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30 Jun 2022 at 01:33
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Bibliography on: Alzheimer Disease — Current Literature


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 30 Jun 2022 at 01:33 Created: 

Alzheimer Disease — Current Literature

Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with Alzheimer's, symptoms first appear in their mid-60s. Alzheimer's is the most common cause of dementia among older adults. Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning — thinking, remembering, and reasoning — and behavioral abilities to such an extent that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities. Dementia ranges in severity from the mildest stage, when it is just beginning to affect a person's functioning, to the most severe stage, when the person must depend completely on others for basic activities of daily living. Scientists don't yet fully understand what causes Alzheimer's disease in most people. There is a genetic component to some cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Late-onset Alzheimer's arises from a complex series of brain changes that occur over decades. The causes probably include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. The importance of any one of these factors in increasing or decreasing the risk of developing Alzheimer's may differ from person to person. This bibliography runs a generic query on "Alzheimer" and then restricts the results to papers published in or after 2017.

Created with PubMed® Query: alzheimer[TIAB] and (2017[PDAT] OR [2018[PDAT] OR 2019[PDAT] OR 2020[PDAT] OR 2021[PDAT]) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-06-27

Luo J, Gao F, Liu J, et al (2022)

Statistical estimation and comparison of group-specific bivariate correlation coefficients in family-type clustered studies.

Journal of applied statistics, 49(9):2246-2270 pii:1899141.

Bivariate correlation coefficients (BCCs) are often calculated to gauge the relationship between two variables in medical research. In a family-type clustered design where multiple participants from same units/families are enrolled, BCCs can be defined and estimated at various hierarchical levels (subject level, family level and marginal BCC). Heterogeneity usually exists between subject groups and, as a result, subject level BCCs may differ between subject groups. In the framework of bivariate linear mixed effects modeling, we define and estimate BCCs at various hierarchical levels in a family-type clustered design, accommodating subject group heterogeneity. Simplified and modified asymptotic confidence intervals are constructed to the BCC differences and Wald type tests are conducted. A real-world family-type clustered study of Alzheimer disease (AD) is analyzed to estimate and compare BCCs among well-established AD biomarkers between mutation carriers and non-carriers in autosomal dominant AD asymptomatic individuals. Extensive simulation studies are conducted across a wide range of scenarios to evaluate the performance of the proposed estimators and the type-I error rate and power of the proposed statistical tests. Abbreviations: BCC: bivariate correlation coefficient; BLM: bivariate linear mixed effects model; CI: confidence interval; AD: Alzheimer's disease; DIAN: The Dominantly Inherited Alzheimer Network; SA: simple asymptotic; MA: modified asymptotic.

RevDate: 2022-06-08
CmpDate: 2022-06-08

Bellia C, Lombardo M, Meloni M, et al (2022)

Diabetes and cognitive decline.

Advances in clinical chemistry, 108:37-71.

Epidemiologic studies have documented an association between diabetes and increased risk of cognitive decline in the elderly. Based on animal model studies, several mechanisms have been proposed to explain such an association, including central insulin signaling, neurodegeneration, brain amyloidosis, and neuroinflammation. Nevertheless, the exact mechanisms in humans remain poorly defined. It is reasonable, however, that many pathways may be involved in these patients leading to cognitive impairment. A major aim of clinicians is identifying early onset of neurologic signs and symptoms in elderly diabetics to improve quality of life of those with cognitive impairment and reduce costs associated with long-term complications. Several biomarkers have been proposed to identify diabetics at higher risk of developing dementia and diagnose early stage dementia. Although biomarkers of brain amyloidosis, neurodegeneration and synaptic plasticity are commonly used to diagnose dementia, especially Alzheimer disease, their role in diabetes remains unclear. The aim of this review is to explore the molecular mechanisms linking diabetes with cognitive decline and present the most important findings on the clinical use of biomarkers for diagnosing and predicting early cognitive decline in diabetics.

RevDate: 2022-06-03
CmpDate: 2022-05-24

Zúñiga Santamaría T, Yescas Gómez P, Fricke Galindo I, et al (2022)

Pharmacogenetic studies in Alzheimer disease.

Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain), 37(4):287-303.

INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia and is considered one of the main causes of disability and dependence affecting quality of life in elderly people and their families. Current pharmacological treatment includes acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (donepezil, galantamine, rivastigmine) and memantine; however, only one-third of patients respond to treatment. Genetic factors have been shown to play a role in this inter-individual variability in drug response.

DEVELOPMENT: We review pharmacogenetic reports of AD-modifying drugs, the pharmacogenetic biomarkers included, and the phenotypes evaluated. We also discuss relevant methodological considerations for the design of pharmacogenetic studies into AD. A total of 33 pharmacogenetic reports were found; the majority of these focused on the variability in response to and metabolism of donepezil. Most of the patients included were from Caucasian populations, although some studies also include Korean, Indian, and Brazilian patients. CYP2D6 and APOE are the most frequently studied biomarkers. The associations proposed are controversial.

CONCLUSIONS: Potential pharmacogenetic biomarkers for AD have been identified; however, it is still necessary to conduct further research into other populations and to identify new biomarkers. This information could assist in predicting patient response to these drugs and contribute to better treatment decision-making in a context as complex as ageing.

RevDate: 2022-04-30

El-Hawwary SS, Abd Almaksoud HM, Saber FR, et al (2021)

Green-synthesized zinc oxide nanoparticles, anti-Alzheimer potential and the metabolic profiling of Sabal blackburniana grown in Egypt supported by molecular modelling.

RSC advances, 11(29):18009-18025.

Nowadays, the biosynthesis of metal nanoparticles, particularly from plants, has been gaining interest. In the present work, the methanolic extracts of leaves, fruits, and the pollen grains of Sabal blackburniana were used for the green synthesis of ZnO nanoparticles, which were early detected by the formation of precipitate and further confirmed by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy and zeta potential (ZP) studies. TEM analysis has shown different shapes, predominantly irregular small spherical narrow particles included in hexagonal structures with size ranging from 2.23 to 49.56 nm. The XRD pattern confirmed that all synthesized ZnO nanoparticles have wurtzite hexagonal structure with crystalline nature. The average particle crystallite sizes were 47.21, 47.67 and 47.8 nm. The UV-visible spectra showed λ max in the range of 354-368 nm, which indicated the presence of ZnO nanoparticles. The FT-IR analysis identifies the characteristic functional groups present on the surface of ZnO nanoparticles. The ZP determination demonstrated that all representative selected synthesized ZnONPs exhibited acceptable ZP values of -30.8 to -45.9 mV, which indicated their good stability. In addition, the anti-Alzheimer potential of the selected extracts and ZnONPs was evaluated by assessing acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity in vitro according to the improved Ellman method. The results indicated that the selected extracts have acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity, and highlighted the promising inhibitory potential of green-synthesized ZnONPs using pollen grains, fruits and leaves extracts; they exhibited a potent inhibitory effect with IC50 values 63.78 ± 1.04651, 81.985 ± 3.075 and 117.95 ± 6.858 ng ml-1 respectively in comparison to donepezil as standard (IC50 = 50.7 ± 5.769 ng ml-1). Dereplication analysis of the selected extracts was performed using LC-MS; metabolic profiling revealed the presence of 41 compounds belonging to various chemical classes: flavonoids, steroidal saponins, terpenoids, alkaloids, lignans, sterols and fatty acids. Docking these dereplicated metabolites against the human AChE showed that the non-glycosylated flavonoid class of compounds was able to achieve interesting binding modes inside the AChE active site; they are suggested to be associated with the observed anti-AChE activity of Sabal extracts. This study is the first report to shed light on the acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity of green-synthesized ZnO nanoparticles of S. blackburniana metabolites.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-04-27

Gallacher J, Pickering J, Bayer A, et al (2022)

Amateur Boxing and Dementia: Cognitive Impairment Within the 35-Year Caerphilly Cohort Study.

Clinical journal of sport medicine : official journal of the Canadian Academy of Sport Medicine, 32(3):329-333.

OBJECTIVE: To examine the long-term effects of amateur boxing in a representative population sample of men.

DESIGN: The sample was examined every 5 years for 35 years. Cognition was assessed repeatedly from the third examination. Previous boxing experience and dementia were assessed at the fifth examination, and dementia assessed subsequently through medical records.

The Caerphilly Prospective Study investigates risk factors for a range of chronic diseases of diseases. These include life style and behavior, together with biological factors relevant to vascular disease.

PARTICIPANTS: 1123 adult men aged 45 to 59 years at baseline, followed for 35 years.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Cognitive impairment.

RESULTS: A report by a subject of having boxed "seriously" when younger was associated with a 2-fold increase in cognitive impairment [odds ratio (OR) = 2.27; 95% confidence intervals = 1.18-4.38]. For amnestic (Alzheimer-like) impairment, this rises to OR = 2.78 (95% confidence limits 1.37-5.65). Having boxed is associated with an "advancement" in the onset of the dementia (4.8 years; 95% confidence limits 0.9-8.8 years).

CONCLUSIONS: Amateur boxing is associated with an increased risk and an earlier onset of cognitive impairment and dementia.

RevDate: 2022-03-22

Kuchta K, Aritake K, Urade Y, et al (2021)

Preventing Dementia Using Saffron, The Kampo Medicine, Kamiuntanto, and Their Combination, Kamiuntantokabankoka.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 12:779821.

The objective of this review is to evaluate the anti-dementia activities of saffron and its combination with Kampo medicine. The Kampo formula Kamiuntanto composed of 13 crude drugs is well known for its anti-dementia activity. A significant increase in choline acetyltransferase activity and mRNA levels were observed. Polygala radix was identified as the most essential component drug in Kamiuntanto, probably due to the saponins, tenuifolin, and sinapinic acid. Ginseng was also identified as an essential Kamiuntanto component in terms of its synergistic functions with Polygala radix. Saffron, which was recommended in the Bencao Gangmu for memory and dementia, and is used as an anti-spasmodic, anti-catarrhal, and sedative herbal drug. Saffron and its major constituent, crocin were shown to enhance learning-memory, non-rapid eye movement (rem) sleep, and inhibit depression and neuronal cell death due to strong anti-oxidant and anti-inflammation activities. In addition based on the epidemiological studies such as the treatment of sleeping disorders and the clinical trials of saffron for Alzheimer patients, we demonstrated the indirect and direct anti-dementia activities of crocin and saffron.

RevDate: 2022-03-22

Wolfe MS (2021)

Targeting γ-Secretase for Familial Alzheimer's Disease.

Medicinal chemistry research : an international journal for rapid communications on design and mechanisms of action of biologically active agents, 30(7):1321-1327.

Familial Alzheimer's disease (FAD) is a rare early-onset genetic form of a common dementia of old age. Striking in middle age, FAD is caused by missense mutations in three genes: APP (encoding the amyloid precursor protein) and PSEN1 and PSEN2 (encoding presenilin-1 and presenilin-2). APP is proteolytically processed successively by β-secretase and γ-secretase to produce the amyloid β-peptide (Aβ). Presenilin is the catalytic component of γ-secretase, a membrane-embedded aspartyl protease complex that cleaves APP within its single transmembrane domain to produce Aβ of varying lengths. Thus, all FAD mutations are found in the substrate and the enzyme that produce Aβ. The 42-residue variant Aβ42 has been the primary focus of Alzheimer drug discovery for over two decades, as this particular peptide is highly prone to aggregation, is the major protein deposited in the characteristic cerebral plaques of Alzheimer's disease, and is proportionately elevated in FAD. Despite extensive efforts, all agents targeting Aβ and Aβ42 have failed in the clinic, including γ-secretase inhibitors, leading to questioning of the amyloid hypothesis of Alzheimer pathogenesis. However, processing of the APP transmembrane domain by γ-secretase is complex, involving initial endoproteolysis followed by successive carboxypeptidase trimming steps to secreted Aβ peptides such as Aβ42. Recent findings reveal that FAD mutations in PSEN1 and in APP result in deficient trimming of initially formed long Aβ peptides. A logical drug discovery strategy for FAD could therefore involve the search for compounds that rescue this deficient carboxypeptidase activity. The rare early-onset FAD arguably presents a simpler path to developing effective therapeutics compared to the much more complex heterogeneous sporadic Alzheimer's disease.

RevDate: 2022-03-15
CmpDate: 2022-03-15

Garfias S, Tamaya Domínguez B, Toledo Rojas A, et al (2022)

Peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotypes in Alzheimer and Parkinson's diseases.

Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain), 37(2):110-121.

INTRODUCTION: Neuroinflammation is involved in the pathophysiology of various neurological disorders, in particular Alzheimer disease (AD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Alterations in the blood-brain barrier may allow peripheral blood lymphocytes to enter the central nervous system; these may participate in disease pathogenesis.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the peripheral blood lymphocyte profiles of patients with AD and PD and their association with the disease and its progression.

METHODS: The study included 20 patients with AD, 20 with PD, and a group of healthy individuals. Ten of the patients with AD and 12 of those with PD were evaluated a second time 17 to 27 months after the start of the study. Lymphocyte subpopulations and their activation status were determined by flow cytometry. All patients underwent neurological examinations using internationally validated scales.

RESULTS: Compared to healthy individuals, patients with AD and PD showed significantly higher levels of activated lymphocytes, lymphocytes susceptible to apoptosis, central memory T cells, and regulatory T and B cells. As the diseases progressed, there was a significant decrease in activated cells (CD4+ CD38+ and CD8+ CD38+ in PD and AD, CD4+ CD69+ and CD8+ CD69+ in PD), T cells susceptible to apoptosis, and some regulatory populations (CD19+ CD5+ IL10+ in PD and AD, CD19+ CD5+ IL10+ FoxP3+, CD4+ FoxP3+ CD25+ CD45RO+ in PD). In patients with AD, disease progression was associated with lower percentages of CD4+ CD38+ cells and higher percentages of effector CD4 cells at the beginning of the study. Significant differences were observed between both diseases.

CONCLUSIONS: This study provides evidence of changes in peripheral blood lymphocyte phenotypes associated with AD and PD and their severity. Considering effective blood-brain communication, our results open new avenues of research into immunomodulation therapies to treat these diseases.

RevDate: 2022-03-14

Efjestad AS, Ihle-Hansen H, Hjellvik V, et al (2021)

Use of Drugs With Risk of Heart Rate-Related Problems is Common in Norwegian Dementia Patients Treated With Acetylcholinesterase Inhibitors: A Prevalence Study Based on the Norwegian Prescription Database.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 12:791578.

Background: Drugs commonly prescribed for heart rate control may induce adverse drug reactions in Alzheimer patients treated with acetylcholinesterase inhibitors (AChEIs). We have studied use of drugs with a known risk of Torsades de pointes (TdP) and drugs used to treat behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia, as well as a combination of drugs with a known risk of TdP and drugs with a known heart rate-lowering effect, before and after initiating treatment with AChEIs. Methods: The study applied data from the Norwegian Prescription Database for the period 2004-2016. Prescriptions of concomitant use of drugs in persistent users of AChEIs was studied in a follow-up period from 4 years before to 2 years after AChEI initiation in men and women of two age groups: 37-80 and 81-88 years. Results: A small number of patients were prescribed haloperidol (∼1.5% The second year after AChEI initiation), digoxin/digitoxin (∼3%), and verapamil (∼1.3%), while a substantial proportion of the patients were prescribed betablockers (∼28%) and citalopram/escitalopram (∼17%). During follow-up, up to 6% of the study population were prescribed both betablockers and citalopram/citalopram in addition to AChEIs, a combination that increased over the follow-up period and was observed most frequently in women in the oldest age group. Conclusions: A large proportion (∼44%) of patients treated with AChEIs were prescribed drugs that could cause bradycardic and prolonged time from the start of the Q wave to the end of the T wave (QT interval). Thus, action should be taken to reduce the combination of drugs with risk of bradycardia and prolonged QT interval. Medication review on a regular basis could be an option as an important risk-reducing intervention.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Rauchová H (2021)

Coenzyme Q10 effects in neurological diseases.

Physiological research, 70(Suppl4):S683-S714.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), a lipophilic substituted benzoquinone, is present in animal and plant cells. It is endogenously synthetized in every cell and involved in a variety of cellular processes. CoQ10 is an obligatory component of the respiratory chain in inner mitochondrial membrane. In addition, the presence of CoQ10 in all cellular membranes and in blood. It is the only endogenous lipid antioxidant. Moreover, it is an essential factor for uncoupling protein and controls the permeability transition pore in mitochondria. It also participates in extramitochondrial electron transport and controls membrane physicochemical properties. CoQ10 effects on gene expression might affect the overall metabolism. Primary changes in the energetic and antioxidant functions can explain its remedial effects. CoQ10 supplementation is safe and well-tolerated, even at high doses. CoQ10 does not cause any serious adverse effects in humans or experimental animals. New preparations of CoQ10 that are less hydrophobic and structural derivatives, like idebenone and MitoQ, are being developed to increase absorption and tissue distribution. The review aims to summarize clinical and experimental effects of CoQ10 supplementations in some neurological diseases such as migraine, Parkinson´s disease, Huntington´s disease, Alzheimer´s disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Friedreich´s ataxia or multiple sclerosis. Cardiovascular hypertension was included because of its central mechanisms controlling blood pressure in the brainstem rostral ventrolateral medulla and hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus. In conclusion, it seems reasonable to recommend CoQ10 as adjunct to conventional therapy in some cases. However, sometimes CoQ10 supplementations are more efficient in animal models of diseases than in human patients (e.g. Parkinson´s disease) or rather vague (e.g. Friedreich´s ataxia or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis).

RevDate: 2022-02-24

Rahimpour Y, Delazar A, Asnaashari S, et al (2021)

The Genus Ferulago: A Review on Ethnopharmacology, Phytochemistry, and Pharmacology.

Iranian journal of pharmaceutical research : IJPR, 20(4):352-377.

The Ferulago genus appertains to the Umbelliferae family comprises 49 species which are mainly distributed in Asia, Europe, and Africa. This paper aims to review the morphological properties of Ferulago species, herbal components, and their pharmacological properties. The information of this review paper has been collected from journals available in databases including Science Direct, Web of Science, Scopus, PubMed, EBSCO, Google Scholar, and Hindawi up to March 2020. In traditional medicine, the genus of Ferulago has been used to treat intestinal worms, snake bites, wound skin infections, diseases of the spleen and gastrointestinal tract, and headaches. It not only has been used traditionally as a preservative agent to dairy, oil ghee, and meat but also has given them a pleasant taste. The main components of Ferulago spp. are monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, coumarin, furanocoumarin, flavonoids, and terpenoids have been the reason for the antimicrobial, antioxidant, anticoagulant, antidiabetic, Alzheimer, and larvicidal properties of this plant. This review confirms that many traditional uses of some Ferulago species have now been validated by modern pharmacology research. Rigorous investigations of all the species of Ferulago concerning phytochemical and pharmacological properties, mainly their mechanism of action, efficacy, and safety might offer a context for researchers to prosper plant-derived medications like anti-diabetes, antibiotics, and sedatives treating drugs, and the key to directing clinical trials.

RevDate: 2022-02-23

Bishop MM, Fixen DR, Linnebur SA, et al (2021)

Cognitive effects of vortioxetine in older adults: a systematic review.

Therapeutic advances in psychopharmacology, 11:20451253211026796.

Many older adults experience a deterioration in cognitive function with aging, and this can have a negative impact on quality of life. Late-life depression has been linked to mild cognitive impairment and dementia, and treating depression with an agent that has procognitive effects could be beneficial. Vortioxetine is a novel antidepressant with a multimodal mechanism of action that works primarily via serotonin transporter inhibition, 5-HT1A receptor agonism and 5-HT3 receptor antagonism. A recent systematic review demonstrated procognitive effects of vortioxetine when indirectly compared with selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors in adults aged 18-65 years with major depressive disorder. While this systematic review demonstrated promising procognitive effects from vortioxetine, the included studies did not enroll older adults, who are at the highest risk of cognitive impairment. Therefore, our systematic review sought to investigate the effects of vortioxetine on cognitive functioning in patients over the age of 65 years. Three studies met the prespecified search criteria and were evaluated. Overall, these preliminary data suggest that vortioxetine has promising effects in improving cognition in older adults with depressive symptoms and may have a place in therapy in older adults with depression and/or cognitive impairment, including Alzheimer's disease. Additional long-term studies that include more diverse populations with comorbidities and direct comparisons with other antidepressants are needed to fully understand the potential cognitive benefits in older adults.

RevDate: 2022-05-01

Eratne D, Janelidze S, Malpas CB, et al (2021)

Plasma neurofilament light chain protein is not increased in treatment-resistant schizophrenia and first-degree relatives.

The Australian and New Zealand journal of psychiatry [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Schizophrenia, a complex psychiatric disorder, is often associated with cognitive, neurological and neuroimaging abnormalities. The processes underlying these abnormalities, and whether a subset of people with schizophrenia have a neuroprogressive or neurodegenerative component to schizophrenia, remain largely unknown. Examining fluid biomarkers of diverse types of neuronal damage could increase our understanding of these processes, as well as potentially provide clinically useful biomarkers, for example with assisting with differentiation from progressive neurodegenerative disorders such as Alzheimer and frontotemporal dementias.

METHODS: This study measured plasma neurofilament light chain protein (NfL) using ultrasensitive Simoa technology, to investigate the degree of neuronal injury in a well-characterised cohort of people with treatment-resistant schizophrenia on clozapine (n = 82), compared to first-degree relatives (an at-risk group, n = 37), people with schizophrenia not treated with clozapine (n = 13), and age- and sex-matched controls (n = 59).

RESULTS: We found no differences in NfL levels between treatment-resistant schizophrenia (mean NfL, M = 6.3 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval: [5.5, 7.2]), first-degree relatives (siblings, M = 6.7 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval: [5.2, 8.2]; parents, M after adjusting for age = 6.7 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval: [4.7, 8.8]), controls (M = 5.8 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval: [5.3, 6.3]) and not treated with clozapine (M = 4.9 pg/mL, 95% confidence interval: [4.0, 5.8]). Exploratory, hypothesis-generating analyses found weak correlations in treatment-resistant schizophrenia, between NfL and clozapine levels (Spearman's r = 0.258, 95% confidence interval: [0.034, 0.457]), dyslipidaemia (r = 0.280, 95% confidence interval: [0.064, 0.470]) and a negative correlation with weight (r = -0.305, 95% confidence interval: [-0.504, -0.076]).

CONCLUSION: Treatment-resistant schizophrenia does not appear to be associated with neuronal, particularly axonal degeneration. Further studies are warranted to investigate the utility of NfL to differentiate treatment-resistant schizophrenia from neurodegenerative disorders such as behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia, and to explore NfL in other stages of schizophrenia such as the prodome and first episode.

RevDate: 2022-05-01

Park HG, Perumean-Chaney SE, AA Bartolucci (2022)

Exploring Factors Associated With Successful Nonpharmacological Interventions for People With Dementia.

Dementia and neurocognitive disorders, 21(1):1-16.

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: We investigated existing nonpharmacological programs for people with dementia (PWD) to explore critical factors related to the effectiveness of these types of programs.

METHODS: We conducted a qualitative systematic literature review to identify nonpharmacological intervention programs developed for PWD and reviewed 36 randomized controlled trials. Among several outcomes reported in each study, we focused on the most common outcomes including quality of life (QoL), neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression, agitation, and cognition for further review.

RESULTS: Several factors were identified that might affect the outcomes of nonpharmacological interventions for PWD including study design, characteristics of the intervention, maintaining research participants, heterogeneity issues, and implementation fidelity. About half of studies in this review reported positive program effects on their targeted outcomes such as Well-being and Health for PWD on improving quality of life, neuropsychiatric symptoms and agitation; cognitive stimulation therapy on QoL, neuropsychiatric symptoms and cognition; and a stepwise multicomponent intervention on neuropsychiatric symptoms, depression and agitation.

CONCLUSIONS: We found some programs even with a rigorous study design did not produce expected outcomes while other programs with poor designs reported positive outcomes, which necessitates further investigation on the validity of the assessments. Factors such as individual tailored and customized interventions, promoting social interactions, ease of administration and compatibility of interventions, and developing program theory need to be considered when developing nonpharmacological intervention programs.

RevDate: 2022-02-16

Becker S, Sharma MJ, BL Callahan (2021)

ADHD and Neurodegenerative Disease Risk: A Critical Examination of the Evidence.

Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 13:826213.

In this review, we undertake a critical appraisal of eight published studies providing first evidence that a history of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) may increase risk for the later-life development of a neurodegenerative disease, in particular Lewy body diseases (LBD), by up to five-fold. Most of these studies have used data linked to health records in large population registers and include impressive sample sizes and adequate follow-up periods. We identify a number of methodological limitations as well, including potential diagnostic inaccuracies arising from the use of electronic health records, biases in the measurement of ADHD status and symptoms, and concerns surrounding the representativeness of ADHD and LBD cohorts. Consequently, previously reported risk associations may have been underestimated due to the high likelihood of potentially missed ADHD cases in groups used as "controls", or alternatively previous estimates may be inflated due to the inclusion of confounding comorbidities or non-ADHD cases within "exposed" groups that may have better accounted for dementia risk. Prospective longitudinal studies involving well-characterized cases and controls are recommended to provide some reassurance about the validity of neurodegenerative risk estimates in ADHD.

RevDate: 2022-05-01
CmpDate: 2022-02-10

Río AÁ, ML Marván (2021)

Ethical dilemmas in the face of the possibility of suffering from Alzheimer's disease or other dementias. An exploratory study.

Gaceta medica de Mexico, 157(4):404-410.

INTRODUCTION: In Mexico, efforts have been made to increase understanding of Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other dementias, as well as to improve the care of patients with these diseases and that of their caregivers. However, people's interest in making decisions and facing the ethical dilemmas regarding the possibility of living with mental diseases has not been investigated.

OBJECTIVE: To know the opinions of mature adults on some ethical dilemmas related to the possibility of living with AD or other dementias.

METHODS: Observational, cross-sectional, correlational study. Participants answered a self-administered questionnaire.

RESULTS: 134 mature adults answered the questionnaire; 70.9% had thought about the possibility of suffering from some dementia and the vast majority would like to know their diagnosis; approximately, half the participants had informed their families of their wishes about medical treatment in the future; 39.6% did not approve artificially feeding a patient who can no longer eat or decide; 37.3% did approve this.

CONCLUSIONS: There is interest in advance decisions in the face of the possibility of suffering from dementia. To answer unanswered questions in this regard, it is important for research on the subject to continue, as well as to solve some ethical dilemmas and promote the use of advance directives.

RevDate: 2022-04-30

Piamonte BLC, Anlacan VMM, Jamora RDG, et al (2021)

Googling Alzheimer Disease: An Infodemiological and Ecological Study.

Dementia and geriatric cognitive disorders extra, 11(3):333-339.

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the emergent role of the internet on the health-seeking behavior of people is critical not only in the areas of medicine and public health but also in the field of infodemiology.

METHODS: Using Google Trends, data on global search queries for Alzheimer disease (AD) between January 2004 and April 2021 were analyzed. The relationship between online interest, as reflected by search volume index (SVI), and measures of disease burden, namely prevalence, deaths, and disability-adjusted life years, was evaluated.

RESULTS: There was a reduction in the tendency to search for AD during the past two decades. SVI peaks corresponded to news of famous people with AD and awareness months. Symptoms, causes, and differences with the term dementia were central queries for persons interested in AD. No notable overall correlation between SVI and measures of disease burden was found due to competing results. Sub-group analyses, however, showed that these correlations may be influenced by socioeconomic development, with strong negative significant associations observed in lower middle-income countries.

CONCLUSION: Online interest in AD may represent a more complex metric influenced by socioeconomic factors. Awareness of the impact of celebrity diagnosis and awareness months on online search behavior may prove useful in the planning of public health campaigns for AD.

RevDate: 2022-04-05
CmpDate: 2022-04-05

Garnier-Crussard A, P Krolak-Salmon (2021)

Reader Response: Frequency of Biologically Defined Alzheimer Disease in Relation to Age, Sex, APOE ε4, and Cognitive Impairment.

Neurology, 97(12):608.

RevDate: 2022-04-05
CmpDate: 2022-04-05

Therriault J, Pascoal T, Gauthier S, et al (2021)

Author Response: Frequency of Biologically Defined Alzheimer Disease in Relation to Age, Sex, APOE ε4, and Cognitive Impairment.

Neurology, 97(12):609.

RevDate: 2022-04-30
CmpDate: 2022-01-27

Vakilian A, Ahmadi AM, Heidari M, et al (2021)

Vitamin B12 Administration Facilitates The Antipsychotic And Pain-Relieving Effects Of Quetiapine, In The Alzheimer Patients With Psychotic Symptoms.

Journal of Ayub Medical College, Abbottabad : JAMC, 33(Suppl 1)(4):S744-S751.

BACKGROUND: Psychotic symptoms in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients are a problem in medicine. The efficacy of the vitamin B12 on the treatment of the psychotic symptoms of the AD patients in the association with antipsychotic drugs Quetiapine and Risperidone, was evaluated in this Study.

METHODS: The effects of vitamin B12 along with two other drugs were studied on the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE), Clinical Global Impression (CGI), Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) and pain Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) in 47 AD patients with psychotic symptoms, including 4 groups, psychotic AD patients treated with Risperidone, Risperidone plus vitamin B12, Quetiapine and Quetiapine plus vitamin B12 .

RESULTS: The results showed that Quetiapine improved all of the psychotic criteria, while Quetiapine plus vitamin B12 had better results on BPRS after 2 weeks, VAS score and MMSE. Risperidone also improves all of the criteria except MMSE and drug efficacy index, while, vitamin B12 neutralize the effects of the Risperidone on the BPRS, VAS, and severity of illness.

CONCLUSION: Due to these results, Quetiapine is the preferred antipsychotics drug and Vitamin B12 plays an effective role in treatment as an adjunct therapy.

RevDate: 2022-01-24
CmpDate: 2022-01-24

Souza ID, Anderson JL, MEC Queiroz (2022)

Crosslinked zwitterionic polymeric ionic liquid-functionalized nitinol wires for fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction and UHPLC-MS/MS as an amyloid beta peptide binding protein assay in biological fluids.

Analytica chimica acta, 1193:339394.

Alzheimer disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by extracellular accumulation of amyloid-β peptide (Aβ) in the brain interstitium. Human serum albumin (HSA) highly binds to Aβ in blood plasma and is thought to inhibit plaque formation in peripheral tissue. Thus, the evaluation of albumin binding to Aβ is an important key to understand the dynamics of these molecules in the biological system of patients with AD. In this work, a fiber-in-tube solid-phase microextraction (fiber-in-tube SPME) and ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed to estimate Aβ fraction binding to HSA in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples. Crosslinked zwitterionic polymeric ionic liquid (zwitterionic PIL)-coated nitinol wires were developed and packed into a polyether ether ketone (PEEK) capillary for a fiber-in-tube SPME and UHPLC-MS/MS method. Zwitterionic PIL sorbent was synthetized from 1-vinyl-3-(butanesulfonate)imidazolium ([VIm+C4SO3-]) and 1,12-di(3-vinylimidazolium)dodecane dibromide ([(VIm)2C12]2[Br]) monomers by in-situ thermally-initiated polymerization. Morphological characterization by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM) revealed a decrease in the surface roughness of the nitinol wires from ∼17 nm to 1 nm after the in-situ polymerization. The zwitterionic PIL sorbent selectively preconcentrates Aβ through a two-pronged interaction mechanism. The fiber-in-tube SPME and UHPLC-MS/MS method presented lower limits of quantification (LLOQ) of 0.4 ng mL-1 for Aβ38 and 0.3 ng mL-1 for Aβ40 and Aβ42, a linear range from LLOQ values to 15 ng mL-1 with coefficients of determination higher than 0.99, precision with coefficient of variation (CV) values ranging from 2.1 to 7.3% and accuracy with relative standard deviation (RSD) values from -0.3 to 7.4. This method was successfully applied to evaluate the binding of HSA to Aβ in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma samples.

RevDate: 2022-01-24
CmpDate: 2022-01-24

Emran MY, Shenashen MA, Elmarakbi A, et al (2022)

Nitrogen-doped carbon hollow trunk-like structure as a portable electrochemical sensor for noradrenaline detection in neuronal cells.

Analytica chimica acta, 1192:339380.

To date, the production and development of portable analytical devices for environmental and healthcare applications are rapidly growing. Herein, a portable electrochemical sensor for monitoring of noradrenaline (NA) secreted from living cells using mesoporous carbon-based materials was fabricated. The modification of the interdigitated electrode array (IDA) by nitrogen-doped mesoporous carbon spheres (N-doped MCS) and nitrogen-doped carbon hollow trunk-like structure (N-doped CHT) was used to fabricate the NA sensor. The N-doped CHT surface shows multiple holes distributed with micrometer-sized open holes (1-2 μm) and nanometer-sized thin walls (∼98 nm). The N-doped CHT surface heterogeneity of wrinkled and twisted hollow trunk structures improve the diffusion pathway and the NA molecules loading. The N-doped CHT/IDA showed a highly selective assay for monitoring of NA with high sensitivity (1770 μA/μM × cm2), a low detection limit (0.005 μM), and a wide linear range (0.01-0.3 μM). The N-doped CHT/IDA monitored the NA secreted from PC12 cells under various concentrations of simulation agents (KCl). The designed N-doped CHT/IDA provides a portable NA-sensor assay with facile signaling, good stability, high biocompatibility, in-vitro assay compatibility, and good reproducibility. Therefore, the designed sensor can be used as a portable sensor for NA detection in live cells and can be matched with portable smartphones after further developments.

RevDate: 2022-05-19
CmpDate: 2022-03-07

Wilks H, Aschenbrenner AJ, Gordon BA, et al (2021)

Sharper in the morning: Cognitive time of day effects revealed with high-frequency smartphone testing.

Journal of clinical and experimental neuropsychology, 43(8):825-837.

Decades of research has established a shift from an "eveningness" preference to a "morningness" preference with increasing age. Accordingly, older adults typically have better cognition in morning hours compared to evening hours. We present the first known attempt to capture circadian fluctuations in cognition in individuals at risk for Alzheimer disease (AD) using a remotely administered smartphone assessment that samples cognition rapidly and repeatedly over several days. Older adults (N = 169, aged 61-94 years; 93% cognitively normal) completed four brief smartphone-based testing sessions per day for 7 consecutive days at quasi-random time intervals, assessing associate memory, processing speed, and visual working memory. Scores completed during early hours were averaged for comparison with averaged scores completed during later hours. Mixed effects models evaluated time of day effects on cognition. Additional models included clinical status and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers for beta amyloid (Aβ42) and phosphorylated tau181 (pTau). Models with terms for age, gender, education, APOE ε4 status, and clinical status revealed significantly worse performance on associate memory in evening hours compared to morning hours. Contemporaneously reported mood and fatigue levels did not moderate relationships. Using CSF data to classify individuals with and without significant AD pathology, there were no group differences in performance in morning hours, but subtle impairment emerged in associate memory in evening hours in those with CSF-confirmed AD pathology. These findings indicate that memory is worse in evening hours in older adults, that this pattern is consistent across several days, and is independent of measures of mood and fatigue. Further, they provide preliminary evidence of a "cognitive sundowning" in the very earliest stages of AD. Time of day may be an important consideration for assessments in observational studies and clinical trials in AD populations.

RevDate: 2022-01-21
CmpDate: 2022-01-21

Azzaz F, Yahi N, Di Scala C, et al (2022)

Ganglioside binding domains in proteins: Physiological and pathological mechanisms.

Advances in protein chemistry and structural biology, 128:289-324.

Gangliosides are anionic lipids that form condensed membrane clusters (lipid rafts) and exert major regulatory functions on a wide range of proteins. In this review, we propose a new view of the structural features of gangliosides with special emphasis on emerging properties associated with protein binding modes. We analyze the different possibilities of molecular associations of gangliosides in lipid rafts and the role of cholesterol in this organization. We are particularly interested in amide groups of N-acetylated sugars which make it possible to neutralize the negative charge of the carboxylate group of sialic acids. We refer to this effect as "NH trick" and we demonstrate that it is operative in GM1, GD1a, GD1b and GT1b gangliosides. The NH trick is key to understand the different topologies adopted by gangliosides (chalice-like at the edge of lipid rafts, condensed clusters in central areas) and their impact on protein binding. We define three major types of ganglioside-binding domains (GBDs): α-helical, loop shaped, and large flat surface. We describe the mode of interaction of each GBD with typical reference proteins: synaptotagmin, 5HT1A receptor, cholera and botulinum toxins, HIV-1 surface envelope glycoprotein gp120, SARS-CoV-2 spike protein, cellular prion protein, Alzheimer's β-amyloid peptide and Parkinson's disease associated α-synuclein. We discuss the common mechanisms and peculiarities of protein binding to gangliosides in the light of physiological and pathological conditions. We anticipate that innovative ganglioside-based therapies will soon show an exponential growth for the treatment of cancer, microbial infections, and neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2022-01-14
CmpDate: 2022-01-14

Ikeda T, Hori Y, Sohma Y, et al (2021)

Photo-Oxygenation: An Innovative New Therapeutic Approach Against Amyloidoses.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1339:415-422.

Many types of amyloidoses are pathologically characterized by the deposition of amyloid, which is comprised of fibrils formed by abnormally aggregated proteins, in various peripheral tissues and the central nervous system (CNS). Neurodegenerative disorders, such as Alzheimer disease (AD), Parkinson disease (PD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are well-known CNS amyloidoses that are characterized by amyloid deposition both inside and outside of cells. The amyloidogenic proteins of each disease have distinct primary sequences, and they normally function as soluble proteins. However, these proteins all aggregate and form amyloid with a common intermolecular tertiary structure, namely, a cross-β-sheet structure, finally leading to the onset of each disease. Therefore, inhibition of the aggregation of amyloid proteins or efficient clearance of the already formed amyloids are thought to be promising therapeutic strategies against amyloidoses.

RevDate: 2022-01-14
CmpDate: 2022-01-14

Athanasiadou E, Tsaloglidou A, Koukourikos K, et al (2021)

Care of Patients with Alzheimer's Disease.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1339:9-20.

INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease is one of the irreversible dementias and leads to death. About 10% of people over 60 years and 20% of people over 80 will have Alzheimer's sometime in their lives. In the case of Alzheimer's disease, care can turn into an extremely large and unevenly distributed burden. The burden that caregivers are called upon to lift is particularly high at the physical, psychological, and social levels.

PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to describe the characteristics and needs of caregivers and even informal ones, that is, patients in the patient's family or friendly environment who voluntarily or unintentionally offer unpaid care to patients with Alzheimer's disease.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: The present study was conducted using the Carer Well-Being and Support Questionnaire (CWSv2) at Thessaloniki Psychiatric Hospital between October and December 2019. For the statistical analysis, the SPSS package 23 was used.

RESULTS: Alzheimer-type dementia is a condition with gradual, inevitable, and uncontrollable deterioration. So, it was expected that those involved in the care of these patients would be afraid of what their patient future care would be. Consequently, there is a high correlation coefficient between the two relevant variables (Fisher's Exact Test: 31,426; Sig: 0.007). Caregivers need to be alert at all times in order to fulfill their role and care for their loved one. There is a strong correlation index between the two variables (Fisher's Exact Test: 32,761; Sig: 0.003). The situation of a lack or distorted form of communication between patients and caregivers may also create or exacerbate caregivers' anxiety, causing them feelings of depression and deadlock that is also reflected in the relevant correlation index (Fisher's Exact Test: 30,053; Sig: 0.001). Women were more in need for additional help, with the two variables being marginally statistically significant (Fisher's Exact Test: 5.373; Sig: 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Taking into account the results, as reflected through the elaboration of the closed and open questions of this tool, new structures and services should be created in order to facilitate caregivers' job.

RevDate: 2022-01-25
CmpDate: 2022-01-25

Naomi R, Embong H, Othman F, et al (2021)

Probiotics for Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review.

Nutrients, 14(1):.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common form of neurodegenerative disorders affecting mostly the elderly. It is characterized by the presence of Aβ and neurofibrillary tangles (NFT), resulting in cognitive and memory impairment. Research shows that alteration in gut microbial diversity and defects in gut brain axis are linked to AD. Probiotics are known to be one of the best preventative measures against cognitive decline in AD. Numerous in vivo trials and recent clinical trials have proven the effectiveness of selected bacterial strains in slowing down the progression of AD. It is proven that probiotics modulate the inflammatory process, counteract with oxidative stress, and modify gut microbiota. Thus, this review summarizes the current evidence, diversity of bacterial strains, defects of gut brain axis in AD, harmful bacterial for AD, and the mechanism of action of probiotics in preventing AD. A literature search on selected databases such as PubMed, Semantic Scholar, Nature, and Springer link have identified potentially relevant articles to this topic. However, upon consideration of inclusion criteria and the limitation of publication year, only 22 articles have been selected to be further reviewed. The search query includes few sets of keywords as follows. (1) Probiotics OR gut microbiome OR microbes AND (2) Alzheimer OR cognitive OR aging OR dementia AND (3) clinical trial OR in vivo OR animal study. The results evidenced in this study help to clearly illustrate the relationship between probiotic supplementation and AD. Thus, this systematic review will help identify novel therapeutic strategies in the future as probiotics are free from triggering any adverse effects in human body.

RevDate: 2022-01-31
CmpDate: 2022-01-31

Sierri G, Dal Magro R, Vergani B, et al (2021)

Reduced Levels of ABCA1 Transporter Are Responsible for the Cholesterol Efflux Impairment in β-Amyloid-Induced Reactive Astrocytes: Potential Rescue from Biomimetic HDLs.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(1):.

The cerebral synthesis of cholesterol is mainly handled by astrocytes, which are also responsible for apoproteins' synthesis and lipoproteins' assembly required for the cholesterol transport in the brain parenchyma. In Alzheimer disease (AD), these processes are impaired, likely because of the astrogliosis, a process characterized by morphological and functional changes in astrocytes. Several ATP-binding cassette transporters expressed by brain cells are involved in the formation of nascent discoidal lipoproteins, but the effect of beta-amyloid (Aβ) assemblies on this process is not fully understood. In this study, we investigated how of Aβ1-42-induced astrogliosis affects the metabolism of cholesterol in vitro. We detected an impairment in the cholesterol efflux of reactive astrocytes attributable to reduced levels of ABCA1 transporters that could explain the decreased lipoproteins' levels detected in AD patients. To approach this issue, we designed biomimetic HDLs and evaluated their performance as cholesterol acceptors. The results demonstrated the ability of apoA-I nanodiscs to cross the blood-brain barrier in vitro and to promote the cholesterol efflux from astrocytes, making them suitable as a potential supportive treatment for AD to compensate the depletion of cerebral HDLs.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Adhikari UK, Sakiz E, Habiba U, et al (2021)

Treatment of microglia with Anti-PrP monoclonal antibodies induces neuronal apoptosis in vitro.

Heliyon, 7(12):e08644.

Previous reports highlighted the neurotoxic effects caused by some motif-specific anti-PrPC antibodies in vivo and in vitro. In the current study, we investigated the detailed alterations of the proteome with liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry following direct application of anti-PrPC antibodies on mouse neuroblastoma cells (N2a) and mouse primary neuronal (MPN) cells or by cross-linking microglial PrPC with anti-PrPC antibodies prior to co-culture with the N2a/MPN cells. Here, we identified 4 (3 upregulated and 1 downregulated) and 17 (11 upregulated and 6 downregulated) neuronal apoptosis-related proteins following treatment of the N2a and N11 cell lines respectively when compared with untreated cells. In contrast, we identified 1 (upregulated) and 4 (2 upregulated and 2 downregulated) neuronal apoptosis-related proteins following treatment of MPN cells and N11 when compared with untreated cells. Furthermore, we also identified 3 (2 upregulated and 1 downregulated) and 2 (1 upregulated and 1 downregulated) neuronal apoptosis-related related proteins following treatment of MPN cells and N11 when compared to treatment with an anti-PrP antibody that lacks binding specificity for mouse PrP. The apoptotic effect of the anti-PrP antibodies was confirmed with flow cytometry following labelling of Annexin V-FITC. The toxic effects of the anti-PrP antibodies was more intense when antibody-treated N11 were co-cultured with the N2a and the identified apoptosis proteome was shown to be part of the PrPC-interactome. Our observations provide a new insight into the prominent role played by microglia in causing neurotoxic effects following treatment with anti-PrPC antibodies and might be relevant to explain the antibody mediated toxicity observed in other related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Chang TY, Yang CP, Chen YH, et al (2021)

Age-Stratified Risk of Dementia in Parkinson's Disease: A Nationwide, Population-Based, Retrospective Cohort Study in Taiwan.

Frontiers in neurology, 12:748096.

Introduction: Parkinson's disease (PD) manifests with dominant motor symptoms and a wide range of non-motor symptoms (NMS). Dementia is one of the most disabling and exhausting NMS throughout the clinical course. We conducted a population-based, age-stratified, retrospective cohort study to investigate the incidence rate and risk of dementia of patients with newly diagnosed PD, and linked to the clinicopathological PD subtypes. Methods: Patients with newly diagnosed PD (PD group, n = 760) and control subjects (non-PD group, n = 3,034) were selected from the Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database from January 2001 to December 2005. The dementia incidence rate and dementia-free survival rate were calculated. Results: The overall dementia incidence rate was 17.5 and 5.7 per 1,000 person-years in PD and non-PD groups, respectively. The PD group had a significantly higher overall risk of dementia than controls (p < 0.001). The younger PD patients had a lower dementia incidence rate than the older PD patients, but a higher dementia risk compared to the same age of controls (<60 years, adjusted HR 6.55, 95% CI 1.56-27.48, p = 0.010). The dementia-free survival rate was significantly lower in the PD group compared to the non-PD group during follow-up (p < 0.001). Conclusion: In our study, the older age of onset in PD patients resulted in a higher incidence rate of dementia. In the young age of PD patients, the incidence rate of dementia was lower than the older PD patients, but the dementia risk was higher than controls of the same age. These findings possibly implied that there were different pathogenesis and pathologies causing dementia in younger and older PD patients.

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Abanmy N, Alsabhan J, Gard P, et al (2021)

Association between the Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265/G196A) of the BDNF gene and cognitive performance with SSRI use in Arab Alzheimer's disease patients.

Saudi pharmaceutical journal : SPJ : the official publication of the Saudi Pharmaceutical Society, 29(12):1392-1398.

Brain derived neutrophic factor (BDNF) is a protein and a member of the neurotrophin family of growth factors, supports the survival of existing neurons and encourages the growth and differentiation of new neurons and synapses. The BDNF gene Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265/G196A) is responsible for BDNF synthesis that impact BDNF function that includes memory and cognition. This study investigated whether the BDNF gene Val66Met polymorphism (rs6265/G196A) is associated with cognitive function changes in both Alzheimer disease (AD) patients and elderly participants. In addition the impact of SSRI use on cognition improvement will be assessed. Healthy young, middle ages (25-59 years old) and elderly (more than 60 years old) participants (140) as well as 40 AD patients of whom are both of Saudi Arabian origin were recruited. The genotyping for the association study was performed by real-time PCR using Taqman chemistry in the ABI Prism 7900HT Sequence Detection System. Both Mini-Mental Status Examination (MMSE) and Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) were used to assess cognitive function of healthy and AD participants, respectively. The findings showed that the BDNF Val66Met genotype distributions and allele frequencies have significant association with cognitive performance in both elderly control group and AD patients. The main findings showed that carriers of GG homozygotes (Val/Val) have superior cognitive performance among AD patients and elderly control subjects. In addition the use of SSRIs in 13 AD patients and 17 elderly participants positively improved cognitive function in elderly (p > 0.001) but not in AD patients (p = 0.1).

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Patel I, Patel J, Jindal SV, et al (2021)

Knowledge, Awareness, and Attitude Towards Dementia Amongst Medical Undergraduate Students: Can a Sensitization Program Help?.

Annals of Indian Academy of Neurology, 24(5):754-758.

BACKGROUND: Current undergraduate medical academic curriculum does not emphasize on evaluation and management of dementia. The knowledge and attitude of medical students towards patients with dementia in India has not been ascertained previously.

OBJECTIVE: We aimed to assess the knowledge and attitude of final year medical students about dementia and Alzheimer's disease. We also aimed to assess if a dedicated sensitization cum teaching session by a group of interns doctors guided by a neurologist could help improve students' knowledge and awareness towards dementia or not.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: 82 consenting final year medical students answered questionnaires of Alzheimer Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS) and Dementia Attitude Scale (DAS) at a baseline level. A sensitization cum teaching session by intern doctors was conducted to enhance students' knowledge about dementia. A post sensitization reassessment of students was done to assess impact of the session.

RESULTS: The ADKS score was 57% at baseline which was increased to 71% post sensitization program. The mean DAS score was 3.2 at baseline which was reported to be 3.4 after sensitization program. Students reported significant improvement in their knowledge level but did not show the same improvement in their attitude and comfort level in caring for dementia after the sensitization program. Students were still not comfortable dealing with patients with dementia.

CONCLUSION: Medical students lack significant knowledge and training about dementia. Patient contact and practical training for basic assessment and care of dementia needs to be incorporated in the current academic curriculum. Dedicated sensitization sessions on dementia care can help improve the gap. Practical exposure to management of patients with dementia would be required to enhance the comfort level and attitude of students towards dementia.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

N'Go PK, Ahami OTA, El Hessni A, et al (2021)

Neuroprotective effects of the Chrysophyllum perpulchrum extract against an Alzheimer-like rat model of β amyloid1-40 intrahippocampal injection.

Translational neuroscience, 12(1):545-560.

OBJECTIVE: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a threatening disease for African populations in the upcoming years because of the increase in their expectancy of life. Here, we investigated whether natural products from Chrysophyllum perpulchrum as catechin and two dimeric procyanidins (catechin + hexose) could prevent progression of oxidative stress and cognitive changes using an AD-like rat model induced by Aβ1-40 injection into the hippocampal CA1 subfield.

METHODOLOGY: Adult male Wistar rats were either microinjected with 1% ammonia as a vehicle (10 µL) or aggregated Aβ1-40 at 10 µg bilateral hippocampus. On the 14th day of post-surgery, some Aβ rats were treated with melatonin (10 mg/kg i.p.) or with the Chrysophyllum perpulchrum extract (300 mg/kg p.o.), and some sham-operated rats received the extract alone. Cognitive abilities were tested with Y-maze, object recognition test and Morris Water Maze. Oxidative stress markers as well as the level of activated microglial cells were assayed in the brain.

RESULTS: Aβ rats exhibited significant deficits of recognition memory and spatial learning. This was associated with an increase of microglia Iba 1 immunoreactivity as well as nitric oxide (NO), malondialdehyde and superoxide dismutase levels but not to the thiol content in the hippocampus, prefrontal cortex and septum of AD-like rats. The Chrysophyllum perpulchrum extract treatment mitigated Aβ-induced cognitive impairments and reversed microglia overactivation and subsequent generation of oxidative stress markers. Interestingly, the neuroprotective actions of the Chrysophyllum perpulchrum extract seem to be comparable to the control drug melatonin used albeit with some more beneficial effects.

CONCLUSION: These findings are preliminary and should be strengthened by more pharmacological studies of bioactive compounds of Chrysophyllum perpulchrum before being proposed as a promising drug against AD.

RevDate: 2022-04-20

Mohieldin AM, Alachkar A, Yates J, et al (2021)

Novel biomarkers of ciliary extracellular vesicles interact with ciliopathy and Alzheimer's associated proteins.

Communicative & integrative biology, 14(1):264-269.

Ciliary extracellular vesicles (ciEVs), released from primary cilia, contain functional proteins that play an important role in cilia structure and functions. We have recently shown that ciEVs and cytosolic extracellular vesicles (cyEVs) have unique and distinct biomarkers. While ciEV biomarkers have shown some interactions with known ciliary proteins, little is known about the interaction of ciEV proteins with proteins involved in ciliopathy and neurodegenerative disorders. Here, we reveal for the first time the protein-protein interaction (PPI) between the top five ciEVs biomarkers with ciliopathy and Alzheimer disease (AD) proteins. These results support the growing evidence of the critical physiological roles of cilia in neurodegenerative disorders.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Yang H, Y Jeong (2021)

Correlation between Alteration of Sharp-wave Ripple Coupled Cortical Oscillation and Long-term Memory Deficit in Alzheimer Disease Model Mice.

Experimental neurobiology, 30(6):430-440.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, characterized by prominent episodic memory dysfunction. Recent studies have suggested that there is a sequential mechanism in the memory deficit, with long-term ones preceding short-term ones. However, there is lack of explanation for these symptoms. Interaction between the hippocampus and retrosplenial cortex (RSC) during slow-wave sleep (SWS) is a crucial step for successful long-term memory formation. In particular, sharp-wave ripple (SWR) is a principal hippocampus oscillation that coordinates with RSC activity. To determine the relationship between memory dysfunction and SWR-related oscillation changes in AD, we implanted local field potential electrodes in the hippocampus and RSC of AD model mice (APP/PS1). We found that the SWR-coupled ripple wave increased in the RSC, while the amplitude of the SWR was preserved. In addition, the corresponding delta power in hippocampus and RSC was elevated, together with altered delta synchrony in AD mice. All these findings showed a significant correlation with long-term memory deficits measured in contextual fear conditions. Our study suggests that altered SWR-coupled oscillations are a possible underlying mechanism of episodic memory dysfunction in AD mice.

RevDate: 2022-05-13
CmpDate: 2022-01-05

Hedayati-Moghadam M, Hosseinian S, Paseban M, et al (2021)

The Role of Chemokines in Cardiovascular Diseases and the Therapeutic Effect of Curcumin on CXCL8 and CCL2 as Pathological Chemokines in Atherosclerosis.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1328:155-170.

Curcumin, as a vegetative flavonoid, has a protective and therapeutic role in various adverse states such as oxidative stress and inflammation. Remedial properties of this component have been reported in the different chronic diseases including cancers (myeloma, pancreatic, breast, colorectal), vitiligo, psoriasis, neuropathic pains, inflammatory disorders (osteoarthritis, uveitis, ulcerative colitis, Alzheimer), cardiovascular conditions, and diabetes.Cardiovascular disorders include atherosclerosis and various manifestations of atherosclerosis such as stroke, and myocardial infarction (MI) is the leading cause of mortality globally. Studies have shown varying expressions of inflammatory and non-inflammatory chemokines and chemokine receptors in cardiovascular disease, which have been highlighted first in this review. The alteration in chemokines secretion and chemokine receptors has an essential role in the pathophysiology of cardiovascular disease. Chemokines as cytokines with low molecular weight (8-12 kDa) mediate white blood cell (WBC) chemotactic reactions, vascular cell migration, and proliferation that induce endothelial dysfunction, atherogenesis, and cardiac hypertrophy.Several studies reported that curcumin could be advantageous in the attenuation of cardiovascular diseases via anti-inflammatory effects and redress of chemokine secretion and chemokine receptors. We present these studies with a focus on two chemokines: CXCL8 (IL-8) and CCL2 (chemoattractant protein 1 or MCP-1). Future research will further elucidate the precise potential of curcumin on chemokines in the adjustment of cardiovascular system activity or curcumin chemokine-based therapies.

RevDate: 2022-01-04

Zeng P, Su HF, Ye CY, et al (2021)

Therapeutic Mechanism and Key Alkaloids of Uncaria rhynchophylla in Alzheimer's Disease From the Perspective of Pathophysiological Processes.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 12:806984.

Presently, there is a lack of effective disease-modifying drugs for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Uncaria rhynchophylla (UR) and its predominant active phytochemicals alkaloids have been studied to treat AD. This study used a novel network pharmacology strategy to identify UR alkaloids against AD from the perspective of AD pathophysiological processes and identified the key alkaloids for specific pathological process. The analysis identified 10 alkaloids from UR based on high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) that corresponded to 127 targets correlated with amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, tau pathology and Alzheimer disease pathway. Based on the number of targets correlated with AD pathophysiological processes, angustoline, angustidine, corynoxine and isocorynoxeine are highly likely to become key phytochemicals in AD treatment. Among the 127 targets, JUN, STAT3, MAPK3, CCND1, MMP2, MAPK8, GSK3B, JAK3, LCK, CCR5, CDK5 and GRIN2B were identified as core targets. Based on the pathological process of AD, angustoline, angustidine and isocorynoxeine were identified as the key UR alkaloids regulating Aβ production and corynoxine, isocorynoxeine, dihydrocorynatheine, isorhynchophylline and hirsutine were identified as key alkaloids that regulate tau phosphorylation. The findings of this study contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of the key alkaloids and mechanisms of UR in the treatment of AD, as well as provide candidate compounds for drug research and development for specific AD pathological processes.

RevDate: 2022-01-04
CmpDate: 2022-01-04

Ben Abdessalem H, Ai Y, Marulasidda Swamy KS, et al (2021)

Virtual Reality Zoo Therapy for Alzheimer's Disease Using Real-Time Gesture Recognition.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1338:97-105.

Alzheimer's disease affects almost ten million people every year. Negative emotions such as frustration and anxiety can have impact on brain capability in terms of memory functions. Alzheimer's patients experience more negative emotions than healthy older adults. Non-pharmacological treatment such as animal therapy could help Alzheimer patient but has restrictions and requirements. We propose a Virtual Reality Zoo Therapy system in which the patients are immersed in a virtual environment and can interact with animals using their hands. With the immersive experience of virtual reality (VR), patients feel that they are in a real therapy room and can freely interact with animals. This system is controlled by an intelligent agent which tracks the patients' emotions using electroencephalography and commands the animals according to their hand gesture and emotions. Experiments have been done and preliminary results show that it is possible to predict patients' hand gesture and interpret them in order to interact with virtual animals and the Zoo Therapy system can reduce the negative emotions.

RevDate: 2022-03-16
CmpDate: 2022-03-16

Cecerska-Heryć E, Polikowska A, Serwin N, et al (2022)

Importance of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis, diagnosis, and monitoring of patients with neuropsychiatric disorders, a review.

Neurochemistry international, 153:105269.

Oxidative stress is defined as the persistent imbalance between the activity of toxic reactive forms of both oxygen and nitrogen and the antioxidant defense. In low concentrations, they are essential for the proper functioning of the body. Still, their excessive amount contributes to the damage of the biomolecules, consequently leading to various pathologies of the organism. Due to the lipid-rich brain structure, enormous oxygen consumption, and the lack of a sufficient antioxidant barrier make it highly susceptible to oxidative imbalance. Hence, oxidative stress has been linked to various psychiatric disorders. These diseases include all behavioral, emotional, and cognitive abnormalities associated with a significant impediment to social life. Each of the diseases in question: Alzheimer's disease, schizophrenia, depression, and bipolar disorder, is characterized by excessive oxidative stress. Considerable damages to DNA, RNA, proteins, lipids, and mitochondrial dysfunction, are observed. All conditions show increased lipid peroxidation, which appears to be typical of psychiatric disorders because the brain contains large amounts of these types of molecules. In addition, numerous abnormalities in the antioxidant defense are noted, but the results of studies on the activity of antioxidant enzymes differ significantly. The most promising biomarkers seem to be GSH in Alzheimer's disease as an early-stage marker of the disease and thioredoxin in schizophrenia as a marker for therapy monitoring. Data from the literature are consistent with the decrease in antioxidants such as vitamin C, E, uric acid, albumin, etc. Despite these numerous inconsistencies, it seems that oxidative stress is present in the course of psychiatric diseases. Still, it cannot be conclusively determined whether it is the direct cause of development, a consequence of other abnormalities at the biochemical or molecular level, or the result of the disease itself.

RevDate: 2022-04-16

Sanchez CP (2021)

Efficacy of cognitive stimulation therapy virtual program for older adults with dementia in COVID-19 isolation.

Alzheimer's & dementia : the journal of the Alzheimer's Association, 17 Suppl 8:e056213.

BACKGROUND: Cognitive stimulation virtual therapy (CSVT) is an evidence-based psychosocial intervention for people with mild-to-moderate dementia due to various etiological factors.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to assess the efficacy of a cognitive stimulation virtual therapy CSVT program, in individuals who have vascular or Alzheimer dementia in COVID-19 isolation.

METHODS: Older adults with mild vascular or Alzheimer dementia (N = 20) were assigned to one of two programs: one group (N = 10) attended during six months, two sessions per week program of the cognitive stimulation virtual therapy CSVT program, while the other, active control group (N = 10) took part in alternative activities. The following tests were applied to their primary caregivers. A short form of the Informant Questionnaire on Cognitive Decline in the Elderly (IQCODE) and quality of life (Quality of Life (QoL) RESULTS: Compared with the active controls, the cognitive stimulation virtual therapy CSVT program showed a greater improvement in general cognitive functioning after the intervention (i.e. score increase on the IQCODE test). A trend towards improvement was also identified in short term/working memory and perceived quality of life (Quality of life (QoL) of elderly with dementia). The primary caregivers also perceived an improvement in mood, stress, anxiety and quality of sleep after the start of the virtual therapy during COVID-19 isolation.

CONCLUSION: The present results support the efficacy of cognitive stimulation virtual therapy CSVT program in people with dementia during COVID-19 isolation.

RevDate: 2022-03-14
CmpDate: 2022-03-14

Vecchio F, Quaranta D, Miraglia F, et al (2022)

Neuronavigated Magnetic Stimulation combined with cognitive training for Alzheimer's patients: an EEG graph study.

GeroScience, 44(1):159-172.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common neurodegenerative disorder in elderly subjects. Recent studies verified the effects of cognitive training combined with repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS-COG) in AD patients. Here, we analyzed neuropsychological and neurophysiological data, derived from electroencephalography (EEG), to evaluate the effects of a 6-week protocol of rTMS-COG in 72 AD. We designed a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial to evaluate efficacy of rTMS on 6 brain regions obtained by an individual MRI combined with COG related to brain areas to stimulate (i.e., syntax and grammar tasks, comprehension of lexical meaning and categorization tasks, action naming, object naming, spatial memory, spatial attention). Patients underwent neuropsychological and EEG examination before (T0), after treatment (T1), and after 40 weeks (T2), to evaluate the effects of rehabilitation therapy. "Small World" (SW) graph approach was introduced allowing us to model the architecture of brain connectivity in order to correlate it with cognitive improvements. We found that following 6 weeks of intensive daily treatment the immediate results showed an improvement in cognitive scales among AD patients. SW present no differences before and after the treatment, whereas a crucial SW modulation emerges at 40-week follow-up, emphasizing the importance of rTMS-COG rehabilitation treatment for AD. Additional results demonstrated that the delta and alpha1 SW seem to be diagnostic biomarkers of AD, whereas alpha2 SW might represent a prognostic biomarker of cognitive recovery. Derived EEG parameters can be awarded the role of diagnostic and predictive biomarkers of AD progression, and rTMS-COG can be regarded as a potentially useful treatment for AD.

RevDate: 2022-04-06
CmpDate: 2022-04-06

Yoo HS, Jeon S, Cavedo E, et al (2022)

Association of β-Amyloid and Basal Forebrain With Cortical Thickness and Cognition in Alzheimer and Lewy Body Disease Spectra.

Neurology, 98(9):e947-e957.

OBJECTIVE: Cholinergic degeneration and β-amyloid contribute to brain atrophy and cognitive dysfunction in Alzheimer disease (AD) and Lewy body disease (LBD), but their relationship has not been comparatively evaluated.

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, we recruited 28 normal controls (NC), 55 patients with AD mild cognitive impairment (MCI), 34 patients with AD dementia, 28 patients with LBD MCI, and 51 patients with LBD dementia. Participants underwent cognitive evaluation, brain MRI to measure the basal forebrain (BF) volume and global cortical thickness (CTh), and 18F-florbetaben (FBB) PET to measure the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR). Using general linear models and path analyses, we evaluated the association of FBB-SUVR and BF volume with CTh or cognitive dysfunction in the AD spectrum (AD and NC) and LBD spectrum (LBD and NC), respectively. Covariates included age, sex, education, deep and periventricular white matter hyperintensities, intracranial volume, hypertension, diabetes, and hyperlipidemia.

RESULTS: BF volume mediated the association between FBB-SUVR and CTh in both the AD and LBD spectra, while FBB-SUVR was associated with CTh independently of BF volume only in the LBD spectrum. Significant correlation between voxel-wise FBB-SUVR and CTh was observed only in the LBD group. FBB-SUVR was independently associated with widespread cognitive dysfunction in both the AD and LBD spectra, especially in the memory domain (standardized beta [B] for AD spectrum = -0.60, B for LBD spectrum = -0.33). In the AD spectrum, BF volume was associated with memory dysfunction (B = 0.18), and CTh was associated with language (B = 0.21) and executive (B = 0.23) dysfunction. In the LBD spectrum, however, BF volume and CTh were independently associated with widespread cognitive dysfunction.

CONCLUSIONS: There is a common β-amyloid-related degenerative mechanism with or without the mediation of BF in the AD and LBD spectra, while the association of BF atrophy with cognitive dysfunction is more profound and there is localized β-amyloid-cortical atrophy interaction in the LBD spectrum.

RevDate: 2022-01-01

Casciaro F, Persico G, Rusin M, et al (2021)

The Histone H3 K4me3, K27me3, and K27ac Genome-Wide Distributions Are Differently Influenced by Sex in Brain Cortexes and Gastrocnemius of the Alzheimer's Disease PSAPP Mouse Model.

Epigenomes, 5(4):.

BACKGROUND: Women represent the majority of Alzheimer's disease patients and show typical symptoms. Genetic, hormonal, and behavioral mechanisms have been proposed to explain sex differences in dementia prevalence. However, whether sex differences exist in the epigenetic landscape of neuronal tissue during the progression of the disease is still unknown.

METHODS: To investigate the differences of histone H3 modifications involved in transcription, we determined the genome-wide profiles of H3K4me3, H3K27ac, and H3K27me3 in brain cortexes of an Alzheimer mouse model (PSAPP). Gastrocnemius muscles were also tested since they are known to be different in the two sexes and are affected during the disease progression.

RESULTS: Correlation analysis distinguished the samples based on sex for H3K4me3 and H3K27me3 but not for H3K27ac. The analysis of transcription starting sites (TSS) signal distribution, and analysis of bounding sites revealed that gastrocnemius is more influenced than brain by sex for the three histone modifications considered, exception made for H3K27me3 distribution on the X chromosome which showed sex-related differences in promoters belonging to behavior and cellular or neuronal spheres in mice cortexes.

CONCLUSIONS: H3K4me3, H3K27ac, and H3K27me3 signals are slightly affected by sex in brain, with the exception of H3K27me3, while a higher number of differences can be found in gastrocnemius.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2022-02-17

Cheng X, Wang H, Zheng Z, et al (2021)

Alzheimer disease effects of different stages on intestinal flora: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine, 100(52):e28462.

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a common degenerative disease of the central nervous system that can be divided into 3 stages, according to the degree of cognitive impairment. The clinical manifestations are cognitive dysfunction and memory loss, impacting the daily activities of the affected individuals. In recent years, studies have demonstrated a relationship between intestinal flora and AD. However, no meta-analysis has documented the correlation between AD and intestinal flora, to the best of our knowledge. Herein, we sought to assess the correlation between different stages of AD and intestinal flora. A systematic and comprehensive understanding of this relationship is of great significance for developing prevention and treatment strategies against AD.

METHODS: A comprehensive search of the medical literature in Chinese and English language was performed in databases, such as PubMed, EBSCO, CNKI, web of science, WanFang, Cochrane Library, and CBM databases. Pre-defined search strategies were used to retrieve clinical studies of Alzheimer disease and gut microbiota. The included studies were independently analyzed by the 2 researchers who extracted the data. The quality of the data was evaluated according to the "Cochrane system evaluator manual." Finally, Endnote and RevMan software were used for systematic regression and meta-analysis of evidence.

RESULTS: We documented the intestinal flora changes in the 3 stages of Alzheimer disease, according to currently available clinical evidence, and revealed the correlation between the abundance and diversity of flora and treatment efficacy. These findings are essential for developing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of Alzheimer disease.


ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Since all data utilized in this systematic review and meta-analysis are published, ethical approval was not needed.

RevDate: 2022-04-06
CmpDate: 2022-03-01

Sible IJ, Nation DA, Alzheimer’s Disease Neuroimaging Initiative* (2022)

Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure Variability and Longitudinal Tau Accumulation in Older Adults.

Hypertension (Dallas, Tex. : 1979), 79(3):629-637.

BACKGROUND: Elevated blood pressure variability (BPV) is predictive of dementia, independent of average blood pressure levels, but neuropathological mechanisms remain unclear. We examined whether BPV in older adults is related to tau accumulation in brain regions vulnerable to Alzheimer disease and whether relationships are modified by apoϵ4 carrier status.

METHODS: Two hundred eighty-six Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative participants without history of dementia underwent 3 to 4 blood pressure measurements over 12 months and ≥1 tau positron emission tomography thereafter. BPV was calculated as variability independent of mean. Each scan determined tau burden (standardized uptake value ratio) for a temporal meta-region of interest, including burden from entorhinal cortex, amygdala, parahippocampus, fusiform, inferior temporal, and middle temporal. Bayesian linear growth modeling examined the role of BPV, apolipoprotein ϵ4 carrier status, and time on regional tau accumulation after controlling for several variables, including baseline hypertension.

RESULTS: Elevated BPV was related to tau accumulation at follow-up in a temporal meta-region, independent of average blood pressure levels (ß, 0.89 [95% credible interval, 0.86-0.92]) and especially in entorhinal cortex (ß, 2.57 [95% credible interval, 2.15-2.99]). Apoϵ4 carriers with elevated BPV had the fastest tau accumulation at follow-up (ß, 1.73 [95% credible interval, 0.47-3.03]).

CONCLUSIONS: BPV is related to tau accumulation in brain regions vulnerable to Alzheimer disease, independent of average blood pressure. APOEϵ4 modified this relationship. Bidirectionality of findings is possible. BPV may represent a marker of vascular dysfunction related to early-stage tau pathology contributing to Alzheimer disease.

RevDate: 2021-12-31

Khanal P, Zargari F, Far BF, et al (2021)

Integration of System Biology Tools to Investigate Huperzine A as an Anti-Alzheimer Agent.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 12:785964.

Aim: The present study aimed to investigate huperzine A as an anti-Alzheimer agent based on the principle that a single compound can regulate multiple proteins and associated pathways, using system biology tools. Methodology: The simplified molecular-input line-entry system of huperzine A was retrieved from the PubChem database, and its targets were predicted using SwissTargetPrediction. These targets were matched with the proteins deposited in DisGeNET for Alzheimer disease and enriched in STRING to identify the probably regulated pathways, cellular components, biological processes, and molecular function. Furthermore, huperzine A was docked against acetylcholinesterase using AutoDock Vina, and simulations were performed with the Gromacs package to take into account the dynamics of the system and its effect on the stability and function of the ligands. Results: A total of 100 targets were predicted to be targeted by huperzine A, of which 42 were regulated at a minimum probability of 0.05. Similarly, 101 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathways were triggered, in which neuroactive ligand-receptor interactions scored the least false discovery rate. Also, huperzine A was predicted to modulate 54 cellular components, 120 molecular functions, and 873 biological processes. Furthermore, huperzine A possessed a binding affinity of -8.7 kcal/mol with AChE and interacted within the active site of AChE via H-bonds and hydrophobic interactions.

RevDate: 2021-12-30

de Guise E, Soucy B, Joubert S, et al (2021)

Risk Factors for Alzheimer Disease Development After Traumatic Brain Injury: A Preliminary Study.

Alzheimer disease and associated disorders pii:00002093-900000000-99208 [Epub ahead of print].

Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is increasingly recognized as a major risk factor for developing neurocognitive disorders, though this association remains controversial. Determination of risk factors for post-traumatic neurodegeneration in patients with TBI is critical given the high incidence of TBI. We hypothesized that cardiovascular and metabolic comorbidities, in addition to TBI severity, are associated with the risk of post-traumatic development of Alzheimer disease dementia (ADD). A case-controlled retrospective study was conducted using medical records and medical insurance data of 5642 patients with TBI admitted to a tertiary trauma center over a 12-year period, to assess risk factors of developing ADD after TBI. Logistic regression shows that presence of post-traumatic amnesia (P=0.03) and chronic vascular lesions (P=0.04) are significantly associated with development of ADD after TBI. This innovative preliminary study is the first to explore risk factors for post-traumatic ADD. Further association studies are essential to optimize care following TBI.

RevDate: 2022-03-21
CmpDate: 2022-03-21

Qurrat-Ul-Ain , Abid A, Lateef M, et al (2022)

Multi-activity tetracoordinated pallado-oxadiazole thiones as anti-inflammatory, anti-Alzheimer, and anti-microbial agents: Structure, stability and bioactivity comparison with pallado-hydrazides.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 146:112561.

Herein, we report a comparative study based on structure, thermal and solution stability, and biopotency against lipoxygenase (LOX), butyrylcholinesterase (BChE) and microbes for Pd(II) compounds of N,O,S bearing 5-(C5H4XR)-1,3,4-oxadiazole-2-thiones (L') of type [PdL'Cl2] (P'n) and N,O bearing respective hydrazides (L) of type trans-[PdL2Cl2] (Pn) {X = C, R = 4-I, 2-Br, 4-NO2, 3-NO2, 2-Cl, 3-Cl (n = 1-6, serially); X = N (n = 7)}. Spectral techniques (IR, EI-MS, NMR) and physicochemical evaluations successfully characterized the new compounds. The L' behaved as bidentate S-N donors bonded through exocyclic sulfur and N-3' nitrogen, while L acted as amino N donors. UV-vis (solution speciation) and thermal degradation profiles consistently confirmed the greater stability for P'n than Pn compounds. These compounds manifested varying degree in vitro potential to inhibit LOX, BChE and several bacteria and fungi, affected mainly by Pd(II) presence, M-L binding mode, nature and position of R, or halo groups electronegativity. Molecular docking with human 5-LOX and BChE further validated the respective experimental inhibition findings and explored several putative mechanistic interactions (H-bonding, π-stacking, π-alkyl, π-S, etc.) at the enzyme active sites. Pn generally offered superior antimicrobial and anti-LOX (anti-inflammatory) potential than respective P'n compounds, with P3/P'5, P(2,3,7)/P'3, and P6 being comparable, better and equivalent to ampicillin, nystatin and baicalein, the reference antibacterial, antifungal and anti-LOX drugs, respectively. Contrarily, the anti-BChE activity of P'n was found better than Pn compounds, showing P'2/P1 as the most promising anti-Alzheimer drug candidates. This study bares important structural and mechanistic aspects in optimizing antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory and anti-Alzheimer activities, highlighting some potential future pallado-drug candidates.

RevDate: 2022-02-15
CmpDate: 2022-02-15

Lee SH, Rezzonico MG, Friedman BA, et al (2021)

TREM2-independent oligodendrocyte, astrocyte, and T cell responses to tau and amyloid pathology in mouse models of Alzheimer disease.

Cell reports, 37(13):110158.

Non-neuronal responses in neurodegenerative disease have received increasing attention as important contributors to disease pathogenesis and progression. Here we utilize single-cell RNA sequencing to broadly profile 13 cell types in three different mouse models of Alzheimer disease (AD), capturing the effects of tau-only, amyloid-only, or combined tau-amyloid pathology. We highlight microglia, oligodendrocyte, astrocyte, and T cell responses and compare them across these models. Notably, we identify two distinct transcriptional states for oligodendrocytes emerging differentially across disease models, and we determine their spatial distribution. Furthermore, we explore the impact of Trem2 deletion in the context of combined pathology. Trem2 knockout mice exhibit severely blunted microglial responses to combined tau and amyloid pathology, but responses from non-microglial cell types (oligodendrocytes, astrocytes, and T cells) are relatively unchanged. These results delineate core transcriptional states that are engaged in response to AD pathology, and how they are influenced by a key AD risk gene, Trem2.

RevDate: 2021-12-29

Klein M, Kaleem A, Oetjen S, et al (2021)

Converging roles of PSENEN/PEN2 and CLN3 in the autophagy-lysosome system.

Autophagy [Epub ahead of print].

PSENEN/PEN2 is the smallest subunit of the γ-secretase complex, an intramembrane protease that cleaves proteins within their transmembrane domains. Mutations in components of the γ-secretase underlie familial Alzheimer disease. In addition to its proteolytic activity, supplementary, γ-secretase independent, functions in the macroautophagy/autophagy-lysosome system have been proposed. Here, we screened for PSENEN-interacting proteins and identified CLN3. Mutations in CLN3 are causative for juvenile neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis, a rare lysosomal storage disorder considered the most common neurodegenerative disease in children. As mutations in the PSENEN and CLN3 genes cause different neurodegenerative diseases, understanding shared cellular functions of both proteins might be pertinent for understanding general cellular mechanisms underlying neurodegeneration. We hypothesized that CLN3 modulates γ-secretase activity and that PSENEN and CLN3 play associated roles in the autophagy-lysosome system. We applied CRISPR gene-editing and obtained independent isogenic HeLa knockout cell lines for PSENEN and CLN3. Following previous studies, we demonstrate that PSENEN is essential for forming a functional γ-secretase complex and is indispensable for γ-secretase activity. In contrast, CLN3 does not modulate γ-secretase activity to a significant degree. We observed in PSENEN- and CLN3-knockout cells corresponding alterations in the autophagy-lysosome system. These include reduced activity of lysosomal enzymes and lysosome number, an increased number of autophagosomes, increased lysosome-autophagosome fusion, and elevated levels of TFEB (transcription factor EB). Our study strongly suggests converging roles of PSENEN and CLN3 in the autophagy-lysosome system in a γ-secretase activity-independent manner, supporting the idea of common cytopathological processes underlying different neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2022-02-18
CmpDate: 2022-02-18

Alizadeh SR, MA Ebrahimzadeh (2022)

O-Glycoside quercetin derivatives: Biological activities, mechanisms of action, and structure-activity relationship for drug design, a review.

Phytotherapy research : PTR, 36(2):778-807.

Quercetin as a valuable natural flavonoid has shown extensive biological activities, including anticancer, antioxidant, antibacterial, antiinflammatory, anti-Alzheimer, antifungal, antiviral, antithalassemia, iron chelation, antiobesity, antidiabetic, antihypertension, and antiphospholipase A2 (PLA2) activities, by the modulation of various targets and signaling pathways that have attracted much attention. However, the low solubility and poor bioavailability of quercetin have limited its applications; therefore, the researchers have tried to design and synthesize many new derivatives of quercetin through different strategies to modify quercetin restrictions and improve its biological activities. This review categorized the O-glycoside derivatives of Quercetin into two main classes, 3-O-glycoside and other O-glycoside derivatives. Also, it studied biological activities, structure-activity relationship (SAR), and the action mechanism of O-glycoside quercetin derivatives. Overall, we summarized past and present research for discovering new potent lead compounds. HIGHLIGHTS: Quercetin is a natural flavonoid with a valuable scaffold. O-Glycoside quercetin derivatives represents broad-spectrum biological activities. The structure-activity relationship investigation is discussed after modifying the scaffold of quercetin. This review can help researchers to rationally design/develop various drugs.

RevDate: 2021-12-31

Viel C, Brandtner AT, Weißhaar A, et al (2021)

Effects of Magnesium Orotate, Benfotiamine and a Combination of Vitamins on Mitochondrial and Cholinergic Function in the TgF344-AD Rat Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 14(12):.

Glucose hypometabolism, mitochondrial dysfunction, and cholinergic deficits have been reported in early stages of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Here, we examine these parameters in TgF344-AD rats, an Alzheimer model that carries amyloid precursor protein and presenilin-1 mutations, and of wild type F344 rats. In mitochondria isolated from rat hippocampi, we found reductions of complex I and oxidative phosphorylation in transgenic rats. Further impairments, also of complex II, were observed in aged (wild-type and transgenic) rats. Treatment with a "cocktail" containing magnesium orotate, benfotiamine, folic acid, cyanocobalamin, and cholecalciferol did not affect mitochondrial activities in wild-type rats but restored diminished activities in transgenic rats to wild-type levels. Glucose, lactate, and pyruvate levels were unchanged by age, genetic background, or treatment. Using microdialysis, we also investigated extracellular concentrations of acetylcholine that were strongly reduced in transgenic animals. Again, ACh levels in wild-type rats did not change upon treatment with nutrients, whereas the cocktail increased hippocampal acetylcholine levels under physiological stimulation. We conclude that TgF344-AD rats display a distinct mitochondrial and cholinergic dysfunction not unlike the findings in patients suffering from AD. This dysfunction can be partially corrected by the application of the "cocktail" which is particularly active in aged rats. We suggest that the TgF344-AD rat is a promising model to further investigate mitochondrial and cholinergic dysfunction and potential treatment approaches for AD.

RevDate: 2022-02-23
CmpDate: 2022-02-23

Ruganzu JB, Peng X, He Y, et al (2022)

Downregulation of TREM2 expression exacerbates neuroinflammatory responses through TLR4-mediated MAPK signaling pathway in a transgenic mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Molecular immunology, 142:22-36.

Activation of glial cells and neuroinflammation play an important role in the onset and development of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Triggering receptor expressed on myeloid cells 2 (TREM2) is a microglia-specific receptor in the brain that is involved in regulating neuroinflammation. However, the precise effects of TREM2 on neuroinflammatory responses and its underlying molecular mechanisms in AD have not been studied in detail. Here, we employed a lentiviral-mediated strategy to downregulation of TREM2 expression on microglia in the brain of APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) transgenic mice and BV2 cells. Our results showed that downregulation of TREM2 significantly aggravated AD-related neuropathology including Aβ accumulation, peri-plaque microgliosis and astrocytosis, as well as neuronal and synapse-associated proteins loss, which was accompanied by a decline in cognitive ability. The further mechanistic study revealed that downregulation of TREM2 expression initiated neuroinflammatory responses through toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4)-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway and subsequent stimulating the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines in vivo and in vitro. Moreover, blockade of p38, JNK, and ERK1/2 inhibited the release of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) induced by Aβ1-42 in TREM2-knocked down BV2 cells. Taken together, these findings indicated that TREM2 might be a potential therapeutic target for AD and other neuroinflammation-related diseases.

RevDate: 2021-12-27

Salehi S, Nourbakhsh MS, Yousefpour M, et al (2021)

Chitosan-coated niosome as an efficient curcumin carrier to cross the blood-brain barrier: an animal study.

Journal of liposome research [Epub ahead of print].

This study aims to improve the curcumin bio-stability and brain permeability by loading in bare niosome (BN) and chitosan-coated niosome (ChN). Span 60, tween 60, and cholesterol were optimized as niosome shell components to attain the highest encapsulation efficiency (EE), besides the lowest particle size, using the mixture design method. The resulting optimized BN had a mean diameter of 80 ± 0.2 nm and surface charge of -31 ± 0.1 mv, which changed to 85 ± 0.15 nm and 35 ± 0.12 mv, respectively, after applying the chitosan layer. The EE% in bare niosome were about 80 ± 0.2, which changed to 82 ± 0.21 in ChN. The optimized formulation displayed sustained release, following the Hixson-Crowell model.Wistar rats were subjected to intraperitoneal injection (i.p.) of BN and ChN to evaluate the blood-brain barrier permeability of the curcumin. In this regard, ChN significantly increased curcumin concentration in different parts of the liver, plasma, and central nervous system (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and stratum), compared with BN. Altogether, our results showed that ChN could be used as a promising delivery system for the treatment of some neurological diseases such as Alzheimer's.

RevDate: 2022-03-25
CmpDate: 2022-03-25

Ehrlich D, Dunzinger A, Malsiner-Walli G, et al (2021)

Lack of association between cortical amyloid deposition and glucose metabolism in early stage Alzheimer´s disease patients.

Radiology and oncology, 56(1):23-31.

BACKGROUND: Beta amyloid (Aβ) causes synaptic dysfunction leading to neuronal death. It is still controversial if the magnitude of Aβ deposition correlates with the degree of cognitive impairment. Diagnostic imaging may lead to a better understanding the role of Aβ in development of cognitive deficits. The aim of the present study was to investigate if Aβ deposition in the corresponding brain region of early stage Alzheimer´s disease (AD) patients, directly correlates to neuronal dysfunction and cognitive impairment indicated by reduced glucose metabolism.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: In 30 patients with a clinical phenotype of AD and amyloid positive brain imaging, 2-[18F] fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose (FDG) PET/CT was performed. We extracted the average [18F] flutemetamol (Vizamyl) uptake for each of the 16 regions of interest in both hemispheres and computed the standardized uptake value ratio (SUVR) by dividing the Vimazyl intensities by the mean signal of positive and negative control regions. Data were analysed using the R environment for statistical computing and graphics.

RESULTS: Any negative correlation between Aβ deposition and glucose metabolism in 32 dementia related and corresponding brain regions in AD patients was not found. None of the correlation coefficient values were statistically significant different from zero based on two-sided p- value.

CONCLUSIONS: Regional Aβ deposition did not correlate negatively with local glucose metabolism in early stage AD patients. Our findings support the role of Aβ as a valid biomarker, but does not permit to conclude that Aβ is a direct cause for an aberrant brain glucose metabolism and neuronal dysfunction.

RevDate: 2021-12-27

Jackson RJ, Meltzer JC, Nguyen H, et al (2021)

APOE4 derived from astrocytes leads to blood-brain barrier impairment.

Brain : a journal of neurology pii:6484505 [Epub ahead of print].

Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is a multifaceted secreted molecule synthesized in the CNS by astrocytes and microglia, and in the periphery largely by the liver. ApoE has been shown to impact the integrity of the blood brain barrier, and, in humans, the APOE4 allele of the gene is reported to lead to a leaky blood brain barrier. We used allele specific knock-in mice expressing each of the common (human) ApoE alleles, and longitudinal multiphoton intravital microscopy, to directly monitor the impact of various ApoE isoforms on blood brain barrier integrity. We found that humanized APOE4, but not APOE2 or APOE3, mice show a leaky blood brain barrier, increased MMP9, impaired tight junctions, and reduced astrocyte end-foot coverage of blood vessels. Removal of astrocyte-produced ApoE4 led to the amelioration of all phenotypes while the removal of astrocyte-produced ApoE3 had no effect on blood brain barrier integrity. This work shows a cell specific gain of function effect of ApoE4 in the dysfunction of the BBB and implicates astrocyte production of ApoE4, possibly as a function of astrocytic end foot interactions with vessels, as a key regulator of the integrity of the blood brain barrier.

RevDate: 2022-01-11
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

Zeilinger EL, Zrnic Novakovic I, Komenda S, et al (2022)

Informant-based assessment instruments for dementia in people with intellectual disability: A systematic review and standardised evaluation.

Research in developmental disabilities, 121:104148.

BACKGROUND: Dementia in people with intellectual disability (ID) is frequent but hard to recognise. Evidence-based recommendations for suitable instruments are lacking.

AIMS: The present study set out to evaluate informant-based dementia assessment instruments and to provide evidence-based recommendations for instruments most suitable in clinical practice and research.

METHOD AND PROCEDURES: A systematic review was conducted across ten international electronic databases. The COnsensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments (COSMIN) guidelines, including a risk of bias assessment, was applied to extract information and to evaluate measurement properties and the quality of available evidence.

OUTCOMES AND RESULTS: In total, 42 studies evaluating 18 informant-based assessment instruments were analysed. For screening purposes, we recommend the Behavioral and Psychological Symptoms of Dementia in Down Syndrome Scale (BPSD-DS), the Cognitive Scale for Down Syndrome (CS-DS), and the Dementia Screening Questionnaire for Individuals with Intellectual Disabilities (DSQIID). For a more thorough dementia assessment, we recommend the Cambridge Examination for Mental Disorders of Older People with Down's Syndrome and Others with Intellectual Disabilities (CAMDEX-DS).

CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS: Our study informs clinicians and researchers about adequate, well-evaluated dementia assessment instruments for people with ID, and highlights the need for high quality studies, especially regarding content validity.

RevDate: 2022-04-15
CmpDate: 2022-04-15

Lithgow BJ, Dastgheib Z, Z Moussavi (2022)

Baseline Prediction of rTMS efficacy in Alzheimer patients.

Psychiatry research, 308:114348.

Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) with extensive 2-6-week protocols are applied to improve cognition and/or slow the cognitive decline seen in Alzheimer's Disease (AD). To date, there are no means to predict the response of a patient to rTMS treatment at baseline. Electrovestibulography (EVestG) biomarkers can be used to predict, at baseline, the efficacy of rTMS when applied to AD individuals. In a population of 27 AD patients (8 with significant cerebrovascular symptomatology, labelled ADcvd) EVestG signals were measured before and after rTMS treatment, and then compared with 16 age-matched healthy controls. MoCA was measured at baseline, whilst ADAS-Cog was the primary outcome measure. AD severity and comorbid cerebrovascular disease were treated as covariates. Using ADAS-Cog total score change, 13/27 AD/ADcvd patients improved with rTMS and 14/27 showed no-improvement. Leave-one-out-cross-validated linear-discriminant-analysis using two EVestG features yielded a blind accuracy of 75% for separating the improved and non-improved populations. Three-way separation of improved/non-improved/control accuracy was 91.9% using MoCA (67% alone) and one EVestG feature (66% alone). AD severity affects the rTMS treatment efficacy. The effect of existing significant cerebrovascular symptomatology on the efficacy of rTMS treatment remains unresolved. Baseline EVestG features can be predictive of the efficacy of rTMS treatment.

RevDate: 2022-04-01
CmpDate: 2022-04-01

Todri J, Lena O, Todri A, et al (2021)

Does the Global Postural Re-Education Affect the Psychological and Postural Aspects of Alzheimer Disease Patients? A Six Months Quasi-Experimental Study.

Current Alzheimer research, 18(13):1057-1065.

OBJECTIVE: To study the implementation of Global Postural Re-education as a rehabilitative alternative in residence facilities for seniors with Alzheimer, and to verify its effect on psychological and cognitive symptoms.

METHODS: A quasi-experimental design was employed using month-follow-up assessments at 1,3, and 6 months respectively. Ninety elderly people participated in the composition of the study sample: 69 women and 21 men aged from 67 to 89 years (80.2 ±5.5), grouped in two phases: mild and moderate, according to Alzheimer severity. Patients in both groups received the same treatment twice a week for consecutively 24 weeks. Three follow-up medium-long term assessments were performed at intervals of 1, 3, and 6 months. Outcome measures included Mini-Mental State Examination, Geriatric Depression Scale, Quality of Life in Alzheimer Disease, Barthel Index, and Tinetti Scale.

RESULTS: The severity of groups therapy interaction showed significant changes in four outcome measures as cognition [F(1,88)=60.26; p=.000; partial η2= 0.406], depression [F(1,88)=8.24; p=.005; partial η2= 0.086], life quality [F(1,88)= 10.45; p=.002; partial η2= 0.106] and equilibrium [F(1,88)= 6.96; p=.010; partial η2= 0.073]. No changes were found for autonomy [F(1,88)= 1.10; p=.297; partial η2= 0.012]. These changes between the two groups were observed at the sixth month follow-up assessment.

CONCLUSION: Global postural reeducation could be useful as a complementary rehabilitation treatment in Alzheimer patients.

RevDate: 2022-04-01
CmpDate: 2022-04-01

Peña-Bautista C, Álvarez-Sánchez L, García L, et al (2021)

Assessment of apolipoprotein E genotype for β-amyloid status prediction.

Current Alzheimer research, 18(13):1032-1040.

BACKGROUND: Apolipoprotein E (ApoE) is the major genetic risk factor for sporadic Alzheimer's Disease (AD). Some studies showed a relationship between ApoE4 genotype and the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers (β-amyloid42, p-Tau, t-Tau), as well as with cognitive status. In this sense, it could be interesting to develop an approach to establish amyloid status in a minimally invasive way.

METHODS: The present study assessed the ApoE genotype in different participant groups (mild cognitive impairment due to AD (MCI-AD), mild/moderate dementia due to AD, MCI not due to AD (MCI not AD), other neurological diseases, healthy participants) (n = 342).

RESULTS: As expected, the ApoE4 allele was more prevalent in AD patients, characterized by impairment in CSF β-amyloid42 levels (Aβ +), than in the other groups (Aβ -). In this sense, ApoE4-carrier subjects showed lower CSF levels for β-amyloid42 and higher CSF levels for t-Tau and p-Tau. From this, a multivariate model to predict Aβ status was developed by means of partial least square analysis (PLS) and predictive variables (ApoE genotype, cognitive score, sex, age). This model showed suitable AUC-ROC 0.792 (95% CI, 0.744-0.840) and predictive negative value (81.6%).

CONCLUSION: ApoE genotype could be useful in detecting CSF β-amyloid42 impairment associated with early AD development.

RevDate: 2022-02-23

Hainsworth AH, Elahi FM, RA Corriveau (2021)

An introduction to therapeutic approaches to vascular cognitive impairment.

Cerebral circulation - cognition and behavior, 2:100033.

Vascular cognitive impairment (VCI), encompassing vascular dementia, has been claimed as the "second-most common dementia" after Alzheimer Disease. Whether or not this is true, the clinical picture of most dementia in older people includes vascular disease. There are no validated pharmacological targets for prevention or treatment of VCI. This has inspired a multitude of potential treatment approaches, reflected by the articles in this Special Issue. These include in vitro testing of the novel oral anticoagulant dabigatran for protection against β-amyloid neurotoxicity, and an overview of neuroinflammation in VCI and the role of circulating markers (PIGF, VEGF-D) identified by the MarkVCID study. There are reviews of potential therapeutics, including adrenomedullin and nootropic preparations (exemplified by cerebrolysin). The role of sleep is reviewed, with possible therapeutic targets (5HT2A receptors). There is a clinical study protocol (INVESTIGATE-SVD) and a feasibility analysis for a secondary prevention trial in small vessel disease. Clinical data include secondary analyses of blood pressure and cerebral blood flow from a longitudinal clinical trial (NILVAD), differences between methylphenidate and galantamine responders and non-responders (STREAM-VCI), appraisal of treatment approaches in India, and primary outcomes from a randomised trial of Argentine tango dancing to preserve cognition in African American women (ACT). Treating vascular disease has great potential to improve global cognitive health, with public health impacts alongside individual benefit. Vascular disease burden varies across populations, offering the possibility of proactively addressing health inequity in dementia using vascular interventions. The next 5-10 years will witness cost-effective lifestyle interventions, repurposed drugs and novel therapeutics.

RevDate: 2022-03-17

Ruchoux MM, Kalaria RN, GC Román (2021)

The pericyte: A critical cell in the pathogenesis of CADASIL.

Cerebral circulation - cognition and behavior, 2:100031.

Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a hereditary small vessel disease presenting with migraine, mood and cognitive disorders, focal neurological deficits, recurrent ischemic attacks, lacunar infarcts and brain white matter changes. As they age, CADASIL patients invariably develop cognitive impairment and subcortical dementia. CADASIL is caused by missense mutations in the NOTCH3 gene resulting in a profound cerebral vasculopathy affecting primarily arterial vascular smooth muscle cells, which target the microcirculation and perfusion. Based on a thorough review of morphological lesions in arteries, veins, and capillaries in CADASIL, we surmise that arteriolar and capillary pericyte damage or deficiency appears a key feature in the pathogenesis of the disease. This may affect critical pericyte-endothelial interactions causing stroke injury and vasomotor disturbances. Changes in microvascular permeability due to perhaps localized blood-brain barrier alterations and pericyte secretory dysfunction likely contribute to delayed neuronal as well as glial cell death. Moreover, pericyte-mediated cerebral venous insufficiency may explain white matter lesions and the dilatation of Virchow-Robin perivascular spaces typical of CADASIL. The postulated central role of the pericyte offers some novel approaches to the study and treatment of CADASIL and enable elucidation of other forms of cerebral small vessel diseases and subcortical vascular dementia.

RevDate: 2022-03-28
CmpDate: 2022-03-28

Vandenbark AA, Offner H, Matejuk S, et al (2021)

Microglia and astrocyte involvement in neurodegeneration and brain cancer.

Journal of neuroinflammation, 18(1):298.

The brain is unique and the most complex organ of the body, containing neurons and several types of glial cells of different origins and properties that protect and ensure normal brain structure and function. Neurological disorders are the result of a failure of the nervous system multifaceted cellular networks. Although great progress has been made in the understanding of glia involvement in neuropathology, therapeutic outcomes are still not satisfactory. Here, we discuss recent perspectives on the role of microglia and astrocytes in neurological disorders, including the two most common neurodegenerative conditions, Alzheimer disease and progranulin-related frontotemporal lobar dementia, as well as astrocytoma brain tumors. We emphasize key factors of microglia and astrocytic biology such as the highly heterogeneic glial nature strongly dependent on the environment, genetic factors that predispose to certain pathologies and glia senescence that inevitably changes the CNS landscape. Our understanding of diverse glial contributions to neurological diseases can lead advances in glial biology and their functional recovery after CNS malfunction.

RevDate: 2022-03-09
CmpDate: 2022-03-09

Shimada T, Uehara T, Nagasawa T, et al (2021)

A case report of late-onset schizophrenia differentiated from a dementing disorder.

Neurocase, 27(6):467-473.

We report a case of late-onset schizophrenia that required differentiation from a dementing disorder. The patient was an 83-year-old woman who had experienced auditory hallucinations since she was 67 years old. The patient had slightly elevated total tau and slightly decreased amyloid β1-42, cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers. This case was identified as late-onset schizophrenia. However, the results of cerebrospinal fluid biomarkers indicated that neurofibrillary tangles and neuronal death, which are characteristic of Alzheimer 's disease, may also have been present. Late-onset schizophrenia should be treated based on an appropriate differential diagnosis, including neuropathological consideration of dementing disorders.

RevDate: 2022-01-21
CmpDate: 2022-01-21

Kowalczyk P, Sulejczak D, Kleczkowska P, et al (2021)

Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress-A Causative Factor and Therapeutic Target in Many Diseases.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(24):.

The excessive formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and impairment of defensive antioxidant systems leads to a condition known as oxidative stress. The main source of free radicals responsible for oxidative stress is mitochondrial respiration. The deleterious effects of ROS on cellular biomolecules, including DNA, is a well-known phenomenon that can disrupt mitochondrial function and contribute to cellular damage and death, and the subsequent development of various disease processes. In this review, we summarize the most important findings that implicated mitochondrial oxidative stress in a wide variety of pathologies from Alzheimer disease (AD) to autoimmune type 1 diabetes. This review also discusses attempts to affect oxidative stress as a therapeutic avenue.

RevDate: 2022-02-02
CmpDate: 2022-02-02

Le D, Brown L, Malik K, et al (2021)

Two Opposing Functions of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme (ACE) That Links Hypertension, Dementia, and Aging.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(24):.

A 2018 report from the American Heart Association shows that over 103 million American adults have hypertension. The angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) (EC is a dipeptidyl carboxylase that, when inhibited, can reduce blood pressure through the renin-angiotensin system. ACE inhibitors are used as a first-line medication to be prescribed to treat hypertension, chronic kidney disease, and heart failure, among others. It has been suggested that ACE inhibitors can alleviate the symptoms in mouse models. Despite the benefits of ACE inhibitors, previous studies also have suggested that genetic variants of the ACE gene are risk factors for Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other neurological diseases, while other variants are associated with reduced risk of AD. In mice, ACE overexpression in the brain reduces symptoms of the AD model systems. Thus, we find two opposing effects of ACE on health. To clarify the effects, we dissect the functions of ACE as follows: (1) angiotensin-converting enzyme that hydrolyzes angiotensin I to make angiotensin II in the renin-angiotensin system; (2) amyloid-degrading enzyme that hydrolyzes beta-amyloid, reducing amyloid toxicity. The efficacy of the ACE inhibitors is well established in humans, while the knowledge specific to AD remains to be open for further research. We provide an overview of ACE and inhibitors that link a wide variety of age-related comorbidities from hypertension to AD to aging. ACE also serves as an example of the middle-life crisis theory that assumes deleterious events during midlife, leading to age-related later events.

RevDate: 2021-12-29

Azmat A, Tufail M, AD Chandio (2021)

Synthesis and Characterization of Ti-Sn Alloy for Orthopedic Application.

Materials (Basel, Switzerland), 14(24):.

Titanium (Ti)-based alloys (e.g., Ti6Al4V) are widely used in orthopedic implant applications owing to their excellent mechanical properties and biocompatibility. However, their corrosion resistance needs to be optimized. In addition, the presence of aluminum and vanadium cause alzheimer and cancer, respectively. Therefore, in this study, titanium-based alloys were developed via powder metallurgy route. In these alloys, the Al and V were replaced with tin (Sn) which was the main aim of this study. Four sets of samples were prepared by varying Sn contents, i.e., 5 to 20 wt. %. This was followed by characterization techniques including laser particle analyzer (LPA), X-ray diffractometer (XRD), scanning electron microscope (SEM), computerized potentiostate, vicker hardness tester, and nanoindenter. Results demonstrate the powder sizes between 50 and 55 µm exhibiting very good densification after sintering. The alloy contained alpha at all concentrations of Sn. However, as Sn content in the alloy exceeded from 10 wt. %, the formation of intermetallic compounds was significant. Thus, the presence of such intermetallic phases are attributed to enhanced elastic modulus. In particular, when Sn content was between 15 and 20 wt. % a drastic increase in elastic modulus was observed thereby surpassing the standard/reference alloy (Ti6Al4V). However, at 10 wt. % of Sn, the elastic modulus is more or less comparable to reference counterpart. Similarly, hardness was also increased in an ascending order upon Sn addition, i.e., 250 to 310 HV. Specifically, at 10 wt. % Sn, the hardness was observed to be 250 HV which is quite near to reference alloy, i.e., 210 HV. Moreover, tensile strength (TS) of the alloys were calculated using hardness values since it was very difficult to prepare the test coupons using powders. The TS values were in the range of 975 to 1524 MPa at all concentrations of Sn. In particular, the TS at 10 wt. % Sn is 1149 MPa which is comparable to reference counterpart (1168 MPa). The corrosion rate of Titanium-Sn alloys (as of this study) and reference alloy, i.e., Ti6Al4V were also compared. Incorporation of Sn reduced the corrosion rate at large than that of reference counterpart. In particular, the trend was in decreasing order as Sn content increased from 5 to 20 wt. %. The minimum corrosion rate of 3.65 × 10-9 mm/year was noticed at 20 wt. % than that of 0.03 mm/year of reference alloy. This shows the excellent corrosion resistance upon addition of Sn at all concentrations.

RevDate: 2021-12-28

Peña-Bautista C, Álvarez-Sánchez L, Cañada-Martínez AJ, et al (2021)

Epigenomics and Lipidomics Integration in Alzheimer Disease: Pathways Involved in Early Stages.

Biomedicines, 9(12):.

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer Disease (AD) is the most prevalent dementia. However, the physiopathological mechanisms involved in its development are unclear. In this sense, a multi-omics approach could provide some progress.

METHODS: Epigenomic and lipidomic analysis were carried out in plasma samples from patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to AD (n = 22), and healthy controls (n = 5). Then, omics integration between microRNAs (miRNAs) and lipids was performed by Sparse Partial Least Squares (s-PLS) regression and target genes for the selected miRNAs were identified.

RESULTS: 25 miRNAs and 25 lipids with higher loadings in the sPLS regression were selected. Lipids from phosphatidylethanolamines (PE), lysophosphatidylcholines (LPC), ceramides, phosphatidylcholines (PC), triglycerides (TG) and several long chain fatty acids families were identified as differentially expressed in AD. Among them, several fatty acids showed strong positive correlations with miRNAs studied. In fact, these miRNAs regulated genes implied in fatty acids metabolism, as elongation of very long-chain fatty acids (ELOVL), and fatty acid desaturases (FADs).

CONCLUSIONS: The lipidomic-epigenomic integration showed that several lipids and miRNAs were differentially expressed in AD, being the fatty acids mechanisms potentially involved in the disease development. However, further work about targeted analysis should be carried out in a larger cohort, in order to validate these preliminary results and study the proposed pathways in detail.

RevDate: 2022-01-13
CmpDate: 2022-01-13

Soto-Mercado V, Mendivil-Perez M, Velez-Pardo C, et al (2021)

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-Gallate Diminishes Intra-and Extracellular Amyloid-Induced Cytotoxic Effects on Cholinergic-like Neurons from Familial Alzheimer's Disease PSEN1 E280A.

Biomolecules, 11(12):.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a complex neurodegenerative disease characterized by functional disruption, death of cholinergic neurons (ChNs) because of intracellular and extracellular Aβ aggregates, and hyperphosphorylation of protein TAU (p-TAU). To date, there are no efficient therapies against AD. Therefore, new therapies for its treatment are in need. The goal of this investigation was to evaluate the effect of the polyphenol epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG) on cholinergic-like neurons (ChLNs) bearing the mutation E280A in PRESENILIN 1 (PSEN1 E280A). To this aim, wild-type (WT) and PSEN1 E280A ChLNs were exposed to EGCG (5-50 μM) for 4 days. Untreated or treated neurons were assessed for biochemical and functional analysis. We found that EGCG (50 μM) significantly inhibited the aggregation of (i)sAPPβf, blocked p-TAU, increased ∆Ψm, decreased oxidation of DJ-1 at residue Cys106-SH, and inhibited the activation of transcription factor c-JUN and P53, PUMA, and CASPASE-3 in mutant ChLNs compared to WT. Although EGCG did not reduce (e)Aβ42, the polyphenol reversed Ca2+ influx dysregulation as a response to acetylcholine (ACh) stimuli in PSEN1 E280A ChLNs, inhibited the activation of transcription factor NF-κB, and reduced the secretion of pro-inflammatory IL-6 in wild-type astrocyte-like cells (ALCs) when exposed to mutant ChLNs culture supernatant. Taken together, our findings suggest that the EGCG might be a promising therapeutic approach for the treatment of FAD.

RevDate: 2021-12-28

Mostafa NM, Mostafa AM, Ashour ML, et al (2021)

Neuroprotective Effects of Black Pepper Cold-Pressed Oil on Scopolamine-Induced Oxidative Stress and Memory Impairment in Rats.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 10(12):.

Oxidative stress is usually associated with many neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, the gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of cold-pressed oil (CPO) from black pepper (Piper nigrum) fruits was performed and its neuroprotective effects were evaluated for the first time. The analysis of CPO revealed the presence of the lignan sesamin (39.78%), the alkaloid piperine (33.79%), the monoterpene hydrocarbons 3-carene (9.53%) and limonene (6.23%), and the sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene (10.67%). Black pepper hydrodistilled oil (HDO) was also comparatively analyzed by GC-MS to show the impact of oil isolation by two different methodologies on their components and class of compounds identified. HDO analysis revealed 35 compounds (99.64% of the total peak areas) mainly composed of monoterpene hydrocarbons (77.28%), such as limonene (26.50%), sabinene (21.36%), and β-pinene (15.53%), and sesquiterpene hydrocarbons (20.59%) represented mainly by β-caryophyllene (19.12%). Due to the low yield obtained for HDO (0.01% v/w), only CPO was chosen for the evaluation of its neuroprotective potential. Alzheimer-type dementia was induced in rats by scopolamine intraperitoneal injection (1.5 mg/kg/day) for seven days. CPO was administered orally (100 mg/kg) for a week before scopolamine administration and then concomitantly for another week. Donepezil (1 mg/kg, orally) was used as a reference drug. CPO administration significantly improved the rat behaviors as evaluated by the Morris water maze test, evident from prolongation in time spent in the platform quadrant (262.9%, compared to scopolamine) and increasing in the crossing time by 18.18% compared to the control group. The rat behavior tested by passive avoidance, showed prolongation in the step-through latency compared to control. Moreover, CPO significantly (p < 0.05) ameliorated the activities of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced malondialdehyde (MDA) equivalents by 22.48%, 45.41%, and 86.61%, respectively, compared to scopolamine. Furthermore, CPO administration decreased scopolamine-induced elevated acetylcholinesterase levels in rats' hippocampi by 51.30%. These results were supported by histopathological and in silico molecular docking studies. Black pepper oil may be a potential antioxidant and neuroprotective supplement.

RevDate: 2022-03-29
CmpDate: 2022-03-29

Yu ZY, Chen DW, Tan CR, et al (2022)

Physiological clearance of Aβ by spleen and splenectomy aggravates Alzheimer-type pathogenesis.

Aging cell, 21(1):e13533.

BACKGROUND: A previous study demonstrated that nearly 40%-60% of brain Aβ flows out into the peripheral system for clearance. However, where and how circulating Aβ is cleared in the periphery remains unclear. The spleen acts as a blood filter and an immune organ. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of the spleen in the clearance of Aβ in the periphery.

METHODS: We investigated the physiological clearance of Aβ by the spleen and established a mouse model of AD and spleen excision by removing the spleens of APP/PS1 mice to investigate the effect of splenectomy on AD mice.

RESULTS: We found that Aβ levels in the splenic artery were higher than those in the splenic vein, suggesting that circulating Aβ is cleared when blood flows through the spleen. Next, we found that splenic monocytes/macrophages could take up Aβ directly in vivo and in vitro. Splenectomy aggravated behaviour deficits, brain Aβ burden and AD-related pathologies in AD mice.

CONCLUSION: Our study reveals for the first time that the spleen exerts a physiological function of clearing circulating Aβ in the periphery. Our study also suggests that splenectomy, which is a routine treatment for splenic rupture and hypersplenism, might accelerate the development of AD.

RevDate: 2021-12-23

Marotta G, Basagni F, Rosini M, et al (2021)

Role of Fyn Kinase Inhibitors in Switching Neuroinflammatory Pathways.

Current medicinal chemistry pii:CMC-EPUB-119579 [Epub ahead of print].

Fyn kinase is a member of the Src non-receptor tyrosine kinase family. Fyn is involved in multiple signaling pathways extending from cell proliferation and differentiation to cell adhesion and cell motility, and it has been found to be overexpressed in various types of cancers. In the central nervous system, Fyn exerts several different functions such as axon-glial signal transduction, oligodendrocyte maturation and myelination, and it is implicated in neuroinflammatory processes. Based on these premises, Fyn emerges as an attractive target in cancer and neurodegenerative disease therapy, particularly Alzheimer disease (AD), based on its activation by Aβ via cellular prion protein and its interaction with tau protein. However, Fyn is also a challenging target since the Fyn inhibitors discovered so far, due to the relevant homology of Fyn with other kinases, suffer from off-target effects. This review covers the efforts performed in the last decade to identify and optimize small molecules that effectively inhibit Fyn, both in enzymatic and in cell assays, including drug repositioning practices, as an opportunity of therapeutic intervention in neurodegeneration.

RevDate: 2022-05-31
CmpDate: 2022-04-06

Cullen N, Janelidze S, Palmqvist S, et al (2022)

Association of CSF Aβ38 Levels With Risk of Alzheimer Disease-Related Decline.

Neurology, 98(9):e958-e967.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Experimental studies suggest that the balance between short and long β-amyloid (Aβ) species might modulate the toxic effects of Aβ in Alzheimer disease (AD), but clinical evidence is lacking. We studied whether Aβ38 levels in CSF relate to risk of AD dementia and cognitive decline.

METHODS: CSF Aβ38 levels were measured in 656 individuals across 2 clinical cohorts: the Swedish BioFINDER study and the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative (ADNI). Cox regression models were used to evaluate the association between baseline Aβ38 levels and risk of AD dementia in AD biomarker-positive individuals (AD+; determined by CSF phosphorylated tau [P-tau]/Aβ42 ratio) with subjective cognitive decline (SCD) or mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Linear mixed-effects models were used to evaluate the association between baseline Aβ38 levels and cognitive decline as measured by the Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) in AD+ participants with SCD, MCI, or AD dementia.

RESULTS: In the BioFINDER cohort, high Aβ38 levels were associated with slower decline in MMSE score (β = 0.30 points per SD, p = 0.001) and with lower risk of conversion to AD dementia (hazard ratio 0.83 per SD, p = 0.03). In the ADNI cohort, higher Aβ38 levels were associated with less decline in MMSE score (β = 0.27, p = 0.01) but not risk of conversion to AD dementia (p = 0.66). Aβ38 levels in both cohorts were significantly associated with both cognitive and clinical outcomes when further adjusted for CSF P-tau or CSF Aβ42 levels.

DISCUSSION: Higher CSF Aβ38 levels are associated with lower risk of AD-related changes in 2 independent clinical cohorts. These findings suggest that γ-secretase modulators could be effective as disease-altering therapy.

ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03174938.

RevDate: 2022-05-05

Yu L, Boyle PA, Wingo AP, et al (2022)

Neuropathologic Correlates of Human Cortical Proteins in Alzheimer Disease and Related Dementias.

Neurology, 98(10):e1031-e1039.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Alzheimer dementia is a complex clinical syndrome that can be defined broadly as an amnestic multidomain dementia. We previously reported human cortical proteins that are implicated in Alzheimer dementia. To understand the pathologic correlates of these proteins for underlying disease mechanisms, we investigated cortical protein associations with common age-related neuropathologies.

METHODS: Participants were community-dwelling older adults from 2 cohort studies of aging and dementia. All underwent detailed annual clinical evaluations, and brain autopsies were performed after death. We use Alzheimer disease (AD) to refer to pathologically defined disease and Alzheimer dementia to refer to the clinical syndrome. Indices for AD, cortical Lewy bodies, limbic predominant age-related TAR DNA binding protein 43 encephalopathy neuropathologic changes (LATE-NC), hippocampal sclerosis, macroscopic infarcts, microinfarcts, cerebral amyloid angiopathy, atherosclerosis, and arteriolosclerosis were quantified during uniform structured neuropathologic evaluations. High-throughput protein abundances from frozen dorsolateral prefrontal cortex were quantified with mass spectrometry-based tandem mass tag proteomics analysis. Eleven human cortical proteins implicated in Alzheimer dementia, including angiotensin-converting enzyme, calcium-regulated heat-stable protein 1 (CHSP1), procathepsin H (CATH), double C2-like domain-containing protein α, islet cell autoantigen 1-like protein, serine β-lactamase-like protein LACTB, mitochondrial, pleckstrin homology domain-containing family A member 1, replication termination factor 2, sorting nexin-32, syntaxin-4, and syntaxin-6 (STX6), were previously identified with an integrative approach. Logistic regression analysis examined the association of protein expression with each of the neuropathologic indices.

RESULTS: A total of 391 older adults were included. We did not observe associations of these protein targets with pathologic diagnosis of AD. In contrast, multiple proteins were associated with non-AD neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular conditions. In particular, higher CHSP1 expression was associated with cortical Lewy bodies and macroscopic infarcts, and higher CATH expression was associated with LATE-NC and arteriolosclerosis. Furthermore, while higher STX6 expression increased the risk of Alzheimer dementia, the protein was not associated with any of the neuropathologic indices investigated.

DISCUSSION: Cortical proteins implicated in Alzheimer dementia do not necessarily work through AD pathogenesis; rather, non-AD neurodegenerative and vascular diseases and other pathways are at play. Furthermore, some proteins are pleiotrophic and associated with both neurodegenerative and cerebrovascular pathologies.

RevDate: 2022-01-28
CmpDate: 2022-01-28

Mahaman YAR, Embaye KS, Huang F, et al (2022)

Biomarkers used in Alzheimer's disease diagnosis, treatment, and prevention.

Ageing research reviews, 74:101544.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), being the number one in terms of dementia burden, is an insidious age-related neurodegenerative disease and is presently considered a global public health threat. Its main histological hallmarks are the Aβ senile plaques and the P-tau neurofibrillary tangles, while clinically it is marked by a progressive cognitive decline that reflects the underlying synaptic loss and neurodegeneration. Many of the drug therapies targeting the two pathological hallmarks namely Aβ and P-tau have been proven futile. This is probably attributed to the initiation of therapy at a stage where cognitive alterations are already obvious. In other words, the underlying neuropathological changes are at a stage where these drugs lack any therapeutic value in reversing the damage. Therefore, there is an urgent need to start treatment in the very early stage where these changes can be reversed, and hence, early diagnosis is of primordial importance. To this aim, the use of robust and informative biomarkers that could provide accurate diagnosis preferably at an earlier phase of the disease is of the essence. To date, several biomarkers have been established that, to a different extent, allow researchers and clinicians to evaluate, diagnose, and more specially exclude other related pathologies. In this study, we extensively reviewed data on the currently explored biomarkers in terms of AD pathology-specific and non-specific biomarkers and highlighted the recent developments in the diagnostic and theragnostic domains. In the end, we have presented a separate elaboration on aspects of future perspectives and concluding remarks.

RevDate: 2021-12-30
CmpDate: 2021-12-30

Schneider LS, Qiu Y, Thomas RG, et al (2021)

Impact of potential modifications to Alzheimer's disease clinical trials in response to disruption by COVID-19: a simulation study.

Alzheimer's research & therapy, 13(1):201.

BACKGROUND: The COVID-19 pandemic disrupted Alzheimer disease randomized clinical trials (RCTs), forcing investigators to make changes in the conduct of such trials while endeavoring to maintain their validity. Changing ongoing RCTs carries risks for biases and threats to validity. To understand the impact of exigent modifications due to COVID-19, we examined several scenarios in symptomatic and disease modification trials that could be made.

METHODS: We identified both symptomatic and disease modification Alzheimer disease RCTs as exemplars of those that would be affected by the pandemic and considered the types of changes that sponsors could make to each. We modeled three scenarios for each of the types of trials using existing datasets, adjusting enrollment, follow-ups, and dropouts to examine the potential effects COVID-19-related changes. Simulations were performed that accounted for completion and dropout patterns using linear mixed effects models, modeling time as continuous and categorical. The statistical power of the scenarios was determined.

RESULTS: Truncating both symptomatic and disease modification trials led to underpowered trials. By contrast, adapting the trials by extending the treatment period, temporarily stopping treatment, delaying outcomes assessments, and performing remote assessment allowed for increased statistical power nearly to the level originally planned.

DISCUSSION: These analyses support the idea that disrupted trials under common scenarios are better continued and extended even in the face of dropouts, treatment disruptions, missing outcomes, and other exigencies and that adaptations can be made that maintain the trials' validity. We suggest some adaptive methods to do this noting that some changes become under-powered to detect the original effect sizes and expected outcomes. These analyses provide insight to better plan trials that are resilient to unexpected changes to the medical, social, and political milieu.

RevDate: 2022-03-02
CmpDate: 2022-03-02

Arévalo B, Blázquez M, Serafín V, et al (2022)

Unraveling autoimmune and neurodegenerative diseases by amperometric serological detection of antibodies against aquaporin-4.

Bioelectrochemistry (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 144:108041.

This work reports the first electroanalytical bioplatform to date for the determination of antibodies against aquaporin-4 (AQP4-Abs), whose serum level is considered as relevant biomarker for certain autoimmune diseases. The bioplatform relies on the use of magnetic microparticles modified with the biotinylated protein for the capture of specific antibodies. The captured IgGs are enzymatically labelled with a secondary antibody conjugated to the horseradish peroxidase (HRP) enzyme. Amperometric transduction is performed using the H2O2/hydroquinone (HQ) system, which results in a cathodic current variation directly proportional to the concentration of the target antibodies. The evaluation of the analytical and operational characteristics of the developed bioplatform shows that it is competitive in terms of sensitivity with the only biosensor reported to date as well as with the commercially available ELISA kits. The achieved limit of detection value is 8.8 pg mL-1. In addition, compared to ELISA kits, the developed bioplatform is advantageous in terms of cost and point of care operation ability. The bioplatform was applied to the analysis of control serum samples with known AQP4-Abs contents as well as of sera from healthy individuals and patients diagnosed with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus (SLE) and Alzheimer (AD) diseases, providing results in agreement with the ELISA methodology.

RevDate: 2022-05-31
CmpDate: 2022-04-28

Ahmed R, Huang J, Lifshitz R, et al (2022)

Structural determinants of the interactions of catechins with Aβ oligomers and lipid membranes.

The Journal of biological chemistry, 298(2):101502.

The aberrant self-assembly of intrinsically disordered proteins (IDPs) into soluble oligomers and their interactions with biological membranes underlie the pathogenesis of numerous neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease. Catechins have emerged as useful tools to reduce the toxicity of IDP oligomers by modulating their interactions with membranes. However, the structural determinants of catechin binding to IDP oligomers and membranes remain largely elusive. Here, we assemble a catechin library by combining several naturally occurring chemical modifications and, using a coupled NMR-statistical approach, we map at atomic resolution the interactions of such library with the Alzheimer's-associated amyloid-beta (Aβ) oligomers and model membranes. Our results reveal multiple catechin affinity drivers and show that the combination of affinity-reducing covalent changes may lead to unexpected net gains in affinity. Interestingly, we find that the positive cooperativity is more prevalent for Aβ oligomers than membrane binding, and that the determinants underlying catechin recognition by membranes are markedly different from those dissected for Aβ oligomers. Notably, we find that the unanticipated positive cooperativity arises from the critical regulatory role of the gallate catechin moiety, which recruits previously disengaged substituents into the binding interface and leads to an overall greater compaction of the receptor-bound conformation. Overall, the previously elusive structural attributes mapped here provide an unprecedented foundation to establish structure-activity relationships of catechins.

RevDate: 2022-03-24
CmpDate: 2022-03-24

Kuo PH (2021)

Cleaning the brain through turbulent glymphatic flow: The washing machine hypothesis.

Lymphology, 54(3):133-139.

In a thought experiment, a "washing machine" model is proposed based on turbulent flow from complex multi-dimensional forces to characterize fluid dynamics in the brain. The glymphatic system's hypothetical role in this system is illustrated in a series of diagrams. Implications of this model are discussed in terms of normal physiology and a variety of pathologic conditions such as brain atrophy and Alzheimer disease.

RevDate: 2021-12-21

Pérez MF, Saravia F, Castro MG, et al (2021)

Editorial: Targeting Neuroinflammation in Central Nervous System Disorders: Uncovering Mechanisms, Pharmacological Targets, and Neuropharmaceutical Developments.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 12:771610.

RevDate: 2022-03-29
CmpDate: 2022-03-29

Rovelet-Lecrux A, Feuillette S, Miguel L, et al (2021)

Impaired SorLA maturation and trafficking as a new mechanism for SORL1 missense variants in Alzheimer disease.

Acta neuropathologica communications, 9(1):196.

The SorLA protein, encoded by the SORL1 gene, is a major player in Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology. Functional and genetic studies demonstrated that SorLA deficiency results in increased production of Aβ peptides, and thus a higher risk of AD. A large number of SORL1 missense variants have been identified in AD patients, but their functional consequences remain largely undefined. Here, we identified a new pathophysiological mechanism, by which rare SORL1 missense variants identified in AD patients result in altered maturation and trafficking of the SorLA protein. An initial screening, based on the overexpression of 70 SorLA variants in HEK293 cells, revealed that 15 of them (S114R, R332W, G543E, S564G, S577P, R654W, R729W, D806N, Y934C, D1535N, D1545E, P1654L, Y1816C, W1862C, P1914S) induced a maturation and trafficking-deficient phenotype. Three of these variants (R332W, S577P, and R654W) and two maturation-competent variants (S124R and N371T) were further studied in details in CRISPR/Cas9-modified hiPSCs. When expressed at endogenous levels, the R332W, S577P, and R654W SorLA variants also showed a maturation defective profile. We further demonstrated that these variants were largely retained in the endoplasmic reticulum, resulting in a reduction in the delivery of SorLA mature protein to the plasma membrane and to the endosomal system. Importantly, expression of the R332W and R654W variants in hiPSCs was associated with a clear increase of Aβ secretion, demonstrating a loss-of-function effect of these SorLA variants regarding this ultimate readout, and a direct link with AD pathophysiology. Furthermore, structural analysis of the impact of missense variants on SorLA protein suggested that impaired cellular trafficking of SorLA protein could be due to subtle variations of the protein 3D structure resulting from changes in the interatomic interactions.

RevDate: 2022-02-04
CmpDate: 2022-02-04

Verheijen MCT, Krauskopf J, Caiment F, et al (2022)

iPSC-derived cortical neurons to study sporadic Alzheimer disease: A transcriptome comparison with post-mortem brain samples.

Toxicology letters, 356:89-99.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, characterized by the progressive impairment of cognition and memory loss. Sporadic AD (sAD) represents approximately 95 % of the AD cases and is induced by a complex interplay between genetic and environmental factors called "Alzheimerogens". Heavy metals (e.g. copper) and pesticides (e.g. fipronil) can affect many AD-related processes, including neuroinflammation (considered as AD-inducing factor). Research would benefit from in vitro models to investigate effects of Alzheimerogens. We compared transcriptomics changes in sAD induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) derived cortical neurons to differentially expressed genes (DEGs) identified in post-mortem AD brain tissue. These analyses showed that many AD-related processes could be identified in the sAD iPSC-derived neurons, and furthermore, could even identify more DEGs functioning in these processes than post-mortem AD-brain tissue. Thereafter, we exposed the iPSCs to AD-inducing factors (copper(II)chloride, fipronil sulfone and an inflammatory cytokine cocktail). Cytokine exposure induced expression of immune related genes while copper-exposure affected genes involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism, which are known AD-related processes. Fipronil-exposure did not result in significant transcriptomic changes, although prolonged exposures or higher doses may be necessary. Overall, we show that iPSC-derived cortical neurons can be beneficial in vitro models to identify Alzheimerogens and AD-related molecular mechanisms.

RevDate: 2022-05-11
CmpDate: 2022-03-21

de Leeuw SM, Kirschner AWT, Lindner K, et al (2022)

APOE2, E3, and E4 differentially modulate cellular homeostasis, cholesterol metabolism, and inflammatory response in isogenic iPSC-derived astrocytes.

Stem cell reports, 17(1):110-126.

The apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) variant is the strongest genetic risk factor for Alzheimer disease (AD), while the APOE2 allele is protective. A major question is how different APOE genotypes affect the physiology of astrocytes, the main APOE-producing brain cells. Here, we differentiated human APOE-isogenic induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) (APOE4, E3, E2, and APOE knockout [APOE-KO]) to functional "iAstrocytes". Mass-spectrometry-based proteomic analysis showed genotype-dependent reductions of cholesterol and lipid metabolic and biosynthetic pathways (reduction: APOE4 >E3 >E2). Cholesterol efflux and biosynthesis were reduced in APOE4 iAstrocytes, while subcellular localization of cholesterol in lysosomes was elevated. An increase in immunoregulatory proteomic pathways (APOE4 >E3 >E2) was accompanied by elevated cytokine release in APOE4 cells (APOE4 >E3 >E2 >KO). Activation of iAstrocytes exacerbated proteomic changes and cytokine secretion mostly in APOE4 iAstrocytes, while APOE2 and APOE-KO iAstrocytes were least affected. Taken together, APOE4 iAstrocytes reveal a disease-relevant phenotype, causing dysregulated cholesterol/lipid homeostasis, increased inflammatory signaling, and reduced β-amyloid uptake, while APOE2 iAstrocytes show opposing effects.

RevDate: 2021-12-17

Xhima K, Markham-Coultes K, Kofoed RH, et al (2021)

Ultrasound delivery of a TrkA agonist confers neuroprotection to Alzheimer-associated pathologies.

Brain : a journal of neurology pii:6469023 [Epub ahead of print].

Early degeneration of basal forebrain cholinergic neurons (BFCNs) contributes substantially to cognitive decline in Alzheimer's disease (AD). Evidence from preclinical models of neuronal injury and aging support a pivotal role for nerve growth factor (NGF) in neuroprotection, resilience, and cognitive function. However, whether NGF can provide therapeutic benefit in the presence of AD-related pathologies remains unresolved. Perturbations in the NGF signaling system in AD may render neurons unable to benefit from NGF administration. Additionally, challenges related to brain delivery remain for clinical translation of NGF-based therapies in AD. To be safe and efficient, NGF-related agents should stimulate the NGF receptor, tropomyosin receptor kinase A (TrkA), avoid activation through the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR), and be delivered non-invasively to targeted brain areas using real-time monitoring. We addressed these limitations using MRI-guided focused ultrasound (MRIgFUS) to increase blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability locally and transiently, allowing an intravenously administered TrkA agonist that does not activate p75NTR, termed D3, to enter targeted brain areas. Here, we report the therapeutic potential of selective TrkA activation in a transgenic mouse model that recapitulates numerous AD-associated pathologies. Repeated MRIgFUS-mediated delivery of D3 (D3/FUS) improved cognitive function in the TgCRND8 model of AD. Mechanistically, D3/FUS treatment effectively attenuated cholinergic degeneration and promoted functional recovery. D3/FUS treatment also resulted in widespread reduction of brain amyloid pathology and dystrophic neurites surrounding amyloid plaques. Furthermore, D3/FUS markedly enhanced hippocampal neurogenesis in TgCRND8 mice, implicating TrkA agonism as a novel therapeutic target to promote neurogenesis in the context of AD-related pathology. Thus, this study provides evidence that selective TrkA agonism confers neuroprotection to effectively counteract AD-related vulnerability. Recent clinical trials demonstrate that non-invasive BBB modulation using MRIgFUS is safe, feasible and reversible in AD patients. TrkA receptor agonists coupled with MRIgFUS delivery constitute a promising disease-modifying strategy to foster brain health and counteract cognitive decline in AD.

RevDate: 2022-03-16
CmpDate: 2022-03-16

Jellinger KA (2022)

Recent update on the heterogeneity of the Alzheimer's disease spectrum.

Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996), 129(1):1-24.

Alzheimer's disease (AD), the most common form of dementia worldwide, is a mixed proteinopathy (β-amyloid, tau and other proteins). Classically defined as a clinicopathological entity, AD is a heterogeneous, multifactorial disorder with various pathobiological subtypes showing different forms of cognitive presentation, currently referred to as the Alzheimer spectrum or continuum. Its morphological hallmarks are extracellular β-amyloid (amyloid plaques) and intraneuronal tau aggregates forming neurofibrillary tangles and neurites, vascular amyloid deposits (cerebral amyloid angiopathy), synapse and neuronal loss as well as neuroinflammation and reactive astrogliosis, leading to cerebral atrophy and progressive mental/cognitive impairment (dementia). In addition to "classical" AD, several subtypes with characteristic regional patterns of tau pathology have been segregated that are characterized by distinct clinical features, differences in age, sex distribution, disease duration, cognitive status, APOE genotype, and biomarker levels. In addition to four major subtypes based on the distribution of tau pathology and brain atrophy (typical, limbic predominant, hippocampal sparing, and minimal atrophy), several other clinical variants (non-amnestic, corticobasal, behavioral/dysexecutive, posterior cortical variants, etc.) have been identified. These heterogeneous AD variants are characterized by different patterns of key neuronal network destructions, in particular the default-mode network that is responsible for cognitive decline. Other frequent age-related co-pathologies, e.g., cerebrovascular lesions, Lewy and TDP-43 pathologies, hippocampal sclerosis, or argyrophilic grain disease, essentially influence the clinical picture and course of AD, and can challenge our understanding of this disorder including the threshold and causal relevance of each individual pathology. Unravelling the clinico-morphological heterogeneity among the AD spectrum entities is important for better elucidation of the pathogenic mechanisms affecting the aging brain that may enable a broader diagnostic coverage of AD as a basis for implementing precision medicine approaches and for developing preventive and ultimately disease-modifying therapies for this devastating disorder.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Jameie SB, Pirasteh A, Naseri A, et al (2021)

β-Amyloid Formation, Memory, and Learning Decline Following Long-term Ovariectomy and Its Inhibition by Systemic Administration of Apigenin and β-Estradiol.

Basic and clinical neuroscience, 12(3):383-394.

INTRODUCTION: The increasing cases of Alzheimer Disease (AD) has caused numerous problems. The risk of developing AD increases in menopausal women, too. Apigenin and β-estradiol are effective antioxidant and neuroprotective agents. We conducted the present study to explore their combined effects on β-amyloid plaque formation, memory, and learning in ovariectomized rats.

METHODS: Forty-two Wistar rats were randomly assigned into 6 groups: 1) ovariectomized (OVX), 2) OVX + apigenin, 3) OVX + β-estradiol, 4) OVX + apigenin + β-estradiol, 5 &6) vehicle shams for E2 and API, and 7) surgical sham. Treatment was done with apigenin and β-estradiol. Then, we studied the formation of β-amyloid plaques, neuronal density in the hippocampus area, apoptosis, memory, and learning.

RESULTS: Findings showed the significant formation of β-amyloid plaques in the hippocampus of OVX animals and their memory impairment. Apigenin and β-estradiol significantly reduced the number of β-amyloid plaques, as well as the symptoms of memory impairment and learning, and decreased the expression of caspase-3 in treated animals.

CONCLUSION: Accordingly, β-estradiol and apigenin could have more potent therapeutic effects on AD.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Jafarzadeh G, Shakerian S, Farbood Y, et al (2021)

Effects of Eight Weeks of Resistance Exercises on Neurotrophins and Trk Receptors in Alzheimer Model Male Wistar Rats.

Basic and clinical neuroscience, 12(3):349-359.

INTRODUCTION: This study evaluates the effects of 8 weeks of resistance exercises on the expression of neurotrophins and Trk receptors in Alzheimer model male Wistar rats.

METHODS: For this purpose, 32 mature male Wistar rats with a mean weight of 230-280 g were chosen and divided into Alzheimer and Sham groups. The rats in the sham group received normal saline, while the ones in the Alzheimer group received streptomycin via intraventricular injection. These rats were then divided into the following four subgroups: 1) resting sham, 2) exercising sham, 3) resting Alzheimer, and 4) exercising Alzheimer. The two exercising rat subgroups exercised three times a week for 8 weeks. A weight was attached to their tails, and they had to carry it on a 26-step ladder in each cycle. Resting groups were handled every day to minimize the effects of stress. At the end of the eighth week and 24 hours after the last exercise session (to avoid the effects of the last exercise session), the rats were put under deep anesthesia and beheaded. Hippocampus tissues were precisely extracted, and samples were sent to the laboratory for molecular and cellular tests. To investigate gene expression, quantitative RTPCR was used.

RESULTS: The tests for comparing the mean values of BDNF, NT3, NGF, TrkA, and TrkB in two rat groups showed that with error levels of less than 5%, there is a significant difference in the amounts of BDNF, NT3, NGF, TrkA, and TrkB between exercising rats and resting ones. These amounts were much higher in the exercising Alzheimer rats group.

CONCLUSION: Eight weeks of resistance exercises increased the expression of BDNF, NT3, and NGF genes and TrkA and TrkB receptors in Alzheimer model Wistar rats.

RevDate: 2022-04-29

Wu L, Wang W, Tian S, et al (2021)

Identification of Hub Genes in Patients with Alzheimer Disease and Obstructive Sleep Apnea Syndrome Using Integrated Bioinformatics Analysis.

International journal of general medicine, 14:9491-9502.

BACKGROUND: Obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSA) is associated with an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study aimed to identify the key common genes in AD and OSA and explore molecular mechanism value in AD.

METHODS: Expression profiles GSE5281 and GSE135917 were acquired from Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, respectively. Weighted gene co-expression network analysis (WGCNA) and R 4.0.2 software were used for identifying differentially expressed genes (DEGs) related to AD and OSA. Function enrichment analyses using Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway, and the protein-protein interaction network (PPI) using the STRING database were subsequently performed on the shared DEGs. Finally, the hub genes were screened from the PPI network using the MCC algorithm of CytoHubba plugin.

RESULTS: Seven modules and four modules were the most significant with AD and OSA by WGCNA, respectively. A total of 33 common genes were screened in AD and OSA by VENN. Functional enrichment analysis indicated that DEGs were mainly involved in cellular response to oxidative stress, neuroinflammation. Among these DEGs, the top 10 hub genes (high scores in cytoHubba) were selected in the PPI network, including AREG, SPP1, CXCL2, ITGAX, DUSP1, COL1A1, SCD, ACTA2, CCND2, ATF3.

CONCLUSION: This study presented ten target genes on the basis of common genes to AD and OSA. These candidate genes may provide a novel perspective to explore the underlying mechanism that OSA leads to an increased risk of AD at the transcriptome level.

RevDate: 2022-03-15
CmpDate: 2022-03-15

Lai X, Hu J, Liu H, et al (2022)

A short peptide from sAPPα binding to BACE1-APP action site rescues Alzheimer-like pathology.

Neuroscience letters, 770:136397.

Amyloid β-peptide (Aβ) is the driven force of Alzheimer's disease (AD), and reducing Aβ production could be a potential therapeutic strategy for AD. sAPPα appears to have the ability to specifically inhibit β-cleavage of APP without inhibiting BACE1 completely, direct administration of sAPPα may not be clinically applicable due to the low permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB). In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective effects of a short peptide generated from sAPPα, which could specifically bind to BACE1 at the BACE1-APP action site. We found that this peptide significantly reduced Aβ production both in vivo and in vitro, thus further attenuated Aβ deposition, Tau hyperphosphorylation, neuroinflammation et al. and rescued behavioral deficits. Therefore, this short peptide may hold promise for the treatment of AD due to its neuroprotective effects, low molecular weight to cross BBB, and less safety concerns. The anti-neurodegenerative capacity of sAPPα may not result solely from direct inhibition of BACE1.

RevDate: 2022-03-28
CmpDate: 2022-03-28

Badrikoohi M, Esmaeili-Bandboni A, P Babaei (2022)

Simultaneous administration of bromodomain and histone deacetylase I inhibitors alleviates cognition deficit in Alzheimer's model of rats.

Brain research bulletin, 179:49-56.

BACKGROUND: Histone deacetylases (HDACs) target various genes responsible for cognitive functions. However, chromatin readers, particularly bromodomain-containing protein 4 (BRD4), are capable to change the final products of genes. The objective of this study was to evaluate the simultaneous effects of inhibition of HDACs and BRD4 on spatial and aversive memories impaired by amyloid β (Aβ) in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease (AD) considering CREB and TNF-α signaling.

METHODS: Forty male Wistar rats aged 3 months were randomly divided into five groups: saline +DMSO, Aβ+saline+DMSO, Aβ+JQ1, Aβ+MS-275, Aβ+JQ1+MS-275, and received the related treatments. MS-275, is the second generation of HDACs inhibitor, and JQ1 is a potent inhibitor of the BET family of bromodomain proteins in mammals. After the treatments, cognitive function was assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and passive avoidance learning (PAL). The hippocampal level of mRNA for CREB and TNF-α, and also phosphorylated CREB were measured using real-time PCR and western blotting respectively.

RESULTS: Administration of JQ1 and MS-275, either separately or simultaneously, improved acquisition and retrieval of spatial and aversive memories as it was evident by decreased escape latency and increased time spent in the target quadrant (TTS) in Morris water maze (MWM), together with increase in step-through latency, but reduced time spent in the dark zone time in passive avoidance learning (PAL) compared with Aβ+saline+DMSO. Furthermore, there was a significant rise in the hippocampal level of CREB mRNA and phosphorylated CREB, but a reduction in TNF-α expression in comparison with Aβ + Saline.

CONCLUSION: Simultaneous administration of JQ1 and MS-275 improves acquisition and retrieval of both spatial and aversive memories partly via CREB and TNF-α signaling with no superiority to monotherapy.

RevDate: 2022-03-10
CmpDate: 2022-03-10

Abdel-Aal RA, Hussein OA, Elsaady RG, et al (2022)

Naproxen as a potential candidate for promoting rivastigmine anti-Alzheimer activity against aluminum chloride-prompted Alzheimer's-like disease in rats; neurogenesis and apoptosis modulation as a possible underlying mechanism.

European journal of pharmacology, 915:174695.

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the leading causes of dependence and disability among the elderly worldwide. The traditional anti-Alzheimer medication, rivastigmine, one of the cholinesterase inhibitors (ChEIs), fails to achieve a definitive cure. We tested the hypothesis that naproxen administration to the rivastigmine-treated aluminum chloride (AlCl3) Alzheimer's rat model could provide an additive neuroprotective effect compared to rivastigmine alone.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The studied groups were control (Cont), AlCl3 treated (Al), rivastigmine treated (RIVA), naproxen treated (Napro), and combined rivastigmine and naproxen treated (RIVA + Napro). Rats' memory, spatial learning, and cognitive behavior were assessed followed by evaluation of hippocampal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity. Hippocampal and cerebellar histopathology were thoroughly examined. Activated caspase-3 and the neuroepithelial stem cells marker; nestin expressions were immunohistochemically assayed.

RESULTS: AD rats displayed significantly impaired memory and cognitive function, augmented hippocampal AChE activity; massive neurodegeneration associated with enhanced astrogliosis, apoptosis, and impaired neurogenesis. Except for the enhancement of neurogenesis and suppression of apoptosis, the combination therapy had no additional neuroprotective benefit over rivastigmine-only therapy.

CONCLUSION: Naproxen's efficacy was established by its ability to function at the cellular level, improved neurogenesis, and decreased, apoptosis without having an additional mitigating impact on cognitive impairment in rivastigmine-treated AD rats.

RevDate: 2022-01-11
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

James C, Ranson JM, Everson R, et al (2021)

Performance of Machine Learning Algorithms for Predicting Progression to Dementia in Memory Clinic Patients.

JAMA network open, 4(12):e2136553.

Importance: Machine learning algorithms could be used as the basis for clinical decision-making aids to enhance clinical practice.

Objective: To assess the ability of machine learning algorithms to predict dementia incidence within 2 years compared with existing models and determine the optimal analytic approach and number of variables required.

This prognostic study used data from a prospective cohort of 15 307 participants without dementia at baseline to perform a secondary analysis of factors that could be used to predict dementia incidence. Participants attended National Alzheimer Coordinating Center memory clinics across the United States between 2005 and 2015. Analyses were conducted from March to May 2021.

Exposures: 258 variables spanning domains of dementia-related clinical measures and risk factors.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The main outcome was incident all-cause dementia diagnosed within 2 years of baseline assessment.

Results: In a sample of 15 307 participants (mean [SD] age, 72.3 [9.8] years; 9129 [60%] women and 6178 [40%] men) without dementia at baseline, 1568 (10%) received a diagnosis of dementia within 2 years of their initial assessment. Compared with 2 existing models for dementia risk prediction (ie, Cardiovascular Risk Factors, Aging, and Incidence of Dementia Risk Score, and the Brief Dementia Screening Indicator), machine learning algorithms were superior in predicting incident all-cause dementia within 2 years. The gradient-boosted trees algorithm had a mean (SD) overall accuracy of 92% (1%), sensitivity of 0.45 (0.05), specificity of 0.97 (0.01), and area under the curve of 0.92 (0.01) using all 258 variables. Analysis of variable importance showed that only 6 variables were required for machine learning algorithms to achieve an accuracy of 91% and area under the curve of at least 0.89. Machine learning algorithms also identified up to 84% of participants who received an initial dementia diagnosis that was subsequently reversed to mild cognitive impairment or cognitively unimpaired, suggesting possible misdiagnosis.

Conclusions and Relevance: These findings suggest that machine learning algorithms could accurately predict incident dementia within 2 years in patients receiving care at memory clinics using only 6 variables. These findings could be used to inform the development and validation of decision-making aids in memory clinics.

RevDate: 2022-03-02
CmpDate: 2022-01-17

Stazi M, Lehmann S, Sakib MS, et al (2021)

Long-term caffeine treatment of Alzheimer mouse models ameliorates behavioural deficits and neuron loss and promotes cellular and molecular markers of neurogenesis.

Cellular and molecular life sciences : CMLS, 79(1):55.

Epidemiological studies indicate that the consumption of caffeine, the most commonly ingested psychoactive substance found in coffee, tea or soft drinks, reduces the risk of developing Alzheimer's disease (AD). Previous treatment studies with transgenic AD mouse models reported a reduced amyloid plaque load and an amelioration of behavioral deficits. It has been further shown that moderate doses of caffeine have the potential to attenuate the health burden in preclinical mouse models of a variety of brain disorders (reviewed in Cunha in J Neurochem 139:1019-1055, 2016). In the current study, we assessed whether long-term caffeine consumption affected hippocampal neuron loss and associated behavioral deficits in the Tg4-42 mouse model of AD. Treatment over a 4-month period reduced hippocampal neuron loss, rescued learning and memory deficits, and ameliorated impaired neurogenesis. Neuron-specific RNA sequencing analysis in the hippocampus revealed an altered expression profile distinguished by the up-regulation of genes linked to synaptic function and processes, and to neural progenitor proliferation. Treatment of 5xFAD mice, which develop prominent amyloid pathology, with the same paradigm also rescued behavioral deficits but did not affect extracellular amyloid-β (Aβ) levels or amyloid precursor protein (APP) processing. These findings challenge previous assumptions that caffeine is anti-amyloidogenic and indicate that the promotion of neurogenesis might play a role in its beneficial effects.

RevDate: 2022-04-01
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

Farfel JM, Leurgans SE, Capuano AW, et al (2021)

Dementia and autopsy-verified causes of death in racially-diverse older Brazilians.

PloS one, 16(12):e0261036.

BACKGROUND: While dementia has been associated with specific causes of death, previous studies were relatively small autopsy series or population-based studies lacking autopsy confirmation and were restricted to Non-Latinx Whites. Here, we examine the association of dementia with autopsy-verified causes of death in racially-diverse older Brazilians.

METHODS: As part of the Pathology, Alzheimer´s and Related Dementias Study (PARDoS), a community-based study in Brazil, we included 1941 racially-diverse deceased, 65 years or older at death. We conducted a structured interview with legal informants including the Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) Scale for dementia proximate to death. Causes of death were assessed after full-body autopsy and macroscopic examination of the brain, thoracic and abdominal/pelvic organs. Up to four causes of death were reported for each decedent. Causes of death were classified as circulatory, infectious, cancer and other. Logistic regression was used to determine associations of dementia with cause of death, controlling for age, sex, race, and education.

RESULTS: Dementia was associated with a higher odds of an infectious cause of death (OR = 1.81, 95%CI:1.45-2.25), and with a lower odds of a circulatory disease as cause of death (OR = 0.69, 95%CI:0.54-0.86) and cancer as cause of death (OR = 0.41, 95%CI:0.24-0.71). Dementia was associated with a higher odds of pneumonia (OR = 1.92, 95%CI:1.53-2.40) and pulmonary embolism (OR = 2.31, 95%CI:1.75-3.05) as causes of death and with a lower odds of acute myocardial infarction (OR = 0.42, 95%CI:0.31-0.56) and arterial disease (OR = 0.76, 95%CI:0.61-0.94) as causes of death.

CONCLUSION: Racially-diverse older Brazilians with dementia had a higher odds of an infectious cause of death and a lower odds of cancer and circulatory disease as causes of death than those without dementia.

RevDate: 2021-12-17

Bhat A, Dalvi H, Jain H, et al (2021)

Perspective insights of repurposing the pleiotropic efficacy of statins in neurodegenerative disorders: An expository appraisal.

Current research in pharmacology and drug discovery, 2:100012.

Neurodegenerative disorders which affects a larger population pose a great clinical challenge. These disorders impact the quality of life of an individual by damaging the neurons, which are the unit cells of the brain. Clinicians are faced with the grave challenge of inhibiting the progression of these diseases as available treatment options fail to meet the clinical demand. Thus, treating the disease/disorder symptomatically is the Hobson's choice. The goal of the researchers is to introduce newer therapies in this segment and introducing a new molecule will take long years of development. Hence, drug repurposing/repositioning can be a better substitute in comparison to time consuming and expensive drug discovery and development cycle. Presently, a paradigm shift towards the re-purposing of drugs can be witnessed. Statins which have been previously approved as anti-hyperlipidemic agents are in the limelight of research for re-purposed drugs. Owing to their anti-inflammatory and antioxidant nature, statins act as neuroprotective in several brain disorders. Further they attenuate the amyloid plaques and protein aggregation which are the triggering factors in the Alzheimer's and Parkinson's respectively. In case of Huntington disease and Multiple sclerosis they help in improving the psychomotor symptoms and stimulate remyelination thus acting as neuroprotective. This article reviews the potential of statins in treating neurodegenerative disorders along with a brief discussion on the safety concerns associated with use of statins and human clinical trial data linked with re-tasking statins for neurodegenerative disorders along with the regulatory perspectives involved with the drug repositioning.

RevDate: 2022-05-31
CmpDate: 2022-04-07

Lu WH, Giudici KV, Guyonnet S, et al (2022)

Associations of plasma neurofilament light chain and progranulin with frailty in older adults.

Journal of the American Geriatrics Society, 70(4):1236-1243.

BACKGROUND: In previous studies, plasma neurofilament light chain (NfL) and progranulin (PGRN) levels are associated with cognitive and physical impairment in older individuals. However, evidence of their relationships with frailty is lacking. This study aims to explore the associations of plasma NfL and PGRN levels with frailty in community-dwelling older adults.

METHODS: We included 507 older adults (mean [standard deviation] age, 76.7 [4.5] years) with plasma NfL and PGRN measurements from the Multidomain Alzheimer Preventive Trial (MAPT). The timepoint of biomarker measurements, either 12 or 24 months after study enrollment, was defined as the baseline for each participant. Frailty phenotype (robust, pre-frail, and frail) was assessed at 12, 24, 36, 48, and 60 months by Fried's frailty criteria. The cross-sectional associations between plasma neurodegenerative biomarkers and frailty severity were examined using logistic regressions. We further used Cox proportional hazard models to evaluate the associations between plasma biomarkers and incident frailty among robust or pre-frail participants at baseline (n = 403).

RESULTS: At baseline, participants with high plasma NfL levels (>93.11 pg/ml [the upper quartile]) had a higher likelihood of pre-frailty or frailty compared to their normal NfL counterparts (odds ratio = 1.68; 95% confidence interval = 1.10-2.57); however, this association did not remain significant after controlling for covariates. Neither NfL nor PGRN levels showed prospective associations with incident frailty over 4 years.

CONCLUSIONS: This study failed to find associations of circulating NfL and PGRN levels with frailty among community-dwelling older adults in adjusted analyses. Whether plasma neurodegenerative markers serve as potential biomarkers of frailty requires further investigation.

RevDate: 2022-05-05

Chu WT, Wang WE, Zaborszky L, et al (2022)

Association of Cognitive Impairment With Free Water in the Nucleus Basalis of Meynert and Locus Coeruleus to Transentorhinal Cortex Tract.

Neurology, 98(7):e700-e710.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: The goal of this work was to determine the relationship between diffusion microstructure and early changes in Alzheimer disease (AD) severity as assessed by clinical diagnosis, cognitive performance, dementia severity, and plasma concentrations of neurofilament light chain.

METHODS: Diffusion MRI scans were collected on cognitively normal participants (CN) and patients with early mild cognitive impairment (EMCI), late mild cognitive impairment, and AD. Free water (FW) and FW-corrected fractional anisotropy were calculated in the locus coeruleus to transentorhinal cortex tract, 4 magnocellular regions of the basal forebrain (e.g., nucleus basalis of Meynert), entorhinal cortex, and hippocampus. All patients underwent a battery of cognitive assessments; neurofilament light chain levels were measured in plasma samples.

RESULTS: FW was significantly higher in patients with EMCI compared to CN in the locus coeruleus to transentorhinal cortex tract, nucleus basalis of Meynert, and hippocampus (mean Cohen d = 0.54; p fdr < 0.05). FW was significantly higher in those with AD compared to CN in all the examined regions (mean Cohen d = 1.41; p fdr < 0.01). In addition, FW in the hippocampus, entorhinal cortex, nucleus basalis of Meynert, and locus coeruleus to transentorhinal cortex tract positively correlated with all 5 cognitive impairment metrics and neurofilament light chain levels (mean r 2 = 0.10; p fdr < 0.05).

DISCUSSION: These results show that higher FW is associated with greater clinical diagnosis severity, cognitive impairment, and neurofilament light chain. They also suggest that FW elevation occurs in the locus coeruleus to transentorhinal cortex tract, nucleus basalis of Meynert, and hippocampus in the transition from CN to EMCI, while other basal forebrain regions and the entorhinal cortex are not affected until a later stage of AD. FW is a clinically relevant and noninvasive early marker of structural changes related to cognitive impairment.

RevDate: 2022-04-23
CmpDate: 2022-04-05

Li Y, Schindler SE, Bollinger JG, et al (2022)

Validation of Plasma Amyloid-β 42/40 for Detecting Alzheimer Disease Amyloid Plaques.

Neurology, 98(7):e688-e699.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: To determine the diagnostic accuracy of a plasma Aβ42/Aβ40 assay in classifying amyloid PET status across global research studies using samples collected by multiple centers that utilize different blood collection and processing protocols.

METHODS: Plasma samples (n = 465) were obtained from 3 large Alzheimer disease (AD) research cohorts in the United States (n = 182), Australia (n = 183), and Sweden (n = 100). Plasma Aβ42/Aβ40 was measured by a high precision immunoprecipitation mass spectrometry (IPMS) assay and compared to the reference standards of amyloid PET and CSF Aβ42/Aβ40.

RESULTS: In the combined cohort of 465 participants, plasma Aβ42/Aβ40 had good concordance with amyloid PET status (receiver operating characteristic area under the curve [AUC] 0.84, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.80-0.87); concordance improved with the inclusion of APOE ε4 carrier status (AUC 0.88, 95% CI 0.85-0.91). The AUC of plasma Aβ42/Aβ40 with CSF amyloid status was 0.85 (95% CI 0.78-0.91) and improved to 0.93 (95% CI 0.89-0.97) with APOE ε4 status. These findings were consistent across the 3 cohorts, despite differences in protocols. The assay performed similarly in both cognitively unimpaired and impaired individuals.

DISCUSSION: Plasma Aβ42/Aβ40 is a robust measure for detecting amyloid plaques and can be utilized to aid in the diagnosis of AD, identify those at risk for future dementia due to AD, and improve the diversity of populations enrolled in AD research and clinical trials.

CLASSIFICATION OF EVIDENCE: This study provides Class II evidence that plasma Aβ42/Aβ40, as measured by a high precision IPMS assay, accurately diagnoses brain amyloidosis in both cognitively unimpaired and impaired research participants.

RevDate: 2022-01-17
CmpDate: 2022-01-17

Chauhan BS, Kumar R, Kumar P, et al (2022)

Neuroprotective potential of flavonoid rich Ascophyllum nodosum (FRAN) fraction from the brown seaweed on an Aβ42 induced Alzheimer's model of Drosophila.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 95:153872.

BACKGROUND: In Alzheimer Disease (AD) pathogenesis, aggregation of Aβ42 fibrils strongly correlates with memory dysfunction and neurotoxicity. Till date, no promising cures for AD. Report shows that flavonoids contributed anti-oxidant, anti-cancer and neuroprotection activity by regulating the mitochondrial machinery. Here, we first report the identification of flavonoids from Ascophyllum nodosum as having the ability to dissolve Aβ42 fibrils in an AD model of Drosophila. FRAN could be superior anti-AD agents for neuroprotection, their underlying mechanism and how they collectively halted amyloidogenesis is currently being investigated.

PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the neuroprotective role of FRAN in the Aβ42 expressing AD model of Drosophila.

METHODS: Drosophila stocks: OregonR+, ey-GAL4/CyO, elavc155-GAL4, UAS-mitoGFP, UAS-mcherry.mito.OMM, UAS-Aβ42/CyO were used, cultured at 28±1 °C in a BOD incubator. Ascophyllum extract rich in flavonoids as revealed by LC-MS study and employed against the AD flies. The validation of Aβ42 expression was done by immunostaining and q-RT PCR. The eye roughness of AD flies was scored in a dose-dependent manner. Further, In vivo and in silico studies of FRAN extract was executed against Aβ42 induced neurotoxicity.

RESULTS: In order to determine the most effective lethal dose of FRAN extract concentration 1, 2, 5, 10 mg/ml were screened using OregonR+flies. Extract 1 and 2 mg/ml did not show any lethality. Hence, extract 2 mg/ml was employed on AD flies and a ≥ 50% rescue in the eye phenotype was observed using SEM images. This dose had a strong effect on cell apoptosis, viability, longevity, mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress by regulating mitochondrial dynamic markers in comparable to control. Extract also scavenging free radicals in order to maintain in situ cellular ROS and prevent Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity in vivo and in silico. Hence, we suggest its great potential as a future therapeutic agent for AD treatment.

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, FRAN extract rich in flavonoids as having largest neuroprotective activity against Aβ42 aggregation in eye tissue of Drosophila. Extract shows strong effect against Aβ42-induced neurotoxicity by altering the various cellular and molecular events. So, it could be considered as strong anti-AD agents for neuroprotection.

RevDate: 2022-02-17
CmpDate: 2022-02-17

Sveikata L, Charidimou A, A Viswanathan (2022)

Vessels Sing Their ARIAs: The Role of Vascular Amyloid in the Age of Aducanumab.

Stroke, 53(1):298-302.

We review the implications of the recently approved aducanumab amyloid-β immunotherapy for treating Alzheimer disease with comorbid cerebral amyloid angiopathy. In clinical trials, amyloid-β immunotherapy has been associated with a high rate of amyloid-related imaging abnormalities, potentially driven by coexisting cerebral amyloid angiopathy. Therefore, immunotherapy's efficacy in patients may be modified by coexisting cerebrovascular pathology. We discuss the contributions of cerebral amyloid angiopathy on the development of amyloid-related imaging abnormalities and propose strategies to identify cerebral amyloid angiopathy in patients considered for immunotherapy.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )