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29 Sep 2023 at 01:40
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Bibliography on: Biofilm


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 29 Sep 2023 at 01:40 Created: 


Wikipedia: Biofilm A biofilm is any group of microorganisms in which cells stick to each other and often also to a surface. These adherent cells become embedded within a slimy extracellular matrix that is composed of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS). The EPS components are produced by the cells within the biofilm and are typically a polymeric conglomeration of extracellular DNA, proteins, and polysaccharides. Because they have three-dimensional structure and represent a community lifestyle for microorganisms, biofilms are frequently described metaphorically as cities for microbes. Biofilms may form on living or non-living surfaces and can be prevalent in natural, industrial and hospital settings. The microbial cells growing in a biofilm are physiologically distinct from planktonic cells of the same organism, which, by contrast, are single-cells that may float or swim in a liquid medium. Biofilms can be present on the teeth of most animals as dental plaque, where they may cause tooth decay and gum disease. Microbes form a biofilm in response to many factors, which may include cellular recognition of specific or non-specific attachment sites on a surface, nutritional cues, or in some cases, by exposure of planktonic cells to sub-inhibitory concentrations of antibiotics. When a cell switches to the biofilm mode of growth, it undergoes a phenotypic shift in behavior in which large suites of genes are differentially regulated.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( biofilm[title] NOT 28392838[PMID] NOT 31293528[PMID] NOT 29372251[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-28

Wang M, Lu J, Qin P, et al (2023)

Biofilm formation stabilizes metabolism in a Roseobacteraceae bacterium under temperature increase.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Ocean warming profoundly impacts microbes in marine environments; yet, how lifestyle (e.g., free living versus biofilm associated) affects the bacterial response to rising temperature is not clear. Here, we compared transcriptional, enzymatic, and physiological responses of free-living and biofilm-associated Leisingera aquaemixtae M597, a member of the Roseobacteraceae family isolated from marine biofilms, to the increase in temperature from 25℃ to 31℃. Complete genome sequencing and metagenomics revealed the prevalence of M597 in global ocean biofilms. Transcriptomics suggested a significant effect on the expression of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism, nitrogen and sulfur metabolism, and phosphorus utilization of free-living M597 cells due to temperature increase, but such drastic alterations were not observed in its biofilms. In the free-living state, the transcription of the key enzyme participating in the Embden-Meyerhof-Parnas pathway was significantly increased due to the increase in temperature, accompanied by a substantial decrease in the Entner-Doudoroff pathway, but transcripts of these glycolytic enzymes in biofilm-forming strains were independent of the temperature variation. The correlation between the growth condition and the shift in glycolytic pathways under temperature change was confirmed by enzymatic activity assays. Furthermore, the rising temperature affected the growth rate and the production of intracellular reactive oxygen species when M597 cells were free living rather than in biofilms. Thus, biofilm formation stabilizes metabolism in M597 when grown under high temperature and this homeostasis is probably related to the glycolytic pathways.IMPORTANCEBiofilm formation is one of the most successful strategies employed by microbes against environmental fluctuations. In this study, using a marine Roseobacteraceae bacterium, we studied how biofilm formation affects the response of marine bacteria to the increase in temperature. This study enhances our understanding of the function of bacterial biofilms and the microbe-environment interactions in the framework of global climate change.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Brahma P, Aggarwal R, K Sanyal (2023)

Biased eviction of variant histone H3 nucleosomes triggers biofilm growth in Candida albicans.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Candida albicans is an opportunistic human pathogen that colonizes the gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts of healthy individuals. C. albicans yeast cells can switch to filamentous forms. On biotic and abiotic surfaces, the planktonic free-floating yeast cells often form biofilms, a multi-drug-resistant three-dimensional community of yeast and filamentous cells. While alterations in gene expression patterns during planktonic to biofilm growth transitions in C. albicans have been studied, the underlying molecular mechanisms largely remain unexplored. Previously, we identified a histone H3 variant (H3V[CTG]), which acts as a negative regulator of biofilm growth in C. albicans. In the current study, we performed genome-wide profiling of H3V[CTG] nucleosomes in C. albicans planktonic cells and found them to be enriched at promoter regions. In planktonic cells, H3V[CTG]-enriched regions are mostly devoid of histone H3 post-translational modifications that allow active transcription, thus strengthening the role of H3V[CTG] as a negative regulator of biofilm formation. By combining genome-wide transcriptional alterations, nucleosome positioning (MNase-seq), and DNA accessibility (ATAC-seq) assays, we show a significant reduction in the total number of nucleosomes in biofilm cells as compared to planktonic cells indicating a more open chromatin state during biofilm growth. Finally, we propose that H3V[CTG]-nucleosome eviction at promoters of biofilm-relevant genes in biofilm-grown cells contributes to achieve the open chromatin state by facilitating easy promoter access of master regulators (activators and repressors) for modulation of gene expression observed during growth phase transitions. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans lives as a commensal in most healthy humans but can cause superficial skin infections to life-threatening systemic infections. C. albicans also forms biofilms on biotic and abiotic surfaces. Biofilm cells are difficult to treat and highly resistant to antifungals. A specific set of genes is differentially regulated in biofilm cells as compared to free-floating planktonic cells of C. albicans. In this study, we addressed how a variant histone H3V[CTG], a previously identified negative regulator of biofilm formation, modulates gene expression changes. By providing compelling evidence, we show that biased eviction of H3V[CTG] nucleosomes at the promoters of biofilm-relevant genes facilitates the accessibility of both transcription activators and repressors to modulate gene expression. Our study is a comprehensive investigation of genome-wide nucleosome occupancy in both planktonic and biofilm states, which reveals transition to an open chromatin landscape during biofilm mode of growth in C. albicans, a medically relevant pathogen.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Kountchou CL, Noubom M, Ndezo Bisso B, et al (2023)

Antifungal Resistance Profile, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence Factor Production in Candida krusei Isolates From HIV-Infected Patients in Cameroon.

Cureus, 15(8):e44213.

Background Fungal infections mainly caused by Candida krusei are increasing rapidly and represent a serious public health problem in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected patients. This study aimed to investigate the antifungal susceptibility profile and virulence factors in C. krusei isolated from HIV-infected patients. Methodology Isolates were identified by biochemical and molecular methods. The antifungal resistance profile was established based on the antifungal susceptibility test performed using the Sensititre YeastOne™ (Thermo Fisher Scientific, Waltham, MA) microdilution technique. The production of phospholipase and proteinase was detected by standard methods. Biofilm formation was performed by the microtiter plate method. Results A total of 73 isolates of C. krusei were recovered from stool, oral swabs, vaginal swabs, and urine samples. The highest number of C. krusei isolates (49, 67.05%)was recovered from stool samples. A total of 32.56% of the C. krusei isolates were multidrug-resistant (MDR). The patients living with HIV and not receiving antiretroviral treatment displayed the highest number of C. krusei isolates (29, 39.76%), whereas the patients living with HIV on antiretroviral therapy exhibited the lowest number of C. krusei isolates (2, 2.72%). All isolates were categorized as strong biofilm producers. Among the production of hydrolytic enzymes, 25 (58.13%) and 24 (55.81%) of C. krusei isolates were classified as strong phospholipase and proteinase producers, respectively. Conclusion The C. krusei isolates obtained in this study were MDR and strongly expressed biofilm formation and both phospholipase and proteinase hydrolytic enzymes. The results show how pathogenic C. krusei is in the HIV-infected population and will contribute toward the management of C. krusei-related infections, which may help improve the life quality of people living with HIV.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Parente R, Fumagalli MR, Di Claudio A, et al (2023)

A Multilayered Imaging and Microfluidics Approach for Evaluating the Effect of Fibrinolysis in Staphylococcus aureus Biofilm Formation.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:pathogens12091141.

The recognition of microbe and extracellular matrix (ECM) is a recurring theme in the humoral innate immune system. Fluid-phase molecules of innate immunity share regulatory roles in ECM. On the other hand, ECM elements have immunological functions. Innate immunity is evolutionary and functionally connected to hemostasis. Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) is a major cause of hospital-associated bloodstream infections and the most common cause of several life-threatening conditions such as endocarditis and sepsis through its ability to manipulate hemostasis. Biofilm-related infection and sepsis represent a medical need due to the lack of treatments and the high resistance to antibiotics. We designed a method combining imaging and microfluidics to dissect the role of elements of the ECM and hemostasis in triggering S. aureus biofilm by highlighting an essential role of fibrinogen (FG) in adhesion and formation. Furthermore, we ascertained an important role of the fluid-phase activation of fibrinolysis in inhibiting biofilm of S. aureus and facilitating an antibody-mediated response aimed at pathogen killing. The results define FG as an essential element of hemostasis in the S. aureus biofilm formation and a role of fibrinolysis in its inhibition, while promoting an antibody-mediated response. Understanding host molecular mechanisms influencing biofilm formation and degradation is instrumental for the development of new combined therapeutic approaches to prevent the risk of S. aureus biofilm-associated diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Mahrous SH, El-Balkemy FA, Abo-Zeid NZ, et al (2023)

Antibacterial and Anti-Biofilm Activities of Cinnamon Oil against Multidrug-Resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae Isolated from Pneumonic Sheep and Goats.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:pathogens12091138.

The primary objectives were to isolate and identify Klebsiella pneumoniae (K. pneumoniae), and determine the antimicrobial resistance patterns and biofilm formation abilities of the isolates. Additionally, the study aimed to investigate the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm effects of cinnamon oil against K. pneumoniae isolates. A cross-sectional study was conducted from March 2022 to April 2023 to collect 200 samples (including 156 nasal swabs and 44 lung specimens) from pneumonic sheep and goats admitted to the Veterinary Teaching Hospital of Zagazig University, Egypt. K. pneumoniae was isolated from a total of 72 (36%) samples, with 53 (73.6%) isolates recovered from nasal swabs and 19 (26.4%) from lung samples. Among the samples, 52 (36.9%) were from sheep and 20 (33.9%) were from goats. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing of the 72 K. pneumoniae isolates to 18 antimicrobials revealed that all isolates were resistant to ampicillin, amoxicillin/clavulanic acid, cefotaxime, ceftriaxone, tetracycline, colistin, fosfomycin, and trimethoprim/sulphamethoxazole. None of the isolates were resistant to amikacin, imipenem, and norfloxacin. Multidrug resistance (MDR) was observed in all K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from sheep and goats. The average MAR index was 0.71, ranging from 0.50 to 0.83. Regarding biofilm formation, among the K. pneumoniae isolates with a high MAR index (n = 30), 10% exhibited strong formation, 40% showed moderate formation, 43.3% displayed weak formation, and 6.7% did not form biofilms. Additionally, the biofilm-forming genes treC and fimA were present in all 28 biofilm-forming K. pneumoniae isolates, while the mrkA gene was detected in 15 (53.6%) of the 28 isolates. MDR K. pneumoniae isolates with strong biofilm formation abilities were treated with cinnamon oil at varying concentrations (100%, 75%, 50%, and 25%). This treatment resulted in inhibition zone diameters ranging from 35 to 45 mm. Cinnamon oil exhibited lower minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration values compared to norfloxacin for all isolates. Additionally, cinnamon oil significantly reduced the expression of biofilm-associated genes (treC, fimA, and mrkA) when compared to isolates treated with norfloxacin or untreated. In conclusion, this study identified a high level of MDR K. pneumoniae with strong and moderate biofilm formation abilities in pneumonic sheep and goats in Sharika Governorate, Egypt. Although cinnamon oil demonstrated potential antibacterial and anti-biofilm properties against K. pneumoniae, further research is required to investigate its effectiveness in treating K. pneumoniae infections in pneumonic sheep and goats.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ullah MA, Islam MS, Rana ML, et al (2023)

Resistance Profiles and Virulence Determinants in Biofilm-Forming Enterococcus faecium Isolated from Raw Seafood in Bangladesh.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:pathogens12091101.

Pathogenic, antibiotic-resistant, and biofilm-forming bacteria can be transferred to humans through the consumption of contaminated seafood. The present study was carried out to determine antibiotic resistance profiles and virulence determinants in biofilm-forming Enterococcus faecium isolated from seafood in Bangladesh. A total of 150 seafood samples, including shrimp (n = 50), crabs (n = 25), and marine fish (n = 75), were screened using cultural, staining, biochemical, polymerase chain reaction (PCR), Congo red (CR), and disk diffusion (DD) assays. In PCR, E. faecium was detected in 27.3% (41/150; CI95% 20.8; 34.9) of samples, where marine fish (34.7%, CI95% 24.9; 45.9) had the highest prevalence (p < 0.05) compared to crabs (32%, CI95% 17.2; 51.6) and shrimp (14%, CI95% 7.0; 26.1). Thirty-two (78.1%, CI95% 63.3; 88.0) of the E. faecium isolates were determined to be biofilm formers in the CR test, where 43.9% (18/41, CI95% 29.9; 59.0) and 34.2% (14/41, CI95% 21.6; 49.5) of the isolates were strong and intermediate biofilm formers, respectively. In PCR, virulence genes, i.e., pil (100%), ace (92.7%), agg (68.3%), fsrA (65.9%), gelE (63.4%), sprE (53.7%), fsrB (51.2%), and fsrC (43.9%), were detected in E. faecium isolates. All the E. faecium isolates were phenotypically resistant to ≥3 antimicrobial categories and ≥3 antibiotics, including WHO-classified reserve antibiotics linezolid (70.7%) and fosfomycin (19.5%). Moreover, the multiple antibiotic resistance index ranged up to 0.8, showing resistance to ten antibiotics and eight antibiotic classes. In this study, the prevalence of virulence genes and antibiotic resistance was significantly greater (p < 0.05) in strong biofilm-forming E. faecium strains as compared to strains with intermediate and non-biofilm-forming abilities. As far as we know, this study, for the first time in Bangladesh, determined antibiotic resistance and detected virulence genes in biofilm-forming E. faecium isolated from seafood samples. The data from this study could play a significant role in evaluating potential health hazards linked to the ingestion of uncooked or minimally processed seafood.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Moreno-Manjón J, Castillo-Ramírez S, Jolley KA, et al (2023)

Acinetobacter baumannii IC2 and IC5 Isolates with Co-Existing blaOXA-143-like and blaOXA-72 and Exhibiting Strong Biofilm Formation in a Mexican Hospital.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092316.

Acinetobacter baumannii is an opportunistic pathogen responsible for healthcare-associated infections (HAIs) and outbreaks. Antimicrobial resistance mechanisms and virulence factors allow it to survive and spread in the hospital environment. However, the molecular mechanisms of these traits and their association with international clones are frequently unknown in low- and middle-income countries. Here, we analyze the phenotype and genotype of seventy-six HAIs and outbreak-causing A. baumannii isolates from a Mexican hospital over ten years, with special attention to the carbapenem resistome and biofilm formation. The isolates belonged to the global international clone (IC) 2 and the Latin America endemic IC5 and were predominantly extensively drug-resistant (XDR). Oxacillinases were identified as a common source of carbapenem resistance. We noted the presence of the blaOXA-143-like family (not previously described in Mexico), the blaOXA-72 and the blaOXA-398 found in both ICs. A low prevalence of efflux pump overexpression activity associated with carbapenem resistance was observed. Finally, strong biofilm formation was found, and significant biofilm-related genes were identified, including bfmRS, csuA/BABCDE, pgaABCD and ompA. This study provides a comprehensive profile of the carbapenem resistome of A. baumannii isolates belonging to the same pulse type, along with their significant biofilm formation capacity. Furthermore, it contributes to a better understanding of their role in the recurrence of infection and the endemicity of these isolates in a Mexican hospital.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Moore K, Li A, Gupta N, et al (2023)

Killing of a Multispecies Biofilm Using Gram-Negative and Gram-Positive Targeted Antibiotic Released from High Purity Calcium Sulfate Beads.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092296.

BACKGROUND: Multispecies biofilm orthopedic infections are more challenging to treat than mono-species infections. In this in-vitro study, we aimed to determine if a multispecies biofilm, consisting of Gram positive and negative species with different antibiotic susceptibilities could be treated more effectively using high purity antibiotic-loaded calcium sulfate beads (HP-ALCSB) containing vancomycin (VAN) and tobramycin (TOB) in combination than alone.

METHODS: Three sets of species pairs from bioluminescent strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) and Staphylococcus aureus (SA) and clinical isolates, Enterococcus faecalis (EF) and Enterobacter cloacae were screened for compatibility. PA + EF developed intermixed biofilms with similar cell concentrations and so were grown on 316L stainless steel coupons for 72 h or as 24 h agar lawn biofilms and then treated with HP-ALCSBs with single or combination antibiotics and assessed by viable count or bioluminescence and light imaging to distinguish each species. Replica plating was used to assess viability.

RESULTS: The VAN + TOB bead significantly reduced the PA + EF biofilm CFU and reduced the concentration of surviving antibiotic tolerant variants by 50% compared to single antibiotics.

CONCLUSIONS: The combination of Gram-negative and positive targeted antibiotics released from HP-ALCSBs may be more effective in treating multispecies biofilms than monotherapy alone.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Aslam M, Pei P, Ye P, et al (2023)

Unraveling the Diverse Profile of N-Acyl Homoserine Lactone Signals and Their Role in the Regulation of Biofilm Formation in Porphyra haitanensis-Associated Pseudoalteromonas galatheae.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092228.

N-acyl homoserine lactones (AHLs) are small, diffusible chemical signal molecules that serve as social interaction tools for bacteria, enabling them to synchronize their collective actions in a density-dependent manner through quorum sensing (QS). The QS activity from epiphytic bacteria of the red macroalgae Porphyra haitanensis, along with its involvement in biofilm formation and regulation, remains unexplored in prior scientific inquiries. Therefore, this study explores the AHL signal molecules produced by epiphytic bacteria. The bacterium isolated from the surface of P. haitanensis was identified as Pseudoalteromonas galatheae by 16s rRNA gene sequencing and screened for AHLs using two AHL reporter strains, Agrobacterium tumefaciens A136 and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. The crystal violet assay was used for the biofilm-forming phenotype. The inferences revealed that P. galatheae produces four different types of AHL molecules, i.e., C4-HSL, C8-HSL, C18-HSL, and 3-oxo-C16-HSL, and it was observed that its biofilm formation phenotype is regulated by QS molecules. This is the first study providing insights into the QS activity, diverse AHL profile, and regulatory mechanisms that govern the biofilm formation phenotype of P. galatheae. These findings offer valuable insights for future investigations exploring the role of AHL producing epiphytes and biofilms in the life cycle of P. haitanensis.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Desjardins A, Zerfas P, Filion D, et al (2023)

Mucispirillum schaedleri: Biofilm Architecture and Age-Dependent Pleomorphy.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092200.

Round bodies in spirochete cultures have been a controversial subject since their description seven decades ago. We report the existence of round bodies (spherical cells) in cultures of Mucispirillum schaedleri, a spiral bacterium phylogenetically distant from spirochetes. Furthermore, when grown in biofilms, M. schaedleri demonstrates a unique morphology known as cording, which has been previously described only in mycobacteria. Thus, M. schaedleri has two distinct features, each previously thought to be unique to two different phylogenetically distant groups of bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Natali V, Malfatti F, T Cibic (2023)

Ecological Effect of Differently Treated Wooden Materials on Microalgal Biofilm Formation in the Grado Lagoon (Northern Adriatic Sea).

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092196.

Within the framework of the Interreg Italy-Slovenia programme, the project DuraSoft aimed at testing innovative technologies to improve the durability of traditional wooden structures in socio-ecologically sensitive environments. We focused on the impact of different wood treatments (i.e., copper-based coatings and thermal modification) on microbial biofilm formation in the Grado Lagoon. Wooden samples were placed in 2 areas with diverse hydrodynamic conditions and retrieved after 6, 20, and 40 days. Light, confocal and scanning electron microscopy were employed to assess the treatment effects on the microalgal community abundance and composition. Lower hydrodynamics accelerated the colonisation, leading to higher algal biofilm abundances, regardless of the treatment. The Cu-based agents induced modifications to the microalgal community, leading to lower densities, small-sized diatoms and frequent deformities (e.g., bent apices, frustule malformation) in the genera Cylindrotheca and Cocconeis. After 20 days, taxa forming 3D mucilaginous structures, such as Licmophora and Synedra, were present on chemically treated panels compared to natural ones. While in the short term, the treatments were effective as antifouling agents, in the long term, neither the copper-based coatings nor the thermal modification successfully slowed down the biofouling colonisation, likely due to the stimulating effect of nutrients and other substances released from these solutions. The need to develop more ecosystem friendly technologies to preserve wooden structures remains urgent.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Qin H, Liu Y, Zhai Z, et al (2023)

Biofilm-Forming Capacity and Drug Resistance of Different Gardnerella Subgroups Associated with Bacterial Vaginosis.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092186.

Bacterial vaginosis (BV) is the most common infection of the lower reproductive tract among women of reproductive age. Recurrent infections and antibiotic resistance associated with biofilms remain significant challenges for BV treatment. Gardnerella species are commonly found in women with and without BV, indicating that genetic differences among Gardnerella isolates may distinguish pathogenic from commensal subgroups. This study isolated 11 Gardnerella strains from vaginal samples obtained from women with BV before or after treatment. The biofilm formation ability of each strain was examined by crystal violet staining. Eight strains were selected using phylogenetic analysis of the cpn60 sequences and classified as subgroups A (6/8), B (1/8), and D (1/8). The biofilm formation ability and antibiotic resistance profile of these strains was compared among the subgroups. Subgroup D had the strongest biofilm formation ability. Six of the planktonic strains exhibited resistance to the first-line BV drug, metronidazole, and one to clindamycin. Moreover, biofilm formation in vitro increased strain resistance to clindamycin. Two strains with strong biofilm ability, S20 and S23, and two with weak biofilm ability, S24 and S25, were selected for comparative genomic analysis. S20 and S23 were found to contain four key genes associated with biofilm formation and more genes involved in carbohydrate synthesis and metabolism than S24 and S25. Identifying differences in the expression of virulence factors between Gardnerella subgroups could inform the development of novel treatments for BV.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ladewig L, Gloy L, Langfeldt D, et al (2023)

Antimicrobial Peptides Originating from Expression Libraries of Aurelia aurita and Mnemiopsis leidyi Prevent Biofilm Formation of Opportunistic Pathogens.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092184.

The demand for novel antimicrobial compounds is rapidly growing due to the rising appearance of antibiotic resistance in bacteria; accordingly, alternative approaches are urgently needed. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are promising, since they are a naturally occurring part of the innate immune system and display remarkable broad-spectrum activity and high selectivity against various microbes. Marine invertebrates are a primary resource of natural AMPs. Consequently, cDNA expression (EST) libraries from the Cnidarian moon jellyfish Aurelia aurita and the Ctenophore comb jelly Mnemiopsis leidyi were constructed in Escherichia coli. Cell-free size-fractionated cell extracts (<3 kDa) of the two libraries (each with 29,952 clones) were consecutively screened for peptides preventing the biofilm formation of opportunistic pathogens using the crystal violet assay. The 3 kDa fraction of ten individual clones demonstrated promising biofilm-preventing activities against Klebsiella oxytoca and Staphylococcus epidermidis. Sequencing the respective activity-conferring inserts allowed for the identification of small ORFs encoding peptides (10-22 aa), which were subsequently chemically synthesized to validate their inhibitory potential. Although the peptides are likely artificial products from a random translation of EST inserts, the biofilm-preventing effects against K. oxytoca, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, S. epidermidis, and S. aureus were verified for five synthetic peptides in a concentration-dependent manner, with peptide BiP_Aa_5 showing the strongest effects. The impact of BiP_Aa_2, BiP_Aa_5, and BiP_Aa_6 on the dynamic biofilm formation of K. oxytoca was further validated in microfluidic flow cells, demonstrating a significant reduction in biofilm thickness and volume by BiP_Aa_2 and BiP_Aa_5. Overall, the structural characteristics of the marine invertebrate-derived AMPs, their physicochemical properties, and their promising antibiofilm effects highlight them as attractive candidates for discovering new antimicrobials.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Mao P, Wang Y, Li L, et al (2023)

The Isolation, Genetic Analysis and Biofilm Characteristics of Listeria spp. from the Marine Environment in China.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092166.

Listeria monocytogenes is an important pathogen that can cause listeriosis. Despite the growing recognition of Listeria spp. as a foodborne and environmental pathogen, the understanding of its prevalence and characteristics of Listeria spp. in the marine environment remains unknown. In this study, we first investigated the genetic and phenotypic characteristics of Listeria species isolated in a coastal city in China. The findings revealed that the sequence type 87 (ST87) L. monocytogenes, a prevalent clinical and seafood strain in China, dominates in recreational beach sands and possesses a notable biofilm-forming capacity in seawater. The presence of ST87 L. monocytogenes in coastal environments indicates the potential health risks for both recreational activities and seafood consumption. Moreover, the ST121 isolates from sand had a versatile plasmid encoding multifunctional genes, including uvrX for UV resistance, gbuC for salt resistance, and npx for oxidative resistance and multiple transposases, which potentially aid in survival under natural environments. Black-headed gulls potentially facilitate the spread of L. monocytogenes, with similar ST35 strains found in gulls and beach sand. As a reservoir of microbes from marine environments and human/animal excrement, coastal sand would play an important role in the spread of L. monocytogenes and is an environmental risk for human listeriosis.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Liaqat I, Khalid A, Rubab S, et al (2023)

In Vitro Biofilm-Mediated Biodegradation of Pesticides and Dye-Contaminated Effluents Using Bacterial Biofilms.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092163.

Overuse of pesticides in agricultural soil and dye-polluted effluents severely contaminates the environment and is toxic to animals and humans making their removal from the environment essential. The present study aimed to assess the biodegradation of pesticides (cypermethrin (CYP) and imidacloprid (IMI)), and dyes (malachite green (MG) and Congo red (CR)) using biofilms of bacteria isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil and dye effluents. Biofilms of indigenous bacteria, i.e., Bacillus thuringiensis 2A (OP554568), Enterobacter hormaechei 4A (OP723332), Bacillus sp. 5A (OP586601), and Bacillus cereus 6B (OP586602) individually and in mixed culture were tested against CYP and IMI. Biofilms of indigenous bacteria i.e., Lysinibacillus sphaericus AF1 (OP589134), Bacillus sp. CF3 (OP589135) and Bacillus sp. DF4 (OP589136) individually and in mixed culture were tested for their ability to degrade dyes. The biofilm of a mixed culture of B. thuringiensis + Bacillus sp. (P7) showed 46.2% degradation of CYP compared to the biofilm of a mixed culture of B. thuringiensis + E. hormaechei + Bacillus sp. + B. cereus (P11), which showed significantly high degradation (70.0%) of IMI. Regarding dye biodegradation, a mixed culture biofilm of Bacillus sp. + Bacillus sp. (D6) showed 86.76% degradation of MG, which was significantly high compared to a mixed culture biofilm of L. sphaericus + Bacillus sp. (D4) that degraded only 30.78% of CR. UV-VIS spectroscopy revealed major peaks at 224 nm, 263 nm, 581 nm and 436 nm for CYP, IMI, MG and CR, respectively, which completely disappeared after treatment with bacterial biofilms. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) analysis showed the appearance of new peaks in degraded metabolites and disappearance of a peak in the control spectrum after biofilm treatment. Thin layer chromatography (TLC) analysis also confirmed the degradation of CYP, IMI, MG and CR into several metabolites compared to the control. The present study demonstrates the biodegradation potential of biofilm-forming bacteria isolated from pesticide-polluted soil and dye effluents against pesticides and dyes. This is the first report demonstrating biofilm-mediated bio-degradation of CYP, IMI, MG and CR utilizing soil and effluent bacterial flora from Multan and Sheikhupura, Punjab, Pakistan.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Dicks LMT (2023)

Biofilm Formation of Clostridioides difficile, Toxin Production and Alternatives to Conventional Antibiotics in the Treatment of CDI.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092161.

Clostridioides difficile is considered a nosocomial pathogen that flares up in patients exposed to antibiotic treatment. However, four out of ten patients diagnosed with C. difficile infection (CDI) acquired the infection from non-hospitalized individuals, many of whom have not been treated with antibiotics. Treatment of recurrent CDI (rCDI) with antibiotics, especially vancomycin (VAN) and metronidazole (MNZ), increases the risk of experiencing a relapse by as much as 70%. Fidaxomicin, on the other hand, proved more effective than VAN and MNZ by preventing the initial transcription of RNA toxin genes. Alternative forms of treatment include quorum quenching (QQ) that blocks toxin synthesis, binding of small anion molecules such as tolevamer to toxins, monoclonal antibodies, such as bezlotoxumab and actoxumab, bacteriophage therapy, probiotics, and fecal microbial transplants (FMTs). This review summarizes factors that affect the colonization of C. difficile and the pathogenicity of toxins TcdA and TcdB. The different approaches experimented with in the destruction of C. difficile and treatment of CDI are evaluated.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Zaghloul SA, Hashem SN, El-Sayed SR, et al (2023)

Evaluation of the Cariogenic and Anti-Cariogenic Potential of Human Colostrum and Colostrum-Derived Probiotics: Impact on S. mutans Growth, Biofilm Formation, and L. rhamnosus Growth.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 13(9): pii:life13091869.

Human colostrum (HC) is essential for oral health as it is rich in probiotics that could affect the growth of the cariogenic S. mutans and its biofilm formation; hindering dental caries in advance. In this study, HC was collected from 36 healthy mothers 1-3 days postpartum. The effect of HC on oral health was carried out by assessing the impact of HC and its derived probiotics' cell-free supernatants (CFS) on the growth of S. mutans (using modified well diffusion) and its biofilm formation (using microtiter plate assay). Moreover, the effect of whole HC on L. rhamnosus, a probiotic oral bacterium, was examined. Probiotics were isolated and identified phenotypically by API 50 CH carbohydrate fermentation and genotypically by 16S rRNA amplification. The in vitro study revealed that HC has cariogenic activity and is associated with biofilm formation. Biofilm strength was inversely proportional to HC dilution (p-value < 0.0001). Nevertheless, HC and colostrum-derived probiotics improve oral health by inhibiting the growth of caries-inducing S. mutans with lower inhibition to L. rhamnosus probiotics. The CFS of isolated probiotics reduced the biofilm formation via the cariogenic S. mutans. These results are not only promising for caries eradication, but they also highlight the importance of breastfeeding infants from their first hours to shape healthy oral microbiota, protecting them from various diseases including dental caries.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Gentili V, Strazzabosco G, Salgari N, et al (2023)

Ozonated Oil in Liposome Eyedrops Reduces the Formation of Biofilm, Selection of Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria, and Adhesion of Bacteria to Human Corneal Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814078.

The recent attention to the risk of potential permanent eye damage triggered by ocular infections has been leading to a deeper investigation of the current antimicrobials. An antimicrobial agent used in ophthalmology should possess the following characteristics: a broad antimicrobial spectrum, prompt action even in the presence of organic matter, and nontoxicity. The objective of this study is to compare the antimicrobial efficacy of widely used ophthalmic antiseptics containing povidone-iodine, chlorhexidine, and liposomes containing ozonated sunflower oil. We determined the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) on various microbial strains: Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 6538), methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 33591), Staphylococcus epidermidis (ATCC 12228), Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 9027), and Escherichia coli (ATCC 873). Furthermore, we assessed its efficacy in controlling antibiotic resistance, biofilm formation, and bacterial adhesion. All three antiseptic ophthalmic preparations showed significant anti-microbicidal and anti-biofilm activity, with the liposomes containing ozonated sunflower oil with the highest ability to control antibiotic resistance and bacteria adhesion to human corneal cells.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Tambone E, Ceresa C, Marchetti A, et al (2023)

Rhamnolipid 89 Biosurfactant Is Effective against Streptococcus oralis Biofilm and Preserves Osteoblast Behavior: Perspectives in Dental Implantology.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814014.

Biofilm-related peri-implant diseases represent the major complication for osteointegrated dental implants, requiring complex treatments or implant removal. Microbial biosurfactants emerged as new antibiofilm coating agents for implantable devices thanks to their high biocompatibility. This study aimed to assess the efficacy of the rhamnolipid 89 biosurfactant (R89BS) in limiting Streptococcus oralis biofilm formation and dislodging sessile cells from medical grade titanium, but preserving adhesion and proliferation of human osteoblasts. The inhibitory activity of a R89BS coating on S. oralis biofilm formation was assayed by quantifying biofilm biomass and microbial cells on titanium discs incubated up to 72 h. R89BS dispersal activity was addressed by measuring residual biomass of pre-formed biofilms after rhamnolipid treatment up to 24 h. Adhesion and proliferation of human primary osteoblasts on R89BS-coated titanium were evaluated by cell count and adenosine-triphosphate quantification, while cell differentiation was studied by measuring alkaline phosphatase activity and observing mineral deposition. Results showed that R89BS coating inhibited S. oralis biofilm formation by 80% at 72 h and dislodged 63-86% of pre-formed biofilms in 24 h according to concentration. No change in the adhesion of human osteoblasts was observed, whereas proliferation was reduced accompanied by an increase in cell differentiation. R89BS effectively counteracts S. oralis biofilm formation on titanium and preserves overall osteoblasts behavior representing a promising preventive strategy against biofilm-related peri-implant diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Yan CH, Chen FH, Yang YL, et al (2023)

The Transcription Factor CsgD Contributes to Engineered Escherichia coli Resistance by Regulating Biofilm Formation and Stress Responses.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813681.

The high cell density, immobilization and stability of biofilms are ideal characteristics for bacteria in resisting antibiotic therapy. CsgD is a transcription activating factor that regulates the synthesis of curly fimbriae and cellulose in Escherichia coli, thereby enhancing bacterial adhesion and promoting biofilm formation. To investigate the role of CsgD in biofilm formation and stress resistance in bacteria, the csgD deletion mutant ΔcsgD was successfully constructed from the engineered strain E. coli BL21(DE3) using the CRISPR/Cas9 gene-editing system. The results demonstrated that the biofilm of ΔcsgD decreased by 70.07% (p < 0.05). Additionally, the mobility and adhesion of ΔcsgD were inhibited due to the decrease in curly fimbriae and extracellular polymeric substances. Furthermore, ΔcsgD exhibited a significantly decreased resistance to acid, alkali and osmotic stress conditions (p < 0.05). RNA-Seq results revealed 491 differentially expressed genes between the parent strain and ΔcsgD, with enrichment primarily observed in metabolism-related processes as well as cell membrane structure and catalytic activity categories. Moreover, CsgD influenced the expression of biofilm and stress response genes pgaA, motB, fimA, fimC, iraP, ompA, osmC, sufE and elaB, indicating that the CsgD participated in the resistance of E. coli by regulating the expression of biofilm and stress response. In brief, the transcription factor CsgD plays a key role in the stress resistance of E. coli, and is a potential target for treating and controlling biofilm.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sánchez-Somolinos M, Díaz-Navarro M, Benjumea A, et al (2023)

In Vitro Efficacy of Dalbavancin as a Long-Acting Anti-Biofilm Agent Loaded in Bone Cement.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091445.

Based on previous studies by our group in which we demonstrated that dalbavancin loaded in bone cement had good elution capacity for the treatment of biofilm-related periprosthetic infections, we now assess the anti-biofilm activity of dalbavancin and compare it with that of vancomycin over a 3-month period. We designed an in vitro model in which we calculated the percentage reduction in log cfu/mL counts of sonicated steel discs contaminated with staphylococci and further exposed to bone cement discs loaded with 2.5% or 5% vancomycin and dalbavancin at various timepoints (24 h, 48 h, 1 week, 2 weeks, 6 weeks, and 3 months). In addition, we tested the anti-biofilm activity of eluted vancomycin and dalbavancin at each timepoint based on a 96-well plate model in which we assessed the percentage reduction in metabolic activity. We observed a significant decrease in the dalbavancin concentration from 2 weeks of incubation, with sustained anti-biofilm activity up to 3 months. In the case of vancomycin, we observed a significant decrease at 1 week. The concentration gradually increased, leading to significantly lower anti-biofilm activity. The percentage reduction in cfu/mL counts was higher for dalbavancin than for vancomycin at both the 2.5% and the 5% concentrations. The reduction in log cfu/mL counts was higher for S. epidermidis than for S. aureus and was particularly more notable for 5% dalbavancin at 3 months. In addition, the percentage reduction in metabolic activity also decreased at 3 months in 5% dalbavancin and 5% vancomycin, with more notable values recorded for the latter.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Dornelas-Figueira LM, Ricomini Filho AP, Junges R, et al (2023)

In Vitro Impact of Fluconazole on Oral Microbial Communities, Bacterial Growth, and Biofilm Formation.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091433.

Antifungal agents are widely used to specifically eliminate infections by fungal pathogens. However, the specificity of antifungal agents has been challenged by a few studies demonstrating antibacterial inhibitory effects against Mycobacteria and Streptomyces species. Here, we evaluated for the first time the potential effect of fluconazole, the most clinically used antifungal agent, on a human oral microbiota biofilm model. The results showed that biofilm viability on blood and mitis salivarius agar media was increased over time in the presence of fluconazole at clinically relevant concentrations, despite a reduction in biomass. Targeted PCR revealed a higher abundance of Veillonella atypica, Veillonella dispar, and Lactobacillus spp. in the fluconazole-treated samples compared to the control, while Fusobacterium nucleatum was reduced and Streptococcus spp were not significantly affected. Further, we tested the potential impact of fluconazole using single-species models. Our results, using Streptococcus mutans and Streptococcus mitis luciferase reporters, showed that S. mutans planktonic growth was not significantly affected by fluconazole, whereas for S. mitis, planktonic growth, but not biofilm viability, was inhibited at the highest concentration. Fluconazole's effects on S. mitis biofilm biomass were concentration and time dependent. Exposure for 48 h to the highest concentration of fluconazole was associated with S. mitis biofilms with the most increased biomass. Potential growth inhibitory effects were further tested using four non-streptococcal species. Among these, the planktonic growth of both Escherichia coli and Granulicatella adiacens was inhibited by fluconazole. The data indicate bacterial responses to fluconazole that extend to a broader range of bacterial species than previously anticipated from the literature, with the potential to disturb biofilm communities.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Michael CK, Lianou DT, Tsilipounidaki K, et al (2023)

Recovery of Staphylococci from Teatcups in Milking Parlours in Goat Herds in Greece: Prevalence, Identification, Biofilm Formation, Patterns of Antibiotic Susceptibility, Predictors for Isolation.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091428.

The objectives of this work are (a) to describe staphylococci on the teatcups of milking parlours in goat farms and identify predictors for the presence of staphylococcal isolates on the teatcups, (b) to evaluate relationships with total bacterial counts and somatic cell counts in bulk-tank milk, and (c) to establish patterns of susceptibility to antibiotics for the staphylococcal isolates and identify predictors for the recovery of resistant isolates. In a cross-sectional study of 66 goat farms across Greece, swab samples were collected from 303 teatcups (upper and lower part) for staphylococcal recovery, identification, and assessment of biofilm formation. Details regarding health management on the farms (including conditions in the milking parlour) and the socio-demographic characteristics of farmers were collected by means of a structured questionnaire. A total of 87 contaminated teatcups (28.7%) were found on 35 goat farms (53.0%). Staphylococci were more frequently recovered from the upper than the lower part of teatcups: 73 versus 43 teatcups, respectively. After identification, 67 staphylococcal isolates (i.e., excluding similar isolates) were recovered from the teatcups; Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus capitis, and Staphylococcus equorum predominated. Of these isolates, 82.1% were biofilm-forming. In multivariable analysis, the annual incidence of clinical mastitis in the herd emerged as the only significant factor associated with the isolation of staphylococci from the teatcups. Of the 67 isolates, 23 (34.3%) were resistant to at least one antibiotic, and 14 (22.4%) were multi-resistant. Resistance was found most commonly against penicillin and ampicillin (22.4% of isolates), fosfomycin (17.9%), clindamycin (14.9%), erythromycin, and tetracycline (13.4%). In multivariable analysis, the annual incidence of clinical mastitis in the herd and the use of detergent for parlour cleaning emerged as significant factors associated with the isolation of staphylococci resistant to antibiotics.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Batista S, Fernandez-Pittol M, Nicolás LS, et al (2023)

In Vitro Effect of Three-Antibiotic Combinations plus Potential Antibiofilm Agents against Biofilm-Producing Mycobacterium avium and Mycobacterium intracellulare Clinical Isolates.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091409.

Patients with chronic pulmonary diseases infected by Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) often develop complications and suffer from treatment failure due to biofilm formation. There is a lack of correlation between in vitro susceptibility tests and the treatment of clinical isolates producing biofilm. We performed susceptibility tests of 10 different three-drug combinations, including two recommended in the guidelines, in biofilm forms of eight MAC clinical isolates. Biofilm developed in the eight isolates following incubation of the inoculum for 3 weeks. Then, the biofilm was treated with three-drug combinations with and without the addition of potential antibiofilm agents (PAAs). Biofilm bactericidal concentrations (BBCs) were determined using the Vizion lector system. All selected drug combinations showed synergistic activity, reducing BBC values compared to those treated with single drugs, but BBC values remained high enough to treat patients. However, with the addition of PAAs, the BBCs steadily decreased, achieving similar values to the combinations in planktonic forms and showing synergistic activity in all the combinations and in both species. In conclusion, three-drug combinations with PAAs showed synergistic activity in biofilm forms of MAC isolates. Our results suggest the need for clinical studies introducing PAAs combined with antibiotics for the treatment of patients with pulmonary diseases infected by MAC.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ban-Cucerzan A, Morar A, Tîrziu E, et al (2023)

Evaluation of Antimicrobial Resistance Profiles of Bacteria Isolated from Biofilm in Meat Processing Units.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091408.

The aim of this study was to assess the hygiene of pork, beef, and poultry carcasses and to determine the phenotypic antibiotic susceptibility of the bacteria embedded in the biofilm formed on the carcasses kept in cooling chambers for at least three days. The level of hygiene was assessed by determining the total aerobic colony count (TACC) and the Enterobacteriaceae level in different sampling points of the carcasses, along with the detection of E. coli and Pseudomonas spp. embedded in the biofilm. Furthermore, the E. coli and Pseudomonas spp. isolates were tested for antimicrobial resistance profiles. A total of 130 samples collected from pork, beef, and poultry from processing units were analyzed to determine the total aerobic colony count as well as to measure the level of Enterobacteriaceae found on the carcasses. The antimicrobial susceptibility of 44 Escherichia coli and eight Pseudomonas spp. strains isolated from the carcasses were assessed using the Vitek 2 system using two different cards. Overall, the regulatory limits for the TACC were exceeded in 7.6% of the samples, and 65% of the samples exceeded the regulatory limits for Enterobacteriaceae levels. The antimicrobial susceptibility tests of the E. coli isolates analyzed with the AST-GN27 card revealed the highest resistance to be that towards ampicillin (76.1%), followed by cefazolin (71.4%), amoxicillin/clavulanic acid (61.9%), nitrofurantoin (52.3%), cefoxitin (47.6%), tetracycline (38.1%), piperacillin, norfloxacin (19%), trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (11.9%), cefotaxime (9.5%), ceftazidime, cefazolin, amikacin, gentamicin, and ciprofloxacin (4.7%). However, all of the isolates were sensitive to piperacillin-tazobactam and imipenem. Thirty-two (61.5%; 95% CI 47.9-73.5) out of fifty-two isolates exhibited multidrug resistance, resulting in the expression of 10 resistance profiles. The findings of this study highlight serious hygienic and sanitary deficiencies within the meat processing units and demonstrate that the resulting meat can harbor Multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas spp., both of which pose a serious public health risk. However, further research with a larger number of samples is required to reach thorough results.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Qamer S, Che-Hamzah F, Misni N, et al (2023)

Deploying a Novel Approach to Prepare Silver Nanoparticle Bellamya bengalensis Extract Conjugate Coating on Orthopedic Implant Biomaterial Discs to Prevent Potential Biofilm Formation.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091403.

This study is based on the premise of investigating antibacterial activity through a novel conjugate of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) and antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) in line with a green synthesis approach by developing antimicrobial-coated implants to prevent bacterial resistance. The AMPs were obtained from Bellamya Bengalensis (BB), a freshwater snail, to prepare the nanocomposite conjugate, e.g., AgNPs@BB extract, by making use of UV-Visible spectroscopy. The antimicrobial assessment of AgNPs@BB extract conjugate was performed using the Resazurin Microtiter Assay Method (REMA), followed by the use of three biocompatible implant materials (titanium alloys, Ti 6AL-4V stainless steel 316L, and polyethylene). Finally, the coating was analyzed under confocal microscopy. The results revealed a significant reduction of biofilm formation on the surfaces of implants coated with conjugate (AgNPs@BB extract) in comparison to uncoated implants. For the MTT assay, no significant changes were recorded for the cells grown on the AgNPs/AMP++ sample in high concentrations. Staphylococcus epidermidis, however, showed more prominent growth on all implants in comparison to Staphylococcus aureus. It is evident from the results that Staphylococcus epidermidis is more susceptible to AgNPs@BB extract, while the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) value of AgNPs@BB extract conjugates and biosynthesized AgNPs was also on the higher side. This study indicates that AgNPs@BB extract carries antibacterial activity, and concludes that an excessive concentration of AgNPs@BB extract may affect the improved biocompatibility. This study recommends using robust, retentive, and antimicrobial coatings of AgNPs@BB extract for implantable biocompatible materials in accordance with the novel strategy of biomaterial applications.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Rana ML, Firdous Z, Ferdous FB, et al (2023)

Antimicrobial Resistance, Biofilm Formation, and Virulence Determinants in Enterococcus faecalis Isolated from Cultured and Wild Fish.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091375.

Fish has always been an integral part of Bengali cuisine and economy. Fish could also be a potential reservoir of pathogens. This study aimed to inquisite the distribution of virulence, biofilm formation, and antimicrobial resistance of Enterococcus faecalis isolated from wild and cultivated fish in Bangladesh. A total of 132 koi fish (Anabas scandens) and catfish (Heteropneustes fossilis) were collected from different markets in the Mymensingh district and analyzed to detect E. faecalis. E. faecalis was detected by conventional culture and polymerase chain reaction (PCR), followed by the detection of virulence genes by PCR. Antibiotic susceptibility was determined using the disk diffusion method, and biofilm-forming ability was investigated by crystal violet microtiter plate (CVMP) methods. A total of 47 wild and 40 cultured fish samples were confirmed positive for E. faecalis by PCR. The CVMP method revealed four per cent of isolates from cultured fish as strong biofilm formers, but no strong producers were found from the wild fish. In the PCR test, 45% of the isolates from the wild and cultivated fish samples were found to be positive for at least one biofilm-producing virulence gene, where agg, ace, gelE, pil, and fsrC genes were detected in 80, 95, 100, 93, and 100% of the isolates, respectively. Many of the isolates from both types of samples were multidrug resistant (MDR) (73% in local fish and 100% in cultured fish), with 100% resistance to erythromycin, linezolid, penicillin, and rifampicin in E. faecalis from cultured fish and 73.08, 69.23, 69.23, and 76.92%, respectively, in E. faecalis from wild fish. This study shows that E. faecalis from wild fish have a higher frequency of virulence genes and biofilm-forming genes than cultivated fish. However, compared to wild fish, cultured fish were found to carry E. faecalis that was more highly multidrug resistant. Present findings suggest that both wild and cultured fish could be potential sources for MDR E. faecalis, having potential public health implications.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Abdo A, McWhorter A, Hasse D, et al (2023)

Efficacy of Plasma-Treated Water against Salmonella Typhimurium: Antibacterial Activity, Inhibition of Invasion, and Biofilm Disruption.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091371.

Plasma-treated water (PTW) has emerged as a potential sanitizing agent. This study evaluated antibacterial activity, inhibition of invasion, and biofilm disruption effects of PTW against Salmonella Typhimurium. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) and minimum bactericidal concentrations (MBCs) were determined for different PTW types. Time-kill assays were conducted to assess bactericidal effects, while polarized Caco-2 cells were used to evaluate invasion inhibition. Biofilm formation and cell viability were examined following PTW treatment using Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, while biofilm disruption and regrowth prevention were investigated using the Bioflux system. PTW exhibited antibacterial activity against all Salmonella Typhimurium isolates, with MICs of 25% for PTW1 and PTW2, and 50% for PTW3, PTW4, and PTW5. MBCs of 50% in media were observed for all PTW types. Undiluted PTW1 and PTW2 showed the highest bactericidal capacity, significantly reduced Salmonella viability, and completely inhibited bacterial invasion, while PTW3 and PTW5 also showed significant invasion reduction. Bioflux experiments confirmed the eradication of biofilms by PTW1 and PTW2, with no regrowth observed 72 h after PTW was removed. PTW demonstrated significant antibacterial activity, inhibition of invasion, biofilm disruption, and reduction of bacterial viability against Salmonella Typhimurium. This highlights PTW's potential as an effective sanitizer for reducing Salmonella contaminations.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Natsheh IY, Elkhader MT, Al-Bakheit AA, et al (2023)

Inhibition of Acinetobacter baumannii Biofilm Formation Using Different Treatments of Silica Nanoparticles.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antibiotics12091365.

There exists a multitude of pathogens that pose a threat to human and public healthcare, collectively referred to as ESKAPE pathogens. These pathogens are capable of producing biofilm, which proves to be quite resistant to elimination. Strains of A. baumannii, identified by the "A" in the acronym ESKAPE, exhibit significant resistance to amoxicillin in vivo due to their ability to form biofilm. This study aims to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation, evaluate novel silica nanoparticles' effectiveness in inhibiting biofilm, and compare their effectiveness. Amoxicillin was utilized as a positive control, with a concentration exceeding twice that when combined with silica NPs. Treatments included pure silica NPs, silica NPs modified with copper oxide (CuO.SiO2), sodium hydroxide (NaOH.SiO2), and phosphoric acid (H3PO4.SiO2). The characterization of NPs was conducted using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), while safety testing against normal fibroblast cells was employed by MTT assay. The microtiter plate biofilm formation assay was utilized to construct biofilm, with evaluations conducted using three broth media types: brain heart infusion (BHI) with 2% glucose and 2% sucrose, Loria broth (LB) with and without glucose and sucrose, and Dulbecco's modified eagle medium/nutrient (DMEN/M). Concentrations ranging from 1.0 mg/mL to 0.06 µg/mL were tested using a microdilution assay. Results from SEM showed that pure silica NPs were mesoporous, but in the amorphous shape of the CuO and NaOH treatments, these pores were disrupted, while H3PO4 was composed of sheets. Silica NPs were able to target Acinetobacter biofilms without harming normal cells, with viability rates ranging from 61-73%. The best biofilm formation was achieved using a BHI medium with sugar supplementation, with an absorbance value of 0.35. Biofilms treated with 5.0 mg/mL of amoxicillin as a positive control alongside 1.0 mg/mL of each of the four silica treatments in isolation, resulting in the inhibition of absorbance values of 0.04, 0.13, 0.07, 0.09, and 0.08, for SiO2, CuO.SiO2, NaOH.SiO2 and H3PO4.SiO2, respectively. When amoxicillin was combined, inhibition increased from 0.3 to 0.04; NaOH with amoxicillin resulted in the lowest minimum biofilm inhibitory concentration (MBIC), 0.25 µg/mL, compared to all treatments and amoxicillin, whereas pure silica and composite had the highest MBIC, even when combined with amoxicillin, compared to all treatments, but performed better than that of the amoxicillin alone which gave the MBIC at 625 µg/mL. The absorbance values of MBIC of each treatment showed no significant differences in relation to amoxicillin absorbance value and relation to each other. Our study showed that smaller amoxicillin doses combined with the novel silica nanoparticles may reduce toxic side effects and inhibit biofilm formation, making them viable alternatives to high-concentration dosages. Further investigation is needed to evaluate in vivo activity.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Wang Y, Gao H, Chang L, et al (2023)

Efficient Removal of Dental Plaque Biofilm from Training Typodont Teeth via Water Flosser.

Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland), 10(9): pii:bioengineering10091061.

Plaque biofilms play critical roles in the development of dental caries. Mechanical plaque control methods are considered to be most effective for plaque removal, such as brushing teeth or using flosser. Recently, water flosser has been paid much attention. Here, we tested the ability of a water flosser to remove the adhered sucrose and the dental plaque biofilms formed by Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Actinobacillus viscosus. We found that the residual sucrose concentration was 3.54 mg/mL in the control group, 1.75 mg/mL in the syringe group (simulating the ordinary mouthwash), and 0 mg/mL in water flosser group. In addition, the residual bacterial concentration was 3.6 × 10[8] CFU/mL in the control group, 1.6 × 10[7] CFU/mL in the syringe group, and only 5.5 × 10[5] CFU/mL in the water flosser group. In summary, water flosser is effective for cleaning the teeth, which may have significant potential in preventing dental caries and maintaining oral health.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Habib T, Rahman A, Nair AB, et al (2023)

Application of Three Compounds Extracted from Cynodon dactylon against Streptococcus mutans Biofilm Formation to Prevent Oral Diseases.

Biomolecules, 13(9): pii:biom13091292.

Streptococcus mutans bacteria form a biofilm called plaque that causes oral diseases, including tooth decay. Therefore, inhibition of biofilm formation is essential to maintaining good oral health. The health and nutritional benefits of Cynodon dactylon are well documented, but very little is known about its use to treat against oral diseases. The aim of this study was to detect the adhesion strength of the S. mutans bacterial biofilm in 100 cases in the Rajshahi region and evaluate the inhibitory activity of different compound extracts of C. dactylon on the S. mutans bacterial biofilm by determining the composition of isolated compounds using phytochemical analysis. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy confirmed that three specific compounds from C. dactylon were discovered in this study: 3,7,11,15 tetramethyl hexadec-2-4dien 1-o1, compound 3,7,11,15 tetramethylhexadec-2-en-1-o1 from phytol derivatives, and stigmasterol. Results indicated that the compound of 3,7,11,15-tetramethyl-hexadec-2-en-1-ol exhibited higher antibiofilm activities on S. mutans than those of the other compound extracts. A lower level of minimum inhibitory concentration was exposed by 3, 7, 11,15 tetramethyl hexadeca-2-en-1-o1 (T2) on S. mutans at 12.5 mL. In this case, the compound of 3,7,11,15 tetramethyl hexadec 2en-1-o1 was used, and patients showed a mean value and standard error reduced from 3.42 ± 0.21 to 0.33 ± 0.06 nm. The maximum inhibition was (80.10%) in the case of patient no. 17, with a value of p < 0.05 found for S. mutans to which 12.5 μL/mL ethyl acetate extract was applied. From these findings, it may be concluded that C. dactylon extracts can be incorporated into various oral preparations to prevent tooth decay.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Greenwich JL, Fleming D, Banin E, et al (2023)

The biofilm community resurfaces: new findings and post-pandemic progress.

Journal of bacteriology [Epub ahead of print].

The ninth American Society for Microbiology Conference on Biofilms was convened in-person on 13-17 November 2022 in Charlotte, NC. As the first of these conferences since prior to the start of the COVID-19 pandemic, the energy among the participants of the conference was clear, and the meeting was a tremendous success. The mixture of >330 oral and poster presentations resoundingly embodied the vitality of biofilm research across a wide range of topics and multiple scientific disciplines. Special activities, including a pre-conference symposium for early career researchers, further enhanced the attendee experience. As a general theme, the conference was deliberately structured to provide high levels of participation and engagement among early career scientists.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Zhang H, Zhang Z, Li J, et al (2023)

New Strategies for Biocontrol of Bacterial Toxins and Virulence: Focusing on Quorum-Sensing Interference and Biofilm Inhibition.

Toxins, 15(9): pii:toxins15090570.

The overuse of antibiotics and the emergence of multiple-antibiotic-resistant pathogens are becoming a serious threat to health security and the economy. Reducing antimicrobial resistance requires replacing antibiotic consumption with more biocontrol strategies to improve the immunity of animals and humans. Probiotics and medicinal plants have been used as alternative treatments or preventative therapies for a variety of diseases caused by bacterial infections. Therefore, we reviewed some of the anti-virulence and bacterial toxin-inhibiting strategies that are currently being developed; this review covers strategies focused on quenching pathogen quorum sensing (QS) systems, the disruption of biofilm formation and bacterial toxin neutralization. It highlights the probable mechanism of action for probiotics and medicinal plants. Although further research is needed before a definitive statement can be made on the efficacy of any of these interventions, the current literature offers new hope and a new tool in the arsenal in the fight against bacterial virulence factors and bacterial toxins.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Peters MK, Astafyeva Y, Han Y, et al (2023)

Novel marine metalloprotease-new approaches for inhibition of biofilm formation of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Many marine organisms produce bioactive molecules with unique characteristics to survive in their ecological niches. These enzymes can be applied in biotechnological processes and in the medical sector to replace aggressive chemicals that are harmful to the environment. Especially in the human health sector, there is a need for new approaches to fight against pathogens like Stenotrophomonas maltophilia which forms thick biofilms on artificial joints or catheters and causes serious diseases. Our approach was to use enrichment cultures of five marine resources that underwent sequence-based screenings in combination with deep omics analyses in order to identify enzymes with antibiofilm characteristics. Especially the supernatant of the enrichment culture of a stony coral caused a 40% reduction of S. maltophilia biofilm formation. In the presence of the supernatant, our transcriptome dataset showed a clear stress response (upregulation of transcripts for metal resistance, antitoxins, transporter, and iron acquisition) to the treatment. Further investigation of the enrichment culture metagenome and proteome indicated a series of potential antimicrobial enzymes. We found an impressive group of metalloproteases in the proteome of the supernatant that is responsible for the detected anti-biofilm effect against S. maltophilia. KEY POINTS: • Omics-based discovery of novel marine-derived antimicrobials for human health management by inhibition of S. maltophilia • Up to 40% reduction of S. maltophilia biofilm formation by the use of marine-derived samples • Metalloprotease candidates prevent biofilm formation of S. maltophilia K279a by up to 20.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Pan S, Erdmann M, Terrell J, et al (2023)

A putative lipase affects Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm matrix production.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an opportunistic pathogen that is widely known for infecting patients with underlying conditions. This species often survives antibiotic therapy by forming biofilms, in which the cells produce a protective extracellular matrix. P. aeruginosa also produces virulence factors that enhance its ability to cause disease. One signaling pathway that influences virulence is the nitrogen-related phosphotransferase system (Nitro-PTS), which consists of an initial phosphotransferase, PtsP, a phosphocarrier, PtsO, and a terminal phosphate receptor, PtsN. The physiological role of the Nitro-PTS in P. aeruginosa is poorly understood. However, PtsN, when deprived of its upstream phosphotransfer proteins, has an antagonistic effect on biofilm formation. We thus conducted a transposon mutagenesis screen in an unphosphorylated-PtsN (i.e., ∆ptsP) background to identify downstream proteins with unacknowledged roles in PtsN-mediated biofilm suppression. We found an unstudied gene, PA14_04030, whose disruption restored biofilm production. This gene encodes a predicted phospholipase with signature alpha/beta hydrolase folds and a lipase signature motif with an active-site Ser residue. Hence, we renamed the gene bipL, for biofilm-impacting phospholipase. Deletion of bipL in a ∆ptsP background increased biofilm formation, supporting the idea that BipL is responsible for reducing biofilm formation in strains with unphosphorylated PtsN. Moreover, substituting the putative catalytic Ser for Ala phenocopied bipL deletion, indicating that this residue is important for the biofilm-suppressive activity of BipL in vivo. As our preliminary data suggest that BipL is a lipase, we performed lipidomics to detect changes in the lipid profile due to bipL deletion and found changes in some lipid species. IMPORTANCE Biofilm formation by bacteria occurs when cells secrete an extracellular matrix that holds them together and shields them from environmental insults. Biofilms of bacterial opportunistic human pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa pose a substantial challenge to clinical antimicrobial therapy. Hence, a more complete knowledge about the bacterial factors that influence and regulate production of the biofilm matrix is one key to formulate more effective therapeutic strategies. In this study, we screen for factors that are important for reducing biofilm matrix production in certain genetic backgrounds. We unexpectedly found a gene encoding a putative lipase enzyme and showed that its predicted catalytic site is important for its ability to reduce biofilm formation. Our findings suggest that lipase enzymes have previously uncharacterized functions in biofilm matrix regulation.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Luo Z, Shi T, Ruan Z, et al (2023)

Quorum Sensing Interference Assisted Therapy-Based Magnetic Hyperthermia Amplifier for Synergistic Biofilm Treatment.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilms offer bacteria a physical and metabolic barrier, enhancing their tolerance to external stress. Consequently, these biofilms limit the effectiveness of conventional antimicrobial treatment. Recently, quorum sensing (QS) has been linked to biofilm's stress response to thermal, oxidative, and osmotic stress. Herein, a multiple synergistic therapeutic strategy that couples quorum sensing interference assisted therapy (QSIAT)-mediated enhanced thermal therapy with bacteria-triggered immunomodulation in a single nanoplatform, is presented. First, as magnetic hyperthermia amplifier, hyaluronic acid-coated ferrite (HA@MnFe2 O4) attenuates the stress response of biofilm by down-regulating QS-related genes, including agrA, agrC, and hld. Next, the sensitized bacteria are eliminated with magnetic heat. QS interference and heat also destruct the biofilm, and provide channels for further penetration of nanoparticles. Moreover, triggered by bacterial hyaluronidase, the wrapped hyaluronic acid (HA) decomposes into disaccharides at the site of infection and exerts healing effect. Thus, by reversing the bacterial tissue invasion mechanism for antimicrobial purpose, tissue regeneration following pathogen invasion and thermal therapy is successfully attained. RNA-sequencing demonstrates the QS-mediated stress response impairment. In vitro and in vivo experiments reveal the excellent antibiofilm and anti-inflammatory effects of HA@MnFe2 O4 . Overall, QSIAT provides a universal enhancement strategy for amplifying the bactericidal effects of conventional therapy via stress response interference.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Vincy A, Gaikwad Y, Agarwal H, et al (2023)

A Label-Free and Ultrasensitive Prussian Blue-Based Dipstick Sensor for Bacterial and Biofilm Detection.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

Water and food contamination has become the major contributor to infections and deaths. However, rapid and sensitive bacterial detection still remains an unmet demand that has attracted widespread attention. Often water and food samples are sent out for laboratory testing to detect the presence of contamination, which is time-consuming and laborious. Herein, we have developed a highly sensitive, tenable, affordable, and robust (STAR) paper-based colorimetric dipstick sensor based on the principle of Prussian blue (PB) synthesis as an indicator of bacterial contamination. In the presence of bacteria, it leads to the formation of PB, a dye that acts as a colorimetric indicator. The intensity of the PB is the direct measure of the degree of contamination. The fabrication of the STAR dipstick sensor involves a simple and cost-effective process. The STAR dipstick sensor is ultrasensitive and can detect up to 10[1] CFU/mL of bacteria within minutes of contact with the test sample. The STAR dipstick sensor is fabricated using biodegradable components, which is speculated to facilitate quick and environmentally friendly degradation after each use. The sensor has been validated for its properties and capabilities at different pH to detect both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains in real-time samples. The stability and degradation were also monitored. Comprehensively, the proposed STAR dipstick sensor can serve as a point-of-care device to detect bacterial contamination in a swift and sensitive manner.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Song Y, Sun M, Mu G, et al (2023)

Exopolysaccharide produced by Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Y12 exhibits inhibitory effect on the Shigella flexneri genes expression related to biofilm formation.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(23)03945-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Shigella is a specific enteric pathogen in humans, causing symptoms of bacterial dysentery. The biofilm formation of S. flexneri contributes to the emergence of multidrug resistance and facilitates the establishment of persistent chronic infections. This study investigated the regulatory effects of Lactiplantibacillus plantarum Y12 exopolysaccharide (L-EPS) on gene expression and its spatial hindrance effects in inhibiting the biofilm formation of S. flexneri. The transcriptome analysis revealed a significant impact of L-EPS on the gene expression profile of S. flexneri, with a total of 968 genes showing significant changes (507 up-regulated and 461 down-regulated). The significantly down-regulated KEGG metabolic pathway enriched in phosphotransferase system, Embden-Meyerhf-Parnas, Citrate cycle, Lipopolysaccharide biosynthesis, Cationic antimicrobial peptide resistance, Two-component system. Moreover, L-EPS significantly down-regulated the gene expression levels of fimbriae synthesis (fimF), lipopolysaccharide synthesis (lptE, lptB), anchor protein repeat domain (arpA), virulence factor (lpp, yqgB), antibiotic resistance (marR, cusB, mdtL, mdlB), heavy metal resistance (zraP), and polysaccharide synthesis (mtgA, mdoB, mdoC). The expression of biofilm regulator factor (bssS) and two-component system suppressor factor (mgrB) were significantly up-regulated. The RT-qPCR results indicated that a major component of L-EPS (L-EPS 2-1) exhibited the gene regulatory effect on the S. flexneri biofilm formation. Furthermore, electrophoresis and isothermal microtitration calorimetry demonstrated that the interaction between L-EPS 2-1 and eDNA is electrostatic dependent on the change in environmental pH, disrupting the stable spatial structure of S. flexneri biofilm. In conclusion, L-EPS inhibited the biofilm formation of S. flexneri through gene regulation and spatial obstruction effects.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Gómez AC, Horgan C, Yero D, et al (2023)

Synthesis and evaluation of aromatic BDSF bioisosteres on biofilm formation and colistin sensitivity in pathogenic bacteria.

European journal of medicinal chemistry, 261:115819 pii:S0223-5234(23)00786-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The diffusible signal factor family (DSF) of molecules play an important role in regulating intercellular communication, or quorum sensing, in several disease-causing bacteria. These messenger molecules, which are comprised of cis-unsaturated fatty acids, are involved in the regulation of biofilm formation, antibiotic tolerance, virulence and the control of bacterial resistance. We have previously demonstrated how olefinic N-acyl sulfonamide bioisosteric analogues of diffusible signal factor can reduce biofilm formation or enhance antibiotic sensitivity in a number of bacterial strains. This work describes the design and synthesis of a second generation of aromatic N-acyl sulfonamide bioisosteres. The impact of these compounds on biofilm production in Acinetobacter baumannii, Escherichia coli, Burkholderia multivorans, Burkholderia cepacia, Burkholderia cenocepacia, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Stenotrophomonas maltophilia is evaluated, in addition to their effects on antibiotic tolerance. The ability of these molecules to increase survival rates on co-administration with colistin is also investigated using the Galleria infection model.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Song Z, Liao R, Zhang X, et al (2023)

Simultaneous methanogenesis and denitrification in an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor for landfill leachate treatment: Ameliorative effect of rhamnolipids.

Water research, 245:120646 pii:S0043-1354(23)01086-2 [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, an anaerobic moving bed biofilm reactor (AnMBBR) was developed for simultaneous methanogenesis and denitrification (SMD) to treat high-strength landfill leachate for the first time. A novel strategy using biosurfactant to ameliorate the inhibition of landfill leachate on the SMD performance was proposed and the underlying mechanisms were explored comprehensively. With the help of rhamnolipids, the chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency of landfill leachate was improved from 86.0% ± 2.9% to 97.5% ± 1.6%, while methane yields increased from 50.1 mL/g-COD to 69.6 mL/g-COD, and the removal efficiency of NO3[-]-N was also slightly increased from 92.5% ± 1.9% to 95.6% ± 1.0%. The addition of rhamnolipids increased the number of live cells and enhanced the secretion of extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) and key enzyme activity, indicating that the inhibitory effect was significantly ameliorated. Methanogenic and denitrifying bacteria were enhanced by 1.6 and 1.1 times, respectively. Analysis of the microbial metabolic pathways demonstrated that landfill leachate inhibited the expression of genes involved in methanogenesis and denitrification, and that their relative abundance could be upregulated with the assistance of rhamnolipids addition. Moreover, extended Deraguin - Landau - Verwery - Oxerbeek (XDLVO) theory analysis indicated that rhamnolipids reduced the repulsive interaction between biofilms and pollutants with a 57.0% decrease in the energy barrier, and thus accelerated the adsorption and uptake of pollutants onto biofilm biomass. This finding provides a low-carbon biological treatment protocol for landfill leachate and a reliable and effective strategy for its sustainable application.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Kuang H, Bi H, Li X, et al (2023)

Inhibition of S. aureus biofilm formation by linezolid alleviates sepsis-induced lung injury caused by S. aureus infection through direct inhibition of icaA activity.

The new microbiologica, 46(3):285-295.

Antibiotic-resistant S. aureus infections can be life-threatening. Linezolid is known to hinder S. aureus biofilm formation, but the underlying molecular mechanism remains unclear. Molecular docking revealed that linezolid can bind to icaA, and this was confirmed by thermal drift assays. Linezolid demonstrated a dose-dependent inhibition of icaA enzyme activity. Mutating Trp267, a key residue identified through molecular docking, significantly decreased linezolid binding and inhibitory effects on mutant icaA activity. However, the mutant icaA Trp267Ala showed only slight activity reduction compared to icaA. Linezolid had minimal impact on icaB's thermal stability and activity. The 50S ribosomal L3ΔSer145 mutant S. aureus exhibited similar growth and biofilm formation to the wild-type strain. Linezolid effectively suppressed the growth and biofilm formation of wildtype S. aureus. Although linezolid lost its ability to inhibit the growth of the mutant strain, it still effectively hindered its biofilm formation. Linezolid exhibited weaker attenuation of sepsis-induced lung injury caused by 50S ribosomal L3ΔSer145 mutant S. aureus compared to wild-type S. aureus. These findings indicate that linezolid hampers S. aureus biofilm formation by directly inhibiting icaA activity, independently of its impact on bacterial growth.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Du Z, Han J, Luo J, et al (2023)

Combination effects of baicalin with linezolid against Staphylococcus aureus biofilm-related infections: in vivo animal model.

The new microbiologica, 46(3):258-263.

Staphylococcus aureus is a gram-positive bacterium that can produce biofilm, and biofilm-associated infections are difficult to control. Biofilm prevents antibiotics from penetrating and killing the bacteria. Combined use of antimicrobials is a common strategy to treat S. aureus biofilm-related infections. In this in vivo study, the clinically isolated strain of S. aureus 17546 (t037) was selected to establish a biofilm-associated infection rat model, and baicalin and linezolid were used to treat the infection. CFU counting was used to determine the bacteria within the biofilm, the biofilm structure was viewed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), histopathology was performed, and inflammatory factors were analyzed by ELISA. Baicalin was efficient in destroying the biofilm and exerted a synergistic bactericidal effect when combined with linezolid. Based on these findings, baicalin combined with linezolid may be efficacious in controlling S. aureus biofilm-related infections.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Zhou Y, Liu Z, Wen J, et al (2023)

The inhibitory effect of berberine chloride hydrate on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation at different pH values.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Streptococcus mutans (S. mutans) is one of the major cariogenic bacteria of dental caries owing to its ability to adhere to tooth surfaces and biofilm formation. Berberine chloride hydrate (BH), a quaternary ammonium salt alkaloid, has diverse pharmacological efforts against microorganisms. However, the effect of BH on S. mutans biofilm has not been reported. Considering that berberine is a quaternary ammonium salt alkaloid, which needs to adapt to a large variation in pH values and the acid resistance of S. mutans, we employed three groups including pH 5 (acidic), pH 8 (alkaline), and unprocessed group (neutral) to examine the antibiofilm activities of BH against S. mutans during different pH values. In this study, we found BH effectively suppresses S. mutans biofilm formation as well as its cariogenic virulence including acid production and EPS synthesis significantly, and the inhibitory effort was reduced under acidic condition whereas elevated under alkaline condition. In addition, we preliminarily explored the influence of pH values on the structural stability and biosafety of BHas well as the underlying mechanism of inhibition of S. mutans biofilm formation with BH. Our study showed BH could maintain a good structural stability and low toxicity to erythrocytes at different pH values. And BH could downregulate the expression of srtA, spaP, and gbpC, which play critical roles in the adhesion process, promoting bacterial colonization and biofilm formation. Furthermore, comX and ldh expression levels were downregulated in BH-treated group, which might explain its inhibitory effect on acid production.IMPORTANCEDental caries is a common chronic detrimental disease, which could cause a series of oral problem including oral pain, difficulties in eating, and so on. Recently, many natural products have been considered as fundamental sources of therapeutic drugs to prevent caries. Berberine as a plant extract showed good antibiofilm abilities against microorganism. Our study focuses on its antibiofilm abilities against S. mutans, which was defined as major cariogenic bacterium and explored the role of pH values and possible underlying mechanisms in the inhibitory effect of BH on S. mutans biofilm formation. This study demonstrated a promising prospect for BH as an adjuvant drug in the prevention and management of dental caries.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Mugge RL, Rakocinski CF, Woolsey M, et al (2023)

Proximity to built structures on the seabed promotes biofilm development and diversity.

Biofouling [Epub ahead of print].

The rapidly expanding built environment in the northern Gulf of Mexico includes thousands of human built structures (e.g. platforms, shipwrecks) on the seabed. Primary-colonizing microbial biofilms transform structures into artificial reefs capable of supporting biodiversity, yet little is known about formation and recruitment of biofilms. Short-term seafloor experiments containing steel surfaces were placed near six structures, including historic shipwrecks and modern decommissioned energy platforms. Biofilms were analyzed for changes in phylogenetic composition, richness, and diversity relative to proximity to the structures. The biofilm core microbiome was primarily composed of iron-oxidizing Mariprofundus, sulfur-oxidizing Sulfurimonas, and biofilm-forming Rhodobacteraceae. Alpha diversity and richness significantly declined as a function of distance from structures. This study explores how built structures influence marine biofilms and contributes knowledge on how anthropogenic activity impacts microbiomes on the seabed.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Li Y, M Ni (2023)

Regulation of biofilm formation in Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1238482.

Klebsiella pneumoniae is an important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen that is responsible for a variety of nosocomial and community-acquired infections. Klebsiella pneumoniae has become a major public health issue owing to the rapid global spread of extensively-drug resistant (XDR) and hypervirulent strains. Biofilm formation is an important virulence trait of K. pneumoniae. A biofilm is an aggregate of microorganisms attached to an inert or living surface by a self-produced exo-polymeric matrix that includes proteins, polysaccharides and extracellular DNA. Bacteria within the biofilm are shielded from antibiotics treatments and host immune responses, making it more difficult to eradicate K. pneumoniae-induced infection. However, the detailed mechanisms of biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae are still not clear. Here, we review the factors involved in the biofilm formation of K. pneumoniae, which might provide new clues to address this clinical challenge.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Shui J, Luo L, Xiang YG, et al (2023)

[Analysis of biofilm-forming ability and drug resistance for Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae].

Zhonghua yu fang yi xue za zhi [Chinese journal of preventive medicine], 57(9):1452-1457.

Investigate the biofilm-forming ability and drug resistance of Hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae (HvKP) to provide scientific basis for the treatment of HvKP-infection. A total of 96 Klebsiella pneumoniae strains isolated from clinical infection specimens in Changsha Central Hospital from January to December in 2021 were retrospectively collected, and the clinical data of patients were collected. The string test preliminarily distinguished between HvKP and classic Klebsiella pneumoniae (CKP). The biofilm-forming ability of clinical strains of Klebsiella pneumoniae (KP) was determined by microplate method. The Vitek 2 Compact automatic microbial identification/drug sensitivity analysis system was used for bacterial identification and drug sensitivity test. The clinical data of patients, biofilm forming ability and drug resistance in the HvKP group and those in the CKP group were compared and analyzed. The results showed that a total of 20 strains of HvKP were isolated from 96 non-repetitive KP, and the detection rate was 20.8%. HvKP mainly come from respiratory specimens, up to 75.0%.The prevalence of hepatobiliary diseases and the infection rate of multiple sites in patients with HvKP infection were higher than those in patients with CKP infection, and the difference was statistically significant(χ[2]=5.184,7.488;P=0.023,0.006).There was no significant difference between the two groups in terms of gender, age, ICU admission, hypertension, diabetes, coronary heart disease, lung disease, urinary system disease, central nervous system disease and laboratory test indexes (all P>0.05).17 (85.0%) strains of HvKP can form biofilm, including 2 strains with weak biofilm-forming ability (10.0%), 10 strains with moderate biofilm-forming ability (50.0%) and 5 strains with strong biofilm-forming ability (25.0%). Among the 76 CKP, 71 (93.4%) could form biofilm, including 13 (17.1%) with weak biofilm-forming ability, 30(39.5%) with moderate biofilm-forming ability and 28 (36.8%) with strong biofilm-forming ability. There was no significant difference in biofilm-forming ability between HvKP and CKP (χ[2]=1.470,P=0.225).The overall resistance rate of HvKP was not high, but a multi-resistant HvKP resistant to carbapenems was found. The detection rate of multi-resistant HvKP (5.0%) was lower than that of multi-resistant CKP (28.9%), and the difference was statistically significant (χ[2]=4.984, P=0.026).The resistance rate of HvKP to piperacillin/tazobactam, aztreonam, ciprofloxacin, levofloxacin, ceftazidime, cefepime, tobramycin, minocycline, doxycycline, and compound sulfamethoxazole was lower than that of CKP, and the difference was statistically significant (all P<0.05). In conclusion, most of hypervirulent Klebsiella pneumoniae can form biofilm in this study, but the difference of biofilm-forming ability is not obvious compared with classic Klebsiella pneumoniae. HvKP maintains high sensitivity to commonly used antibacterial drugs, but the drug resistance monitoring of the bacteria cannot be ignored.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Wu K, Zhang T, Chai X, et al (2023)

Study on the formation and anti-biofilm properties of cinnamon essential oil inclusion complexes by the structure of modified β-cyclodextrins.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(23)00394-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Essential oils (EOs), which are plant-oriented anti-biofilm agents, are extensively encapsulated by cyclodextrins to overcome their aqueous solubility and chemical instability, and achieve slow release during long-term storage. However, the biological activities of EOs decreased after initial encapsulation in CDs. In this study, modified-β-cyclodextrins (β-CDs) were screened as wall materials to maintained the initial anti-biofilm effect of pure CEO. The inhibitory and bactericidal activities of CEO encapsulated in five types of β-CDs with different substituents (primary hydroxyl, maltosyl, hydroxypropyl, methyl, and carboxymethyl) against Staphylococcus aureus biofilm were evaluated. Crystal violet assay and 3D-View observations suggested that CEO and its inclusion complexes (CEO-ICs) inhibited Staphylococcus aureus biofilm formation through the inhibition of colonising spreading, exopolysaccharide synthesis, and cell surface properties. Molecular docking revealed the causes of the decrease in the anti-biofilm effect after encapsulation, and quantitative structure-activity relationship assays provided MIC and MBIC prediction equation for modified-β-cyclodextrins inclusion complexes. Maltosyl-β-CD was screened as the best wall material to retained the anti-biofilm activities as pure cinnamon essential oil in initial stage, and its inclusion complexes can effectively inhibited biofilm formation in milk. This study provides a theoretical guidance for the selection β-CDs to encapsulate CEO as plant-oriented anti-biofilm agents to inhibit bacterial biofilm formation.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Chi Z, Liu X, Li H, et al (2023)

Co-metabolic biodegradation of chlorinated ethene in an oxygen- and ethane-based membrane biofilm reactor.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05950-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Groundwater contamination by chlorinated ethenes is an urgent concern worldwide. One approach for detoxifying chlorinated ethenes is aerobic co-metabilims using ethane (C2H6) as the primary substrate. This study evaluated long-term continuous biodegradation of three chlorinated alkenes in a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) that delivered C2H6 and O2 via gas-transfer membranes. During 133 days of continuous operation, removals of dichloroethane (DCE), trichloroethene (TCE), and tetrachloroethene (PCE) were as high as 94 % and with effluent concentrations below 5 μM. In situ batch tests showed that the co-metabolic kinetics were faster with more chlorination. C2H6-oxidizing Comamonadaceae and "others," such as Methylococcaceae, oxidized C2H6 via monooxyenation reactions. The abundant non-ethane monooxygenases, particularly propane monooxygenase, appears to have been responsible for C2H6 aerobic metabolism and co-metabolism of chlorinated ethenes. This work proves that the C2H6 + O2 MBfR is a platform for ex-situ bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, and the generalized action of the monooxygenases may make it applicable for other chlorinated organic contaminants.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Katsipis G, Avgoulas DI, Geromichalos GD, et al (2023)

In vitro and in silico evaluation of the serrapeptase effect on biofilm and amyloids of Pseudomonas aeruginosa.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Pseudomonas aeruginosa is an emerging threat for hospitalized and cystic fibrosis patients. Biofilm, a microbial community embedded in extracellular polymeric substance, fortifies bacteria against the immune system. In biofilms, the expression of functional amyloids is linked with highly aggregative, multi-resistant strains, and chronic infections. Serrapeptase (SPT), a protease possessing similar or superior anti-microbial properties with many antibiotics, presents anti-amyloid potential. However, studies on the employment of SPT against Pseudomonas biofilms and Fap amyloid, or the possible mechanisms of action are scarce. Here, SPT inhibited biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853 on both plastic and glass surfaces, with an IC50 of 11.26 µg/mL and 0.27 µg/mL, respectively. The inhibitory effect of SPT on biofilm was also verified with optical microscopy of crystal violet-stained biofilms and with confocal microscopy. Additionally, SPT caused a dose-dependent decrease of bacterial viability (IC50 of 3.07 µg/mL) as demonstrated by MTT assay. Reduction of bacterial functional amyloids was also demonstrated, employing both fluorescence microscopy with thioflavin T and photometrical determination of Congo-red-positive compounds. Both viability and functional amyloids correlated significantly with biofilm inhibition. Finally, in silico molecular docking studies provided a mechanistic insight into the interaction of SPT with FapC or FapD, proving that both peptides are possible targets of SPT. These results offer new insights into the biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa and potentiate the involvement of SPT in the prevention and eradication of Pseudomonas biofilms. KEY POINTS: • Serrapeptase inhibits biofilm formation of P. aeruginosa on plastic and glass. • Biofilm inhibition correlated with reduced viability and functional amyloid levels. • In silico studies indicated that serrapeptase may target FapC and FapD peptides.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Cao G, Gao J, Song J, et al (2023)

Performance and mechanism of chromium reduction in denitrification biofilm system with different carbon sources.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05818-7 [Epub ahead of print].

In the process of biological reduction of Cr(VI), the type of carbon sources affects the rate and effect of Cr(VI) reduction, but its specific performance and influencing mechanism have not yet been explored. In this study, four denitrification biofilm reactors were operated under four common carbon sources (C6H12O6, CH3COONa, CH3OH, CH3COONa:C6H12O6 1:1) to reveal the impact of carbon sources on Cr(VI) reduction. Through preliminary experimental concentration research, 75 mg/L Cr(VI) was selected as the dosing concentration. In long-term operation, the composite carbon sources of CH3COONa and C6H12O6 demonstrated excellent stability and achieved an impressive Cr(VI) removal efficiency of 99.5 %. The following sequence was C6H12O6, CH3COONa, and CH3OH. Among them, CH3OH was less competitive and the system was severely unbalanced with lowest Cr(VI) reduction efficiency. The toxicity reactions, changes in EPS and its functional groups, and electron transfer revealed the reduction and fixation mechanism of chromium on denitrification biofilm. The changes in microbial communities indicated that microbial communities in composite carbon sources can quickly adapt to the high toxic environment. The proportion of Trichococcus reached 43.6 %, which played an important role in denitrification and Cr(VI) reduction. Meanwhile, the prediction of microbial COG function reflected its excellent metabolic ability and defense mechanism.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Liu JY, Jia JJ, Liu M, et al (2023)

A novel indolylbenzoquinone compound HL-J6 suppresses biofilm formation and α-toxin secretion in methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus.

International journal of antimicrobial agents pii:S0924-8579(23)00251-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Eradication of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is challenging due to multi-drug resistance of the strains and the biofilm formation, the latter being important barriers to the penetration of antibiotics and host defenses. Thus, there is an urgent need to discover and develop novel agents to fight against MRSA-associated infection. In this study, HL-J6, a novel indolylbenzoquinone compound, performed inhibition against Staphylococcus aureus strains, with MIC (minimal inhibitory concentration) against MRSA252 of 2 μg/mL. Moreover, HL-J6 exhibited potent antibiofilm activity in vitro and were able to kill bacteria in the biofilm. In the mouse models of wound infection, HL-J6 treatment significantly reduced the MRSA load and inhibited biofilm formation on the wounds. The potent targets of its antibiofilm activity were explored by real-time RT-PCR, which indicated that HL-J6 downregulated the transcription level of sarA, atlAE and icaADBC. Moreover, western blot results showed that HL-J6 reduced the secretion level of α-toxin, a major virulence factor. Those findings indicated that HL-J6 is a promising lead compound for the development of novel drugs against MRSA biofilm infections.

RevDate: 2023-09-23

Zhou T, Xiang Y, Liu S, et al (2023)

Microbial community dynamics and metagenomics reveal the potential role of unconventional functional microorganisms in nitrogen and phosphorus removal biofilm system.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05821-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The conventional functional microorganisms for nitrogen and phosphorus removal, such as Nitrosomonas, Nitrobacter, Nitrospira and Candidatus Accumulibacter, were hotspots in past research. However, the role of diverse unconventional functional microorganisms was neglected. In this study, a biofilm system was developed to explore the potential role of unconventional functional microorganisms in nutrients removal. According to the results of microbial community dynamics and metagenomics, complete ammonia oxidizing (comammox) bacteria was 20 times more abundant than ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) at day 121 and its abundance of amoA gene was almost the same as AOB. Although Nitrospira dominated the nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), diverse unconventional nxrB-containing microorganisms, particularly Chloroflexi, also significantly contributed to the nitrite oxidation. Binning analysis showed that Myxococcota-affiliated Haliangium had the necessary genes owns by phosphorus-accumulating organisms (PAO) and was likely to be the primary PAO since its abundance (6.38 %) was much higher than other conventional PAO (0.70 %). Comparing metagenome-assembled genomes of comammox bacteria with AOB and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), it possessed potential metabolic versatility in hydrogen and phosphorus, which may be the primary reason for the positive effect of the alternating anaerobic and aerobic conditions on the enrichment of comammox bacteria. Collectively, our findings broaden the understanding on the microbial mechanism of nitrogen and phosphorus removal in biofilm system.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Jacquiod S, Olsen NMC, Blouin M, et al (2023)

Genotypic variations and interspecific interactions modify gene expression and biofilm formation of Xanthomonas retroflexus.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Multispecies biofilms are important models for studying the evolution of microbial interactions. Co-cultivation of Xanthomonas retroflexus (XR) and Paenibacillus amylolyticus (PA) systemically leads to the appearance of an XR wrinkled mutant (XRW), increasing biofilm production. The nature of this new interaction and the role of each partner remain unclear. We tested the involvement of secreted molecular cues in this interaction by exposing XR and XRW to PA or its supernatant and analysing the response using RNA-seq, colony-forming unit (CFU) estimates, biofilm quantification, and microscopy. Compared to wild type, the mutations in XRW altered its gene expression and increased its CFU number. These changes matched the reported effects for one of the mutated genes: a response regulator part of a two-component system involved in environmental sensing. When XRW was co-cultured with PA or its supernatant, the mutations effects on XRW gene expression were masked, except for genes involved in sedentary lifestyle, being consistent with the higher biofilm production. It appears that the higher biofilm production was the result of the interaction between the genetic context (mutations) and the biotic environment (PA signals). Regulatory genes involved in environmental sensing need to be considered to shed further light on microbial interactions.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Cámara-Almirón J, Domínguez-García L, El Mammeri N, et al (2023)

Molecular characterization of the N-terminal half of TasA during amyloid-like assembly and its contribution to Bacillus subtilis biofilm formation.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 9(1):68.

Biofilms are bacterial communities that result from a cell differentiation process leading to the secretion of an extracellular matrix (ECM) by part of the population. In Bacillus subtilis, the main protein component of the ECM is TasA, which forms a fiber-based scaffold that confers structure to the ECM. The N-terminal half of TasA is strongly conserved among Bacillus species and contains a protein domain, the rigid core (RcTasA), which is critical for the structural and functional properties of the recombinant protein. In this study, we demonstrate that recombinantly purified RcTasA in vitro retains biochemical properties previously observed for the entire protein. Further analysis of the RcTasA amino acid sequence revealed two aggregation-prone stretches and a region of imperfect amino acid repeats, which are known to contribute to functional amyloid assembly. Biochemical characterization of these stretches found in RcTasA revealed their amyloid-like capacity in vitro, contributing to the amyloid nature of RcTasA. Moreover, the study of the imperfect amino acid repeats revealed the critical role of residues D64, K68 and D69 in the structural function of TasA. Experiments with versions of TasA carrying the substitutions D64A and K68AD69A demonstrated a partial loss of function of the protein either in the assembly of the ECM or in the stability of the core and amyloid-like properties. Taken together, our findings allow us to better understand the polymerization process of TasA during biofilm formation and provide knowledge into the sequence determinants that promote the molecular behavior of protein filaments in bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-09-22

Glazier VE, Kramara J, Ollinger T, et al (2023)

The Candida albicans reference strain SC5314 contains a rare, dominant allele of the transcription factor Rob1 that modulates filamentation, biofilm formation, and oral commensalism.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Candida albicans is a diploid human fungal pathogen that displays significant genomic and phenotypic heterogeneity over a range of virulence traits and in the context of a variety of environmental niches. Here, we show that the effect of Rob1 on biofilm and filamentation virulence traits is dependent on both the specific environmental condition and the clinical strain of C. albicans. The C. albicans reference strain SC5314 is a ROB1 heterozygote with two alleles that differ by a single nucleotide polymorphism at position 946, resulting in a serine- or proline-containing isoform. An analysis of 224 sequenced C. albicans genomes indicates that SC5314 is the only ROB1 heterozygote documented to date and that the dominant allele contains a proline at position 946. Remarkably, the ROB1 alleles are functionally distinct, and the rare ROB1[946S] allele supports increased filamentation in vitro and increased biofilm formation in vitro and in vivo, suggesting it is a phenotypic gain-of-function allele. SC5314 is among the most highly filamentous and invasive strains characterized to date. Introduction of the ROB1[946S] allele into a poorly filamenting clinical isolate increases filamentation, and conversion of an SC5314 laboratory strain to a ROB1[946S] homozygote increases in vitro filamentation and biofilm formation. In a mouse model of oropharyngeal infection, the predominant ROB1[946P] allele establishes a commensal state while the ROB1[946S] phenocopies the parent strain and invades into the mucosae. These observations provide an explanation for the distinct phenotypes of SC5314 and highlight the role of heterozygosity as a driver of C. albicans phenotypic heterogeneity. IMPORTANCE Candida albicans is a commensal fungus that colonizes the human oral cavity and gastrointestinal tract but also causes mucosal as well as invasive disease. The expression of virulence traits in C. albicans clinical isolates is heterogeneous and the genetic basis of this heterogeneity is of high interest. The C. albicans reference strain SC5314 is highly invasive and expresses robust filamentation and biofilm formation relative to many other clinical isolates. Here, we show that SC5314 derivatives are heterozygous for the transcription factor Rob1 and contain an allele with a rare gain-of-function SNP that drives filamentation, biofilm formation, and virulence in a model of oropharyngeal candidiasis. These findings explain, in part, the outlier phenotype of the reference strain and highlight the role heterozygosity plays in the strain-to-strain variation of diploid fungal pathogens.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Song Y, Wang R, Pan Y, et al (2023)

An Integrated Quorum Quenching Biocatalytic Nanoplatform for Synergistic Chemo-Photothermal Eradication of P. aeruginosa Biofilm Infections.

Acta biomaterialia pii:S1742-7061(23)00560-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Decontamination of biofilm-associated infections presents a significant challenge due to the physical and chemical barrier created by the formation of extracellular matrices. This barrier restricts the access of antibiotics to the bacterial communities within the biofilm and provides protection to the persister cells, potentially leading to antibiotic resistance. In this study, we have developed an integrated quorum quenching biocatalytic nanoplatform for the synergistic chemo-photothermal eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilm infections. Ciprofloxacin (Cip), a model antibiotic, was absorbed onto PDA NPs through π-π stacking. Additionally, acylase (AC) was immobilized on PDA NPs through Schiff base reaction and Michael addition, resulting in the formation of the biocatalytic nanoplatform (PDA-Cip-AC NPs). This biocatalytic nanoplatform was able to enzymatically degrade AHL signaling molecules, thus achieving efficient quorum quenching activity to prevent biofilm formation. Furthermore, the NIR light-triggered on-demand Ciprofloxacin release further enhanced the eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilm infections with a synergy of local hyperthermia. We envision that this integrated quorum quenching nanoplatform provides a reliable tool for combating P. aeruginosa biofilm infections. STATEMENT OF SIGNIFICANCE: : An integrated quorum quenching biocatalytic nanoplatform has been developed for the eradication of P. aeruginosa biofilm infections. Quorum-sensing signals play a crucial role in modulating bacterial cell-to-cell communication, biofilm formation, and secretion of virulence factors. This biocatalytic nanoplatform efficiently degrades AHL signaling molecules, thereby blocking cell-to-cell communication and preventing biofilm formation. Additionally, local hyperthermia and on-demand Ciprofloxacin release were achieved through NIR irradiation, working synergistically to eradicate P. aeruginosa biofilm infections.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Sunnerhagen T, Schwartz F, Christophersen L, et al (2023)

Biofilm formation on endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) grafts- a proof of concept in vitro model.

Clinical microbiology and infection : the official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases pii:S1198-743X(23)00474-3 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: An endovascular aneurysm repair (EVAR) graft is a catheter-implanted vascular prosthesis and is the preferred treatment for patients with aortic aneurysm. If an EVAR graft becomes the focus of infection, the treatment possibilities are limited as it is technically difficult to remove the graft to obtain source control. This study examines whether Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus form biofilm on EVAR prostheses.

METHODS: EVAR graft sections were exposed to bacteria at 10[2] or 10[8] colony forming units (CFU)/ml in lysogeny broth and Krebs-Ringer at 37°C, bacterial biofilm formation was evaluated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and counting CFU on the graft sections following antibiotic exposure at x10 minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC). Bacteria were tested for tolerance to benzyl penicillin, tobramycin and ciprofloxacin.

RESULTS: Bacterial exposure for 15 minutes established biofilms on all prosthesis fragments (6/6 replicates). After 4 hours, bacteria were firmly attached to the EVAR prostheses and resisted washing. After 18 to 24 hours the median CFU/g of EVAR graft reached 5.2 x 10[8] (1.15 x 10[8] - 1.1 x 10[9]) for S. aureus and 9.1 x 10[7] (3.5 x 10[7] - 6.25 x 10[8]) for P. aeruginosa. SEM showed bacterial attachment to the graft pieces. There was a time-dependent development of tolerance with approximately 20 (tobramycin), 560 (benzyl penicillin), and 600 (ciprofloxacin) times more S. aureus surviving antibiotic exposure in 24 compared to 0 hours old biofilm. Five (tobramycin) and 170 times (ciprofloxacin) more P. aeruginosa survived antibiotic exposure in 24 compared to 0 hours old biofilms.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that bacteria can rapidly adhere to and subsequently form antibiotic tolerant biofilms on EVAR graft material in concentrations equivalent to levels seen in transient bacteremia in vivo. Potentially, the system can be used for identifying optimal treatment combinations for infected EVAR prosthesis.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Liu X, Qi X, Gu Y, et al (2023)

Titanium mesh as the anode of electrochemically active biofilm sensor for improved sensitivity in water toxicity real-time early-warning.

Biosensors & bioelectronics, 241:115692 pii:S0956-5663(23)00634-6 [Epub ahead of print].

As serious water ecological pollution caused by toxicant leakage occurs frequently, early-warning for toxicity presented in water environment attracts increasing attentions as it saves time to retain water safety and human health. Electrochemically active biofilm (EAB) sensor is a promising device for in situ real-time water toxicity early-warning. To improve the sensitivity of EAB sensor particularly for low-concentration toxicity warning, this study employed titanium mesh (TiM) as the anode to construct an EAB sensor. Compared to traditional EAB sensor with carbon felt (CF) anode, the sensitivity of the TiM sensor was increased up to 37.4 times. The effects of mesh size (TiM50, TiM100, TiM150) and operation mode (flow-by and flow-through) on the sensitivity of TiM sensors were further investigated. Results showed the sensor with TiM100 anode had the highest inhibition rate (IR) in flow-by mode, attributed to low charge transfer resistance (Rct) and fast mass transfer. Flow-through operation could further enhance TiM100 sensor's sensitivity from flow-by operation and succeeded to signal as low as 0.0025% formaldehyde, the lowest so far tested in EAB sensor with sensing anode. Multiple toxicity shocks on flow-through TiM100 sensor revealed its good recoverability towards all tested formaldehyde concentration from 0.01% to 0.0025%, during which electrochemical activity degradation and biomass accumulation partially impaired the repeatability. This work highlights the great improvement of EAB sensors by utilizing titanium mesh as EAB carrier and provides a reference for the practical application of metallic materials for EAB sensors.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Luo T, Dai X, Wei W, et al (2023)

Microplastics Enhance the Prevalence of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Anaerobic Sludge Digestion by Enriching Antibiotic-Resistant Bacteria in Surface Biofilm and Facilitating the Vertical and Horizontal Gene Transfer.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and microplastics (MPs) are recognized as emerging contaminants and threats to global human health. Despite both of them being significantly detected in their "hotspots", i.e., waste activated sludge (WAS), rare studies on how MPs affect ARGs and antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) in anaerobic sludge digestion are available. Herein, the fate of ARGs and ARB after exposure to MPs of three dosages (10, 30, and 80 particles/g-TS), three polymer types (LDPE, PET, and PS), and three branching extents (LDPE, LLDPE, and HDPE) in anaerobic sludge digestion was investigated. Metagenomic results indicated that all variants of MPs resulted in an increase of the relative abundance of ARGs in the digester compared to the control. The abundance of ARGs demonstrated a dosage-dependent relationship within the range from 10 to 80 particles/g-TS, resulting in an increase from 4.5 to 27.9% compared to the control. Branching structure and polymer type influence ARG level in the sludge digester as well. Mechanism studies revealed that LDPE selectively enriched potential ARB and ARGs in the surface biofilm, possibly creating a favorable environment for ARB proliferation and ARG exchange. Furthermore, vertical transfer of ARGs was facilitated by LDPE through increasing bacterial cell proliferation accompanied by the enhancement of relevant functional genes. The elevated abundance of mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and ARGs-carrying plasmids also demonstrated that MGE-mediated horizontal transfer was promoted by LDPE at 80 particles/g-TS. This effect was compounded by increased oxidative stress, cell membrane permeability, and cell cohesion, collectively facilitating horizontal ARG transfer. Consequently, both vertical and horizontal transfer of ARGs could be concurrently promoted by LDPE an in anaerobic sludge digester.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Sharma S, M Saraf (2023)

Biofilm-forming plant growth-promoting rhizobacterial consortia isolated from mines and dumpsites assist green remediation of toxic metal (Ni and Pb) using Brassica juncea.

Biologia futura [Epub ahead of print].

To study how biofilm-forming rhizobacteria isolated from mines and dumpsites improved the phytoremediation efficacy of B. juncea in metal-contaminated soil. Out of 91 isolates, six were chosen for research based on their tolerance to metals, and their efficient PGPR properties, and subjected to the design of a consortium. A compatibility study revealed no antagonistic interaction between rhizobacterial-consortiums. The results of the biofilm formation and FEG-SEM studies revealed that a consortium-BC8 formed a strong biofilm on the root surface of B. juncea seedlings. Based on results obtained with the phytoextraction efficiency of B. juncea in consortium-BC8 (SMHMZ46 and SMHMP23), they were identified as Klebsiella variicola and Pseudomonas otitidis, respectively, and submitted to NCBI GenBank with accession numbers MZ145092 and OK560623. This rhizobacteria is the first to be reported as assisting Ni and Pb phytoremediation by employing B. juncea. Soil inoculation with consortium-BC8 increased the amount of soluble Ni and Pb by 13.25-fold and 10.69-fold, respectively, when compared to the control. These consortiums-BC8 significantly increased vegetative growth and metal accumulation in root and shoot with a translocation-factor of 1.58 for Ni and soil to root with a bioconcentration-factor of 1.3 for Pb in B. juncea grown in individual soil contamination with 96.05 mg/kg NiCl2 and 89.63 mg/kg Pb(NO3)2, which are significantly higher than other consortium treatments and the non-inoculated control. B. juncea amendments with a biofilm-forming consortium-BC8 having TF, BCF, and BAC > 1 for Ni, whereas BCF > 1, TF, and BAC < 1 for Pb, are appropriate for green remediation of Ni and phytostabilization of Pb.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Olaniran OB, Donia A, Adeleke OE, et al (2023)

Prevalence of Type III Secretion System (T3SS) and Biofilm Development in Genetically Heterogeneous Clinical Isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa from Nigeria.

Current microbiology, 80(11):349.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa infection in seriously ill patients is a major concern due to its ability to form biofilm and secrete effector toxins. There is little information on the prevalence of T3SS effector toxins and biofilm production in clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa from Nigeria. The goal of this study is to evaluate the prevalence of T3SS toxins and biofilm production among isolates from selected tertiary hospitals in Nigeria. This study examined 430 clinical isolates from our previous work, comprising 181 MDR (multidrug-resistant) and 249 non-MDR isolates. Biofilm production and type III secretion toxins were determined using colorimetric microtiter plate assay and polymerase chain reaction, respectively. Carbapenem-resistant isolates were typed using REP-PCR and BOX-PCR. Biofilm production was detected in 386/430 (89.8%) of the isolates. Out of 386 biofilm producers, 167 (43.3%) were multidrug-resistant isolates. PCR identified four T3SS virulence types among 430 isolates, including 78 (18.1%) exoU+/exoS- isolates, 343 (79.8%) exoU-/exoS + isolates, 5 (1.2%) exoU+/exoS + isolates, and 4 (0.9%) exoU-/exoS- isolates. Both REP- and BOX-PCR consist of eight clusters. On the REP-PCR dendrogram, ExoU[+]/ExoS[-] isolates majorly occupied cluster IV. Clusters IV, VII, and VIII consist of isolates from wounds on BOX-PCR dendrogram. There was a positive association between strong biofilm production and multidrug resistance in our P. aeruginosa isolates. This study identified multidrug-resistant, biofilm-producing P. aeruginosa strains that secrete cytotoxic effectors which are significant virulence factors in P. aeruginosa. This poses a severe risk to our healthcare system and highlights the importance of continuous surveillance to prevent infectious disease outbreaks.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Fan Z, Fu T, Li Z, et al (2023)

The role of integration host factor in biofilm and virulence of high-alcohol-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well-known human nosocomial pathogen with an arsenal of virulence factors, including capsular polysaccharides (CPS), fimbriae, flagella, and lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Our previous study found that alcohol acted as an essential virulence factor for high-alcohol-producing K. pneumoniae (HiAlc Kpn). Integration host factor (IHF) is a nucleoid-associated protein that functions as a global virulence regulator in Escherichia coli. However, the regulatory role of IHF in K. pneumoniae remains unknown. In the present study, we found that deletion of ihfA or ihfB resulted in a slight defect in bacterial growth, a severe absence of biofilm formation and cytotoxicity, and a significant reduction in alcohol production. RNA sequencing differential gene expression analysis showed that compared with the wild-type control, the expression of many virulence factor genes was downregulated in ΔihfA and ΔihfB strains, such as those related to CPS (rcsA, galF, wzi, and iscR), LPS (rfbABCD), type I and type III fimbriae (fim and mrk operon), cellulose (bcs operon), iron transporter (feoABC, fhuA, fhuF, tonB, exbB, and exbD), quorum sensing (lsr operon and sdiA), type II secretion system (T2SS) and type VI secretion system (T6SS) (tssG, hcp, and gspE). Of these virulence factors, CPS, LPS, fimbriae, and cellulose are involved in biofilm formation. In addition, IHF could affect the alcohol production by regulating genes related to glucose intake (ptsG), pyruvate formate-lyase, alcohol dehydrogenase, and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle. Our data provided new insights into the importance of IHF in regulating the virulence of HiAlc Kpn. IMPORTANCE Klebsiella pneumoniae is a well-known human nosocomial pathogen that causes various infectious diseases, including urinary tract infections, hospital-acquired pneumonia, bacteremia, and liver abscesses. Our previous studies demonstrated that HiAlc Kpn mediated the development of nonalcoholic fatty liver disease by producing excess endogenous alcohol in vivo. However, the regulators regulating the expression of genes related to metabolism, biofilm formation, and virulence of HiAlc Kpn remain unclear. In this study, the regulator IHF was found to positively regulate biofilm formation and many virulence factors including CPS, LPS, type I and type III fimbriae, cellulose, iron transporter, AI-2 quorum sensing, T2SS, and T6SS in HiAlc Kpn. Furthermore, IHF positively regulated alcohol production in HiAlc Kpn. Our results suggested that IHF could be a potential drug target for treating various infectious diseases caused by K. pneumoniae. Hence, the regulation of different virulence factors by IHF in K. pneumoniae requires further investigation.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Diarra C, Goetz C, Gagnon M, et al (2023)

Biofilm formation by heat-resistant dairy bacteria: multispecies biofilm model under static and dynamic conditions.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

In the food industry, especially dairy, biofilms can be formed by heat-resistant spoilage and pathogenic bacteria from the farm. Such biofilms may persist throughout the processing chain and contaminate milk and dairy products continuously, increasing equipment cleaning, maintenance costs, and product recalls. Most biofilms are multispecies, yet most studies focus on single-species models. A multispecies model of dairy biofilm was developed under static and dynamic conditions using heat-resistant Bacillus licheniformis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Clostridium tyrobutyricum, Enterococcus faecalis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Rothia kristinae isolated from dairies. C. tyrobutiricum and R. kristinae were weak producers of biofilm, whereas the other four were moderate to strong producers. Based on cross-streaking on agar, P. aeruginosa was found to inhibit B. licheniformis and E. faecalis. In multispecies biofilm formed on stainless steel in a CDC reactor fed microfiltered milk, the strong biofilm producers were dominant while the weak producers were barely detectable. All biofilm matrices were dispersed easily by proteinase K treatment but were less sensitive to DNase or carbohydrases. Further studies are needed to deepen our understanding of multispecies biofilms and interactions within to develop improved preventive strategies to control the proliferation of spoilage and pathogenic bacteria in dairies and other food processing environments. IMPORTANCE A model of multispecies biofilm was created to study biofilm formation by heat-resistant bacteria in the dairy industry. The biofilm formation potential was evaluated under static conditions. A continuous flow version was then developed to study multispecies biofilm formed on stainless steel in microfiltered milk under dynamic conditions encountered in dairy processing equipment. The study of biofilm composition and bacterial interactions therein will lead to more effective means of suppressing bacterial growth on food processing equipment and contamination of products with spoilage and pathogenic bacteria, which represent considerable economic loss.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Rudin L, Roth N, Kneubühler J, et al (2023)

Inhibitory effect of natural flavone luteolin on Streptococcus mutans biofilm formation.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Streptococcus mutans is one of the key pathogens responsible for dental caries, which is known to be one of the most prevalent biofilm-associated diseases worldwide. S. mutans virulence strongly depends on its biofilm formation and enamel demineralization abilities due to the production of surface adhesins, exopolysaccharides, and acid in the presence of sugar. Luteolin is an abundant natural flavone with a prominent anti-bacterial function. However, it remains unclear how luteolin affects S. mutans pathogenicity including its acidogenicity and biofilm formation. In this study, the effect of luteolin on S. mutans growth, acid production, and its early and late biofilm formation and biofilm disruption was tested. Luteolin shows strong anti-biofilm activity, while it remains non-toxic for bacterial cell viability. In the biofilm, luteolin reduces the expression of S. mutans virulence genes such as gbpC, spaP, gtfBCD, and ftf encoding for surface adhesins and extracellular polysaccharides (EPS)-producing enzymes, which reflects in the strong reduction of bacteria and EPS. Further, it reduces water-insoluble glucan production in the biofilm, potentially, via direct interference with glucosyltransfereases (Gtfs). Moreover, at biofilm inhibitory concentrations, luteolin significantly reduces acid production by S. mutans. Finally, luteolin could target S. mutans amyloid proteins to disrupt the biofilm based on the observation that it inhibits the uptake of the amyloid dye, thioflavin T, by S. mutans extracellular proteins and failed to inhibit biofilm formation by the mutant strain lacking three main amyloid proteins. In conclusion, luteolin appears to be a potent natural compound with pleiotropic anti-biofilm properties against one of the main cariogenic human pathogens, S. mutans. IMPORTANCE Flavonoids are natural compounds with proven anti-bacterial and anti-biofilm properties. Here, we describe the anti-biofilm properties of natural flavone luteolin against the main cariogenic bacteria, S. mutans. Luteolin inhibited gene expression of cell surface adhesins, fructosyltransferases, and glucosyltransferases, which promotes a significant reduction of bacterial and EPS biomass in early and late biofilms. Moreover, luteolin could directly target S. mutans Gtfs and functional amyloids to modulate pathogenic biofilms. These observations provide important insights into the anti-biofilm properties of luteolin while laying out a framework for future therapeutic strategies targeting biofilm-associated virulence factors of oral pathogens.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Kher L, D Santoro (2023)

Biofilm Models: Different Ways of Biofilm Characterization and Drug Discovery.

Current protocols, 3(9):e894.

The ability of bacteria to develop biofilms and its added effect on antimicrobial resistance have been a concern for both animal and human medicine. The need to understand biofilm biology has been addressed with the help of three biofilm models, i.e., in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo. Due to the implications of animal welfare involved in in vivo models, this article is mainly focused on in vitro and ex vivo study models to analyze biofilm biology. In in vitro biofilm models, the microtiter plate and Calgary biofilm device are the most commonly used techniques for biofilm analysis. Quantification of the biofilm biomass generated by these two techniques can be assessed with the help of a crystal violet assay. Although in vitro biofilm models help advance understanding of the biology of biofilm and are easy to perform, they fail to address certain important questions, such as the importance of the substrate on which biofilm grows and the interaction between the organisms and the substrate. To address this concern, an ex vivo model can be utilized to characterize the behavior and characteristics of biofilms on different substrates. Ex vivo biofilm models are considered a bridge between the in vitro and in vivo biofilm models. Although neither of the currently available biofilm assessment models is considered the gold standard, they have significantly increased understanding of biofilm behavior. Further studies are warranted to develop more refined biofilm models. © 2023 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: In vitro biofilm models for microtiter plate/crystal violet assay for biofilm growth assessment Basic Protocol 2: Crystal violet assay/tissue culture plate method for testing of antibiofilm agents Alternate Protocol: Calgary biofilm device to determine biofilm susceptibility to antimicrobial agents Basic Protocol 3: Ex vivo biofilm skin models: canine/porcine skin explants.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Nesse LL, Osland AM, Asal B, et al (2023)

Evolution of antimicrobial resistance in E. coli biofilm treated with high doses of ciprofloxacin.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1246895.

The evolution of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) has mainly been studied in planktonic bacteria exposed to sub-inhibitory antimicrobial (AM) concentrations. However, in a number of infections that are treated with AMs the bacteria are located in biofilms where they tolerate high doses of AM. In the present study, we continuously exposed biofilm residing E. coli at body temperature to high ciprofloxacin (CIP) concentrations increasing from 4 to 130 times the minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC), i.e., from 0.06 to 2.0 mg/L. After 1 week, the biofilms were full of CIP resistant bacteria. The evolutionary trajectory observed was the same as described in the literature for planktonic bacteria, i.e., starting with a single mutation in the target gene gyrA followed by mutations in parC, gyrB, and parE, as well as in genes for regulation of multidrug efflux pump systems and outer membrane porins. Strains with higher numbers of these mutations also displayed higher MIC values. Furthermore, the evolution of CIP resistance was more rapid, and resulted in strains with higher MIC values, when the bacteria were biofilm residing than when they were in a planktonic suspension. These results may indicate that extensive clinical AM treatment of biofilm-residing bacteria may not only fail to eradicate the infection but also pose an increased risk of AMR development.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Buchmann D, Schwabe M, Weiss R, et al (2023)

Natural phenolic compounds as biofilm inhibitors of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli - the role of similar biological processes despite structural diversity.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1232039.

Multidrug-resistant gram-negative pathogens such as Escherichia coli have become increasingly difficult to treat and therefore alternative treatment options are needed. Targeting virulence factors like biofilm formation could be one such option. Inhibition of biofilm-related structures like curli and cellulose formation in E. coli has been shown for different phenolic natural compounds like epigallocatechin gallate. This study demonstrates this effect for other structurally unrelated phenolics, namely octyl gallate, scutellarein and wedelolactone. To verify whether these structurally different compounds influence identical pathways of biofilm formation in E. coli a broad comparative RNA-sequencing approach was chosen with additional RT-qPCR to gain initial insights into the pathways affected at the transcriptomic level. Bioinformatical analysis of the RNA-Seq data was performed using DESeq2, BioCyc and KEGG Mapper. The comparative bioinformatics analysis on the pathways revealed that, irrespective of their structure, all compounds mainly influenced similar biological processes. These pathways included bacterial motility, chemotaxis, biofilm formation as well as metabolic processes like arginine biosynthesis and tricarboxylic acid cycle. Overall, this work provides the first insights into the potential mechanisms of action of novel phenolic biofilm inhibitors and highlights the complex regulatory processes of biofilm formation in E. coli.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Haenelt S, Richnow HH, Müller JA, et al (2023)

Antibiotic resistance indicator genes in biofilm and planktonic microbial communities after wastewater discharge.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1252870.

The spread of bacteria with antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in aquatic ecosystems is of growing concern as this can pose a risk of transmission to humans and animals. While the impact of wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluent on ARG abundance in surface waters has been studied extensively, less is known about the fate of ARGs in biofilms. The proximity and dense growth of microorganisms in combination with the accumulation of higher antibiotic concentrations in biofilms might render biofilms a reservoir for ARGs. Seasonal parameters such as water temperature, precipitation, and antibiotic concentrations should be considered as well, as they may further influence the fate of ARGs in aquatic ecosystems. Here we investigated the effect of WWTP effluent on the abundance of the sulfonamide resistance genes sul1 and sul2, and the integrase gene intI1 in biofilm and surface water compartments of a river in Germany with a gradient of anthropogenic impact using quantitative PCR. Furthermore, we analyzed the bacterial community structure in both compartments via 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, following the river downstream. Additionally, conventional water parameters and sulfonamide concentrations were measured, and seasonal aspects were considered by comparing the fate of ARGs and bacterial community diversity in the surface water compartment between the summer and winter season. Our results show that biofilm compartments near the WWTP had a higher relative abundance of ARGs (up to 4.7%) than surface waters (<2.8%). Sulfonamide resistance genes were more persistent further downstream (>10 km) of the WWTP in the hot and dry summer season than in winter. This finding is likely a consequence of the higher proportion of wastewater and thus wastewater-derived microorganisms in the river during summer periods. We observed distinct bacterial communities and ARG abundance between the biofilm and surface water compartment, but even greater variations when considering seasonal and spatiotemporal parameters. This underscores the need to consider seasonal aspects when studying the fate of ARGs in aquatic ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Yu C, Qiao J, Ali Q, et al (2023)

degQ associated with the degS/degU two-component system regulates biofilm formation, antimicrobial metabolite production, and biocontrol activity in Bacillus velezensis DMW1.

Molecular plant pathology [Epub ahead of print].

The gram-positive bacterium Bacillus velezensis strain DMW1 produces a high level of antimicrobial metabolites that can suppress the growth of phytopathogens. We investigated the mechanism used by degQ and the degS/degU two-component system to regulate the biocontrol characteristics of DMW1. When degQ and degU were deleted, the biofilm formation, cell motility, colonization activities, and antifungal abilities of ΔdegQ and ΔdegU were significantly reduced compared to wild-type DMW1. The expression levels of biofilm-related genes (epsA, epsB, epsC, and tasA) and swarming-related genes (swrA and swrB) were all down-regulated. We also evaluated the impact on secondary metabolites of these two genes. The degQ and degU genes reduced surfactin and macrolactin production and up-regulated the production of fengycin, iturin, bacillaene, and difficidin metabolites. The reverse transcription-quantitative PCR results were consistent with these observations. Electrophoretic mobility shift assay and microscale thermophoresis revealed that DegU can bind to the promoter regions of these six antimicrobial metabolite genes and regulate their synthesis. In conclusion, we provided systematic evidence to demonstrate that the degQ and degU genes are important regulators of multicellular behaviour and antimicrobial metabolic processes in B. velezensis DMW1 and suggested novel amenable strains to be used for the industrial production of antimicrobial metabolites.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Gonçalves MLL, Sobral APT, Gallo JMAS, et al (2023)

Antimicrobial photodynamic therapy with erythrosine and blue light on dental biofilm bacteria: study protocol for randomised clinical trial.

BMJ open, 13(9):e075084.

INTRODUCTION: The objective is to investigate the effect of antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (aPDT) mediated by erythrosine and a blue light-emitting diode (LED) in the reduction of bacteria in dental biofilm.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: This clinical trial will be conducted with 30 patients who have biofilm, but without the presence of periodontal pockets, and who are being treated at the Dental Clinic of Universidade Metropolitana de Santos. A split-mouth model will be used (n=30), with group 1 control (conventional treatment) and group 2 (conventional treatment and aPDT). The bicarbonate jet will be used to remove dental biofilm in both groups. The treatment will be carried out in one session. aPDT will be performed before cleaning/prophylaxis, only in group 2. Participants will rinse with the photosensitiser erythrosine (diluted to 1 mM) for 1 min of pre-irradiation time, so that the drug can stain all the bacterial biofilm. Then, the D-2000 LED (DMC) will be applied, emitting at a wavelength of ʎ=470 nm, radiant power of 1000 mW, irradiance of 0.532 W/cm[2] and radiant exposure of 63.8 J/cm[2]. Irradiation will be performed until the biofilm of the cervical region is illuminated for 2 min/point (4 cm[2]). The microbiological examination will be performed from samples of supragingival biofilm collected from the gingival sulcus. Collection will be performed in each experimental site before irradiation, immediately after the irradiation procedure and after the prophylaxis. Colony-forming units will be counted and the data will be submitted for statistical analysis for comparison of pretreatment and post-treatment results and between groups (conventional X aPDT).

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This study has been approved by the Ethics Committee of Universidade Metropolitana de Santos under process number 66984123.0.0000.5509. Results will be published in peer-reviewed journals and will be presented at conferences.


RevDate: 2023-09-20

Chen B, Dong K, Xu Y, et al (2023)

Biodegradation of nitrate and p-bromophenol using hydrogen-based membrane biofilm reactors in parallel.

Environmental technology [Epub ahead of print].

ABSTRACTP-bromophenol (4-BP) is a toxic halogenated phenolic organic compound. The conventional treatment processes for 4-BP elimination are costly and inefficient, with complete mineralization remaining a challenge for water treatment. To overcome these limitations, we investigated the treatment of 4-BP in a membrane biofilm reactor (MBfR) using hydrogen as an electron donor. The pathway of 4-BP degradation within the H2-MBfR was investigated through long-term operational experiments by considering the effect of nitrate and 4-BP concentrations, hydrogen partial pressure, static experiments, and microbial community diversity, which was studied using 16S rRNA. The results showed that H2-MBfR could quickly remove approximately 100% of 4-BP (up to 20 mg/L), with minimal intermediate product accumulation and 10 mg/L of nitrate continuously reduced. The microbial community structure showed that the presence of H2 created an anaerobic environment, and Thauera was the dominant functional genus involved in the degradation of 4-BP. The genes encoding related enzymes were further enhanced. This study provides an economically viable and environmentally friendly bioremediation technique for water bodies that contain 4-BP and nitrates.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Ranson TM, Barton ME, RJC McLean (2023)

Influence of Central Metabolism Disruption on Escherichia coli Biofilm Formation.

Canadian journal of microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Biofilms are widely recognized as a prominent mode of microbial growth and strategy of antimicrobial tolerance in many environments. Characteristics that are often overlooked in biofilm investigations include the examination of metabolic pathways as the assumption might be that interference with central pathways such as glycolysis would only reduce growth and thus not be meaningful. Using the Keio collection of Escherichia coli mutants, we investigated the influence of biofilm formation and planktonic growth in full strength and diluted Luria-Bertani (LB) broth using strains with a disruption of glycolysis (Δpgi), the Entner-Doudoroff pathway (Δedd), or the pentose phosphate pathway (Δgnd). Unexpectedly, in contrast to the E. coli Keio parent strain (BW25113), planktonic growth was enhanced in full strength and diluted LB broth in the metabolic mutants. Using a microtiter biofilm assay, the E. coli parent strain showed the highest crystal violet staining. However, when analyzed by culture assays, there was an increase in biofilm populations in the mutants in comparison to the parent strain. Fluorescence microscopy showed differences in colonization patterns in the strains. Given the availability of mutant collections in many model organisms, similar metabolic studies are warranted for biofilms, given their importance in nature.

RevDate: 2023-09-20

Khan MA, Shahid M, Celik I, et al (2023)

Attenuation of quorum sensing regulated virulence functions and biofilm of pathogenic bacteria by medicinal plant Artemisia annua and its phytoconstituent 1, 8-cineole.

Microscopy research and technique [Epub ahead of print].

The emergence of multidrug resistance (MDR) in bacterial pathogens is a serious public health concern. A significant therapeutic target for MDR infections is the quorum sensing-regulated bacterial pathogenicity. Determining the anti-quorum sensing abilities of certain medicinal plants against bacterial pathogens as well as the in-silico interactions of particular bioactive phytocompounds with QS and biofilm-associated proteins were the objectives of the present study. In this study, 6 medicinal plants were selected based on their ethnopharmacological usage, screened for Anti-QS activity and Artemisia annua leaf extract (AALE) demonstrated pigment inhibitory activity against Chromobacterium violaceum CV12472. Further, the methanol active fraction significantly inhibited the virulence factors (pyocyanin, pyoverdine, rhamnolipid and swarming motility) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 and Serratia marcescens MTCC 97 at respective sub-MICs. The inhibition of biofilm was determined using a microtiter plate test and scanning electron microscopy. Biofilm formation was impaired by 70%, 72% and 74% in P. aeruginosa, C. violaceum and S. marcescens, respectively at 0.5xMIC of the extract. The phytochemical content of the extract was studied using GC-MS and 1, 8-cineole was identified as major bioactive compound. Furthermore, 1, 8-cineole was docked with quorum sensing (QS) proteins (LasI, LasR, CviR, and rhlR) and biofilm proteins (PilY1 and PilT). In silico docking and dynamics simulations studies suggested interactions with QS-receptors CviR', LasI, LasR, and biofilm proteins PilY1, PilT for anti-QS activity. Further, 1, 8-cineole demonstrated 66% and 51% reduction in violacein production and biofilm formation, respectively to validate the findings of computational analysis. Findings of the present investigation suggests that 1, 8-cineole plays a crucial role in the QS and biofilm inhibitory activity demonstrated by Artemisia annua extract. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: Artemisia annua leaf extract (AALE) methanol fraction demonstrated broad-spectrum QS and biofilm inhibition Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) confirmed biofilm inhibition Molecular docking and simulation studies suggested positive interactions of 1,8-cineol with QS-receptors and biofilm proteins.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Aghili SS, Jahangirnia A, Alam M, et al (2023)

The effect of photodynamic therapy in controlling the oral biofilm: A comprehensive overview.

Journal of basic microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Several resistance mechanisms are involved in dental caries, including oral biofilms. An accumulation of bacteria on the surface of teeth is called plaque. Periodontitis and gingivitis are caused by dental plaque. In this review article, we aimed to review the studies associated with the application of photodynamic therapy (PDT) to prevent and treat various microbial biofilm-caused oral diseases in recent decades. There are several studies published in PubMed that have described antimicrobial photodynamic therapy (APDT) effects on microorganisms. Several in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the potential of APDT for treating endodontic, periodontal, and mucosal infections caused by bacteria as biofilms. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are activated in the presence of oxygen by integrating a nontoxic photosensitizer (PS) with appropriate wavelength visible light. By causing irreversible damage to microorganisms, ROS induces some biological and photochemical events. Testing several wavelengths has been conducted to identify potential PS for APDT. A standard protocol is not yet available, and the current review summarizes findings from dental studies on APDT.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Sterzenbach T, Hannig C, S Hertel (2023)

Influence of Consumption of Nitrate-rich Beetroot Juice on Lactate Production in Saliva and Oral Biofilm - A Clinical Trial.

Oral health & preventive dentistry, 21(1):297-306.

PURPOSE: Diets rich in nitrates have the potential to prevent oral diseases such as caries or periodontitis. The reduced forms nitrite and nitric oxide have an antibacterial effect against cariogenic bacteria. The effect on bacterial acid production in saliva and oral biofilm is yet unknown. This study investigated the influence of consuming naturally nitrate-rich beetroot juice on bacterial lactate production in saliva and on the pH value of saliva and oral biofilm.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In addition to their usual diet, a study group of eight subjects consumed 50 ml of beetroot juice daily for a fortnight. After a two-week break, they rinsed with 0.2% chlorhexidine (CHX) for 14 days as a positive control. Bacterial lactate production was induced by rinsing with 50 ml apple juice and measured at different time points during the study.

RESULTS: After two weeks of daily beetroot-juice consumption, an accumulation of nitrate and nitrite was measured in the saliva. No influence on the bacterial lactate production in saliva or the saliva and plaque pH was found.

CONCLUSION: Commercially available beetroot juice showed no modulating effects on intraoral bacterial acid production, suggesting no caries-preventive properties under the tested conditions.

RevDate: 2023-09-19

Neu TR, Kuhlicke U, Karwautz C, et al (2023)

Unique architecture of microbial snottites from a methane driven biofilm revealed by confocal microscopy.

Microscopy research and technique [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial biofilms occur in many shapes and different dimensions. In natural and semi-artificial caves they are forming pendulous structures of 10 cm and more. In this study a methane driven microbial community of a former medicinal spring was investigated. The habitat was completely covered by massive biofilms and snottites with a wobbly, gelatinous appearance. By using fluorescence techniques in combination with confocal laser scanning microscopy the architecture of these so far unknown snottites was examined. The imaging approaches applied comprised reflection of geogenic and cellular origin, possible autofluorescence, nucleic acid staining for bacterial cells, protein staining for bacteria and extracellular fine structures, calcofluor white for β 1 → 3, β 1 → 4 polysaccharide staining for possible fungi as well as lectin staining for the extracellular biofilm matrix glycoconjugates. The results showed a highly complex, intricate structure with voluminous, globular, and tube-like glycoconjugates of different dimensions and densities. In addition, filamentous bacteria seem to provide additional strength to the snottites. After screening with all commercially available lectins, by means of fluorescence lectin barcoding and subsequent fluorescence lectin binding analysis, the AAL, PNA, LEA, and Ban lectins identified α-Fuc, β-Gal, β-GlcNAc, and α-Man with α-Fuc as a major component. Examination of the outer boundary with fluorescent beads revealed a potential outer layer which could not be stained by any of the fluorescent probes applied. Finally, suggestions are made to further elucidate the characteristics of these unusual microbial biofilms in form of snottites. RESEARCH HIGHLIGHTS: The gelatinous snottites revealed at the microscale a highly complex structure not seen before. The extracellular matrix of the snottite biofilm was identified as clusters of different shape and density. The matrix of snottites was examined by taking advantage of 78 fluorescently-labeled lectins. The extracellular matrix glycoconjugates of snottites identified comprised: α-Fuc, β-Gal, β-GlcNAc, and α-Man. Probing the snottite outer surface indicated an additional unknown stratum.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-20

Nouruzi E, Hosseini SM, Asghari B, et al (2023)

Effect of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) polymer nanoparticles loaded with vancomycin against Staphylococcus aureus biofilm.

BMC biotechnology, 23(1):39.

Staphylococcus aureus is a unique challenge for the healthcare system because it can form biofilms, is resistant to the host's immune system, and is resistant to numerous antimicrobial therapies. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of poly (lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) polymer nanoparticles loaded with vancomycin and conjugated with lysostaphin (PLGA-VAN-LYS) on inhibiting S. aureus biofilm formation. Nano drug carriers were produced using the double emulsion evaporation process. we examined the physicochemical characteristics of the nanoparticles, including particle size, polydispersity index (PDI), zeta potential, drug loading (DL), entrapment efficiency (EE), Lysostaphin conjugation efficiency (LCE), and shape. The effect of the nano drug carriers on S. aureus strains was evaluated by determining the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC), conducting biofilm formation inhibition studies, and performing agar well diffusion tests. The average size, PDI, zeta potential, DL, EE, and LCE of PLGA-VAN-LYS were 320.5 ± 35 nm, 0.270 ± 0.012, -19.5 ± 1.3 mV, 16.75 ± 2.5%, 94.62 ± 2.6%, and 37% respectively. Both the agar well diffusion and MIC tests did not show a distinction between vancomycin and the nano drug carriers after 72 h. However, the results of the biofilm analysis demonstrated that the nano drug carrier had a stronger inhibitory effect on biofilm formation compared to the free drug. The use of this technology for treating hospital infections caused by the Staphylococcus bacteria may have favorable effects on staphylococcal infections, considering the efficacy of the nano medicine carrier developed in this study.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Li D, Guo W, Zhai Y, et al (2023)

The aggregated biofilm dominated by Delftia tsuruhatensis enhances the removal efficiency of 2,4-dichlorophenol in a bioelectrochemical system.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(23)01578-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Bioelectrochemical system is a prospective strategy in organic-contaminated groundwater treatment, while few studies clearly distinguish the mechanisms of adsorption or biodegradation in this process, especially when dense biofilm is formed. This study employed a single chamber microbial electrolysis cell (MEC) with two three-dimensional electrodes for removing a typical organic contaminant, 2,4-dichlorophenol (DCP) from groundwater, which inoculated with anaerobic bacteria derived from sewage treatment plant. Compared with the single biodegradation system without electrodes, the three-dimensional electrodes with a high surface enabled an increase of alpha diversity of the microbial community (increased by 52.6% in Shannon index), and provided adaptive ecological niche for more bacteria. The application of weak voltage (0.6 V) furtherly optimized the microbial community structure, and promoted the aggregation of microorganisms with the formation of dense biofilm. Desorption experiment proved that the contaminants were removed from the groundwater mainly via adsorption by the biofilm rather than biodegradation, and compared with the reactor without electricity, the bioelectrochemical system increased the adsorption capacity from 50.0% to 74.5%. The aggregated bacteria on the surface of electrodes were mainly dominated by Delftia tsuruhatensis (85.0%), which could secrete extracellular polymers and has a high adsorption capacity (0.30 mg/g electrode material) for the contaminants. We found that a bioelectrochemical system with a three-dimensional electrode could stimulate the formation of dense biofilm and remove the organic contaminants as well as their possible more toxic degradation intermediates via adsorption. This study provides important guidance for applying bioelectrochemical system in groundwater or wastewater treatment.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Carmona-Orozco ML, Quiñones W, Robledo SM, et al (2023)

Reversing the biofilm-inducing effect of two xanthones from Garcinia mangostana by 3-methyl-2(5H)-furanone and N-butyryl-D-L homoserine lactone.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 120:155069 pii:S0944-7113(23)00429-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: According to the WHO, 12 bacteria cause numerous human infections, including Enterobacteriaceae Klebsiella pneumoniae, and thus represent a public health problem. Microbial resistance is associated with biofilm formation; therefore, it is critical to know the biofilm-inducing potential of various compounds of everyday life. Likewise, the reversibility of biofilms and the modulation of persister cells are important for controlling microbial pathogens. In this work, we investigated the biofilm-inducing effects of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana on Klebsiella pneumoniae. Furthermore, we investigated the reversal effect of 3-methyl-2(5H)-furanone and the formation of persister cells induced by xanthones and their role in modulating the biofilm to the antibiotic gentamicin.

METHODS: To analyze the biofilm-inducing role of xanthones from Garcinia mangostana, cultures of K. pneumoniae containing duodenal probe pieces were treated with 0.1-0.001 μM α- and γ-mangostin, and the biofilm levels were measured using spectrophotometry. To determine biofilm reversion, cultures treated with xanthones, or gentamicin were mixed with 3-methyl-2(5H)-furanone or N-butyryl-DL-homoserine lactone. The presence of K. pneumoniae persister cells was determined by applying the compounds to the mature biofilm, and the number of colony-forming units was counted.

RESULTS: The xanthones α- and γ-mangostin increased K. pneumoniae biofilm production by 40% with duodenal probes. However, 3-methyl-2(5H)-furanone at 0.001 μΜ reversed biofilm formation by up to 60%. Moreover, adding the same to a culture treated with gentamicin reduced the biofilm by 80.5%. This effect was highlighted when 3-methyl-2(5H)-furanone was administered 6 h later than xanthones. At high concentrations of α-mangostin, persister K. pneumoniae cells in the biofilm were about 5 - 10 times more abundant than cells, whereas, with γ-mangostin, they were about 100 times more.

CONCLUSION: Two xanthones, α- and γ-mangostin from G. mangostana, induced biofilm formation in K. pneumoniae and promoted persister cells. However, the biofilm formation was reversed by adding 3-methyl-2(5H)-furanone, and even this effect was achieved with gentamicin. In addition, this compound controlled the persister K. pneumoniae cells promoted by α-mangostin. Thus, synthetic, and natural biofilm-inducing compounds could harm human health. Therefore, avoiding these substances and looking for biofilm inhibitors would be a strategy to overcome microbial resistance and recover antibiotics that are no longer used.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Chen W, Xu Z, Li C, et al (2023)

Investigation of biofilm formation and the associated genes in multidrug-resistant Salmonella pullorum in China (2018-2022).

Frontiers in veterinary science, 10:1248584.

The study explored the biofilm (BF) formation capacity, BF-related gene profiles, and the trends in antimicrobial resistance (AMR) of Salmonella pullorum (SP) strains over several years. A total of 627 SP strains were isolated from 4,540 samples collected from chicken farms in Guangxi, China during 2018-2022. The BF-forming capacity of these isolates was assessed using crystal violet staining, and the presence of eight BF-related genes (csgA, csgB, csgD, ompR, bapA, pfs, luxS, and rpoS) in BF formation-positive strains was determined through Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) analysis. Antimicrobial susceptibility test was conducted to investigate the AMR of the isolates. Minimum Inhibitory Concentration (MIC) and Minimal Biofilm Eradication Concentration (MBEC) of nine SP-BF strains were determined using the broth microdilution method to assess the impact of BF formation on AMR. Additionally, the Optimal Biofilm Formation Conditions (OBFC) were investigated. The results indicated that 36.8% (231/627) of the strains exhibited a positive BF-formation capacity. Among these, 24.7% (57/231) were strong BF producers, 23.4% (54/231) were moderate BF producers, and 51.9% (120/231) were weak BF producers. Analysis of the eight BF-related genes in SP-BF strains revealed that over 90% of them were positive for all the genes. Antimicrobial susceptibility test conducted on the isolates showed that 100% (231/231) of them exhibited resistance to at least one antibiotic, with 98.3% (227/231) demonstrating multidrug resistance (MDR). Both MIC and MBEC measurements indicated varying degrees of increased AMR after BF formation of the bacteria. The optimal conditions for BF formation were observed at 37°C after 48 h of incubation, with an initial bacterial concentration of 1.2 × 10[6] CFU/mL. Notably, NaCl had a significant inhibitory effect on BF formation, while glucose and Trypticase Soy Broth (TSB) positively influenced BF formation. The results of the study emphasized the need for effective preventive and control strategies to address the challenges posed by the BF formation and MDR of SP in the field.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Zylla JL, Z EG, Bomgni AB, et al (2023)

Convergence research and training in computational bioengineering: a case study on AI/ML driven biofilm-material interaction discovery.

Research square pii:rs.3.rs-3318640.

Initially, research disciplines operated independently, but the emergence of trans- disciplinary sciences led to convergence research, impacting graduate programs and research laboratories, especially in bioengineering and material engineering as presented here. Current graduate curriculum fails to efficiently prepare students for multidisciplinary and convergence research, thus creating a gap between the students and research laboratory expectations. We present a convergence training framework for graduate students, incorporating problem-based learning under the guidance of senior scientists and collaboration with postdoctoral researchers. This case study serves as a template for transdisciplinary convergent training projects - bridging the expertise gap and fostering successful convergence learning experiences in computational biointerface (material-biology interface). The 18-month Advanced Data Science Workshop, initiated in 2019, involves project-based learning, online training modules, and data collection. A pilot solution utilized Jupyter notebook on Google collaborator and culminated in a face-to-face workshop where project presentations and finalization occurred. The program started with 9 experts in the four diverse fields creating 14 curated projects in data science (Artificial Intelligence/Machine Learning), material science, biofilm engineering, and biointerface. These were integrated into convergence research through webinars by the experts. The experts chose 8 of the 14 projects to be part of an all-day in-person workshop, where over 20 learners formed eight teams that tackled complex problems at the interface of digital image processing, gene expression analysis, and material prediction. Each team was comprised of students and postdoctoral researchers or research scientists from diverse domains including computer science, materials science, and biofilm research. Some projects were selected for presentation at the international IEEE Bioinformatics conference in 2022, with three resulting Machine Learning (ML) models submitted as a journal paper. Students engaged in problem discussions, collaborated with experts from different disciplines, and received guidance in decomposing learning objectives. Based on learner feedback, this successful experience allows for consolidation and integration of convergence research via problem-based learning into the curriculum. Three bioengineering participants, who received training in data science and engineering, have received bioinformatics jobs in biotechnology industries.

RevDate: 2023-09-18

Ruchiatan K, Rizqandaru T, Satjamanggala PR, et al (2023)

Characteristics of Biofilm-Forming Ability and Antibiotic Resistance of Cutibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus epidermidis from Acne Vulgaris Patients.

Clinical, cosmetic and investigational dermatology, 16:2457-2465 pii:422486.

INTRODUCTION: Acne vulgaris (AV) is a common and chronic disorder of the pilosebaceous unit and has a multifactorial pathology, including activities of Cutibacterium acnes (C. acnes) and Staphylococcus epidermidis (S. epidermidis). Antibiotic resistance has become a major concern in dermatology daily practice, and the ability of biofilm formation by both bacteria is suggested to increase antibiotic resistance in acne.

PURPOSE: Our aim was to analyze the comparison of antibiotic resistance between biofilm-forming (BF) and non-biofilm-forming (NBF) strains of C. acnes and S. epidermidis towards seven antibiotics commonly used for acne.

METHODS: This is a cross-sectional analytical study involving 60 patients with AV. Samples were obtained from closed comedones on the forehead using the standardized skin surface biopsy (SSSB) method at the Cosmetic Dermatology Clinic Dr. Hasan Sadikin in Bandung, Indonesia. Isolates were cultured and identified before undergoing the biofilm-forming test using the tissue culture plate method. Antibiotic susceptibility testing for each antibiotic was then performed using the disc diffusion method.

RESULTS: The incidence of antibiotic resistance to clindamycin in BF and NBF C. acnes isolates was 54.5% (p=1.00), while in BF and NBF S. epidermidis isolates, it was 54.5% and 45.5% respectively (p=0.67). The incidence of antibiotic resistance to erythromycin and azithromycin in BF and NBF C. acnes isolates was 54.5% and 63.6% respectively (p=1.00), whereas for S. epidermidis BF and NBF isolates, it was 54.5% (p=1.00). There was no resistance observed to tetracycline, doxycycline, levofloxacin, and cotrimoxazole in all groups.

CONCLUSION: There were no significant differences in resistance against seven antibiotics between the C. acnes and S. epidermidis in BF and NBF groups. Furthermore, although statistically not significant, some resistances were observed against clindamycin, erythromycin, and azithromycin. Consequently, the use of these three antibiotics should be judiciously regulated.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Lichtenberg M, Kirketerp-Møller K, Kvich LA, et al (2023)

Single cells and bacterial biofilm populations in chronic wound infections.

APMIS : acta pathologica, microbiologica, et immunologica Scandinavica [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic wounds and chronic ulcers are an increasing problem associated with high health care burden and patient burden. The arrested healing of chronic wounds has, in part, been attributed to the presence of biofilms. Substantial research has documented the presence of biofilms in chronic wounds, and many mechanisms of host-pathogen interactions have been uncovered to explain the arrested healing. However, the paradigm of whether biofilms are only observed in chronic infections was recently challenged when biofilms were also observed in acute infections. Here, we characterize the distribution of bacteria in lower leg wounds with particular emphasis on Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus by confocal laser scanning microscopy combined with PNA-FISH staining and routine culture of bacteria. We show that 40% of wounds contained either P. aeruginosa or S. aureus biofilms and demonstrate the presence of scattered single cells in tissues stained with a universal bacterial PNA-FISH probe. Thus, we demonstrate that chronic wounds do not only harbor bacteria organized in biofilms, but also carry populations of scattered single cells and small cell clusters of only a few bacteria. Our findings may influence diagnostic tools being developed to only target biofilms, where single-cell subpopulations thus may be overlooked and possibly lead to false-negative results.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Samadi A, Kermanshahi Pour A, G Gagnon (2023)

Biodegradation of 1,4-dioxane in a continuous-flow bioelectrochemical reactor by biofilm of Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 and microbial community on conductive carriers.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(23)01574-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Bioelectrochemical degradation is an environmentally friendly, cost-effective and controllable way of providing electron acceptor to the microorganisms. A two-chamber continuous-flow bioelectrochemical reactor (BER) was developed in this study. The objective was to investigate the potential for enhancing the bioelectrochemical degradation of 1,4-dioxane (DX) by Pseudonocardia dioxanivorans CB1190 (CB1190) and microbial community biofilm on conductive and non-conductive carriers in low potentials (1.0-1.2 V) and currents (<2 mA). In the case of CB1190, biodegradation experiments at 1.0 V did not result in any observable change in DX removal efficiency (32.63 ± 2.48%) compared to the 0.0 V (31.69 ± 2.33%). However, the removal efficiency was much higher at 1.2 V (59.08 ± 0.86%). The higher removal at 1.2 V was attributed to an increase in dissolved oxygen (DO) concentration from 3.77 ± 0.33 mg/L at 0.0 V to 5.40 ± 0.11 mg/L at 1.2 V, which resulted from water electrolysis. In the case of microbial community, on the other hand, DX removal efficiency increased at 1.0 V (30.98 ± 1.10%) compared to 0.0 V (23.40 ± 1.02%) that can be attributed to a simultaneous increase in microbial activity from 2389 ± 118.5 ngATP/mgVSS at 0.0 V to 2942 ± 109 ngATP/mgVSS at 1.0 V. Analysis of the changes in microbial composition indicated enrichment of Alistipes and Lutispora at 1.0 V due to the ability of these genera to directly transfer electrons with conductive surface. On the other hand, no change was observed in the microbial community in the case of non-conductive carriers. Results of this study showed that electro-assisted biodegradation of DX at low potentials is possible through two different mechanisms (oxygen production and direct electron transfer with electrode) which makes this technique flexible and cost-effective. The novelty of this work lies in exploring the use of electrical assistance to enhance the biodegradation of DX in the presence of CB1190 and the microbial community. This study more specifically investigated lower potential than required water electrolysis potential, allowing microorganisms to be stimulated through mechanisms unrelated to oxygen generation.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Meng F, Guo S, Zhang L, et al (2023)

Ecological mechanisms of biofilm development in the hybrid sludge-biofilm process: Implications for process start-up and optimization.

Water research, 245:120587 pii:S0043-1354(23)01027-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The hybrid sludge-biofilm processes have been widely applied for the construction or upgradation of biological wastewater treatment process. Ecological mechanisms of biofilm development remain unclear in the hybrid ecosystem, because of the intricate interactive effects between sludge and biofilms. Herein, the establishment principles of biofilms with distinct coexisting sludge amounts were uncovered by varying sludge retention times (SRTs) from 5 to 40 days in the hybrid process. With the increasing of SRTs, biofilm biomass decreased with the increase of suspended sludge, resulting in lower biofilm proportion. As estimated by the Gompertz growth model, the increased sludge amounts (i.e., higher SRTs of 20 and 40 days) prolonged the initial colonization stage and decreased the specific development rate of biofilms when compared to lower sludge amounts with the shorter SRTs (i.e., 5 and 10 days). Null model analysis demonstrated that deterministic homogenous selection could facilitate the colonization and accumulation of biofilms with less coexisting sludge (SRT of 10 days). However, stochastic ecological drift and homogenizing dispersal dominated the colonization and accumulation stages of biofilms with more coexisting sludge (SRT of 20 days), respectively. The ecological networks reflected that positively-related taxa presented taxonomic relatedness, whereas high inconsistency of taxonomic relatedness was observed among aggregate forms or development stages as affected by varied SRTs. The high incidence of intra-taxa co-occurrence patterns suggested that taxa with similar ecological niches could be specifically selected in biofilms when being exposed with less coexisting sludge. This study uncovered ecological mechanisms of biofilm development driven by varying the SRTs of suspended sludge, which would help to propose appropriate strategies for the efficient start-up and optimization of the hybrid sludge-biofilm system.

RevDate: 2023-09-17

Sandeep R, Muscolino JF, Macêdo WV, et al (2023)

Effect of biofilm thickness on the activity and community composition of phosphorus accumulating bacteria in a moving bed biofilm reactor.

Water research, 245:120599 pii:S0043-1354(23)01039-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Can biofilms enhance the rates of phosphorus removal in wastewater treatment? In order to narrow the scientific gap on the effect of biofilm thickness on the activity and microbial community of phosphorus-accumulating bacteria, this study investigated biofilms of 30 to 1000 µm thickness in a moving bed biofilm reactor. Measurements on 5 different biofilm carriers showed that biomass-specific phosphorus release and uptake rates increased as a function of biofilm thickness for biofilms thinner than about 110 µm but were lower for thicker biofilms of about 550-1000 µm. The reduced phosphorus uptake and release rates in the thickest biofilms can result from substrate mass transfer limitations whereas the low activity in the thinnest biofilms can be related to a too high turnover rate in the biofilm due to heterotrophic growth. Additionally, the microbial ecology of the different biofilms confirms the observed phosphorus uptake and release rates. The results from the full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the bacterial community showed that the thicker biofilms were characterized by higher relative abundance (40-58%) of potential phosphorus accumulating genera Zoogloea, Acinetobacter, Dechloromonas and Ca. Accumulibacter. In contrast, the thinner biofilms were dominated by the genus Ferribacterium (34-60%), which might be competing with phosphorus-accumulating bacteria as indicated by the relatively high acetate uptake rates in the thinner biofilms. It is concluded that there is an optimal biofilm thickness of 100-500 µm, at which the phosphorus accumulating bacteria have the highest activity.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Bandyopadhyay NC, S Gautam (2023)

Programmed cell death in Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines is associated with modulation of gene expression resulting in altered states of motility, biofilm and virulence.

Research in microbiology pii:S0923-2508(23)00112-2 [Epub ahead of print].

One of the foremost report of apoptosis-like programmed cell death (PCD) came from Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. glycines (Xag), which displayed rapid post-exponential cell death in PCD inducing media (PIM) but not in a non-inducing media (PNIM). The current study aims to decipher for the first time, the advantages of the existence of PCD in this phytopathogenic microorganism. Analysis of RNA seq under inducing and non-inducing conditions, revealed differential expression of a number of genes related to key physiology of Xag, such as, motility, xanthan biosynthesis and export as well as virulence. A PCD negative mutant Xag M42 displayed diminished virulence and a contrasting transcriptome pattern. In vitro experiments revealed that under PCD inducing condition, Xag produced negligible xanthan gum as well as extracellular amylase, displayed enhanced swarming motility, released copious e-DNA and formed scanty biofilm. Lack of 'diffusible signalling factor' production was eliminated as possible reason for PCD-induction. Altogether, it appears that, in planta existence of the pathogen metabolically resembles PNIM, and on being transferred to PIM, the cells experience oxidative stress and circumvents it by adopting PCD as an altruistic response. Survival of the remaining population is encouraged by upregulating motility, detachment from the fragile biofilm to achieve dispersal.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Yang M, Z Li (2023)

Development of Green-Synthesized Carbon-Based Nanoparticle for Prevention of Surface Wound Biofilm.

Applied biochemistry and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

The development of microbial biofilm occurs with the adherence of the microbial cells on biotic and abiotic surfaces with the help of pili and with extracellular polymeric substances. The surfaces on which biofilm formation take place can be inert, abiotic, or biotic. The sessile microbial cells behave differently from their planktonic counterpart. The biofilm developed by Alcaligenes faecalis is responsible for the development of skin and soft-tissue infection. It was observed that green-synthesized carbon nanoparticles (NPs) from Ocimum sanctum showed a prolonged stability and activity. It showed a marked reduction in the viability of sessile microbial species with least revival in comparison to the plant extract and amoxicillin. It was observed that carbon NP was able to maximally reduce the quorum sensing (QS) activity of A. faecalis. Thus, the use of green-synthesized NPs would be an alternative in the treatment of the biofilm-associated chronic wound infections.

RevDate: 2023-09-16

Radojević ID, Jakovljević VD, AM Ostojić (2023)

A mini-review on indigenous microbial biofilm from various wastewater for heavy-metal removal - new trends.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 39(11):309.

Biofilm, as a form of the microbial community in nature, represents an evolutionary adaptation to the influence of various environmental conditions. In nature, the largest number of microorganisms occur in the form of multispecies biofilms. The ability of microorganisms to form a biofilm is one of the reasons for antibiotic resistance. The creation of biofilms resistant to various contaminants, on the other hand, improves the biological treatment process in wastewater treatment plants. Heavy metals cannot be degraded, but they can be transformed into non-reactive and less toxic forms. In this process, microorganisms are irreplaceable as they interact with the metals in a variety of ways. The environment polluted by heavy metals, such as wastewater, is also a source of undiscovered microbial diversity and specific microbial strains. Numerous studies show that biofilm is an irreplaceable strategy for heavy metal removal. In this review, we systematize recent findings regarding the bioremediation potential of biofilm-forming microbial species isolated from diverse wastewaters for heavy metal removal. In addition, we include some mechanisms of action, application possibilities, practical issues, and future prospects.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Candry P, Chadwick GL, Caravajal-Arroyo JM, et al (2023)

Trophic interactions shape the spatial organization of medium-chain carboxylic acid producing granular biofilm communities.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Granular biofilms producing medium-chain carboxylic acids (MCCA) from carbohydrate-rich industrial feedstocks harbor highly streamlined communities converting sugars to MCCA either directly or via lactic acid as intermediate. We investigated the spatial organization and growth activity patterns of MCCA producing granular biofilms grown on an industrial side stream to test (i) whether key functional guilds (lactic acid producing Olsenella and MCCA producing Oscillospiraceae) stratified in the biofilm based on substrate usage, and (ii) whether spatial patterns of growth activity shaped the unique, lenticular morphology of these biofilms. First, three novel isolates (one Olsenella and two Oscillospiraceae species) representing over half of the granular biofilm community were obtained and used to develop FISH probes, revealing that key functional guilds were not stratified. Instead, the outer 150-500 µm of the granular biofilm consisted of a well-mixed community of Olsenella and Oscillospiraceae, while deeper layers were made up of other bacteria with lower activities. Second, nanoSIMS analysis of [15]N incorporation in biofilms grown in normal and lactic acid amended conditions suggested Oscillospiraceae switched from sugars to lactic acid as substrate. This suggests competitive-cooperative interactions may govern the spatial organization of these biofilms, and suggests that optimizing biofilm size may be a suitable process engineering strategy. Third, growth activities were similar in the polar and equatorial biofilm peripheries, leaving the mechanism behind the lenticular biofilm morphology unexplained. Physical processes (e.g., shear hydrodynamics, biofilm life cycles) may have contributed to lenticular biofilm development. Together, this study develops an ecological framework of MCCA-producing granular biofilms that informs bioprocess development.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Wu G, Yang G, Sun X, et al (2023)

Simultaneous denitrification and organics removal by denitrifying bacteria inoculum in a multistage biofilm process for treating desulfuration and denitration wastewater.

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(23)01185-9 [Epub ahead of print].

This study aimed to treat real wastewater from the desulfuration and denitration process in a petrochemical plant with high-strength nitrogen (TN≈200 mg/L, >90% nitrate), sulfate (2.7%) and extremely low-strength organics (CODCr < 30 mg/L). Heterotrophic denitrification of multistage anoxic and oxic biofilm (MAOB) process in three tanks using facultative denitrifying bacteria inoculum was developed to simultaneously achieving desirable effluent nitrogen and organics at different hydraulic retention time (HRT) and carbon to nitrogen (C/N) mass ratios. The optimum condition was recommended as a C/N ratio of 1.5 and a HRT of A (24 h)/O (12-24 h) to achieve > 90% of nitrogen and organics removal as well as no significant variation of sulfate. The denitrifying biofilm in various tanks was dominant by Hyphomicrobium (8.9%-25.7%), Methylophaga (18.6%-25.8%) and Azoarcus (3.3%-19.6%), etc., containing > 20% aerobic denitrifiers. This explained that oxic zone in MAOB process also exhibited simultaneous nitrogen and organics removal.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Zhao Z, Sun Y, Wang H, et al (2023)

Regulation of cadmium-induced biofilm formation by artificial polysaccharide-binding proteins for enhanced phytoremediation.

Chemosphere pii:S0045-6535(23)02426-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Phytoremediation is an economic way to attenuate soil heavy metal pollution, but is frequently limited by its low pollutant-removing efficiency. Recently, we revealed the close relation between polysaccharide-based biofilm formation and cadmium removal. In this study, for improving the phytoremediation efficiency, an artificial polysaccharide-binding protein was designed by synthetic biology techniques to regulate biofilm formation. The artificial protein Syn contained two polysaccharide-binding domains from the Ruminococcus flavefaciens CttA and the Clostridium cellulolyticum CipC, preferentially binding polysaccharides exposed on both cadmium-treated bacteria and plant roots. Under cadmium stress, Syn remarkably promoted bacterial polysaccharide production from 99 mg/L to 237 mg/L, leading to 1.23-fold higher biofilm biomass. During treatment of the remediation plants with exogenous cadmium-capturing bacteria, Syn improved root biofilm formation, with the root surface polysaccharide contents increasing by 79%, and the Log10 CFU/g root increasing from 7.01 to 7.80. Meanwhile, Syn remodeled the rhizosphere microbiome, especially increasing the abundance of the bacterial groups involved in biofilm formation and stress tolerance, e.g., Pseudomonas, Enterobacter, etc. Consequently, Syn promoted plant cadmium adsorption, with the cadmium-removing efficiency increasing from 17.2% to 33.8%. This study sheds light on synthetic biology-based regulation of biofilm formation for enhanced phytoremediation.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Tang L, Pan Z, Li X, et al (2023)

Antibiotics resistance removal from piggery wastewater by an integrated anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor: Efficiency and mechanism.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05656-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Antibiotic resistance residual in piggery wastewater poses serious threat to environment and human health. Biological treatment process is commonly installed to remove nutrient from piggery wastewater and also effective in removing antibiotics to varying degrees. But the specific pathways and mechanisms involved in the removal of antibiotic resistance are not yet well-understood. An integrated anaerobic-aerobic biofilm reactor (IAOBR) has been demonstrated efficient in removing conventional nutrients. It is here shown that the IAOBR effectively removed 79.0 % of Sulfonamides, 55.7 % of Tetracyclines and 53.6 % of Quinones. Antibiotic resistance bacteria (ARB) were simultaneously inactivated by ~0.5 logs. Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were decreased by 0.51 logs and 0.42 logs, respectively. The antibiotics were mainly removed through aerobic compartments of the IAOBR. The mass loss of antibiotics in the reactor was achieved by biodegradation and adsorption, accounting for 52.1 % and 47.9 %, respectively. An obvious accumulation of ARGs was observed in the activated sludge. The potential host of ARGs was analyzed via microbial community and network. Partial least squares-structural equation model and correlation analysis revealed that the enrichment of ARGs was positively affected by MGEs, followed by bacterial community and ARBs, but the effect of antibiotics on ARGs was negative. Outcomes of this study provide valuable insights into the mechanisms of antibiotic resistance removal in biological treatment processes.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Ballah FM, Islam MS, Ievy S, et al (2023)

Draft genome sequence of biofilm-forming methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MTR_V1 strain isolated from a ready-to-eat food in Bangladesh.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

This announcement provides the genome sequence of the biofilm-forming methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MTR_V1 strain isolated from a ready-to-eat food sample in Bangladesh. Our assembled genome had a length of 2.8 Mb, 27 contigs, two CRISPR arrays, 38 predicted antibiotic resistance genes, and 66 predicted virulence factor genes.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Pongchaikul P, Hajidariyor T, Khetlai N, et al (2023)

Nanostructured N/S doped carbon dots/mesoporous silica nanoparticles and PVA composite hydrogel fabrication for anti-microbial and anti-biofilm application.

International journal of pharmaceutics: X, 6:100209 pii:S2590-1567(23)00053-1.

Regarding the convergence of the worldwide epidemic, the appearance of bacterial infection has occasioned in a melodramatic upsurge in bacterial pathogens with confrontation against one or numerous antibiotics. The implementation of engineered nanostructured particles as a delivery vehicle for antimicrobial agent is one promising approach that could theoretically battle the setbacks mentioned. Among all nanoparticles, silica nanoparticles have been found to provide functional features that are advantageous for combatting bacterial contagion. Apart from that, carbon dots, a zero-dimension nanomaterial, have recently exhibited their photo-responsive property to generate reactive oxygen species facilitating to enhance microorganism suppression and inactivation ability. In this study, potentials of core/shell mesoporous silica nanostructures (MSN) in conjugation with carbon dots (CDs) toward antimicrobial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli have been investigated. Nitrogen and sulfur doped CDs (NS/CDs) conjugated with MSN which were cost effective nanoparticles exhibited much superior antimicrobial activity for 4 times as much as silver nanoparticles against all bacteria tested. Among all nanoparticles tested, 0.40 M NS/CDs@MSN showed the greatest minimal biofilm inhibitory at very low concentration (< 0.125 mg mL[-1]), followed by 0.20 M NS/CDs@MSN (0.5 mg mL[-1]), CD@MSN (25 mg mL[-1]), and MSN (50 mg mL[-1]), respectively. Immobilization of NS/CDs@MSN in polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) hydrogel was performed and its effect on antimicrobial activity, biofilm controlling efficiency, and cytotoxicity toward fibroblast (NIH/3 T3 and L-929) cells was additionally studied for further biomedical applications. The results demonstrated that 0.40 M NS/CDs-MSN@PVA hydrogel exhibited the highest inhibitory effect on S. aureus > P. aeruginosa > E. coli. In addition, MTT assay revealed some degree of toxicity of 0.40 M NS/CDs-MSN@PVA hydrogel against L-929 cells by a slight reduction of cell viability from 100% to 81.6% when incubated in the extract from 0.40 M NS/CDs-MSN@PVA hydrogel, while no toxicity of the same hydrogel extract was detected toward NIH/3 T3 cells.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Trognon J, Rima M, Lajoie B, et al (2023)

NaCl-induced modulation of species distribution in a mixed P. aeruginosa / S. aureus /B.cepacia biofilm.

Biofilm, 6:100153 pii:S2590-2075(23)00050-3.

Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, and Burkholderia cepacia are notorious pathogens known for their ability to form resilient biofilms, particularly within the lung environment of cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. The heightened concentration of NaCl, prevalent in the airway liquid of CF patients' lungs, has been identified as a factor that promotes the growth of osmotolerant bacteria like S. aureus and dampens host antibacterial defenses, thereby fostering favorable conditions for infections. In this study, we aimed to investigate how increased NaCl concentrations impact the development of multi-species biofilms in vitro, using both laboratory strains and clinical isolates of P. aeruginosa, S. aureus, and B. cepacia co-cultures. Employing a low-nutrient culture medium that fosters biofilm growth of the selected species, we quantified biofilm formation through a combination of adherent CFU counts, qPCR analysis, and confocal microscopy observations. Our findings reaffirmed the challenges faced by S. aureus in establishing growth within 1:1 mixed biofilms with P. aeruginosa when cultivated in a minimal medium. Intriguingly, at an elevated NaCl concentration of 145 mM, a symbiotic relationship emerged between S. aureus and P. aeruginosa, enabling their co-existence. Notably, this hyperosmotic environment also exerted an influence on the interplay of these two bacteria with B. cepacia. We demonstrated that elevated NaCl concentrations play a pivotal role in orchestrating the distribution of these three species within the biofilm matrix. Furthermore, our study unveiled the beneficial impact of NaCl on the biofilm growth of clinically relevant mucoid P. aeruginosa strains, as well as two strains of methicillin-sensitive and methicillin-resistant S. aureus. This underscores the crucial role of the microenvironment during the colonization and infection processes. The results suggest that hyperosmotic conditions could hold the key to unlocking a deeper understanding of the genesis and behavior of CF multi-species biofilms.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Sentenac H, Loyau A, Zoccarato L, et al (2023)

Biofilm community composition is changing in remote mountain lakes with a relative increase in potentially toxigenic algae.

Water research, 245:120547 pii:S0043-1354(23)00987-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Mountain lakes provide clear drinking water to humankind but are strongly impacted by global change. Benthic biofilms are crucial for maintaining water quality in these oligotrophic lakes, yet little is known about the effects of global change on mountain biofilm communities. By combining analyses of metabarcoding data on 16S and 18S rRNA genes with climatic and environmental data, we investigated global change effects on the composition of biofilm prokaryotic and micro-eukaryotic assemblages in a five-year monitoring program of 26 Pyrenean lakes (2016-2020). Using time-decay relationships and within-lake dissimilarity modelling, we show that the composition of both prokaryotic and micro-eukaryotic biofilm communities significantly shifted and their biodiversity declined from 2016 to 2020. In particular, analyses of temporal trends with linear mixed models indicated an increase in the richness and relative abundance of cyanobacteria, including potentially toxigenic cyanobacteria, and a concomitant decrease in diatom richness and relative abundance. While these compositional shifts may be due to several drivers of global change acting simultaneously on mountain lake biota, water pH and hardness were, from our data, the main environmental variables associated with changes for both prokaryotic and micro-eukaryotic assemblages. Water pH and hardness increased in our lakes over the study period, and are known to increase in Pyrenean lakes due to the intensification of rock weathering as a result of climate change. Given predicted climate trends and if water pH and hardness do cause some changes in benthic biofilms, those changes might be further exacerbated in the future. Such biofilm compositional shifts may induce cascading effects in mountain food webs, threatening the resilience of the entire lake ecosystem. The rise in potentially toxigenic cyanobacteria also increases intoxication risks for humans, pets, wild animals, and livestock that use mountain lakes. Therefore, our study has implications for water quality, ecosystem health, public health, as well as local economies (pastoralism, tourism), and highlights the possible impacts of global change on mountain lakes.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Didouh N, Khadidja M, Campos C, et al (2023)

Assessment of biofilm, enzyme production and antibiotic susceptibility of bacteria from milk pre- and post-pasteurization pipelines in Algeria.

International journal of food microbiology, 407:110389 pii:S0168-1605(23)00305-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial biofilm is a major concern of dairy industry due to its association with milk contamination and its derived products. Algerian pasteurized milk shelf-life does not exceed one day, which may reflect the high level of contamination of this product and presence of extracellular enzymes such as lipases and proteases. This work aimed to investigate the microbial biodiversity in milk-processing surfaces of a dairy plant in Algeria. Therefore, stainless steel cylinders were placed in piping system of the dairy system before and after pasteurization of the milk, being removed after 7 days, for biofilm maturation and microorganism isolation and identification by mass spectrometry. Fifty-nine Gram-positive isolates were identified, namely Bacillus altitudinis, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus pumilus, Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus weithenstephanensis, Enterococcus casseliflavus, Enterococcus faecium, and Staphylococcus epidermidis. In addition, twenty-four Gram-negative isolates were identified, namely Acinetobacter schindleri Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter xiangfangensis, Leclercia adecarboxylata, and Raoultella ornithinolytica. Bacterial isolates showed ability for production of extracellular enzymes, being 49 % capable of both proteolytic and lipolytic activities. Milk isolates were tested for the ability to form biofilms on stainless steel. The cell numbers recovered on plate count agar plates from stainless steel biofilms ranged from 3.52 to 6.92 log10 CFU/cm[2], being the maximum number detected for Enterococcus casseliflavus. Bacterial isolates showed intermediate and/or resistant profiles to multiple antibiotics. Resistance to amoxicillin, cefoxitin and/or erythromycin was commonly found among the bacterial isolates.

RevDate: 2023-09-14

Elfarargy RG, Sedki M, Samhan FA, et al (2023)

Surface grafting of polymeric catheters and stents to prevent biofilm formation of pathogenic bacteria.

Journal, genetic engineering & biotechnology, 21(1):92.

BACKGROUND: Tecothane (medical grade of polyurethane) is strongly involved in the fabrication of metallic and polymeric-based medical devices (e.g., catheters and stents) as they can withstand cardiac cycle-related forces without deforming or failing, and they can mimic tissue behavior. The main problem is microbial contamination and formation of pathogenic biofilms on such solid surfaces within the human body. Accordingly, our hypothesis is the coating of tecothane outer surfaces with antibacterial agents through the electro-deposition or chemical grafting of anti-biofilm agents onto the stent and catheter surfaces.

RESULTS: Tecothane is grafted with itaconic acid for cross-linking the polyethyleneimine (PEI) as the protective-active layer. Accordingly, the grafting of poly-itaconic acid onto the Tecothane was achieved by three different methods: wet-chemical approach, electro-polymerization, or by using plasma treatment. The successful modifications were verified using Fourier Transform Infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy, grafting percentage calculations, electrochemical, and microscopic monitoring of biofilm formation. The grafting efficiency of itaconic acid was over 3.2% (w/w) at 60 ℃ after 6 h of the catheter chemical modification. Bio-electrochemical signals of biofilms have been seriously reduced after chemical modification because of the inhibition of biofilm formation (for both Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Staphylococcus aureus) over a period of 9 days.

CONCLUSION: Chemical functionalization of the polyurethane materials with the antimicrobial and anti-biofilm agents led to a significant decrease in the formation of pathogenic biofilms. This promising proof-concept will open the door to explore further surface protection with potential anti-biofilm agents providing better and sustainable productions of stents and catheters biomaterials.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Hu S, Johnson DM, Jiang M, et al (2023)

The effect of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) color on biofilm development and biofilm-heavy metal chemodynamics in the aquatic environment.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05549-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Plastic surfaces are colonized by microorganisms and biofilms are formed in the natural aquatic environment. As the biofilm develops, it changes the density and buoyancy of the plastic-biofilm complex, results in plastic sinking, and increases the heavy metals accumulated by biofilm's mobility and availability in aquatic ecosystems. In this experiment, biofilms were cultured on five colors of polyvinyl chloride (PVC; transparent, green, blue, red, black) in an aquatic environment to investigate the effects of plastic color on biofilm formation and development (Phase 1) and to study the effects of being sunk below the photic zone on biofilm (Phase 2). The PVC color significantly affected the biofilm formation rate but had no impact on the final biofilm biomass. After sinking the biofilm-PVC below the photic zone in Phase 2, the layer of diatoms on the biofilm surface began to disintegrate, and the biomass and Chlorophyll-a (Chla) content of the biofilm decreased, except on the red PVC. Below the photic zone, the microbial community of the biofilm changed from primarily autotrophic microbes to mostly heterotrophic microbes. Microbial diversity increased and extracellular polymeric substances (EPS) content decreased. The primary factor leading to microbial diversity and community structure changes was water depth rather than PVC color. The changes induced in the biofilm led to an increase in the concentration of all heavy metals in the biofilm, related to the increase in microbial diversity. This study provides new insights into the biofilm formation process and the effects on a biofilm when it sinks below the photic zone.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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An examination of the research and translational application to prevent and treat biofilm-associated diseases In the decade since the first edition of Microbial Biofilms was published, the interest in this field has expanded, spurring breakthrough research that has advanced the treatment of biofilm-associated diseases. This second edition takes the reader on an exciting, extensive review of bacterial and fungal biofilms, ranging from basic molecular interactions to innovative therapies, with particular emphasis on the division of labor in biofilms, new approaches to combat the threat of microbial biofilms, and how biofilms evade the host defense.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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