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21 Jun 2024 at 01:40
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Bibliography on: Biofilm


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 21 Jun 2024 at 01:40 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( biofilm[title] NOT 28392838[PMID] NOT 31293528[PMID] NOT 29372251[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-06-20

Xu G, Peng G, Yang J, et al (2024)

Molybdenum disulfide nanosheets based non-oxygen-dependent and heat-initiated free radical nanogenerator with antimicrobial peptides for antimicrobial, biofilm ablation and wound healing.

Biomaterials advances, 162:213920 pii:S2772-9508(24)00163-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic refractory wounds caused by multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial and biofilm infections are a substantial threat to human health, which presents a persistent challenge in managing clinical wound care. We here synthesized a composite nanosheet AIPH/AMP/MoS2, which can potentially be used for combined therapy because of the photothermal effect induced by MoS2, its ability to deliver antimicrobial peptides, and its ability to generate alkyl free radicals independent of oxygen. The synthesized nanosheets exhibited 61 % near-infrared (NIR) photothermal conversion efficiency, marked photothermal stability and free radical generating ability. The minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of the composite nanosheets against MDR Escherichia coli (MDR E. coli) and MDR Staphylococcus aureus (MDR S. aureus) were approximately 38 μg/mL and 30 μg/mL, respectively. The composite nanosheets (150 μg/mL) effectively ablated >85 % of the bacterial biofilm under 808-nm NIR irradiation for 6 min. In the wound model experiment, approximately 90 % of the wound healed after the 4-day treatment with the composite nanosheets. The hemolysis experiment, mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEFs) cytotoxicity experiment, and mouse wound healing experiment all unveiled the excellent biocompatibility of the composite nanosheets. According to the transcriptome analysis, the composite nanosheets primarily exerted a synergistic therapeutic effect by disrupting the cellular membrane function of S. aureus and inhibiting quorum sensing mediated by the two-component system. Thus, the synthesized composite nanosheets exhibit remarkable antibacterial and biofilm ablation properties and therefore can be used to improve wound healing in chronic biofilm infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-20
CmpDate: 2024-06-20

Wu R, Kong LX, F Liu (2024)

Regulation of biofilm gene expression by DNA replication in Bacillus subtilis.

Journal of cellular and molecular medicine, 28(12):e18481.

Bacillus subtilis relies on biofilms for survival in harsh environments. Extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) is a crucial component of biofilms, yet the dynamics of EPS production in single cells remain elusive. To unveil the modulation of EPS synthesis, we built a minimal network model comprising the SinI-SinR-SlrR module, Spo0A, and EPS. Stochastic simulations revealed that antagonistic interplay between SinI and SinR enables EPS production in bursts. SlrR widens these bursts and increases their frequency by stabilizing SinR-SlrR complexes and depleting free SinR. DNA replication and chromosomal positioning of key genes dictate pulsatile changes in the slrR:sinR gene dosage ratio (gr) and Spo0A-P levels, each promoting EPS production in distinct phases of the cell cycle. As the cell cycle lengthens with nutrient stress, the duty cycle of gr pulsing decreases, whereas the amplitude of Spo0A-P pulses elevates. This coordinated response facilitates keeping a constant proportion of EPS-secreting cells within colonies across diverse nutrient conditions. Our results suggest that bacteria may 'encode' eps expression through strategic chromosomal organization. This work illuminates how stochastic protein interactions, gene copy number imbalance, and cell-cycle dynamics orchestrate EPS synthesis, offering a deeper understanding of biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Akrami S, Ekrami A, AY Avarvand (2024)

Biofilm generation and antibiotic resistant profile of extensive and multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa from burn patients in Ahvaz: A cross-sectional study.

Health science reports, 7(6):e2138.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Multidrug and extensive drug-resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa was extracted from burn patients referring to burn centers in southwest Iran so that biofilm generation and antibiotic resistance could be investigated.

METHODS: A specific primer was used to confirm all our considered 110 P. aeruginosa culture-positive reports on 345 burn patients. The resistance of P. aeruginosa to seven antibiotics and Colistin with minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was assessed. Biofilm formation was assessed by the phenotypic study of specimens under Congo red agar and microtiter plate assays.

RESULTS: One hundred and 10 clinical P. aeruginosa isolates taken from burn wound infections were validated. Among P. aeruginosa isolates, Piperacillin, Ceftazidime, Maeropenem, Gentamycin, and Gatifloacin had the highest resistance to antibiotics, while Ticarcillin-Clavulanic acid and Ceftolozane-Tazobactam showed the least resistance. MICs were then evaluated via the E test. Seven isolates were resistant to colistin. Colistin reference MICs for multidrug-resistant P. aeruginosa prevalence was 38%, while it was 22% for extensively drug-resistant (XDR) P. aeruginosa. One P. aeruginosa was pandrug-resistant (PDR). Under Congo red agar test, 66 isolates (67%) formed biofilms and black colonies, whereas 44 isolates (50%) had red colonies. In MTP, 76% formed biofilm. 40%, 32%, 21% of the isolates were strong, moderate, and weak biofilm formers, respectively, while 43% did not form biofilms.

CONCLUSION: The P. aeruginosa resistance to antimicrobial agents has largely challenged the control of the infection. Accordingly, a higher resistance occurred when the isolates were transferred to the patients. Less than 50% P. aeruginosa samples generated strong biofilms. Consequently, hygienic measurements are essential to inhibit P. aeruginosa transmission to hospitalized patients.

RevDate: 2024-06-19
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Mazurkiewicz E, Lamch Ł, Wilk KA, et al (2024)

Anti-adhesive, anti-biofilm and fungicidal action of newly synthesized gemini quaternary ammonium salts.

Scientific reports, 14(1):14110.

Newly synthesized gemini quaternary ammonium salts (QAS) with different counterions (bromide, hydrogen chloride, methylcarbonate, acetate, lactate), chain lengths (C12, C14, C16) and methylene linker (3xCH2) were tested. Dihydrochlorides and dibromides with 12 carbon atoms in hydrophobic chains were characterized by the highest biological activity against planktonic forms of yeast and yeast-like fungi. The tested gemini surfactants also inhibited the production of filaments by C. albicans. Moreover, they reduced the adhesion of C. albicans cells to the surfaces of stainless steel, silicone and glass, and slightly to polystyrene. In particular, the gemini compounds with 16-carbon alkyl chains were most effective against biofilms. It was also found that the tested surfactants were not cytotoxic to yeast cells. Moreover, dimethylcarbonate (2xC12MeCO3G3) did not cause hemolysis of sheep erythrocytes. Dihydrochlorides, dilactate and diacetate showed no mutagenic potential.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Liang J, Zhang CM, YX Cao (2024)

Nutrient removal and microbial community succession in moving bed biofilm reactor: Effects of influent carbon to nitrogen ratio fluctuation.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(24)00712-0 [Epub ahead of print].

This study investigated the nutrient removal and microbial community succession in moving bed biofilm reactor under stable and three levels of influent carbon/nitrogen (C/N) ratio fluctuation (±10 %, ± 20 %, and ± 30 %). Under the conditions of influent C/N ratio fluctuation, the removal efficiency of COD and PO43--P decreased 4.7 %-6.4 % and 3.7 %-12.9 %, respectively, while the nitrogen removal was almost unaffected. A sharp decrease in the content of culturable functional bacteria related to nitrogen and phosphorus removal including nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), aerobic denitrifying bacteria (DNB), and polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) from the carrier biofilm was observed. Sequencing analysis revealed that the abundance of Candidatus Competibacter increased 10.3 %-25.9 % and became the dominant genus responsible for denitrification, potentially indicating that nitrate was removed via endogenous denitrification under the influent C/N ratio fluctuation. The above results will provide basic data for the nutrient removal in decentralized wastewater treatment under highly variable influent conditions.

RevDate: 2024-06-20

Zhang B, Lan W, Yan P, et al (2024)

The antibacterial and inhibition effect of chitosan grafted gentisate acid derivatives against Pseudomonas fluorescens: Attacking multiple targets on structure, metabolism system, antioxidant system, and biofilm.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 273(Pt 2):133225 pii:S0141-8130(24)04030-3 [Epub ahead of print].

This work aimed to investigate the antibacterial ability and potential mechanism of chitosan grafted gentisate acid derivatives (CS-g-GA) against Pseudomonas fluorescens. The results showed that CS-g-GA had a significant suppressive impact on the growth of Pseudomonas fluorescens, the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) were 0.64 mg/mL and 1.28 mg/mL, respectively. Results of scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and alkaline phosphatase (AKPase) confirmed that CS-g-GA destroyed the cell structure thereby causing the leakage of intracellular components. In addition, 1 × MIC of CS-g-GA could significantly inhibit the formation of biofilms, and 74.78 % mature biofilm and 86.21 % extracellular polysaccharide of Pseudomonas fluorescens were eradicated by CS-g-GA at 2 × MIC. The results on the respiratory energy metabolism system and antioxidant system demonstrated that CS-g-GA caused respiratory disturbance and energy limitation by influencing the key enzyme activities. It could also bind to DNA and affect genetic metabolism. From this, it could be seen that CS-g-GA had the potential to control foodborne contamination of Pseudomonas fluorescens by attacking multiple targets.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Carrica MDC, Gorgojo JP, Alvarez-Hayes J, et al (2024)

BPP0974 is a Bordetella parapertussis adhesin expressed in the avirulent phase, implicated in biofilm formation and intracellular survival.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(24)00221-3 [Epub ahead of print].

B: parapertussis is a bacterium that causes whooping cough, a severe respiratory infection disease, that has shown an increased incidence in the population. Upon transmission through aerosol droplets, the initial steps of host colonization critically depend on the bacterial adhesins. We here described BPP0974, a B. parapertussis protein that exhibits the typical domain architecture of the large repetitive RTX adhesin family. BPP0974 was found to be retained in the bacterial membrane and secreted into the culture medium. This protein was found overexpressed in the avirulent phase of B. parapertussis, the phenotype proposed for initial host colonization. Interestingly, BPP0974 was found relevant for the biofilm formation as well as involved in the bacterial attachment to and survival within the respiratory epithelial cells. Taken together, our results suggest a role for BPP0974 in the early host colonization and pathogenesis of B. parapertussis.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Pereira AR, IB Gomes (2024)

The effects of methylparaben exposure on biofilm tolerance to chlorine disinfection.

Journal of hazardous materials, 476:134883 pii:S0304-3894(24)01462-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Parabens are emerging contaminants that have been detected in drinking water. Their presence in DW distribution systems (DWDS) can alter bacterial behaviour, characteristics, and structure, which may compromise DW disinfection. This work provides insights into the impact of methylparaben (MP) on the tolerance to chlorine disinfection and antibiotics from dual-species biofilms formed by Acinetobacter calcoaceticus and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia isolated from DW and grown on high-density polyethylene (HDPE) and polypropylene (PPL). Results showed that dual-species biofilms grown on PPL were more tolerant to chlorine disinfection, expressing a decrease of over 50 % in logarithmic reduction values of culturable cells in relation to non-exposed biofilms. However, bacterial tolerance to antibiotics was not affected by MP presence. Although MP-exposed dual-species biofilms grown on HDPE and PPL were metabolically more active than non-exposed counterparts, HDPE seems to be the material with lower impact on DW risk management and disinfection, if MP is present. Overall, results suggest that MP presence in DW may compromise chlorine disinfection, and consequently affect DW quality and stability, raising potential public health issues.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Yan P, Zhuang S, Li M, et al (2024)

Combined environmental pressure induces unique assembly patterns of micro-plastisphere biofilm microbial communities in constructed wetlands.

Water research, 260:121958 pii:S0043-1354(24)00859-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The characteristics and dynamics of micro-plastisphere biofilm on the surface of microplastics (MPs) within artificial ecosystems, such as constructed wetlands (CWs), remain unclear, despite these ecosystems' potential to serve as sinks for MPs. This study investigates the dynamic evolution of micro-plastisphere biofilm in CWs, utilizing simulated wastewater containing sulfamethoxazole and humic acid, through physicochemical characterization and metagenomic analysis. Two different types of commercial plastics, including non-degradable polyethylene and degradable polylactic acid, were shredded into MPs and studied. The findings reveal that the types, shape and incubation time of MPs, along with humic acid content in wastewater, affected the quantity and quality of biofilms, such as the biofilm composition, spatial structure and microbial communities. After just 15 days into incubation, numerous microbials were observed on MP samples, with increases in biofilms content and enhanced humification of extracellular polymeric substances over time. Additionally, microbial communities on polylactic acid MPs, or those incubated for longer time, exhibit higher diversity, connectivity and stability, along with reduced vulnerability. Conversely, biofilms on polyethylene MPs were thicker, with higher potential for greenhouse gas emission and increased risk of antibiotic resistance genes. The addition of humic acid demonstrated opposite effects on biofilms across environmental interfaces, possibly due to its dual potential to produce light-induced free radicals and serve as a carbon source. Binning analysis further uncovered a unique assembly pattern of nutrients cycle genes and antibiotic resistance genes, significantly correlated within micro-plastisphere microbial communities, under the combined stress of nutrition and sulfamethoxazole. These results emphasize the shaping of micro-plastisphere biofilm characteristics by unique environmental conditions in artificial ecosystems, and the need to understand how DOM and other pollutants covary with MP pollution.

RevDate: 2024-06-19
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Li X, Lin S, Wang Y, et al (2024)

Application of biofilm dispersion-based nanoparticles in cutting off reinfection.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 108(1):386.

Bacterial biofilms commonly cause chronic and persistent infections in humans. Bacterial biofilms consist of an inner layer of bacteria and an autocrine extracellular polymeric substance (EPS). Biofilm dispersants (abbreviated as dispersants) have proven effective in removing the bacterial physical protection barrier EPS. Dispersants are generally weak or have no bactericidal effect. Bacteria dispersed from within biofilms (abbreviated as dispersed bacteria) may be more invasive, adhesive, and motile than planktonic bacteria, characteristics that increase the probability that dispersed bacteria will recolonize and cause reinfection. The dispersants should be combined with antimicrobials to avoid the risk of severe reinfection. Dispersant-based nanoparticles have the advantage of specific release and intense penetration, providing the prerequisite for further antibacterial agent efficacy and achieving the eradication of biofilms. Dispersant-based nanoparticles delivered antimicrobial agents for the treatment of diseases associated with bacterial biofilm infections are expected to be an effective measure to prevent reinfection caused by dispersed bacteria. KEY POINTS: • Dispersed bacteria harm and the dispersant's dispersion mechanisms are discussed. • The advantages of dispersant-based nanoparticles in bacteria biofilms are discussed. • Dispersant-based nanoparticles for cutting off reinfection in vivo are highlighted.

RevDate: 2024-06-19
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Xu Y, Hao Y, Arif M, et al (2024)

Poly(Lysine)-Derived Carbon Quantum Dots Conquer Enterococcus faecalis Biofilm-Induced Persistent Endodontic Infections.

International journal of nanomedicine, 19:5879-5893.

INTRODUCTION: Persistent endodontic infections (PEIs) mediated by bacterial biofilm mainly cause persistent periapical inflammation, resulting in recurrent periapical abscesses and progressive bone destruction. However, conventional root canal disinfectants are highly damaging to the tooth and periodontal tissue and ineffective in treating persistent root canal infections. Antimicrobial materials that are biocompatible with apical tissues and can eliminate PEIs-associated bacteria are urgently needed.

METHODS: Here, ε-poly (L-lysine) derived carbon quantum dots (PL-CQDs) are fabricated using pyrolysis to remove PEIs-associated bacterial biofilms.

RESULTS: Due to their ultra-small size, high positive charge, and active reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation capacity, PL-CQDs exhibit highly effective antibacterial activity against Enterococcus faecalis (E. faecalis), which is greatly dependent on PL-CQDs concentrations. 100 µg/mL PL-CQDs could kill E. faecalis in 5 min. Importantly, PL-CQDs effectively achieved a reduction of biofilms in the isolated teeth model, disrupting the dense structure of biofilms. PL-CQDs have acceptable cytocompatibility and hemocompatibility in vitro and good biosafety in vivo.

DISCUSSION: Thus, PL-CQDs provide a new strategy for treating E. faecalis-associated PEIs.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Liu P, Wang L, Song Y, et al (2024)

Virtual Screening of Inhibitors of Streptococcus mutans Biofilm from Lonicera japonica flos and Activity Validation.

ACS medicinal chemistry letters, 15(6):781-790.

In this study, potential inhibitors of Streptococcus mutans biofilm were screened from Lonicera japonica flos using semiflexible molecular docking. A total of 88 metabolites from L. japonica flos and 14 biofilm-related proteins of S. mutans were analyzed, and 25 compounds were initially screened out. Subsequently, 9 compounds with higher availability were subjected to experimental validation, confirming that 6 of them effectively inhibit the S. mutans biofilm formation. Notably, chlorogenic acid was found to potentially disrupt the GbpC protein, which plays a role in the sucrose-dependent adhesion pathway. Similarly, oleanolic acid appeared to impede the adhesin P1 protein involved in the sucrose-independent adhesion mechanism, corroborating the computational predictions. The results of this study provide essential insights for leveraging L. japonica flos in the creation of dental-care-related products and food items aimed at oral health.

RevDate: 2024-06-19
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Hu H (2024)

Molecular Mechanisms of Biofilm Infections and Combat Strategies.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(11):.

Microbial biofilms are the most important drivers of chronic and recurrent infections [...].

RevDate: 2024-06-18
CmpDate: 2024-06-19

Ozturk B, Akkaya H, Aglar E, et al (2024)

Effect of preharvest biofilm application regimes on cracking and fruit quality traits in '0900 Ziraat' sweet cherry cultivar.

BMC plant biology, 24(1):574.

BACKGROUND: Fruit cracking impacts the quality of sweet cherry, significantly affecting its marketability due to increased susceptibility to injury, aesthetic flaws, and susceptibility to pathogens. The effect of 1% biofilm (Parka™) application regimes on fruit cracking and other quality parameters in the '0900 Ziraat' cherry cultivar was investigated in this study. Fruit sprayed with water were served as control (U1). Fruit treated only once with biofilm three, two and one week before the commercial harvest were considered as U2, U3 and U4, respectively. Fruit treated with biofilm three, two, and one week before harvest were considered as U5; three and two week before harvest as U6; two and one week before harvest as U7; and fruit treated three and one week before harvest as U8.

RESULTS: In both measurement periods, the lower cracking index was obtained in biofilm-treated sweet cherry fruit. However, the firmness of biofilm-treated fruit was higher than that of the control fruit. The lowest respiration rate was observed in U7, while the highest weight was recorded in U4 and U5 than the control. The biofilm application decreased fruit coloration. The biofilm application also increased the soluble solids content of the fruit. The U2, U3 and U4 applications at harvest showed higher titratable acidity than the control. In both measurement periods, the vitamin C content of the U2, U5, U6, U7 and U8 applications was found to be higher than that of the control. The total monomeric anthocyanin of the U3 and U8 applications was higher than that of the control. Furthermore, the antioxidant activity of the U2, U3 and U5 in the DPPH, and the U7 and U8 in FRAP were measured higher thanthat of the control.

CONCLUSIONS: The application of biofilms has the potential to mitigate fruit cracking, prolong postharvest life of sweet cherries, and enhance fruit firmness.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Seta J, Pawlitz P, Aboona F, et al (2024)

Efficacy of Commercially Available Irrigation Solutions on Removal of Staphylococcus aureus and Biofilm from Porous Titanium Implants: An In Vitro Study.

The Journal of arthroplasty pii:S0883-5403(24)00623-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) remains a major problem. The bactericidal efficacy of commercial irrigation solutions for the treatment of infection is not well established in the presence of porous titanium (Ti) implants. This study compared the in vitro efficacy of five irrigation solutions on infected three-dimensional (3D)-printed porous Ti discs.

METHODS: Titanium discs (2 x 4 mm, 400, 700, and 1,000 μm) were infected with S. aureus (1x10[6] CFU/ml) and incubated for 3 hours or 3 days to create acute or chronic infection with biofilm. Discs were irrigated with saline, antibiotic, or antiseptic solutions, then repeatedly sonicated. Sonicates were cultured for bacterial quantification. Statistical analyses were performed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), followed by Tukey-Kramer post hoc testing (P < 0.05 significance). Biofilms were visualized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM).

RESULTS: Saline irrigation was ineffective in both groups. In acute infections with 400 μm pores, differences were found with saline versus solution #3 (P = 0.015) and #4 (P = 0.015). Solution #4 had the lowest bacterial counts for all pore sizes. For biofilm, irrigation with saline, solutions #1, #2, and #3 inadequately cleared bacteria in all pore sizes. Lower remaining concentrations were observed in #4 with 400μm pores compared to saline (P = 0.06) and #2 (P = 0.039). The SEM showed a reduction of biofilm in samples washed with #4.

CONCLUSION: Irrigation of infected porous Ti discs with saline, solutions #1 and #2 failed to reduce the bacterial load. The 400 μm discs consistently had more bacteria despite irrigation, highlighting the difficulty of removing bacteria from small pores. Solutions #3 and #4 reduced bacteria acutely, but only #4 demonstrated efficacy in clearing biofilm compared to saline. These results should be considered when treating PJI in the presence of porous components and the potential presence of biofilm.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Suriyanarayanan T, Lee LS, Han SHY, et al (2024)

Targeted metabolomics analysis approach to unravel the biofilm formation pathways of Enterococcus faecalis clinical isolates.

International endodontic journal [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: (i) To characterize Enterococcus faecalis biofilm formation pathways by semi-targeted metabolomics and targeted nitrogen panel analysis of strong (Ef63) and weak (Ef 64) biofilm forming E. faecalis clinical isolates and (ii) to validate the identified metabolic markers using targeted inhibitors.

METHODOLOGY: Previous proteomics profiling of E. faecalis clinical isolates with strong and weak biofilm formation revealed that differences in metabolic activity levels of small molecule, nucleotide and nitrogen compound metabolic processes and biosynthetic pathways, cofactor metabolic process, cellular amino acid and derivative metabolic process and lyase activity were associated with differences in biofilm formation. Hence, semi-targeted analysis of Ef 63, Ef 64 and ATC control strain Ef 29212 was performed by selecting metabolites that were part of both the previously identified pathways and a curated library with confirmed physical and chemical identity, followed by confirmatory targeted nitrogen panel analysis. Significantly regulated metabolites (p < .05) were selected based on fold change cut-offs of 1.2 and 0.8 for upregulation and downregulation, respectively, and subjected to pathway enrichment analysis. The identified metabolites and pathways were validated by minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC) and colony forming unit (CFU) assays with targeted inhibitors.

RESULTS: Metabolomics analysis showed upregulation of betaine, hypoxanthine, glycerophosphorylcholine, tyrosine, inosine, allantoin and citrulline in Ef 63 w.r.t Ef 64 and Ef 29212, and thesemetabolites mapped to purinemetabolism, urea cycle and aspartate metabolism pathways. MBIC and CFU assays using compounds against selected metabolites and metabolic pathways, namely glutathione against hypoxanthine and hydroxylamine against aspartate metabolism showed inhibitory effects against E. faecalis biofilm formation.

CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrated the importance of oxidative stress inducers such as hypoxanthine and aspartate metabolism pathway in E. faecalis biofilm formation. Targeted therapeutics against these metabolic markers can reduce the healthcare burden associated with E. faecalis infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-19

Alvarado-Gutiérrez ML, Ruiz-Ordaz N, Galíndez-Mayer J, et al (2024)

Dynamic and structural response of a multispecies biofilm to environmental perturbations induced by the continuous increase of benzimidazole fungicides in a permeable reactive biobarrier.

Journal of environmental health science & engineering, 22(1):329-344.

PURPOSE: This work explores the dynamics of spatiotemporal changes in the taxonomic structure of biofilms and the degradation kinetics of three imidazole group compounds: carbendazim (CBZ), methyl thiophanate (MT), and benomyl (BN) by a multispecies microbial community attached to a fixed bed horizontal tubular reactor (HTR). This bioreactor mimics a permeable reactive biobarrier, which helps prevent the contamination of water bodies by pesticides in agricultural wastewater.

METHODS: To rapidly quantify the microbial response to crescent loading rates of benzimidazole compounds, a gradient system was used to transiently raise the fungicide volumetric loading rates, measuring the structural and functional dynamics response of a microbial community in terms of the volumetric removal rates of the HTR entering pollutants.

RESULTS: The loading rate gradient of benzimidazole compounds severely impacts the spatiotemporal taxonomic structure of the HTR biofilm-forming microbial community. Notable differences with the original structure in HTR stable conditions can be noted after three historical contingencies (CBZ, MT, and BN gradient loading rates). It was evidenced that the microbial community did not return to the composition prior to environmental disturbances; however, the functional similarity of microbial communities after steady state reestablishment was observed.

CONCLUSIONS: The usefulness of the method of gradual delivery of potentially toxic agents for a microbial community immobilized in a tubular biofilm reactor was shown since its functional and structural dynamics were quickly evaluated in response to fungicide composition and concentration changes. The rapid adjustment of the contaminants' removal rates indicates that even with changes in the taxonomic structure of a microbial community, its functional redundancy favors its adjustment to gradual environmental disturbances.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Kakian F, Arasteh N, Mirzaei E, et al (2024)

Study of MIC of silver and zinc oxide nanoparticles, strong and cost-effective antibacterial against biofilm-producing Acinetobacter baumannii in Shiraz, Southwest of Iran.

BMC infectious diseases, 24(1):593.

BACKGROUND: Acinetobacter baumannii resistant strains lead to increased mortality, treatment costs, and an increase in the length of hospitalization. Nowadays, nanoparticles are considered a substitute for antibiotics. This study aimed to determine the MIC of Silver (Ag) and Zinc Oxide (ZnO) Nanoparticles (NPs) on Biofilm-Producing Acinetobacter baumannii and determine the relationship between MIC and frequency of efflux pump genes in cutaneous specimens in Shiraz, Southwest Iran in 2021-2022.

METHODS: In this study, specimens were collected from April 2021 to June 2022 at Namazi and Faqihi Hospitals in Shiraz. Investigation of biofilm production in multidrug resistance (MDR) isolates was done by the microtiter plate method. Synthesized nanoparticles were characterized by UV-vis spectrum, X-ray diffraction (XRD), and electron microscopy. The MIC of AgNPs and ZnONPs for isolates was done using the method described in the CLSI guideline (2018). The antibacterial effect of MIC of NPs on inanimate objects was done by colony counts. The prevalence of efflux pump genes (adeR, adeC, adeA, abeM, adeK, adeI) was also investigated by PCR technique.

RESULTS: The highest ceftriaxone resistance (68%) and lowest colistin resistance (7%) were identified. 57% of isolates were MDR. In addition, 71.9% could produce biofilm and 28.1% of isolates could not produce biofilm. The average size of AgNPs and ZnONPs in the present study is 48 and < 70 nm, respectively. The nanoparticles were spherical. The MIC and the MBC of the ZnONPs were in the range of 125 to 250 µg/mL respectively. Also, for AgNPs, the MIC and the MBC were in the range of 62.5 to 250 µg/ml, respectively. AbeM gene had the highest frequency and the AdeK gene had the lowest frequency. Statistical analysis showed that there is a relationship between the frequency of adeA, adeC, and adeM genes with the MIC of AgNPs and ZnONPs.

CONCLUSION: According to the results of the present study, inanimate objects such as scalpels in contact with AgNPs (6000 µg/ml for 240 min) or ZnONPs (5000 µg/ml for 120 min) can be free of biofilm producing Acinetobacter baumannii  with efflux pump genes.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-17

Shen DS, Xing XJ, Long YY, et al (2024)

[Applications of biofilm in environmental pollution control and the related challenges].

Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology, 35(5):1426-1434.

Biofilm has been used in environmental pollution control in recent years due to its characteristics of adsorption and biodegradation. Beyond the success of its utilization in wastewater treatment, biofilm technique has high application value in the remediation of heavy metals and organic pollutants in soils. With the extensive attention and research of emerging pollutants such as microplastics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), the pivotal role of biofilm can not be overlooked. Here, we presented a comprehensive review of the structure, formation mecha-nism, population, and functional aspects of biofilm, as well as its applications and mechanisms in environmental pollution control in recent years. We emphatically discussed the removal mechanism and application progress of biofilm on heavy metals and organic pollutants. We further expounded some novel environmental challenges posed by biofilm under new circumstances, including the coexistence of various pollutants in plastisphere, the spread of ARGs, and the accumulation of pathogens. Finally, we put forward the gaps of current research and prospects for future research, especially the importance of exploring the interaction relationship and mechanism between biofilm and various pollutants. It is expected to provide theoretical basis for the development of new technology of biofilm remediation.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Muturi P, Wachira P, Wagacha M, et al (2024)

Salmonella Typhi Haplotype 58 (H58) Biofilm Formation and Genetic Variation in Typhoid Fever Patients with Gallstones in an Endemic Setting in Kenya.

medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences pii:2024.06.03.24308409.

UNLABELLED: The causative agent of typhoid fever, Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi, is a human restricted pathogen. Human carriers, 90% of whom have gallstones in their gallbladder, continue to shed the pathogen after treatment. The genetic mechanisms involved in establishing the carrier state are poorly understood, but S . Typhi is thought to undergo specific genetic changes within the gallbladder as an adaptive mechanism. In the current study, we aimed to identify biofilm forming ability and the genetic differences in longitudinal clinical S . Typhi isolates from asymptomatic carriers with gallstones in Nairobi, Kenya. Whole genome sequences were analyzed from 22 S . Typhi isolates, 20 from stool and 2 from blood samples, all genotype 4.3.1 (H58). Nineteen strains were from four patients also diagnosed with gallstones, of whom, three had typhoid symptoms and continued to shed S . Typhi after treatment. All isolates had point mutations in the quinolone resistance determining region (QRDR) and only sub-lineage encoded multidrug resistance genes. There was no variation in antimicrobial resistance patterns among strains from the same patient/household. Non-multidrug resistant (MDR), isolates formed significantly stronger biofilms in vitro than the MDR isolates , p<0.001 . A point mutation within the treB gene (treB A383T) was observed in strains isolated after clinical resolution from patients living in 75% of the households. Missense mutations in Vi capsular polysaccharide genes, tviE P263S was also observed in 18% of the isolates. This study provides insights into the role of typhoid carriage, biofilm formation, AMR genes and genetic variations in S. Typhi from asymptomatic carriers.

IMPORTANCE: Although typhoid fever has largely been eliminated in high income countries, it remains a major global public health concern especially among low- and middle-income countries. The bacteria responsible for this infectious disease, Salmonella Typhi, has limited ability to replicate outside the human host and human carriers serve as a reservoir of infection. Typhoid is a common infection in parts of sub-Saharan Africa and Asia, and is endemic in our study setting. Our research findings on differences in S. Typhi strains causing typhoid fever and carriage will influence public health approaches aimed at reducing carriage and transmission of S . Typhi.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Peeran SW, Murugan M, Doggalli N, et al (2024)

Herbal Composite Preparation and Investigating its Efficiency to Inhibit Biofilm Formation and Virulence Factors of Prevotella Intermedia and Porphyromonas Gingivalis - Formulation of Mouthwash Using a Herbal Composite and Evaluating its Anti-microbial Activity.

Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences, 16(Suppl 2):S1574-S1584.

Herbal composite preparation was studied with the aim of inhibiting the virulence factors of two dental pathogens: Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. A novel herbal composite was developed using the herbal extracts of Wrightia tinctoria and Bauhinia variegata. During the study, the following observations were noted. The minimal inhibitory concentration of Wrightia tinctoria and Bauhinia variegata composites (WBc) was obtained for the test concentration of 20 μg/ml (16 ± 0.57 mm and 15 ± 0.75 mm of inhibitory zones against Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis, respectively). Biofilm inhibition assay results revealed about 0.51 ± 1.25 mg/ml and 0.53 ± 0.57 mg/ml of minimal biofilm eradication concentration (MBEC) against Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis, respectively. The effect of WBc on lactic acid production showed that 200 μg/ml and 400 μg/ml concentrates reduced up to 80% and 70% in Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis, respectively. Formulated herbal mouthwash showed good stability under all three different test conditions (5°C, 25°C, and 40°C) as the color, odor, phase separation, and homogeneity were not changed for the period of 3 months. The anti-bacterial activity of formulated mouthwash (30 μg/ml) exhibited maximum inhibitory zones of about 18 ± 0.75 mm and 19 ± 1.05 mm against the respective test bacteria - Prevotella intermedia and Porphyromonas gingivalis. Amplification of mfa1 and clpB genes showed 246 bp and 294 bp fragments of P. gingivalis and 238 bp and 280 bp fragments of P. intermedia during agarose electrophoretic analysis. The docking report revealed -5.84 Kcal/Mol binding energy and found three hydrogen bonding between the quercetin and target protein, mfa1 of Porphyromonas gingivalis. The target protein, clpB of Prevotella intermedia, and quercetin had -6.72 Kcal/Mol binding energy and found four hydrogen bonds between them. The developed composite could be optimized in future to develop a novel and biocompatible herbal mouthwash for the prevention of different dental caries and gingival inflammation associated with dental biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Adhikary T, Panda A, Mishra P, et al (2024)

Unveiling the In Vitro Anti-Biofilm Potential of Lactobacillus rhamnosus Against Saliva-Based Pathogens: A Gender-Age-Area Specific Study.

Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences, 16(Suppl 2):S1764-S1770.

Probiotics, like lactobacilli and bifidobacteria, benefit health by populating the digestive system, which houses numerous microbial species. Studies demonstrate their ability to inhibit biofilm formation, crucial in preventing oral conditions like dental caries. Our research evaluated a probiotic strain's anti-biofilm efficacy against oral pathogens in 45 individuals' saliva, alongside its biofilm-forming potential. Analysis revealed significant biofilm inhibition in 36 samples. Comparisons based on age, gender, and geography further supported these findings. We propose further exploration of probiotics tailored to specific demographics to enhance oral health outcomes, suggesting a promising avenue for preventing oral microbial diseases.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Jayakumar S, Sridhar D, John BM, et al (2024)

Biofilm in Endodontic Infection and its Advanced Therapeutic Options - An Updated Review.

Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences, 16(Suppl 2):S1104-S1109.

Pulpal and periapical pathosis are biofilm-induced infections. Understanding the complex nature of endodontic biofilm would help to create a new disinfection strategy to eliminate the microorganism from the root canal system. The intricate canal structure creates challenges for proper disinfection, necessitating the need to understand the biofilm structure, composition, and mechanism within the biofilm community. This paper describes the endodontic biofilm structure, formation of biofilm, and advanced therapeutic options for combating the biofilm community within the root canal system.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Mahendrarajan V, Lazarus H, N Easwaran (2024)

Quorum quenching mediated biofilm impediment in Chromobacterium violaceum and Staphylococcus aureus by leaf extracts of Delonix elata.

Heliyon, 10(11):e31898.

Biofilms are complex communities of microorganisms that cause systemic infections, resistance development and delay in healing wounds. Biofilms can form in various parts of the human body, such as the teeth, lungs, urinary tract, and wounds. Biofilm complicates the effects of antibiotics in treating infections. In search of a cure, a plant-based phyto component was selected for this investigation as an anti-quorum-mediated biofilm restricting agent in Gram-negative Chromobacterium violaceum and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The bioactive components in Delonix elata (DE) ethyl acetate extract were identified using Gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The extract was examined for toxicity using 3T3 cell lines and brine shrimp and ascertained to be non-toxic. Violacein was inhibited up to 68.81 % in C. violaceum at 0.6 mg/ml concentration. Hemolysin synthesis impediments in C. violaceum and S. aureus were 80 % and 51.35 %, respectively, at 0.6 mg/ml of DE extract. At 0.6 mg/ml, EPS was abated by up to 49 % in C. violaceum and 35.26 % in S. aureus. DE extract prevented biofilm formation in C. violaceum and S. aureus up to 76.45 % and 58.15 %, respectively, while associated eDNA was suppressed up to 67.50 % and 53.47 % at the respective sub-MIC concentrations. Expression of genes such as cviI, cviR, vioA, vioB, and vioE were dramatically reduced in C. violaceum, while genes such as agrA, sarA, fnbA, and fnbB were significantly reduced in S. aureus. Docking demonstrates that two or more DE molecules bind efficiently to the QS receptors of C. violaceum and S. aureus. Thus, DE extract can be investigated for therapeutic purposes against pathogenic microorganisms by rendering them less virulent through quorum quenching mediated action.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Li X, Chang J, Zhang M, et al (2024)

The effect of environmental calcium on gene expression, biofilm formation and virulence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1340429.

Calcium (Ca[2+]) can regulate the swarming motility and virulence of Vibrio parahaemolyticus BB22. However, the effects of Ca[2+] on the physiology of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633, whose genomic composition is quite different with that of BB22, have not been investigated. In this study, the results of phenotypic assays showed that the biofilm formation, c-di-GMP production, swimming motility, zebrafish survival rate, cytoxicity against HeLa cells, and adherence activity to HeLa cells of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633 were significantly enhanced by Ca[2+]. However, Ca[2+] had no effect on the growth, swarming motility, capsular polysaccharide (CPS) phase variation and hemolytic activity. The RNA sequencing (RNA-seq) assay disclosed 459 significantly differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to Ca[2+], including biofilm formation-associated genes and those encode virulence factors and putative regulators. DEGs involved in polar flagellum and T3SS1 were upregulated, whereas majority of those involved in regulatory functions and c-di-GMP metabolism were downregulated. The work helps us understand how Ca[2+] affects the behavior and gene expression of V. parahaemolyticus RIMD2210633.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Afonso AC, Simões M, Saavedra MJ, et al (2024)

Exploring coaggregation mechanisms involved in biofilm formation in drinking water through a proteomic-based approach.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7693735 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Coaggregation, a highly specific cell-cell interaction mechanism, plays a pivotal role in multispecies biofilm formation. While it has been mostly studied in oral environments, its occurrence in aquatic systems is also acknowledged. Considering biofilm formation's economic and health-related implications in engineered water systems, it is crucial to understand its mechanisms. Here, we hypothesized that traceable differences at the proteome level might determine coaggregation ability.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Two strains of Delftia acidovorans, isolated from drinking water were studied. First, in vitro motility assays indicated more swarming and twitching motility for the coaggregating strain (C+) than non-coaggregating strain (C-). By TEM we confirmed the presence of flagella for both strains. By proteomics, we detected a significantly higher expression of type IV pilus twitching motility proteins in C+, in line with the motility assays. Moreover, flagellum ring proteins were more abundant in C+, while those involved in the formation of the flagellar hook (FlE and FilG) were only detected in C-. All the results combined suggested structural and conformational differences between stains in their cell appendages.

CONCLUSION: This study presents an alternative approach for identifying protein biomarkers to detect coaggregation abilities in uncharacterized strains.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Zhang Z, Tang Y, Tao C, et al (2024)

Mesoscopic ring element growth and deformation induced biofilm streamer evolution in microfluidic channels.

Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 89(11):2867-2879.

In a fluid environment, biofilms usually form and grow into streamers attached to solid surfaces. Existing research on single streamers studied their formation and failure modes. In the experiment on biofilm growth in a microfluidic channel, we found that rings composed of bacteria and an extracellular matrix are important elements on a mesoscopic scale. In the fluid environment, the failure of these ring elements causes damage to streamers. We simulated the growth and deformation of the ring structure in the micro-channel using multi-agent simulation and fluid-structure coupling of a porous elastic body. Based on this, we simulated the biofilm evolution involving multi-ring deformation, which provides a new length scale to study the biofilm streamer dynamics in fluid environments.

RevDate: 2024-06-17
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Saqr E, Sadik MW, El-Didamony G, et al (2024)

Analysis of a new phage, KZag1, infecting biofilm of Klebsiella pneumoniae: genome sequence and characterization.

BMC microbiology, 24(1):211.

BACKGROUND: This study investigates the effectiveness of the bacteriophage KZag1 against drug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae, aiming to assess its potential as a therapeutic agent. The novelty lies in the characterization of KZag1, a Myovirus with specific efficacy against multidrug-resistant K. pneumoniae strains. This highlights the significance of exploring alternative strategies, particularly phage therapy, in addressing biofilm-associated infections.

METHODS: KZag1, characterized by a typical Myovirus structure with a 75 ± 5 nm diameter icosahedral head and a 15 ± 5 nm short tail, was evaluated in experimental trials against 15 strains of K. pneumoniae. The infection cycle duration was determined to be 50 min, resulting in an estimated burst size of approximately 83 plaque-forming units per colony-forming unit (PFU/CFU). Stability assessments were conducted within a pH range of 4 to 12 and temperatures ranging from 45°C to 60°C. Biofilm biomass reduction was observed, particularly at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 10.

RESULTS: KZag1 demonstrated infection efficacy against 12 out of 15 tested K. pneumoniae strains. The phage exhibited stability across a broad pH range and at elevated temperatures. Notably, treatment with KZag1 significantly reduced K. pneumoniae biofilm biomass, emphasizing its potential in combating biofilm formation. Genomic analysis revealed a complete genome of 157,089 base pairs with a GC content of 46.38%, encompassing 203 open reading frames (ORFs) and a cysteine-specific tRNA sequence. Comparison with phage GP4 highlighted similarities, with KZag1 having a longer genome by approximately 4829 base pairs and a higher GC content by approximately 0.93%. Phylogenetic analysis classified KZag1 within the Myoviridae family.

CONCLUSION: The efficacy of KZag1 against K. pneumoniae biofilm suggests its potential as a therapeutic candidate, especially for drug-resistant infections. Further clinical research is warranted to explore its synergy with other treatments, elucidate genomic traits, compare with Myoviridae phages, and understand its host interactions. These findings underscore the promising role of KZag1 in addressing drug-resistant bacterial infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-14

Yu G, Xi H, Sheng T, et al (2024)

Sub-inhibitory concentrations of tetrabromobisphenol A induce the biofilm formation of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

Archives of microbiology, 206(7):301.

Biofilm formation by methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) on indwelling medical devices complicates the treatment of infection. Tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), a synthetic, lipophilic, halogenated aromatic compound widely used as an additive in plastics and electronic products, has raised environmental concerns due to its potential for bioaccumulation. This study investigated the impact of sub-inhibitory concentrations of TBBPA on MRSA biofilm formation. Crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy analysis demonstrated that 1/8 MIC (0.5 µg/mL) of TBBPA significantly stimulated MRSA biofilm formation (P < 0.0001). MTT assays indicated that the metabolic activity within the biofilms increased by 15.60-40.85% compared to untreated controls. Dot blot immunoassay, autolysis assay, and extracellular DNA (eDNA) quantification further revealed TBBPA enhanced the production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA) and eDNA, which are key biofilm components. Additionally, TBBPA was found to enhance the production of staphyloxanthin, facilitating MRSA survival under oxidative conditions and in human whole blood. RT-qPCR analysis showed that TBBPA significantly upregulated genes associated with biofilm formation (icaA, atlA, sarA), staphyloxanthin biosynthesis (crtM and sigB), and oxidative stress responses (sodA and katA). These findings suggest that TBBPA promotes MRSA biofilm development and enhances bacterial resistance to adverse conditions, thereby potentially exacerbating risks to human health.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Li S, Wang Y, Xu G, et al (2024)

The combination of allicin with domiphen is effective against microbial biofilm formation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1341316.

BACKGROUND: Microorganisms in biofilms are particularly difficult to control because of their increased survival and antibiotic resistance. Allicin and domiphen were employed to inhibit the microbial growth and biofilm formation of Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans strains.

METHODS: Broth microdilution method and checkerboard assay were conducted to determine the efficacy of allicin combined with domiphen against S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans. Microbial biofilm formation was measured using the crystal violet staining method and fluorescence microscopy. And the total viable count of the biofilm cells on material surface after the treatment with antimicrobial reagents was calculated with the plate count technique.

RESULTS: The two drugs showed synergistic effects against the pathogens with a fractional bactericidal concentration of less than 0.38. The combination of 64 μg/mL allicin with 1 μg/mL domiphen dispersed over 50% of the biofilm mass of S. aureus, E. coli, and C. albicans. In addition, the drug combination reduced the total viable counts of E. coli and C. albicans biofilm cells on stainless steel and polyethylene surfaces by more than 10[2] CFU/mL.

CONCLUSION: The combination of allicin and domiphen is an effective strategy for efficiently decreasing biofilms formation on various industrial materials surfaces.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Anonymous (2024)

Mucus-Permeable Sonodynamic Therapy Mediated Amphotericin B-Loaded PEGylated PLGA Nanoparticles Enable Eradication of Candida Albicans Biofilm [Retraction].

International journal of nanomedicine, 19:5439-5440 pii:481636.

[This retracts the article DOI: 10.2147/IJN.S437726.].

RevDate: 2024-06-13
CmpDate: 2024-06-13

Greenwich JL, Eagan JL, Feirer N, et al (2024)

Control of biofilm formation by an Agrobacterium tumefaciens pterin-binding periplasmic protein conserved among diverse Proteobacteria.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(25):e2319903121.

Biofilm formation and surface attachment in multiple Alphaproteobacteria is driven by unipolar polysaccharide (UPP) adhesins. The pathogen Agrobacterium tumefaciens produces a UPP adhesin, which is regulated by the intracellular second messenger cyclic diguanylate monophosphate (c-di-GMP). Prior studies revealed that DcpA, a diguanylate cyclase-phosphodiesterase, is crucial in control of UPP production and surface attachment. DcpA is regulated by PruR, a protein with distant similarity to enzymatic domains known to coordinate the molybdopterin cofactor (MoCo). Pterins are bicyclic nitrogen-rich compounds, several of which are produced via a nonessential branch of the folate biosynthesis pathway, distinct from MoCo. The pterin-binding protein PruR controls DcpA activity, fostering c-di-GMP breakdown and dampening its synthesis. Pterins are excreted, and we report here that PruR associates with these metabolites in the periplasm, promoting interaction with the DcpA periplasmic domain. The pteridine reductase PruA, which reduces specific dihydro-pterin molecules to their tetrahydro forms, imparts control over DcpA activity through PruR. Tetrahydromonapterin preferentially associates with PruR relative to other related pterins, and the PruR-DcpA interaction is decreased in a pruA mutant. PruR and DcpA are encoded in an operon with wide conservation among diverse Proteobacteria including mammalian pathogens. Crystal structures reveal that PruR and several orthologs adopt a conserved fold, with a pterin-specific binding cleft that coordinates the bicyclic pterin ring. These findings define a pterin-responsive regulatory mechanism that controls biofilm formation and related c-di-GMP-dependent phenotypes in A. tumefaciens and potentially acts more widely in multiple proteobacterial lineages.

RevDate: 2024-06-13

Al-Enazi NM (2024)

Evaluation of biofilm formation and expression of psl, pel, alg genes of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in exposure to detergents.

Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa has been in the center of attention for several years as an opportunistic human pathogen implicated in many severe acute and chronic infections particularly in immunocompromised patients. Its high persistence and resistance against many antimicrobial agents are mostly attributed to biofilm formation. Biofilms are microbial communities mainly consisting of extracellular polymeric substances that encapsulate bacteria together and protect them from extracellular stresses. This cell aggregation is a stress response that P. aeruginosa employes as a survival strategy during growth with the toxic detergents. This process has shown to involve several operons such as psl, pel, and alg. Here we used P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 in control group, 40 P. aeruginosa strains from sink and 40 strains from surface of public places. Biofilm formation and gene expression were measured before and after exposure to sub minimum inhibitory concentration (sub-MIC) of biocides chlorhexidine diacetate and benzalkonium chloride. The qRT-PCR and biofilm formation results demonstrated an increase in biofilm formation ability and gene expression of pslA/B and pelA/B in two groups collected from sink and surface in contrast to the control group. A remarkable increase was observed in the biofilm formation and expression of pslA in the bacterial strain collected from the sink after exposure to biocides chlorhexidine diacetate. Both Pel and Psl appeared to have redundant functions as structural scaffolds in biofilms. Sub-MIC levels of detergents can improve biofilm formation ability of P. aeruginosa and therefore trigger resistance.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Kumari P, D Kumar (2024)

Cultivation of algal biofilm and mat communities from the Garhwal Himalayas for possible use in diverse biotechnological applications.

Heliyon, 10(11):e32057.

The current study aimed to screen biofilm-/mat-forming and fast-growing algal communities from the Garhwal Himalayas, India. A total of 15 biofilm/mat-forming algal samples were collected, 8 biofilms out of these could be cultured and analyzed for their growth and development with time. Light microscopy was used to identify different types of cyanobacteria and algae present in the different collected biofilms/mats. Four biofilm and mat communities, namely biofilms #E, #F, #G, and #H, were found to have fast growth and were quick to colonize the substratum. Nylon net was identified as the most cost-effective and best-supporting material for biofilm development and biomass production. The study also found that increasing the harvesting frequency from the nylon net-enmeshed biofilms at least once a week would enhance the final biomass yield compared to harvesting the community once after a longer growth duration. Nevertheless, the findings reported here will be useful for researchers in developing phototrophic biofilm-based technology using nylon net, as it will be mechanically strong, supportive, and easy to handle.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Qin P, Cui H, Li P, et al (2023)

Early stage of biofilm assembly on microplastics is structured by substrate size and bacterial motility.

iMeta, 2(3):e121.

The taxonomic structure of biofilms on 0.3-mm microplastics differed significantly from that on 3-mm microplastics or glass particles. Compared with the 3-mm microplastics, biofilms on 0.3-mm microplastics were enriched for genes involved in flagellar-based motility and chemotaxis, pointing to a more 'mobile' community. The association between motility and bacterial colonization of 0.3-mm microplastics was observed through laboratory experiments using isolated strains.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Singh R, Shukla J, Ali M, et al (2024)

A novel diterpenic derivative produced by Streptomyces chrestomyceticus ADP4 is a potent inhibitor of biofilm and virulence factors in Candida albicans and C. auris.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7692042 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Isolation, identification, structural and functional characterization of potent anti-Candida compound with specific antagonistic activities against significant human pathogens, C. albicans and C. auris.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The compound (55B3) was purified from the metabolites produced by S. chrestomyceticus ADP4 by employing column chromatography. The structure of 55B3 was determined from the analyses of spectral data that included LCMS, NMR, FTIR and UV spectroscopies. It was identified as a novel derivative of diterpenic aromatic acid, 3-(dictyotin-11'-oate-15'α, 19'β-olide)-4-(dictyotin-11'-oate-15″α, 19″β-olide)-protocatechoic acid. The compound displayed potent antifungal and anti-biofilm activities against C. albicans ATCC 10231 (MIC90:14.94 ± 0.17 μgmL-1 and MBIC90: 16.03 ± 1.1 μgmL-1) and against C. auris CBS 12372 (MIC90: 21.75 ± 1.5 μgmL-1 and MBIC90: 18.38 ± 1.78 μgmL-1). Further, pronounced inhibition of important virulence attributes of Candida spp., for example, yeast to hyphae transition, secretory aspartyl proteinase and phospholipase B by 55B3 was noted at subinhibitory concentrations. A plausible mechanism of anti-Candida action of the compound appeared to be inhibition of ergosterol biosynthesis, which was inhibited by 64 ± 3% at the MIC90 value. The non-cytotoxic attribute of the compound was noted in liver cell line (HepG2 cells).

CONCLUSION: The present work led to the discovery of a novel diterpenic derivative produced by S. chrestomyceticus ADP4. The compound displayed potent anti-Candida activity, particularly against two most significant human pathogens, C. albicans and C. auris, which underlined its significance as a potential drug-candidate for infections involving these pathogens.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Ding L, Wang G, Wang J, et al (2024)

Targeted treatment for biofilm-based infections using PEGylated tobramycin.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society pii:S0168-3659(24)00370-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic infections often involve biofilm-based bacteria, in which the biofilm results in significant resistance against antimicrobial agents and prevents eradication of the infection. The physicochemical barrier presented by the biofilm matrix is a major impediment to the delivery of many antibiotics. Previously, PEGylation has been shown to improve antibiotic penetration into biofilms in vitro. In these studies, PEGylating tobramycin was investigated both in vitro and in vivo. Two distinct PEGylated tobramycin molecules were synthesized (mPEG-SA-Tob and mPEG-AA-Tob). Then, in a P. aeruginosa biofilm in vitro model, we found that mPEG-SA-Tob can operate as a prodrug and showed 7 times more effectiveness than tobramycin (MIC80: 14 μM vs.100 μM). This improved biofilm eradication is attributable to the fact that mPEG-SA-Tob can aid tobramycin to penetrate through the biofilm and overcome the alginate-mediated antibiotic resistance. Finally, we used an in vivo biofilm-based chronic pulmonary infection rat model to confirm the therapeutic impact of mPEG-SA-Tob on biofilm-based chronic lung infection. mPEG-SA-Tob has a better therapeutic impact than tobramycin in that it cannot only stop P. aeruginosa from multiplying in the lungs but can also reduce inflammation caused by infections and prevent a recurrence infection. Overall, our findings show that PEGylated tobramycin is an effective treatment for biofilm-based chronic lung infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Tolotti M, Brighenti S, Bruno MC, et al (2024)

Ecological "Windows of opportunity" influence biofilm prokaryotic diversity differently in glacial and non-glacial Alpine streams.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03973-1 [Epub ahead of print].

In glacier-fed streams, the Windows of Opportunity (WOs) are periods of mild environmental conditions supporting the seasonal development of benthic microorganisms. WOs have been defined based on changes in biofilm biomass, but the responses of microbial diversity to WOs in Alpine streams have been overlooked. A two year (2017-2018) metabarcoding of epilithic and epipsammic biofilm prokaryotes was conducted in Alpine streams fed by glaciers (kryal), rock glaciers (rock glacial), or groundwater/precipitation (krenal) in two catchments of the Central-Eastern European Alps (Italy), aiming at testing the hypothesis that: 1) environmental WOs enhance not only the biomass but also the a-diversity of the prokaryotic biofilm in all stream types, 2) diversity and phenology of prokaryotic biofilm are mainly influenced by the physical habitat in glacial streams, and by water chemistry in the other two stream types. The study confirmed kryal and krenal streams as endmembers of epilithic and sediment prokaryotic a- and b-diversity, with rock glacial streams sharing a large proportion of taxa with the two other stream types. Alpha-diversity appeared to respond to ecological WOs, but, contrary to expectations, seasonality was less pronounced in the turbid kryal than in the clear streams. This was attributed to the small size of the glaciers feeding the studied kryal streams, whose discharge dynamics were those typical of the late phase of deglaciation. Prokaryotic a-diversity of non-glacial streams tended to be higher in early summer than in early autumn. Our findings, while confirming that high altitude streams are heavily threatened by climate change, underscore the still neglected role of rock glacier runoffs as climate refugia for the most stenothermic benthic aquatic microorganism. This advocates the need to define and test strategies for protecting these ecosystems for preserving, restoring, and connecting cold Alpine aquatic biodiversity in the context of the progressing global warming.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Wang X, Zhang B, Zhang J, et al (2024)

Conformal and conductive biofilm-bridged artificial Z-scheme system for visible light-driven overall water splitting.

Science advances, 10(24):eadn6211.

Semi-artificial Z-scheme systems offer promising potential toward efficient solar-to-chemical conversion, yet sustainable and stable designs are currently lacking. Here, we developed a sustainable hybrid Z-scheme system capable for visible light-driven overall water splitting by integrating the durability of inorganic photocatalysts with the interfacial adhesion and regenerative property of bacterial biofilms. The Z-scheme configuration is fabricated by drop casting a mixture of photocatalysts onto a glass plate, followed by the growth of biofilms for conformal conductive paste through oxidative polymerization of pyrrole molecules. Notably, the system exhibited scalability indicated by consistent catalytic efficiency across various sheet areas, resistance observed by remarkable maintaining of photocatalytic efficiency across a range of background pressures, and high stability as evidenced by minimal decay of photocatalytic efficiency after 100-hour reaction. Our work thus provides a promising avenue toward sustainable and high-efficiency artificial photosynthesis, contributing to the broader goal of sustainable energy solutions.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Berenjian A, Mahdinia E, A Demirci (2024)

Sustainable menaquinone-7 production through continuous fermentation in biofilm bioreactors.

Bioprocess and biosystems engineering [Epub ahead of print].

Menaquinone-7 (MK-7), a vital vitamin with numerous health benefits, is synthesized and secreted extracellularly by the formation of biofilm, dominantly in Bacillus strains. Our team developed an innovative biofilm reactor utilizing Bacillus subtilis natto cells to foster biofilm growth on plastic composite supports to produce MK-7. Continuous fermentation in biofilm reactors offers a promising strategy for achieving sustainable and efficient production of Menaquinone-7 (MK-7). Unlike conventional batch fermentation, continuous biofilm reactors maintain a steady state of operation, which reduces resource consumption and waste generation, contributing to sustainability. By optimizing fermentation conditions, MK-7 production was significantly enhanced in this study, demonstrating the potential for sustainable industrial-scale production. To determine the optimal operational parameters, various dilution rates were tested. These rates were selected based on their potential to enhance nutrient supply and biofilm stability, thereby improving MK-7 production. By carefully considering the fermentation conditions and systematically varying the dilution rates, MK-7 production was significantly enhanced during continuous fermentation. The MK-7 productivity was found to increase from 0.12 mg/L/h to 0.33 mg/L/h with a dilution rate increment from 0.007 to 0.042 h[-1]). This range was chosen to explore the impact of various nutrient supply rates on MK-7 production and to identify the optimal conditions for maximizing productivity. However, a further increase in the dilution rate to 0.084 h[-1] led to reduced productivity at approximately 0.16 mg/L/h, likely due to insufficient retention time for effective biofilm formation. Consequently, a dilution rate of 0.042 h[-1] exhibited the highest productivity of 0.33 mg/L/h, outperforming all investigated dilution rates and demonstrating the critical balance between nutrient supply and retention time in continuous fermentation. These findings validate the feasibility of operating continuous fermentation at a 0.084 h[-1] dilution rate, corresponding to a 48 h retention time, to achieve the highest MK-7 productivity compared to conventional batch fermentation. The significant advancements achieved in enhancing Menaquinone-7 (MK-7) productivity through continuous fermentation at optimal dilution rates in the present work indicate promising prospects for even greater efficiency and sustainability in MK-7 production through future developments.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Top J, Zhang X, Hendrickx APA, et al (2024)

YajC, a predicted membrane protein, promotes Enterococcus faecium biofilm formation in vitro and in a rat endocarditis model.

FEMS microbes, 5:xtae017.

Biofilm formation is a critical step in the pathogenesis of difficult-to-treat Gram-positive bacterial infections. We identified that YajC, a conserved membrane protein in bacteria, plays a role in biofilm formation of the clinically relevant Enterococcus faecium strain E1162. Deletion of yajC conferred significantly impaired biofilm formation in vitro and was attenuated in a rat endocarditis model. Mass spectrometry analysis of supernatants of washed ΔyajC cells revealed increased amounts in cytoplasmic and cell-surface-located proteins, including biofilm-associated proteins, suggesting that proteins on the surface of the yajC mutant are only loosely attached. In Streptococcus mutans YajC has been identified in complex with proteins of two cotranslational membrane protein-insertion pathways; the signal recognition particle (SRP)-SecYEG-YajC-YidC1 and the SRP-YajC-YidC2 pathway, but its function is unknown. In S. mutans mutation of yidC1 and yidC2 resulted in impaired protein insertion in the cell membrane and secretion in the supernatant. The E. faecium genome contains all homologous genes encoding for the cotranslational membrane protein-insertion pathways. By combining the studies in S. mutans and E. faecium, we propose that YajC is involved in the stabilization of the SRP-SecYEG-YajC-YidC1 and SRP-YajC-Yid2 pathway or plays a role in retaining proteins for proper docking to the YidC insertases for translocation in and over the membrane.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Chu LT, Laxman D, Abdelhamed J, et al (2024)

Development of a tomato xylem-mimicking microfluidic system to study Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum biofilm formation.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 12:1395959.

The bacterial wilt pathogen Ralstonia pseudosolanacearum (Rps) colonizes plant xylem vessels and blocks the flow of xylem sap by its biofilm (comprising of bacterial cells and extracellular material), resulting in devastating wilt disease across many economically important host plants including tomatoes. The technical challenges of imaging the xylem environment, along with the use of artificial cell culture plates and media in existing in vitro systems, limit the understanding of Rps biofilm formation and its infection dynamics. In this study, we designed and built a microfluidic system that mimicked the physical and chemical conditions of the tomato xylem vessels, and allowed us to dissect Rps responses to different xylem-like conditions. The system, incorporating functional surface coatings of carboxymethyl cellulose-dopamine, provided a bioactive environment that significantly enhanced Rps attachment and biofilm formation in the presence of tomato xylem sap. Using computational approaches, we confirmed that Rps experienced linear increasing drag forces in xylem-mimicking channels at higher flow rates. Consistently, attachment and biofilm assays conducted in our microfluidic system revealed that both seeding time and flow rates were critical for bacterial adhesion to surface and biofilm formation inside the channels. These findings provided insights into the Rps attachment and biofilm formation processes, contributing to a better understanding of plant-pathogen interactions during wilt disease development.

RevDate: 2024-06-12

Zheng S, Deng R, Huang G, et al (2024)

Effects of honokiol combined with resveratrol on bacteria responsible for oral malodor and their biofilm.

Journal of oral microbiology, 16(1):2361402.

BACKGROUND: This study aimed to investigate the effect of honokiol combined with resveratrol on bacteria responsible for oral malodor and their biofilm.

METHOD: This study investigated drug's MIC, FICI and dynamic bactericidal susceptibility activities against Pg and Fn. The effects of drugs on biofilm metabolic activity, biofilm total amount, and biofilm microstructure were determined by CCK-8 experiment, semi-quantitative adhesion experiment and SEM, respectively. The effects of drugs on biofilm genes, extracellular polysaccharides, proteins and DNA content were determined by qRT-PCR, phenol-sulfuric acid method, BCA method and Nano Drop one C, respectively.

RESULTS: The combination had synergistic antibacterial effect on Pg and Fn. 1/2×MIC and 1×MIC combination inhibit the whole process of Pg and Fn growth. The results showed that the combination effectively reduce biofilm metabolic activity and total amount, and destroy biofilm microstructure. The results showed that the combination downregulate the gene expression both Pg and Fn, reduce extracellular polysaccharides and DNA of Pg, and reduce extracellular proteins and DNA of Fn.

CONCLUSION: This study showed that the combination had a synergistic antibacterial effect on Pg and Fn, reduced the biofilm extracellular matrix, inhibited biofilm formation, and downregulated the expression of genes related to biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Zhang C, Wang C, Dai J, et al (2024)

The inhibition mechanism of co-cultured probiotics on biofilm formation of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7690766 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Klebsiella pneumoniae, an important opportunistic pathogen of nosocomial inflection, is known for its ability to form biofilm. The purpose of the current study is to assess how co- or mono-cultured probiotics affect K. pneumoniae's ability to produce biofilms and investigate the potential mechanisms by using a polyester nonwoven chemostat and a Caco-2 cell line.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Compared with pure cultures of Lactobacillus rhamnosus and Lactobacillus sake, the formation of K. pneumoniae biofilm was remarkably inhibited by the mixture of L. rhamnosus, L. sake, and Bacillus subtilis at a ratio of 5:5:1 by means of qPCR and FISH assays. In addition, Lactobacillus in combination with B. subtilis could considerably reduce the adherence of K. pneumoniae to Caco-2 cells by using inhibition, competition, and displacement assays. According to the RT-PCR assay, the adsorption of K. pneumoniae to Caco-2 cells was effectively inhibited by the co-cultured probiotics, leading to significant reduction in the expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by K. pneumoniae. Furthermore, the HPLC and RT-PCR analysis showed that the co-cultured probiotics were able to successfully prevent the expression of the biofilm-related genes of K. pneumoniae by secreting plenty of organic acids as well as the second signal molecule (c-di-GMP), resulting in inhibition on biofilm formation.

CONCLUSION: Co-culture of L. sake, L. rhamnosus, and B. subtilis at a ratio of 5:5:1 could exert an antagonistic effect on the colonization of pathogenic K. pneumoniae by down-regulating the expression of biofilm-related genes. At the same time, the co-cultured probiotics could effectively inhibit the adhesion of K. pneumoniae to Caco-2 cells and block the expression of proinflammatory cytokines induced by K. pneumoniae.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Wang S, Deng S, Y Wang (2024)

Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate effectively attenuates biofilm formation by Enterococcus faecalis via the targeting of specific quorum sensing pathways.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(24)00206-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Enterococcus faecalis, an opportunistic pathogen responsible for nosocomial infections, exhibits increased pathogenicity via biofilm formation. Theaflavin-3,3'-digallate (TF3), a theaflavin extracted from black tea, exhibits potent antibacterial effects. In the present study, we investigated the inhibitory effect of TF3 on E. faecalis. Our results indicated that TF3 significantly inhibited E. faecalis ATCC 29212 biofilm formation. This observation was further confirmed via crystal violet staining, confocal laser scanning microscopy, and field emission-scanning electron microscopy. To disclose the underlying mechanisms, RNA-seq was applied. TF3 treatment significantly altered the transcriptomic profile of E. faecalis, as evidenced by identification of 248 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Through functional annotation of these DEGs, several quorum-sensing pathways were found to be suppressed in TF3-treated cultures. Further, gene expression verification via real-time PCR confirmed the downregulation of gelE, sprE, and secY by TF3. These findings highlighted the ability of TF3 to impede E. faecalis biofilm formation, suggesting a novel preventive strategy against E. faecalis infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Im HR, Im SJ, Nguyen DV, et al (2024)

Real-Time Diagnosis and Monitoring of Biofilm and Corrosion Layer Formation on Different Water Pipe Materials Using Non-Invasive Imaging Methods.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(24)01471-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Water distribution networks play a crucial role in ensuring a reliable water supply, yet they encounter challenges such as corrosion, scale formation, and biofilm growth due to interactions with environmental elements. Biofilms and corrosion layers are significant contaminants in water pipes, formed by complex interactions with pipe materials. As the structure of these contamination layers varies depending on the pipe material, it is essential to investigate the contamination layer for each material individually. Specifically, biofilm growth is typically investigated concerning organic sources, while the growth of humus layers is examined in relation to inorganic elements such as manganese (Mn), iron (Fe), and aluminum (Al), which are major elements and organic substances found in water pipes. Real-time imaging of recently contaminated layers can provide important insights to improve system performance by optimizing operations and cleaning processes. In this study, cast iron (7.10 ± 0.78 nm) exhibits greater surface roughness compared to PVC (5.60 ± 0.14 nm) and provides favorable conditions for biofilm formation due to its positive charge. Over a period of 425 hours, the fouling layer on cast iron and PVC surfaces gradually increased in fouling thickness, porosity, roughness, and density, reaching maximum value of 29.72 ± 3.6 μm, 11.44 ± 1.1%, 41673 ± 1025.6 pixels, and 0.80 ± 0.3 fouling layer pixel/layer pixel for cast iron, and 8.15 ± 0.4 μm, 20.64 ± 0.9%, 35916.6 ± 755.7 pixels, and 0.58 ± 0.1 fouling layer pixel/layer pixel, respectively. Within the scope of the current research, CNN model demonstrates high correlation coefficients (0.98 and 0.91) in predicting biofilm thickness for cast iron and PVC. The model also presented high accuracy in predicting porosity for both materials (over 0.91 for cast iron and 0.96 for PVC). While the model accurately predicted biofilm roughness and density for cast iron (correlation coefficients 0.98 and 0.94, respectively), it had lower accuracy for PVC (correlation coefficients 0.92 for both parameters).

RevDate: 2024-06-10
CmpDate: 2024-06-10

Shan L, Zheng W, Xu S, et al (2024)

Effect of household pipe materials on formation and chlorine resistance of the early-stage biofilm: various interspecific interactions exhibited by the same microbial biofilm in different pipe materials.

Archives of microbiology, 206(7):295.

Microbial community biofilm exists in the household drinking water system and would pose threat to water quality. This paper explored biofilm formation and chlorination resistance of ten dual-species biofilms in three typical household pipes (stainless steel (SS), polypropylene random (PPR), and copper), and investigated the role of interspecific interaction. Biofilm biomass was lowest in copper pipes and highest in PPR pipes. A synergistic or neutralistic relationship between bacteria was evident in most biofilms formed in SS pipes, whereas four groups displayed a competitive relationship in biofilms formed in copper pipe. Chlorine resistance of biofilms was better in SS pipes and worse in copper pipes. It may be helped by interspecific relationships, but was more dependent on bacteria and resistance mechanisms such as more stable extracellular polymeric substance. The corrosion sites may also protect bacteria from chlorination. The findings provide useful insights for microbial control strategies in household drinking water systems.

RevDate: 2024-06-10
CmpDate: 2024-06-10

Wang P, Xia B, Chen Z, et al (2024)

An Approach to Constructing Multispecies Biofilm Communities from Rhizosphere Soil.

Journal of visualized experiments : JoVE.

The multispecies biofilm is a naturally occurring and dominant lifestyle of bacteria in nature, including in rhizosphere soil, although the current understanding of it is limited. Here, we provide an approach to rapidly establish synergistic multispecies biofilm communities. The first step is to extract cells from rhizosphere soil using the differential centrifugation method. Afterward, these soil cells are inoculated into the culture medium to form pellicle biofilm. After 36 h of incubation, the bacterial composition of the biofilm and the solution underneath are determined using the 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing method. Meanwhile, high-throughput bacterial isolation from pellicle biofilm is conducted using the limiting dilution method. Then, the top 5 bacterial taxa are selected with the highest abundance in the 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data (pellicle biofilm samples) for further use in constructing multispecies biofilm communities. All combinations of the 5 bacterial taxa were quickly established using a 24-well plate, selected for the strongest biofilm formation ability by the crystal violet staining assay, and quantified by qPCR. Finally, the most robust synthetic bacterial multispecies biofilm communities were obtained through the methods above. This methodology provides informative guidance for conducting research on rhizosphere multispecies biofilm and identifying representative communities for studying the principles governing interactions among these species.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Tram MK, Schammel J, Vancavage R, et al (2024)

Emerging strategies for the prevention of bacterial biofilm in prosthetic surgery.

Translational andrology and urology, 13(5):833-845.

Penile prosthesis implantation is an effective treatment for erectile dysfunction (ED) with high patient satisfaction and effectiveness. Unfortunately, infections remain a dreaded complication, often necessitating device removal and imposing a substantial healthcare cost. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms encased in a self-produced polymeric matrix that can attach to penile prostheses. Biofilms have been demonstrated on the majority of explanted prostheses for both infectious and non-infectious revisions and are prevalent even in asymptomatic patients. Biofilms play a role in microbial persistence and exhibit unique antibiotic resistance strategies that can lead to increased infection rates in revision surgery. Biofilms demonstrate physical barriers through the development of an extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) that hinders antibiotic penetrance and the bacteria within biofilms demonstrate reduced metabolic activity that weakens the efficacy of traditional antibiotics. Despite these challenges, new methods are being developed and investigated to prevent and treat biofilms. These treatments include surface modifications, biosurfactants, tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), and nitric oxide (NO) to prevent bacterial adhesion and biofilm formation. Additionally, novel antibiotic treatments are currently under investigation and include antimicrobial peptides (AMPs), bacteriophages, and refillable antibiotic coatings. This article reviews biofilm formation, the challenges that biofilms present to conventional antibiotics, current treatments, and experimental approaches for biofilm prevention and treatment.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Snell A, Manias DA, Elbehery RR, et al (2024)

Arginine impacts aggregation, biofilm formation, and antibiotic susceptibility in Enterococcus faecalis.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.05.30.596650.

Enterococcus faecalis is a commensal bacterium in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of humans and other organisms. E. faecalis also causes infections in root canals, wounds, the urinary tract, and on heart valves. E. faecalis metabolizes arginine through the arginine deiminase (ADI) pathway, which converts arginine to ornithine and releases ATP, ammonia, and CO 2 . E. faecalis arginine metabolism also affects virulence of other pathogens during co-culture. E. faecalis may encounter elevated levels of arginine in the GIT or the oral cavity, where arginine is used as a dental therapeutic. Little is known about how E. faecalis responds to growth in arginine in the absence of other bacteria. To address this, we used RNAseq and additional assays to measure growth, gene expression, and biofilm formation in E. faecalis OG1RF grown in arginine. We demonstrate that arginine decreases E. faecalis biofilm production and causes widespread differential expression of genes related to metabolism, quorum sensing, and polysaccharide synthesis. Growth in arginine also increases aggregation of E. faecalis and promotes decreased susceptibility to the antibiotics ampicillin and ceftriaxone. This work provides a platform for understanding of how the presence of arginine in biological niches affects E. faecalis physiology and virulence of surrounding microbes.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Lyu C, Hu H, Cai L, et al (2024)

A trans-acting sRNA SaaS targeting hilD, cheA and csgA to inhibit biofilm formation of S. enteritidis.

Journal of advanced research pii:S2090-1232(24)00232-7 [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Salmonella Enteritidis has brought great harm to public health, animal production and food safety worldwide. The biofilm formed by Salmonella Enteritidis plays a critical role in microbial cross-contamination. Small non-coding RNAs (sRNAs) have been demonstrated to be responsible for regulating the formation of biofilm. The sRNA SaaS has been identified previously, that promotes pathogenicity by regulating invasion and virulence factors. However, whether the SaaS is implicated in regulating biofilm formation in abiotic surfaces remains unclear.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to clarify the effect of SaaS in Salmonella Enteritidis and explore the modulatory mechanism on the biofilm formation.

METHODS: Motility characteristics and total biomass of biofilm of test strains were investigated by the phenotypes in three soft agar plates and crystal violet staining in polystyrene microplates. Studies of microscopic structure and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) of biofilm on solid surfaces were carried out using confocal laser scanning microscope (CLSM) and Raman spectra. Transcriptomics and proteomics were applied to analyze the changes of gene expression and EPS component. The RNA-protein pull-down and promoter-reporter β-galactosidase activity assays were employed to analyze RNA binding proteins and identify target mRNAs, respectively.

RESULTS: SaaS inhibits biofilm formation by repressing the adhesion potential and the secretion of EPS components. Integration of transcriptomics and proteomics analysis revealed that SaaS strengthened the expression of the flagellar synthesis system and downregulated the expression of curli amyloid fibers. Furthermore, RNA-protein pull-down interactome datasets indicated that SaaS binds to Hfq (an RNA molecular chaperone protein, known as a host factor for phage Qbeta RNA replication) uniquely among 193 candidate proteins, and promoter-reporter β-galactosidase activity assay confirmed target mRNAs including hilD, cheA, and csgA.

CONCLUSION: SaaS inhibits the properties of bacterial mobility, perturbs the secretion of EPS, and contributes to the inhibition of biofilm formation by interacting with target mRNA (hilD, cheA, and csgA) through the Hfq-mediated pathway.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Ullah I, Khan SS, Ahmad W, et al (2024)

NIR light-activated nanocomposites combat biofilm formation and enhance antibacterial efficacy for improved wound healing.

Communications chemistry, 7(1):131.

Nanoparticle-based therapies are emerging as a pivotal frontier in biomedical research, showing their potential in combating infections and facilitating wound recovery. Herein, selenium-tellurium dopped copper oxide nanoparticles (SeTe-CuO NPs) with dual photodynamic and photothermal properties were synthesized, presenting an efficient strategy for combating bacterial infections. In vitro evaluations revealed robust antibacterial activity of SeTe-CuO NPs, achieving up to 99% eradication of bacteria and significant biofilm inhibition upon near-infrared (NIR) irradiation. Moreover, in vivo studies demonstrated accelerated wound closure upon treatment with NIR-activated SeTe-CuO NPs, demonstrating their efficacy in promoting wound healing. Furthermore, SeTe-CuO NPs exhibited rapid bacterial clearance within wounds, offering a promising solution for wound care. Overall, this versatile platform holds great promise for combating multidrug-resistant bacteria and advancing therapeutic interventions in wound management.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Ansari MA, MN Alomary (2024)

Bioinspired ferromagnetic NiFe2O4 nanoparticles: Eradication of fungal and drug-resistant bacterial pathogens and their established biofilm.

Microbial pathogenesis, 193:106729 pii:S0882-4010(24)00196-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Nickel ferrite nanoparticles (NiFe2O4 NPs) were synthesized using the medicinally important plant Aloe vera leaf extract, and their structural, morphological, and magnetic properties were characterized by x-ray diffraction (XRD), fourier transform infrared (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive x-ray (EDX), and vibrating sample magnetometer (VSM). The synthesized NPs were soft ferromagnetic and spinel in nature, with an average particle size of 22.2 nm. To the best of our understanding, this is the first comprehensive investigation into the antibacterial, anticandidal, antibiofilm, and antihyphal properties of NiFe2O4 NPs against C. albicans as well as drug-resistant gram-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and gram-negative multidrug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MDR-P. aeruginosa) bacteria. NiFe2O4 NPs showed potent antimicrobial activity (MIC 1.6-2 mg/mL) against the test pathogens. NiFe2O4 NPs at 0.5 mg/mL suppressed biofilm formation by 49.5-53.1 % in test pathogens. The study found that the NPs not only prevent the formation of biofilm, but also eliminate existing mature biofilms by 50.5-75.79 % at 0.5 mg/mL, which was further validated by SEM. SEM examination revealed a reduction in the number of cells that form biofilms and adhere to the surface. Additionally, it considerably impeded the colonization and aggregation of the biofilm strains on the glass surface. Light microscopic examination demonstrated that NPs effectively prevent the expansion of hyphae, filaments, and yeast-to-hyphae transformation in C. albicans, resulting in a substantial decrease in their ability to cause infection. Moreover, SEM images of the treated cells exhibited the presence of wrinkles, deformities, and impaired cell walls, which suggests an alteration and instability of the membrane. This study demonstrated the efficacy of the greenly manufactured NPs in suppressing the proliferation of candida, drug-resistant bacteria, and their preexisting biofilms, as well as yeast-to-hyphae transformation. Therefore, these NPs with broad spectrum applications could be utilized in health settings to mitigate biofilm-related health conditions caused by pathogenic microbial strains.

RevDate: 2024-06-09

Shahi PB, Manandhar S, Angove MJ, et al (2024)

Performance evaluation of species varied fixed bed biofilm reactor for wastewater treatment of Dhobi Khola outfall, Setopul, Kathmandu, Nepal.

The Science of the total environment, 942:173752 pii:S0048-9697(24)03899-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The sustainability of wastewater treatment plants poses significant challenges for developing countries, necessitating substantial investment for operation and maintenance. Biofilm reactors seeded with specific species of microorganisms were investigated under controlled environmental conditions. However, the performance evaluation of such reactors under natural conditions remains largely underexplored. This study investigated wastewater treatment capabilities of bench-scale fixed bed biofilm reactors, employing various species (Wastewater Microbes, Pseudomonas, Algae, and a co-culture of Algae and Pseudomonas). The reactors (Treatments and Control) were filled with 28 mm nominal-size local aggregates as packing media, operated under different contact times, and subjected to varying concentrations of heavy metals (Zn, Cd). To assess the reactor performances, the Bland-Altman Plot and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD) removal kinetics were evaluated. The results revealed that the reactor initiated with a co-culture exhibited the optimal COD removal efficiency, reaching 84 ± 1 %. The reactor initially seeded with wastewater microbes exhibited the highest heavy metal elimination, achieving 94 ± 1 % and 88 ± 1 % removal for Zn and Cd respectively. The wastewater-seeded reactor demonstrated the zero-order COD removal kinetic coefficient (k) of 46.41 mg/L/h at an average influent COD concentration of 558 mg/L at 10 h contact time. While Pseudomonas-seeded reactor demonstrated k = 0.73 mg/L/h at 20 h contact time with 69 mg/L influent COD and heavy metal concentrations Zn = 26 mg/L and Cd = 3.57 mg/L. The findings of this study suggest that variations in environmental conditions, contact time, and heavy metal concentration have minimal impact on the pollutant removal efficacy of the reactors, and provide robust evidence for their viability as a sustainable alternative in municipal wastewater treatment. The study also identifies the possibility of treating specific wastewater characteristics by altering the dominant species in the reactors, paving the way for further research on the efficacy of other microbial genomes in fixed bed biofilm reactors.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Karimzadeh Barenji E, Beglari S, Tahghighi A, et al (2023)

Evaluation of Anti-Bacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activity of Native Probiotic Strains of Lactobacillus Extracts.

Iranian biomedical journal, 28(2&3):102-112 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Lactic acid bacteria produce various beneficial metabolites, including antimicrobial agents. Owing to the fast-rising antibiotic resistance among pathogenic microbes, scientists are exploring antimicrobials beyond antibiotics. In this study, we examined four Lactobacillus strains, namely L. plantarum 42, L. brevis 205, L. rhamnosus 239, and L. delbrueckii 263, isolated from healthy human microbiota, to evaluate their antibacterial and antifungal activity.

METHODS: Lactobacillus strains were cultivated, and the conditioned media were obtained. The supernatant was then used to treat pathogenic bacteria and applied to the growth media containing fungal and bacterial strains. Additionally, the supernatant was separated to achieve the organic and aqueous phases. The two phases were then examined in terms of bacterial and fungal growth rates. Disk diffusion and MIC tests were conducted to determine strains with the most growth inhibition potential. Finally, the potent strains identified through the MIC test, were tested on the pathogenic microorganisms to assess their effects on the formation of pathogenic biofilms.

RESULTS: The organic phase of L. rhamnosus 239 extracts exhibited the highest antibacterial and antibiofilm effects, while that of L. brevis 205 demonstrated the most effective antifungal impact, with a MIC of 125 µg/mL against Saccharomyces cerevisiae.

CONCLUSION: This study confirms the significant antimicrobial impacts of the LAB strains on pathogenic bacteria and fungi; hence, they could serve as a reliable alternative to antibiotics for a safe and natural protection against pathogenic microorganisms.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-08

Titouche Y, Akkou M, Djaoui Y, et al (2024)

Nasal carriage of Staphylococcus aureus in healthy dairy cows in Algeria: antibiotic resistance, enterotoxin genes and biofilm formation.

BMC veterinary research, 20(1):247.

BACKGROUND: Staphylococcus aureus can colonize and infect a variety of animal species. In dairy herds, it is one of the leading causes of mastitis cases. The objective of this study was to characterize the S. aureus isolates recovered from nasal swabs of 249 healthy cows and 21 breeders of 21 dairy farms located in two provinces of Algeria (Tizi Ouzou and Bouira).

METHODS: The detection of enterotoxin genes was investigated by multiplex PCRs. Resistance of recovered isolates to 8 antimicrobial agents was determined by disc-diffusion method. The slime production and biofilm formation of S. aureus isolates were assessed using congo-red agar (CRA) and microtiter-plate assay. Molecular characterization of selected isolates was carried out by spa-typing and Multi-Locus-Sequence-Typing (MLST).

RESULTS: S. aureus was detected in 30/249 (12%) and 6/13 (28.6%) of nasal swabs in cows and breeders, respectively, and a total of 72 isolates were recovered from positive samples (59 isolates from cows and 13 from breeders). Twenty-six of these isolates (36.1%) harbored genes encoding for staphylococcal enterotoxins, including 17/59 (28.8%) isolates from cows and 9/13 (69.2%) from breeders. Moreover, 49.1% and 92.3% of isolates from cows and breeders, respectively, showed penicillin resistance. All isolates were considered as methicillin-susceptible (MSSA). Forty-five (76.3%) of the isolates from cows were slime producers and 52 (88.1%) of them had the ability to form biofilm in microtiter plates. Evidence of a possible zoonotic transmission was observed in two farms, since S. aureus isolates recovered in these farms from cows and breeders belonged to the same clonal lineage (CC15-ST15-t084 or CC30-ST34-t2228).

CONCLUSIONS: Although healthy cows in this study did not harbor methicillin-resistant S. aureus isolates, the nares of healthy cows could be a reservoir of enterotoxigenic and biofilm producing isolates which could have implications in human and animal health.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Li L, Xie Y, Wang J, et al (2024)

Biofilm microenvironment-activated multimodal therapy nanoplatform for effective anti-bacterial treatment and wound healing.

Acta biomaterialia pii:S1742-7061(24)00305-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Antimicrobial drug development faces challenges from bacterial resistance, biofilms, and excessive inflammation. Here, we design an intelligent nanoplatform utilizing mesoporous silica nanoparticles doped with copper ions for loading copper sulfide (DM/Cu[2+]-CuS). The mesoporous silica doped with tetrasulfide bonds responds to the biofilm microenvironment (BME), releasing Cu[2+] ions, CuS along with hydrogen sulfide (H2S) gas. The release of hydrogen sulfide within 72 h reached 793.5 μM, significantly higher than that observed with conventional small molecule donors. H2S induces macrophages polarization towards the M2 phenotype, reducing inflammation and synergistically accelerating endothelial cell proliferation and migration with Cu[2+] ions. In addition, H2S disrupts extracellular DNA within biofilms, synergistically photothermal enhanced peroxidase-like activity of CuS to effectively eradicate biofilms. Remarkably, DM-mediated consumption of endogenous glutathione enhances the anti-biofilm activity of H2S and improves oxygen species (ROS) destruction efficiency. The combination of photothermal therapy (PTT), chemodynamic therapy (CDT), and gas treatment achieves sterilization rates of 99.3% and 99.6% against Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and Escherichia coli (E. coli), respectively, in vitro under 808 nm laser irradiation. Additionally, in vivo experiments demonstrate a significant biosafety and antibacterial potential. In summary, the H2S donor developed in this study exhibits enhanced biocompatibility and controlled release properties. By integrating BME-responsive gas therapy with antibacterial ions, PTT and CDT, a synergistic multimodal strategy is proposed to offer new therapeutic approaches for wound healing. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: The advanced DMOS/Cu[2+]-CuS (DMCC) multimodal therapeutic nanoplatform has been developed for the treatment of drug-resistant bacterial wound infections and has exhibited enhanced therapeutic efficacy through the synergistic effects of photothermal therapy, chemodynamic therapy, Cu[2+] ions, and H2S. The DMCC exhibited exceptional biocompatibility and could release CuS, Cu[2+], and H2S in response to elevated concentrations of glutathione within the biofilm microenvironment. H2S effectively disrupted the biofilm structure. Meanwhile, peroxidase activity of CuS combined with GSH-mediated reduction of Cu[2+] to Cu[+] generated abundant hydroxyl radicals under acidic conditions, leading to efficient eradication of pathogenic bacteria. Furthermore, both H2S and Cu[2+] could modulate M2 macrophages polarization and regulate immune microenvironment dynamics. These strategies collectively provide a novel approach for developing antibacterial nanomedical platforms.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Loffredo MR, Casciaro B, Bellavita R, et al (2024)

Strategic Single-Residue Substitution in the Antimicrobial Peptide Esc(1-21) Confers Activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Including Drug-Resistant and Biofilm Phenotype.

ACS infectious diseases [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium resistant to multiple drugs, is a significant cause of illness and death worldwide. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) provide an excellent potential strategy to cope with this threat. Recently, we characterized a derivative of the frog-skin AMP esculentin-1a, Esc(1-21) (1) that is endowed with potent activity against Gram-negative bacteria but poor efficacy against Gram-positive strains. In this study, three analogues of peptide 1 were designed by replacing Gly[8] with α-aminoisobutyric acid (Aib), Pro, and dPro (2-4, respectively). The single substitution Gly[8] → Aib[8] in peptide 2 makes it active against the planktonic form of Gram-positive bacterial strains, especially Staphylococcus aureus, including multidrug-resistant clinical isolates, with an improved biostability without resulting in cytotoxicity to mammalian cells. Moreover, peptide 2 showed a higher antibiofilm activity than peptide 1 against both reference and clinical isolates of S. aureus. Peptide 2 was also able to induce rapid bacterial killing, suggesting a membrane-perturbing mechanism of action. Structural analysis of the most active peptide 2 evidenced that the improved biological activity of peptide 2 is the consequence of a combination of higher biostability, higher α helical content, and ability to reduce membrane fluidity and to adopt a distorted helix, bent in correspondence of Aib[8]. Overall, this study has shown how a strategic single amino acid substitution is sufficient to enlarge the spectrum of activity of the original peptide 1, and improve its biological properties for therapeutic purposes, thus paving the way to optimize AMPs for the development of new broad-spectrum anti-infective agents.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Tang Z, Wang L, Xiong Z, et al (2024)

Process optimized for production of iturin A in biofilm reactor by Bacillus velezensis ND.

Bioprocess and biosystems engineering [Epub ahead of print].

In this research, to provide an optimal growth medium for the production of iturin A, the concentrations of key amino acid precursors were optimized in shake flask cultures using the response surface method. The optimized medium were applied in a biofilm reactor for batch fermentation, resulting in enhanced production of iturin A. On this basis, a step-wise pH control strategy and a combined step-wise pH and temperature control strategy were introduced to further improve the production of iturin A. Finally, the fed-batch fermentation was performed based on combined step-wise pH and temperature control. The titer and productivity of iturin A reached 7.86 ± 0.23 g/L and 65.50 ± 1.92 mg/L/h, respectively, which were 37.65 and 65.20% higher than that before process optimization.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Xi H, Luo Z, Liu MF, et al (2024)

Diclofenac sodium effectively inhibits the biofilm formation of Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Archives of microbiology, 206(7):289.

Staphylococcus epidermidis is an opportunistic pathogen commonly implicated in medical device-related infections. Its propensity to form biofilms not only leads to chronic infections but also exacerbates the issue of antibiotic resistance, necessitating high-dose antimicrobial treatments. In this study, we explored the use of diclofenac sodium, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, as an anti-biofilm agent against S. epidermidis. In this study, crystal violet staining and confocal laser scanning microscope analysis showed that diclofenac sodium, at subinhibitory concentration (0.4 mM), significantly inhibited biofilm formation in both methicillin-susceptible and methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis isolates. MTT assays demonstrated that 0.4 mM diclofenac sodium reduced the metabolic activity of biofilms by 25.21-49.01% compared to untreated controls. Additionally, the treatment of diclofenac sodium resulted in a significant decrease (56.01-65.67%) in initial bacterial adhesion, a crucial early phase of biofilm development. Notably, diclofenac sodium decreased the production of polysaccharide intercellular adhesin (PIA), a key component of the S. epidermidis biofilm matrix, in a dose-dependent manner. Real-time quantitative PCR analysis revealed that diclofenac sodium treatment downregulated biofilm-associated genes icaA, fnbA, and sigB and upregulated negative regulatory genes icaR and luxS, providing potential mechanistic insights. These findings indicate that diclofenac sodium inhibits S. epidermidis biofilm formation by affecting initial bacterial adhesion and the PIA synthesis. This underscores the potential of diclofenac sodium as a supplementary antimicrobial agent in combating staphylococcal biofilm-associated infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-08

Fang L, Zhang Y, Cheng L, et al (2024)

Silica nanoparticles containing nano-silver and chlorhexidine to suppress Porphyromonas gingivalis biofilm and modulate multispecies biofilms toward healthy tendency.

Journal of oral microbiology, 16(1):2361403.

OBJECTIVES: This research first investigated the effect of mesoporous silica nanoparticles (nMS) carrying chlorhexidine and silver (nMS-nAg-Chx) on periodontitis-related biofilms. This study aimed to investigate (1) the antibacterial activity on Porphyromonas gingivalis (P. gingivalis) biofilm; (2) the suppressing effect on virulence of P. gingivalis biofilm; (3) the regulating effect on periodontitis-related multispecies biofilm.

METHODS: Silver nanoparticles (nAg) and chlorhexidine (Chx) were co-loaded into nMS to form nMS-nAg-Chx. Inhibitory zone test and minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) against P. gingivalis were tested. Growth curves, crystal violet (CV) staining, live/dead staining and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) observation were performed. Biofilm virulence was assessed. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide (MTT) assay and Quantitative Real Time-PCR (qPCR) were performed to validate the activity and composition changes of multispecies biofilm (P. gingivalis, Streptococcus gordonii and Streptococcus sanguinis).

RESULTS: nMS-nAg-Chx inhibited P. gingivalis biofilm dose-dependently (p<0.05), with MIC of 18.75 µg/mL. There were fewer live bacteria, less biomass and less virulence in nMS-nAg-Chx groups (p<0.05). nMS-nAg-Chx inhibited and modified periodontitis-related biofilms. The proportion of pathogenic bacteria decreased from 16.08 to 1.07% and that of helpful bacteria increased from 82.65 to 94.31% in 25 μg/mL nMS-nAg-Chx group for 72 h.

CONCLUSIONS: nMS-nAg-Chx inhibited P. gingivalis growth, decreased biofilm virulence and modulated periodontitis-related multispecies biofilms toward healthy tendency. pH-sensitive nMS-nAg-Chx inhibit the pathogens and regulate oral microecology, showing great potential in periodontitis adjunctive therapy.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Peran JE, LA Salvador-Reyes (2024)

Modified oxylipins as inhibitors of biofilm formation in Staphylococcus epidermidis.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 15:1379643 pii:1379643.

New approaches to combating microbial drug resistance are being sought, with the discovery of biofilm inhibitors considered as alternative arsenal for treating infections. Natural products have been at the forefront of antimicrobial discovery and serve as inspiration for the design of new antibiotics. We probed the potency, selectivity, and mechanism of anti-biofilm activity of modified oxylipins inspired by the marine natural product turneroic acid. Structure-activity relationship (SAR) evaluation revealed the importance of the trans-epoxide moiety, regardless of the position, for inhibiting biofilm formation. trans-12,13-epoxyoctadecanoic acid (1) and trans-9,10 epoxyoctadecanoic acid (4) selectively target the early stage of biofilm formation, with no effect on planktonic cells. These compounds interrupt the formation of a protective polysaccharide barrier by significantly upregulating the ica operon's transcriptional repressor. This was corroborated by docking experiment with SarA and scanning electron micrographs showing reduced biofilm aggregates and the absence of thread-like structures of extrapolymeric substances. In silico evaluation revealed that 1 and 4 can interfere with the AgrA-mediated communication language in Staphylococci, typical to the diffusible signal factor (DSF) capacity of lipophilic chains.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Li X, Tao M, Quan L, et al (2024)

Preparation and evaluation of decellularized epineurium as an anti-adhesive biofilm in peripheral nerve repair.

Regenerative biomaterials, 11:rbae054 pii:rbae054.

Following peripheral nerve anastomosis, the anastomotic site is prone to adhesions with surrounding tissues, consequently impacting the effectiveness of nerve repair. This study explores the development and efficacy of a decellularized epineurium as an anti-adhesive biofilm in peripheral nerve repair. Firstly, the entire epineurium was extracted from fresh porcine sciatic nerves, followed by a decellularization process. The decellularization efficiency was then thoroughly assessed. Subsequently, the decellularized epineurium underwent proteomic analysis to determine the remaining bioactive components. To ensure biosafety, the decellularized epineurium underwent cytotoxicity assays, hemolysis tests, cell affinity assays, and assessments of the immune response following subcutaneous implantation. Finally, the functionality of the biofilm was determined using a sciatic nerve transection and anastomosis model in rats. The result indicated that the decellularization process effectively removed cellular components from the epineurium while preserving a number of bioactive molecules, and this decellularized epineurium was effective in preventing adhesion while promoting nerve repairment and functional recovery. In conclusion, the decellularized epineurium represents a novel and promising anti-adhesion biofilm for enhancing surgical outcomes of peripheral nerve repair.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Schultz C, Zopf D, Holzinger A, et al (2024)

Raman spectral analysis in the CHx-stretching region as a guiding beacon for non-targeted, disruption-free monitoring of germination and biofilm formation in the green seaweed Ulva.

Chemphyschem : a European journal of chemical physics and physical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Raman spectroscopy was used to study the complex interactions and morphogenesis of the green seaweed Ulva (Chlorophyta) and its associated bacteria under controlled conditions in a reductionist model system. Integrating multiple imaging techniques contributes to a more comprehensive understanding of these biological processes. Therefore, Raman spectroscopy was introduced as a non-invasive, label-free tool for examining chemical information of the tripartite community Ulva mutabilis-Roseovarius sp.-Maribacter sp. The study explored cell differentiation, cell wall protrusion, and bacterial-macroalgae interactions of intact algal thalli. Using Raman spectroscopy, the analysis of the CHx-stretching wavenumber region distinguished spatial regions in Ulva germination and cellular malformations under axenic conditions and upon inoculation with a specific bacterium in bipartite communities. The spectral information was used to guide in-depth analyses within the fingerprint region and to identify substance classes such as proteins, lipids, and polysaccharides, including evidence for ulvan found in cell wall protrusions.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Bhowmik A, Chakraborty S, Rohit A, et al (2024)

Transcriptomic responses of XDR Klebsiella pneumoniae to N-acetyl cysteine reveals suppression of major biogenesis pathways leading to bacterial killing and biofilm eradication.

Journal of applied microbiology pii:7689222 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: Carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae is categorized as a "critical global priority-one" pathogen by WHO and new and efficient treatment options are warranted. This study aims to assess the antibacterial and antibiofilm potential of N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), against clinical isolates of extensively drug resistant (XDR) K. pneumoniae and elucidate the mechanism of killing.

METHODS AND RESULTS: XDR-K. pneumoniae were isolated from patients admitted to Madras Medical Mission Hospital, India. Antibiofilm activity of NAC was checked using in vitro continuous flow model and RNA sequencing was done using Illumina Novoseq. Data quality was checked using FastQC and MultiQC software. Our findings revealed that NAC at a concentration of 100 mg/mL was safe, and could inhibit the growth and completely eradicate mature biofilms of all XDR- K. pneumoniae isolates. Transcriptomic responses in XDR- K. pneumoniae to NAC showed significant downregulation of the genes associated with crucial biogenesis pathways including electron transport chain and oxidoreductase activity besides a specific cluster of genes linked to ribosomal proteins.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results indicate that NAC kills the XDR- K. pneumoniae clinical isolates by shutting the overall metabolism and hence, successfully eradicate in vitro biofilms formed on catheters.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Ronish LA, Biswas B, Bauer RM, et al (2024)

The role of extracellular structures in Clostridioides difficile biofilm formation.

Anaerobe pii:S1075-9964(24)00056-8 [Epub ahead of print].

C. difficile infection (CDI) is a costly and increasing burden on the healthcare systems of many developed countries due to the high rates of nosocomial infections. Despite the availability of several antibiotics with high response rates, effective treatment is hampered by recurrent infections. One potential mechanism for recurrence is the existence of C. difficile biofilms in the gut which persist through the course of antibiotics. In this review, we describe current developments in understanding the molecular mechanisms by which C. difficile biofilms form and are stabilized through extracellular biomolecular interactions.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Papale M, Fazi S, Severini M, et al (2024)

Structural properties and microbial diversity of the biofilm colonizing plastic substrates in Terra Nova Bay (Antarctica).

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)03920-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial colonization on plastic polymers has been extensively explored, however the temporal dynamics of biofilm community in Antarctic environments are almost unknown. As a contribute to fill this knowledge gap, the structural characteristics and microbial diversity of the biofilm associated with polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyethylene (PE) panels submerged at 5 m of depth and collected after 3, 9 and 12 months were investigated in four coastal sites of the Ross Sea. Additional panels placed at 5 and 20 m were retrieved after 12 months. Chemical characterization was performed by FTIR-ATR and Raman (through Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering, SERS) spectroscopy. Bacterial community composition was quantified at a single cell level by Catalyzed Reporter Deposition Fluorescence In Situ Hybridization (CARD-FISH) and Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy (CLSM); microbial diversity was assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. This multidisciplinary approach has provided new insights into microbial community dynamics during biofouling process, shedding light on the biofilm diversity and temporal succession on plastic substrates in the Ross Sea. Significant differences between free-living and microbial biofilm communities were found, with a more consolidated and structured community composition on PVC compared to PE. Spectral features ascribable to tyrosine, polysaccharides, nucleic acids and lipids characterized the PVC-associated biofilms. Pseudomonadota (among Gammaproteobacteria) and Alphaproteobacteria dominated the microbial biofilm community. Interestingly, in Road Bay, close to the Italian "Mario Zucchelli" research station, the biofilm growth - already observed during summer season, after 3 months of submersion - continued afterwards leading to a massive microbial abundance at the end of winter (after 12 months). After 3 months, higher percentages of Gammaproteobacteria in Road Bay than in the not-impacted site were found. These observations lead us to hypothesize that in this site microbial fouling developed during the first 3 months could serve as a starter pioneering community stimulating the successive growth during winter.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Wang C, El-Telbany M, Lin Y, et al (2024)

Identification of Enterococcus spp. from food sources by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and characterization of virulence factors, antibiotic resistance, and biofilm formation.

International journal of food microbiology, 420:110768 pii:S0168-1605(24)00212-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The continuous detection of multi-drug-resistant enterococci in food source environments has aroused widespread concern. In this study, 198 samples from chicken products, animal feces, raw milk, and vegetables were collected in Japan and Egypt to investigate the prevalence of enterococci and virulence characterization. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS) was employed for species identification and taxonomic analysis of the isolates. The results showed that the rates of most virulence genes (efaA, gelE, asa1, ace, and hyl) in the Japanese isolates were slightly higher than those in the Egyptian isolates. The rate of efaA was the highest (94.9 %) among seven virulence genes detected, but the cylA gene was not detected in all isolates, which was in accordance with γ-type hemolysis phenotype. In Enterococcus faecalis, the rate of kanamycin-resistant strains was the highest (84.75 %) among the antibiotics tested. Moreover, 78 % of E. faecalis strains exhibited multi-drug resistance. Four moderately vancomycin-resistant strains were found in Egyptian isolates, but none were found in Japanese isolates. MALDI-TOF MS analysis correctly identified 98.5 % (68/69) of the Enterococcus isolates. In the principal component analysis dendrogram, strains isolated from the same region with the same virulence characteristics and similar biofilm-forming abilities were characterized by clustered distribution in different clusters. This finding highlights the potential of MALDI-TOF MS for classifying E. faecalis strains from food sources.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Zhou L, Wu F, Lai Y, et al (2024)

Cooperation and competition between denitrification and chromate reduction in a hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactor.

Water research, 259:121870 pii:S0043-1354(24)00771-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Competition and cooperation between denitrification and Cr(VI) reduction in a H2-based membrane biofilm reactor (H2-MBfR) were documented over 55 days of continuous operation. When nitrate (5 mg N/L) and chromate (0.5 mg Cr/L) were fed together, the H2-MBfR maintained approximately 100 % nitrate removal and 60 % chromate Cr(VI) removal, which means that nitrate outcompeted Cr(VI) for electrons from H2 oxidation. Removing nitrate from the influent led to an immediate increase in Cr(VI) removal (to 92 %), but Cr(VI) removal gradually deteriorated, with the removal ratio dropping to 14 % after five days. Cr(VI) removal resumed once nitrate was again added to the influent. 16S rDNA analyses showed that bacteria able to carry out H2-based denitrification and Cr(VI) reduction were in similar abundances throughout the experiment, but gene expression for Cr(VI)-reduction and export shifted. Functional genes encoding for energy-consuming chromate export (encoded by ChrA) as a means of bacterial resistance to toxicity were more abundant than genes encoding for the energy producing Cr(VI) respiration via the chromate reductase ChrR-NdFr. Thus, Cr(VI) transport and resistance to Cr(VI) toxicity depended on H2-based denitrification to supply energy. With Cr(VI) being exported from the cells, Cr(VI) reduction to Cr(III) was sustained. Thus, cooperation among H2-based denitrification, Cr(VI) export, and Cr(VI) reduction led to sustained Cr(VI) removal in the presence of nitrate, even though Cr(VI) reduction was at a competitive disadvantage for utilizing electrons from H2 oxidation.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Afrasiabi S, A Partoazar (2024)

Targeting bacterial biofilm-related genes with nanoparticle-based strategies.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1387114.

Persistent infection caused by biofilm is an urgent in medicine that should be tackled by new alternative strategies. Low efficiency of classical treatments and antibiotic resistance are the main concerns of the persistent infection due to biofilm formation which increases the risk of morbidity and mortality. The gene expression patterns in biofilm cells differed from those in planktonic cells. One of the promising approaches against biofilms is nanoparticle (NP)-based therapy in which NPs with multiple mechanisms hinder the resistance of bacterial cells in planktonic or biofilm forms. For instance, NPs such as silver (Ag), zinc oxide (ZnO), titanium dioxide (TiO2), copper oxide (Cu), and iron oxide (Fe3O4) through the different strategies interfere with gene expression of bacteria associated with biofilm. The NPs can penetrate into the biofilm structure and affect the expression of efflux pump, quorum-sensing, and adhesion-related genes, which lead to inhibit the biofilm formation or development. Therefore, understanding and targeting of the genes and molecular basis of bacterial biofilm by NPs point to therapeutic targets that make possible control of biofilm infections. In parallel, the possible impact of NPs on the environment and their cytotoxicity should be avoided through controlled exposure and safety assessments. This study focuses on the biofilm-related genes that are potential targets for the inhibition of bacterial biofilms with highly effective NPs, especially metal or metal oxide NPs.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Xie H, Zhang R, Li Z, et al (2024)

Endogenous Type I-C CRISPR-Cas system of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus promotes biofilm formation and pathogenicity.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1417993.

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is a significant zoonotic pathogen that causes septicemia, meningitis, and mastitis in domestic animals. Recent reports have highlighted high-mortality outbreaks among swine in the United States. Traditionally recognized for its adaptive immune functions, the CRISPR-Cas system has also been implicated in gene regulation, bacterial pathophysiology, virulence, and evolution. The Type I-C CRISPR-Cas system, which is prevalent in SEZ isolates, appears to play a pivotal role in regulating the pathogenicity of SEZ. By constructing a Cas3 mutant strain (ΔCas3) and a CRISPR-deficient strain (ΔCRISPR), we demonstrated that this system significantly promotes biofilm formation and cell adhesion. However, the deficiency in the CRISPR-Cas system did not affect bacterial morphology or capsule production. In vitro studies showed that the CRISPR-Cas system enhances pro-inflammatory responses in RAW264.7 cells. The ΔCas3 and ΔCRISPR mutant strains exhibited reduced mortality rates in mice, accompanied by a decreased bacterial load in specific organs. RNA-seq analysis revealed distinct expression patterns in both mutant strains, with ΔCas3 displaying a broader range of differentially expressed genes, which accounted for over 70% of the differential genes observed in ΔCRISPR. These genes were predominantly linked to lipid metabolism, the ABC transport system, signal transduction, and quorum sensing. These findings enhance our understanding of the complex role of the CRISPR-Cas system in SEZ pathogenesis and provide valuable insights for developing innovative therapeutic strategies to combat infections.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-06

Egbule OS, Konye OP, BC Iweriebor (2024)

Assessment of Biofilm Forming Capability and Antibiotic Resistance in Proteus mirabilis Colonizing Indwelling Catheter.

Pakistan journal of biological sciences : PJBS, 27(5):268-275.

Background and Objective: Urinary tract infections from the use of an indwelling urinary catheter are one of the most common infections caused by Proteus mirabilis. Due to their biofilm-producing capacity and the increasing antimicrobial resistance in this microorganism, this study aimed to determine the prevalence, biofilm-producing capacity, antimicrobial resistance patterns, multidrug resistance and plasmid mediated resistance of the recovered isolates. Materials and Methods: A total of 50 urinary samples were collected from May to August, 2018 from patients on indwelling urinary catheters. Using routine microbiological and biochemical methods, 37 P. mirabilis were isolated. Biofilm forming capability was determined among the isolates using the tube method while antimicrobial susceptibility and plasmid curing were also performed. Results: All isolates were biofilm producers with 17(46%) being moderate producers while 20(54%) were strong biofilm formers. The study isolates exhibited a high resistance rate to empiric antibiotics, including ceftazidime (75.8%), cefuroxime (54.5%), ampicillin (69.7%) and amoxicillin-clavulanic acid (51.5%). Low resistance was seen in the fluoroquinolones, gentamicin and nitrofurantoin. Plasmid curing experiment revealed that most isolates lost their resistance indicating that resistance was borne on plasmids. Plasmid carriage is likely the reason for the high MDR rate of 56.8% observed. Conclusion: These findings necessitate the provision of infection control programs which will guide and implement policies.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Shi Q, Yu T, de Vries J, et al (2024)

Nano-architectonics of Pt single-atoms and differently-sized nanoparticles supported by manganese-oxide nanosheets and impact on catalytic and anti-biofilm activities.

Journal of colloid and interface science, 672:224-235 pii:S0021-9797(24)01238-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Hybrid-nanozymes are promising in various applications, but comprehensive comparison of hybrid-nanozymes composed of single-atoms or nanoparticles on the same support has never been made. Here, manganese-oxide nanosheets were loaded with Pt-single-atoms or differently-sized nanoparticles and their oxidase- and-peroxidase activities compared. High-resolution Transmission-Electron-Microscopy and corresponding Fast Fourier Transform imaging showed that Pt-nanoparticles (1.5 nm diameter) had no clear (111) crystal-planes, while larger nanoparticles had clear (111) crystal-planes. X-ray Photo-electron Spectroscopy demonstrated that unloaded nanosheets were composed of MnO2 with a high number of oxygen vacancies (Vo/Mn 0.4). Loading with 7.0 nm Pt-nanoparticles induced a change to Mn2O3, while loading with 1.5 nm nanoparticles increased the number of vacancies (Vo/Mn 1.2). Nanosheets loaded with 3.0 nm Pt-nanoparticles possessed similarly high catalytic activities as Pt-single-atoms. However, loading with 1.5 nm or 7.0 nm Pt-nanoparticles yielded lower catalytic activities. A model is proposed explaining the low catalytic activity of under- and over-sized Pt-nanoparticles as compared with intermediately-sized (3.0 nm) Pt-nanoparticles and single-atoms. Herewith, catalytic activities of hybrid-nanozymes composed of single-atoms and intermediately-sized nanoparticles are put a par, as confirmed here with respect to bacterial biofilm eradication. This conclusion facilitates a balanced choice between using Pt-single-atoms or nanoparticles in further development and application of hybrid-nanozymes.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Gholipour S, Nikaeen M, Mohammadi F, et al (2024)

Antibiotic resistance pattern of waterborne causative agents of healthcare-associated infections: A call for biofilm control in hospital water systems.

Journal of infection and public health, 17(7):102469 pii:S1876-0341(24)00203-X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: In recent years, the global spread of antimicrobial resistance has become a concerning issue, often referred to as a "silent pandemic". Healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) are a recurring problem, with some originating from waterborne route. The study aimed to investigate the presence of clinically relevant opportunistic bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in hospital water distribution systems (WDSs).

METHODS: Water and biofilm samples (n = 192) were collected from nine hospitals in Isfahan and Kashan, located in central Iran, between May 2022 and June 2023. The samples were analyzed to determine the presence and quantities of opportunistic bacteria and ARGs using cultural and molecular methods.

RESULTS: Staphylococcus spp. were highly detected in WDS samples (90 isolates), with 33 % of them harboring mecA gene. However, the occurrences of E. coli (1 isolate), Acinetobacter baumannii (3 isolates), and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (14 isolates) were low. Moreover, several Gram-negative bacteria containing ARGs were identified in the samples, mainly belonging to Stenotrophomonas, Sphingomonas and Brevundimonas genera. Various ARGs, as well as intI1, were found in hospital WDSs (ranging from 14 % to 60 %), with higher occurrences in the biofilm samples.

CONCLUSION: Our results underscore the importance of biofilms in water taps as hotspots for the dissemination of opportunistic bacteria and ARG within hospital environments. The identification of multiple opportunistic bacteria and ARGs raises concerns about the potential exposure and acquisition of HAIs, emphasizing the need for proactive measures, particularly in controlling biofilms, to mitigate infection risks in healthcare settings.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Furtado KL, Plott L, Markovetz M, et al (2024)

Clostridioides difficile-mucus interactions encompass shifts in gene expression, metabolism, and biofilm formation.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: In a healthy colon, the stratified mucus layer serves as a crucial innate immune barrier to protect the epithelium from microbes. Mucins are complex glycoproteins that serve as a nutrient source for resident microflora and can be exploited by pathogens. We aimed to understand how the intestinal pathogen, Clostridioides difficile, independently uses or manipulates mucus to its benefit, without contributions from members of the microbiota. Using a 2-D primary human intestinal epithelial cell model to generate physiologic mucus, we assessed C. difficile-mucus interactions through growth assays, RNA-Seq, biophysical characterization of mucus, and contextualized metabolic modeling. We found that host-derived mucus promotes C. difficile growth both in vitro and in an infection model. RNA-Seq revealed significant upregulation of genes related to central metabolism in response to mucus, including genes involved in sugar uptake, the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway, and the glycine cleavage system. In addition, we identified differential expression of genes related to sensing and transcriptional control. Analysis of mutants with deletions in highly upregulated genes reflected the complexity of C. difficile-mucus interactions, with potential interplay between sensing and growth. Mucus also stimulated biofilm formation in vitro, which may in turn alter the viscoelastic properties of mucus. Context-specific metabolic modeling confirmed differential metabolism and the predicted importance of enzymes related to serine and glycine catabolism with mucus. Subsequent growth experiments supported these findings, indicating mucus is an important source of serine. Our results better define responses of C. difficile to human gastrointestinal mucus and highlight flexibility in metabolism that may influence pathogenesis.

IMPORTANCE: Clostridioides difficile results in upward of 250,000 infections and 12,000 deaths annually in the United States. Community-acquired infections continue to rise, and recurrent disease is common, emphasizing a vital need to understand C. difficile pathogenesis. C. difficile undoubtedly interacts with colonic mucus, but the extent to which the pathogen can independently respond to and take advantage of this niche has not been explored extensively. Moreover, the metabolic complexity of C. difficile remains poorly understood but likely impacts its capacity to grow and persist in the host. Here, we demonstrate that C. difficile uses native colonic mucus for growth, indicating C. difficile possesses mechanisms to exploit the mucosal niche. Furthermore, mucus induces metabolic shifts and biofilm formation in C. difficile, which has potential ramifications for intestinal colonization. Overall, our work is crucial to better understand the dynamics of C. difficile-mucus interactions in the context of the human gut.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Shakeel M, Abbas N, Rehman MJU, et al (2024)

Lie symmetry analysis and solitary wave solution of biofilm model Allen-Cahn.

Scientific reports, 14(1):12844.

The investigation presented in this study delves into the analysis of Lie symmetries for the bistable Allen-Cahn (BAC) equation with a quartic potential, specifically applied to the biofilm model. By employing the Lie symmetry method, we have acquired the Lie infinitesimal generators for the considered model. Using a transformation method, the nonlinear partial differential equations (NPDEs) are converted into various nonlinear ordinary differential equations (NLODEs), providing the numerous closed-form solitary wave solutions. The obtained solutions manifest in various forms including dark, bright, kink, anti-kink, and periodic types using diverse strategies. To enhance the physical interpretation, the study presents 3D, 2D, and contour plots of the acquired solutions. Every graph's wave-like structure contains information about the structural behaviour of the bacteria that build biofilms on surfaces where rectangles have different densities. This analysis enhances comprehension of the complex dynamics present in areas like fluid dynamics, fiber optics, biology, ocean physics, coastal engineering, and nonlinear complex physical systems.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Xu Z, Li Y, Xu A, et al (2024)

Cell-wall-anchored proteins affect invasive host colonization and biofilm formation in Staphylococcus aureus.

Microbiological research, 285:127782 pii:S0944-5013(24)00183-6 [Epub ahead of print].

As a major human and animal pathogen, Staphylococcus aureus can attach to medical implants (abiotic surface) or host tissues (biotic surface), and further establish robust biofilms which enhances resistance and persistence to host immune system and antibiotics. Cell-wall-anchored proteins (CWAPs) covalently link to peptidoglycan, and largely facilitate the colonization of S. aureus on various surfaces (including adhesion and biofilm formation) and invasion into host cells (including adhesion, immune evasion, iron acquisition and biofilm formation). During biofilm formation, CWAPs function in adhesion, aggregation, collagen-like fiber network formation, and consortia formation. In this review, we firstly focus on the structural features of CWAPs, including their intracellular function and interactions with host cells, as well as the functions and ligand binding of CWAPs in different stages of S. aureus biofilm formation. Then, the roles of CWAPs in different biofilm processes with regards in development of therapeutic approaches are clarified, followed by the association between CWAPs genes and clonal lineages. By touching upon these aspects, we hope to provide comprehensive knowledge and clearer understanding on the CWAPs of S. aureus and their roles in biofilm formation, which may further aid in prevention and treatment infection and vaccine development.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Eisenbraun EL, Vulpis TD, Prosser BN, et al (2024)

Synthetic Peptides Capable of Potent Multigroup Staphylococcal Quorum Sensing Activation and Inhibition in Both Cultures and Biofilm Communities.

Journal of the American Chemical Society [Epub ahead of print].

The pathogen Staphylococcus epidermidis uses a chemical signaling process, i.e., quorum sensing (QS), to form robust biofilms and cause human infection. Many questions remain about QS in S. epidermidis, as it uses this intercellular communication pathway to both negatively and positively regulate virulence traits. Herein, we report synthetic multigroup agonists and antagonists of the S. epidermidis accessory gene regulator (agr) QS system capable of potent superactivation and complete inhibition, respectively. These macrocyclic peptides maintain full efficacy across the three major agr specificity groups, and their activity can be "mode-switched" from agonist to antagonist via subtle residue-specific structural changes. We describe the design and synthesis of these non-native peptides and demonstrate that they can appreciably decrease biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces, underscoring the potential for agr agonism as a route to block S. epidermidis virulence. Additionally, we show that both the S. epidermidis agonists and antagonists are active in S. aureus, another common pathogen with a related agr system, yet only as antagonists. This result not only revealed one of the most potent agr inhibitors known in S. aureus but also highlighted differences in the mechanisms of agr agonism and antagonism between these related bacteria. Finally, our investigations reveal unexpected inhibitory behavior for certain S. epidermidis agr agonists at sub-activating concentrations, an observation that can be leveraged for the design of future probes with enhanced potencies. Together, these peptides provide a powerful tool set to interrogate the role of QS in S. epidermidis infections and in Staphylococcal pathogenicity in general.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Zhou J, Yang L, Li X, et al (2024)

Biogenic Palladium Improved Perchlorate Reduction during Nitrate Co-Reduction by Diverting Electron Flow in a Hydrogenotrophic Biofilm.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial reduction of perchlorate (ClO4[-]) is emerging as a cost-effective strategy for groundwater remediation. However, the effectiveness of perchlorate reduction can be suppressed by the common co-contamination of nitrate (NO3[-]). We propose a means to overcome the limitation of ClO4[-] reduction: depositing palladium nanoparticles (Pd[0]NPs) within the matrix of a hydrogenotrophic biofilm. Two H2-based membrane biofilm reactors (MBfRs) were operated in parallel in long-term continuous and batch modes: one system had only a biofilm (bio-MBfR), while the other incorporated biogenic Pd[0]NPs in the biofilm matrix (bioPd-MBfR). For long-term co-reduction, bioPd-MBfR had a distinct advantage of oxyanion reduction fluxes, and it particularly alleviated the competitive advantage of NO3[-] reduction over ClO4[-] reduction. Batch tests also demonstrated that bioPd-MBfR gave more rapid reduction rates for ClO4[-] and ClO3[-] compared to those of bio-MBfR. Both biofilm communities were dominated by bacteria known to be perchlorate and nitrate reducers. Functional-gene abundances reflecting the intracellular electron flow from H2 to NADH to the reductases were supplanted by extracellular electron flow with the addition of Pd[0]NPs.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Xu Y, Wang X, Gu Y, et al (2024)

Optimizing ciprofloxacin removal through regulations of trophic modes and FNA levels in a moving bed biofilm reactor performing sidestream partial nitritation.

Water research X, 22:100216.

The performance of partial nitritation (PN)-moving bed biofilm reactor (MBBR) in removal of antibiotics in the sidestream wastewater has not been investigated so far. In this work, the removal of ciprofloxacin was assessed under varying free nitrous acid (FNA) levels and different trophic modes. For the first time, a positive correlation was observed between ciprofloxacin removal and FNA levels, either in the autotrophic PN-MBBR or in the mixotrophic PN-MBBR, mainly ascribed to the FNA-stimulating effect on heterotrophic bacteria (HB)-induced biodegradation. The maximum ciprofloxacin removal efficiency (∼98 %) and removal rate constant (0.021 L g[-1] SS h[-1]) were obtained in the mixotrophic PN-MBBR at an average FNA level of 0.056 mg-N L[-1], which were 5.8 and 51.2 times higher than the corresponding values in the autotrophic PN-MBBR at 0 mg FNA-N L[-1]. Increasing FNA from 0.006 to 0.056 mg-N L[-1] would inhibit ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB)-induced cometabolism and metabolism from 10.2 % and 6.9 % to 6.2 % and 6.4 %, respectively, while HB-induced cometabolism and metabolism increased from 31.2 % and 22.7 % to 41.9 % and 34.5 %, respectively. HB-induced cometabolism became the predominant biodegradation pathway (75.9 %-85.8 %) in the mixotrophic mode. Less antimicrobial biotransformation products without the piperazine or fluorine were newly identified to propose potential degradation pathways, corresponding to microbial-induced metabolic types and FNA levels. This work shed light on enhancing antibiotic removal via regulating both FNA accumulation and organic carbon addition in the PN-MBBR process treating sidestream wastewater.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Shastry RP, Bajire SK, Banerjee S, et al (2024)

Association Between Biofilm Formation and Extended-Spectrum Beta-Lactamase Production in Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Fresh Fruits and Vegetables.

Current microbiology, 81(7):206.

The presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae in fresh fruits and vegetables is a growing public health concern. The primary objective of this study was to investigate the relationship between biofilm formation and extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL) production in K. pneumoniae strains obtained from fresh fruits and vegetables. Out of 120 samples analysed, 94 samples (78%) were found to be positive for K. pneumoniae. Among the K. pneumoniae strains isolated, 74.5% were from vegetables, whereas the remaining (25.5%) were from fresh fruits. K. pneumoniae isolates were resistant to at least three different classes of antibiotics, with ceftazidime (90%) and cefotaxime (70%) showing the highest resistance rates. While the high occurrence of ESBL-producing and biofilm-forming K. pneumoniae strains were detected in vegetables (73.5% and 73.7%, respectively), considerable amounts of the same were also found in fresh fruits (26.5% and 26.3%, respectively). The results further showed a statistically significant (P < 0.001) association between biofilm formation and ESBL production in K. pneumoniae strains isolated from fresh fruits and vegetables. Furthermore, the majority (81%) of the ESBL-producing strains harbored the blaCTX-M gene, while a smaller proportion of strains carried the blaTEM gene (30%), blaSHV gene (11%) or blaOXA (8%). This study highlights the potential public health threat posed by K. pneumoniae in fresh fruits and vegetables and emphasizes the need for strict surveillance and control measures.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Moshkanbaryans L, Shah V, Tan LY, et al (2024)

Comparison of two endoscope channel cleaning approaches to remove cyclic build-up biofilm.

The Journal of hospital infection pii:S0195-6701(24)00199-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm contributes significantly to bacterial persistence in endoscope channels. Enhanced cleaning methods capable of removing biofilm from all endoscope channels are required to decrease infection risk to patients. This head-to-head study compared cyclic build-up biofilm removal of an automated endoscope channel cleaner (AECC) to standard manual cleaning according to instructions for use (IFU) in polytetrafluorethylene channels. The automated cleaner significantly outperformed manual cleaning for all markers assessed (protein, total organic carbon, viable bacteria) in 1.4 mm and 3.7 mm channels representing air/water/auxiliary and suction/biopsy channels respectively. Manual cleaning failed to remove biofilm from the air/water and auxiliary channels. According to the IFU, these channels are not brushed, suggesting a potential root cause for a portion of the numerous endoscopy associated infections reported in the literature. AECC shows potential to deliver enhanced cleaning over current practice to all endoscope channels and may thereby address infection risk.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Schlafer S, Johnsen KK, Kjærbølling I, et al (2024)

The efficacy and safety of an enzyme-containing lozenge for dental biofilm control - A randomized controlled pilot trial.

Journal of dentistry pii:S0300-5712(24)00276-8 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of daily use of a multiple-enzyme lozenge on de novo plaque formation, on gingivitis development, and on the oral microbiome composition.

METHODS: This trial with two parallel arms included 24 healthy adults allocated to the Active (n=12) or Placebo (n=12) group. Subjects consumed one lozenge three times daily for seven days, and no oral hygiene procedures were allowed. Differences in de novo plaque accumulation between a baseline period, and one and seven days of intervention were assessed by the Turesky-modification of the Quigley-and-Hein-Plaque-Index (TM-QHPI). The development of gingivitis after seven days of intervention was assessed by the Gingival Index (GI). Plaque and saliva samples were collected at baseline and after seven days of intervention, and evaluated by 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

RESULTS: All subjects completed the study, and no adverse events were reported. After one day, the average TM-QHPI was significantly lower in the Active than in the Placebo group, as compared to baseline (p=0.012). After 7 days, average TM-QHPI values did not differ significantly between groups (p=0.37). GI values did not increase during the intervention period, with no difference between groups (p=0.62). Bacterial richness increased in both plaque and saliva samples over a seven-day oral hygiene-free period, with a statistically significant difference for the saliva samples (p=0.0495) between groups.

CONCLUSIONS: A multiple-enzymes lozenge decreased the build-up of de novo plaque after one day and slowed down the process of species increment in saliva. The lozenge may be an adjunct to regular mechanical plaque removal.

CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE: Dental plaque is the main cause of caries, gingivitis, and periodontitis. The search for therapeutic adjuncts to mechanical plaque removal that have no harmful effects on the oral microbiome is important. Treatment with multiple plaque-matrix degrading enzymes is a promising non-biocidal approach to plaque control.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Anonymous (2024)

Correction for Postek et al., Substrate geometry affects population dynamics in a bacterial biofilm.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(24):e2408892121.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Jurado V, Martin-Pozas T, Fernandez-Cortes A, et al (2024)

Gypsum Cave Biofilm Communities are Strongly Influenced by Bat- And Arthropod-Related Fungi.

Microbial ecology, 87(1):80.

The Gypsum Karst of Sorbas, Almeria, southeast Spain, includes a few caves whose entrances are open and allow the entry and roosting of numerous bats. Caves are characterized by their diversity of gypsum speleothems, such as stalactites, coralloids, gypsum crusts, etc. Colored biofilms can be observed on the walls of most caves, among which the Covadura and C3 caves were studied. The objective was to determine the influence that bat mycobiomes may have on the fungal communities of biofilms. The results indicate that the fungi retrieved from white and yellow biofilms in Covadura Cave (Ascomycota, Mortierellomycota, Basidiomycota) showed a wide diversity, depending on their location, and were highly influenced by the bat population, the guano and the arthropods that thrive in the guano, while C3 Cave was more strongly influenced by soil- and arthropod-related fungi (Ascomycota, Mortierellomycota), due to the absence of roosting bats.

RevDate: 2024-06-03
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Kurnia D, Padilah R, Apriyanti E, et al (2024)

Phytochemical Analysis and Anti-Biofilm Potential That Cause Dental Caries from Black Cumin Seeds (Nigella sativa Linn.).

Drug design, development and therapy, 18:1917-1932.

The oral cavity is an excellent place for various microorganisms to grow. Spectrococcus mutans and Spectrococcus sanguinis are Gram-negative bacteria found in the oral cavity as pioneer biofilm formers on the tooth surface that cause caries. Caries treatment has been done with antibiotics and therapeutics, but the resistance level of S. mutans and S. sanguinis bacteria necessitates the exploration of new drug compounds. Black cumin (Nigella sativa Linn.) is known to contain secondary metabolites that have antioxidant, antibacterial, anti-biofilm, anti-inflammatory and antifungal activities. The purpose of this review article is to present data on the potential of Nigella sativa Linn seeds as anti-biofilm. This article will discuss biofilm-forming bacteria, the resistance mechanism of antibiotics, the bioactivity of N. sativa extracts and seed isolates together with the Structure Activity Relationship (SAR) review of N. sativa compound isolates. We collected data from reliable references that will illustrate the potential of N. sativa seeds as anti-biofilm drug.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Austin R, Nagy K, Valappil S, et al (2024)

Microfluidic Ecology Unravels the Genetic and Ecological Drivers of T4r Bacteriophage Resistance in E. coli: Insights into Biofilm-Mediated Evolution.

Research square pii:rs.3.rs-4356333.

We use a microfluidic ecology which generates non-uniform phage concentration gradients and micro-ecological niches to reveal the importance of time, spatial population structure and collective population dynamics in the {\em de novo} evolution of T4r bacteriophage resistant motile {\em E. coli}. An insensitive bacterial population against T4r phage occurs within 20 hours in small interconnected population niches created by a gradient of phage virions, driven by evolution in transient biofilm patches. Sequencing of the resistant bacteria reveals mutations at the receptor site of bacteriophage T4r as expected but also in genes associated with biofilm formation and surface adhesion, supporting the hypothesis that evolution within transient biofilms drives {\em de novo} phage resistance.

RevDate: 2024-06-02

Salazar-Sesatty HA, Montoya-Hinojosa EI, Villarreal-Salazar V, et al (2024)

Biofilm Eradication and Inhibition of Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus Clinical Isolates by Curcumin-Chitosan Magnetic Nanoparticles.

Japanese journal of infectious diseases [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm-producing methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) and coagulase-negative Staphylococci (MR-CoNS) are a clinical challenge for the treatment of healthcare-associated infections. As alternative antimicrobial options are needed, we aimed to determine the effect of curcumin-chitosan magnetic nanoparticles on the biofilm of staphylococcal clinical isolates. MRSA and CoNS clinical isolates were identified by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was performed by broth microdilution. Nanoparticles were synthesized by co-precipitation of magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) and encapsulation by ionotropic gelation of curcumin (Cur) and chitosan (Chi). Biofilm inhibition and eradication by nanoparticles with and without the addition of oxacillin was assessed on staphylococcal strains. Cur-Chi-MNP showed antimicrobial activity on planktonic cells of MRSA and MR-CoNS strains and inhibited biofilm of MRSA. The addition of OXA to Cur-Chi-MNP increased biofilm inhibition and eradication activity against all Staphylococci strains (p=0.0007); higher biofilm activity was observed in early biofilm stages. Cur-Chi-MNP showed antimicrobial and biofilm inhibition activity against S. aureus. The addition of OXA increased biofilm inhibition and eradication activity against all Staphylococci strains. A combination treatment of Cur-Chi-MNP and OXA could be potentially used to treat staphylococcal biofilm-associated infections in its early stages before the establishment of biofilm bacterial cells.

RevDate: 2024-06-02

Shi H, Mao X, Yang F, et al (2024)

Multi-scale analysis of acidophilic microbial consortium biofilm's tolerance of lithium and cobalt ions in bioleaching.

Journal of hazardous materials, 474:134764 pii:S0304-3894(24)01343-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Metal ions stress will inhibit the oxidation capacity of iron and sulfur of an acidophilic microbial consortium (AMC), which leads to reduced bioleaching efficiency. This work explored the impacts of Li[+] and Co[2+] on the composition and function of AMC biofilms with a multi-scale approach. At the reactor scale, the results indicated that the oxidative activity, the adsorption capacity, and the biofilm formation ability of AMC on pyrite surfaces decreased under 500 mM Li[+] and 500 mM Co[2+]. At the biofilm scale, the electrochemical measurements showed that Li[+] and Co[2+] inhibited the charge transfer between the pyrite working electrode and the biofilm, and decreased the corrosion current density of the pyrite working electrode. At the cell scale, the content of proteins in extracellular polymers substrate (EPS) increased as the concentrations of metal ions increased. Moreover, the adsorption capacity of EPS for Li[+] and Co[2+] increased. At the microbial consortium scale, a BugBase phenotype analysis showed that under 500 mM Li[+] and 500 mM Co[2+], the antioxidant stress capacity and the content of mobile gene elements in AMC increased. The results in this work can provide useful data and theoretical support for the regulation strategy of the bioleaching of spent lithium-ion batteries to recover valuable metals.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-06-01

Khan MAS, Islam Z, Shah ST, et al (2024)

Characterization of biofilm formation and multi-drug resistance among Pseudomonas aeruginosa isolated from hospital wastewater in Dhaka, Bangladesh.

Journal of water and health, 22(5):825-834.

Hospital wastewater has been identified as a hotspot for the emergence and transmission of multidrug-resistant (MDR) pathogens that present a serious threat to public health. Therefore, we investigated the current status of antibiotic resistance as well as the phenotypic and genotypic basis of biofilm formation in Pseudomonas aeruginosa from hospital wastewater in Dhaka, Bangladesh. The disc diffusion method and the crystal violet assay were performed to characterize antimicrobial resistance and biofilm formation, respectively. Biofilm and integron-associated genes were amplified by the polymerase chain reaction. Isolates exhibited varying degrees of resistance to different antibiotics, in which >80% of isolates showed sensitivity to meropenem, amikacin, and gentamicin. The results indicated that 93.82% of isolates were MDR and 71 out of 76 MDR isolates showed biofilm formation activities. We observed the high prevalence of biofilm-related genes, in which algD[+]pelF[+]pslD[+] (82.7%) was found to be the prevalent biofilm genotypic pattern. Sixteen isolates (19.75%) possessed class 1 integron (int1) genes. However, statistical analysis revealed no significant association between biofilm formation and multidrug resistance (χ[2] = 0.35, P = 0.55). Taken together, hospital wastewater in Dhaka city may act as a reservoir for MDR and biofilm-forming P. aeruginosa, and therefore, the adequate treatment of wastewater is recommended to reduce the occurrence of outbreaks.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Khan ZA, Wani MY, Ahmad A, et al (2024)

Multifunctional chitosan-cross linked- curcumin-tannic acid biocomposites disrupt quorum sensing and biofilm formation in pathogenic bacteria.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(24)03524-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Natural products have a long history of success in treating bacterial infections, making them a promising source for novel antibacterial medications. Curcumin, an essential component of turmeric, has shown potential in treating bacterial infections and in this study, we covalently immobilized curcumin (Cur) onto chitosan (CS) using glutaraldehyde and tannic acid (TA), resulting in the fabrication of novel biocomposites with varying CS/Cur/TA ratios. Comprehensive characterization of these ternary biocomposites was conducted using FTIR, SEM, XPS, and XRD to assess their morphology, functional groups, and chemical structures. The inhibitory efficacy of these novel biocomposites (n = 4) against the growth and viability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC27853) and Chromobacterium violaceum (ATCC12472) was evaluated and the most promising composite (C3) was investigated for its impact on quorum sensing (QS) and biofilm formation in these bacteria. Remarkably, this biocomposite significantly disrupted QS circuits and effectively curtailed biofilm formation in the tested pathogens without inducing appreciable toxicity. These findings underscore its potential for future in vivo studies, positioning it as a promising candidate for the development of biofilm disrupting antibacterial agents.

RevDate: 2024-06-02

Yu C, Liu Y, Zhang Y, et al (2024)

Seawater Chlorella sp. biofilm for mariculture effluent polishing under environmental combined antibiotics exposure and ecological risk evaluation based on parent antibiotics and transformation products.

The Science of the total environment, 939:173643 pii:S0048-9697(24)03790-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Mariculture effluent polishing with microalgal biofilm could realize effective nutrients removal and resolve the microalgae-water separation issue via biofilm scraping or in-situ aquatic animal grazing. Ubiquitous existence of antibiotics in mariculture effluents may affect the remediation performances and arouse ecological risks. The influence of combined antibiotics exposure at environment-relevant concentrations towards attached microalgae suitable for mariculture effluent polishing is currently lack of research. Results from suspended cultures could offer limited guidance since biofilms are richer in extracellular polymeric substances that may protect the cells from antibiotics and alter their transformation pathways. This study, therefore, explored the effects of combined antibiotics exposure at environmental concentrations towards seawater Chlorella sp. biofilm in terms of microalgal growth characteristics, nutrients removal, anti-oxidative responses, and antibiotics removal and transformations. Sulfamethoxazole (SMX), tetracycline (TL), and clarithromycin (CLA) in single, binary, and triple combinations were investigated. SMX + TL displayed toxicity synergism while TL + CLA revealed toxicity antagonism. Phosphorus removal was comparable under all conditions, while nitrogen removal was significantly higher under SMX and TL + CLA exposure. Anti-oxidative responses suggested microalgal acclimation towards SMX, while toxicity antagonism between TL and CLA generated least cellular oxidative damage. Parent antibiotics removal was in the order of TL (74.5-85.2 %) > CLA (60.8-69.5 %) > SMX (13.5-44.1 %), with higher removal efficiencies observed under combined than single antibiotic exposure. Considering the impact of residual parent antibiotics, CLA involved cultures were identified of high ecological risks, while medium risks were indicated in other cultures. Transformation products (TPs) of SMX and CLA displayed negligible aquatic toxicity, the parent antibiotics themselves deserve advanced removal. Four out of eight TPs of TL could generate chronic toxicity, and the elimination of these TPs should be prioritized for TL involved cultures. This study expands the knowledge of combined antibiotics exposure upon microalgal biofilm based mariculture effluent polishing.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Rapsinski GJ, Michaels LA, Hill M, et al (2024)

Pseudomonas aeruginosa senses and responds to epithelial potassium flux via Kdp operon to promote biofilm.

PLoS pathogens, 20(5):e1011453 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-23-00906 [Epub ahead of print].

Mucosa-associated biofilms are associated with many human disease states, but the host mechanisms promoting biofilm remain unclear. In chronic respiratory diseases like cystic fibrosis (CF), Pseudomonas aeruginosa establishes chronic infection through biofilm formation. P. aeruginosa can be attracted to interspecies biofilms through potassium currents emanating from the biofilms. We hypothesized that P. aeruginosa could, similarly, sense and respond to the potassium efflux from human airway epithelial cells (AECs) to promote biofilm. Using respiratory epithelial co-culture biofilm imaging assays of P. aeruginosa grown in association with CF bronchial epithelial cells (CFBE41o-), we found that P. aeruginosa biofilm was increased by potassium efflux from AECs, as examined by potentiating large conductance potassium channel, BKCa (NS19504) potassium efflux. This phenotype is driven by increased bacterial attachment and increased coalescence of bacteria into aggregates. Conversely, biofilm formation was reduced when AECs were treated with a BKCa blocker (paxilline). Using an agar-based macroscopic chemotaxis assay, we determined that P. aeruginosa chemotaxes toward potassium and screened transposon mutants to discover that disruption of the high-sensitivity potassium transporter, KdpFABC, and the two-component potassium sensing system, KdpDE, reduces P. aeruginosa potassium chemotaxis. In respiratory epithelial co-culture biofilm imaging assays, a KdpFABCDE deficient P. aeruginosa strain demonstrated reduced biofilm growth in association with AECs while maintaining biofilm formation on abiotic surfaces. Furthermore, we determined that the Kdp operon is expressed in vivo in people with CF and the genes are conserved in CF isolates. Collectively, these data suggest that P. aeruginosa biofilm formation can be increased by attracting bacteria to the mucosal surface and enhancing coalescence into microcolonies through aberrant AEC potassium efflux sensed by the KdpFABCDE system. These findings suggest host electrochemical signaling can enhance biofilm, a novel host-pathogen interaction, and potassium flux could be a therapeutic target to prevent chronic infections in diseases with mucosa-associated biofilms, like CF.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

He X, Su D, Bai X, et al (2024)

Chemically Modulating Ceria-Based Artificial Haloperoxidase for Enhanced Antibacterial Activity and Biofilm Inhibition.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

Ceria (CeO2) nanoparticles with haloperoxidase (HPO)-like activity have gained attention as a biologically benign antifoulant. 3,4-Dihydroxy-l-phenylalanine (DOPA), a main composition in mussel foot proteins, plays a crucial role in the biofouling process. However, the impact on the HPO-like activity and antifouling performance of CeO2 nanoparticles when DOPA molecules adsorb on them remains unexplored. This interesting question warrants investigation, particularly considering that it may occur in an actual marine environment. Herein, the interaction between DOPA and CeO2 is explored. Despite the higher Ce[3+] fractions and the lower band gap energies due to the electron transfer from DOPA to the CeO2 surface, DOPA still had a slightly negative effect on the HPO-like activity of CeO2 since they decreased the exposed Ce[3+] sites. The DOPA-CeO2 nanocomposites with HPO-like activities could kill bacteria and trigger quorum-sensing signaling quenching, achieving a biofilm inhibition performance. Amazingly, 0.1% DOPA-CeO2 nanocomposite exhibited higher antibacterial activity and better biofilm suppression activities due to its HPO-like activity and positive zeta potential. The remarkable results demonstrated that DOPA, as a participant in the biofouling process, could enhance the antibacterial activity and antifouling performance of CeO2 nanoparticles at an appropriate concentration.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

de Souto Sobrinho JD, de Valença Silva AK, de Medeiros KB, et al (2024)

Antimicrobial resistance, enterotoxin and biofilm production genes in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from facilities and fomites in veterinary hospital in the Caatinga biome.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

The Caatinga biome occurs only in Brazil and offers epidemiological conditions that should be assessed differently from other regions of Brazil and the world. Thus, the aim of this survey was to identify antimicrobial resistance, enterotoxin and biofilm production genes in Staphylococcus spp. isolated from facilities and fomites in a veterinary hospital in Caatinga biome. Samples were collected from surfaces of small animal clinical care tables (n =8), cages in the dog and cat hospitalisation sector and animals with infectious diseases (n = 21), small animal surgical centre (n =8), sterilisation sector (n =7) and stethoscopes (n = 32) by using sterile swabs. Bacterial isolation and identification, antimicrobial resistance phenotypic test and molecular detection of antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation and enterotoxin genes were carried out. Ninety-five bacterial isolates were obtained, and 29 (30.5%) were identified as Staphylococcus spp. Overall, 13 isolates (44.8%) of six species of Staphylococcus spp. showed antimicrobial resistance profile, as well as S. haemolyticus expressed phenotypic profile of multidrug resistance. The antimicrobials with the highest resistance rates were penicillin and tetracycline. The most frequent resistance genes were blaZ and tetM, both detected in 10 (76.9%) isolates. The mecA, tetL and tetK genes had frequencies of 38.5% (5/13), 23.1% (3/13) and 15.4% (2/13), respectively. The biofilm production marker, icaD gene, was detected in one S. sciuri strain. SEE gene, which encodes enterotoxins, was detected in 15.4% (2/13) of the strains (S. pseudintermedius and S. intermedius). The occurrence of Staphylococcus spp. carrying resistance genes to diferent classes of antimicrobials, presenting MDR phenotypic pattern and carrying enterotoxins and biofim encoding genes recovered from veterinary hospital facilities and fomites in the Caatinga biome reinforce the need to implement prevention cares in veterinary practices to avoid One Health-concerning conditions.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Liu X, Jia M, Wang J, et al (2023)

Cell division factor ZapE regulates Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm formation by impacting the pqs quorum sensing system.

mLife, 2(1):28-42.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the leading nosocomial pathogens that causes both severe acute and chronic infections. The strong capacity of P. aeruginosa to form biofilms can dramatically increase its antibiotic resistance and lead to treatment failure. The biofilm resident bacterial cells display distinct gene expression profiles and phenotypes compared to their free-living counterparts. Elucidating the genetic determinants of biofilm formation is crucial for the development of antibiofilm drugs. In this study, a high-throughput transposon-insertion site sequencing (Tn-seq) approach was employed to identify novel P. aeruginosa biofilm genetic determinants. When analyzing the novel biofilm regulatory genes, we found that the cell division factor ZapE (PA4438) controls the P. aeruginosa pqs quorum sensing system. The ∆zapE mutant lost fitness against the wild-type PAO1 strain in biofilms and its production of 2-heptyl-3-hydroxy-4(1H)-quinolone (PQS) had been reduced. Further biochemical analysis showed that ZapE interacts with PqsH, which encodes the synthase that converts 2-heptyl-4-quinolone (HHQ) to PQS. In addition, site-directed mutagenesis of the ATPase active site of ZapE (K72A) abolished the positive regulation of ZapE on PQS signaling. As ZapE is highly conserved among the Pseudomonas group, our study suggests that it is a potential drug target for the control of Pseudomonas infections.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Zhang Y, Bhasme P, Reddy DS, et al (2023)

Dual functions: A coumarin-chalcone conjugate inhibits cyclic-di-GMP and quorum-sensing signaling to reduce biofilm formation and virulence of pathogens.

mLife, 2(3):283-294.

Antibiotic resistance or tolerance of pathogens is one of the most serious global public health threats. Bacteria in biofilms show extreme tolerance to almost all antibiotic classes. Thus, use of antibiofilm drugs without bacterial-killing effects is one of the strategies to combat antibiotic tolerance. In this study, we discovered a coumarin-chalcone conjugate C9, which can inhibit the biofilm formation of three common pathogens that cause nosocomial infections, namely, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Escherichia coli, with the best antibiofilm activity against P. aeruginosa. Further investigations indicate that C9 decreases the synthesis of the key biofilm matrix exopolysaccharide Psl and bacterial second messenger cyclic-di-GMP. Meanwhile, C9 can interfere with the regulation of the quorum sensing (QS) system to reduce the virulence of P. aeruginosa. C9 treatment enhances the sensitivity of biofilm to several antibiotics and reduces the survival rate of P. aeruginosa under starvation or oxidative stress conditions, indicating its excellent potential for use as an antibiofilm-forming and anti-QS drug.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Chen X, Chen CE, Cheng S, et al (2024)

Bisphenol A sorption on commercial polyvinyl chloride microplastics: Effects of UV-aging, biofilm colonization and additives on plastic behavior in the environment.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(24)00932-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Chemical additives are important components in commercial microplastics and their leaching behaviour has been widely studied. However, little is known about the potential effect of additives on the adsorption/desorption behaviour of pollutants on microplastics and their subsequent role as vectors for pollutant transport in the environment. In this study, two types of commercial polyvinyl chloride (PVC1 and PVC2) microplastics were aged by UV irradiation and biotic modification via biofilm colonization to investigate the adsorption and desorption behaviour of bisphenol A (BPA). Surface cracks and new functional groups (e.g., O‒H) were found on PVC1 after UV irradiation, which increased available adsorption sites and enhanced H‒bonding interaction, resulting in an adsorption capacity increase from 1.28 μg/L to 1.85 μg/L. However, the adsorption and desorption capacity not showed significant changes for PVC2, which might be related to the few characteristic changes after UV aging with the protection of light stabilizers and antioxidants. The adsorption capacity ranged from 1.28 μg/L to 2.06 μg/L for PVC1 and PVC2 microplastics, and increased to 1.62 μg/L-2.95 μg/L after colonization by biofilms. The increased adsorption ability might be related to the N‒H functional group, amide groups generated by microorganisms enhancing the affinity for BPA. The opposite effect was observed for desorption. Plasticizers can be metabolized during biofilm formation processes and might play an important role in microorganism colonization. In addition, antioxidants and UV stabilizers might also indirectly influence the colonization of microorganisms' on microplastics by controlling the degree to which PVC microplastics age under UV. The amount of biomass loading on the microplastics would further alter the adsorption/desorption behaviour of contaminants. This study provides important new insights into the evaluation of the fate of plastic particles in natural environments.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Kyei L, Piedl K, Menegatti C, et al (2024)

Discovery of Biofilm Inhibitors from the Microbiota of Marine Egg Masses.

Journal of natural products [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilms commonly develop in immunocompromised patients, which leads to persistent infections that are difficult to treat. In the biofilm state, bacteria are protected against both antibiotics and the host's immune system; currently, there are no therapeutics that target biofilms. In this study, we screened a chemical fraction library representing the natural product capacity of the microbiota of marine egg masses, namely, the moon snail egg collars. This led to the identification of active fractions targeting both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus biofilms. Subsequent analysis revealed that a subset of these fractions were capable of eradicating preformed biofilms, all against S. aureus. Bioassay-guided isolation led us to identify pseudochelin A, a known siderophore, as a S. aureus biofilm inhibitor with an IC50 of 88.5 μM. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomic analyses revealed widespread production of pseudochelin A among fractions possessing S. aureus antibiofilm properties. In addition, a key biosynthetic gene involved in producing pseudochelin A was detected on 30% of the moon snail egg collars and pseudochelin A is capable of inhibiting the formation of biofilms (IC50 50.6 μM) produced by ecologically relevant bacterial strains. We propose that pseudochelin A may have a role in shaping the microbiome or protecting the egg collars from microbiofouling.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Fattouh N, Husni R, Finianos M, et al (2024)

Adhesive and biofilm-forming Candida glabrata Lebanese hospital isolates harbour mutations in subtelomeric silencers and adhesins.

Mycoses, 67(6):e13750.

BACKGROUND: The prevalence of Candida glabrata healthcare-associated infections is on the rise worldwide and in Lebanon, Candida glabrata infections are difficult to treat as a result of their resistance to azole antifungals and their ability to form biofilms.

OBJECTIVES: The first objective of this study was to quantify biofilm biomass in the most virulent C. glabrata isolates detected in a Lebanese hospital. In addition, other pathogenicity attributes were evaluated. The second objective was to identify the mechanisms of azole resistance in those isolates.

METHODS: A mouse model of disseminated systemic infection was developed to evaluate the degree of virulence of 41 azole-resistant C. glabrata collected from a Lebanese hospital. The most virulent isolates were further evaluated alongside an isolate having attenuated virulence and a reference strain for comparative purposes. A DNA-sequencing approach was adopted to detect single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) leading to amino acid changes in proteins involved in azole resistance and biofilm formation. This genomic approach was supported by several phenotypic assays.

RESULTS: All chosen virulent isolates exhibited increased adhesion and biofilm biomass compared to the isolate having attenuated virulence. The amino acid substitutions D679E and I739N detected in the subtelomeric silencer Sir3 are potentially involved- in increased adhesion. In all isolates, amino acid substitutions were detected in the ATP-binding cassette transporters Cdr1 and Pdh1 and their transcriptional regulator Pdr1.

CONCLUSIONS: In summary, increased adhesion led to stable biofilm formation since mutated Sir3 could de-repress adhesins, while decreased azole susceptibility could result from mutations in Cdr1, Pdh1 and Pdr1.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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An examination of the research and translational application to prevent and treat biofilm-associated diseases In the decade since the first edition of Microbial Biofilms was published, the interest in this field has expanded, spurring breakthrough research that has advanced the treatment of biofilm-associated diseases. This second edition takes the reader on an exciting, extensive review of bacterial and fungal biofilms, ranging from basic molecular interactions to innovative therapies, with particular emphasis on the division of labor in biofilms, new approaches to combat the threat of microbial biofilms, and how biofilms evade the host defense.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )