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29 Sep 2023 at 01:35
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Bibliography on: Alzheimer Disease — Current Literature


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 29 Sep 2023 at 01:35 Created: 

Alzheimer Disease — Current Literature

Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with Alzheimer's, symptoms first appear in their mid-60s. Alzheimer's is the most common cause of dementia among older adults. Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning — thinking, remembering, and reasoning — and behavioral abilities to such an extent that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities. Dementia ranges in severity from the mildest stage, when it is just beginning to affect a person's functioning, to the most severe stage, when the person must depend completely on others for basic activities of daily living. Scientists don't yet fully understand what causes Alzheimer's disease in most people. There is a genetic component to some cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Late-onset Alzheimer's arises from a complex series of brain changes that occur over decades. The causes probably include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. The importance of any one of these factors in increasing or decreasing the risk of developing Alzheimer's may differ from person to person. This bibliography runs a generic query on "Alzheimer" and then restricts the results to papers published in or after 2017.

Created with PubMed® Query: 2021:2023[dp] AND ( alzheimer*[TIAB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ververis A, Kyriakou S, Ioannou K, et al (2023)

Chemical Profiling and Antioxidant and Anti-Amyloid Capacities of Salvia fruticosa Extracts from Greece.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(18): pii:plants12183191.

An increasingly common ailment in elderly persons is Alzheimer's disease (AD), a neurodegenerative illness. Present treatment is restricted to alleviating symptoms; hence, there is a requirement to develop an effective approach to AD treatment. Salvia fruticosa (SF) is a medicinal plant with a documented neuroprotective potential. To identify extracts of increased neuroprotectivity, we partitioned the methanolic extract of SF aerial parts from Greece into several fractions, by employing solvents of different polarities. The fractions were chemically identified and evaluated for their antioxidancy and anti-neurotoxic potential against amyloid beta peptides 25-35 (Aβ25-35). Carnosol and carnosic acid were among the prominent compounds, while all partitions showed significant antioxidant capacity, with the diethyl ether and ethyl acetate partitions being the most potent. These, along with the aqueous and the butanolic fractions, demonstrated statistically significant anti-neurotoxic potential. Thus, our findings further validate the neuroprotective potential of SF and support its ethnopharmacological usage as an antioxidant. The particular properties found define SF as a promising source for obtaining extracts or bioactive compounds, possibly beneficial for generating AD-related functional foods or medications. Finally, our results encourage plant extract partitioning for acquiring fractions of enhanced biological properties.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Huang M, Tallon C, Zhu X, et al (2023)

Microglial-Targeted nSMase2 Inhibitor Fails to Reduce Tau Propagation in PS19 Mice.

Pharmaceutics, 15(9): pii:pharmaceutics15092364.

The progression of Alzheimer's disease (AD) correlates with the propagation of hyperphosphorylated tau (pTau) from the entorhinal cortex to the hippocampus and neocortex. Neutral sphingomyelinase2 (nSMase2) is critical in the biosynthesis of extracellular vesicles (EVs), which play a role in pTau propagation. We recently conjugated DPTIP, a potent nSMase2 inhibitor, to hydroxyl-PAMAM-dendrimer nanoparticles that can improve brain delivery. We showed that dendrimer-conjugated DPTIP (D-DPTIP) robustly inhibited the spread of pTau in an AAV-pTau propagation model. To further evaluate its efficacy, we tested D-DPTIP in the PS19 transgenic mouse model. Unexpectantly, D-DPTIP showed no beneficial effect. To understand this discrepancy, we assessed D-DPTIP's brain localization. Using immunofluorescence and fluorescence-activated cell-sorting, D-DPTIP was found to be primarily internalized by microglia, where it selectively inhibited microglial nSMase2 activity with no effect on other cell types. Furthermore, D-DPTIP inhibited microglia-derived EV release into plasma without affecting other brain-derived EVs. We hypothesize that microglial targeting allowed D-DPTIP to inhibit tau propagation in the AAV-hTau model, where microglial EVs play a central role in propagation. However, in PS19 mice, where tau propagation is independent of microglial EVs, it had a limited effect. Our findings confirm microglial targeting with hydroxyl-PAMAM dendrimers and highlight the importance of understanding cell-specific mechanisms when designing targeted AD therapies.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Chaparro CIP, Simões BT, Borges JP, et al (2023)

A Promising Approach: Magnetic Nanosystems for Alzheimer's Disease Theranostics.

Pharmaceutics, 15(9): pii:pharmaceutics15092316.

Among central nervous system (CNS) disorders, Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and a major cause of dementia worldwide. The yet unclear etiology of AD and the high impenetrability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) limit most therapeutic compounds from reaching the brain. Although many efforts have been made to effectively deliver drugs to the CNS, both invasive and noninvasive strategies employed often come with associated side effects. Nanotechnology-based approaches such as nanoparticles (NPs), which can act as multifunctional platforms in a single system, emerged as a potential solution for current AD theranostics. Among these, magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) are an appealing strategy since they can act as contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and as drug delivery systems. The nanocarrier functionalization with specific moieties, such as peptides, proteins, and antibodies, influences the particles' interaction with brain endothelial cell constituents, facilitating transport across the BBB and possibly increasing brain penetration. In this review, we introduce MNP-based systems, combining surface modifications with the particles' physical properties for molecular imaging, as a novel neuro-targeted strategy for AD theranostics. The main goal is to highlight the potential of multifunctional MNPs and their advances as a dual nanotechnological diagnosis and treatment platform for neurodegenerative disorders.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ababei DC, Bild V, Macadan I, et al (2023)

Therapeutic Implications of Renin-Angiotensin System Modulators in Alzheimer's Dementia.

Pharmaceutics, 15(9): pii:pharmaceutics15092290.

The Renin-Angiotensin System (RAS) has attracted considerable interest beyond its traditional cardiovascular role due to emerging data indicating its potential involvement in neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's dementia (AD). This review investigates the therapeutic implications of RAS modulators, specifically focusing on angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEIs), angiotensin receptor blockers (ARBs), and renin inhibitors in AD. ACEIs, commonly used for hypertension, show promise in AD by reducing angiotensin (Ang) II levels. This reduction is significant as Ang II contributes to neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and β-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation, all implicated in AD pathogenesis. ARBs, known for vasodilation, exhibit neuroprotection by blocking Ang II receptors, improving cerebral blood flow and cognitive decline in AD models. Renin inhibitors offer a novel approach by targeting the initial RAS step, displaying anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that mitigate AD degeneration. Preclinical studies demonstrate RAS regulation's favorable impact on neuroinflammation, neuronal damage, cognitive function, and Aβ metabolism. Clinical trials on RAS modulators in AD are limited, but with promising results, ARBs being more effective that ACEIs in reducing cognitive decline. The varied roles of ACEIs, ARBs, and renin inhibitors in RAS modulation present a promising avenue for AD therapeutic intervention, requiring further research to potentially transform AD treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ipe RS, Kumar S, Benny F, et al (2023)

A Concise Review of the Recent Structural Explorations of Chromones as MAO-B Inhibitors: Update from 2017 to 2023.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(9): pii:ph16091310.

Monoamine oxidases (MAOs) are a family of flavin adenine dinucleotide-dependent enzymes that catalyze the oxidative deamination of a wide range of endogenous and exogenous amines. Multiple neurological conditions, including Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD), are closely correlated with altered biogenic amine concentrations in the brain caused by MAO. Toxic byproducts of this oxidative breakdown, including hydrogen peroxide, reactive oxygen species, and ammonia, can cause oxidative damage and mitochondrial dysfunction in brain cells. Certain MAO-B blockers have been recognized as effective treatment options for managing neurological conditions, including AD and PD. There is still a pressing need to find potent therapeutic molecules to fight these disorders. However, the focus of neurodegeneration studies has recently increased, and certain compounds are now in clinical trials. Chromones are promising structures for developing therapeutic compounds, especially in neuronal degeneration. This review focuses on the MAO-B inhibitory potential of several synthesized chromones and their structural activity relationships. Concerning the discovery of a novel class of effective chromone-based selective MAO-B-inhibiting agents, this review offers readers a better understanding of the most recent additions to the literature.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Di Paolo M, Corsi F, Cerri C, et al (2023)

A Window to the Brain: The Retina to Monitor the Progression and Efficacy of Saffron Repron[®] Pre-Treatment in an LPS Model of Neuroinflammation and Memory Impairment.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(9): pii:ph16091307.

A mechanism shared by most neurodegenerative diseases, like Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD), is neuroinflammation. It has been shown to have a link between cognitive impairment and retinal function under neuroinflammatory conditions, confirming the essential role of the retina as a window to the brain. Here, we characterize a mouse model of LPS-induced neuroinflammation describing the parallel deterioration of both memory and visual function. Then, we demonstrate, using the Novel Object Recognition test (NOR) and electroretinogram (ERG) recordings, that preventive, chronic treatment with saffron Repron[®] is able to reduce the neuroinflammation process and prevent the impairment of both cognitive and visual function. The improvement in behavioral and visual function is confirmed by the pattern of expression of neuroinflammation-related genes and related proteins where pre-treatment with Repron[®] saffron presents a positive modulation compared with that obtained in animals treated with LPS alone. These results hold for retinal tissue and partially in the brain, where it appears that the onset of damage was delayed. This trend underlines the critical role of the retina as a most sensitive portion of the central nervous system to LPS-induced damage and could be used as a "sensor" for the early detection of neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Carrera I, Corzo L, Martínez-Iglesias O, et al (2023)

Neuroprotective Effect of Nosustrophine in a 3xTg Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(9): pii:ph16091306.

Neurodegeneration, characterized by the progressive deterioration of neurons and glial cells, is a feature of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present study aims to demonstrate that the onset and early progression of neurodegenerative processes in transgenic mice models of AD can be delayed by a cocktail of neurotrophic factors and derived peptides named Nosustrophine, a nootropic supplement made by a peptide complex extracted from the young porcine brain, ensuring neuroprotection and improving neuro-functional recovery. Experimental 3xTg-APP/Bin1/COPS5 transgenic mice models of AD were treated with Nosustrophine at two different early ages, and their neuropathological hallmark and behavior response were analyzed. Results showed that Nosustrophine increased the activity of the immune system and reduced pathological changes in the hippocampus and cortex by halting the development of amyloid plaques, mainly seen in mice of 3-4 months of age, indicating that its effect is more preventive than therapeutic. Taken together, the results indicate the potent neuroprotective activity of Nosustrophine and its stimulating effects on neuronal plasticity. This study shows for the first time an effective therapy using nootropic supplements against degenerative diseases, although further investigation is needed to understand their molecular pathways.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Bhujbal SP, JM Hah (2023)

An Innovative Approach to Address Neurodegenerative Diseases through Kinase-Targeted Therapies: Potential for Designing Covalent Inhibitors.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(9): pii:ph16091295.

Owing to the dysregulation of protein kinase activity in various diseases such as cancer and autoimmune, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative, and inflammatory conditions, the protein kinase family has emerged as a crucial drug target in the 21st century. Notably, many kinases have been targeted to address cancer and neurodegenerative diseases using conventional ATP-mimicking kinase inhibitors. Likewise, irreversible covalent inhibitors have also been developed for different types of cancer. The application of covalent modification to target proteins has led to significant advancements in the treatment of cancer. However, while covalent drugs have significantly impacted medical treatment, their potential for neurodegenerative diseases remains largely unexplored. Neurodegenerative diseases present significant risks to brain function, leading to progressive deterioration in sensory, motor, and cognitive abilities. Alzheimer's disease (AD), Huntington's disease (HD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS) are among the various examples of such disorders. Numerous research groups have already reported insights through reviews and research articles on FDA-approved covalent inhibitors, revealing their mechanisms and the specific covalent warheads that preferentially interact with particular amino acid residues in intricate detail. Hence, in this review, we aim to provide a concise summary of these critical topics. This summary endeavors to guide medicinal chemists in their quest to design covalent inhibitors for protein kinases, specifically targeting neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Hussain R, Khan S, Ullah H, et al (2023)

Benzimidazole-Based Schiff Base Hybrid Scaffolds: A Promising Approach to Develop Multi-Target Drugs for Alzheimer's Disease.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(9): pii:ph16091278.

A series of benzimidazole-based Schiff base derivatives (1-18) were synthesized and structurally elucidated through [1]H NMR, [13]C NMR and HREI-MS analysis. Subsequently, these synthetic derivatives were subjected to evaluation for their inhibitory capabilities against acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE). All these derivatives showed significant inhibition against AChE with an IC50 value in the range of 123.9 ± 10.20 to 342.60 ± 10.60 µM and BuChE in the range of 131.30 ± 9.70 to 375.80 ± 12.80 µM in comparison with standard Donepezil, which has IC50 values of 243.76 ± 5.70 µM (AChE) and 276.60 ± 6.50 µM (BuChE), respectively. Compounds 3, 5 and 9 exhibited potent inhibition against both AChE and BuChE. Molecular docking studies were used to validate and establish the structure-activity relationship of the synthesized derivatives.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Arab HH, Eid AH, Yahia R, et al (2023)

Targeting Autophagy, Apoptosis, and SIRT1/Nrf2 Axis with Topiramate Underlies Its Neuroprotective Effect against Cadmium-Evoked Cognitive Deficits in Rats.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(9): pii:ph16091214.

Cadmium is an environmental toxicant that instigates cognitive deficits with excessive glutamate excitatory neuroactivity in the brain. Topiramate, a glutamate receptor antagonist, has displayed favorable neuroprotection against epilepsy, cerebral ischemia, and Huntington's disease; however, its effect on cadmium neurotoxicity remains to be investigated. In this study, topiramate was tested for its potential to combat the cognitive deficits induced by cadmium in rats with an emphasis on hippocampal oxidative insult, apoptosis, and autophagy. After topiramate intake (50 mg/kg/day; p.o.) for 8 weeks, behavioral disturbances and molecular changes in the hippocampal area were explored. Herein, Morris water maze, Y-maze, and novel object recognition test revealed that topiramate rescued cadmium-induced memory/learning deficits. Moreover, topiramate significantly lowered hippocampal histopathological damage scores. Mechanistically, topiramate significantly replenished hippocampal GLP-1 and dampened Aβ42 and p-tau neurotoxic cues. Notably, it significantly diminished hippocampal glutamate content and enhanced acetylcholine and GABA neurotransmitters. The behavioral recovery was prompted by hippocampal suppression of the pro-oxidant events with notable activation of SIRT1/Nrf2/HO-1 axis. Moreover, topiramate inactivated GSK-3β and dampened the hippocampal apoptotic changes. In tandem, stimulation of hippocampal pro-autophagy events, including Beclin 1 upregulation, was triggered by topiramate that also activated AMPK/mTOR pathway. Together, the pro-autophagic, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic features of topiramate contributed to its neuroprotective properties in rats intoxicated with cadmium. Therefore, it may be useful to mitigate cadmium-induced cognitive deficits.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Angelova VT, Georgiev B, Pencheva T, et al (2023)

Design, Synthesis, In Silico Studies and In Vitro Evaluation of New Indole- and/or Donepezil-like Hybrids as Multitarget-Directed Agents for Alzheimer's Disease.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 16(9): pii:ph16091194.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is considered a complex neurodegenerative condition which warrants the development of multitargeted drugs to tackle the key pathogenetic mechanisms of the disease. In this study, two novel series of melatonin- and donepezil-based hybrid molecules with hydrazone (3a-r) or sulfonyl hydrazone (5a-l) fragments were designed, synthesized, and evaluated as multifunctional ligands against AD-related neurodegenerative mechanisms. Two lead compounds (3c and 3d) exhibited a well-balanced multifunctional profile, demonstrating intriguing acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition, promising antioxidant activity assessed by DPPH, ABTS, and FRAP methods, as well as the inhibition of lipid peroxidation in the linoleic acid system. Compound 3n, possessing two indole scaffolds, showed the highest activity against butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and a high selectivity index (SI = 47.34), as well as a pronounced protective effect in H2O2-induced oxidative stress in SH-SY5Y cells. Moreover, compounds 3c, 3d, and 3n showed low neurotoxicity against malignant neuroblastoma cell lines of human (SH-SY5Y) and murine (Neuro-2a) origin, as well as normal murine fibroblast cells (CCL-1) that indicate the in vitro biocompatibility of the experimental compounds. Furthermore, compounds 3c, 3d, and 3n were capable of penetrating the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in the experimental PAMPA-BBB study. The molecular docking showed that compound 3c could act as a ligand to both MT1 and MT2 receptors, as well as to AchE and BchE enzymes. Taken together, those results outline compounds 3c, 3d, and 3n as promising prototypes in the search of innovative compounds for the treatment of AD-associated neurodegeneration with oxidative stress. This study demonstrates that hydrazone derivatives with melatonin and donepezil are appropriate for further development of new AChE/BChE inhibitory agents.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Tosto R, Vecchio G, F Bellia (2023)

New Biotinylated GHK and Related Copper(II) Complex: Antioxidant and Antiglycant Properties In Vitro against Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 28(18): pii:molecules28186724.

Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of people worldwide. The failure of the enzymatic degradation, the oxidative stress, the dyshomeostasis of metal ions, among many other biochemical events, might trigger the pathological route, but the onset of these pathologies is unknown. Multi-target and multifunctional molecules could address several biomolecular issues of the pathologies. The tripeptide GHK, a bioactive fragment of several proteins, and the related copper(II) complex have been largely used for many purposes, from cosmetic to therapeutic applications. GHK derivatives were synthesized to increase the peptide stability and improve the target delivery. Herein we report the synthesis of a new biotin-GHK conjugate (BioGHK) through orthogonal reactions. BioGHK is still capable of coordinating copper(II), as observed by spectroscopic and spectrometric measurements. The spectroscopic monitoring of the copper-induced ascorbate oxidation was used to measure the antioxidant activity Cu(II)-BioGHK complex, whereas antiglycant activity of the ligand towards harmful reactive species was investigated using MALDI-TOF. The affinity of BioGHK for streptavidin was evaluated using a spectrophotometric assay and compared to that of biotin. Finally, the antiaggregant activity towards amyloid-β was evaluated using a turn-on fluorescent dye. BioGHK could treat and/or prevent several adverse biochemical reactions that characterize neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Maccallini C, R Amoroso (2023)

Neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase and Post-Translational Modifications in the Development of Central Nervous System Diseases: Implications and Regulation.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 28(18): pii:molecules28186691.

In the Central Nervous System (CNS), Nitric Oxide (NO) is mainly biosynthesized by neuronal Nitric Oxide Synthase (nNOS). The dysregulated activation of nNOS in neurons is critical in the development of different conditions affecting the CNS. The excessive production of NO by nNOS is responsible for a number of proteins' post-translational modifications (PTMs), which can lead to aberrant biochemical pathways, impairing CNS functions. In this review, we briefly revise the main implications of dysregulated nNOS in the progression of the most prevalent CNS neurodegenerative disorders, i.e., Alzheimer's disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease, as well as in the development of neuronal disorders. Moreover, a specific focus on compounds able to modulate nNOS activity as promising therapeutics to tackle different neuronal diseases is presented.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sharma P, Singh M, Singh V, et al (2023)

Recent Development of Novel Aminoethyl-Substituted Chalcones as Potential Drug Candidates for the Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 28(18): pii:molecules28186579.

No drug on the market, as a single entity, participates in different pathways involved in the pathology of Alzheimer's disease. The current study is aimed at the exploration of multifunctional chalcone derivatives which can act on multiple targets involved in Alzheimer's disease. A series of novel aminoethyl-substituted chalcones have been developed using in silico approaches (scaffold morphing, molecular docking, and ADME) and reported synthetic methods. The synthesized analogs were characterized and evaluated biologically using different in vitro assays against AChE, AGEs, and radical formation. Among all compounds, compound PS-10 was found to have potent AChE inhibitory activity (IC50 = 15.3 nM), even more than the standard drug (IC50 = 15.68 nM). Further, the in vivo evaluation of PS-10 against STZ-induced dementia in rats showed memory improvement (Morris Water Maze test) in rats. Also, PS-10 inhibited STZ-induced brain AChE activity and oxidative stress, further strengthening the observed in vitro effects. Further, the molecular dynamic simulation studies displayed the stability of the PS-10 and AChE complex. The novel aminoethyl-substituted chalcones might be considered potential multifunctional anti-Alzheimer's molecules.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Abo Mansour HE, Elberri AI, Ghoneim ME, et al (2023)

The Potential Neuroprotective Effect of Thymoquinone on Scopolamine-Induced In Vivo Alzheimer's Disease-like Condition: Mechanistic Insights.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 28(18): pii:molecules28186566.

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder without effective treatment. Thymoquinone (TQ) has demonstrated potential in exhibiting anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant characteristics. Despite TQ's neuroprotection effect, there is a scarcity of information regarding its application in AD research, and its molecular trajectories remain ambiguous. Thus, the objective of the current investigation was to examine the potential beneficial effects and underlying mechanisms of TQ in scopolamine (SCOP)-induced neuronal injury to mimic AD in vivo model.

METHODS: Thirty mice were divided into normal, SCOP, and TQ groups. The Y-maze and pole climbing tests were performed to measure memory and motor performance. Afterwards, histopathological and immunohistochemical examinations were carried out. Furthermore, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) signaling pathway-related proteins and genes were detected with an emphasis on the role of miR-9.

RESULTS: TQ has the potential to ameliorate cognitive deficits observed in SCOP-induced AD-like model, as evidenced by the improvement in behavioral outcomes, histopathological changes, modulation of the expression pattern of PPAR-γ downstream targets with a significant decrease in the deposition of amyloid beta (Aβ).

CONCLUSIONS: TQ provided meaningful multilevel neuroprotection through its anti-inflammatory and its PPAR-γ agonist activity. Consequently, TQ may possess a potential beneficial role against AD development.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Hirai M, Arai S, H Iwase (2023)

Fibrillization Process of Human Amyloid-Beta Protein (1-40) under a Molecular Crowding Environment Mimicking the Interior of Living Cells Using Cell Debris.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 28(18): pii:molecules28186555.

Molecular crowding environments play a crucial role in understanding the mechanisms of biological reactions. Inside living cells, a diverse array of molecules coexists within a volume fraction ranging from 10% to 30% v/v. However, conventional spectroscopic methods often face difficulties in selectively observing the structures of particular proteins or membranes within such molecularly crowded environments due to the presence of high background signals. Therefore, it is crucial to establish in vitro measurement conditions that closely resemble the intracellular environment. Meanwhile, the neutron scattering method offers a significant advantage in selectively observing target biological components, even within crowded environments. Recently, we have demonstrated a novel scattering method capable of selectively detecting the structures of targeted proteins or membranes in a closely mimicking intracellular milieu achieved utilizing whole-cell contents (deuterated-cell debris). This method relies on the inverse contrast matching technique in neutron scattering. By employing this method, we successfully observed the fibrillization process of human amyloid beta-protein (Aβ 1-40) under a molecular crowding environment (13.1% w/v cell debris, Aβ/cell debris = ~1/25 w/w) that closely mimics the interior of living cells. Aβ protein is well known as a major pathogenic component of Alzheimer's disease. The present results combining model simulation analyses clearly show that the intracellular environment facilitates the potential formation of even more intricate higher-order aggregates of Aβ proteins than those previously reported.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Hu Q, Hou S, Xiong B, et al (2023)

Therapeutic Effects of Baicalin on Diseases Related to Gut-Brain Axis Dysfunctions.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 28(18): pii:molecules28186501.

The gut-brain axis is an active area of research. Several representative diseases, including central nervous system disorders (Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and depression), metabolic disorders (obesity-related diseases), and intestinal disorders (inflammatory bowel disease and dysbiosis), are associated with the dysfunctional gut-brain axis. Baicalin, a bioactive flavonoid extracted from Scutellaria baicalensis, is reported to exert various pharmacological effects. This narrative review summarizes the molecular mechanisms and potential targets of baicalin in disorders of the gut-brain axis. Baicalin protects the central nervous system through anti-neuroinflammatory and anti-neuronal apoptotic effects, suppresses obesity through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, and alleviates intestinal disorders through regulatory effects on intestinal microorganisms and short-chain fatty acid production. The bioactivities of baicalin are mediated through the gut-brain axis. This review comprehensively summarizes the regulatory role of baicalin in gut-brain axis disorders, laying a foundation for future research, although further confirmatory basic research is required.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Zhao YQ, Li X, Guo HY, et al (2023)

Application of Quinoline Ring in Structural Modification of Natural Products.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 28(18): pii:molecules28186478.

Natural compounds are rich in pharmacological properties that are a hot topic in pharmaceutical research. The quinoline ring plays important roles in many biological processes in heterocycles. Many pharmacological compounds, including saquinavir and chloroquine, have been marketed as quinoline molecules with good anti-viral and anti-parasitic properties. Therefore, in this review, we summarize the medicinal chemistry of quinoline-modified natural product quinoline derivatives that were developed by several research teams in the past 10 years and find that these compounds have inhibitory effects on bacteria, viruses, parasites, inflammation, cancer, Alzheimer's disease, and others.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Oliveri V (2023)

Unveiling the Effects of Copper Ions in the Aggregation of Amyloidogenic Proteins.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 28(18): pii:molecules28186446.

Amyloid diseases have become a global concern due to their increasing prevalence. Transition metals, including copper, can affect the aggregation of the pathological proteins involved in these diseases. Copper ions play vital roles in organisms, but the disruption of their homeostasis can negatively impact neuronal function and contribute to amyloid diseases with toxic protein aggregates, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired cellular signaling, inflammation, and cell death. Gaining insight into the imbalance of copper ions and its impact on protein folding and aggregation is crucial for developing focused therapies. This review examines the influence of copper ions on significant amyloid proteins/peptides, offering a comprehensive overview of the current understanding in this field.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Li Y, Wu M, Kong M, et al (2023)

Impact of Donepezil Supplementation on Alzheimer's Disease-like Pathology and Gut Microbiome in APP/PS1 Mice.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092306.

Based on published information, the occurrence and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are potentially related to gut microbiota changes. Donepezil hydrochloride (DH), which enhances cholinergic activity by blocking acetylcholinesterase (AChE), is one of the first-line drugs for AD treatment approved by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) of the USA. However, the potential link between the effects of DH on the pathophysiological processes of AD and the gut microbiota remains unclear. In this study, pathological changes in the brain and colon, the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and AChE, and changes in intestinal flora were observed. The results showed that Aβ deposition in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus of AD mice was significantly decreased, while colonic inflammation was significantly alleviated by DH treatment. Concomitantly, SOD activity was significantly improved, while AChE was significantly reduced after DH administration. In addition, the gut microbiota community composition of AD mice was significantly altered after DH treatment. The relative abundance of Akkermansia in the AD group was 54.8% higher than that in the N group. The relative abundance of Akkermansia was increased by 18.3% and 53.8% in the AD_G group and the N_G group, respectively. Interestingly, Akkermansia showed a potential predictive value and might be a biomarker for AD. Molecular docking revealed the binding mode and major forces between DH and membrane proteins of Akkermansia. The overall results suggest a novel therapeutic mechanism for treating AD and highlight the critical role of gut microbiota in AD pathology.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Alshamrani S, Mashraqi MM, Alzamami A, et al (2023)

Mining Autoimmune-Disorder-Linked Molecular-Mimicry Candidates in Clostridioides difficile and Prospects of Mimic-Based Vaccine Design: An In Silico Approach.

Microorganisms, 11(9): pii:microorganisms11092300.

Molecular mimicry, a phenomenon in which microbial or environmental antigens resemble host antigens, has been proposed as a potential trigger for autoimmune responses. In this study, we employed a bioinformatics approach to investigate the role of molecular mimicry in Clostridioides difficile-caused infections and the induction of autoimmune disorders due to this phenomenon. Comparing proteomes of host and pathogen, we identified 23 proteins that exhibited significant sequence homology and were linked to autoimmune disorders. The disorders included rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, Alzheimer's disease, etc., while infections included viral and bacterial infections like HIV, HCV, and tuberculosis. The structure of the homologous proteins was superposed, and RMSD was calculated to find the maximum deviation, while accounting for rigid and flexible regions. Two sequence mimics (antigenic, non-allergenic, and immunogenic) of ≥10 amino acids from these proteins were used to design a vaccine construct to explore the possibility of eliciting an immune response. Docking analysis of the top vaccine construct C2 showed favorable interactions with HLA and TLR-4 receptor, indicating potential efficacy. The B-cell and T-helper cell activity was also simulated, showing promising results for effective immunization against C. difficile infections. This study highlights the potential of C. difficile to trigger autoimmunity through molecular mimicry and vaccine design based on sequence mimics that trigger a defensive response.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ozden EM, Bingol Z, Mutlu M, et al (2023)

Antioxidant, Antiglaucoma, Anticholinergic, and Antidiabetic Effects of Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) Oil: Metabolite Profile Analysis Using LC-HR/MS, GC/MS and GC-FID.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 13(9): pii:life13091939.

Determining the antioxidant abilities and enzyme inhibition profiles of medicinally important plants and their oils is of great importance for a healthy life and the treatment of some common global diseases. Kiwifruit (Actinidia deliciosa) oil was examined and researched using several bioanalytical methods comprehensively for the first time in this research to determine its antioxidant, antiglaucoma, antidiabetic and anti-Alzheimer's capabilities. Additionally, the kiwifruit oil inhibitory effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE), carbonic anhydrase II (CA II), and α-amylase, which are linked to a number of metabolic illnesses, were established. Furthermore, LC-HRMS analysis was used to assess the phenolic content of kiwifruit oil. It came to light that kiwifruit oil contained 26 different phenolic compounds. According to the LC-HRMS findings, kiwifruit oil is abundant in apigenin (74.24 mg/L oil), epigallocatechin (12.89 mg/L oil), caryophyllene oxide (12.89 mg/L oil), and luteolin (5.49 mg/L oil). In addition, GC-MS and GC-FID studies were used to ascertain the quantity and chemical composition of the essential oils contained in kiwifruit oil. Squalene (53.04%), linoleoyl chloride (20.28%), linoleic acid (2.67%), and palmitic acid (1.54%) were the most abundant compounds in kiwifruit oil. For radical scavenging activities of kiwifruit oil, 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazil (DPPH[•]) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid) (ABTS[•+]) radicals scavenging techniques were examined. These methods effectively demonstrated the potent radical scavenging properties of kiwifruit oil (IC50: 48.55 μg/mL for DPPH[•], and IC50: 77.00 μg/mL for ABTS[•+] scavenging). Also, for reducing capabilities, iron (Fe[3+]), copper (Cu[2+]), and Fe[3+]-2,4,6-tri(2-pyridyl)-S-triazine (TPTZ) reducing abilities were studied. Moreover, kiwifruit oil showed a considerable inhibition effect towards hCA II (IC50: 505.83 μg/mL), AChE (IC50: 12.80 μg/mL), and α-amylase (IC50: 421.02 μg/mL). The results revealed that the use of kiwifruit oil in a pharmaceutical procedure has very important effects due to its antioxidant, anti-Alzheimer, antidiabetic, and antiglaucoma effects.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

López C, M Altuna (2023)

New Community and Sociohealth Challenges Arising from the Early Diagnosis of Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI).

Journal of personalized medicine, 13(9): pii:jpm13091410.

Population aging increases the risk of developing neurodegenerative diseases that cause cognitive impairment. Advances in clinical practice and greater social awareness of the importance of cognitive impairment have led to an increase in the number of people with early diagnosis, predementia. Increasing access to biomarkers to assess whether Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the underlying cause of mild cognitive impairment (MCI) has undoubted clinical benefits (access to potentially disease-modifying treatments, among others) but is also responsible for new social-health care challenges. Understanding the psychosocial impact of a diagnosis of MCI due to AD or another neurodegenerative disease is essential to create future strategies to reduce the emotional overload of patients, their risk of discrimination and stigmatization, and to favor their social inclusion. We present a narrative review of the diagnostic process of mild cognitive impairment in clinical practice, with a holistic person-centered approach, and discuss the implications of such diagnosis (benefits and risks) and strategies on how to address them.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Formica C, Bonanno L, Giambò FM, et al (2023)

Paving the Way for Predicting the Progression of Cognitive Decline: The Potential Role of Machine Learning Algorithms in the Clinical Management of Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Journal of personalized medicine, 13(9): pii:jpm13091386.

UNLABELLED: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disorder. The prodromal phase of AD is mild cognitive impairment (MCI). The capacity to predict the transitional phase from MCI to AD represents a challenge for the scientific community. The adoption of artificial intelligence (AI) is useful for diagnostic, predictive analysis starting from the clinical epidemiology of neurodegenerative disorders. We propose a Machine Learning Model (MLM) where the algorithms were trained on a set of neuropsychological, neurophysiological, and clinical data to predict the diagnosis of cognitive decline in both MCI and AD patients.

METHODS: We built a dataset with clinical and neuropsychological data of 4848 patients, of which 2156 had a diagnosis of AD, and 2684 of MCI, for the Machine Learning Model, and 60 patients were enrolled for the test dataset. We trained an ML algorithm using RoboMate software based on the training dataset, and then calculated its accuracy using the test dataset.

RESULTS: The Receiver Operating Characteristic (ROC) analysis revealed that diagnostic accuracy was 86%, with an appropriate cutoff value of 1.5; sensitivity was 72%; and specificity reached a value of 91% for clinical data prediction with MMSE.

CONCLUSION: This method may support clinicians to provide a second opinion concerning high prognostic power in the progression of cognitive impairment. The MLM used in this study is based on big data that were confirmed in enrolled patients and given a credibility about the presence of determinant risk factors also supported by a cognitive test score.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sturiale V, Bruno F, Brancato D, et al (2023)

Cell Cycle Reactivation, at the Start of Neurodegeneration, Induced by Forskolin and Aniline in Differentiated Neuroblastoma Cells.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814373.

A characteristic hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the intracellular accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein, a phenomenon that appears to have associations with oxidative stress, double-stranded DNA breakage, and the de-condensation of heterochromatin. Re-entry into the cell division cycle appears to be involved in the onset of this neurodegenerative process. Indeed, the cell cycle cannot proceed regularly in the differentiated neurons leading to cell death. Here, we induced cell cycle reactivation in neuronal-like cells, obtained by neuroblastoma cells treated with retinoic acid, by exposure to forskolin or aniline. These compounds determine tau hyperphosphorylation or oxidative stress, respectively, resulting in the appearance of features resembling the start of neuronal degeneration typical of AD, such as tau hyperphosphorylation and re-entry into the cell cycle. Indeed, we detected an increased transcriptional level of cyclins and the appearance of a high number of mitotic cells. We also observed a delay in the initiation of the cell cycle when forskolin was co-administered with pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). This delay was not observed when PACAP was co-administered with aniline. Our data demonstrate the relevance of tau hyperphosphorylation in initiating an ectopic cell cycle in differentiated neuronal cells, a condition that can lead to neurodegeneration. Moreover, we highlight the utility of neuroblastoma cell lines as an in vitro cellular model to test the possible neuroprotective effects of natural molecules.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Toader C, Tataru CP, Florian IA, et al (2023)

From Homeostasis to Pathology: Decoding the Multifaceted Impact of Aquaporins in the Central Nervous System.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814340.

Aquaporins (AQPs), integral membrane proteins facilitating selective water and solute transport across cell membranes, have been the focus of extensive research over the past few decades. Particularly noteworthy is their role in maintaining cellular homeostasis and fluid balance in neural compartments, as dysregulated AQP expression is implicated in various degenerative and acute brain pathologies. This article provides an exhaustive review on the evolutionary history, molecular classification, and physiological relevance of aquaporins, emphasizing their significance in the central nervous system (CNS). The paper journeys through the early studies of water transport to the groundbreaking discovery of Aquaporin 1, charting the molecular intricacies that make AQPs unique. It delves into AQP distribution in mammalian systems, detailing their selective permeability through permeability assays. The article provides an in-depth exploration of AQP4 and AQP1 in the brain, examining their contribution to fluid homeostasis. Furthermore, it elucidates the interplay between AQPs and the glymphatic system, a critical framework for waste clearance and fluid balance in the brain. The dysregulation of AQP-mediated processes in this system hints at a strong association with neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's Disease, idiopathic normal pressure hydrocephalus, and Alzheimer's Disease. This relationship is further explored in the context of acute cerebral events such as stroke and autoimmune conditions such as neuromyelitis optica (NMO). Moreover, the article scrutinizes AQPs at the intersection of oncology and neurology, exploring their role in tumorigenesis, cell migration, invasiveness, and angiogenesis. Lastly, the article outlines emerging aquaporin-targeted therapies, offering a glimpse into future directions in combatting CNS malignancies and neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Taneva SG, Todinova S, T Andreeva (2023)

Morphometric and Nanomechanical Screening of Peripheral Blood Cells with Atomic Force Microscopy for Label-Free Assessment of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814296.

Neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs) are complex, multifactorial disorders with significant social and economic impact in today's society. NDDs are predicted to become the second-most common cause of death in the next few decades due to an increase in life expectancy but also to a lack of early diagnosis and mainly symptomatic treatment. Despite recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic methods, there are yet no reliable biomarkers identifying the complex pathways contributing to these pathologies. The development of new approaches for early diagnosis and new therapies, together with the identification of non-invasive and more cost-effective diagnostic biomarkers, is one of the main trends in NDD biomedical research. Here we summarize data on peripheral biomarkers, biofluids (cerebrospinal fluid and blood plasma), and peripheral blood cells (platelets (PLTs) and red blood cells (RBCs)), reported so far for the three most common NDDs-Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). PLTs and RBCs, beyond their primary physiological functions, are increasingly recognized as valuable sources of biomarkers for NDDs. Special attention is given to the morphological and nanomechanical signatures of PLTs and RBCs as biophysical markers for the three pathologies. Modifications of the surface nanostructure and morphometric and nanomechanical signatures of PLTs and RBCs from patients with AD, PD, and ALS have been revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM is currently experiencing rapid and widespread adoption in biomedicine and clinical medicine, in particular for early diagnostics of various medical conditions. AFM is a unique instrument without an analog, allowing the generation of three-dimensional cell images with extremely high spatial resolution at near-atomic scale, which are complemented by insights into the mechanical properties of cells and subcellular structures. Data demonstrate that AFM can distinguish between the three pathologies and the normal, healthy state. The specific PLT and RBC signatures can serve as biomarkers in combination with the currently used diagnostic tools. We highlight the strong correlation of the morphological and nanomechanical signatures between RBCs and PLTs in PD, ALS, and AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Botter SM, TM Kessler (2023)

Neuro-Urology and Biobanking: An Integrated Approach for Advancing Research and Improving Patient Care.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814281.

Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying neuro-urological disorders is crucial for the development of targeted therapeutic interventions. Through the establishment of comprehensive biobanks, researchers can collect and store various biological specimens, including urine, blood, tissue, and DNA samples, to study these mechanisms. In the context of neuro-urology, biobanking facilitates the identification of genetic variations, epigenetic modifications, and gene expression patterns associated with neurogenic lower urinary tract dysfunction. These conditions often present as symptoms of neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, spinal cord injury, and many others. Biobanking of tissue specimens from such patients is essential to understand why these diseases cause the respective symptoms and what can be done to alleviate them. The utilization of high-throughput technologies, such as next-generation sequencing and gene expression profiling, enables researchers to explore the molecular landscape of these conditions in an unprecedented manner. The development of specific and reliable biomarkers resulting from these efforts may help in early detection, accurate diagnosis, and effective monitoring of neuro-urological conditions, leading to improved patient care and management. Furthermore, these biomarkers could potentially facilitate the monitoring of novel therapies currently under investigation in neuro-urological clinical trials. This comprehensive review explores the synergistic integration of neuro-urology and biobanking, with particular emphasis on the translation of biobanking approaches in molecular research in neuro-urology. We discuss the advantages of biobanking in neuro-urological studies, the types of specimens collected and their applications in translational research. Furthermore, we highlight the importance of standardization and quality assurance when collecting samples and discuss challenges that may compromise sample quality and impose limitations on their subsequent utilization. Finally, we give recommendations for sampling in multicenter studies, examine sustainability issues associated with biobanking, and provide future directions for this dynamic field.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Liu P, Li L, He F, et al (2023)

Identification of Candidate Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease via Multiplex Cerebrospinal Fluid and Serum Proteomics.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814225.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent form of dementia among elderly people worldwide. Cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is the optimal fluid source for AD biomarkers, while serum biomarkers are much more achievable. To search for novel diagnostic AD biomarkers, we performed a quantitative proteomic analysis of CSF and serum samples from AD and normal cognitive controls (NC). CSF and serum proteomes were analyzed via data-independent acquisition quantitative mass spectrometry. Our bioinformatic analysis was based on Gene Ontology (GO) functional annotation analysis and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) enrichment. In comparison to the controls, 8 proteins were more abundant in AD CSF, and 60 were less abundant in AD CSF, whereas 55 proteins were more and 10 were less abundant in the serum samples. ATPase-associated activity for CSF and mitochondrial functions for CSF and serum were the most enriched GO terms of the DEPs. KEGG enrichment analysis showed that the most significant pathways for the differentially expressed proteins were the N-glycan biosynthesis pathways. The area under the curve (AUC) values for CSF sodium-/potassium-transporting ATPase subunit beta-1 (AT1B1), serglycin (SRGN), and thioredoxin-dependent peroxide reductase, mitochondrial (PRDX3) were 0.867 (p = 0.004), 0.833 (p = 0.008), and 0.783 (p = 0.025), respectively. A panel of the above three CSF proteins accurately differentiated AD (AUC = 0.933, p = 0.001) from NC. The AUC values for serum probable phospholipid-transporting ATPase IM (AT8B4) and SRGN were moderate. The AUC of the CSF SRGN + serum SRGN was 0.842 (p = 0.007). These novel AD biomarker candidates are mainly associated with inflammation, ATPase activity, oxidative stress, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Further studies are needed to investigate the molecular mechanisms by which these potential biomarkers are involved in AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Olloquequi J, Ettcheto M, Cano A, et al (2023)

Licochalcone A: A Potential Multitarget Drug for Alzheimer's Disease Treatment.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814177.

Licochalcone A (Lico-A) is a flavonoid compound derived from the root of the Glycyrrhiza species, a plant commonly used in traditional Chinese medicine. While the Glycyrrhiza species has shown promise in treating various diseases such as cancer, obesity, and skin diseases due to its active compounds, the investigation of Licochalcone A's effects on the central nervous system and its potential application in Alzheimer's disease (AD) treatment have garnered significant interest. Studies have reported the neuroprotective effects of Lico-A, suggesting its potential as a multitarget compound. Lico-A acts as a PTP1B inhibitor, enhancing cognitive activity through the BDNF-TrkB pathway and exhibiting inhibitory effects on microglia activation, which enables mitigation of neuroinflammation. Moreover, Lico-A inhibits c-Jun N-terminal kinase 1, a key enzyme involved in tau phosphorylation, and modulates the brain insulin receptor, which plays a role in cognitive processes. Lico-A also acts as an acetylcholinesterase inhibitor, leading to increased levels of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine (Ach) in the brain. This mechanism enhances cognitive capacity in individuals with AD. Finally, Lico-A has shown the ability to reduce amyloid plaques, a hallmark of AD, and exhibits antioxidant properties by activating the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), a key regulator of antioxidant defense mechanisms. In the present review, we discuss the available findings analyzing the potential of Lico-A as a neuroprotective agent. Continued research on Lico-A holds promise for the development of novel treatments for cognitive disorders and neurodegenerative diseases, including AD. Further investigations into its multitarget action and elucidation of underlying mechanisms will contribute to our understanding of its therapeutic potential.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Dhillon VS, Thomas P, Lee SL, et al (2023)

Red Blood Cell Fatty Acid Profiles Are Significantly Altered in South Australian Mild Cognitive Impairment and Alzheimer's Disease Cases Compared to Matched Controls.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814164.

Nutritional imbalances have been associated with a higher risk for cognitive impairment. This study determined the red blood cell (RBC) fatty acid profile of newly diagnosed mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients compared to age and gender-matched controls. There was a significant increase in palmitic acid (p < 0.00001) for both MCI and AD groups. Saturated fatty acids were significantly elevated in the MCI group, including stearic acid (p = 0.0001), arachidic acid (p = 0.003), behenic acid (p = 0.0002), tricosanoic acid (p = 0.007) and lignoceric acid (p = 0.001). n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) were significantly reduced in MCI, including linoleic acid (p = 0.001), γ-linolenic acid (p = 0.03), eicosatrienoic acid (p = 0.009) and arachidonic acid (p < 0.00004). The n-3 PUFAs, α-linolenic acid and docosahexaenoic acid, were both significantly reduced in MCI and AD (p = 0.0005 and p = 0.00003). A positive correlation was evident between the Mini-Mental State Examination score and nervonic acid in MCI (r = 0.54, p = 0.01) and a negative correlation with γ-linolenic acid in AD (r = -0.43, p = 0.05). Differences in fatty acid profiles may prove useful as potential biomarkers reflecting increased risk for dementia.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Szymczak J, J Cielecka-Piontek (2023)

Fisetin-In Search of Better Bioavailability-From Macro to Nano Modifications: A Review.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814158.

As secondary plant metabolites, polyphenols are abundant in fruits and vegetables. They are in high demand because of their many health benefits. However, their low bioavailability makes them complex compounds to use for therapeutic purposes. Due to the limited solubility of phytocompounds, dietary supplements made from them may only be partially effective. Such molecules include fisetin, found in strawberries, and have shown great promise in treating Alzheimer's disease and cancer. Unfortunately, because of their limited water solubility, low absorption, and poor bioavailability, the assistance of nanotechnology is required to allow them to fulfil their potential fully. Here, we provide evidence that nanodelivery methods and structure modifications can improve fisetin bioavailability, which is linked to improvements in therapeutic efficacy. An open question remains as to which nanocarrier should be chosen to meet the abovementioned requirements and be able to enhance fisetin's therapeutic potential to treat a particular disease.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Álvarez-Sánchez L, Peña-Bautista C, Ferré-González L, et al (2023)

Early Alzheimer's Disease Screening Approach Using Plasma Biomarkers.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814151.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent dementia, but it shows similar initial symptoms to other neurocognitive diseases (Lewy body disease (LBD) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD)). Thus, the identification of reliable AD plasma biomarkers is required. The aim of this work is to evaluate the use of a few plasma biomarkers to develop an early and specific AD screening method. Plasma p-Tau181, neurofilament light (NfL), and glial fibrillary acid protein (GFAP) were determined by Single Molecule Assay (SIMOA[®] Quanterix, Billerica, MA, USA) in patients with mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI-AD, n = 50), AD dementia (n = 10), FTD (n = 20), LBD (n = 5), and subjective cognitive impairment (SCI (n = 21)). Plasma p-Tau181 and GFAP showed the highest levels in AD dementia, and significant correlations with clinical AD characteristics; meanwhile, NfL showed the highest levels in FTD, but no significant correlations with AD. The partial least squares (PLS) diagnosis model developed between the AD and SCI groups showed good accuracy with a receiver operating characteristic (ROC) area under curve (AUC) of 0.935 (CI 95% 0.87-0.98), sensitivity of 86%, and specificity of 88%. In a first screen, NfL plasma levels could identify FTD patients among subjects with cognitive impairment. Then, the developed PLS model including p-Tau181 and GFAP levels could identify AD patients, constituting a simple, early, and specific diagnosis approach.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Xie L, Luo Z, Jia X, et al (2023)

Synthesis of Crocin I and Crocin II by Multigene Stacking in Nicotiana benthamiana.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814139.

Crocins are a group of highly valuable water-soluble carotenoids that are reported to have many pharmacological activities, such as anticancer properties, and the potential for treating neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease. Crocins are mainly biosynthesized in the stigmas of food-medicine herbs Crocus sativus L. and Gardenia jasminoides fruits. The distribution is narrow in nature and deficient in resources, which are scarce and expensive. Recently, the synthesis of metabolites in the heterologous host has opened up the potential for large-scale and sustainable production of crocins, especially for the main active compounds crocin I and crocin II. In this study, GjCCD4a, GjALDH2C3, GjUGT74F8, and GjUGT94E13 from G. jasminoides fruits were expressed in Nicotiana benthamiana. The highest total content of crocins in T1 generation tobacco can reach 78,362 ng/g FW (fresh weight) and the dry weight is expected to reach 1,058,945 ng/g DW (dry weight). Surprisingly, the primary effective constituents crocin I and crocin II can account for 99% of the total crocins in transgenic plants. The strategy mentioned here provides an alternative platform for the scale-up production of crocin I and crocin II in tobacco.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Kachkin DV, Lashkul VV, Gorsheneva NA, et al (2023)

The Aβ42 Peptide and IAPP Physically Interact in a Yeast-Based Assay.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814122.

Numerous studies have demonstrated that people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (associated with IAPP peptide aggregation) show an increased incidence of Alzheimer's disease (associated with Aβ aggregation), but the mechanism responsible for this correlation is presently unknown. Here, we applied a yeast-based model to study the interactions of IAPP with PrP (associated with TSEs) and with the Aβ42 peptide. We demonstrated that fluorescently tagged IAPP forms detergent-resistant aggregates in yeast cells. Using the FRET approach, we showed that IAPP and Aβ aggregates co-localize and physically interact in yeast cells. We also showed that this interaction is specific and that there is no interaction between IAPP and PrP in the yeast system. Our data confirmed a direct physical interaction between IAPP and Aβ42 aggregates in a living cell. Based on these findings, we hypothesize that this interaction may play a crucial role in seeding Aβ42 aggregation in T2DM patients, thereby promoting the development of AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Vargas-Rodríguez P, Cuenca-Martagón A, Castillo-González J, et al (2023)

Novel Therapeutic Opportunities for Neurodegenerative Diseases with Mesenchymal Stem Cells: The Focus on Modulating the Blood-Brain Barrier.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814117.

Neurodegenerative disorders encompass a broad spectrum of profoundly disabling situations that impact millions of individuals globally. While their underlying causes and pathophysiology display considerable diversity and remain incompletely understood, a mounting body of evidence indicates that the disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, resulting in brain damage and neuroinflammation, is a common feature among them. Consequently, targeting the BBB has emerged as an innovative therapeutic strategy for addressing neurological disorders. Within this review, we not only explore the neuroprotective, neurotrophic, and immunomodulatory benefits of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in combating neurodegeneration but also delve into their recent role in modulating the BBB. We will investigate the cellular and molecular mechanisms through which MSC treatment impacts primary age-related neurological conditions like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and stroke, as well as immune-mediated diseases such as multiple sclerosis. Our focus will center on how MSCs participate in the modulation of cell transporters, matrix remodeling, stabilization of cell-junction components, and restoration of BBB network integrity in these pathological contexts.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Chu J, Li J, Sun L, et al (2023)

The Role of Cellular Defense Systems of Ferroptosis in Parkinson's Disease and Alzheimer's Disease.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814108.

Parkinson's disease (PD) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are the most common rapidly developing neurodegenerative diseases that lead to serious health and socio-economic consequences. Ferroptosis is a non-apoptotic form of cell death; there is growing evidence to support the notion that ferroptosis is involved in a variety of pathophysiological contexts, and there is increasing interest in the role of ferroptosis in PD and AD. Simultaneously, cells may have evolved four defense systems to counteract the toxic effects of ferroptosis occasioned by lipid peroxidation. This review, which focuses on the analysis of ferroptosis in the PD and AD context, outlines four cellular defense systems against ferroptosis and how each of them is involved in PD and AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Jovanovic Macura I, Zivanovic A, Perovic M, et al (2023)

The Expression of Major Facilitator Superfamily Domain-Containing Protein2a (Mfsd2a) and Aquaporin 4 Is Altered in the Retinas of a 5xFAD Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814092.

Cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA) is characterized by amyloid β (Aβ) accumulation in the blood vessels and is associated with cognitive impairment in Alzheimer's disease (AD). The increased accumulation of Aβ is also present in the retinal blood vessels and a significant correlation between retinal and brain amyloid deposition was demonstrated in living patients and animal AD models. The Aβ accumulation in the retinal blood vessels can be the result of impaired transcytosis and/or the dysfunctional ocular glymphatic system in AD and during aging. We analyzed the changes in the mRNA and protein expression of major facilitator superfamily domain-containing protein2a (Mfsd2a), the major regulator of transcytosis, and of Aquaporin4 (Aqp4), the key player implicated in the functioning of the glymphatic system, in the retinas of 4- and 12-month-old WT and 5xFAD female mice. A strong decrease in the Mfsd2a mRNA and protein expression was observed in the 4 M and 12 M 5xFAD and 12 M WT retinas. The increase in the expression of srebp1-c could be at least partially responsible for the Mfsd2a decrease in the 4 M 5xFAD retinas. The decrease in the pericyte (CD13+) coverage of retinal blood vessels in the 4 M and 12 M 5xFAD retinas and in the 12 M WT retinas suggests that pericyte loss could be associated with the Mfsd2a downregulation in these experimental groups. The observed increase in Aqp4 expression in 4 M and 12 M 5xFAD and 12 M WT retinas accompanied by the decreased perivascular Aqp4 expression is indicative of the impaired glymphatic system. The findings in this study reveal the impaired Mfsd2a and Aqp4 expression and Aqp4 perivascular mislocalization in retinal blood vessels during physiological (WT) and pathological (5xFAD) aging, indicating their importance as putative targets for the development of new treatments that can improve the regulation of transcytosis or the function of the glymphatic system.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Go MJ, Kim JM, Lee HL, et al (2023)

Anti-Amnesia-like Effect of Pinus densiflora Extract by Improving Apoptosis and Neuroinflammation on Trimethyltin-Induced ICR Mice.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814084.

This study was conducted to investigate the anti-amnestic property of Korean red pine bark extract (KRPBE) on TMT-induced cognitive decline in ICR mice. As a result of looking at behavioral function, the consumption of KRPBE improved the spatial work ability, short-term learning, and memory ability by Y-maze, passive avoidance, and Morris water maze tests. KRPBE suppressed antioxidant system damage by assessing the SOD activity, reduced GSH content, and MDA levels in brain tissue. In addition, it had a protective effect on cholinergic and synaptic systems by regulating ACh levels, AChE activity, and protein expression levels of ChAT, AChE, SYP, and PSD-95. Also, the KRPBE ameliorated TMT-induced mitochondrial damage by regulating the ROS content, MMP, and ATP levels. Treatment with KRPBE suppressed Aβ accumulation and phosphorylation of tau and reduced the expression level of BAX/BCl-2 ratio and caspase 3, improving oxidative stress-induced apoptosis. Moreover, treatment with KRPBE improved cognitive dysfunction by regulating the neuro-inflammatory protein expression levels of p-JNK, p-Akt, p-IκB-α, COX-2, and IL-1β. Based on these results, the extract of Korean red pine bark, which is discarded as a byproduct of forestry, might be used as an eco-friendly material for functional foods or pharmaceuticals by having an anti-amnesia effect on cognitive impairment.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sampatakakis SN, Mamalaki E, Ntanasi E, et al (2023)

Objective Physical Function in the Alzheimer's Disease Continuum: Association with Cerebrospinal Fluid Biomarkers in the ALBION Study.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814079.

Cognitive and physical decline, both indicators of aging, seem to be associated with each other. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether physical function parameters (walking time and handgrip strength) are related to cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (amyloid-beta Aβ42, Tau, PhTau) in individuals in the Alzheimer's disease (AD) continuum. The sample was drawn from the Aiginition Longitudinal Biomarker Investigation of Neurodegeneration study, comprising 163 individuals aged 40-75 years: 112 cognitively normal (CN) and 51 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Physical function parameters were measured at baseline, a lumbar puncture was performed the same day and CSF biomarkers were analyzed using automated methods. The association between walking time, handgrip strength and CSF biomarkers was evaluated by linear correlation, followed by multivariate linear regression models adjusted for age, sex, education and APOEe4 genotype. Walking time was inversely related to CSF Aβ42 (lower CSF values correspond to increased brain deposition) in all participants (p < 0.05). Subgroup analysis showed that this association was stronger in individuals with MCI and participants older than 60 years old, a result which remained statistically significant after adjustment for the aforementioned confounding factors. These findings may open new perspectives regarding the role of mobility in the AD continuum.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Kim S, Jeon J, Ganbat D, et al (2023)

Alteration of Neural Network and Hippocampal Slice Activation through Exosomes Derived from 5XFAD Nasal Lavage Fluid.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814064.

Exosomes, key mediators of intercellular transmission of pathogenic proteins, such as amyloid-beta and tau, significantly influence the progression and exacerbation of Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathology. Present in a variety of biological fluids, including cerebrospinal fluid, blood, saliva, and nasal lavage fluid (NLF), exosomes underscore their potential as integral mediators of AD pathology. By serving as vehicles for disease-specific molecules, exosomes could unveil valuable insights into disease identification and progression. This study emphasizes the imperative to investigate the impacts of exosomes on neural networks to enhance our comprehension of intracerebral neuronal communication and its implications for neurological disorders like AD. After harvesting exosomes derived from NLF of 5XFAD mice, we utilized a high-density multielectrode array (HD-MEA) system, the novel technology enabling concurrent recordings from thousands of neurons in primary cortical neuron cultures and organotypic hippocampal slices. The ensuing results revealed a surge in neuronal firing rates and disoriented neural connectivity, reflecting the effects provoked by pathological amyloid-beta oligomer treatment. The local field potentials in the exosome-treated hippocampal brain slices also exhibited aberrant rhythmicity, along with an elevated level of current source density. While this research is an initial exploration, it highlights the potential of exosomes in modulating neural networks under AD conditions and endorses the HD-MEA as an efficacious tool for exosome studies.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Puranik N, Yadav D, M Song (2023)

Advancements in the Application of Nanomedicine in Alzheimer's Disease: A Therapeutic Perspective.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814044.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that affects most people worldwide. AD is a complex central nervous system disorder. Several drugs have been designed to cure AD, but with low success rates. Because the blood-brain and blood-cerebrospinal fluid barriers are two barriers that protect the central nervous system, their presence has severely restricted the efficacy of many treatments that have been studied for AD diagnosis and/or therapy. The use of nanoparticles for the diagnosis and treatment of AD is the focus of an established and rapidly developing field of nanomedicine. Recent developments in nanomedicine have made it possible to effectively transport drugs to the brain. However, numerous obstacles remain to the successful use of nanomedicines in clinical settings for AD treatment. Furthermore, given the rapid advancement in nanomedicine therapeutics, better outcomes for patients with AD can be anticipated. This article provides an overview of recent developments in nanomedicine using different types of nanoparticles for the management and treatment of AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Batabyal RA, Bansal A, Cechinel LR, et al (2023)

Adipocyte-Derived Small Extracellular Vesicles from Patients with Alzheimer Disease Carry miRNAs Predicted to Target the CREB Signaling Pathway in Neurons.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241814024.

Alzheimer disease (AD) is characterized by amyloid-β (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, synaptic dysfunction, and progressive dementia. Midlife obesity increases the risk of developing AD. Adipocyte-derived small extracellular vesicles (ad-sEVs) have been implicated as a mechanism in several obesity-related diseases. We hypothesized that ad-sEVs from patients with AD would contain miRNAs predicted to downregulate pathways involved in synaptic plasticity and memory formation. We isolated ad-sEVs from the serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with AD and controls and compared miRNA expression profiles. We performed weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) on differentially expressed miRNAs to identify highly interconnected clusters correlating with clinical traits. The WGCNA identified a module of differentially expressed miRNAs, in both the serum and CSF, that was inversely correlated with the Mini-Mental State Examination scores. Within this module, miRNAs that downregulate CREB signaling in neurons were highly represented. These results demonstrate that miRNAs carried by ad-sEVs in patients with AD may downregulate CREB signaling and provide a potential mechanistic link between midlife obesity and increased risk of AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Jermakow N, Skarżyńska W, Lewandowska K, et al (2023)

Modulation of LPS-Induced Neurodegeneration by Intestinal Helminth Infection in Ageing Mice.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813994.

Parasitic helminths induce a transient, short-term inflammation at the beginning of infection, but in persistent infection may suppress the systemic immune response by enhancing the activity of regulatory M2 macrophages. The aim of the study was to determine how nematode infection affects age-related neuroinflammation, especially macrophages in the nervous tissue. Here, intraperitoneal LPS-induced systemic inflammation resulting in brain neurodegeneration was enhanced by prolonged Heligmosomoides polygyrus infection in C57BL/6 mice. The changes in the brain coincided with the increase in M1 macrophages, reduced survivin level, enhanced APP and GFAP expression, chitin-like chains deposition in the brain and deterioration behaviour manifestations. These changes were also observed in transgenic C57BL/6 mice predisposed to develop neurodegeneration typical for Alzheimer's disease in response to pathogenic stimuli. Interestingly, in mice infected with the nematode only, the greater M2 macrophage population resulted in better results in the forced swim test. Given the growing burden of neurodegenerative diseases, understanding such interactive associations can have significant implications for ageing health strategies and disease monitoring.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Mastrangelo A, Vacchiano V, Zenesini C, et al (2023)

Amyloid-Beta Co-Pathology Is a Major Determinant of the Elevated Plasma GFAP Values in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813976.

Recent studies reported increased plasma glial acidic fibrillary protein (GFAP) levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients compared to controls. We expanded these findings in a larger cohort, including 156 ALS patients and 48 controls, and investigated the associations of plasma GFAP with clinical variables and other biofluid biomarkers. Plasma GFAP and Alzheimer's disease (AD) cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers were assessed by the single molecule array and the Lumipulse platforms, respectively. In ALS patients, plasma GFAP was higher than in controls (p < 0.001) and associated with measures of cognitive decline. Twenty ALS patients (12.8%) showed a positive amyloid status (A+), of which nine also exhibited tau pathology (A+T+, namely ALS-AD). ALS-AD patients showed higher plasma GFAP than A- ALS participants (p < 0.001) and controls (p < 0.001), whereas the comparison between A- ALS and controls missed statistical significance (p = 0.07). Plasma GFAP distinguished ALS-AD subjects more accurately (area under the curve (AUC) 0.932 ± 0.027) than plasma p-tau181 (AUC 0.692 ± 0.058, p < 0.0001) and plasma neurofilament light chain protein (AUC, 0.548 ± 0.088, p < 0.0001). Cognitive measures differed between ALS-AD and other ALS patients. AD co-pathology deeply affects plasma GFAP values in ALS patients. Plasma GFAP is an accurate biomarker for identifying AD co-pathology in ALS, which can influence the cognitive phenotype.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Rakovskaya A, Erofeev A, Vinokurov E, et al (2023)

Positive Allosteric Modulators of SERCA Pump Restore Dendritic Spines and Rescue Long-Term Potentiation Defects in Alzheimer's Disease Mouse Model.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813973.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder that affects memory formation and storage processes. Dysregulated neuronal calcium (Ca[2+]) has been identified as one of the key pathogenic events in AD, and it has been suggested that pharmacological agents that stabilize Ca[2+] neuronal signaling can act as disease-modifying agents in AD. In previous studies, we demonstrated that positive allosteric regulators (PAMs) of the sarco/endoplasmic reticulum Ca[2+] ATPase (SERCA) pump might act as such Ca[2+]-stabilizing agents and exhibit neuroprotective properties. In the present study, we evaluated effects of a set of novel SERCA PAM agents on the rate of Ca[2+] extraction from the cytoplasm of the HEK293T cell line, on morphometric parameters of dendritic spines of primary hippocampal neurons in normal conditions and in conditions of amyloid toxicity, and on long-term potentiation in slices derived from 5xFAD transgenic mice modeling AD. Several SERCA PAM compounds demonstrated neuroprotective properties, and the compound NDC-9009 showed the best results. The findings in this study support the hypothesis that the SERCA pump is a potential therapeutic target for AD treatment and that NDC-9009 is a promising lead molecule to be used in the development of disease-modifying agents for AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Wang HY, Cecon E, Dam J, et al (2023)

Simufilam Reverses Aberrant Receptor Interactions of Filamin A in Alzheimer's Disease.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813927.

Simufilam is a novel oral drug candidate in Phase 3 clinical trials for Alzheimer's disease (AD) dementia. This small molecule binds an altered form of filamin A (FLNA) that occurs in AD. This drug action disrupts FLNA's aberrant linkage to the α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7nAChR), thereby blocking soluble amyloid beta1-42 (Aβ42)'s signaling via α7nAChR that hyperphosphorylates tau. Here, we aimed to clarify simufilam's mechanism. We now show that simufilam reduced Aβ42 binding to α7nAChR with a 10-picomolar IC50 using time-resolved fluorescence resonance energy transfer (TR-FRET), a robust technology to detect highly sensitive molecular interactions. We also show that FLNA links to multiple inflammatory receptors in addition to Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) in postmortem human AD brains and in AD transgenic mice: TLR2, C-X-C chemokine receptor type 4 (CXCR4), C-C chemokine receptor type 5 (CCR5), and T-cell co-receptor cluster of differentiation 4 (CD4). These aberrant FLNA linkages, which can be induced in a healthy control brain by Aβ42 incubation, were disrupted by simufilam. Simufilam reduced inflammatory cytokine release from Aβ42-stimulated human astrocytes. In the AD transgenic mice, CCR5-G protein coupling was elevated, indicating persistent activation. Oral simufilam reduced both the FLNA-CCR5 linkage and the CCR5-G protein coupling in these mice, while restoring CCR5's responsivity to C-C chemokine ligand 3 (CCL3). By disrupting aberrant FLNA-receptor interactions critical to AD pathogenic pathways, simufilam may promote brain health.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

D'Angiolini S, Basile MS, Mazzon E, et al (2023)

In Silico Analysis Reveals the Modulation of Ion Transmembrane Transporters in the Cerebellum of Alzheimer's Disease Patients.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813924.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder. AD hallmarks are extracellular amyloid β (Aβ) plaques and intracellular neurofibrillary tangles in the brain. It is interesting to notice that Aβ plaques appear in the cerebellum only in late stages of the disease, and then it was hypothesized that it can be resistant to specific neurodegenerative mechanisms. However, the role of cerebellum in AD pathogenesis is not clear yet. In this study, we performed an in silico analysis to evaluate the transcriptional profile of cerebellum in AD patients and non-AD subjects in order to deepen the knowledge on its role in AD. The analysis evidenced that only the molecular function (MF) "active ion transmembrane transporter activity" was overrepresented. Regarding the 21 differentially expressed genes included in this MF, some of them may be involved in the ion dyshomeostasis reported in AD, while others assumed, in the cerebellum, an opposite regulation compared to those reported in other brain regions in AD patients. They might be associated to a protective phenotype, that may explain the initial resistance of cerebellum to neurodegeneration in AD. Of note, this MF was not overrepresented in prefrontal cortex and visual cortex indicating that it is a peculiarity of the cerebellum.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Buccellato FR, D'Anca M, Tartaglia GM, et al (2023)

Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease: Beyond Symptomatic Therapies.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813900.

In an ever-increasing aged world, Alzheimer's disease (AD) represents the first cause of dementia and one of the first chronic diseases in elderly people. With 55 million people affected, the WHO considers AD to be a disease with public priority. Unfortunately, there are no final cures for this pathology. Treatment strategies are aimed to mitigate symptoms, i.e., acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEI) and the N-Methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist Memantine. At present, the best approaches for managing the disease seem to combine pharmacological and non-pharmacological therapies to stimulate cognitive reserve. Over the last twenty years, a number of drugs have been discovered acting on the well-established biological hallmarks of AD, deposition of β-amyloid aggregates and accumulation of hyperphosphorylated tau protein in cells. Although previous efforts disappointed expectations, a new era in treating AD has been working its way recently. The Food and Drug Administration (FDA) gave conditional approval of the first disease-modifying therapy (DMT) for the treatment of AD, aducanumab, a monoclonal antibody (mAb) designed against Aβ plaques and oligomers in 2021, and in January 2023, the FDA granted accelerated approval for a second monoclonal antibody, Lecanemab. This review describes ongoing clinical trials with DMTs and non-pharmacological therapies. We will also present a future scenario based on new biomarkers that can detect AD in preclinical or prodromal stages, identify people at risk of developing AD, and allow an early and curative treatment.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Stanca S, Rossetti M, P Bongioanni (2023)

Astrocytes as Neuroimmunocytes in Alzheimer's Disease: A Biochemical Tool in the Neuron-Glia Crosstalk along the Pathogenetic Pathways.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813880.

This work aimed at assessing Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis through the investigation of the astrocytic role to transduce the load of amyloid-beta (Aβ) into neuronal death. The backbone of this review is focused on the deepening of the molecular pathways eliciting the activation of astrocytes crucial phenomena in the understanding of AD as an autoimmune pathology. The complex relations among astrocytes, Aβ and tau, together with the role played by the tripartite synapsis are discussed. A review of studies published from 1979 to 2023 on Scopus, PubMed and Google Scholar databases was conducted. The selected papers focused not only on the morphological and metabolic characteristics of astrocytes, but also on the latest notions about their multifunctional involvement in AD pathogenesis. Astrocytes participate in crucial pathways, including pruning and sprouting, by which the AD neurodegeneration evolves from an aggregopathy to neuroinflammation, loss of synapses and neuronal death. A1 astrocytes stimulate the production of pro-inflammatory molecules which have been correlated with the progression of AD cognitive impairment. Further research is needed to "hold back" the A1 polarization and, thus, to slow the worsening of the disease. AD clinical expression is the result of dysfunctional neuronal interactions, but this is only the end of a process involving a plurality of protagonists. One of these is the astrocyte, whose importance this work intends to put under the spotlight in the AD scenario, reflecting the multifaceted nature of this disease in the functional versatility of this glial population.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Gutierrez-Merino C (2023)

Brain Hydrophobic Peptides Antagonists of Neurotoxic Amyloid β Peptide Monomers/Oligomers-Protein Interactions.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813846.

Amyloid β (Aβ) oligomers have been linked to Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathogenesis and are the main neurotoxic forms of Aβ. This review focuses on the following: (i) the Aβ(1-42):calmodulin interface as a model for the design of antagonist Aβ peptides and its limitations; (ii) proteolytic degradation as the major source of highly hydrophobic peptides in brain cells; and (iii) brain peptides that have been experimentally demonstrated to bind to Aβ monomers or oligomers, Aβ fibrils, or Aβ plaques. It is highlighted that the hydrophobic amino acid residues of the COOH-terminal segment of Aβ(1-42) play a key role in its interaction with intracellular protein partners linked to its neurotoxicity. The major source of highly hydrophobic endogenous peptides of 8-10 amino acids in neurons is the proteasome activity. Many canonical antigen peptides bound to the major histocompatibility complex class 1 are of this type. These highly hydrophobic peptides bind to Aβ and are likely to be efficient antagonists of the binding of Aβ monomers/oligomers concentrations in the nanomolar range with intracellular proteins. Also, their complexation with Aβ will protect them against endopeptidases, suggesting a putative chaperon-like physiological function for Aβ that has been overlooked until now. Remarkably, the hydrophobic amino acid residues of Aβ responsible for the binding of several neuropeptides partially overlap with those playing a key role in its interaction with intracellular protein partners that mediates its neurotoxicity. Therefore, these latter neuropeptides are also potential candidates to antagonize Aβ peptides binding to target proteins. In conclusion, the analysis performed in this review points out that hydrophobic endogenous brain neuropeptides could be valuable biomarkers to evaluate the risk of the onset of sporadic AD, as well as for the prognosis of AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Muntsant A, Castillo-Ruiz MDM, L Giménez-Llort (2023)

Survival Bias, Non-Lineal Behavioral and Cortico-Limbic Neuropathological Signatures in 3xTg-AD Mice for Alzheimer's Disease from Premorbid to Advanced Stages and Compared to Normal Aging.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813796.

Pre-clinical research in aging is hampered by the scarcity of studies modeling its heterogeneity and complexity forged by pathophysiological conditions throughout the life cycle and under the sex perspective. In the case of Alzheimer's disease, the leading cause of dementia in older adults, we recently described in female wildtype and APP23 mice a survival bias and non-linear chronology of behavioral signatures from middle age to long life. Here, we present a comprehensive and multidimensional (physical, cognitive, and neuropsychiatric-like symptoms) screening and underlying neuropathological signatures in male and female 3xTg-AD mice at 2, 4, 6, 12, and 16 months of age and compared to their non-transgenic counterparts with gold-standard C57BL/6J background. Most variables studied detected age-related differences, whereas the genotype factor was specific to horizontal and vertical activities, thigmotaxis, coping with stress strategies, working memory, and frailty index. A sex effect was predominantly observed in classical emotional variables and physical status. Sixteen-month-old mice exhibited non-linear age- and genotype-dependent behavioral signatures, with higher heterogeneity in females, and worsened in naturalistically isolated males, suggesting distinct compensatory mechanisms and survival bias. The underlying temporal and spatial progression of Aβ and tau pathologies pointed to a relevant cortico-limbic substrate roadmap: premorbid intracellular Aβ immunoreactivity and pSer202/pThr205 tau phosphorylation in the amygdala and ventral hippocampus, and the entorhinal cortex and ventral hippocampus as the areas most affected by Aβ plaques. Therefore, depicting phenotypic signatures and neuropathological correlates can be critical to unveiling preventive/therapeutic research and intervention windows and studying adaptative behaviors and maladaptive responses relevant to psychopathology.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Pluta R (2023)

The Dual Role of Autophagy in Postischemic Brain Neurodegeneration of Alzheimer's Disease Proteinopathy.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813793.

Autophagy is a self-defense and self-degrading intracellular system involved in the recycling and elimination of the payload of cytoplasmic redundant components, aggregated or misfolded proteins and intracellular pathogens to maintain cell homeostasis and physiological function. Autophagy is activated in response to metabolic stress or starvation to maintain homeostasis in cells by updating organelles and dysfunctional proteins. In neurodegenerative diseases, such as cerebral ischemia, autophagy is disturbed, e.g., as a result of the pathological accumulation of proteins associated with Alzheimer's disease and their structural changes. Postischemic brain neurodegeneration, such as Alzheimer's disease, is characterized by the accumulation of amyloid and tau protein. After cerebral ischemia, autophagy was found to be activated in neuronal, glial and vascular cells. Some studies have shown the protective properties of autophagy in postischemic brain, while other studies have shown completely opposite properties. Thus, autophagy is now presented as a double-edged sword with possible therapeutic potential in brain ischemia. The exact role and regulatory pathways of autophagy that are involved in cerebral ischemia have not been conclusively elucidated. This review aims to provide a comprehensive look at the advances in the study of autophagy behavior in neuronal, glial and vascular cells for ischemic brain injury. In addition, the importance of autophagy in neurodegeneration after cerebral ischemia has been highlighted. The review also presents the possibility of modulating the autophagy machinery through various compounds on the development of neurodegeneration after cerebral ischemia.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Mousa WK, Mousa S, Ghemrawi R, et al (2023)

Probiotics Modulate Host Immune Response and Interact with the Gut Microbiota: Shaping Their Composition and Mediating Antibiotic Resistance.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813783.

The consortium of microbes inhabiting the human body, together with their encoded genes and secreted metabolites, is referred to as the "human microbiome." Several studies have established a link between the composition of the microbiome and its impact on human health. This impact spans local gastrointestinal inflammation to systemic autoimmune disorders and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and Autism. Some of these links have been validated by rigorous experiments that identify specific strains as mediators or drivers of a particular condition. Consequently, the development of probiotics to compensate for a missing beneficial microbe(s) has advanced and become popular, especially in the treatment of irritable bowel diseases and to restore disrupted gut flora after antibiotic administration. The widespread use of probiotics is often advocated as a natural ecological therapy. However, this perception is not always accurate, as there is a potential for unexpected interactions when administering live microbial cultures. Here, we designed this research to explore the intricate interactions among probiotics, the host, and microbes through a series of experiments. Our objectives included assessing their immunomodulatory effects, response to oral medications, impact on microbial population dynamics, and mediation of antibiotic resistance. To achieve these goals, we employed diverse experimental protocols, including cell-based enzyme -linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), antibiotic susceptibility testing, antimicrobial activity assays, computational prediction of probiotic genes responsible for antibiotic resistance, polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based validation of predicted genes, and survival assays of probiotics in the presence of selected oral medications. Our findings highlight that more than half of the tested probiotics trigger an inflammatory response in the Caco-2 cell line, are influenced by oral medications, exhibit antibacterial activity, and possess genes encoding antimicrobial resistance. These results underscore the necessity for a reevaluation of probiotic usage and emphasize the importance of establishing regulations to govern probiotic testing, approval, and administration.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Wu CH, Pan XS, Su LY, et al (2023)

Plasma Neurofilament Light Chains as Blood-Based Biomarkers for Early Diagnosis of Canine Cognitive Dysfunction Syndrome.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813771.

The number of elderly dogs is increasing significantly worldwide, and many elderly dogs develop canine cognitive dysfunction syndrome (CCDS). CCDS is the canine analog of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in humans. It is very important to develop techniques for detecting CDDS in dogs. Thus, we used the detection of neurofilament light chains (NfL) in plasma as a blood-based biomarker for the early diagnosis of canine Alzheimer's disease using immunomagnetic reduction (IMR) technology by immobilizing NfL antibodies on magnetic nanoparticles. According to the 50-point CCDS rating scale, we divided 36 dogs into 15 with CCDS and 21 without the disease. The results of our IMR assay showed that the plasma NfL levels of dogs with CCDS were significantly increased compared to normal dogs (p < 0.01). By plasma biochemical analysis, we further confirmed that the liver and renal dysfunction biomarkers of dogs with CCDS were significantly elevated compared to normal dogs (p < 0.01-0.05). On the basis of our preliminary study, we propose that IMR technology could be an ideal biosensor for detecting plasma NfL for the early diagnosis of CCDS.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Hällqvist J, Pinto RC, Heywood WE, et al (2023)

A Multiplexed Urinary Biomarker Panel Has Potential for Alzheimer's Disease Diagnosis Using Targeted Proteomics and Machine Learning.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813758.

As disease-modifying therapies are now available for Alzheimer's disease (AD), accessible, accurate and affordable biomarkers to support diagnosis are urgently needed. We sought to develop a mass spectrometry-based urine test as a high-throughput screening tool for diagnosing AD. We collected urine from a discovery cohort (n = 11) of well-characterised individuals with AD (n = 6) and their asymptomatic, CSF biomarker-negative study partners (n = 5) and used untargeted proteomics for biomarker discovery. Protein biomarkers identified were taken forward to develop a high-throughput, multiplexed and targeted proteomic assay which was tested on an independent cohort (n = 21). The panel of proteins identified are known to be involved in AD pathogenesis. In comparing AD and controls, a panel of proteins including MIEN1, TNFB, VCAM1, REG1B and ABCA7 had a classification accuracy of 86%. These proteins have been previously implicated in AD pathogenesis. This suggests that urine-targeted mass spectrometry has potential utility as a diagnostic screening tool in AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Arastoo M, Mazanetz MP, Miller S, et al (2023)

Exploring the Anti-Hypoxaemia Effect of Hydromethylthionine: A Prospective Study of Phase 3 Clinical Trial Participants.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813747.

Methylthioninium chloride (MTC) is a standard treatment for methaemoglobinaemia. A preparation of reduced MTC has been reported to increase blood oxygen saturation (SpO2) and lower respiratory rates in patients with severe COVID-19. We have developed a stable form of reduced methylthionine (hydromethylthionine-mesylate, HMTM) having a benign safety profile in two Phase 3 trials in Alzheimer's disease. The aim of this prospective study was to determine the effects of oral HMTM on SpO2 and methaemoglobin (metHb) levels in a cohort of patients with mild hypoxaemia not due to COVID-19. Eighteen participants randomised to a single dose of 4, 75, 100 or 125 mg doses of HMTM had SpO2 levels below 94% at baseline. Patients were routinely monitored by pulse oximetry after 4 h, and after 2 and 6 weeks of twice daily dosing. Significant ~3% increases in SpO2 occurred within 4 h and were sustained over 2 and 6 weeks with no dose differences. There were small dose-dependent increases (0.060-0.162%) in metHb levels over 2 to 6 weeks. Minimum-energy computational chemistry revealed that HMT can bind within 2.10 Å of heme iron by donating a pair of electrons from the central nitrogen of HMT to d orbitals of heme iron, but with lower affinity than oxygen. In conclusion, HMTM can increase SpO2 without reducing metHb by acting as a strong displaceable field ligand for heme iron. We hypothesise that this facilitates a transition from the low oxygen affinity T-state of heme to the higher affinity R-state. HMTM has potential as an adjunctive treatment for hypoxaemia.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Coradduzza D, Sedda S, Cruciani S, et al (2023)

Age-Related Cognitive Decline, Focus on Microbiome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813680.

Aging is a complex process influenced by genetics and the environment, leading to physiological decline and increased susceptibility to diseases. Cognitive decline is a prominent feature of aging, with implications for different neurodegenerative disorders. The gut microbiome has gained attention for its potential impact on health and disease, including cognitive function. This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to investigate the relationship between the gut microbiome and cognitive function in the context of aging. Following PRISMA guidelines, a comprehensive search strategy was employed in PubMed, Scopus, and Web of Science databases. Studies exploring the role of the microbiome in cognition and neurodegenerative disorders, published between 2013 and 2023, were included. Data extraction and quality assessment were performed. Quantitative synthesis using statistical analyses was performed to examine microbial diversity and relative abundance in various cognitive conditions. Sixteen studies involving a total of 1303 participants were included in the analysis. The gut microbiota's relative abundance was different in individuals with cognitive impairments such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and dementia, compared to the healthy controls. The most prevalent phyla affected were Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Meta-analyses indicated substantial heterogeneity among studies focusing on Alzheimer's disease. The overall quality of evidence related to microbial analysis was moderate. The gut microbiome's role in cognitive decline and neurodegenerative disorders warrants investigation. Altered microbial abundance, particularly in specific phyla, is associated with cognitive impairments. However, variations in study findings and methodologies highlight the complexity of the relationship between the gut microbiome and cognitive function. Further studies are needed to better understand the mechanisms underlying this connection and its potential implications for aging and cognitive health.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Paterno G, Torrellas J, Bell BM, et al (2023)

Novel Conformation-Dependent Tau Antibodies Are Modulated by Adjacent Phosphorylation Sites.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813676.

Tau proteins within the adult central nervous system (CNS) are found to be abnormally aggregated into heterogeneous filaments in neurodegenerative diseases, termed tauopathies. These tau inclusions are pathological hallmarks of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Pick's disease (PiD), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), and progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). The neuropathological hallmarks of these diseases burden several cell types within the CNS, and have also been shown to be abundantly phosphorylated. The mechanism(s) by which tau aggregates in the CNS is not fully known, but it is hypothesized that hyperphosphorylated tau may precede and further promote filament formation, leading to the production of these pathological inclusions. In the studies herein, we generated and thoroughly characterized two novel conformation-dependent tau monoclonal antibodies that bind to residues Pro218-Glu222, but are sensitive to denaturing conditions and highly modulated by adjacent downstream phosphorylation sites. These epitopes are present in the neuropathological hallmarks of several tauopathies, including AD, PiD, CBD, and PSP. These novel antibodies will further enable investigation of tau-dependent pathological inclusion formation and enhance our understanding of the phosphorylation signatures within tauopathies with the possibility of new biomarker developments.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Lana D, Magni G, Landucci E, et al (2023)

Phenomic Microglia Diversity as a Druggable Target in the Hippocampus in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18): pii:ijms241813668.

Phenomics, the complexity of microglia phenotypes and their related functions compels the continuous study of microglia in disease animal models to find druggable targets for neurodegenerative disorders. Activation of microglia was long considered detrimental for neuron survival, but more recently it has become apparent that the real scenario of microglia morphofunctional diversity is far more complex. In this review, we discuss the recent literature on the alterations in microglia phenomics in the hippocampus of animal models of normal brain aging, acute neuroinflammation, ischemia, and neurodegenerative disorders, such as AD. Microglia undergo phenomic changes consisting of transcriptional, functional, and morphological changes that transform them into cells with different properties and functions. The classical subdivision of microglia into M1 and M2, two different, all-or-nothing states is too simplistic, and does not correspond to the variety of phenotypes recently discovered in the brain. We will discuss the phenomic modifications of microglia focusing not only on the differences in microglia reactivity in the diverse models of neurodegenerative disorders, but also among different areas of the brain. For instance, in contiguous and highly interconnected regions of the rat hippocampus, microglia show a differential, finely regulated, and region-specific reactivity, demonstrating that microglia responses are not uniform, but vary significantly from area to area in response to insults. It is of great interest to verify whether the differences in microglia reactivity may explain the differential susceptibility of different brain areas to insults, and particularly the higher sensitivity of CA1 pyramidal neurons to inflammatory stimuli. Understanding the spatiotemporal heterogeneity of microglia phenomics in health and disease is of paramount importance to find new druggable targets for the development of novel microglia-targeted therapies in different CNS disorders. This will allow interventions in three different ways: (i) by suppressing the pro-inflammatory properties of microglia to limit the deleterious effect of their activation; (ii) by modulating microglia phenotypic change to favor anti-inflammatory properties; (iii) by influencing microglia priming early in the disease process.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Raber J, Stagaman K, Kasschau KD, et al (2023)

Behavioral and Cognitive Performance Following Exposure to Second-Hand Smoke (SHS) from Tobacco Products Associated with Oxidative-Stress-Induced DNA Damage and Repair and Disruption of the Gut Microbiome.

Genes, 14(9): pii:genes14091702.

Exposure to second-hand Smoke (SHS) remains prevalent. The underlying mechanisms of how SHS affects the brain require elucidation. We tested the hypothesis that SHS inhalation drives changes in the gut microbiome, impacting behavioral and cognitive performance as well as neuropathology in two-month-old wild-type (WT) mice and mice expressing wild-type human tau, a genetic model pertinent to Alzheimer's disease mice, following chronic SHS exposure (10 months to ~30 mg/m[3]). SHS exposure impacted the composition of the gut microbiome as well as the biodiversity and evenness of the gut microbiome in a sex-dependent fashion. This variation in the composition and biodiversity of the gut microbiome is also associated with several measures of cognitive performance. These results support the hypothesis that the gut microbiome contributes to the effect of SHS exposure on cognition. The percentage of 8-OHdG-labeled cells in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was also associated with performance in the novel object recognition test, consistent with urine and serum levels of 8-OHdG serving as a biomarker of cognitive performance in humans. We also assessed the effects of SHS on the percentage of p21-labeled cells, an early cellular marker of senescence that is upregulated in bronchial cells after exposure to cigarette smoke. Nuclear staining of p21-labeled cells was more prominent in larger cells of the prefrontal cortex and CA1 hippocampal neurons of SHS-exposed mice than in sham-exposed mice, and there was a significantly greater percentage of labelled cells in the prefrontal cortex and CA1 region of the hippocampus of SHS than air-exposed mice, suggesting that exposure to SHS may result in accelerated brain aging through oxidative-stress-induced injury.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Nazarian A, Cook B, Morado M, et al (2023)

Interaction Analysis Reveals Complex Genetic Associations with Alzheimer's Disease in the CLU and ABCA7 Gene Regions.

Genes, 14(9): pii:genes14091666.

Sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a polygenic neurodegenerative disorder. Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in multiple genes (e.g., CLU and ABCA7) have been associated with AD. However, none of them were characterized as causal variants that indicate the complex genetic architecture of AD, which is likely affected by individual variants and their interactions. We performed a meta-analysis of four independent cohorts to examine associations of 32 CLU and 50 ABCA7 polymorphisms as well as their 496 and 1225 pair-wise interactions with AD. The single SNP analyses revealed that six CLU and five ABCA7 SNPs were associated with AD. Ten of them were previously not reported. The interaction analyses identified AD-associated compound genotypes for 25 CLU and 24 ABCA7 SNP pairs, whose comprising SNPs were not associated with AD individually. Three and one additional CLU and ABCA7 pairs composed of the AD-associated SNPs showed partial interactions as the minor allele effect of one SNP in each pair was intensified in the absence of the minor allele of the other SNP. The interactions identified here may modulate associations of the CLU and ABCA7 variants with AD. Our analyses highlight the importance of the roles of combinations of genetic variants in AD risk assessment.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ahmad I, Siddiqi MH, Alhujaili SF, et al (2023)

Improving Alzheimer's Disease Classification in Brain MRI Images Using a Neural Network Model Enhanced with PCA and SWLDA.

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 11(18): pii:healthcare11182551.

The examination of Alzheimer's disease (AD) using adaptive machine learning algorithms has unveiled promising findings. However, achieving substantial credibility in medical contexts necessitates a combination of notable accuracy, minimal processing time, and universality across diverse populations. Therefore, we have formulated a hybrid methodology in this study to classify AD by employing a brain MRI image dataset. We incorporated an averaging filter during preprocessing in the initial stage to reduce extraneous details. Subsequently, a combined strategy was utilized, involving principal component analysis (PCA) in conjunction with stepwise linear discriminant analysis (SWLDA), followed by an artificial neural network (ANN). SWLDA employs a combination of forward and backward recursion methods to choose a restricted set of features. The forward recursion identifies the most interconnected features based on partial Z-test values. Conversely, the backward recursion method eliminates the least correlated features from the same feature space. After the extraction and selection of features, an optimized artificial neural network (ANN) was utilized to differentiate the various classes of AD. To demonstrate the significance of this hybrid approach, we utilized publicly available brain MRI datasets using a 10-fold cross-validation strategy. The proposed method excelled over existing state-of-the-art systems, attaining weighted average recognition rates of 99.35% and 96.66%, respectively, across all the datasets.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sánchez-Rodríguez MT, Pinzón-Bernal MY, Jiménez-Antona C, et al (2023)

Designing an Informative App for Neurorehabilitation: A Feasibility and Satisfaction Study by Physiotherapists.

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 11(18): pii:healthcare11182549.

BACKGROUND: New technologies have gained popularity, especially the use of mobile phone applications, in neurorehabilitation. The aim of this paper was (1) to develop a free mobile application (NeurorehAPP) that provides information about and helps to select the appropriate mobile application related to a list of neurological disorders (cognitive impairment, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, traumatic brain injury, stroke, cerebral palsy, muscular dystrophy, spina bifida, and facial paralysis), based on different objectives such as healthy habits, information, assessment, and treatment; and (2) to assess the feasibility, acceptability, and degree of satisfaction by physiotherapists after using NeurorehAPP for a minimum of three months.

METHODS: A free application was created to work with the Android[®] operating system. The degree of satisfaction and acceptance with the application was assessed with an adaptation of the Customer Satisfaction Questionnaire through a survey via email applied to physiotherapists from hospitals and neurological rehabilitation centers in Spain after using the application.

RESULTS: NeurorehAPP includes a total of 131 apps. A total of 121 physiotherapists completed a satisfaction survey. The total sample showed 85.41% satisfaction with the service provided by the app and 86.41% overall satisfaction with NeurorehAPP.

CONCLUSIONS: NeurorehAPP is a free, intuitive, and friendly app used with the Android[®] operating system that allows the selection of the most appropriate app according to the type of user, neurological disorder, objective, and FDA criteria. Physiotherapists showed a high degree of satisfaction and acceptance with NeurorehAPP.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Liu CL, Chuang CJ, CM Chou (2023)

A Pilot Fuzzy System with Virtual Reality for Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI) Assessment.

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 11(18): pii:healthcare11182503.

Mild cognitive impairment (MCI) is when brain function declines. MCI is the gray area transitioning from normal aging to the AD stage. Currently, the majority of early MCI diagnoses are processed through comprehensive neuropsychological tests. These tests may take the form of interviews, paper-and-pencil tests, or computer-based tests. There may be resistance from the subject if he/she has to undergo many screening tests simultaneously for multiple evaluation information, resulting in execution difficulty. The objectives of this study are to use 3D virtual reality to create an entertaining test scenario integrating the Mini-Cog, SPMSQ, MMSE, SLUMS, CDR, and CASI for middle-aged to older adults, furthermore, to employ fuzzy logic control (FLC) technology to develop a "MCI assessment system" for obtaining some pilot information for MCI assessment. There were 24 middle-aged to older adults aged from 50 to 65 years who participated in the evaluation experiment. The results showed that the MCI assessment system developed in this study is highly correlated with the traditional screening tests, including the Mini-Cog, SPMSQ, MMSE, SLUMS, and CASI. The assessment system can provide an integrated reference score for clinic workers in making judgments. In addition, the distribution of the System Usability Scale (SUS) evaluation scores for the MCI assessment system revealed that 87.5% were grade C (good to use) or above and 29.2% were grade B (extremely good to use) or above. The assessment system received positive feedback from the subjects.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Shahzadi S, Butt NA, Sana MU, et al (2023)

Voxel Extraction and Multiclass Classification of Identified Brain Regions across Various Stages of Alzheimer's Disease Using Machine Learning Approaches.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(18): pii:diagnostics13182871.

This study sought to investigate how different brain regions are affected by Alzheimer's disease (AD) at various phases of the disease, using independent component analysis (ICA). The study examines six regions in the mild cognitive impairment (MCI) stage, four in the early stage of Alzheimer's disease (AD), six in the moderate stage, and six in the severe stage. The precuneus, cuneus, middle frontal gyri, calcarine cortex, superior medial frontal gyri, and superior frontal gyri were the areas impacted at all phases. A general linear model (GLM) is used to extract the voxels of the previously mentioned regions. The resting fMRI data for 18 AD patients who had advanced from MCI to stage 3 of the disease were obtained from the ADNI public source database. The subjects include eight women and ten men. The voxel dataset is used to train and test ten machine learning algorithms to categorize the MCI, mild, moderate, and severe stages of Alzheimer's disease. The accuracy, recall, precision, and F1 score were used as conventional scoring measures to evaluate the classification outcomes. AdaBoost fared better than the other algorithms and obtained a phenomenal accuracy of 98.61%, precision of 99.00%, and recall and F1 scores of 98.00% each.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sivamaruthi BS, Raghani N, Chorawala M, et al (2023)

NF-κB Pathway and Its Inhibitors: A Promising Frontier in the Management of Alzheimer's Disease.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092587.

The nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway has emerged as a pivotal player in the pathogenesis of various diseases, including neurodegenerative illnesses like Alzheimer's disease (AD). The involvement of the NF-κB pathway in immune system responses, inflammation, oxidative stress, and neuronal survival highlights its significance in AD progression. We discuss the advantages of NF-κB pathway inhibition, including the potential to mitigate neuroinflammation, modulate amyloid beta (Aβ) production, and promote neuronal survival. However, we also acknowledge the limitations and challenges associated with this approach. Balancing the fine line between dampening inflammation and preserving physiological immune responses is critical to avoid unintended consequences. This review combines current knowledge on the NF-κB pathway's intricate involvement in AD pathogenesis, emphasizing its potential as a therapeutic target. By evaluating both advantages and limitations, we provide a holistic view of the feasibility and challenges of NF-κB pathway modulation in AD treatment. As the quest for effective AD therapies continues, an in-depth understanding of the NF-κB pathway's multifaceted roles will guide the development of targeted interventions with the potential to improve AD management.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Melo de Farias AR, Pelletier A, Iohan LCC, et al (2023)

Amyloid-Beta Peptides Trigger Premature Functional and Gene Expression Alterations in Human-Induced Neurons.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092564.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most prevalent cause of dementia in the elderly, characterized by the presence of amyloid-beta (Aβ) plaques, neurofibrillary tangles, neuroinflammation, synapse loss and neurodegeneration in the brain. The amyloid cascade hypothesis postulates that deposition of Aβ peptides is the causative agent of AD pathology, but we still lack comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms connecting Aβ peptides to neuronal dysfunctions in AD. In this work, we investigate the early effects of Aβ peptide accumulation on the functional properties and gene expression profiles of human-induced neurons (hiNs). We show that hiNs acutely exposed to low concentrations of both cell-secreted Aβ peptides or synthetic Aβ1-42 exhibit alterations in the frequency of calcium transients suggestive of increased neuronal excitability. Using single-cell RNA sequencing, we also show that cell-secreted Aβ up-regulates the expression of several synapse-related genes and down-regulates the expression of genes associated with metabolic stress mainly in glutamatergic neurons and, to a lesser degree, in GABAergic neurons and astrocytes. These neuronal alterations correlate with activation of the SEMA5, EPHA and NECTIN signaling pathways, which are important regulators of synaptic plasticity. Altogether, our findings indicate that slight elevations in Aβ concentrations are sufficient to elicit transcriptional changes in human neurons, which can contribute to early alterations in neural network activity.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Jabeen K, Rehman K, Akash MSH, et al (2023)

Neuroprotective and Cardiometabolic Role of Vitamin E: Alleviating Neuroinflammation and Metabolic Disturbance Induced by AlCl3 in Rat Models.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092453.

Cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) and neurodegenerative disorders, such as diabetes mellitus and Alzheimer's disease, share a common pathophysiological link involving insulin resistance (IR), inflammation, and hypertension. Aluminium chloride (AlCl3), a known neurotoxicant, has been associated with neurodegeneration, cognitive impairment, and various organ dysfunctions due to the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and oxidative stress. In this study, we aimed to investigate the potential protective effects of metformin and vitamin E against AlCl3-induced neuroinflammation and cardiometabolic disturbances in rat models. Rats were divided into five groups: a normal control group, an AlCl3-treated diseased group without any treatment, and three groups exposed to AlCl3 and subsequently administered with metformin (100 mg/kg/day) alone, vitamin E (150 mg/kg/day) orally alone, or a combination of metformin (100 mg/kg/day) and vitamin E (150 mg/kg/day) for 45 days. We analyzed serum biomarkers and histopathological changes in brain, heart, and pancreatic tissues using H&E and Masson's trichrome staining and immunohistochemistry (IHC). Electrocardiogram (ECG) patterns were observed for all groups. The AlCl3-treated group showed elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers, MDA, and disturbances in glycemic and lipid profiles, along with reduced insulin levels. However, treatment with the combination of metformin and vitamin E resulted in significantly reduced glucose, cholesterol, LDL, and TG levels, accompanied by increased insulin and HDL levels compared to the individual treatment groups. Histopathological analyses revealed that combination therapy preserved neuronal structures, muscle cell nuclei, and normal morphology in the brain, heart, and pancreatic tissues. IHC demonstrated reduced amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles in the combination-treated group compared to the AlCl3-treated group. Moreover, the combination group showed a normal ECG pattern, contrasting the altered pattern observed in the AlCl3-treated group. Overall, our findings suggest that metformin and vitamin E, in combination, possess neuroprotective and cardiometabolic effects, alleviating AlCl3-induced neuroinflammation and metabolic disturbances.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Fehsel K (2023)

Why Is Iron Deficiency/Anemia Linked to Alzheimer's Disease and Its Comorbidities, and How Is It Prevented?.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092421.

Impaired iron metabolism has been increasingly observed in many diseases, but a deeper, mechanistic understanding of the cellular impact of altered iron metabolism is still lacking. In addition, deficits in neuronal energy metabolism due to reduced glucose import were described for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and its comorbidities like obesity, depression, cardiovascular disease, and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this review is to present the molecular link between both observations. Insufficient cellular glucose uptake triggers increased ferritin expression, leading to depletion of the cellular free iron pool and stabilization of the hypoxia-induced factor (HIF) 1α. This transcription factor induces the expression of the glucose transporters (Glut) 1 and 3 and shifts the cellular metabolism towards glycolysis. If this first line of defense is not adequate for sufficient glucose supply, further reduction of the intracellular iron pool affects the enzymes of the mitochondrial electron transport chain and activates the AMP-activated kinase (AMPK). This enzyme triggers the translocation of Glut4 to the plasma membrane as well as the autophagic recycling of cell components in order to mobilize energy resources. Moreover, AMPK activates the autophagic process of ferritinophagy, which provides free iron urgently needed as a cofactor for the synthesis of heme- and iron-sulfur proteins. Excessive activation of this pathway ends in ferroptosis, a special iron-dependent form of cell death, while hampered AMPK activation steadily reduces the iron pools, leading to hypoferremia with iron sequestration in the spleen and liver. Long-lasting iron depletion affects erythropoiesis and results in anemia of chronic disease, a common condition in patients with AD and its comorbidities. Instead of iron supplementation, drugs, diet, or phytochemicals that improve energy supply and cellular glucose uptake should be administered to counteract hypoferremia and anemia of chronic disease.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

de la Monte SM, Tong M, AJ Hapel (2023)

Concordant and Discordant Cerebrospinal Fluid and Plasma Cytokine and Chemokine Responses in Mild Cognitive Impairment and Early-Stage Alzheimer's Disease.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092394.

Neuroinflammation may be a pathogenic mediator and biomarker of neurodegeneration at the boundary between mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and early-stage Alzheimer's disease (AD). Whether neuroinflammatory processes are endogenous to the central nervous system (CNS) or originate from systemic (peripheral blood) sources could impact strategies for therapeutic intervention. To address this issue, we measured cytokine and chemokine immunoreactivities in simultaneously obtained lumbar puncture cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and serum samples from 39 patients including 18 with MCI or early AD and 21 normal controls using a 27-plex XMAP bead-based enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). The MCI/AD combined group had significant (p < 0.05 or better) or statistically trend-wise (0.05 ≤ p ≤ 0.10) concordant increases in CSF and serum IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-13, and TNF-α and reductions in GM-CSF, b-FGF, IL-6, IP-10, and MCP-1; CSF-only increases in IFN-y and IL-7 and reductions in VEGF and IL-12p70; serum-only increases in IL-1β, MIP-1α, and eotaxin and reductions in G-CSF, IL-2, IL-8 and IL-15; and discordant CSF-serum responses with reduced CSF and increased serum PDGF-bb, IL-17a, and RANTES. The results demonstrate simultaneously parallel mixed but modestly greater pro-inflammatory compared to anti-inflammatory or neuroprotective responses in CSF and serum. In addition, the findings show evidence that several cytokines and chemokines are selectively altered in MCI/AD CSF, likely corresponding to distinct neuroinflammatory responses unrelated to systemic pathologies. The aggregate results suggest that early management of MCI/AD neuroinflammation should include both anti-inflammatory and pro-neuroprotective strategies to help prevent disease progression.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sentyabreva AV, Miroshnichenko EA, Melnikova EA, et al (2023)

Morphofunctional Changes in Brain and Peripheral Blood in Adult and Aged Wistar Rats with AlCl3-Induced Neurodegeneration.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092336.

BACKGROUND: the general lifespan has been prolonged greatly during the past century, and the incidence of age-associated diseases, including neurodegenerative ones, has increased as well. However, modelling of age-related pathologies is mostly conducted on adult rodents. We studied morphofunctional changes in the brain and peripheral blood of adult Wistar rats in comparison with old Wistar rats to determine age-related physiological changes and differences in adaptive reactions to AlCl3 exposure.

METHODS: the work was performed on adult and old male Wistar rats. The animals consumed a 100 mg/kg solution of AlCl3 each day for 60 days. Morphological changes of neurons and microglia, mRNA expression levels of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines, microglia activation markers, amyloid-related proteins, and hallmarks of cellular senescence, monocyte, and lymphocyte subpopulations in the peripheral blood were examined.

RESULTS: old rats showed increasing hyperchromic neurons in the hippocampus; activation of microglia; upregulation of pro-inflammatory cytokines and cellular senescence markers; downregulation of anti-inflammatory cytokines; and Hif-1a and a decrease in B-cells and monocyte in peripheral blood.

CONCLUSION: compared to young animals, aged rats respond to aluminum exposure with a severe decline of most cells' function and irreversible neuronal loss. Regarding all reported data, neurodegeneration modelling and investigating of factors capable of accelerating or preventing it should be performed in experimental work on aged animals.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sousa T, Moreira PI, S Cardoso (2023)

Current Advances in Mitochondrial Targeted Interventions in Alzheimer's Disease.

Biomedicines, 11(9): pii:biomedicines11092331.

Alzheimer's disease is the most prevalent neurodegenerative disorder and affects the lives not only of those who are diagnosed but also of their caregivers. Despite the enormous social, economic and political burden, AD remains a disease without an effective treatment and with several failed attempts to modify the disease course. The fact that AD clinical diagnosis is most often performed at a stage at which the underlying pathological events are in an advanced and conceivably irremediable state strongly hampers treatment attempts. This raises the awareness of the need to identify and characterize the early brain changes in AD, in order to identify possible novel therapeutic targets to circumvent AD's cascade of events. One of the most auspicious targets is mitochondria, powerful organelles found in nearly all cells of the body. A vast body of literature has shown that mitochondria from AD patients and model organisms of the disease differ from their non-AD counterparts. In view of this evidence, preserving and/or restoring mitochondria's health and function can represent the primary means to achieve advances to tackle AD. In this review, we will briefly assess and summarize the previous and latest evidence of mitochondria dysfunction in AD. A particular focus will be given to the recent updates and advances in the strategy options aimed to target faulty mitochondria in AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Kang HS, Kim JH, Lim H, et al (2023)

Alzheimer's Disease and Different Types of Cancer Likelihood: Unveiling Disparities and Potential Protective Effects in a Korean Cohort Study.

Cancers, 15(18): pii:cancers15184615.

The link between Alzheimer's disease and cancer risk is a concern in public health. However, research has yielded limited and sometimes contrasting results, suggesting the need for more validation. We analyzed a large cohort to examine the long-term association between Alzheimer's disease (AD) and the risk of developing cancer. In total, 24,664 AD patients and 98,656 control participants were selected from the National Health Insurance Cohort database of Korea, spanning from 2002 to 2019. Propensity score matching and overlap-weighted adjustment techniques were used to balance the standardized differences between the AD and control groups. The Cox proportional hazards model was applied to calculate hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for various cancers, considering relevant covariates. Results indicated that patients with AD had a significantly lower likelihood of overall malignancy (HR 0.63; 95% CI, 0.59-0.68) and each of the 10 site-specific cancers compared to the control group. Among these, pancreatic cancer (HR, 0.50) exhibited the strongest inverse association, followed by hepatic (HR, 0.60), gastric (HR, 0.63), kidney (HR, 0.63), lung (HR, 0.64), thyroid (HR, 0.65), colorectal (HR, 0.67), gallbladder and biliary duct (HR, 0.73), hematologic malignancy (HR, 0.73), and bladder cancers (HR, 0.76). This protective effect against certain organ-specific cancers persisted over the 16-year follow-up period, except for in kidney cancer and hematologic malignancies. The protective effect against specific cancer types (gastric, colorectal, lung, hepatic, and pancreatic) was more prominent in individuals aged 60 years and older, regardless of their sex. However, there were some variations in the specific types of cancer observed between males and females. In summary, Korean patients with AD had a lower risk of cancer, especially in individuals 60 years and older, during the 16-year follow-up period.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ahn K, Cho M, Kim SW, et al (2023)

Deep Learning of Speech Data for Early Detection of Alzheimer's Disease in the Elderly.

Bioengineering (Basel, Switzerland), 10(9): pii:bioengineering10091093.

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of dementia, which makes the lives of patients and their families difficult for various reasons. Therefore, early detection of AD is crucial to alleviating the symptoms through medication and treatment.

OBJECTIVE: Given that AD strongly induces language disorders, this study aims to detect AD rapidly by analyzing the language characteristics.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The mini-mental state examination for dementia screening (MMSE-DS), which is most commonly used in South Korean public health centers, is used to obtain negative answers based on the questionnaire. Among the acquired voices, significant questionnaires and answers are selected and converted into mel-frequency cepstral coefficient (MFCC)-based spectrogram images. After accumulating the significant answers, validated data augmentation was achieved using the Densenet121 model. Five deep learning models, Inception v3, VGG19, Xception, Resnet50, and Densenet121, were used to train and confirm the results.

RESULTS: Considering the amount of data, the results of the five-fold cross-validation are more significant than those of the hold-out method. Densenet121 exhibits a sensitivity of 0.9550, a specificity of 0.8333, and an accuracy of 0.9000 in a five-fold cross-validation to separate AD patients from the control group.

CONCLUSIONS: The potential for remote health care can be increased by simplifying the AD screening process. Furthermore, by facilitating remote health care, the proposed method can enhance the accessibility of AD screening and increase the rate of early AD detection.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Mota SI, Fão L, Coelho P, et al (2023)

Uncovering the Early Events Associated with Oligomeric Aβ-Induced Src Activation.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antiox12091770.

Soluble Aβ1-42 oligomers (AβO) are formed in the early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and were previously shown to trigger enhanced Ca[2+] levels and mitochondrial dysfunction via the activation of N-methyl-D-aspartate receptors (NMDAR). Src kinase is a ubiquitous redox-sensitive non-receptor tyrosine kinase involved in the regulation of several cellular processes, which was demonstrated to have a reciprocal interaction towards NMDAR activation. However, little is known about the early-stage mechanisms associated with AβO-induced neurodysfunction involving Src. Thus, in this work, we analysed the influence of brief exposure to oligomeric Aβ1-42 on Src activation and related mechanisms involving mitochondria and redox changes in mature primary rat hippocampal neurons. Data show that brief exposure to AβO induce H2O2-dependent Src activation involving different cellular events, including NMDAR activation and mediated intracellular Ca[2+] rise, enhanced cytosolic and subsequent mitochondrial H2O2 levels, accompanied by mild mitochondrial fragmentation. Interestingly, these effects were prevented by Src inhibition, suggesting a feedforward modulation. The current study supports a relevant role for Src kinase activation in promoting the loss of postsynaptic glutamatergic synapse homeostasis involving cytosolic and mitochondrial ROS generation after brief exposure to AβO. Therefore, restoring Src activity can constitute a protective strategy for mitochondria and related hippocampal glutamatergic synapses.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Millet B, Mouchabac S, Robert G, et al (2023)

Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation (rTMS) on the Precuneus in Alzheimer's Disease: A Literature Review.

Brain sciences, 13(9): pii:brainsci13091332.

The current literature review aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of rTMS on the precuneus as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although the number of studies specifically targeting the precuneus is limited, the results from this review suggest the potential benefits of this approach. Future studies should focus on exploring the long-term effects of rTMS on the precuneus in Alzheimer's disease patients, as well as determining the optimal stimulation parameters and protocols for this population. Additionally, investigating the effects of rTMS on the precuneus in combination with other brain regions implicated in AD may provide valuable insights into the development of effective treatment for this debilitating neurodegenerative disorder.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Nair SS, Govindankutty MM, Balakrishnan M, et al (2023)

Investigation of Autonomic Dysfunction in Alzheimer's Disease-A Computational Model-Based Approach.

Brain sciences, 13(9): pii:brainsci13091322.

(1) Background and Objective: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is commonly accompanied by autonomic dysfunction. Investigating autonomic dysfunction's occurrence patterns and severity may aid in making a distinction between different dementia subtypes, as cardiac autonomic dysfunction and AD severity are correlated. Heart rate variability (HRV) allows for a non-invasive assessment of the autonomic nervous system (ANS). AD is characterized by cholinergic depletion. A computational model of ANS based on the kinetics of acetylcholine and norepinephrine is used to simulate HRV for various autonomic states. The model has the flexibility to suitably modulate the concentration of acetylcholine corresponding to different autonomic states. (2) Methods: Twenty clinically plausible AD patients are compared to 20 age- and gender-matched healthy controls using HRV measures. Statistical analysis is performed to identify the HRV parameters that vary significantly in AD. By modulating the acetylcholine concentration in a controlled manner, different autonomic states of Alzheimer's disease are simulated using the ANS model. (3) Results: In patients with AD, there is a significant decrease in vagal activity, sympathovagal imbalance with a dominant sympathetic activity, and change in the time domain, frequency domain, and nonlinear HRV characteristics. Simulated HRV features corresponding to 10 progressive states of AD are presented. (4) Conclusions: There is a significant difference in the HRV features during AD. As cholinergic depletion and autonomic dysfunction have a common neurological basis, autonomic function assessment can help in diagnosis and assessment of AD. Quantitative models may help in better comprehending the pathophysiology of the disease and assessment of its progress.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Stafford O, Gleeson C, Egan C, et al (2023)

A 20-Year Systematic Review of the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' Test across Neurodegenerative Conditions.

Brain sciences, 13(9): pii:brainsci13091268.

Social cognition has a broad theoretical definition, which includes the ability to mentalise, i.e., recognise and infer mental states to explain and predict another's behaviour. There is growing recognition of the clinical, diagnostic, and prognostic value of assessing a person's ability to perform social cognitive tasks, particularly aspects of theory of mind, such as mentalising. One such measure of mentalising is the 'Reading the Mind in the Eyes' test (RMET). This systematic review and meta-analysis consider performance on the RMET, applied to people with neurodegenerative conditions in matched control studies, since its publication in 2001. Overall, this review includes 22 papers with data from N = 800 participants with neurodegenerative conditions: Alzheimer's disease, n = 31; Parkinson's disease, n = 221; Lewy body dementia, n = 33; motor neuron disease, n = 218; Huntington's disease n = 80; multiple sclerosis, n = 217; and N = 601 matched typical controls. Our meta-analyses show that deficits in mentalising, as measured by the RMET, are consistently reported across neurodegenerative conditions, with participants in both early and late disease stages being affected. Social cognition is an emerging field of cognitive neuroscience requiring specific and sensitive measurement across each subdomain. Adult-based meta-normative data feature, for which future groups or individuals could be compared against, and hypotheses relating to the source of these mentalising deficits are further discussed. This review was registered with PROSPERO (CRD42020182874).

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Hasan S, Khatri N, Rahman ZN, et al (2023)

Neuroprotective Potential of Flavonoids in Brain Disorders.

Brain sciences, 13(9): pii:brainsci13091258.

Flavonoids are a large subgroup of polyphenols known to be sourced from over 6000 natural products, including fruits, vegetables, bark, and herbs. Due to their antioxidant properties, flavonoids have been implicated as a therapy source for many diseases and conditions, including inflammation, vasculitis, venous insufficiency, and hemorrhoids. Currently, some flavonoids are being researched for their antioxidant ability concerning neuroprotection. These flavonoids can penetrate the blood-brain barrier and, depending on the specific flavonoid, retain adequate bioavailability in certain brain regions. Further data suggest that flavonoids could have a strong anti-inflammatory effect in the brain, which not only could be a robust therapeutic source for known neuroinflammatory diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease or Parkinson's Disease but also could be a therapeutic source for ischemic or hemorrhagic conditions such as a stroke. While flavonoid toxicity exists, they are relatively safe and non-invasive drugs from natural origins. As such, exploring the known mechanisms and therapies may highlight and establish flavonoid therapy as a viable source of therapy for stroke patients. As stated, many flavonoids are already being isolated, purified, and implemented in both in vitro and in vivo experiments. As these flavonoids proceed to clinical trials, it will be important to understand how they function as a therapy, primarily as antioxidants, and by other secondary mechanisms. This review aims to elucidate those mechanisms and explore the neuroprotective role of flavonoids.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Siegmann EM, Olm P, Lenz B, et al (2023)

Digit Ratio (2D:4D) Is Not Associated with Alzheimer's Disease in the Elderly.

Brain sciences, 13(9): pii:brainsci13091229.

The development of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is influenced by sex hormones-estrogens and androgens in particular. However, the impact of prenatal sex hormone exposure is less clear; very few investigations have examined the relationship between the second-to-fourth digit length ratio (2D:4D), a putative proxy for the ratio of prenatal estrogens to androgens, and AD, with inconsistent results among the few that have. Therefore, we aimed to investigate this relationship using methodologically robust metrics. In a 2 (sex) × 4 (group) MANOVA incorporating 108 participants (30 AD patients, 19 patients with tauopathy but no amyloidopathy, 31 clinical and 28 healthy age- and education-matched controls), the effects of sex and group on the dependent variables right and left 2D:4D were examined. We also explored the association between 2D:4D and the severity of AD symptoms assessed via neuropsychological examination. We did not find any significant differences in the right- and left-hand 2D:4D between patients with AD and the other groups; no significant associations between 2D:4D and neuropsychological task performances were found in the dementia groups. The 2D:4D of healthy women was significantly lower than that of depressed women without AD, i.e., clinical controls, but not significantly different from depressed female patients with AD. This investigation does not support the role of 2D:4D in the development or severity of AD in general, but suggests a potential role of 2D:4D for depression in women. Future studies are warranted to clarify whether 2D:4D can distinguish between early- and late-onset depression in women.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sanadgol N, Amini J, Beyer C, et al (2023)

Presenilin-1-Derived Circular RNAs: Neglected Epigenetic Regulators with Various Functions in Alzheimer's Disease.

Biomolecules, 13(9): pii:biom13091401.

The presenilin-1 (PSEN1) gene is crucial in developing Alzheimer's disease (AD), a progressive neurodegenerative disorder and the most common cause of dementia. Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are non-coding RNA generated through back-splicing, resulting in a covalently closed circular molecule. This study aimed to investigate PSEN1-gene-derived circular RNAs (circPSEN1s) and their potential functions in AD. Our in silico analysis indicated that circPSEN1s (hsa_circ_0008521 and chr14:73614502-73614802) act as sponge molecules for eight specific microRNAs. Surprisingly, two of these miRNAs (has-mir-4668-5p and has-mir-5584-5p) exclusively interact with circPSEN1s rather than mRNA-PSEN1. Furthermore, the analysis of pathways revealed that these two miRNAs predominantly target mRNAs associated with the PI3K-Akt signaling pathway. With sponging these microRNAs, circPSEN1s were found to protect mRNAs commonly targeted by these miRNAs, including QSER1, BACE2, RNF157, PTMA, and GJD3. Furthermore, the miRNAs sequestered by circPSEN1s have a notable preference for targeting the TGF-β and Hippo signaling pathways. We also demonstrated that circPSEN1s potentially interact with FOXA1, ESR1, HNF1B, BRD4, GATA4, EP300, CBX3, PRDM9, and PPARG proteins. These proteins have a prominent preference for targeting the TGF-β and Notch signaling pathways, where EP300 and FOXA1 have the highest number of protein interactions. Molecular docking analysis also confirms the interaction of these hub proteins and Aβ42 with circPSEN1s. Interestingly, circPSEN1s-targeted molecules (miRNAs and proteins) impacted TGF-β, which served as a shared signaling pathway. Finally, the analysis of microarray data unveiled distinct expression patterns of genes influenced by circPSEN1s (WTIP, TGIF, SMAD4, PPP1CB, and BMPR1A) in the brains of AD patients. In summary, our findings suggested that the interaction of circPSEN1s with microRNAs and proteins could affect the fate of specific mRNAs, interrupt the function of unique proteins, and influence cell signaling pathways, generally TGF-β. Further research is necessary to validate these findings and gain a deeper understanding of the precise mechanisms and significance of circPSEN1s in the context of AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Voicu V, Brehar FM, Toader C, et al (2023)

Cannabinoids in Medicine: A Multifaceted Exploration of Types, Therapeutic Applications, and Emerging Opportunities in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Cancer Therapy.

Biomolecules, 13(9): pii:biom13091388.

In this review article, we embark on a thorough exploration of cannabinoids, compounds that have garnered considerable attention for their potential therapeutic applications. Initially, this article delves into the fundamental background of cannabinoids, emphasizing the role of endogenous cannabinoids in the human body and outlining their significance in studying neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Building on this foundation, this article categorizes cannabinoids into three main types: phytocannabinoids (plant-derived cannabinoids), endocannabinoids (naturally occurring in the body), and synthetic cannabinoids (laboratory-produced cannabinoids). The intricate mechanisms through which these compounds interact with cannabinoid receptors and signaling pathways are elucidated. A comprehensive overview of cannabinoid pharmacology follows, highlighting their absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion, as well as their pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic properties. Special emphasis is placed on the role of cannabinoids in neurodegenerative diseases, showcasing their potential benefits in conditions such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and multiple sclerosis. The potential antitumor properties of cannabinoids are also investigated, exploring their potential therapeutic applications in cancer treatment and the mechanisms underlying their anticancer effects. Clinical aspects are thoroughly discussed, from the viability of cannabinoids as therapeutic agents to current clinical trials, safety considerations, and the adverse effects observed. This review culminates in a discussion of promising future research avenues and the broader implications for cannabinoid-based therapies, concluding with a reflection on the immense potential of cannabinoids in modern medicine.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Wang SM, Kang DW, Um YH, et al (2023)

Olfactory Dysfunction Is Associated with Cerebral Amyloid Deposition and Cognitive Function in the Trajectory of Alzheimer's Disease.

Biomolecules, 13(9): pii:biom13091336.

Olfactory dysfunction is consistently observed in individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD), but its association with beta-amyloid (Aβ) deposition remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the relationship among olfactory function, cerebral Aβ deposition, and neuropsychological profiles in individuals with no cognitive impairment (NCI), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), and AD dementia. A total of 164 participants were included, and olfactory function was assessed using the brief smell identification test (B-SIT). Cerebral Aβ deposition was measured using [[18]F]-flutemetamol PET imaging (A-PET). The results show a significant group difference in olfactory function, with the highest impairment observed in the Aβ-positive MCI and AD dementia groups, and the impairment was the lowest in Aβ-negative NCI. Olfactory dysfunction was positively associated with cognitive impairments across multiple domains. Furthermore, individuals with Aβ deposition had lower olfactory function compared to those without Aβ, even within the same neuropsychological stage. The association between olfactory dysfunction and Aβ deposition was observed globally and in specific cortical regions. These findings suggest that olfactory dysfunction is associated with both cognitive function and cerebral Aβ pathology in the trajectory of AD. Olfactory deficits may serve as an additional marker for disease progression and contribute to understanding the underlying mechanisms of AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Dennison J, Mendez A, Szeto A, et al (2023)

Low-Dose Chidamide Treatment Displays Sex-Specific Differences in the 3xTg-AD Mouse.

Biomolecules, 13(9): pii:biom13091324.

Epigenetic compounds have become attractive small molecules for targeting the multifaceted aspects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although AD disproportionately affects women, most of the current literature investigating epigenetic compounds for the treatment of AD do not report sex-specific results. This is remarkable because there is rising evidence that epigenetic compounds intrinsically affect males and females differently. This manuscript explores the sexual dimorphism observed after chronic, low-dose administration of a clinically relevant histone deacetylase inhibitor, chidamide (Tucidinostat), in the 3xTg-AD mouse model. We found that chidamide treatment significantly improves glucose tolerance and increases expression of glucose transporters in the brain of males. We also report a decrease in total tau in chidamide-treated mice. Differentially expressed genes in chidamide-treated mice were much greater in males than females. Genes involved in the neuroinflammatory pathway and amyloid processing pathway were mostly upregulated in chidamide-treated males while downregulated in chidamide-treated females. This work highlights the need for drug discovery projects to consider sex as a biological variable to facilitate translation.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ponce-Lopez T, González Álvarez Tostado JA, Dias F, et al (2023)

Metformin Prevents NDEA-Induced Memory Impairments Associated with Attenuating Beta-Amyloid, Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha, and Interleukin-6 Levels in the Hippocampus of Rats.

Biomolecules, 13(9): pii:biom13091289.

N-nitrosodiethylamine (NDEA) is a potential carcinogen known to cause liver tumors and chronic inflammation, diabetes, cognitive problems, and signs like Alzheimer's disease (AD) in animals. This compound is classified as probably carcinogenic to humans. Usual sources of exposure include food, beer, tobacco, personal care products, water, and medications. AD is characterized by cognitive decline, amyloid-β (Aβ) deposit, tau hyperphosphorylation, and cell loss. This is accompanied by neuroinflammation, which involves release of microglial cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), and interleukin 1β (IL-1β), by nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) upregulation; each are linked to AD progression. Weak PI3K/Akt insulin-signaling inhibits IRS-1 phosphorylation, activates GSK3β and promotes tau hyperphosphorylation. Metformin, an antihyperglycemic agent, has potent anti-inflammatory efficacy. It reduces proinflammatory cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α via NF-κB inhibition. Metformin also reduces reactive oxidative species (ROS) and modulates cognitive disorders reported due to brain insulin resistance links. Our study examined how NDEA affects spatial memory in Wistar rats. We found that all NDEA doses tested impaired memory. The 80 µg/kg dose of NDEA increased levels of Aβ1-42, TNF-α, and IL-6 in the hippocampus, which correlated with memory loss. Nonetheless, treatment with 100 mg/kg of metformin attenuated the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines and Aβ1-42, and enhanced memory. It suggests that metformin may protect against NDEA-triggered memory issues and brain inflammation.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Prinzi C, Kostenko A, de Leo G, et al (2023)

Selective Noradrenaline Depletion in the Neocortex and Hippocampus Induces Working Memory Deficits and Regional Occurrence of Pathological Proteins.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091264.

Noradrenaline (NA) depletion occurs in Alzheimer's disease (AD); however, its relationship with the pathological expression of Tau and transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43), two major hallmarks of AD, remains elusive. Here, increasing doses of a selective noradrenergic immunotoxin were injected into developing rats to generate a model of mild or severe NA loss. At about 12 weeks post-lesion, dose-dependent working memory deficits were detected in these animals, associated with a marked increase in cortical and hippocampal levels of TDP-43 phosphorylated at Ser 409/410 and Tau phosphorylated at Thr 217. Notably, the total levels of both proteins were largely unaffected, suggesting a direct relationship between neocortical/hippocampal NA depletion and the phosphorylation of pathological Tau and TDP-43 proteins. As pTD43 is present in 23% of AD cases and pTau Thr217 has been detected in patients with mild cognitive impairment that eventually would develop into AD, improvement of noradrenergic function in AD might represent a viable therapeutic approach with disease-modifying potential.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Angelopoulou E, Pyrgelis ES, Ahire C, et al (2023)

Functional Implications of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases (PRMTs) in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091257.

During the aging of the global population, the prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases will be continuously growing. Although each disorder is characterized by disease-specific protein accumulations, several common pathophysiological mechanisms encompassing both genetic and environmental factors have been detected. Among them, protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), which catalyze the methylation of arginine of various substrates, have been revealed to regulate several cellular mechanisms, including neuronal cell survival and excitability, axonal transport, synaptic maturation, and myelination. Emerging evidence highlights their critical involvement in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporal dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD-ALS) spectrum, Huntington's disease (HD), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Underlying mechanisms include the regulation of gene transcription and RNA splicing, as well as their implication in various signaling pathways related to oxidative stress responses, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, vacuole degeneration, abnormal protein accumulation and neurotransmission. The targeting of PRMTs is a therapeutic approach initially developed against various forms of cancer but currently presents a novel potential strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the accumulating evidence on the role of PRMTs in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, enlightening their pathogenesis and stimulating future research.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Turovsky EA, Tarabykin VS, EG Varlamova (2023)

Deletion of the Neuronal Transcription Factor Satb1 Induced Disturbance of the Kinome and Mechanisms of Hypoxic Preconditioning.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091207.

Genetic disorders affecting the functioning of the brain lead not only to the development of numerous hereditary diseases but also to the development of neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders. The result of this may be the disability of part of the able-bodied population. Almost all pathological states of the brain are characterized by serious defects in the intracellular and intercellular signaling of neurons and glial cells. At the same time, the mechanisms of disruption of these signaling cascades are not well understood due to the large number of molecules, including transcription factors that, when mutated, cause brain malformations. The transcription factor Satb1 is one of the least studied factors in the cerebral cortex, and the effects of its deletion in the postnatal brain are practically not studied. Hyperexcitability of neurons is observed in many genetic diseases of the nervous system (Hirschsprung's disease, Martin-Bell syndrome, Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's, etc.), as well as in ischemic brain phenomena and convulsive and epileptic conditions of the brain. In turn, all these disorders of brain physiology are associated with defects in intracellular and intercellular signaling and are often the result of genetic disorders. Using Satb1 mutant mice and calcium neuroimaging, we show that Satb1 deletion in projection neurons of the neocortex causes downregulation of protein kinases PKC, CaMKII, and AKT/PKB, while a partial deletion does not cause a dramatic disruption of kinome and Ca[2+] signaling. As a result, Satb1-null neurons are characterized by increased spontaneous Ca[2+] activity and hyperexcitability when modeling epileptiform activity. As a result of the deletion of Satb1, preconditioning mechanisms are disrupted in neurons during episodes of hypoxia. This occurs against the background of increased sensitivity of neurons to a decrease in the partial pressure of oxygen, which may indicate the vulnerability of neuronal networks and be accompanied by impaired expression of the Satb1 transcription factor. Here, we show that Satb1 deletion impaired the expression of a number of key kinases and neuronal hyperexcitation in models of epileptiform activity and hypoxia.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sanghai N, GK Tranmer (2023)

Biochemical and Molecular Pathways in Neurodegenerative Diseases: An Integrated View.

Cells, 12(18): pii:cells12182318.

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are defined by a myriad of complex aetiologies. Understanding the common biochemical molecular pathologies among NDDs gives an opportunity to decipher the overlapping and numerous cross-talk mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Numerous interrelated pathways lead to the progression of neurodegeneration. We present evidence from the past pieces of literature for the most usual global convergent hallmarks like ageing, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity-induced calcium butterfly effect, defective proteostasis including chaperones, autophagy, mitophagy, and proteosome networks, and neuroinflammation. Herein, we applied a holistic approach to identify and represent the shared mechanism across NDDs. Further, we believe that this approach could be helpful in identifying key modulators across NDDs, with a particular focus on AD, PD, and ALS. Moreover, these concepts could be applied to the development and diagnosis of novel strategies for diverse NDDs.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Amin J, Gee C, Stowell K, et al (2023)

T Lymphocytes and Their Potential Role in Dementia with Lewy Bodies.

Cells, 12(18): pii:cells12182283.

Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common neurodegenerative cause of dementia. People with DLB have an inferior prognosis compared to Alzheimer's disease (AD), but the diseases overlap in their neuropathology and clinical syndrome. It is imperative that we enhance our understanding of the aetiology and pathogenesis of DLB. The impact of peripheral inflammation on the brain in dementia has been increasingly explored in recent years, with T lymphocyte recruitment into brain parenchyma identified in AD and Parkinson's disease. There is now a growing range of literature emerging on the potential role of innate and adaptive immune cells in DLB, including T lymphocytes. In this review, we examine the profile of T lymphocytes in DLB, focusing on studies of post-mortem brain tissue, cerebrospinal fluid, and the blood compartment. We present an integrated viewpoint on the results of these studies by proposing how changes to the T lymphocyte profile in the brain and periphery may relate to each other. Improving our understanding of T lymphocytes in DLB has the potential to guide the development of disease-modifying treatments.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Ulanova M, Gloag L, Bongers A, et al (2023)

Evaluation of Dimercaptosuccinic Acid-Coated Iron Nanoparticles Immunotargeted to Amyloid Beta as MRI Contrast Agents for the Diagnosis of Alzheimer's Disease.

Cells, 12(18): pii:cells12182279.

Nanoparticle-based magnetic contrast agents have opened the potential for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to be used for early non-invasive diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Accumulation of amyloid pathology in the brain has shown association with cognitive decline and tauopathy; hence, it is an effective biomarker for the early detection of AD. The aim of this study was to develop a biocompatible magnetic nanoparticle targeted to amyloid beta (Aβ) plaques to increase the sensitivity of T2-weighted MRI for imaging of amyloid pathology in AD. We presented novel iron core-iron oxide nanoparticles stabilized with a dimercaptosuccinic acid coating and functionalized with an anti-Aβ antibody. Nanoparticle biocompatibility and cellular internalization were evaluated in vitro in U-251 glioblastoma cells using cellular assays, proteomics, and transmission electron microscopy. Iron nanoparticles demonstrated no significant in vitro cytotoxicity, and electron microscopy results showed their movement through the endocytic cycle within the cell over a 24 h period. In addition, immunostaining and bio-layer interferometry confirmed the targeted nanoparticle's binding affinity to amyloid species. The iron nanoparticles demonstrated favourable MRI contrast enhancement; however, the addition of the antibody resulted in a reduction in the relaxivity of the particles. The present work shows promising preliminary results in the development of a targeted non-invasive method of early AD diagnosis using contrast-enhanced MRI.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Lana D, Branca JJV, Delfino G, et al (2023)

Morphofunctional Investigation in a Transgenic Mouse Model of Alzheimer's Disease: Non-Reactive Astrocytes Are Involved in Aβ Load and Reactive Astrocytes in Plaque Build-Up.

Cells, 12(18): pii:cells12182258.

The term neuroinflammation defines the reactions of astrocytes and microglia to alterations in homeostasis in the diseased central nervous system (CNS), the exacerbation of which contributes to the neurodegenerative effects of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Local environmental conditions, such as the presence of proinflammatory molecules, mechanical properties of the extracellular matrix (ECM), and local cell-cell interactions, are determinants of glial cell phenotypes. In AD, the load of the cytotoxic/proinflammatory amyloid β (Aβ) peptide is a microenvironmental component increasingly growing in the CNS, imposing time-evolving challenges on resident cells. This study aimed to investigate the temporal and spatial variations of the effects produced by this process on astrocytes and microglia, either directly or by interfering in their interactions. Ex vivo confocal analyses of hippocampal sections from the mouse model TgCRND8 at different ages have shown that overproduction of Aβ peptide induced early and time-persistent disassembly of functional astroglial syncytium and promoted a senile phenotype of reactive microglia, hindering Aβ clearance. In the late stages of the disease, these patterns were altered in the presence of Aβ-plaques, surrounded by typically reactive astrocytes and microglia. Morphofunctional characterization of peri-plaque gliosis revealed a direct contribution of astrocytes in plaque buildup that might result in shielding Aβ-peptide cytotoxicity and, as a side effect, in exacerbating neuroinflammation.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Morello G, Guarnaccia M, La Cognata V, et al (2023)

Transcriptomic Analysis in the Hippocampus and Retina of Tg2576 AD Mice Reveals Defective Mitochondrial Oxidative Phosphorylation and Recovery by Tau 12A12mAb Treatment.

Cells, 12(18): pii:cells12182254.

Increasing evidence implicates decreased energy metabolism and mitochondrial dysfunctions among the earliest pathogenic events of Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, the molecular mechanisms underlying bioenergetic dysfunctions in AD remain, to date, largely unknown. In this work, we analyzed transcriptomic changes occurring in the hippocampus and retina of a Tg2576 AD mouse model and wild-type controls, evaluating their functional implications by gene set enrichment analysis. The results revealed that oxidative phosphorylation and mitochondrial-related pathways are significantly down-regulated in both tissues of Tg2576 mice, supporting the role of these processes in the pathogenesis of AD. In addition, we also analyzed transcriptomic changes occurring in Tg2576 mice treated with the 12A12 monoclonal antibody that neutralizes an AD-relevant tau-derived neurotoxic peptide in vivo. Our analysis showed that the mitochondrial alterations observed in AD mice were significantly reverted by treatment with 12A12mAb, supporting bioenergetic pathways as key mediators of its in vivo neuroprotective and anti-amyloidogenic effects. This study provides, for the first time, a comprehensive characterization of molecular events underlying the disrupted mitochondrial bioenergetics in AD pathology, laying the foundation for the future development of diagnostic and therapeutic tools.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Lillo A, Serrano-Marín J, Lillo J, et al (2023)

Differential Gene Expression in Activated Microglia Treated with Adenosine A2A Receptor Antagonists Highlights Olfactory Receptor 56 and T-Cell Activation GTPase-Activating Protein 1 as Potential Biomarkers of the Polarization of Activated Microglia.

Cells, 12(18): pii:cells12182213.

Microglial activation often accompanies the plastic changes occurring in the brain of patients with neurodegenerative diseases. A2A and A3 adenosine receptors have been proposed as therapeutic targets to combat neurodegeneration. RNAseq was performed using samples isolated from lipopolysaccharide/interferon-γ activated microglia treated with SCH 58261, a selective A2A receptor antagonist, and with both SCH 58261 and 2-Cl-IB-MECA, a selective A3 receptor agonist. None of the treatments led to any clear microglial phenotype when gene expression for classical biomarkers of microglial polarization was assessed. However, many of the downregulated genes were directly or indirectly related to immune system-related events. Searching for genes whose expression was both significantly and synergistically affected when treated with the two adenosine receptor ligands, the AC122413.1 and Olfr56 were selected among those that were, respectively, upregulated and downregulated. We therefore propose that the products of these genes, olfactory receptor 56 and T-cell activation GTPase-activating protein 1, deserve attention as potential biomarkers of phenotypes that occur upon microglial activation.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Wang X, Zhou R, Sun X, et al (2023)

Preferential Regulation of Γ-Secretase-Mediated Cleavage of APP by Ganglioside GM1 Reveals a Potential Therapeutic Target for Alzheimer's Disease.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

A hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the senile plaque, which contains β-amyloid peptides (Aβ). Ganglioside GM1 is the most common brain ganglioside. However, the mechanism of GM1 in modulating Aβ processing is rarely known. Aβ levels are detected by using Immunohistochemistry (IHC) and enzyme-linked immune-sorbent assay (ELISA). Cryo-electron microscopy (Cryo-EM) is used to determine the structure of γ-secretase supplemented with GM1. The levels of the cleavage of amyloid precursor protein (APP)/Cadherin/Notch1 are detected using Western blot analysis. Y maze, object translocation, and Barnes maze are performed to evaluate cognitive functions. GM1 leads to conformational change of γ-secretase structure and specifically accelerates γ-secretase cleavage of APP without affecting other substrates including Notch1, potentially through its interaction with the N-terminal fragment of presenilin 1 (PS1). Reduction of GM1 levels decreases amyloid plaque deposition and improves cognitive dysfunction. This study reveals the mechanism of GM1 in Aβ generation and provides the evidence that decreasing GM1 levels represents a potential strategy in AD treatment. These results provide insights into the detailed mechanism of the effect of GM1 on PS1, representing a step toward the characterization of its novel role in the modulation of γ-secretase activity and the pathogenesis of AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Wright AL, Konen LM, Mockett BG, et al (2023)

The Q/R editing site of AMPA receptor GluA2 subunit acts as an epigenetic switch regulating dendritic spines, neurodegeneration and cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease.

Molecular neurodegeneration, 18(1):65.

BACKGROUND: RNA editing at the Q/R site of GluA2 occurs with ~99% efficiency in the healthy brain, so that the majority of AMPARs contain GluA2(R) instead of the exonically encoded GluA2(Q). Reduced Q/R site editing infcreases AMPA receptor calcium permeability and leads to dendritic spine loss, neurodegeneration, seizures and learning impairments. Furthermore, GluA2 Q/R site editing is impaired in Alzheimer's disease (AD), raising the possibility that unedited GluA2(Q)-containing AMPARs contribute to synapse loss and neurodegeneration in AD. If true, then inhibiting expression of unedited GluA2(Q), while maintaining expression of GluA2(R), may be a novel strategy of preventing synapse loss and neurodegeneration in AD.

METHODS: We engineered mice with the 'edited' arginine codon (CGG) in place of the unedited glutamine codon (CAG) at position 607 of the Gria2 gene. We crossbred this line with the J20 mouse model of AD and conducted anatomical, electrophysiological and behavioural assays to determine the impact of eliminating unedited GluA2(Q) expression on AD-related phenotypes.

RESULTS: Eliminating unedited GluA2(Q) expression in AD mice prevented dendritic spine loss and hippocampal CA1 neurodegeneration as well as improved working and reference memory in the radial arm maze. These phenotypes were improved independently of Aβ pathology and ongoing seizure susceptibility. Surprisingly, our data also revealed increased spine density in non-AD mice with exonically encoded GluA2(R) as compared to their wild-type littermates, suggesting an unexpected and previously unknown role for unedited GluA2(Q) in regulating dendritic spines.

CONCLUSION: The Q/R editing site of the AMPA receptor subunit GluA2 may act as an epigenetic switch that regulates dendritic spines, neurodegeneration and memory deficits in AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Wang P, Anderson DE, Y Ye (2023)

PI3K-AKT activation resculpts integrin signaling to drive filamentous tau-induced proinflammatory astrogliosis.

Cell & bioscience, 13(1):179.

BACKGROUND: Microtubule-binding protein tau is a misfolding-prone protein associated with tauopathies. As tau undergoes cell-to-cell transmission, extracellular tau aggregates convert astrocytes into a pro-inflammatory state via integrin activation, causing them to release unknown neurotoxic factors.

RESULTS: Here, we combine transcriptomics with isotope labeling-based quantitative mass spectrometry analysis of mouse primary astrocyte secretome to establish PI3K-AKT as a critical differentiator between pathogenic and physiological integrin activation; simultaneous activation of PI3K-AKT and focal adhesion kinase (FAK) in tau fibril-treated astrocytes changes the output of integrin signaling, causing pro-inflammatory gene upregulation, trans-Golgi network restructuring, and altered secretory flow. Furthermore, NCAM1, as a proximal signaling component in tau-stimulated integrin and PI3K-AKT activation, facilitates the secretion of complement C3 as a main neurotoxic factor. Significantly, tau fibrils-associated astrogliosis and C3 secretion can be mitigated by FAK or PI3K inhibitors.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings reveal an unexpected function for PI3K-AKT in tauopathy-associated reactive astrogliosis, which may be a promising target for anti-inflammation-based Alzheimer's therapy.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Giannisis A, Al-Grety A, Carlsson H, et al (2023)

Correction: Plasma apolipoprotein E levels, isoform composition, and dimer profile in relation to plasma lipids in racially diverse patients with Alzheimer's disease and mild cognitive impairment.

Alzheimer's research & therapy, 15(1):160.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Xu C, Xiao D, Su BB, et al (2023)

Association of APOE gene with longitudinal changes of CSF amyloid beta and tau levels in Alzheimer's disease: racial differences.

Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The Apolipoprotein E (APOE) ε4 allele is a risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, no investigation has focused on racial differences in the longitudinal effect of APOE genotypes on CSF amyloid beta (Aβ42) and tau levels in AD.

METHODS: This study used data from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI): 222 participants with AD, 264 with cognitive normal (CN), and 692 with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) at baseline and two years follow-up. We used a linear mixed model to investigate the effect of APOE-ε4-genotypes on longitudinal changes in the amyloid beta and tau levels.

RESULTS: Individuals with 1 or 2 APOE ε4 alleles revealed significantly higher t-Tau and p-Tau, but lower amyloid beta Aβ42 compared with individuals without APOE ε4 alleles. Significantly higher levels of log-t-Tau, log-p-Tau, and low levels of log-Aβ42 were observed in the subjects with older age, being female, and the two diagnostic groups (AD and MCI). The higher p-Tau and Aβ42 values are associated with poor Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) performance. Non-Hispanic Africa American (AA) and Hispanic participants were associated with decreased log-t-Tau levels (β =  - 0.154, p = 0.0112; β =  - 0.207, and p = 0.0016, respectively) as compared to those observed in Whites. Furthermore, Hispanic participants were associated with a decreased log-p-Tau level (β =  - 0.224, p = 0.0023) compared to those observed in Whites. There were no differences in Aβ42 level for non-Hispanic AA and Hispanic participants compared with White participants.

CONCLUSION: Our study, for the first time, showed that the APOE ε4 allele was associated with these biomarkers, however with differing degrees among racial groups.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )