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04 Mar 2024 at 01:41
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Bibliography on: Biofilm


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 04 Mar 2024 at 01:41 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( biofilm[title] NOT 28392838[PMID] NOT 31293528[PMID] NOT 29372251[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-03-02

Li Y, Wangjiang T, Sun Z, et al (2024)

Inhibition mechanism of crude lipopeptide from Bacillus subtilis against Aeromonas veronii growth, biofilm formation, and spoilage of channel catfish flesh.

Food microbiology, 120:104489.

Aeromonas veronii is associated with food spoilage and some human diseases, such as diarrhea, gastroenteritis, hemorrhagic septicemia or asymptomatic and even death. This research investigated the mechanism of the growth, biofilm formation, virulence, stress resistance, and spoilage potential of Bacillus subtilis lipopeptide against Aeromonas veronii. Lipopeptides suppressed the transmembrane transport of Aeromonas veronii by changing the cell membrane's permeability, the structure of membrane proteins, and Na[+]/K[+]-ATPase. Lipopeptide significantly reduced the activities of succinate dehydrogenase (SDH) and malate dehydrogenase (MDH) by 86.03% and 56.12%, respectively, ultimately slowing Aeromonas veronii growth. Lipopeptides also restrained biofilm formation by inhibiting Aeromonas veronii motivation and extracellular polysaccharide secretion. Lipopeptides downregulated gene transcriptional levels related to the virulence and stress tolerance of Aeromonas veronii. Furthermore, lipopeptides treatment resulted in a considerable decrease in the extracellular protease activity of Aeromonas veronii, which restrained the decomposing of channel catfish flesh. This research provides new insights into lipopeptides for controlling Aeromonas veronii and improving food safety.

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Qin M, Han S, Chen M, et al (2024)

Biofilm formation of Hafnia paralvei induced by c-di-GMP through facilitating bcsB gene expression promotes spoilage of Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio).

Food microbiology, 120:104482.

Hafnia paralvei, a Gram-negative foodborne pathogen, is found ubiquitously in various aquatic animals and seafoods, which can form biofilm as a dominant virulence factor that contributes to its pathogenesis. However, the biofilm formation mechanism of H. paralvei and its effect on food spoilage has not been fully characterized. Here we show that biofilm formation, is regulated by c-di-GMP which mediated by bcsB, can increase the spoilage ability of H. paralvei. We found that GTP was added exogenously to enhance the synthesis of c-di-GMP, which further promoted biofilm formation. The gene dgcC, one of 11 genes encoding GGDEF domain-containing proteins in H. paralvei, was significantly upregulated with GTP as substrate. The upregulation of dgcC contributes to a significant increase of c-di-GMP and the formation of biofilm. In addition, the overexpression of dgcC induced upregulation of bcsB, a reported effector protein encoding gene, which was further demonstrated that overexpression of bcsB can encourage the synthesis of bacterial cellulose and biofilm formation. The effect of biofilm formation induced by c-di-GMP on spoilage of Yellow River carp (Cyprinus carpio) was evaluated by sensory evaluation, the total viable count, and the total volatile basic nitrogen, which showed that biofilm formation can significantly increase the spoilage ability of H. paralvei on C. carpio. Our findings provide the regulation of c-di-GMP on expression of bcsB, that can contribute to biofilm formation and spoilage ability of H. paralvei, which is favor to understanding the pathogenesis of Hafnia paralvei and its role in food spoilage.

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Gaillac A, Gourin C, Dubreil L, et al (2024)

Biofilm formation of the food spoiler Brochothrix thermosphacta on different industrial surface materials using a biofilm reactor.

Food microbiology, 120:104457.

Brochothrix thermosphacta is considered as a major food spoiler bacteria. This study evaluates biofilm formation by B. thermosphacta CD337(2) - a strong biofilm producer strain - on three food industry materials (polycarbonate (PC), polystyrene (PS), and stainless steel (SS)). Biofilms were continuously grown under flow at 25 °C in BHI broth in a modified CDC biofilm reactor. Bacterial cells were enumerated by plate counting, and biofilm spatial organization was deciphered by combining confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis. The biofilms had the same growth kinetics on all three materials and reach 8log CFU/cm[2] as maximal concentration. Highly structured biofilms were observed on PC and PS, but less structured ones on SS. This difference was confirmed by structural quantification analysis using the image analysis software tool BiofilmQ. Biofilm on SS show less roughness, density, thickness and volume. The biofilm 3D structure seemed to be related to the coupon topography and roughness. The materials used in this study do not affect biofilm growth. However, their roughness and topography affect the biofilm architecture, which could influence biofilm behaviour.

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Liu W, Li J, Lu H, et al (2024)

Sponge iron strengthens the activity of anammox biofilm under low nitrogen conditions in a two-stage fixed-bed biofilm reactor.

Journal of environmental management, 355:120194 pii:S0301-4797(24)00180-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Strengthening the activity competitiveness of anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) bacteria (AnAOB) under low nitrogen conditions is indispensable for mainstream anammox application. This study demonstrates that sponge iron addition (42.8 g/L) effectively increased apparent AnAOB activity and extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) production of low load anammox biofilms cultivated under low (influent of 60 mg N/L) and even ultra-low (influent of 10 mg N/L) nitrogen conditions. In-situ batch tests showed that after sponge iron addition the specific AnAOB activity in the low and ultra-low nitrogen systems further increased to 1.18 and 0.47 mmol/g VSS/h, respectively, with an apparent growth rate for AnAOB of 0.011 ± 0.001 d[-1] and 0.004 ± 0.001 d[-1], respectively. The averaged EPS concentration of anammox biofilm in both low (from 35.84 to 71.05 mg/g VSS) and ultra-low (from 44.14 to 57.59 mg/g VSS) nitrogen systems increased significantly, while a higher EPS protein/polysaccharide ratio, which was positively correlated with AnAOB activity, was observed in the low nitrogen system (3.54 ± 0.34) than that in the ultra-low nitrogen system (1.82 ± 0.10). In addition, Candidatus Brocadia was detected as dominant AnAOB in the anammox biofilm under the low (12.2 %) and ultra-low (24.7 %) nitrogen condition. Notably, the genus Streptomyces (26.3 %), capable for funge-like codenitrification, increased unexpectedly in the low nitrogen system, but not affecting the nitrogen removal performance. Therefore, using sponge iron to strengthen AnAOB activity under low nitrogen conditions is feasible, providing support for mainstream anammox applications.

RevDate: 2024-03-03

Cyris M, Holtmann P, Dörfer CE, et al (2024)

Long-term effect of simulated five years professional mechanical biofilm removal on the luting gap of ceramic restorations.

BMC oral health, 24(1):291.

BACKGROUND: Achieving sufficient professional mechanical biofilm removal (PMPR) can be challenging in supportive periodontal therapy (SPT), particularly in patients with prosthetic restorations. This experimental study aimed to simulate five years of SPT with periodic PMPR near the luting gap of ceramic restorations using a rubber cup with polishing paste (RCP), air polishing with two different low-abrasive powders (LAPA-1: glycine powder, LAPA-2: erythritol powder), and non-professional mechanical cleaning (control group) to measure the extent of volume loss in the luting gap after baseline (∆V = Vbaseline-V1-5; in µm[3]).

METHODS: Two operators randomly performed PMPR ten times for thirty seconds on one of four sides of 30 crown replicas fixed with glass-ionomer cement (CGIZ: n = 15) or adhesive bonding (CAB: n = 15). The replicas were separated in a template during PMPR, and afterward, cleaned for five seconds per side with a sonic brush under flowing water. The artificial aging process between two PMPRs simulated a 5-year SPT with two PMPRs per year. Profilometric measurements were performed at baseline and after each second PMPR to obtain the mean change of ∆V. The statistical evaluation of the data was carried out using nonparametric tests with Bonferroni correction applied for multiple tests.

RESULTS: Ninety-six out of 120 sides could be included in the analysis. PMPR methods showed a loss of substance in the luting gap with a ∆V (mean(standard deviation)) of -4.35 × 10[6](4.8 × 10[6])µm[3] versus 8.79 × 10[4](1.05 × 10[6])µm[3] for control at V5 (p ≤ 0.001). No significant differences of ∆V1-5 values could be identified in the control (p > 0.05), whereat all PMPRs showed a significant increasing loss of substance per simulated year (p ≤ 0.001). Intergroup comparison identified LAPA-1 as having the highest significant loss of substance determined on CAB (∆V: -1.05 × 10[7] (7,2 × 10[6]) µm[3]), followed by LAPA-2 on CAB (∆V: -6.29 × 10[6] (4,24 × 10[6]) µm[3]), LAPA-1 on CGIZ (∆V: -4.15 × 10[6] (3,25 × 10[6]) µm[3]), LAPA-2 on CGIZ (∆V: -3.0 × 10[6] (2,23 × 10[6]) µm[3]), RCP on CAB (∆V: -1.86 × 10[6] (2,23 × 10[6]) µm[3]) and CGIZ (∆V: -1.2 × 10[6] (1,31 × 10[6]) µm[3]; p ≤ 0.001)).

CONCLUSIONS: Within study limitations, all PMPRs caused a significantly higher loss of substance in the luting gap versus control without professional intervention, with the highest values in the CAB group for LAPA-1, LAPA-2 and RCP. Similar findings were observed for CGIZ, although the loss values were lower.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Li J, Zhang Q, Zhao J, et al (2024)

Lactobacillus-derived components for inhibiting biofilm formation in the food industry.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 40(4):117.

Biofilm, a microbial community formed by especially pathogenic and spoilage bacterial species, is a critical problem in the food industries. It is an important cause of continued contamination by foodborne pathogenic bacteria. Therefore, removing biofilm is the key to solving the high pollution caused by foodborne pathogenic bacteria in the food industry. Lactobacillus, a commonly recognized probiotic that is healthy for consumer, have been proven useful for isolating the potential biofilm inhibitors. However, the addition of surface components and metabolites of Lactobacillus is not a current widely adopted biofilm control strategy at present. This review focuses on the effects and preliminary mechanism of action on biofilm inhibition of Lactobacillus-derived components including lipoteichoic acid, exopolysaccharides, bacteriocins, secreted protein, organic acids and some new identified molecules. Further, the review discusses several modern biofilm identification techniques and particularly interesting new technology of biofilm inhibition molecules. These molecules exhibit stronger inhibition of biofilm formation, playing a pivotal role in food preservation and storage. Overall, this review article discusses the application of biofilm inhibitors produced by Lactobacillus, which would greatly aid efforts to eradicate undesirable bacteria from environment in the food industries.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Tan X, Huang Y, Rana A, et al (2024)

Optimization of an in vitro Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Model to Examine Antibiotic Pharmacodynamics at the Air-Liquid Interface.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 10(1):16.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an important cause of lower respiratory tract infections, such as ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (VABP). Using inhaled antibiotics to treat VABP can achieve high drug concentrations at the infection site while minimizing systemic toxicities. Despite the theoretical advantages, clinical trials have failed to show a benefit for inhaled antibiotic therapy in treating VABP. A potential reason for this discordance is the presence of biofilm-embedded bacteria in lower respiratory tract infections. Drug selection and dosing are often based on data from bacteria grown planktonically. In the present study, an in vitro air-liquid interface pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic biofilm model was optimized to evaluate the activity of simulated epithelial lining fluid exposures of inhaled and intravenous doses of polymyxin B and tobramycin against two P. aeruginosa strains. Antibiotic activity was also determined against the P. aeruginosa strains grown planktonically. Our study revealed that inhaled antibiotic exposures were more active than their intravenous counterparts across biofilm and planktonic populations. Inhaled exposures of polymyxin B and tobramycin exhibited comparable activity against planktonic P. aeruginosa. Although inhaled polymyxin B exposures were initially more active against P. aeruginosa biofilms (through 6 h), tobramycin was more active by the end of the experiment (48 h). Together, these data slightly favor the use of inhaled tobramycin for VABP caused by biofilm-forming P. aeruginosa that are not resistant to either antibiotic. The optimized in vitro air-liquid interface pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic biofilm model may be beneficial for the development of novel anti-biofilm agents or to optimize antibiotic dosing for infections such as VABP.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Volk M, Molan K, Šavli D, et al (2024)

Biofilm removal from Difficult-to-Reach places via secondary cavitation within a constrained geometry mimicking a Periodontal/Peri-Implant pocket.

Ultrasonics sonochemistry pii:S1350-4177(24)00080-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilm removal from the apical region of the periodontal or peri-implant pocket, which is very difficult to achieve with mechanical instruments, is a major unresolved issue in dentistry. Here, we propose the use of photoacoustically induced streaming and secondary cavitation to achieve superior cleaning efficacy in the apical region of the periodontal and peri-implant pocket. We have used a prefabricated narrow wedge system that mimics the consistency of periodontal and peri-implant pockets of both healthy and severely inflamed tissue. We studied the effect of single-pulse modality Er:YAG on Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm removal. We used different laser energies, fiber-tip positions, and laser treatment durations. The cleaning process was monitored in real-time with a high-speed camera after each individual laser pulse application. The obtained results suggest that biofilm cleaning efficacy in a difficult-to-reach place in healthy model tissue is directly related to the onset of secondary cavitation bubble formation, which correlates with a significant improvement of biofilm removal from the apical region of the periodontal or peri-implant pocket. In comparison to the healthy tissue model, the laser energy in inflamed tissue model had to be increased to obtain comparable biofilm cleaning efficacy. The advantage of photoacoustic cavitation compared to other methods is that laser-induced cavitation can trigger secondary cavitation at large distances from the point of laser application, which in principle allows biofilm removal at distant locations not reachable with a laser fiber tip or other mechanical instruments.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Zheng Z, Wang X, Zhang W, et al (2024)

Regulation of ARGs abundance by biofilm colonization on microplastics under selective pressure of antibiotics in river water environment.

Journal of environmental management, 355:120402 pii:S0301-4797(24)00388-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Interactions of microplastics (MPs) biofilm with antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and antibiotics in aquatic environments have made microplastic biofilm an issue of keen scholarly interest. The process of biofilm formation and the degree of ARGs enrichment in the presence of antibiotic-selective pressure and the impact on the microbial community need to be further investigated. In this paper, the selective pressure of ciprofloxacin (CIP) and illumination conditions were investigated to affect the physicochemical properties, biomass, and extracellular polymer secretion of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) microplastic biofilm. In addition, relative copy numbers of nine ARGs were analyzed by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). In the presence of CIP, microorganisms in the water and microplastic biofilm were more inclined to carry associated ARGs (2-3 times higher), which had a contributing effect on ARGs enrichment. The process of pre-microplastic biofilm formation might have an inhibitory effect on ARGs (total relative abundance up to 0.151) transfer and proliferation compared to the surrounding water (total relative abundance up to 0.488). However, in the presence of CIP stress, microplastic biofilm maintained the abundance of ARGs (from 0.151 to 0.149) better compared to the surrounding water (from 0.488 to 0.386). Therefore, microplastic biofilm act as abundance buffer island of ARGs stabilizing the concentration of ARGs. In addition, high-throughput analyses showed the presence of antibiotic-resistant (Pseudomonas) and pathogenic (Vibrio) microorganisms in biofilm under different conditions. The above research deepens our understanding of ARGs enrichment in biofilm and provides important insights into the ecological risks of interactions between ARGs, antibiotics, and microplastic biofilm.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Silva-Bea S, García-Meniño I, Rey S, et al (2024)

Draft genome sequence of Klebsiella pneumoniae KLEB-33: a convergent biofilm hyperforming multiresistant strain belonging to the emerging ST16 lineage harboring multiple hypervirulence genes.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

The emergence of convergent Klebsiella pneumoniae strains showing multiresistance, characteristic of nosocomial pathotypes and hypervirulent traits typical of community-acquired isolates, makes them important models for studying K. pneumoniae pathogenesis. Here, we describe the convergent, multidrug-resistant KLEB-33 strain harboring several hypervirulence genes and make its genome available to the scientific community.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Kurbatfinski N, Kramer CN, Goodman SD, et al (2024)

Corrigendum: ESKAPEE pathogens newly released from biofilm residence by a targeted monoclonal are sensitized to killing by traditional antibiotics.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1382491.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1202215.].

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Wang S, Liu S, Cao S, et al (2024)

Engineering Bacterial Biofilm Development and Structure via Regulation of Silver Nanoparticle Density in Graphene Oxide Composite Coating.

JACS Au, 4(2):855-864.

Graphene-based composites have shown significant potential in the treatment of biofilm infections in clinical settings due to their exceptional antimicrobial properties and specific mechanisms. Nevertheless, a comprehensive understanding of the influence exerted by nanoparticles embedded in the composites on the development and structure of biofilms is still lacking. Here, we fabricate different graphene oxide-silver nanoparticle (GAg) composite-modified substrates (GAgS) with varying densities of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and investigate their effects on planktonic bacterial adhesion, subsequent biofilm formation, and mature biofilm structure. Our findings indicate that the initial attachment of Pseudomonas aeruginosa cells during biofilm formation is determined by the density of AgNPs on the GAgS surface. In contrast, the subsequent transition from adherent bacteria to the biofilm is determined by GAgS's synergistic antimicrobial effect. There exists a threshold for the inhibitory performance of GAgS, where the 20 μg/cm[2] GAg composite completely prevents biofilm formation; below this concentration, GAgS delays the development of the biofilm and causes structural changes in the mature biofilm with enhanced bacterial growth and increased production of extracellular polymeric substance. More importantly, GAgS have minimal impact on mammalian cell morphology and proliferation while not inducing hemolysis in red blood cells. These results suggest that GAg composites hold promise as a therapeutic approach for addressing medical devices and implant-associated biofilm infections.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Sankar S, G Kodiveri Muthukaliannan (2024)

Deciphering the crosstalk between inflammation and biofilm in chronic wound healing: Phytocompounds loaded bionanomaterials as therapeutics.

Saudi journal of biological sciences, 31(4):103963.

In terms of the economics and public health, chronic wounds exert a significant detrimental impact on the health care system. Bacterial infections, which cause the formation of highly resistant biofilms that elude standard antibiotics, are the main cause of chronic, non-healing wounds. Numerous studies have shown that phytochemicals are effective in treating a variety of diseases, and traditional medicinal plants often include important chemical groups such alkaloids, phenolics, tannins, terpenes, steroids, flavonoids, glycosides, and fatty acids. These substances are essential for scavenging free radicals which helps in reducing inflammation, fending off infections, and hastening the healing of wounds. Bacterial species can survive in chronic wound conditions because biofilms employ quorum sensing as a communication technique which regulates the expression of virulence components. Fortunately, several phytochemicals have anti-QS characteristics that efficiently block QS pathways, prevent drug-resistant strains, and reduce biofilm development in chronic wounds. This review emphasizes the potential of phytocompounds as crucial agents for alleviating bacterial infections and promoting wound healing by reducing the inflammation in chronic wounds, exhibiting potential avenues for future therapeutic approaches to mitigate the healthcare burden provided by these challenging conditions.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Stoodley P, Toelke N, Schwermer C, et al (2024)

Bioenergetics of simultaneous oxygen and nitrate respiration and nitric oxide production in a Pseudomonas aeruginosa agar colony biofilm.

Biofilm, 7:100181 pii:S2590-2075(24)00006-6.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is a biofilm forming pathogen commonly associated with infection of the cystic fibrosis (CF) lung, chronic wounds and indwelling medical devices. P. aeruginosa is a facultative aerobe that can use nitrate (NO3[-]) found in healthy and infected tissues and body fluids to generate energy through denitrification. Further, P. aeruginosa the expression of denitrification genes has been found in specimens from people with CF. The main aim of this study was to determine the relative energy contribution of oxygen (O2) respiration and denitrification in single Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 biofilm colonies under different O2 concentrations to estimate the possible relative importance of these metabolic processes in the context of biofilm infections. We showed that the used strain PAO1 in biofilms denitrified with nitrous oxide (N2O), and not nitrogen (N2), as the end product in our incubations. From simultaneous O2 and N2O microprofiles measured with high spatial resolution by microsensors in agar colony biofilms under air, N2 and pure O2, the rates of aerobic respiration and denitrification were calculated and converted to ATP production rates. Denitrification occurred both in the oxic and anoxic zones, and became increasingly dominant with decreasing O2 concentrations. At O2 concentrations characteristic for tissues and wounds (20-60 μM), denitrification was responsible for 50% of the total energy conservation in the biofilm. In addition the formation of nitric oxide (NO), a precursor of N2O and an important regulator of many cellular processes, was strongly influenced by the local O2 concentrations. NO production was inhibited under pure O2, present under anoxia (∼1 μM) and remarkably high (up to 6 μM) under intermediate O2 levels, which can be found in infected tissues. Possible impacts of such NO levels on both the host and the biofilm bacteria are discussed.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Shenoy V, Gunda R, Noble C, et al (2024)

Fullertubes inhibit mycobacterial viability and prevent biofilm formation by disrupting the cell wall.

Cell biochemistry and function, 42(2):e3963.

Mycobacterium tuberculosis and nontuberculous mycobacteria such as Mycobacterium abscessus cause diseases that are becoming increasingly difficult to treat due to emerging antibiotic resistance. The development of new antimicrobial molecules is vital for combating these pathogens. Carbon nanomaterials (CNMs) are a class of carbon-containing nanoparticles with promising antimicrobial effects. Fullertubes (C90) are novel carbon allotropes with a structure unique among CNMs. The effects of fullertubes on any living cell have not been studied. In this study, we demonstrate that pristine fullertube dispersions show antimicrobial effects on Mycobacterium smegmatis and M. abscessus. Using scanning electron microscopy, light microscopy, and molecular probes, we investigated the effects of these CNMs on mycobacterial cell viability, cellular integrity, and biofilm formation. C90 fullertubes at 1 µM inhibited mycobacterial viability by 97%. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the cell wall structure of M. smegmatis and M. abscessus was severely damaged within 24 h of exposure to fullertubes. Additionally, exposure to fullertubes nearly abrogated the acid-fast staining property of M. smegmatis. Using SYTO-9 and propidium iodide, we show that exposure to the novel fullertubes compromises the integrity of the mycobacterial cell. We also show that the permeability of the mycobacterial cell wall was increased after exposure to fullertubes from our assays utilizing the molecular probe dichlorofluorescein and ethidium bromide transport. C90 fullertubes at 0.37 µM and C60 fullerenes at 0.56 µM inhibited pellicle biofilm formation by 70% and 90%, respectively. This is the first report on the antimycobacterial activities of fullertubes and fullerenes.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Karahutová L, D Bujňáková (2024)

Antimicrobial and anti-biofilm efficacy of different inorganic and organic zinc forms against multidrug-resistant Escherichia, Klebsiella, Staphylococcus and Pseudomonas.

Veterinary research communications [Epub ahead of print].

In our study antibacterial and anti-biofilm efficacy of 2 inorganics (Zn(II) sulphate monohydrate; Zn(II) sulphate heptahydrate) and 3 organic Zn(II) substances (Zn(II) chelate of protein hydrolysate: Zn-Bio; Zn(II) chelate of amino acid hydrate: Zn-AMK; Zn(II) chelate of glycine hydrate: Zn-Gly) were explored and compared against multidrug resistant Escherichia coli (E. coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Klebsiella oxytoca (K. oxytoca) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) using by the 96- wells microtiter plate-based resazurin and/or crystal violet assay. Our finding confirmed that Zn(II)-sulphates and Zn(II)-amino acid complexes exhibit dose and genus-based antibacterial and anti-biofilm potential. Organic compounds (Zn-AMK and Zn-Gly) were more effective against bacterial growth, except P. aeruginosa. Besides Zn-AMK, others organic and inorganic forms of Zn(II) caused predominantly statistically significant decrease of biofilm production in all of tested bacteria. Current data highlights that Zn(II) in various forms has a great potential to be developed as antibacterial and anti-biofilm agents.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Tao H, Cao X, Song R, et al (2024)

Preparation of PDMS and PDMS-UiO-66 oxygen-rich membranes and modules for membrane-aerated biofilm reactors.

Water science and technology : a journal of the International Association on Water Pollution Research, 89(4):873-886.

A membrane-aerated biofilm reactor (MABR) combines membrane technology with biofilm processes and has unique advantages in the treatment of organic wastewater and volatile wastewater. The common membranes for MABR systems usually have relatively uneven pore structures and low bubble point pressure, resulting in unsatisfactory O2 utilization and wastewater treatment efficiency. In this work, polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and UiO-66 (a Zr-based metal organic framework) were coated on the surface of a commercial polypropylene (PP) hollow fiber membrane to prepare oxygen-rich MABR membranes and modules, which showed an attractive O2 utilization rate and wastewater treatment efficiency. The bubble points of the PDMS and PDMS-UiO-66 membranes were significantly higher than those of the PP membranes, and the PDMS-UiO-66 membranes had better oxygen enrichment capacity and biological affinity. The optimal PDMS-UiO-66 membrane modules had an O2 permeance of 31.65 GPU (1 GPU = 3.35 × 10[-10] mol m[-2] s[-1] Pa[-1]), with O2/N2 selectivity of 2.21. The membrane hanging effect and processing capacity for domestic sewage were greatly improved. This study may provide insights and guidelines to fabricate porous mixed matrix membranes and modules in the industry for MABR. The developed products are expected to be applied in the actual separation process.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Das S, Malik M, Dastidar DG, et al (2024)

Piperine, a phytochemical prevents the biofilm city of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus: A biochemical approach to understand the underlying mechanism.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(24)00068-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), a drug-resistant human pathogen causes several nosocomial as well as community-acquired infections involving biofilm machinery. Hence, it has gained a wide interest within the scientific community to impede biofilm-induced MRSA-associated health complications. The current study focuses on the utilization of a natural bioactive compound called piperine to control the biofilm development of MRSA. Quantitative assessments like crystal violet, total protein recovery, and fluorescein-di-acetate (FDA) hydrolysis assays, demonstrated that piperine (8 and 16 μg/mL) could effectively compromise the biofilm formation of MRSA. Light and scanning electron microscopic image analysis confirmed the same. Further investigation revealed that piperine could reduce extracellular polysaccharide production by down-regulating the expression of icaA gene. Besides, piperine could reduce the cell-surface hydrophobicity of MRSA, a crucial factor of biofilm formation. Moreover, the introduction of piperine could interfere with microbial motility indicating the interaction of piperine with the quorum-sensing components. A molecular dynamics study showed a stable binding between piperine and AgrA protein (regulator of quorum sensing) suggesting the possible meddling of piperine in quorum-sensing of MRSA. Additionally, the exposure to piperine led to the accumulation of intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) and potentially heightened cell membrane permeability in inhibiting microbial biofilm formation. Besides, piperine could reduce the secretion of diverse virulence factors from MRSA. Further exploration revealed that piperine interacted with extracellular DNA (e-DNA), causing disintegration by weakening the biofilm architecture. Conclusively, this study suggests that piperine could be a potential antibiofilm molecule against MRSA-associated biofilm infections.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Ren A, Yao M, Fang J, et al (2024)

Bacterial communities of planktonic bacteria and mature biofilm in service lines and premise plumbing of a Megacity: Composition, Diversity, and influencing factors.

Environment international, 185:108538 pii:S0160-4120(24)00124-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Although simulated studies have provided valuable knowledge regarding the communities of planktonic bacteria and biofilms, the lack of systematic field studies have hampered the understanding of microbiology in real-world service lines and premise plumbing. In this study, the bacterial communities of water and biofilm were explored, with a special focus on the lifetime development of biofilm communities and their key influencing factors. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing results showed that both the planktonic bacteria and biofilm were dominated by Proteobacteria. Among the 15,084 observed amplicon sequence variants (ASVs), the 33 core ASVs covered 72.8 %, while the 12 shared core ASVs accounted for 62.2 % of the total sequences. Remarkably, it was found that the species richness and diversity of biofilm communities correlated with pipe age. The relative abundance of ASV2 (f_Sphingomonadaceae) was lower for pipe ages 40-50 years (7.9 %) than for pipe ages 10-20 years (59.3 %), while the relative abundance of ASV10 (f_Hyphomonadaceae) was higher for pipe ages 40-50 years (19.5 %) than its presence at pipe ages 20-30 years (1.9 %). The community of the premise plumbing biofilm had significantly higher species richness and diversity than that of the service line, while the steel-plastics composite pipe interior lined with polyethylene (S-PE) harbored significantly more diverse biofilm than the galvanized steel pipes (S-Zn). Interestingly, S-PE was enriched with ASV27 (g_Mycobacterium), while S-Zn pipes were enriched with ASV13 (g_Pseudomonas). Moreover, the network analysis showed that five rare ASVs, not core ASVs, were keystone members in biofilm communities, indicating the importance of rare members in the function and stability of biofilm communities. This manuscript provides novel insights into real-world service lines and premise plumbing microbiology, regarding lifetime dynamics (pipe age 10-50 years), and the influences of pipe types (premise plumbing vs. service line) and pipe materials (S-Zn vs. S-PE).

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Lim JH, JW Kang (2024)

Assessing biofilm formation and resistance of vibrio parahaemolyticus on UV-aged microplastics in aquatic environments.

Water research, 254:121379 pii:S0043-1354(24)00281-1 [Epub ahead of print].

UV degradation of marine microplastics (MPs) could increase their vector potential for pathogenic bacteria and threaten human health. However, little is known about how the degree of UV aging affects interactions between MPs and pathogens and how various types of MPs differ in their impact on seafood safety. This study investigated five types of UV-aged MPs and their impact on Vibrio parahaemolyticus, a seafood pathogen. MPs exposed to UV for 60 days showed similar physicochemical changes such as surface cracking and hydrophobicity reduction. Regardless of the type, longer UV exposure of MPs resulted in more biofilm formation on the surface under the same conditions. V. parahaemolyticus types that formed biofilms on the MP surface showed 1.4- to 5.0-fold upregulation of virulence-related genes compared to those that did not form biofilms, independently of UV exposure. However, longer UV exposure increased resistance of V. parahaemolyticus on MPs to chlorine, heat, and human gastrointestinal environment. This study implies that the more UV degradation occurs on MPs, the more microbial biofilm formation is induced, which can significantly increase virulence and environmental resistance of bacteria regardless of the type of MP.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Tuncer G, Aktas Z, Basaran S, et al (2024)

Effect of N-acetyl cysteine, rifampicin, and ozone on biofilm formation in pan-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae: an experimental study.

Sao Paulo medical journal = Revista paulista de medicina, 142(4):e2023113 pii:S1516-31802024000400200.

BACKGROUND: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate the effectiveness of specific concentrations of antibiofilm agents, such as N-acetyl cysteine (NAC), rifampicin, and ozone, for the treatment of pan-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae (PRKp).

OBJECTIVES: We evaluated the effectiveness of antibiofilm agents, such as NAC, rifampicin, and ozone, on biofilm formation in PRKp at 2, 6, 24, and 72 h.

DESIGN AND SETTING: This single-center experimental study was conducted on June 15, 2017, and July 15, 2018, at Istanbul Faculty of Medicine, Istanbul University, Turkey.

METHODS: Biofilm formation and the efficacy of these agents on the biofilm layer were demonstrated using colony counting and laser-screened confocal microscopy.

RESULTS: NAC at a final concentration of 2 μg/mL was administered to bacteria that formed biofilms (24 h), and no significant decrease was detected in the bacterial counts of all isolates (all P > 0.05). Rifampicin with a final concentration of 0.1 μg/mL was administered to bacteria that formed biofilm (24 h), and no significant decrease was detected in bacterial count (all P > 0.05). Notably, ozonated water of even 4.78 mg/L concentration for 72 h decreased the bacterial count by ≥ 2 log10.

CONCLUSION: Different approaches are needed for treating PRKp isolates. We demonstrate that PRKp isolates can be successfully treated with higher concentrations of ozone.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Horn CM, Arumugam P, Van Roy Z, et al (2024)

Granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cell activity during biofilm infection is regulated by a glycolysis-HIF1a axis.

The Journal of clinical investigation pii:174051 [Epub ahead of print].

Staphylococcus aureus is a leading cause of biofilm-associated prosthetic joint infection (PJI). A primary contributor to infection chronicity is an expansion of granulocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (G-MDSCs) that are critical for orchestrating the anti-inflammatory biofilm milieu. Single-cell sequencing and bioinformatic metabolic algorithms were used to explore the link between G-MDSC metabolism and S. aureus PJI outcome. Glycolysis and the hypoxia response through hypoxia-inducible factor-1 alpha (HIF-1a) were significantly enriched in G-MDSCs. Interfering with both pathways in vivo, using a 2-deoxyglucose nanopreparation and granulocyte-targeted HIF-1a conditional knockout mice, respectively, attenuated G-MDSC-mediated immunosuppression and reduced bacterial burden in a mouse model of S. aureus PJI. In addition, scRNA-seq analysis of granulocytes from PJI patients also showed an enrichment in glycolysis and hypoxia response genes. These findings support the importance of a glycolysis/HIF-1a axis in promoting G-MDSC anti-inflammatory activity and biofilm persistence during PJI.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Santibáñez N, Vega M, Pérez T, et al (2024)

In vitro effects of phytogenic feed additive on Piscirickettsia salmonis growth and biofilm formation.

Journal of fish diseases [Epub ahead of print].

Piscirickettsiosis is the main cause of mortality in salmonids of commercial importance in Chile, which is caused by Piscirickettsia salmonis, a Gram-negative, γ-proteobacteria that can produce biofilm as one of its virulence factors. The Chilean salmon industry uses large amounts of antibiotics to control piscirickettsiosis outbreaks, which has raised concern about its environmental impact and the potential to induce antibiotic resistance. Thus, the use of phytogenic feed additives (PFA) with antibacterial activity emerges as an interesting alternative to antimicrobials. Our study describes the antimicrobial action of an Andrographis paniculate-extracted PFA on P. salmonis planktonic growth and biofilm formation. We observed complete inhibition of planktonic and biofilm growth with 500 and 400 μg/mL of PFA for P. salmonis LF-89 and EM-90-like strains, respectively. Furthermore, 500 μg/mL of PFA was bactericidal for both evaluated bacterial strains. Sub-inhibitory doses of PFA increase the transcript levels of stress (groEL), biofilm (pslD), and efflux pump (acrB) genes for both P. salmonis strains in planktonic and sessile conditions. In conclusion, our results demonstrate the antibacterial effect of PFA against P. salmonis in vitro, highlighting the potential of PFA as an alternative to control Piscirickettsiosis.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Mlynek KD, Toothman RG, Martinez EE, et al (2024)

Mutation of wbtJ, a N-formyltransferase involved in O-antigen synthesis, results in biofilm formation, phase variation and attenuation in Francisella tularensis.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 170(2):.

Two clinically important subspecies, Francisella tularensis subsp. tularensis (type A) and F. tularensis subsp. holarctica (type B) are responsible for most tularaemia cases, but these isolates typically form a weak biofilm under in vitro conditions. Phase variation of the F. tularensis lipopolysaccharide (LPS) has been reported in these subspecies, but the role of variation is unclear as LPS is crucial for virulence. We previously demonstrated that a subpopulation of LPS variants can constitutively form a robust biofilm in vitro, but it is unclear whether virulence was affected. In this study, we show that biofilm-forming variants of both fully virulent F. tularensis subspecies were highly attenuated in the murine tularaemia model by multiple challenge routes. Genomic sequencing was performed on these strains, which revealed that all biofilm-forming variants contained a lesion within the wbtJ gene, a formyltransferase involved in O-antigen synthesis. A ΔwbtJ deletion mutant recapitulated the biofilm, O-antigen and virulence phenotypes observed in natural variants and could be rescued through complementation with a functional wbtJ gene. Since the spontaneously derived biofilm-forming isolates in this study were a subpopulation of natural variants, reversion events to the wbtJ gene were detected that eliminated the phenotypes associated with biofilm variants and restored virulence. These results demonstrate a role for WbtJ in biofilm formation, LPS variation and virulence of F. tularensis.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Wang J, Zou Z, Hu M, et al (2024)

Riemerella anatipestifer UvrC is required for iron utilization, biofilm formation and virulence.

Avian pathology : journal of the W.V.P.A [Epub ahead of print].

Deletion of uvrC in R. anatipestfer Yb2 significantly reduced its biofilm formation.uvrC deletion led to reduced tolerance to H2O2- and HOCl-induced oxidative stress.The iron utilization of uvrC deleted mutant was significantly reduced.The uvrC deletion in R. anatipestifer Yb2 attenuated its virulence.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Tabussam T, Shehnaz H, Majeed MI, et al (2024)

Surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy for studying the interaction of organometallic compound bis(1,3-dihexylimidazole-2-yl) silver(i) hexafluorophosphate (v) with the biofilm of Escherichia coli.

RSC advances, 14(10):7112-7123.

Escherichia coli biofilms are a major cause of gastrointestinal tract diseases, such as esophageal, stomach and intestinal diseases. Nowadays, these are the most commonly occurring diseases caused by consuming contaminated food. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of probiotics in controlling multidrug-resistant E. coli and reducing its ability to form biofilms. Our results substantiate the effective use of probiotics as antimicrobial alternatives and to eradicate biofilms formed by multidrug-resistant E. coli. In this research, surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) was utilized to identify and evaluate Escherichia coli biofilms and their response to the varying concentrations of the organometallic compound bis(1,3-dihexylimidazole-2-yl) silver(i) hexafluorophosphate (v). Given the escalating challenge of antibiotic resistance in bacteria that form biofilms, understanding the impact of potential antibiotic agents is crucial for the healthcare sector. The combination of SERS with principal component analysis (PCA) and partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) enabled the detection and characterization of the biofilm, providing insights into the biochemical changes induced by the antibiotic candidate. The identified SERS spectral features served as indicators for elucidating the mode of action of the potential drug on the biofilm. Through PCA and PLS-DA, metabolic variations allowing the differentiation and classification of unexposed biofilms and biofilms exposed to different concentrations of the synthesized antibiotic were successfully identified, with 95% specificity, 96% sensitivity, and a 0.75 area under the curve (AUC). This research underscores the efficiency of surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy in differentiating the impact of potential antibiotic agents on E. coli biofilms.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Matsumoto Y, Eshima S, Kurakado S, et al (2024)

A Silkworm Infection Model for Evaluating In Vivo Biofilm Formation by Pathogenic Fungi.

Medical mycology journal, 65(1):7-12.

Experimental animal models are necessary for research on infectious diseases. Generally, mammalian animals, such as mice, are used for infection experiments. However, there are ethical issues associated with conducting infection experiments in mammals. This has made it difficult to perform infection experiments with a large number of individuals. The invertebrate silkworm, Bombyx mori, is gaining attention as a model animal for infection experiments, and silkworm infection models with various pathogens have been established. This review provides information on the use of silkworm infection models for fungal infection research and evaluation of in vivo biofilm formation by pathogenic fungi using a novel silkworm experimental system. Various silkworm infection models with pathogenic fungi have been used for the development of antifungal drugs and the identification of fungal virulence-related genes. Furthermore, a catheter-material-inserted silkworm infection model was established to evaluate biofilm formation in vivo. Silkworm infection models have contributed to research on fungal infections.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Zhang L, Bera H, Guo Y, et al (2024)

Co-spray dried inhalable composite powders of ciprofloxacin and alginate oligosaccharide as anti-biofilm therapy.

International journal of pharmaceutics pii:S0378-5173(24)00183-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The treatment of chronic respiratory infections caused by biofilm formation are extremely challenging owing to poor drug penetration into the complex biofilm structure and high drug resistance. Local delivery of an antibiotic together with a non-antibiotic adjuvant to the lungs could often enhance the therapeutic responses by targeting different bacterial growth pathways and minimizing drug resistance. In this study, we designed new inhalable dry powders containing ciprofloxacin (CIP) and OligoG (Oli, a low-molecular-weight alginate oligosaccharide impairing the mucoid biofilms by interacting with their cationic ions) to combat respiratory bacterial biofilm infections. The resulting powders were characterized with respect to their morphology, solid-state property, surface chemistry, moisture sorption behavior, and dissolution rate. The aerosol performance and storage stability of the dry powders were also evaluated. The results showed that inhalable dry powders composed of CIP and Oli could be readily accomplished via the wet milling and spray drying process. Upon the storage under 20 ± 2 °C/20 ± 2 % relative humidity (RH) for one month, there was no significant change in the in vitro aerosol performances of the dry powders. In contrast, the dry powders became non-inhalable following the storage at 20 ± 2 °C/53 ± 2 % RH for one month due to the hygroscopic nature of Oli, which could be largely prevented by incorporation of leucine. Collectively, this study suggests that the newly developed co-spray-dried powders composed of CIP and Oli might represent a promising and alternative treatment strategy against respiratory bacterial biofilm infections.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Jeong GJ, Khan F, Tabassum N, et al (2024)

Bacterial extracellular vesicles: modulation of biofilm formation and virulence.

Acta biomaterialia pii:S1742-7061(24)00100-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial pathogens cause persistent infections by forming biofilms and producing numerous virulence factors. Bacterial extracellular vesicles (BEVs) are nanostructures produced by various bacterial species vital for molecular transport. BEVs include various components, including lipids (glycolipids, LPS, and phospholipids), nucleic acids (genomic DNA, plasmids, and short RNA), proteins (membrane proteins, enzymes, and toxins), and quorum-sensing signaling molecules. BEVs play a major role in forming extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) in biofilms by transporting EPS components such as extracellular polysaccharides, proteins, and extracellular DNA. BEVs have been observed to carry various secretory virulence factors. Thus, BEVs play critical roles in cell-to-cell communication, biofilm formation, virulence, disease progression, and resistance to antimicrobial treatment. In contrast, BEVs have been shown to impede early-stage biofilm formation, disseminate mature biofilms, and reduce virulence. This review summarizes the current status in the literature regarding the composition and role of BEVs in microbial infections. Furthermore, the dual functions of BEVs in eliciting and suppressing biofilm formation and virulence in various microbial pathogens are thoroughly discussed. This review is expected to improve our understanding of the use of BEVs in determining the mechanism of biofilm development in pathogenic bacteria and in developing drugs to inhibit biofilm formation by microbial pathogens. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: Bacterial extracellular vesicles (BEVs) are nanostructures formed by membrane blebbing and explosive cell lysis. It is essential for transporting lipids, nucleic acids, proteins, and quorum-sensing signaling molecules. BEVs play an important role in the formation of the biofilm's extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) by transporting its components, such as extracellular polysaccharides, proteins, and extracellular DNA. Furthermore, BEVs shield genetic material from nucleases and thermodegradation by packaging it during horizontal gene transfer, contributing to the transmission of bacterial adaptation determinants like antibiotic resistance. Thus, BEVs play a critical role in cell-to-cell communication, biofilm formation, virulence enhancement, disease progression, and drug resistance. In contrast, BEVs have been shown to prevent early-stage biofilm, disperse mature biofilm, and reduce virulence characteristics.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Kumar VB, Lahav M, E Gazit (2024)

Preventing biofilm formation and eradicating pathogenic bacteria by Zn doped histidine derived carbon quantum dots.

Journal of materials chemistry. B [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial infections are of major medical concern due to antibiotic resistance. Carbon quantum dots (CDs) have emerged as potentially excellent biomaterials for multifunctional applications due to their low toxicity, outstanding water solubility, high fluorescence, and high biocompatibility. All of these properties allow CDs to be exceptional biomaterials for inhibiting the growth of bacteria and stopping biofilm formation due to their strong binding affinity, cell wall penetration, and solubilizing biofilm in water. Here, we describe a strategy for one-pot synthesis of histidine-derived zinc-doped N-doped CDs (Zn-NCDs) by a hydrothermal method for inhibiting the growth of both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacteria without harming mammalian cells. The NCDs and Zn-NCDs showed uniform sizes (∼6 nm), crystallinity, good photostability, high quantum yield (76%), and long decay time (∼5 ns). We also studied their utilization for live cell bio-imaging and the antimicrobial properties towards the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus and the Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Importantly, the Zn-NCDs could penetrate the biofilm and bacterial cell wall to effectively inhibit the growth of bacteria and subsequently inhibit biofilm formation. Thus, the structure, chemical composition, and low toxicity properties of the newly-developed Zn-NCDs exemplify a promising novel method for the preparation of nano-level antibacterial drugs.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Chimi LY, Noubom M, Bisso BN, et al (2024)

Biofilm Formation, Pyocyanin Production, and Antibiotic Resistance Profile of Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolates from Wounds.

International journal of microbiology, 2024:1207536.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most frequently resistant and dangerous bacteria isolated from infected wounds of patients. This study aimed to determine the prevalence of P. aeruginosa from infected wounds of patients in the Dschang District Hospital to evaluate their antibiotic susceptibility profiles and their ability to swarm and swim and correlate pyocyanin production with biofilm formation. Wound swab samples were collected and the identification of P. aeruginosa was performed using microbiological and biochemical tests. Their antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by the broth microdilution method. Swarming and swimming were determined by measuring the diameters of motility in semisolid/low-viscosity media. Furthermore, pyocyanin production and biofilm formation were evaluated spectrophotometrically using a microtiter plate. The prevalence of P. aeruginosa from infected wounds in our study population was 26%. All P. aeruginosa isolates were resistant to streptomycin and paromomycin, and the frequency of multidrug resistance (MDR) was 65.8%. All P. aeruginosa isolates showed the ability to produce biofilm and pyocyanin. Out of the 37 isolates screened, 19 including the reference strains (51.4%) were strong biofilm producers. A significant positive correlation was observed among biofilm formation, pyocyanin production, and the antibiotic resistance profile of the isolates. Findings from this study suggest that infected wounds could act as a reservoir for MDR and virulent P. aeruginosa. The presence of strong biofilm producers of P. aeruginosa in infected wounds is a serious public health concern. Therefore, surveillance programs to monitor and control MDR P. aeruginosa in these patients are required to prevent their dissemination in hospital settings.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Mougin J, Midelet G, Leterme S, et al (2023)

Benzalkonium chloride disinfectant residues stimulate biofilm formation and increase survival of Vibrio bacterial pathogens.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1309032.

Vibrio spp. are opportunistic human and animal pathogens found ubiquitously in marine environments. Globally, there is a predicted rise in the prevalence of Vibrio spp. due to increasing ocean temperatures, which carries significant implications for public health and the seafood industry. Consequently, there is an urgent need for enhanced strategies to control Vibrio spp. and prevent contamination, particularly in aquaculture and seafood processing facilities. Presently, these industries employ various disinfectants, including benzalkonium chloride (BAC), as part of their management strategies. While higher concentrations of BAC may be effective against these pathogens, inadequate rinsing post-disinfection could result in residual concentrations of BAC in the surrounding environment. This study aimed to investigate the adaptation and survival of Vibrio spp. exposed to varying concentrations of BAC residues. Results revealed that Vibrio bacteria, when exposed, exhibited a phenotypic adaptation characterized by an increase in biofilm biomass. Importantly, this effect was found to be strain-specific rather than species-specific. Exposure to BAC residues induced physiological changes in Vibrio biofilms, leading to an increase in the number of injured and alive cells within the biofilm. The exact nature of the "injured" bacteria remains unclear, but it is postulated that BAC might heighten the risk of viable but non-culturable (VBNC) bacteria development. These VBNC bacteria pose a significant threat, especially since they cannot be detected using the standard culture-based methods commonly employed for microbiological risk assessment in aquaculture and seafood industries. The undetected presence of VBNC bacteria could result in recurrent contamination events and subsequent disease outbreaks. This study provides evidence regarding the role of c-di-GMP signaling pathways in Vibrio adaptation mechanisms and suggests that c-di-GMP mediated repression is a potential avenue for further research. The findings underscore that the misuse and overuse of BAC may increase the risk of biofilm development and bacterial survival within the seafood processing chain.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Zhang Y, Sang P, Wang K, et al (2024)

Enhanced chromium and nitrogen removal by constructing a biofilm reaction system based on denitrifying bacteria preferential colonization theory.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 273:116156 pii:S0147-6513(24)00231-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding the developmental characteristics of microbial communities in biofilms is crucial for designing targeted functional microbial enhancements for the remediation of complex contamination scenarios. The strong prioritization effect of microorganisms confers the ability to colonize strains that arrive first dominantly. In this study, the auto-aggregating denitrifying bacterial Pseudomonas stutzeri strain YC-34, which has both nitrogen and chromium removal characteristics, was used as a biological material to form a stable biofilm system based on the principle of dominant colonization and biofortification. The effect of the biofilm system on nitrogen and chromium removal was characterized by measuring the changes in the quality of influent and effluent water. The pattern of biofilm changes was analyzed by measuring biofilm content and thickness and characterizing extracellular polymer substances (EPS). Further analysis of the biofilm microbiota characteristics and potential functions revealed the mechanism of strain YC-34 biofortified biofilm. The results revealed that the biofilm system formed could achieve 90.56% nitrate-nitrogen removal with an average initial nitrate-nitrogen concentration of 51.9 mg/L and 40% chromium removal with an average initial hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) concentration of 7.12 mg/L. The biofilm properties of the system were comparatively analyzed during the biofilm formation period, the fluctuation period of Cr(VI)-stressed water quality, and the stabilization period of Cr(VI)-stressed water quality. The biofilm system may be able to increase the structure of hydrogen bonds, the type of protein secondary structure, and the abundance of amino acid-like components in the EPS, which may confer biofilm tolerance to Cr(VI) stress and allow the system to maintain a stable biofilm structure. Furthermore, microbial characterization indicated an increase in microbial diversity in the face of chromium stress, with an increase in the abundance of nitrogen removal-associated functional microbiota and an increasing trend in the abundance of nitrogen transfer pathways. These results demonstrate that the biofilm system is stable in nitrogen and chromium removal. This bioaugmentation method may provide a new way for the remediation of heavy metal-polluted water bodies and also provides theoretical and application parameters for the popularization and application of biofilm systems.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Fang ZY, Zhang ZY, Zheng YD, et al (2024)

Repurposing cinacalcet suppresses multidrug-resistant Staphylococcus aureus by disruption of cell membrane and inhibits biofilm by targeting IcaR.

The Journal of antimicrobial chemotherapy pii:7614994 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: MDR Staphylococcus aureus infections, along with the severity of biofilm-associated infections, continue to threaten human health to a great extent. It necessitates the urgent development of novel antimicrobial and antibiofilm agents.

OBJECTIVES: To reveal the mechanism and target of cinacalcet as an antibacterial and antimicrobial agent for S. aureus.

METHODS: Screening of non-antibiotic drugs for antibacterial and antibiofilm properties was conducted using a small-molecule drug library. In vivo efficacy was assessed through animal models, and the antibacterial mechanism was studied using quantitative proteomics, biochemical assays, LiP-SMap, BLI detection and gene knockout techniques.

RESULTS: Cinacalcet, an FDA-approved drug, demonstrated antibacterial and antibiofilm activity against S. aureus, with less observed development of bacterial resistance. Importantly, cinacalcet significantly improved survival in a pneumonia model and bacterial clearance in a biofilm infection model. Moreover, the antibacterial mechanism of cinacalcet mainly involves the destruction of membrane-targeted structures, alteration of energy metabolism, and production of reactive oxygen species (ROS). Cinacalcet was found to target IcaR, inhibiting biofilm formation through the negative regulation of IcaADBC.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings suggest that cinacalcet has potential for repurposing as a therapeutic agent for MDR S. aureus infections and associated biofilms, warranting further investigation.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

David A, Tahrioui A, Duchesne R, et al (2024)

Membrane fluidity homeostasis is required for tobramycin-enhanced biofilm in Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen, which causes chronic infections, especially in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients where it colonizes the lungs via the build-up of biofilms. Tobramycin, an aminoglycoside, is often used to treat P. aeruginosa infections in CF patients. Tobramycin at sub-minimal inhibitory concentrations enhances both biofilm biomass and thickness in vitro; however, the mechanism(s) involved are still unknown. Herein, we show that tobramycin increases the expression and activity of SigX, an extracytoplasmic sigma factor known to be involved in the biosynthesis of membrane lipids and membrane fluidity homeostasis. The biofilm enhancement by tobramycin is not observed in a sigX mutant, and the sigX mutant displays increased membrane stiffness. Remarkably, the addition of polysorbate 80 increases membrane fluidity of sigX-mutant cells in biofilm, restoring the tobramycin-enhanced biofilm formation. Our results suggest the involvement of membrane fluidity homeostasis in biofilm development upon tobramycin exposure.IMPORTANCEPrevious studies have shown that sub-lethal concentrations of tobramycin led to an increase biofilm formation in the case of infections with the opportunistic pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa. We show that the mechanism involved in this phenotype relies on the cell envelope stress response, triggered by the extracytoplasmic sigma factor SigX. This phenotype was abolished in a sigX-mutant strain. Remarkably, we show that increasing the membrane fluidity of the mutant strain is sufficient to restore the effect of tobramycin. Altogether, our data suggest the involvement of membrane fluidity homeostasis in biofilm development upon tobramycin exposure.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Loewe MF, Doll-Nikutta K, Stiesch M, et al (2024)

Biofilm volume and acidification within initial biofilms formed in situ on buccally and palatally exposed bracket material.

Journal of orofacial orthopedics = Fortschritte der Kieferorthopadie : Organ/official journal Deutsche Gesellschaft fur Kieferorthopadie [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Acidification by bacterial biofilms at the bracket/tooth interface is one of the most common problems in fixed orthodontic treatments, which can lead to white spot lesions (WSL) and caries. As lingual brackets were shown to exhibit reduced WSL formation clinically, the aim of this in situ study was to compare initial intraoral biofilm formation and acidification on bracket-like specimens placed buccally and palatally in the upper jaw as a possible cause for this observation.

METHODS: Intraoral biofilm was collected from splints equipped with buccally and palatally exposed test specimens, which were worn by 12 volunteers for a total of 48 h. The test specimens consisted of standard bracket material cylinders on top of a hydroxyapatite disc to represent the bracket/tooth interface. They were analyzed for three-dimensional biofilm volume and live/dead distribution by fluorescence staining and confocal laser scanning microscopy as well as for acidification by fluorescence-based pH ratiometry.

RESULTS: Similar general biofilm morphology with regard to volume and viability could be detected for buccally and palatally exposed specimens. For pH values, biofilms from both positions showed increased acidification at the bottom layer. Interestingly, the pH value at the top layers of the biofilms was slightly lower on palatally than on buccally exposed specimens, which may likely be due to anatomic conditions.

CONCLUSION: Based on the results of this study, initial intraoral biofilm formation and acidification is almost similar on the bracket material/biomimetic tooth interface when placed buccally or palatally in the upper jaw. As lingual brackets were shown to exhibit reduced WSL formation clinically, future studies should investigate further factors like bracket geometry.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Ding J, Wang X, Liu W, et al (2024)

Biofilm Microenvironment Activated Antibiotic Adjuvant for Implant-Associated Infections by Systematic Iron Metabolism Interference.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Hematoma, a risk factor of implant-associated infections (IAIs), creates a Fe-rich environment following implantation, which proliferates the growth of pathogenic bacteria. Fe metabolism is a major vulnerability for pathogens and is crucial for several fundamental physiological processes. Herein, a deferiprone (DFP)-loaded layered double hydroxide (LDH)-based nanomedicine (DFP@Ga-LDH) that targets the Fe-rich environments of IAIs is reported. In response to acidic changes at the infection site, DFP@Ga-LDH systematically interferes with bacterial Fe metabolism via the substitution of Ga[3+] and Fe scavenging by DFP. DFP@Ga-LDH effectively reverses the Fe/Ga ratio in Pseudomonas aeruginosa, causing comprehensive interference in various Fe-associated targets, including transcription and substance metabolism. In addition to its favorable antibacterial properties, DFP@Ga-LDH functions as a nano-adjuvant capable of delaying the emergence of antibiotic resistance. Accordingly, DFP@Ga-LDH is loaded with a siderophore antibiotic (cefiderocol, Cefi) to achieve the antibacterial nanodrug DFP@Ga-LDH-Cefi. Antimicrobial and biosafety efficacies of DFP@Ga-LDH-Cefi are validated using ex vivo human skin and mouse IAI models. The pivotal role of the hematoma-created Fe-rich environment of IAIs is highlighted, and a nanoplatform that efficiently interferes with bacterial Fe metabolism is developed. The findings of the study provide promising guidance for future research on the exploration of nano-adjuvants as antibacterial agents.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Pesset CM, Fonseca COD, Antunes M, et al (2024)

Biofilm formation by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius on titanium implants.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

Osteomyelitis often involves Staphylococcus spp. as the isolated genus in domestic animal cases. Implant-related infections, frequently associated with biofilm-forming microorganisms like staphylococci species, necessitate careful material selection. This study assessed biofilm formation by Staphylococcus pseudintermedius on titanium nuts used in veterinary orthopaedic surgery. Biofilm quantification employed safranin staining and spectrophotometric measurement, while bacterial counts were determined in colony-forming units (CFU). Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) evaluated the biofilm morphology on the surface of titanium nuts. All samples had CFU counts. Absorbance values that evidence biofilm formation were observed in seven of the eight samples tested. SEM images revealed robust bacterial colonization, and significant extracellular polymeric substance production, and the negative control displayed surface irregularities on the nut. Whole genome sequencing revealed accessory Gene Regulator (agr) type III in six samples, agr IV and agr II in two each. Genes encoding hlb, luk-S, luk-F, siet, se_int, and the icaADCB operon were identified in all sequenced samples. Other exfoliative toxins were absent. Biofilm formation by S. pseudintermedius was detected in all samples, indicating the susceptibility of orthopaedic titanium alloys to adhesion and biofilm formation by veterinary species. The biofilm formation capacity raises concerns about potential post-surgical complications and associated costs.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Kanaan MHG (2024)

Effect of biofilm formation in a hostile oxidative stress environment on the survival of Campylobacter jejuni recovered from poultry in Iraqi markets.

Veterinary world, 17(1):136-142.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Campylobacter jejuni is a major contributor to bacterial enteritis, a common health problem. The resistance of this microaerophilic bacterium to oxidative stress allows it to thrive under aerobic conditions. This study aimed to investigate whether the capacity of C. jejuni to form biofilms in the presence of oxidative stress contributes to the pathogen's ability to thrive in agricultural settings as well as in chicken slaughter lines.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Twenty identified strains originating from chicken samples (eight from caeca contents and 12 from frozen chicken carcasses) were previously isolated and identified according to standard bacteriological protocols, followed by confirmation at the species level using multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay. Crystal violet staining was used to evaluate biofilm formation by these bacteria. Two exposure periods to gaseous ozone (1 and 2 min) were used to assess resistance to oxidative damage.

RESULTS: Most of the strong biofilm-forming Campylobacter strains came from imported frozen chicken meat (25%), whereas only 10% came from caeca content. After exposure to gaseous ozone at 600 mg/h for 2 min, strong biofilm-producing strains exhibited a higher survival rate with a limited reduction of up to 3 logs, whereas negative biofilm-producing strains exhibited a limited survival rate with a reduction of 6 logs.

CONCLUSION: Based on our findings, we hypothesized that the presence of C. jejuni strains capable of forming biofilms in poultry farms and/or chicken production facilities triggers a public health alarm as this bacterium seems to be able to adapt more easily to live and thrive in hostile environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Santos LM, Rodrigues DM, Alves BVB, et al (2024)

Activity of biogenic silver nanoparticles in planktonic and biofilm-associated Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis.

PeerJ, 12:e16751.

Corynebacterium pseudotuberculosis is a gram-positive bacterium and is the etiologic agent of caseous lymphadenitis (CL) in small ruminants. This disease is characterized by the development of encapsulated granulomas in visceral and superficial lymph nodes, and its clinical treatment is refractory to antibiotic therapy. An important virulence factor of the Corynebacterium genus is the ability to produce biofilm; however, little is known about the characteristics of the biofilm produced by C. pseudotuberculosis and its resistance to antimicrobials. Silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) are considered as promising antimicrobial agents, and are known to have several advantages, such as a broad-spectrum activity, low resistance induction potential, and antibiofilm activity. Therefore, we evaluate herein the activity of AgNPs in C. pseudotuberculosis, through the determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC), antibiofilm activity, and visualization of AgNP-treated and AgNP-untreated biofilm through scanning electron microscopy. The AgNPs were able to completely inhibit bacterial growth and inactivate C. pseudotuberculosis at concentrations ranging from 0.08 to 0.312 mg/mL. The AgNPs reduced the formation of biofilm in reference strains and clinical isolates of C. pseudotuberculosis, with interference values greater than 80% at a concentration of 4 mg/mL, controlling the change between the planktonic and biofilm-associated forms, and preventing fixation and colonization. Scanning electron microscopy images showed a significant disruptive activity of AgNP on the consolidated biofilms. The results of this study demonstrate the potential of AgNPs as an effective therapeutic agent against CL.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Malik A, Oludiran A, Poudel A, et al (2024)

RelQ-mediated alarmone signaling regulates growth, sporulation, and stress-induced biofilm formation in Clostridioides difficile.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology.

The bacterial stringent response (SR) is a conserved transcriptional reprogramming pathway mediated by the nucleotide signaling alarmones, (pp)pGpp. The SR has been implicated in antibiotic survival in Clostridioides difficile , a biofilm- and spore-forming pathogen that causes resilient, highly recurrent C. difficile infections. The role of the SR in other processes and the effectors by which it regulates C. difficile physiology are unknown. C. difficile RelQ is a clostridial alarmone synthetase. Deletion of relQ dysregulates C. difficile growth in unstressed conditions, affects susceptibility to antibiotic and oxidative stressors, and drastically reduces biofilm formation. While wild-type C. difficile displays increased biofilm formation in the presence of sub-lethal stress, the Δ relQ strain cannot upregulate biofilm production in response to stress. Deletion of relQ slows spore accumulation in planktonic cultures but accelerates it in biofilms. This work establishes biofilm formation and sporulation as alarmone-mediated processes in C. difficile and reveals the importance of RelQ in stress-induced biofilm regulation.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Yasmeen T, Arif MS, Tariq M, et al (2024)

Biofilm producing plant growth promoting bacteria in combination with glycine betaine uplift drought stress tolerance of maize plant.

Frontiers in plant science, 15:1327552.

INTRODUCTION: The escalating threat of drought poses a significant challenge to sustainable food production and human health, as water scarcity adversely impacts various aspects of plant physiology. Maize, a cornerstone in staple cereal crops, faces the formidable challenge of drought stress that triggers a series of transformative responses in the plant.

METHODS: The present study was carried out in two sets of experiments. In first experiment, drought stress was applied after maintaining growth for 45 days and then irrigation was skipped, and plant samples were collected at 1[st], 3[rd] and 6[th] day of drought interval for evaluation of changes in plant growth, water relation (relative water content) and antioxidants activity by inoculating indigenously isolated drought tolerant biofilm producing rhizobacterial isolates (Bacillus subtilis SRJ4, Curtobacterium citreum MJ1). In the second experiment, glycine betaine was applied as osmoregulator in addition to drought tolerant PGPR to perceive modulation in photosynthetic pigments (Chlorophyll a and b) and plant growth under varying moisture stress levels (100, 75 and 50% FC).

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Results of the study revealed upsurge in root and shoot length, fresh and dry biomass of root and shoot besides increasing chlorophyll contents in water stressed inoculated plants compared to uninoculated plants. Glycine betaine application resulted in an additional boost to plant growth and photosynthetic pigments, when applied in combination with bacterial inoculants. However, both bacterial inoculants behaved differently under drought stress as evident from their biochemical and physiological attributes. Isolate SRJ4 proved to be superior for its potential to express antioxidant activity, leaf water potential and relative water contents and drought responsive gene expression while isolate MJ1 showed exclusive increase in root dry biomass and plant P contents. Though it is quite difficult to isolate the bacterial isolates having both plant growth promoting traits and drought tolerance together yet, such biological resources could be an exceptional option to be applied for improving crop productivity and sustainable agriculture under abiotic stresses. By exploring the combined application of PGPR and glycine betaine, the study seeks to provide insights into potential strategies for developing sustainable agricultural practices aimed at improving crop resilience under challenging environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Camba C, Walter-Lakes B, Digal P, et al (2024)

Biofilm formation and manipulation with optical tweezers.

Biomedical optics express, 15(2):1181-1191.

Some bacterial species form biofilms in suboptimal growth and environmental conditions. Biofilm structures allow the cells not only to optimize growth with nutrient availability but also to defend each other against external stress, such as antibiotics. Medical and bioengineering implications of biofilms have led to an increased interest in the regulation of bacterial biofilm formation. Prior research has primarily focused on mechanical and chemical approaches for stimulating and controlling biofilm formation, yet optical techniques are still largely unexplored. In this paper, we investigate the biofilm formation of Bacillus subtilis in a minimum biofilm-promoting medium (MSgg media) and explore the potential of optical trapping in regulating bacterial aggregation and biofilm development. Specifically, we determine the most advantageous stage of bacterial biofilm formation for optical manipulation and investigate the impact of optical trapping at different wavelengths on the aggregation of bacterial cells and the formation of biofilm. The investigation of optically regulated biofilm formation with optical tweezers presents innovative methodologies for the stimulation and suppression of biofilm growth through the application of lasers.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Macedo FPG, Soares AJ, Marceliano-Alves MFV, et al (2024)

The effect of root canal preparation tapers on planktonic bacteria and biofilm reduction in the apical third: A correlative microtomography and microbiological laboratory study.

International endodontic journal [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: To evaluate the influence of different preparation tapers on the reduction in planktonic bacteria and biofilms of Enterococcus faecalis and Candida albicans in the apical third (4 mm) of the mesial roots of mandibular molars, correlating decontamination with canal shape.

METHODOLOGY: After microtomography analysis for morphological standardization of the canals, 48 mandibular molar roots, each containing two canals (96 canals), were contaminated with E. faecalis and C. albicans and divided into four groups (n = 11) for canal instrumentation using ProDesign Logic 2 files with different tapers G (.03): # 25.03; G (.04): # 25.04; G (.05): # 25.05; and G (.06): # 25.06 and irrigation with 2.5% sodium hypochlorite. Four roots were examined under a scanning electron microscope (SEM) to qualitatively assess biofilm formation. Eight roots were used as the negative control group (samples were not contaminated). Bacteriological samples were taken exclusively from the apical third of the roots before and after chemical-mechanical preparation and bacterial counts were determined (CFU/mL). The final micro-CT scan was used to quantify the volume variation and unprepared canal area in the apical third. Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis, Student-Newman-Keuls and Wilcoxon tests for analysis of microbiological data. anova and the Tukey or Games-Howell test were used for analysis of micro-CT data and Spearman's test for correlations (α = 5%).

RESULTS: All groups showed a significant reduction in bacteria (p < .05), with no statistically significant difference between groups. There was no significant difference in per cent volume increase between groups. The unprepared area (Δ%) was affected by the file used (p = .026) and was significantly lower for G (.06) compared to G (.03). There was no statistically significant correlation among bacterial reduction, volume and unprepared area (p > .05).

CONCLUSION: The different preparation tapers influenced root canal shaping in the apical third but did not improve decontamination in this region.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Blanco-Cabra N, Alcàcer-Almansa J, Admella J, et al (2024)

Nanomedicine against biofilm infections: A roadmap of challenges and limitations.

Wiley interdisciplinary reviews. Nanomedicine and nanobiotechnology, 16(1):e1944.

Microbial biofilms are complex three-dimensional structures where sessile microbes are embedded in a polymeric extracellular matrix. Their resistance toward the host immune system as well as to a diverse range of antimicrobial treatments poses a serious health and development threat, being in the top 10 global public health threats declared by the World Health Organization. In an effort to combat biofilm-related microbial infections, several strategies have been developed to independently eliminate biofilms or to complement conventional antibiotic therapies. However, their limitations leave room for other treatment alternatives, where the application of nanotechnology to biofilm eradication has gained significant relevance in recent years. Their small size, penetration efficiency, and the design flexibility that they present makes them a promising alternative for biofilm infection treatment, although they also present set-backs. This review aims to describe the main possibilities and limitations of nanomedicine against biofilms, while covering the main aspects of biofilm formation and study, and the current therapies for biofilm treatment. This article is categorized under: Therapeutic Approaches and Drug Discovery > Nanomedicine for Infectious Disease Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Toxicology of Nanomaterials Toxicology and Regulatory Issues in Nanomedicine > Regulatory and Policy Issues in Nanomedicine.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Qiao J, Hu A, Zhou H, et al (2024)

Drug-loaded lipid nanoparticles improve the removal rates of the Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

Biotechnology journal, 19(2):e2300159.

Biofilms of the foodborne pathogen Staphylococcus aureus show improved resistance to antibiotics and are difficult to eliminate. To enhance antibacteria and biofilm dispersion via extracellular matrix diffusion, a new lipid nanoparticle was prepared, which employed a mixture of phospholipids and a 0.8% surfactin shell. In the lipid nanoparticle, 31.56 μg mL[-1] of erythromycin was encapsulated. The lipid nanoparticle size was approximately 52 nm and the zeta-potential was -67 mV, which was measured using a Marvin laser particle size analyzer. In addition, lipid nanoparticles significantly dispersed the biofilms of S. aureus W1, CICC22942, and CICC 10788 on the surface of stainless steel, reducing the total viable count of bacteria in the biofilms by 10[3] CFU mL[-1] . In addition, the lipid nanoparticle can remove polysaccharides and protein components from the biofilm matrix. The results of laser confocal microscopy showed that the lipid nanoparticles effectively killed residual bacteria in the biofilms. Thus, to thoroughly eliminate biofilms on material surfaces in food factories to avoid repeated contamination, drug-lipid nanoparticles present a suitable method to achieve this.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

MacConnell AE, Levack AE, NM Brown (2024)

Biofilm and How It Relates to Prosthetic Joint Infection.

The Orthopedic clinics of North America, 55(2):161-169.

Prosthetic joint infection following total joint arthroplasty is a devastating complication, resulting in increased morbidity and mortality for the patient. The formation of a biofilm on implanted hardware contributes to the difficulty in successful identification and eradication of the infection. Antibiotic therapy and surgical intervention are necessary for addressing this condition; we present a discussion on different treatment options, including those that are not yet routinely utilized in the clinical setting or are under investigation, to highlight the present and future of PJI management.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Saygin H, Tilkili B, Karniyarik S, et al (2024)

Culture dependent analysis of bacterial activity, biofilm-formation and oxidative stress of seawater with the contamination of microplastics under climate change consideration.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)01242-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Temperature changes due to climate change and microplastic contamination are worldwide concerns, creating various problems in the marine environment. Therefore, this study was carried out to discover the impact of different temperature of seawater exposed to different types of plastic materials on culture dependent bacterial responses and oxidative characteristics. Seawater was exposed to microplastics obtained from various plastic materials at different temperature (-18, +4, +20, and +35 °C) for seven days. Then microplastics were removed from the suspension and microplastic-exposed seawater samples were analyzed for bacterial activity, biofilm formation and oxidative characteristics (antioxidant, catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase) using Gram-negative Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. The results showed that the activity and biofilm formation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus were affected through oxidative stress by catalase, glutathione, and superoxide dismutase due to the microplastic deformation by temperature changes. This study confirms that temperature changes as a result of climate change might influence microplastic degradation and their contamination impact in seawater in terms of bacterial metabolic and oxidation reactions.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Alshaikh SA, El-Banna T, Sonbol F, et al (2024)

Correlation between antimicrobial resistance, biofilm formation, and virulence determinants in uropathogenic Escherichia coli from Egyptian hospital.

Annals of clinical microbiology and antimicrobials, 23(1):20.

BACKGROUND: Uropathogenic Escherichia coli (UPEC) is the main etiological agent behind community-acquired and hospital-acquired urinary tract infections (UTIs), which are among the most prevalent human infections. The management of UPEC infections is becoming increasingly difficult owing to multi-drug resistance, biofilm formation, and the possession of an extensive virulence arsenal. This study aims to characterize UPEC isolates in Tanta, Egypt, with regard to their antimicrobial resistance, phylogenetic profile, biofilm formation, and virulence, as well as the potential associations among these factors.

METHODS: One hundred UPEC isolates were obtained from UTI patients in Tanta, Egypt. Antimicrobial susceptibility was assessed using the Kirby-Bauer method. Extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBLs) production was screened using the double disk synergy test and confirmed with PCR. Biofilm formation was evaluated using the microtiter-plate assay and microscopy-based techniques. The phylogenetic groups of the isolates were determined. The hemolytic activity, motility, siderophore production, and serum resistance of the isolates were also evaluated. The clonal relatedness of the isolates was assessed using ERIC-PCR.

RESULTS: Isolates displayed elevated resistance to cephalosporins (90-43%), sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim (63%), and ciprofloxacin (53%). Ninety percent of the isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR)/ extensively drug-resistant (XDR) and 67% produced ESBLs. Notably, there was an inverse correlation between biofilm formation and antimicrobial resistance, and 31%, 29%, 32%, and 8% of the isolates were strong, moderate, weak, and non-biofilm producers, respectively. Beta-hemolysis, motility, siderophore production, and serum resistance were detected in 64%, 84%, 65%, and 11% of the isolates, respectively. Siderophore production was correlated to resistance to multiple antibiotics, while hemolysis was more prevalent in susceptible isolates and associated with stronger biofilms. Phylogroups B2 and D predominated, with lower resistance and stronger biofilms in group B2. ERIC-PCR revealed considerable diversity among the isolates.

CONCLUSION: This research highlights the dissemination of resistance in UPEC in Tanta, Egypt. The evident correlation between biofilm and resistance suggests a resistance cost on bacterial cells; and that isolates with lower resistance may rely on biofilms to enhance their survival. This emphasizes the importance of considering biofilm formation ability during the treatment of UPEC infections to avoid therapeutic failure and/or infection recurrence.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Wang Z, Vanbever R, Lorent JH, et al (2024)

Repurposing DNase I and alginate lyase to degrade the biofilm matrix of dual-species biofilms of Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa grown in artificial sputum medium: In-vitro assessment of their activity in combination with broad-spectrum antibiotics.

Journal of cystic fibrosis : official journal of the European Cystic Fibrosis Society pii:S1569-1993(24)00027-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Biofilm-associated pulmonary infections pose therapeutic challenges in cystic fibrosis patients, especially when involving multiple bacterial species. Enzymatic degradation of the biofilm matrix may offer a potential solution to enhance antibiotic efficacy. This study investigated the repurposing of DNase I, commonly used for its mucolytic activity in cystic fibrosis, to target extracellular DNA within biofilms, as well as potential synergies with alginate lyase and broad-spectrum antibiotics in dual-species biofilms of Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus.

METHODS: Dual-species biofilms were grown in artificial sputum medium using S. aureus and P. aeruginosa isolated by pairs from the same patients and exposed to various combinations of enzymes, meropenem, or tobramycin. Activity was assessed by measuring biofilm biomass and viable counts. Matrix degradation and decrease in bacterial load were visualized using confocal microscopy. Biofilm viscoelasticity was estimated by rheology.

RESULTS: Nearly complete destruction of the biofilms was achieved only if combining the enzymatic cocktail with the two antibiotics, and if using supratherapeutic levels of DNase I and high concentrations of alginate lyase. Biofilms containing non-pigmented mucoid P. aeruginosa required higher antibiotic concentrations, despite low viscoelasticity. In contrast, for biofilms with pigmented mucoid P. aeruginosa, a correlation was observed between the efficacy of different treatments and the reduction they caused in elasticity and viscosity of the biofilm.

CONCLUSIONS: In this complex, highly drug-tolerant biofilm model, enzymes prove useful adjuvants to enhance antibiotic activity. However, the necessity for high enzyme concentrations emphasizes the need for thorough concentration-response evaluations and safety assessments before considering clinical applications.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Higuera-Rueda CA, Piuzzi NS, Milbrandt NB, et al (2024)

The Mark Coventry Award: PhotothermAA Gel Combined with Debridement, Antibiotics, and Implant Retention (DAIR) Significantly Decreases Implant Biofilm Burden and Soft-Tissue Infection in a Rabbit Model of Knee Periprosthetic Joint Infection.

The Journal of arthroplasty pii:S0883-5403(24)00139-6 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Chronic periprosthetic joint infection (PJI) is a major complication of total joint arthroplasty. The underlying pathogenesis often involves the formation of bacterial biofilm that protects the pathogen from both host immune responses and antibiotics. The gold standard treatment requires implant removal, a procedure that carries associated morbidity and mortality risks. Strategies to preserve the implant while treating PJI are desperately needed. Our group has developed an anti-biofilm treatment, PhotothermAA gel, that has shown complete eradication of two-week-old mature biofilm in vitro. In this study, we tested the anti-biofilm efficacy and safety of PhotothermAA in vivo when combined with debridement, antibiotics, and implant retention (DAIR) in a rabbit model of knee PJI.

METHODS: New Zealand white rabbits (n = 21) underwent knee joint arthrotomy, titanium tibial implant insertion, and inoculation with Xen36 (bioluminescent Staphylococcus aureus) after capsule closure. At two weeks, rabbits underwent sham surgery (n = 6), DAIR (n = 6), or PhotothermAA with DAIR (n = 9) and were sacrificed two weeks later to measure implant biofilm burden, soft-tissue infection, and tissue necrosis.

RESULTS: The combination of anti-biofilm PhotothermAA with DAIR significantly decreased implant biofilm coverage via scanning electron microscopy compared to DAIR alone (1.8 versus 81.0%; P < 0.0001). Periprosthetic soft-tissue cultures were significantly decreased in the PhotothermAA with DAIR treatment group (log reduction: Sham 1.6, DAIR 2.0, combination 5.6; P < 0.0001). Treatment-associated necrosis was absent via gross histology of tissue adjacent to the treatment area (P = 0.715).

CONCLUSION: The addition of an anti-biofilm solution like PhotothermAA as a supplement to current treatments that allow implant retention may prove useful in PJI treatment.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Jiang H, Fang W, Xu S, et al (2024)

Synergistic quorum sensing inhibition and mild-temperature photothermal therapy of integrated nanoplatform for implant-associated biofilm infections.

Journal of colloid and interface science, 663:143-156 pii:S0021-9797(24)00405-3 [Epub ahead of print].

In current clinical practice, the presence of biofilms poses a significant challenge in the effective elimination of bacterial infections because of the physical and chemical barriers formed by biofilms, which offer persistent protection to bacteria. Here, we developed hollow mesoporous polydopamine (hMP) nanoparticles (NPs) loaded with luteolin (Lu) as a quorum sensing inhibitor, which were further coated with hyaluronic acid (HA) shells to create hMP-Lu@HA NPs. We observed that upon reaching the infection site, the HA shells underwent initial degradation by the hyaluronidase enzyme present in the bacterial infection's microenvironment to expose the hMP-Lu NPs. Subsequently, Lu was released in response to the acidic conditions characteristic of bacterial infections, which effectively hindered and dispersed the biofilm. Moreover, when subjected to near-infrared irradiation, the robust photothermal conversion effect of hMP NPs accelerated the release of Lu and disrupted the integrity of the biofilms by localized heating. This dual action enhanced the eradication of the biofilm infection. Importantly, hMP-Lu@HA NPs also promoted tissue regeneration and healing at the implantation site, concurrently addressing biofilm infection. Taken together, this nanosystem, combined with mild-temperature photothermal therapy and quorum sensing inhibition strategy, holds significant potential for applications in the treatment of implantation-associated infections.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Miller LA, Buckingham-Meyer K, DM Goeres (2024)

Simulated aging of draught beer line tubing increases biofilm contamination.

International journal of food microbiology, 415:110630 pii:S0168-1605(24)00074-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Craft brewing is continually gaining popularity in the United States. Craft brewers are committed to producing a wide variety of products and have a vested interest in product quality. Therefore, these brewers have the expectation that the beer poured at the tap will match the quality product that left the brewery. The presence of biofilm in draught lines is hypothesized as a contributing factor when this expectation is not achieved. Clean in place strategies based on the Sinner's Circle of Cleaning are used to remediate organic and inorganic accumulation in beer draught lines, including controlling biofilm accumulation. A study was conducted to determine if repeated exposure to chemical cleaning of vinyl beer tubing impacted biofilm growth, kill/removal, and subsequent regrowth of a mixed species biofilm. The tubing was conditioned to simulate one, two, and five years of use. The data collected demonstrates a clear trend between simulated age of the tubing and biofilm accumulation on the surface. Bacterial log densities ranged from 5.6 Log10(CFU/cm[2]) for the new tubing to 6.6 Log10(CFU/cm[2]) for tubing aged to simulate five years of use. The counts for the yeast were similar. Caustic cleaning of the tubing, regardless of starting biofilm coverage, left less than 2.75 Log10(CFU/cm[2]) viable bacteria and yeast cells remaining on the tubing surface. This demonstrated the effectiveness of the caustic at controlling biofilm accumulation in the simulated beer draught line. The biofilm that accumulated in the five-year aged tubing was able to recover more quickly, reaching 3.6 Log10(CFU/cm[2]) within 24 h indicating the treatment did not fully eradicate the biofilm, suggesting that the strong chemistry used in this study would cease to be as effective over time.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Liang C, Svendsen SB, de Jonge N, et al (2024)

Eat seldom is better than eat frequently: Pharmaceuticals degradation kinetics, enantiomeric profiling and microorganisms in moving bed biofilm reactors are affected by feast famine cycle times.

Journal of hazardous materials, 468:133739 pii:S0304-3894(24)00318-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Feast-famine (FF) regimes improved the removal of recalcitrant pharmaceuticals in moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBRs), but the optimal FF cycle remained unresolved. The effects of FF cycle time on the removal of bulk substrates (organic carbon and nitrogen) and trace pharmaceuticals by MBBR are systematically evaluated in this study. The feast to famine ratio was fixed to 1:2 to keep the same loading rate, but the time for the FF cycles varied from 18 h to 288 h. The MBBR adapted to the longest FF cycle time (288 h equaling 48 × HRT) resulted in significantly higher degradation rates (up to +183%) for 12 out of 28 pharmaceuticals than a continuously fed (non-FF) reactor. However, other FF cycle times (18, 36, 72 and 144 h) only showed a significant up-regulation for 2-3 pharmaceuticals compared to the non-FF reactor. Enantioselective degradation of metoprolol and propranolol occurred in the second phase of a two phase degradation, which was different for the longer FF cycle time. N-oxidation and N-demethylation pathways of tramadol and venlafaxine differed across the FF cycle time suggestin the FF cycle time varied the predominant transformation pathways of pharmaceuticals. The abundance of bacteria in the biofilms varied considerably between different FF cycle times, which possibly caused the biofilm to remove more recalcitrant bulk organic C and pharmaceuticals under long cycle times.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Zhang YG, Zhang T, L Lin (2024)

Identification of Flo11-like Adhesin in Schizosaccharomyces pombe and the Mechanism of Small-Molecule Compounds Mediating Biofilm Formation in Yeasts.

Microorganisms, 12(2): pii:microorganisms12020358.

Fungal infection is initiated by the adhesion of pathogens to biotic and abiotic surfaces, with various manifestations including biofilm formation and invasive growth, etc. A previous report, though devoid of functional data, speculated that the Schizosaccharomyces pombe glycoprotein SPBPJ4664.02 could be the homology of Saccharomyces cerevisiae Flo11. Here, our studies with S. pombe substantiated the previously proposed speculation by (1) the deletion of SPBPJ4664.02 attenuated biofilm formation and invasive growth in S. pombe; (2) the S. pombe's lack of SPBPJ4664.02 could be complemented by expressing S. cerevisiae flo11. Furthermore, indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and dodecanol were examined in S. pombe for their respective effects on biofilm formation. IAA and dodecanol at high concentrations could inhibit biofilm formation, whereas opposing effects were observed with low concentrations of these molecules. Mechanism studies with the SPBPJ4664.02Δ and SPBPJ4664.02Δ/flo11[OE] versus the wild type have demonstrated that IAA or dodecanol might exert regulatory effects downstream of SPBPJ4664.02 in the signaling pathway for biofilm formation. Moreover, our research extrapolated to Candida albicans has pinpointed that IAA inhibited biofilm formation at high concentrations, consistent with the transcriptional downregulation of the biofilm-related genes. Dodecanol suppressed C. albicans biofilm formation at all the concentrations tested, in accord with the downregulation of biofilm-related transcripts.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Ong ZX, Kannan B, Phillips ARJ, et al (2024)

Investigation of Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm-Associated Toxin as a Potential Squamous Cell Carcinoma Therapeutic.

Microorganisms, 12(2): pii:microorganisms12020293.

Cancer therapies developed using bacteria and their components have been around since the 19th century. Compared to traditional cancer treatments, the use of bacteria-derived compounds as cancer therapeutics could offer a higher degree of specificity, with minimal off-target effects. Here, we explored the use of soluble bacteria-derived toxins as a potential squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) therapeutic. We optimized a protocol to generate Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-conditioned media (BCM), where soluble bacterial products enriched in the development of biofilms were isolated from a bacterial culture and applied to SCC cell lines. Bioactive components of S. aureus ATCC 29213 (SA29213) BCM display selective toxicity towards cancerous human skin SCC-12 at low doses, while non-cancerous human keratinocyte HaCaT and fibroblast BJ-5ta are minimally affected. SA29213 BCM treatment causes DNA damage to SCC-12 and initiates Caspase 3-dependent-regulated cell death. The use of the novel SA29213 bursa aurealis transposon mutant library led to the identification of S. aureus alpha hemolysin as the main bioactive compound responsible for the observed SCC-12-specific toxicity. The antibody neutralisation of Hla eradicates the cytotoxicity of SA29213 BCM towards SCC-12. Hla displays high SCC-12-specific toxicity, which is exerted primarily through Hla-ADAM10 interaction, Hla oligomerisation, and pore formation. The high target specificity and potential to cause cell death in a controlled manner highlight SA29213 Hla as a good candidate as an alternative SCC therapeutic.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Calderón IL, Barros MJ, Fernández-Navarro N, et al (2024)

Detection of Nucleic Acids of the Fish Pathogen Yersinia ruckeri from Planktonic and Biofilm Samples with a CRISPR/Cas13a-Based Assay.

Microorganisms, 12(2): pii:microorganisms12020283.

Yersinia ruckeri is the cause of hemorrhagic septicemia, known as enteric redmouth disease, in salmonid fish species. This bacterial pathogen can form biofilms on abiotic surfaces of aquaculture settings or even on the surfaces of the fish themselves, contributing to their persistence in the aquatic environment. Detection methods for this and other fish pathogens can be time-consuming and lack specificity and sensitivity, limiting timely monitoring, the treatment of microbial infections, and effective control of their transmission in aquaculture settings. Rapid and sensitive detection methods for nucleic acids can be crucial for an appropriate surveillance of bacterial pathogens, and the CRISPR/Cas-based assays have emerged as a good alternative since it has been proven to be a useful tool for the rapid, specific, and sensitive detection of viruses and some bacteria. In this study, we explored the capability of the CRISPR/Cas13a system (SHERLOCK) to specifically detect both DNA and RNA (gene transcripts) from planktonic and biofilm samples of the bacterial fish pathogen Y. ruckeri. The assay was designed to detect the gyrA gene and the small noncoding RNAs (sRNAs) MicA and RprA from planktonic cultures and biofilm samples prepared in marine broth. The specific crRNA designed for these gene targets included a 28 nt specific gene sequence, and a scaffold sequence necessary for Cas13-binding. For all the assays, the nucleic acids obtained from samples were previously subjected to isothermal amplification with the recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) method and the subsequent T7 transcription of the RPA amplicons. Finally, the detection of nucleic acids of Y. ruckeri was by means of a reporter signal released by the Cas13a collateral RNA cleavage triggered upon target recognition, measured by fluorescence- or lateral-flow-based readouts. This CRISPR/Cas13a-based assay was able to specifically detect both DNA and sRNAs from the Y. ruckeri samples, and the sensitivity was comparable to that obtained with qPCR analysis, highlighting the potential applicability of this CRISPR/Cas13a-based assay for fish pathogen surveillance.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Dietrich M, Besser M, EK Stuermer (2024)

Characterization of the Human Plasma Biofilm Model (hpBIOM) to Identify Potential Therapeutic Targets for Wound Management of Chronic Infections.

Microorganisms, 12(2): pii:microorganisms12020269.

The treatment of chronic wounds still represents a major challenge in wound management. Recent estimates suggest that 60-80% of chronic wounds are colonized by pathogenic microorganisms, which are strongly considered to have a major inhibiting influence on the healing process. By means of an innovative biofilm model based on human plasma, the time-dependent behavior of various bacterial strains under wound-milieu-like conditions were investigated, and the growth habits of different cocci species were compared. Undescribed fusion events between colonies of MRSA as well as of Staphylococcus epidermidis were detected, which were associated with the remodeling and reorganization of the glycocalyx of the wound tissue. After reaching a maximum colony size, the spreading of individual bacteria was observed. Interestingly, the combination of different cocci species with Pseudomonas aeruginosa in the human plasma biofilm revealed partial synergistic effects in these multispecies organizations. RT-qPCR analyses gave a first impression of the relevant proteins involved in the formation and maturation of biofilms, especially the role of fibrinogen-binding proteins. Knowledge of the maturation and growth behavior of persistent biofilms investigated in a translational human biofilm model reflects a starting point for the development of novel tools for the treatment of chronic wounds.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Wang Z, Wang H, Bai J, et al (2024)

The Staphylococcus aureus ArlS Kinase Inhibitor Tilmicosin Has Potent Anti-Biofilm Activity in Both Static and Flow Conditions.

Microorganisms, 12(2): pii:microorganisms12020256.

Staphylococcus aureus can form biofilms on biotic surfaces or implanted materials, leading to biofilm-associated diseases in humans and animals that are refractory to conventional antibiotic treatment. Recent studies indicate that the unique ArlRS regulatory system in S. aureus is a promising target for screening inhibitors that may eradicate formed biofilms, retard virulence and break antimicrobial resistance. In this study, by screening in the library of FDA-approved drugs, tilmicosin was found to inhibit ArlS histidine kinase activity (IC50 = 1.09 μM). By constructing a promoter-fluorescence reporter system, we found that tilmicosin at a concentration of 0.75 μM or 1.5 μM displayed strong inhibition on the expression of the ArlRS regulon genes spx and mgrA in the S. aureus USA300 strain. Microplate assay and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed that tilmicosin at a sub-minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) had a potent inhibitory effect on biofilms formed by multiple S. aureus strains and a strong biofilm-forming strain of S. epidermidis. In addition, tilmicosin at three-fold of MIC disrupted USA300 mature biofilms and had a strong bactericidal effect on embedded bacteria. Furthermore, in a BioFlux flow biofilm assay, tilmicosin showed potent anti-biofilm activity and synergized with oxacillin against USA300.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Javed MQ, Kovalchuk I, Yevtushenko D, et al (2024)

Relationship between Desiccation Tolerance and Biofilm Formation in Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli.

Microorganisms, 12(2): pii:microorganisms12020243.

Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a major concern in the food industry and requires effective control measures to prevent foodborne illnesses. Previous studies have demonstrated increased difficulty in the control of biofilm-forming STEC. Desiccation, achieved through osmotic stress and water removal, has emerged as a potential antimicrobial hurdle. This study focused on 254 genetically diverse E. coli strains collected from cattle, carcass hides, hide-off carcasses, and processing equipment. Of these, 141 (55.51%) were STEC and 113 (44.48%) were generic E. coli. The biofilm-forming capabilities of these isolates were assessed, and their desiccation tolerance was investigated to understand the relationships between growth temperature, relative humidity (RH), and bacterial survival. Only 28% of the STEC isolates had the ability to form biofilms, compared to 60% of the generic E. coli. Stainless steel surfaces were exposed to different combinations of temperature (0 °C or 35 °C) and relative humidity (75% or 100%), and the bacterial attachment and survival rates were measured over 72 h and compared to controls. The results revealed that all the strains exposed to 75% relative humidity (RH) at any temperature had reduced growth (p < 0.001). In contrast, 35 °C and 100% RH supported bacterial proliferation, except for isolates forming the strongest biofilms. The ability of E. coli to form a biofilm did not impact growth reduction at 75% RH. Therefore, desiccation treatment at 75% RH at temperatures of 0 °C or 35 °C holds promise as a novel antimicrobial hurdle for the removal of biofilm-forming E. coli from challenging-to-clean surfaces and equipment within food processing facilities.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Vilas Boas D, Castro J, Araújo D, et al (2024)

The Role of Flagellum and Flagellum-Based Motility on Salmonella Enteritidis and Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation.

Microorganisms, 12(2): pii:microorganisms12020232.

Flagellum-mediated motility has been suggested to contribute to virulence by allowing bacteria to colonize and spread to new surfaces. In Salmonella enterica and Escherichia coli species, mutants affected by their flagellar motility have shown a reduced ability to form biofilms. While it is known that some species might act as co-aggregation factors for bacterial adhesion, studies of food-related biofilms have been limited to single-species biofilms and short biofilm formation periods. To assess the contribution of flagella and flagellum-based motility to adhesion and biofilm formation, two Salmonella and E. coli mutants with different flagellar phenotypes were produced: the fliC mutants, which do not produce flagella, and the motAB mutants, which are non-motile. The ability of wild-type and mutant strains to form biofilms was compared, and their relative fitness was determined in two-species biofilms with other foodborne pathogens. Our results showed a defective and significant behavior of E. coli in initial surface colonization (p < 0.05), which delayed single-species biofilm formation. Salmonella mutants were not affected by the ability to form biofilm (p > 0.05). Regarding the effect of motility/flagellum absence on bacterial fitness, none of the mutant strains seems to have their relative fitness affected in the presence of a competing species. Although the absence of motility may eventually delay initial colonization, this study suggests that motility is not essential for biofilm formation and does not have a strong impact on bacteria's fitness when a competing species is present.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Soontarach R, Srimanote P, Voravuthikunchai SP, et al (2024)

Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Efficacy of Endolysin LysAB1245 against a Panel of Important Pathogens.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 17(2): pii:ph17020155.

Infections caused by antibiotic-resistant bacteria pose a significant global challenge. This study explores the antibacterial effects of a bacteriophage-derived endolysin, LysAB1245, against important pathogens, including Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, and Staphylococcus aureus. We determined the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimal bactericidal concentration (MBC) for all tested isolates. A time-kill study was conducted to evaluate the reduction in bacterial survival following treatment with LysAB1245. Additionally, the effects of LysAB1245 on P. aeruginosa K1455 and methicillin-resistant S. aureus (MRSA) NPRC 001R-formed biofilms were investigated. The MIC and MBC of LysAB1245 against all the tested isolates ranged from 4.68 to 9.36 µg/mL and 4.68 to 18.72 µg/mL, respectively. The time-kill study demonstrated more than a 4 log CFU/mL (99.99%) reduction in bacterial survival within 6 h of LysAB1245 treatment at 2MIC. LysAB1245 (1/8-1/2MIC) treatment significantly reduced biofilms formed by P. aeruginosa and MRSA in a concentration-dependent manner. Furthermore, scanning electron and confocal laser scanning microscopy confirmed the potential inhibition effects on 3-day established biofilms formed on abiotic surfaces upon treatment with LysAB1245 at 2MIC. The findings indicate that endolysin LysAB1245 could be employed as a new alternative therapeutic antibacterial and anti-biofilm agent for combating biofilm-related infections.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Damyanova T, Dimitrova PD, Borisova D, et al (2024)

An Overview of Biofilm-Associated Infections and the Role of Phytochemicals and Nanomaterials in Their Control and Prevention.

Pharmaceutics, 16(2): pii:pharmaceutics16020162.

Biofilm formation is considered one of the primary virulence mechanisms in Gram-positive and Gram-negative pathogenic species, particularly those responsible for chronic infections and promoting bacterial survival within the host. In recent years, there has been a growing interest in discovering new compounds capable of inhibiting biofilm formation. This is considered a promising antivirulence strategy that could potentially overcome antibiotic resistance issues. Effective antibiofilm agents should possess distinctive properties. They should be structurally unique, enable easy entry into cells, influence quorum sensing signaling, and synergize with other antibacterial agents. Many of these properties are found in both natural systems that are isolated from plants and in synthetic systems like nanoparticles and nanocomposites. In this review, we discuss the clinical nature of biofilm-associated infections and some of the mechanisms associated with their antibiotic tolerance. We focus on the advantages and efficacy of various natural and synthetic compounds as a new therapeutic approach to control bacterial biofilms and address multidrug resistance in bacteria.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Kennewell TL, Haidari H, Mashtoub S, et al (2024)

Deferiprone-Gallium-Protoporphyrin Chitogel Decreases Pseudomonas aeruginosa Biofilm Infection without Impairing Wound Healing.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 17(4): pii:ma17040793.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is one of the most common pathogens encountered in clinical wound infections. Clinical studies have shown that P. aeruginosa infection results in a larger wound area, inhibiting healing, and a high prevalence of antimicrobial resistance. Hydroxypyridinone-derived iron chelator Deferiprone (Def) and heme analogue Gallium-Protoporphyrin (GaPP) in a chitosan-dextran hydrogel (Chitogel) have previously been demonstrated to be effective against PAO1 and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa in vitro. Moreover, this combination of these two agents has been shown to improve sinus surgery outcomes by quickly reducing bleeding and preventing adhesions. In this study, the efficacy of Def-GaPP Chitogel was investigated in a P. aeruginosa biofilm-infected wound murine model over 6 days. Two concentrations of Def-GaPP Chitogel were investigated: Def-GaPP high dose (10 mM Def + 500 µg/mL GaPP) and Def-GaPP low dose (5 mM Def + 200 µg/mL GaPP). The high-dose Def-GaPP treatment reduced bacterial burden in vivo from day 2, without delaying wound closure. Additionally, Def-GaPP treatment decreased wound inflammation, as demonstrated by reduced neutrophil infiltration and increased anti-inflammatory M2 macrophage presence within the wound bed to drive wound healing progression. Def-GaPP Chitogel treatment shows promising potential in reducing P. aeruginosa cutaneous infection with positive effects observed in the progression of wound healing.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Alves AMCV, de Brito ÉHS, de Araújo MFM, et al (2024)

Antifungal Susceptibility and Candida sp. Biofilm Production in Clinical Isolates of HIV-Positive Brazilian Patients under HAART Therapy.

Biomedicines, 12(2): pii:biomedicines12020310.

The aim of the present study was to characterize biofilms formed by Candida spp. clinical isolates (n = 19), isolated from the oral mucosa of HIV-positive patients. For characterizing the biofilms formed by several Candida sp. strains, isolated from HIV-positive patients, in terms of formed biomass, matrix composition and antifungal susceptibility profile, clinical isolates (n = 19) were collected from oral mucosa and identified. The biofilm of the samples was cultured with fluconazole (1250 mg/L), voriconazole (800 mg/L), anidulafungin (2 mg/L) or amphotericin B (2 mg/L). Afterwards, the quantification of the total biomass was performed using crystal violet assay, while the proteins and carbohydrates levels were quantified in the matrix. The results showed a predominance of C. albicans, followed by C. krusei. Around 58% of the Candida spp. biofilm had susceptibility to fluconazole and voriconazole (800 mg/L), 53% to anidulafungin and 74% to amphotericin B. C. krusei presented both the lowest and the highest biofilm matrix contents in polysaccharides and proteins. The low resistance to antifungal agents reported here was probably due to the fact that none of the participants had a prolonged exposure to these antifungals. A predominance of less virulent Candida spp. strains with low or no resistance to antifungals was observed. This can be attributed to a low fungal selective pressure. This most probably happened due to a low fungal selective pressure but also due to a good adherence to HAART therapy, which guarantees a stable and stronger immune patient response.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Ye J, Salti T, Zanditenas E, et al (2024)

Impact of Reactive Sulfur Species on Entamoeba histolytica: Modulating Viability, Motility, and Biofilm Degradation Capacity.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(2): pii:antiox13020245.

Reactive sulfur species (RSS) like hydrogen sulfide (H2S) and cysteine persulfide (Cys-SSH) emerged as key signaling molecules with diverse physiological roles in the body, depending on their concentration and the cellular environment. While it is known that H2S and Cys-SSH are produced by both colonocytes and by the gut microbiota through sulfur metabolism, it remains unknown how these RSS affect amebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica, a parasitic protozoan that can be present in the human gastrointestinal tract. This study investigates H2S and Cys-SSH's impact on E. histolytica physiology and explores potential therapeutic implications. Exposing trophozoites to the H2S donor, sodium sulfide (Na2S), or to Cys-SSH led to rapid cytotoxicity. A proteomic analysis of Cys-SSH-challenged trophozoites resulted in the identification of >500 S-sulfurated proteins, which are involved in diverse cellular processes. Functional assessments revealed inhibited protein synthesis, altered cytoskeletal dynamics, and reduced motility in trophozoites treated with Cys-SSH. Notably, cysteine proteases (CPs) were significantly inhibited by S-sulfuration, affecting their bacterial biofilm degradation capacity. Immunofluorescence microscopy confirmed alterations in actin dynamics, corroborating the proteomic findings. Thus, our study reveals how RSS perturbs critical cellular functions in E. histolytica, potentially influencing its pathogenicity and interactions within the gut microbiota. Understanding these molecular mechanisms offers novel insights into amebiasis pathogenesis and unveils potential therapeutic avenues targeting RSS-mediated modifications in parasitic infections.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Kim YG, Lee JH, Kim SH, et al (2024)

Inhibition of Biofilm Formation in Cutibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and Candida albicans by the Phytopigment Shikonin.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(4): pii:ijms25042426.

Skin microbiota, such as acne-related Cutibacterium acnes, Staphylococcus aureus, and fungal Candida albicans, can form polymicrobial biofilms with greater antimicrobial tolerance to traditional antimicrobial agents and host immune systems. In this study, the phytopigment shikonin was investigated against single-species and multispecies biofilms under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of shikonin were 10 µg/mL against C. acnes, S. aureus, and C. albicans, and at 1-5 µg/mL, shikonin efficiently inhibited single biofilm formation and multispecies biofilm development by these three microbes. Shikonin increased porphyrin production in C. acnes, inhibited cell aggregation and hyphal formation by C. albicans, decreased lipase production, and increased hydrophilicity in S. aureus. In addition, shikonin at 5 or 10 µg/mL repressed the transcription of various biofilm-related genes and virulence-related genes in C. acnes and downregulated the gene expression levels of the quorum-sensing agrA and RNAIII, α-hemolysin hla, and nuclease nuc1 in S. aureus, supporting biofilm inhibition. In addition, shikonin prevented multispecies biofilm development on porcine skin, and the antimicrobial efficacy of shikonin was recapitulated in a mouse infection model, in which it promoted skin regeneration. The study shows that shikonin inhibits multispecies biofilm development by acne-related skin microbes and might be useful for controlling bacterial infections.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Liu X, Xia X, Liu Y, et al (2024)

Recent advances on the formation, detection, resistance mechanism, and control technology of Listeria monocytogenes biofilm in food industry.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 180:114067.

Listeria monocytogenes is an important foodborne pathogen that causes listeriosis, a severe and fatal condition. Biofilms are communities of microorganisms nested within a self-secreted extracellular polymeric substance, and they protect L. monocytogenes from environmental stresses. Biofilms, once formed, can lead to the persistence of L. monocytogenes in processing equipment and are therefore considered to be a major concern for the food industry. This paper briefly introduces the recent advancements on biofilm formation characteristics and detection methods, and focuses on analysis of the mechanism of L. monocytogenes biofilm resistance; Moreover, this paper also summarizes and discusses the existing different techniques of L. monocytogenes biofilm control according to the physical, chemical, biological, and combined strategies, to provide a theoretical reference to aid the choice of effective control technology in the food industry.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Leite ML, Comeau P, Aghakeshmiri S, et al (2024)

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy against a dual-species cariogenic biofilm using a ruthenium-loaded resin-based dental material.

Photodiagnosis and photodynamic therapy pii:S1572-1000(24)00058-9 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus mutans and Candida albicans are associated with caries recurrence. Therefore, this study evaluated the combination of a Ru(II)-loaded resin-based dental material (RDM) and antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) against a dual-species biofilm of S. mutans and C. albicans.

METHODS: An aPDT protocol was established evaluating Ru(II)'s photocatalytic activity and antimicrobial potential under blue LED irradiation (440-460 nm, 22.55 mW/cm[2]) at different energy densities (0.00, 6.25, 20.25, 40.50 J/cm2). This evaluation involved singlet oxygen quantification and determination of minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC). The biofilm was grown (72 h) on resin disks prepared with Ru(II)-doped RDM (0.00, 0.56, or 1.12%) and samples were exposed to aPDT or dark conditions. The biofilm was then harvested to analyze cell viability (CFU counts) and formation of soluble and insoluble exopolysaccharides.

RESULTS: The photocatalytic activity of Ru(II) was concentration and energy density dependent (p<0.05), and MIC/MBC values were reduced for the microorganisms after LED irradiation (40.5 J/cm[2]); therefor, this energy density was chosen for aPDT. Although incorporation of Ru(II) into RDM reduced the biofilm growth compared to Ru(II)-free RDM for both species in dark conditions (p<0.05), aPDT combined with an Ru(II)-loaded RDM (0.56 or 1.12%) potentialized CFU reductions (p<0.05). Conversely, only 1.12% Ru(II) with LED irradiation showed lower levels of both soluble and insoluble exopolysaccharides compared to Ru(II)-free samples in dark conditions (p<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: When the Ru(II)-loaded RDM was associated with blue LED, aPDT reduced cell viability and lower soluble and insoluble exopolysaccharides were found in the cariogenic dual-species biofilm.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Zhu S, Zhang Z, Wen C, et al (2024)

Transport and transformations of cadmium in water-biofilm-sediment phases as affected by hydrodynamic conditions.

Journal of environmental management, 354:120368 pii:S0301-4797(24)00354-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Hydrodynamic conditions play a crucial role in governing the fate, transport, and risks of metal elements. However, the contribution of hydrodynamic conditions to the fate and transport of heavy metals among water, sediment, and biofilm phases is poorly understood. In our study, we conducted experiments in controlled hydrodynamic conditions using a total of 6 two-phase and 9 three-phase mesocosms consisting of water, biofilm, and sediment. We also measured Cd (cadmium) specification in different phases to assess how hydrodynamic forces control Cd bioavailability. We found that turbulent flow destroyed the surface morphology of the biofilm and significantly decreased the content of extracellular polymeric substances (p < 0.05). This led to a decrease in the biofilm's adsorption capacity for Cd, with the maximum adsorption capacity (0.124 mg/g) being one-tenth of that under static conditions (1.256 mg/g). The Cd chemical forms in the biofilm and sediment were significantly different, with the highest amount of Cd in the biofilm being acid-exchangeable, accounting for up to 95.1% of the total Cd content. Cd was more easily released in the biofilm due to its weak binding state, while Cd in the sediment existed in more stable chemical forms. Hydrodynamic conditions altered the migration behavior and distribution characteristics of Cd in the system by changing the adsorption capacity of the biofilm and sediment for Cd. Cd mobility increased in laminar flow but decreased in turbulent flow. These results enhance our understanding of the underlying mechanisms that control the mobility and bioavailability of metals in aquatic environments with varying hydrodynamic conditions.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Zhou Q, Fan S, Lei KM, et al (2024)

Miniature Magnetic Resonance Imaging System for in Situ Monitoring of Bacterial Growth and Biofilm Formation.

IEEE transactions on biomedical circuits and systems, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

In situ monitoring of bacterial growth can greatly benefit human healthcare, biomedical research, and hygiene management. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers two key advantages in tracking bacterial growth: non-invasive monitoring through opaque sample containers and no need for sample pretreatment such as labeling. However, the large size and high cost of conventional MRI systems are the roadblocks for in situ monitoring. Here, we proposed a small, portable MRI system by combining a small permanent magnet and an integrated radio-frequency (RF) electronic chip that excites and reads out nuclear spin motions in a sample, and utilize this small MRI platform for in situ imaging of bacterial growth and biofilm formation. We demonstrate that MRI images taken by the miniature--and thus broadly deployable for in situ work--MRI system provide information on the spatial distribution of bacterial density, and a sequential set of MRI images taken at different times inform the temporal change of the spatial map of bacterial density, showing bacterial growth.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Talieh Mostaghimi , Pournajaf A, Bijani A, et al (2024)

Phylogenetic analysis, biofilm formation, antimicrobial resistance and relationship between these characteristics in Uropathogenic Escherichia coli.

Molecular biology reports, 51(1):327.

BACKGROUND: In the present study, we examine the prevalence of phylogenetic groups, O-serogroups, adhesin genes, antimicrobial resistance, the level of gene expression associated with biofilm formation, and the presence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) in UPEC strains isolated from both pediatric and adult patients.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 156 UPEC isolates were collected from UTI patients. ESBL-producing isolates were detected using the double-disc synergy (DDS) method, and biofilm formation was assessed through a microplate assay. The presence of O-serogroups, adhesion factors and resistance genes, including ESBLs and PMQR genes, was detected by PCR, and isolates were categorized into phylogenetic groups using multiplex PCR. Additionally, the quantitative real-time PCR method was also used to determine the expression level of genes related to biofilm.

RESULTS: During the study period, 50.6% (79/156) of the samples were obtained from children, and 49.4% (77/156) were from adults. The highest rate of resistance was to NA (91.7%), while FM (10.9%) had the lowest rate of antibiotic resistance. In addition, 67.9% (106/156) of UPEC isolates were ESBL producers. Most of UPEC isolates belonged to phylogenetic group B2 (37.1%). This study revealed that blaCTX-M and qnrS are widely distributed among UPEC isolates. The mean expression levels of fimA genes were significantly higher in non-biofilm producers than in biofilm producers (p < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: The high antibiotic resistance rates in this study highlight the significance of local resistance monitoring and investigating underlying mechanisms. Our findings indicate the dominance of phylogroup B2 and group D as the prevailing phylogenetic groups. Consequently, it is imperative to investigate the epidemiological aspects and characterize UPEC isolates across diverse regions and time frames.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Skof A, Koller M, Baumert R, et al (2024)

Comparison of the Antibiotic Resistance of Escherichia coli Populations from Water and Biofilm in River Environments.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 13(2): pii:pathogens13020171.

Antibiotic-resistant, facultative pathogenic bacteria are commonly found in surface water; however, the factors influencing the spread and stabilization of antibiotic resistance in this habitat, particularly the role of biofilms, are not fully understood. The extent to which bacterial populations in biofilms or sediments exacerbate the problem for specific antibiotic classes or more broadly remains unanswered. In this study, we investigated the differences between the bacterial populations found in the surface water and sediment/biofilm of the Mur River and the Drava River in Austria. Samples of Escherichia coli were collected from both the water and sediment at two locations per river: upstream and downstream of urban areas that included a sewage treatment plant. The isolates were subjected to antimicrobial susceptibility testing against 21 antibiotics belonging to seven distinct classes. Additionally, isolates exhibiting either extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) or carbapenemase phenotypes were further analyzed for specific antimicrobial resistance genes. E. coli isolates collected from all locations exhibited resistance to at least one of the tested antibiotics; on average, isolates from the Mur and Drava rivers showed 25.85% and 23.66% resistance, respectively. The most prevalent resistance observed was to ampicillin, amoxicillin-clavulanic acid, tetracycline, and nalidixic acid. Surprisingly, there was a similar proportion of resistant bacteria observed in both open water and sediment samples. The difference in resistance levels between the samples collected upstream and downstream of the cities was minimal. Out of all 831 isolates examined, 13 were identified as carrying ESBL genes, with 1 of these isolates also containing the gene for the KPC-2 carbapenemase. There were no significant differences between the biofilm (sediment) and open water samples in the occurrence of antibiotic resistance. For the E. coli populations in the examined rivers, the different factors in water and the sediment do not appear to influence the stability of resistance. No significant differences in antimicrobial resistance were observed between the bacterial populations collected from the biofilm (sediment) and open-water samples in either river. The different factors in water and the sediment do not appear to influence the stability of resistance. The minimal differences observed upstream and downstream of the cities could indicate that the river population already exhibits generalized resistance.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Ma Z, Xiao H, Li H, et al (2024)

Prodigiosin as an Antibiofilm Agent against the Bacterial Biofilm-Associated Infection of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 13(2): pii:pathogens13020145.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is known to generate bacterial biofilms that increase antibiotic resistance. With the increase of multi-drug resistance in recent years, the formulation of a new therapeutic strategy has seemed urgent. Preliminary findings show that Prodigiosin (PG), derived from chromium-resistant Serratia marcescens, exhibited efficient anti-biofilm activity against Staphylococcus aureus. However, its anti-biofilm activity against P. aeruginosa remains largely unexplored. The anti-biofilm activity of PG against three clinical single drug-resistant P. aeruginosa was evaluated using crystal violet staining, and the viability of biofilms and planktonic cells were also assessed. A model of chronic lung infection was constructed to test the in vivo antibiofilm activity of PG. The results showed that PG inhibited biofilm formation and effectively inhibited the production of pyocyanin and extracellular polysaccharides in vitro, as well as moderated the expression of interleukins (IL-1β, IL-6, IL-10) and tumor necrosis factor (TNF-α) in vivo, which might be attributed to the downregulation of biofilm-related genes such as algA, pelA, and pslM. These findings suggest that PG could be a potential treatment for drug-resistant P aeruginosa and chronic biofilm infections.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Cavallo I, Sivori F, Mastrofrancesco A, et al (2024)

Bacterial Biofilm in Chronic Wounds and Possible Therapeutic Approaches.

Biology, 13(2): pii:biology13020109.

Wound repair and skin regeneration is a very complex orchestrated process that is generally composed of four phases: hemostasis, inflammation, proliferation, and remodeling. Each phase involves the activation of different cells and the production of various cytokines, chemokines, and other inflammatory mediators affecting the immune response. The microbial skin composition plays an important role in wound healing. Indeed, skin commensals are essential in the maintenance of the epidermal barrier function, regulation of the host immune response, and protection from invading pathogenic microorganisms. Chronic wounds are common and are considered a major public health problem due to their difficult-to-treat features and their frequent association with challenging chronic infections. These infections can be very tough to manage due to the ability of some bacteria to produce multicellular structures encapsulated into a matrix called biofilms. The bacterial species contained in the biofilm are often different, as is their capability to influence the healing of chronic wounds. Biofilms are, in fact, often tolerant and resistant to antibiotics and antiseptics, leading to the failure of treatment. For these reasons, biofilms impede appropriate treatment and, consequently, prolong the wound healing period. Hence, there is an urgent necessity to deepen the knowledge of the pathophysiology of delayed wound healing and to develop more effective therapeutic approaches able to restore tissue damage. This work covers the wound-healing process and the pathogenesis of chronic wounds infected by biofilm-forming pathogens. An overview of the strategies to counteract biofilm formation or to destroy existing biofilms is also provided.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Ng E, Tay JRH, Mattheos N, et al (2024)

A Mapping Review of the Pathogenesis of Peri-Implantitis: The Biofilm-Mediated Inflammation and Bone Dysregulation (BIND) Hypothesis.

Cells, 13(4): pii:cells13040315.

This mapping review highlights the need for a new paradigm in the understanding of peri-implantitis pathogenesis. The biofilm-mediated inflammation and bone dysregulation (BIND) hypothesis is proposed, focusing on the relationship between biofilm, inflammation, and bone biology. The close interactions between immune and bone cells are discussed, with multiple stable states likely existing between clinically observable definitions of peri-implant health and peri-implantitis. The framework presented aims to explain the transition from health to disease as a staged and incremental process, where multiple factors contribute to distinct steps towards a tipping point where disease is manifested clinically. These steps might be reached in different ways in different patients and may constitute highly individualised paths. Notably, factors affecting the underlying biology are identified in the pathogenesis of peri-implantitis, highlighting that disruptions to the host-microbe homeostasis at the implant-mucosa interface may not be the sole factor. An improved understanding of disease pathogenesis will allow for intervention on multiple levels and a personalised treatment approach. Further research areas are identified, such as the use of novel biomarkers to detect changes in macrophage polarisation and activation status, and bone turnover.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Murkar R, von Heckel C, Walles H, et al (2024)

Establishment of a Human Immunocompetent 3D Tissue Model to Enable the Long-Term Examination of Biofilm-Tissue Interactions.

Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland), 11(2): pii:bioengineering11020187.

Different studies suggest an impact of biofilms on carcinogenic lesion formation in varying human tissues. However, the mechanisms of cancer formation are difficult to examine in vivo as well as in vitro. Cell culture approaches, in most cases, are unable to keep a bacterial steady state without any overgrowth. In our approach, we aimed to develop an immunocompetent 3D tissue model which can mitigate bacterial outgrowth. We established a three-dimensional (3D) co-culture of human primary fibroblasts with pre-differentiated THP-1-derived macrophages on an SIS-muc scaffold which was derived by decellularisation of a porcine intestine. After establishment, we exposed the tissue models to define the biofilms of the Pseudomonas spec. and Staphylococcus spec. cultivated on implant mesh material. After 3 days of incubation, the cell culture medium in models with M0 and M2 pre-differentiated macrophages presented a noticeable turbidity, while models with M1 macrophages presented no noticeable bacterial growth. These results were validated by optical density measurements and a streak test. Immunohistology and immunofluorescent staining of the tissue presented a positive impact of the M1 macrophages on the structural integrity of the tissue model. Furthermore, multiplex ELISA highlighted the increased release of inflammatory cytokines for all the three model types, suggesting the immunocompetence of the developed model. Overall, in this proof-of-principle study, we were able to mitigate bacterial overgrowth and prepared a first step for the development of more complex 3D tissue models to understand the impact of biofilms on carcinogenic lesion formation.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Smirnov A, Yanushevich O, Krikheli N, et al (2024)

3Y-TZP/Ta Biocermet as a Dental Material: An Analysis of the In Vitro Adherence of Streptococcus Oralis Biofilm and an In Vivo Pilot Study in Dogs.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(2): pii:antibiotics13020175.

The surface adhesion of bacterial cells and the in vivo biocompatibility of a new ceramic-metal composite made of zirconium dioxide and tantalum were evaluated. Within the framework of an in vitro study using the crystal violet staining and colony counting methods, a relatively similar adhesion of Streptococcus oralis to the 3Y-TZP/Ta biocermet (roughness Ra = 0.12 ± 0.04 µm) and Ti-Al6-V4 titanium alloy (Ra = 0.04 ± 0.01 µm) was found. In addition, in an in vivo preliminary study focused on the histological analysis of a series of rods implanted in the jaws of beagle dogs for a six-month period, the absence of any fibrous tissue or inflammatory reaction at the interface between the implanted 3Y-TZP/Ta biocermets and the new bone was found. Thus, it can be concluded that the developed ceramic-metal biocomposite may be a promising new material for use in dentistry.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Araújo L, Papa-Ezdra R, Ávila P, et al (2024)

Great Plasticity in a Great Pathogen: Capsular Types, Virulence Factors and Biofilm Formation in ESBL-Producing Klebsiella pneumoniae from Pediatric Infections in Uruguay.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(2): pii:antibiotics13020170.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is widely recognized as an opportunistic hospital and community pathogen. It is one of the priority microorganisms included in the ESKAPE group, and its antibiotic resistance related to extended-spectrum β-lactamases (ESBL) is a global public health concern. The multi-drug resistance (MDR) phenotype, in combination with pathogenicity factors, could enhance the ability of this pathogen to cause clinical infections. The aim of this study was to characterize pathogenicity factors and biofilm formation in ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae from pediatric clinical infections. Capsular types, virulence factors, and sequence types were characterized by PCR. Biofilm formation was determined by a semiquantitative microtiter technique. MDR phenotype and statistical analysis were performed. The K24 capsular type (27%), virulence factors related to iron uptake fyuA (35%) and kfuBC (27%), and sequence types ST14 (18%) and ST45 (18%) were the most frequently detected. Most of the strains were biofilm producers: weak (22%), moderate (22%), or strong (12%). In 62% of the strains, an MDR phenotype was detected. Strains with K24 capsular type showed an association with ST45 and the presence of fyuA; strains with kfuBC showed an association with moderate or strong biofilm production and belonging to ST14. Weak or no biofilm producers were associated with the absence of kfuBC. The MDR phenotype was associated with the main ESBL gene, blaCTX-M-15. The high plasticity of K. pneumoniae to acquire an MDR phenotype, in combination with the factors exposed in this report, could make it even more difficult to achieve a good clinical outcome with the available therapeutics.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Nascimento M, Rodrigues J, Matias R, et al (2024)

Aeromonas spp. in Freshwater Bodies: Antimicrobial Resistance and Biofilm Assembly.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(2): pii:antibiotics13020166.

Aeromonas spp. are environmental bacteria able to infect animals and humans. Here, we aim to evaluate the role of biofilms in Aeromonas persistence in freshwater. Aeromonas were isolated from water and biofilm samples and identified by Vitek-MS and 16S rRNA sequencing. Antibiotic susceptibility profiles were determined according to EUCAST, and a crystal violet assay was used to assess biofilm assembly. MTT and the enumeration of colony-forming units were used to evaluate biofilm and planktonic Aeromonas susceptibility to chlorination, respectively. Identification at the species level was challenging, suggesting the need to improve the used methodologies. Five different Aeromonas species (A. salmonicida, A. hydrophila, A. media, A. popoffii and A. veronii) were identified from water, and one species was identified from biofilms (A. veronii). A. veronnii and A. salmonicida presented resistance to different antibiotics, whith the highest resistance rate observed for A. salmonicida (multiple antibiotic resistance index of 0.25). Of the 21 isolates, 11 were biofilm producers, and 10 of them were strong biofilm producers (SBPs). The SBPs presented increased tolerance to chlorine disinfection when compared with their planktonic counterparts. In order to elucidate the mechanisms underlying biofilm tolerance to chlorine and support the importance of preventing biofilm assembly in water reservoirs, further research is required.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Romero LC, Silva LP, Teixeira NB, et al (2024)

Staphylococcus capitis Bloodstream Isolates: Investigation of Clonal Relationship, Resistance Profile, Virulence and Biofilm Formation.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(2): pii:antibiotics13020147.

Staphylococcus capitis has been recognized as a relevant opportunistic pathogen, particularly its persistence in neonatal ICUs around the world. Therefore, the aim of this study was to describe the epidemiological profile of clinical isolates of S. capitis and to characterize the factors involved in the persistence and pathogenesis of these strains isolated from blood cultures collected in a hospital in the interior of the state of São Paulo, Brazil. A total of 141 S. capitis strains were submitted to detection of the mecA gene and SCCmec typing by multiplex PCR. Genes involved in biofilm production and genes encoding enterotoxins and hemolysins were detected by conventional PCR. Biofilm formation was evaluated by the polystyrene plate adherence test and phenotypic resistance was investigated by the disk diffusion method. Finally, pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) was used to analyze the clonal relationship between isolates. The mecA gene was detected in 99 (70.2%) isolates, with this percentage reaching 100% in the neonatal ICU. SCCmec type III was the most prevalent type, detected in 31 (31.3%) isolates and co-occurrence of SCCmec was also observed. In vitro biofilm formation was detected in 46 (32.6%) isolates but was not correlated with the presence of the ica operon genes. Furthermore, biofilm production in ICU isolates was favored by hyperosmotic conditions, which are common in ICUs because of the frequent parenteral nutrition. Analysis of the clonal relationship between the isolates investigated in the present study confirms a homogeneous profile of S. capitis and the persistence of clones that are prevalent in the neonatal ICU and disseminated across the hospital. This study highlights the adaptation of isolates to specific hospital environments and their high clonality.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Barros AC, Narciso DAC, Melo LF, et al (2024)

Influence of Dead Cells Killed by Industrial Biocides (BAC and DBNPA) on Biofilm Formation.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(2): pii:antibiotics13020140.

Industrial biocides aim to keep water systems microbiologically controlled and to minimize biofouling. However, the resulting dead cells are usually not removed from the water streams and can influence the growth of the remaining live cells in planktonic and sessile states. This study aims to understand the effect of dead Pseudomonas fluorescens cells killed by industrial biocides-benzalkonium chloride (BAC) and 2,2-dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide (DBNPA)-on biofilm formation. Additionally, the effect of different dead/live cell ratios (50.00% and 99.99%) was studied. The inoculum was recirculated in a Parallel Plate Flow Cell (PPFC). The overall results indicate that dead cells greatly affect biofilm properties. Inoculum with DBNPA-dead cells led to more active (higher ATP content and metabolic activity) and thicker biofilm layers in comparison to BAC-dead cells, which seems to be linked to the mechanism of action by which the cells were killed. Furthermore, higher dead cell ratios (99.99%) in the inoculum led to more active (higher culturability, metabolic activity and ATP content) and cohesive/compact and uniformly distributed biofilms in comparison with the 50.00% dead cell ratio. The design of future disinfection strategies must consider the contribution of dead cells to the biofilm build-up, as they might negatively affect water system operations.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Gordon M, P Ramirez (2024)

Efficacy and Experience of Bacteriophages in Biofilm-Related Infections.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(2): pii:antibiotics13020125.

Bacterial infection has always accompanied human beings, causing suffering and death while also contributing to the advancement of medical science. However, the treatment of infections has become more complex in recent times. The increasing resistance of bacterial strains to antibiotics has diminished the effectiveness of the therapeutic arsenal, making it less likely to find the appropriate empiric antibiotic option. Additionally, the development and persistence of bacterial biofilms have become more prevalent, attributed to the greater use of invasive devices that facilitate biofilm formation and the enhanced survival of chronic infection models where biofilm plays a crucial role. Bacteria within biofilms are less susceptible to antibiotics due to physical, chemical, and genetic factors. Bacteriophages, as biological weapons, can overcome both antimicrobial resistance and biofilm protection. In this review, we will analyze the scientific progress achieved in vitro to justify their clinical application. In the absence of scientific evidence, we will compile publications of clinical cases where phages have been used to treat infections related to biofilm. The scientific basis obtained in vitro and the success rate and safety observed in clinical practice should motivate the medical community to conduct clinical trials establishing a protocol for the proper use of bacteriophages.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Bech PK, Jarmusch SA, Rasmussen JA, et al (2024)

Succession of microbial community composition and secondary metabolism during marine biofilm development.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae006.

In nature, secondary metabolites mediate interactions between microorganisms residing in complex microbial communities. However, the degree to which community dynamics can be linked to secondary metabolite potential remains largely unknown. In this study, we address the relationship between community succession and secondary metabolism variation. We used 16S and 18S rRNA gene and adenylation domain amplicon sequencing, genome-resolved metagenomics, and untargeted metabolomics to track the taxons, biosynthetic gene clusters, and metabolome dynamics in situ of microorganisms during marine biofilm succession over 113 days. Two phases were identified during the community succession, with a clear shift around Day 29, where the alkaloid secondary metabolites, pseudanes, were also detected. The microbial secondary metabolite potential changed between the phases, and only a few community members, including Myxococotta spp., were responsible for the majority of the biosynthetic gene cluster potential in the early succession phase. In the late phase, bryozoans and benthic copepods were detected, and the microbial nonribosomal peptide potential drastically decreased in association with a reduction in the relative abundance of the prolific secondary metabolite producers. Conclusively, this study provides evidence that the early succession of the marine biofilm community favors prokaryotes with high nonribosomal peptide synthetase potential. In contrast, the late succession is dominated by multicellular eukaryotes and a reduction in bacterial nonribosomal peptide synthetase potential.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Vieira WO, de-Jesus-Soares A, Lopes EM, et al (2024)

Effect of supplementary sodium hypochlorite agitation techniques on an ex vivo oral multispecies biofilm during passive disinfection of simulated immature roots.

International endodontic journal [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: To compare the effect of different sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) agitation techniques on an ex vivo oral multispecies biofilm during passive disinfection of simulated immature roots.

METHODOLOGY: Extracted human teeth were prepared to simulate immature roots. They were infected with a dental plaque-derived multispecies biofilm and cultured for 14 days. The roots were randomly designated into four groups: (1) negative control (PBS), (2) 1.5% NaOCl (CNI), (3) CNI + Ultrasonic activation (UA), (4) CNI + EasyClean agitation (ECA), (5) CNI + XP-endo finisher agitation (XPF), and (6) positive control (6% NaOCl). Biofilm samples were collected from the root canals and used to determine the number of viable cells (colony-forming units), scanning electron microscopy, and 16S rRNA gene sequencing. The mean colony-forming units per mL (CFU/mL) were analysed using One-way anova. 16S rRNA sequencing data were analysed for alpha (observed OTUs, Shannon index, and Chao1) and beta diversity (Bray-Curtis dissimilarities). The LEfSe analysis was used to determine the effect of treatment procedures on the abundance of root canal microbiota. The significance was set at .05.

RESULTS: PBS and CNI samples had significantly higher CFU/mL counts than UA, ECA, XPF, and 6% NaOCl samples (p < .05). The pre-treatment, PBS, and CNI groups had significantly greater alpha diversity than the UA, ECA, XPF, and 6% NaOCl groups (p < .05). NaOCl agitation groups and the 6% NaOCl group achieved a more pronounced reduction in bacteria from the genera Fusobacterium, Actinomyces, Porphyromonas, and Capnocytophaga.

CONCLUSIONS: The effectiveness of passive disinfection protocols was enhanced by NaOCl agitation techniques, suggesting that this supplementary method can improve the outcome of revitalization procedures.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Hong P, Sun X, Yuan S, et al (2024)

Nitrogen removal intensification of biofilm through bioaugmentation with Methylobacterium gregans DC-1 during wastewater treatment.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(24)00360-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The increasing concern for environmental remediation has led to a search for effective methods to remove eutrophic nutrients. In this study, Methylobacterium gregans DC-1 was utilized to improve nitrogen removal in a sequencing batch biofilm reactor (SBBR) via aerobic denitrification. This bacterium has the extraordinary characteristics of strong auto-aggregation and a high ability to remove nitrogen efficiently, making it an ideal candidate for enhanced treatment of nitrogen-rich wastewater. This strain was used for the bioassessment of a test reactor (SBBRbio), which showed a shorter biofilm formation time compared to a control reactor (SBBRcon) without this strain inoculation. Moreover, the enhanced biofilm was enriched in TB-EPS and had a wider variety of protein secondary structures than SBBRcon. During the stabilization phase of SBBRbio, the EPS molecules showed the highest proportion of intermolecular hydrogen bonding. It is possible that bioaugmentation with this strain positively affects the structural stability of biofilm. At influent ammonia loadings of 100 and 150 mg. L[-1], the average reduction of ammonia and nitrate-nitrogen was higher in the experimental system compared to the control system. Additionally, nitrite-N accumulation was lower and N2O production decreased compared to the control. Analysis of the microbial community structure demonstrated successful colonization in the bioreactor by a highly nitrogen-tolerant strain that efficiently removed inorganic nitrogen. These results illustrate the great potential of this type of denitrifying bacteria in the application of bioaugmentation systems.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Cheng Y, Quan L, Vadiveloo A, et al (2024)

Optimizing the algae-bacteria biofilm reactor for imidacloprid wastewater treatment: An evaluation of hydraulic retention times for enhanced efficiency and energy savings.

Journal of environmental management, 354:120420 pii:S0301-4797(24)00406-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Recent observations have highlighted the rapidly growing prevalence of emerging contaminants such as Imidacloprid (IMI) within our environment. These insecticidal pollutants, coexisting with more traditional contaminants, have become predominant in aquatic systems, posing risks to both human and ecological well-being. Among the various wastewater treatment approaches tested, biofilm reactors are currently gaining prominence. In this study, we employed an Algae-Bacteria Biofilm Reactor (ABBR) to concurrently address both conventional and emergent contaminants, specifically IMI, over an extended timeframe. Following a 60-day assessment, the ABBR consistently demonstrated removal efficiencies exceeding 85% for total dissolved nitrogen, ammonia nitrogen, and total dissolved phosphorus, and also achieved removal efficacy for the soluble chemical oxygen demand (sCOD). Despite the removal efficiency of IMI (with initial concentration is 1.0 mg/L) in ABBR showed a gradual decline over the extended period, it remained consistently effective over 50% due to the microalgae-mediated free radical reactions, indicating the ABBR's sustained efficiency in long-duration operations. Additionally, applying some non-conventional modifications, like aeration removal and reducing light exposure, demonstrated minimal impact on the reactor's pollutant removal efficiencies, achieving comparable results to the control group (which utilized aeration with a 14:10 light/dark ratio), 0.92 kW h/L/d of electricity can be saved economically, which accentuated the potential for energy conservation. An in-depth analysis of the treated effluents from the ABBRs, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) technique, uncovered four potential transformation pathways for IMI. Overall, our findings suggest that these optimized processes did not influence the transformation products of IMI, thereby reaffirming the viability of our proposed optimization.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Guo X, Ong WM, Zhao HP, et al (2024)

Enzyme-induced reactive oxygen species trigger oxidative degradation of sulfamethoxazole within a methanotrophic biofilm.

Water research, 253:121330 pii:S0043-1354(24)00232-X [Epub ahead of print].

Although microorganisms carrying copper-containing membrane-bound monooxygenase (CuMMOs), such as particulate methane monooxygenase (pMMO) and ammonia monooxygenase (AMO), have been extensively documented for their capability to degrade organic micropollutants (OMPs), the underlying reactive mechanism remains elusive. In this study, we for the first time demonstrate biogenic reactive oxygen species (ROS) play important roles in the degradation of sulfamethoxazole (SMX), a representative OMP, within a methane-fed biofilm. Highly-efficient and consistent SMX biodegradation was achieved in a CH4-based membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR), manifesting a remarkable SMX removal rate of 1210.6 ± 39.0 μg·L[-1]·d[-1]. Enzyme inhibition and ROS clearance experiments confirmed the significant contribution of ROS, which were generated through the catalytic reaction of pMMO and AMO enzymes, in facilitating SMX degradation. Through a combination of density functional theory (DFT) calculations, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, and transformation product detection, we elucidated that the ROS primarily targeted the aniline group in the SMX molecule, inducing the formation of aromatic radicals and its progressive mineralization. In contrast, the isoxazole-ring was not susceptible to electrophilic ROS attacks, leading to accumulation of 3-amino-5-methylisoxazole (3A5MI). Furthermore, microbiological analysis suggested Methylosarcina (a methanotroph) and Candidatus Nitrosotenuis (an ammonia-oxidizing archaea) collaborated as the SMX degraders, who carried highly conserved and expressed CuMMOs (pMMO and AMO) for ROS generation, thereby triggering the oxidative degradation of SMX. This study deciphers SMX biodegradation through a fresh perspective of free radical chemistry, and concurrently providing a theoretical framework for the advancement of environmental biotechnologies aimed at OMP removal.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Mehmood S, Hussain M, Bux K, et al (2024)

Structural dynamics and anti-biofilm screening of novel imidazole derivative to explore their anti-biofilm inhibition mechanism against Pseudomonas Aeruginosa.

Journal of biomolecular structure & dynamics [Epub ahead of print].

The biofilm formation is still prevalent mechanism of developing the drug resistance in the Pseudomonas aeruginosa, gram-negative bacteria, known for its major role in nosocomial, ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP), lung infections and catheter-associated urinary tract infections. As best of our knowledge, current study first time reports the most potent inhibitors of LasR, a transcriptional activator of biofilm and virulence regulating genes in, Pseudomonas aeruginosa LasR, utilizing newly functionalized imidazoles (5a-d), synthesized via 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition using click approach. The synthesized ligands were characterized through Mass Spectrometry and 1H NMR. The binding potency and mode of biding of ligands. Quantum Mechanical(QM) methods were utilized to investigate the electronic basis, HOMO/LUMO and dipole moment of the geometry of the ligands for their binding potency. Dynamics cross correlation matrix (DCCMs) and protein surface analysis were further utilized to explore the structural dynamics of the protein. Free energy of binding of ligands and protein were further estimated using Molecular Mechanical Energies with the Poisson-Boltzmann surface area (MMPBSA) method. Molecular Docking studies revealed significant negative binding energies (5a - 10.33, 5b -10.09, 5c - 10.11, and 5d -8.33 KJ/mol). HOMO/LUMO and potential energy surface map estimation showed the ligands(5a) with lower energy gaps and larger dipole moments had relatively larger binding potency. The significant change in the structural dynamics of LasR protein due to complex formation with newlyfunctionalized imidazoles ligands. Hydrogen bond surface analysis followed by MMPBSA calculations of free energy of binding further complemented the Molecular docking revelations showing the specifically ligand (5a) having the relatively higher energy of binding(-65.22kj/mol).Communicated by Ramaswamy H. Sarma.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Jiang F, Wang J, Ren Z, et al (2024)

Targeted Light-Induced Immunomodulatory Strategy for Implant-Associated Infections via Reversing Biofilm-Mediated Immunosuppression.

ACS nano [Epub ahead of print].

The clinical treatment efficacy for implant-associated infections (IAIs), particularly those caused by Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), remains unsatisfactory, primarily due to the formation of biofilm barriers and the resulting immunosuppressive microenvironment, leading to the chronicity and recurrence of IAIs. To address this challenge, we propose a light-induced immune enhancement strategy, synthesizing BSA@MnO2@Ce6@Van (BMCV). The BMCV exhibits precise targeting and adhesion to the S. aureus biofilm-infected region, coupled with its capacity to catalyze oxygen generation from H2O2 in the hypoxic and acidic biofilm microenvironment (BME), promoting oxygen-dependent photodynamic therapy efficacy while ensuring continuous release of manganese ions. Notably, targeted BMCV can penetrate biofilms, producing ROS that degrade extracellular DNA, disrupting the biofilm structure and impairing its barrier function, making it vulnerable to infiltration and elimination by the immune system. Furthermore, light-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) around the biofilm can lyse S. aureus, triggering bacterium-like immunogenic cell death (ICD), releasing abundant immune costimulatory factors, facilitating the recognition and maturation of antigen-presenting cells (APCs), and activating adaptive immunity. Additionally, manganese ions in the BME act as immunoadjuvants, further amplifying macrophage-mediated innate and adaptive immune responses and reversing the immunologically cold BME to an immunologically hot BME. We prove that our synthesized BMCV elicits a robust adaptive immune response in vivo, effectively clearing primary IAIs and inducing long-term immune memory to prevent recurrence. Our study introduces a potent light-induced immunomodulatory nanoplatform capable of reversing the biofilm-induced immunosuppressive microenvironment and disrupting biofilm-mediated protective barriers, offering a promising immunotherapeutic strategy for addressing challenging S. aureus IAIs.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Juszczak M, Zawrotniak M, M Rapala-Kozik (2024)

Complexation of fungal extracellular nucleic acids by host LL-37 peptide shapes neutrophil response to Candida albicans biofilm.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1295168.

Candida albicans remains the predominant cause of fungal infections, where adhered microbial cells form biofilms - densely packed communities. The central feature of C. albicans biofilms is the production of an extracellular matrix (ECM) consisting of polymers and extracellular nucleic acids (eDNA, eRNA), which significantly impedes the infiltration of host cells. Neutrophils, as crucial players in the innate host defense, employ several mechanisms to eradicate the fungal infection, including NETosis, endocytosis, or the release of granules containing, among others, antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). The main representative of these is the positively charged peptide LL-37 formed from an inactive precursor (hCAP18). In addition to its antimicrobial functions, this peptide possesses a propensity to interact with negatively charged molecules, including nucleic acids. Our in vitro studies have demonstrated that LL-37 contacting with C. albicans nucleic acids, isolated from biofilm, are complexed by the peptide and its shorter derivatives, as confirmed by electrophoretic mobility shift assays. We indicated that the generation of the complexes induces discernible alterations in the neutrophil response to fungal nucleic acids compared to the effects of unconjugated molecules. Our analyses involving fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry, and Western blotting revealed that stimulation of neutrophils with DNA:LL-37 or RNA:LL-37 complexes hamper the activation of pro-apoptotic caspases 3 and 7 and fosters increased activation of anti-apoptotic pathways mediated by the Mcl-1 protein. Furthermore, the formation of complexes elicits a dual effect on neutrophil immune response. Firstly, they facilitate increased nucleic acid uptake, as evidenced by microscopic observations, and enhance the pro-inflammatory response, promoting IL-8 production. Secondly, the complexes detection suppresses the production of reactive oxygen species and attenuates NETosis activation. In conclusion, these findings may imply that the neutrophil immune response shifts toward mobilizing the immune system as a whole, rather than inactivating the pathogen locally. Our findings shed new light on the intricate interplay between the constituents of the C. albicans biofilm and the host's immune response and indicate possible reasons for the elimination of NETosis from the arsenal of the neutrophil response during contact with the fungal biofilm.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Whitworth P, Aldred N, Finlay JA, et al (2024)

UV-C LED-induced cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer formation, lesion repair and mutagenesis in the biofilm-forming diatom, Navicula incerta.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

The use of ultraviolet-C (UV-C) irradiation in marine biofouling control is a relatively new and potentially disruptive technology. This study examined effects of UV-C exposure on the biofilm-forming diatom, Navicula incerta. UV-C-induced mutations were identified via Illumina HiSeq. A de novo genome was assembled from control sequences and reads from UV-C-exposed treatments were mapped to this genome, with a quantitative estimate of mutagenesis then derived from the frequency of single nucleotide polymorphisms. UV-C exposure increased cyclobutane pyrimidine dimer (CPD) abundance with a direct correlation between lesion formation and fluency. Cellular repair mechanisms gradually reduced CPDs over time, with the highest UV-C fluence treatments having the fastest repair rates. Mutation abundances were, however, negatively correlated with CPD abundance suggesting that UV-C exposure may influence lesion repair. The threshold fluence for CPD formation exceeding CPD repair was >1.27 J cm[-2]. Fluences >2.54 J cm[-2] were predicted to inhibit repair mechanisms. While UV-C holds considerable promise for marine antifouling, diatoms are just one, albeit an important, component of marine biofouling communities. Determining fluence thresholds for other representative taxa, highlighting the most resistant, would allow UV-C treatments to be specifically tuned to target biofouling organisms, whilst limiting environmental effects and the power requirement.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Bagińska N, Grygiel I, Orwat F, et al (2024)

Stability study in selected conditions and biofilm-reducing activity of phages active against drug-resistant Acinetobacter baumannii.

Scientific reports, 14(1):4285.

Acinetobacter baumannii is currently a serious threat to human health, especially to people with immunodeficiency as well as patients with prolonged hospital stays and those undergoing invasive medical procedures. The ever-increasing percentage of strains characterized by multidrug resistance to widely used antibiotics and their ability to form biofilms make it difficult to fight infections with traditional antibiotic therapy. In view of the above, phage therapy seems to be extremely attractive. Therefore, phages with good storage stability are recommended for therapeutic purposes. In this work, we present the results of studies on the stability of 12 phages specific for A. baumannii under different conditions (including temperature, different pH values, commercially available disinfectants, essential oils, and surfactants) and in the urine of patients with urinary tract infections (UTIs). Based on our long-term stability studies, the most optimal storage method for the A. baumannii phage turned out to be - 70 °C. In contrast, 60 °C caused a significant decrease in phage activity after 1 h of incubation. The tested phages were the most stable at a pH from 7.0 to 9.0, with the most inactivating pH being strongly acidic. Interestingly, ethanol-based disinfectants caused a significant decrease in phage titers even after 30 s of incubation. Moreover, copper and silver nanoparticle solutions also caused a decrease in phage titers (which was statistically significant, except for the Acba_3 phage incubated in silver solution), but to a much lesser extent than disinfectants. However, bacteriophages incubated for 24 h in essential oils (cinnamon and eucalyptus) can be considered stable.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Moreno Y, Moreno-Mesonero L, Soler P, et al (2024)

Influence of drinking water biofilm microbiome on water quality: Insights from a real-scale distribution system.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)01225-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilms, constituting over 95 % of the biomass in drinking water distribution systems, form an ecosystem impacting both the aesthetic and microbiological quality of water. This study investigates the microbiome of biofilms within a real-scale drinking water distribution system in eastern Spain, utilizing amplicon-based metagenomics. Forty-one biofilm samples underwent processing and sequencing to analyze both bacterial and eukaryotic microbiomes, with an assessment of active biomass. Genus-level analysis revealed considerable heterogeneity, with Desulfovibrio, Ralstonia, Bradyrhizobium, Methylocystis, and Bacillus identified as predominant genera. Notably, bacteria associated with corrosion processes, including Desulfovibrio, Sulfuricella, Hyphomicrobium, and Methylobacterium, were prevalent. Potentially pathogenic bacteria such as Helicobacter, Pseudomonas, and Legionella were also detected. Among protozoa, Opisthokonta and Archaeplastida were the most abundant groups in biofilm samples, with potential pathogenic eukaryotes (Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Blastocystis) identified. Interestingly, no direct correlation between microbiota composition and pipe materials was observed. The study suggests that the usual concentration of free chlorine in bulk water proved insufficient to prevent the presence of undesirable bacteria and protozoa in biofilms, which exhibited a high concentration of active biomass.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Saad MG, Beyenal H, WJ Dong (2024)

Dual roles of the conditional extracellular vesicles derived from Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilms: Promoting and inhibiting bacterial biofilm growth.

Biofilm, 7:100183.

Antibiotic-resistant biofilm infections have emerged as public health concerns because of their enhanced tolerance to high-dose antibiotic treatments. The biofilm life cycle involves multiple developmental stages, which are tightly regulated by active cell-cell communication via specific extracellular signal messengers such as extracellular vesicles. This study was aimed at exploring the roles of extracellular vesicles secreted by Pseudomonas aeruginosa at different developmental stages in controlling biofilm growth. Our results show that extracellular vesicles secreted by P. aeruginosa biofilms during their exponential growth phase (G-EVs) enhance biofilm growth. In contrast, extracellular vesicles secreted by P. aeruginosa biofilms during their death/survival phase (D-EVs) can effectively inhibit/eliminate P. aeruginosa PAO1 biofilms up to 4.8-log10 CFU/cm[2]. The inhibition effectiveness of D-EVs against P. aeruginosa biofilms grown for 96 h improved further in the presence of 10-50 μM Fe[3+] ions. Proteomic analysis suggests the inhibition involves an iron-dependent ferroptosis mechanism. This study is the first to report the functional role of bacterial extracellular vesicles in bacterial growth, which depends on the developmental stage of the parent bacteria. The finding of D-EV-activated ferroptosis-based bacterial death may have significant implications for preventing antibiotic resistance in biofilms.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Xie H, Zhang R, Guo R, et al (2024)

Characterization of AI-2/LuxS quorum sensing system in biofilm formation, pathogenesis of Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1339131.

Streptococcus equi subsp. zooepidemicus (SEZ) is an opportunistic pathogen of both humans and animals. Quorum sensing (QS) plays an important role in the regulation of bacterial group behaviors. The aim of this study was to characterize the LuxS in SEZ and evaluate its impact on biofilm formation, pathogenesis and gene expression. The wild-type SEZ and its LuxS mutant (ΔluxS) were examined for growth, biofilm formation, virulence factors, and transcriptomic profiles. Our results showed that LuxS deficiency did not affect SEZ hemolytic activity, adhesion or capsule production. For biofilm assay demonstrated that mutation in the luxS gene significantly enhances biofilm formation, produced a denser biofilm and attached to a glass surface. RAW264.7 cell infection indicated that ΔluxS promoted macrophage apoptosis and pro-inflammatory responses. In mice infection, there was no significant difference in mortality between SEZ and ΔluxS. However, the bacterial load in the spleen of mice infected with ΔluxS was significantly higher than in those infected with SEZ. And the pathological analysis further indicated that spleen damage was more severe in the ΔluxS group. Moreover, transcriptomics analysis revealed significant alterations in carbon metabolism, RNA binding and stress response genes in ΔluxS. In summary, this study provides the first evidence of AI-2/LuxS QS system in SEZ and reveals its regulatory effects on biofilm formation, pathogenicity and gene expression.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Short B, Delaney C, Johnston W, et al (2024)

Informed development of a multi-species biofilm in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica [Epub ahead of print].

Recent evidence indicates that microbial biofilm aggregates inhabit the lungs of COPD patients and actively contribute towards chronic colonization and repeat infections. However, there are no contextually relevant complex biofilm models for COPD research. In this study, a meta-analysis of the lung microbiome in COPD was used to inform development of an optimized biofilm model composed of genera highly associated with COPD. Bioinformatic analysis showed that although diversity matrices of COPD microbiomes were similar to healthy controls, and internal compositions made it possible to accurately differentiate between these cohorts (AUC = 0.939). Genera that best defined these patients included Haemophilus, Moraxella and Streptococcus. Many studies fail to account for fungi; therefore, Candida albicans was included in the creation of an interkingdom biofilm model. These organisms formed a biofilm capable of tolerating high concentrations of antimicrobial therapies with no significant reductions in viability. However, combined therapies of antibiotics and an antifungal resulted in significant reductions in viable cells throughout the biofilm (p < 0.05). This biofilm model is representative of the COPD lung microbiome and results from in vitro antimicrobial challenge experiments indicate that targeting both bacteria and fungi in these interkingdom communities will be required for more positive clinical outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Zheng S, Lin T, Chen H, et al (2024)

Impact of changes in biofilm composition response following chlorine and chloramine disinfection on nitrogenous disinfection byproduct formation and toxicity risk in drinking water distribution systems.

Water research, 253:121331 pii:S0043-1354(24)00233-1 [Epub ahead of print].

In practical drinking water treatment, chlorine and chloramine disinfection exhibit different mechanisms that affect biofilm growth. This study focused on the influence of biofilm composition changes, especially extracellular polymeric substance (EPS) fractions, on the potential formation and toxicity of nitrogenous disinfection by-products (N-DBP). Significant differences in microbial diversity and community structure were observed between the chlorine and chloramine treatments. Notably, the biofilms from the chloramine-treated group had higher microbial dominance and greater accumulation of organic precursors, as evidenced by the semi-quantitative confocal laser-scanning microscopy assay of more concentrated microbial aggregates and polysaccharide proteins in the samples. Additionally, the chloramine-treated group compared with chlorine had a higher EPS matrix content, with a 13.5 % increase in protein. Furthermore, the protein distribution within the biofilm differed; in the chlorine group, proteins were concentrated in the central region, whereas in the chloramine group, proteins were primarily located at the water-biofilm interface. Notably, functional prediction analyses of protein fractions in biofilms revealed specific functional regulation patterns and increased metabolism-related abundance of proteins in the chlorine-treated group. This increase was particularly pronounced for proteins such as dehydrogenases, reductases, transcription factors, and acyl-CoA dehydrogenases. By combining the Fukui function and density functional calculations to further analyse the effect of biofilm component changes on N-DBP production under chlorine/chloramine and by assessing the toxicity risk potential of N-DBP, it was determined that chloramine disinfection is detrimental to biofilm control and the accumulation of protein precursors has a higher formation potential of N-DBPs and toxicity risk, increasing the health risk of drinking water.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Sangha JS, Barrett P, Curtis TP, et al (2024)

Effects of glucose and lactate on Streptococcus mutans abundance in a novel multispecies oral biofilm model.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The oral microbiome plays an important role in protecting oral health. Here, we established a controlled mixed-species in vitro biofilm model and used it to assess the impact of glucose and lactate on the ability of Streptococcus mutans, an acidogenic and aciduric species, to compete with commensal oral bacteria. A chemically defined medium was developed that supported the growth of S. mutans and four common early colonizers of dental plaque: Streptococcus gordonii, Actinomyces oris, Neisseria subflava, and Veillonella parvula. Biofilms containing the early colonizers were developed in a continuous flow bioreactor, exposed to S. mutans, and incubated for up to 7 days. The abundance of bacteria was estimated by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR). At high glucose and high lactate, the pH in bulk fluid rapidly decreased to approximately 5.2, and S. mutans outgrew other species in biofilms. In low glucose and high lactate, the pH remained above 5.5, and V. parvula was the most abundant species in biofilms. By contrast, in low glucose and low lactate, the pH remained above 6.0 throughout the experiment, and the microbial community in biofilms was relatively balanced. Fluorescence in situ hybridization confirmed that all species were present in the biofilm and the majority of cells were viable using live/dead staining. These data demonstrate that carbon source concentration is critical for microbial homeostasis in model oral biofilms. Furthermore, we established an experimental system that can support the development of computational models to predict transitions to microbial dysbiosis based on metabolic interactions.IMPORTANCEWe developed a controlled (by removing host factor) dynamic system metabolically representative of early colonization of Streptococcus mutans not measurable in vivo. Hypotheses on factors influencing S. mutans colonization, such as community composition and inoculation sequence and the effect of metabolite concentrations, can be tested and used to predict the effect of interventions such as dietary modifications or the use of toothpaste or mouthwash on S. mutans colonization. The defined in vitro model (species and medium) can be simulated in an in silico model to explore more of the parameter space.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Braun J, Ortega-Liebana MC, Unciti-Broceta A, et al (2024)

A Pd-labile fluoroquinolone prodrug efficiently prevents biofilm formation on coated surfaces.

Organic & biomolecular chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Surface-adhered bacteria on implants represent a major challenge for antibiotic treatment. We introduce hydrogel-coated surfaces loaded with tailored Pd-nanosheets which catalyze the release of antibiotics from inactive prodrugs. Masked and antibiotically inactive fluoroquinolone analogs were efficiently activated at the surface and prevented the formation of Staphylococcus aureus biofilms.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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An examination of the research and translational application to prevent and treat biofilm-associated diseases In the decade since the first edition of Microbial Biofilms was published, the interest in this field has expanded, spurring breakthrough research that has advanced the treatment of biofilm-associated diseases. This second edition takes the reader on an exciting, extensive review of bacterial and fungal biofilms, ranging from basic molecular interactions to innovative therapies, with particular emphasis on the division of labor in biofilms, new approaches to combat the threat of microbial biofilms, and how biofilms evade the host defense.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )