strains had the ability to form a biofilm, but all of them produced less biofilm than the reference strain. Multi-locus sequence typing (MLST) showed that all strains belonged to the ST2 clone. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) divided the tested outbreak strains into two clones (A and B).

CONCLUSION: This study shows a nosocomial spread of XDR A. baumannii ST2 having the blaOXA-51 gene, the blaOXA-24 gene, as well as the blaOXA-23 gene, low biofilm formers, that was prevalent in the vascular surgery unit. To identify the current situation of vascular surgery departments targeted epidemiological investigation was needed. Effective implementation of infection control prevented the spread of the epidemic outbreaks.

RevDate: 2021-02-09

Juvêncio da Silva L, Dias Barroso FD, Vieira LS, et al (2021)

Diazepam's antifungal activity in fluconazole-resistant Candida spp. and biofilm inhibition in C. albicans: evaluation of the relationship with the proteins ALS3 and SAP5.

Journal of medical microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The genus Candida spp. has been highlighted as one of the main etiological agents causing fungal infections, with Candida albicans being the most prominent, responsible for most cases of candidemia. Due to its capacity for invasion and tissue adhesion, it is associated with the formation of biofilms, mainly in the environment and hospital devices, decreasing the effectiveness of available treatments. The repositioning of drugs, which is characterized by the use of drugs already on the market for other purposes, together with molecular-docking methods can be used aiming at the faster development of new antifungals to combat micro-organisms. This study aimed to evaluate the antifungal effect of diazepam on mature C. albicans biofilms in vitro and its action on biofilm in formation, as well as its mechanism of action and interaction with structures related to the adhesion of C. albicans, ALS3 and SAP5. To determine the MIC, the broth microdilution test was used according to protocol M27-A3 (CLSI, 2008). In vitro biofilm formation tests were performed using 96-well plates, followed by molecular-docking protocols to analyse the binding agent interaction with ALS3 and SAP5 targets. The results indicate that diazepam has antimicrobial activity against planktonic cells of Candida spp. and C. albicans biofilms, interacting with important virulence factors related to biofilm formation (ALS3 and SAP5). In addition, treatment with diazepam triggered a series of events in C. albicans cells, such as loss of membrane integrity, mitochondrial depolarization and increased production of EROs, causing DNA damage and consequent cell apoptosis.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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This is a must read book for anyone with an interest in invasion biology. The full title of the book lays out the author's premise — The New Wild: Why Invasive Species Will Be Nature's Salvation. Not only is species movement not bad for ecosystems, it is the way that ecosystems respond to perturbation — it is the way ecosystems heal. Even if you are one of those who is absolutely convinced that invasive species are actually "a blight, pollution, an epidemic, or a cancer on nature", you should read this book to clarify your own thinking. True scientific understanding never comes from just interacting with those with whom you already agree. R. Robbins

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