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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 26 Mar 2019 at 01:32 Created:

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects *how*
organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among
biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical
interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually
impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is
the Reynolds Number (abbreviated *Re*), which is the ratio of
inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a
fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is
determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties
(density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes
exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or
water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces,
gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A
bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity,
possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its
flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond,
coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a
hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward,
wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion.
Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through
mechanical means — is impossible at very low *Re*. An
understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds
numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

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Citations
The Papers
(from PubMed^{®})

RevDate: 2019-03-22

**Bioinspired mechanical device generates plasma in water via cavitation.**

*Science advances*, **5(3):**eaau7765 pii:aau7765.

Nature can generate plasma in liquids more efficiently than human-designed devices using electricity, acoustics, or light. In the animal world, snapping shrimp can induce cavitation that collapses to produce high pressures and temperatures, leading to efficient plasma formation with photon and shock wave emission via energy focusing. Here, we report a bioinspired mechanical device that mimics the plasma generation technique of the snapping shrimp. This device was manufactured using additive manufacturing based on micro-x-ray computed tomography of a snapping shrimp claw molt. A spring fixture was designed to reliably actuate the claw with appropriate force and velocity to produce a high-speed water jet that matches the cavitation number and Reynolds number of the shrimp. Light emission and shocks were imaged, which indicate that our device reproduces the shrimp's plasma generation technique and is more efficient than other plasma generation methods.

Additional Links: PMID-30899783

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@article {pmid30899783,

year = {2019},

author = {Tang, X and Staack, D},

title = {Bioinspired mechanical device generates plasma in water via cavitation.},

journal = {Science advances},

volume = {5},

number = {3},

pages = {eaau7765},

doi = {10.1126/sciadv.aau7765},

pmid = {30899783},

issn = {2375-2548},

abstract = {Nature can generate plasma in liquids more efficiently than human-designed devices using electricity, acoustics, or light. In the animal world, snapping shrimp can induce cavitation that collapses to produce high pressures and temperatures, leading to efficient plasma formation with photon and shock wave emission via energy focusing. Here, we report a bioinspired mechanical device that mimics the plasma generation technique of the snapping shrimp. This device was manufactured using additive manufacturing based on micro-x-ray computed tomography of a snapping shrimp claw molt. A spring fixture was designed to reliably actuate the claw with appropriate force and velocity to produce a high-speed water jet that matches the cavitation number and Reynolds number of the shrimp. Light emission and shocks were imaged, which indicate that our device reproduces the shrimp's plasma generation technique and is more efficient than other plasma generation methods.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-20

**Magnetohydrodynamic viscous fluid flow and heat transfer in a circular pipe under an externally applied constant suction.**

*Heliyon*, **5(2):**e01281 pii:e01281.

An analytical investigation of two-dimensional heat transfer behavior of an axisymmetric incompressible dissipative viscous fluid flow in a circular pipe is considered. The flow is subjected to an externally applied uniform suction over the pipe wall in the transverse direction and a constant magnetic field opposite to the wall. The reduced Navier-Stokes equations in the cylindrical system are applied for the velocity and temperature fields. Constant wall temperature is considered as the thermal boundary condition. The velocity components are expressed into stream function and its solution is acquired by the Homotopy analysis method (HAM). The effects of magnetic body force parameter(M), suction Reynolds number (Re), Prandtl number (Pr)and Eckert number (Ec) on velocity and temperature are examined and are presented in a graphical frame. Streamlines, isotherms and pressure contours are likewise pictured. It is observed that with increasing suction Reynold number decelerates axial flow, whereas it enhances the radial flow. The temperature distribution increases with an increase in Prandtl number, whereas it decreases with an increase in Eckert number (viscous dissipation effect).

Additional Links: PMID-30891517

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@article {pmid30891517,

year = {2019},

author = {Nagaraju, G and Garvandha, M},

title = {Magnetohydrodynamic viscous fluid flow and heat transfer in a circular pipe under an externally applied constant suction.},

journal = {Heliyon},

volume = {5},

number = {2},

pages = {e01281},

doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2019.e01281},

pmid = {30891517},

issn = {2405-8440},

abstract = {An analytical investigation of two-dimensional heat transfer behavior of an axisymmetric incompressible dissipative viscous fluid flow in a circular pipe is considered. The flow is subjected to an externally applied uniform suction over the pipe wall in the transverse direction and a constant magnetic field opposite to the wall. The reduced Navier-Stokes equations in the cylindrical system are applied for the velocity and temperature fields. Constant wall temperature is considered as the thermal boundary condition. The velocity components are expressed into stream function and its solution is acquired by the Homotopy analysis method (HAM). The effects of magnetic body force parameter(M), suction Reynolds number (Re), Prandtl number (Pr)and Eckert number (Ec) on velocity and temperature are examined and are presented in a graphical frame. Streamlines, isotherms and pressure contours are likewise pictured. It is observed that with increasing suction Reynold number decelerates axial flow, whereas it enhances the radial flow. The temperature distribution increases with an increase in Prandtl number, whereas it decreases with an increase in Eckert number (viscous dissipation effect).},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-17

**Settling slip velocity of a spherical particle in an unbounded micropolar fluid.**

*The European physical journal. E, Soft matter*, **42(3):**32 pii:10.1140/epje/i2019-11791-1.

The gravitational settling of small spherical particles in an unbounded micropolar fluid with slip surfaces is considered. The motion is studied under the assumption of low Reynolds number. The slip boundary conditions on velocity and microrotation at the surface of the spherical particle is used. The solution for the stream function of the fluid flow is obtained analytically. The settling velocity is obtained and is plotted against the Knudsen number for various values of the micropolarity parameter and constants depending on the material of the solid surface. The problem of rotational motion of a particle with slip surface is also solved and the torque coefficient acting on the spherical particle is obtained and is plotted against Knudsen number for different values of micropolarity parameter, spin parameter, and the material constants. The correction to the Basset equation for settling velocity under gravity for slip particle in micropolar fluids is discussed with the range of Knudsen number which has been proven with known results available in the literature.

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@article {pmid30879156,

year = {2019},

author = {El-Sapa, S},

title = {Settling slip velocity of a spherical particle in an unbounded micropolar fluid.},

journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter},

volume = {42},

number = {3},

pages = {32},

doi = {10.1140/epje/i2019-11791-1},

pmid = {30879156},

issn = {1292-895X},

abstract = {The gravitational settling of small spherical particles in an unbounded micropolar fluid with slip surfaces is considered. The motion is studied under the assumption of low Reynolds number. The slip boundary conditions on velocity and microrotation at the surface of the spherical particle is used. The solution for the stream function of the fluid flow is obtained analytically. The settling velocity is obtained and is plotted against the Knudsen number for various values of the micropolarity parameter and constants depending on the material of the solid surface. The problem of rotational motion of a particle with slip surface is also solved and the torque coefficient acting on the spherical particle is obtained and is plotted against Knudsen number for different values of micropolarity parameter, spin parameter, and the material constants. The correction to the Basset equation for settling velocity under gravity for slip particle in micropolar fluids is discussed with the range of Knudsen number which has been proven with known results available in the literature.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-15

**A review of beetle hindwings: Structure, mechanical properties, mechanism and bioinspiration.**

*Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials*, **94:**63-73 pii:S1751-6161(18)31307-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Insects have a small mass and size and a low flying Reynolds number. Consequently, they serve as an excellent bionic representation of a micro air vehicle (MAV). Coleoptera (popularly referred to as beetles) have different characteristics from other flying insects. Not only can they fly at a low Reynolds number, but they also have deployable hindwings, which directly leads to a reduction in the size of their bodies. In narrow working spaces or unfavorable environments, a beetle's hindwings can fold automatically under the hard elytron. When the environment becomes conducive to flight, the hindwings can extend and help the beetle take off. This characteristic provides inspiration for the design of a bionic deployable wing system. In this paper, the structures and mechanical properties of hindwings and the mechanism of hindwing movement are reviewed, in addition to research on bioinspired deployable wings.

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@article {pmid30875616,

year = {2019},

author = {Sun, J and Liu, C and Bhushan, B},

title = {A review of beetle hindwings: Structure, mechanical properties, mechanism and bioinspiration.},

journal = {Journal of the mechanical behavior of biomedical materials},

volume = {94},

number = {},

pages = {63-73},

doi = {10.1016/j.jmbbm.2019.02.031},

pmid = {30875616},

issn = {1878-0180},

abstract = {Insects have a small mass and size and a low flying Reynolds number. Consequently, they serve as an excellent bionic representation of a micro air vehicle (MAV). Coleoptera (popularly referred to as beetles) have different characteristics from other flying insects. Not only can they fly at a low Reynolds number, but they also have deployable hindwings, which directly leads to a reduction in the size of their bodies. In narrow working spaces or unfavorable environments, a beetle's hindwings can fold automatically under the hard elytron. When the environment becomes conducive to flight, the hindwings can extend and help the beetle take off. This characteristic provides inspiration for the design of a bionic deployable wing system. In this paper, the structures and mechanical properties of hindwings and the mechanism of hindwing movement are reviewed, in addition to research on bioinspired deployable wings.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-15

**Numerical study of crude oil batch mixing in a long channel.**

*Petroleum science*, **16(1):**187-198.

The main objective of this work is to predict the mixing of two different miscible oils in a very long channel. The background to this problem relates to the mixing of heavy and light oil in a pipeline. As a first step, a 2D channel with an aspect ratio of 250 is considered. The batch-mixing of two miscible crude oils with different viscosities and densities is modeled using an unsteady laminar model and unsteady RANS model available in the commercial CFD solver ANSYS-Fluent. For a comparison, a LES model was used for a 3D version of the 2D channel. The distinguishing feature of this work is the Lagrangian coordinate system utilized to set no-slip wall boundary conditions. The global CFD model has been validated against classical analytical solutions. Excellent agreement has been achieved. Simulations were carried out for a Reynolds number of 6300 (calculated using light oil properties) and a Schmidt number of 10 4 . The results show that, in contrast to the unsteady RANS model, the LES and unsteady laminar models produce comparable mixing dynamics for two oils in the channel. Analysis of simulations also shows that, for a channel length of 100 m and a height of 0.4 m, the complete mixing of two oils across the channel has not been achieved. We showed that the mixing zone consists of the three different mixing sub-zones, which have been identified using the averaged mass fraction of the heavy oil along the flow direction. The first sub-zone corresponds to the main front propagation area with a length of several heights of the channel. The second and third sub-zones are characterized by so-called shear-flow-driven mixing due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices occurring between oils in the axial direction. It was observed that the third sub-zone has a steeper mass fraction gradient of the heavy oil in the axial direction in comparison with the second sub-zone, which corresponds to the flow-averaged mass fraction of 0.5 for the heavy oil.

Additional Links: PMID-30873209

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@article {pmid30873209,

year = {2019},

author = {Sepehr, H and Nikrityuk, P and Breakey, D and Sanders, RS},

title = {Numerical study of crude oil batch mixing in a long channel.},

journal = {Petroleum science},

volume = {16},

number = {1},

pages = {187-198},

doi = {10.1007/s12182-018-0276-4},

pmid = {30873209},

issn = {1672-5107},

abstract = {The main objective of this work is to predict the mixing of two different miscible oils in a very long channel. The background to this problem relates to the mixing of heavy and light oil in a pipeline. As a first step, a 2D channel with an aspect ratio of 250 is considered. The batch-mixing of two miscible crude oils with different viscosities and densities is modeled using an unsteady laminar model and unsteady RANS model available in the commercial CFD solver ANSYS-Fluent. For a comparison, a LES model was used for a 3D version of the 2D channel. The distinguishing feature of this work is the Lagrangian coordinate system utilized to set no-slip wall boundary conditions. The global CFD model has been validated against classical analytical solutions. Excellent agreement has been achieved. Simulations were carried out for a Reynolds number of 6300 (calculated using light oil properties) and a Schmidt number of 10 4 . The results show that, in contrast to the unsteady RANS model, the LES and unsteady laminar models produce comparable mixing dynamics for two oils in the channel. Analysis of simulations also shows that, for a channel length of 100 m and a height of 0.4 m, the complete mixing of two oils across the channel has not been achieved. We showed that the mixing zone consists of the three different mixing sub-zones, which have been identified using the averaged mass fraction of the heavy oil along the flow direction. The first sub-zone corresponds to the main front propagation area with a length of several heights of the channel. The second and third sub-zones are characterized by so-called shear-flow-driven mixing due to the Kelvin-Helmholtz vortices occurring between oils in the axial direction. It was observed that the third sub-zone has a steeper mass fraction gradient of the heavy oil in the axial direction in comparison with the second sub-zone, which corresponds to the flow-averaged mass fraction of 0.5 for the heavy oil.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-14

**Microfluidic rectifier for polymer solutions flowing through porous media.**

*Biomicrofluidics*, **13(1):**014111 pii:013901BMF.

Fluidic rectification refers to anisotropic flow resistance upon changing the flow direction. Polymeric solutions, in contrast to Newtonian fluids, can exhibit an anisotropic flow resistance in microfluidic devices by tuning the channel shape at low Reynolds number. Such a concept has not been investigated in an anisotropic porous medium. We have developed a fluidic rectifier based on an anisotropic porous medium consisting of a periodic array of triangular pillars that can operate at a low Reynolds number. Rectification is achieved, when the type of high Weissenberg number elastic instabilities changes with the flow direction. The flow resistance differs across the two directions of the anisotropic porous medium geometry. We have identified the type of elastic instabilities that appear in both forward and backward directions. Particularly, we found a qualitative relation between the dead-zone instability and the onset of fluidic rectification.

Additional Links: PMID-30867881

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@article {pmid30867881,

year = {2019},

author = {Kawale, D and Jayaraman, J and Boukany, PE},

title = {Microfluidic rectifier for polymer solutions flowing through porous media.},

journal = {Biomicrofluidics},

volume = {13},

number = {1},

pages = {014111},

doi = {10.1063/1.5050201},

pmid = {30867881},

issn = {1932-1058},

abstract = {Fluidic rectification refers to anisotropic flow resistance upon changing the flow direction. Polymeric solutions, in contrast to Newtonian fluids, can exhibit an anisotropic flow resistance in microfluidic devices by tuning the channel shape at low Reynolds number. Such a concept has not been investigated in an anisotropic porous medium. We have developed a fluidic rectifier based on an anisotropic porous medium consisting of a periodic array of triangular pillars that can operate at a low Reynolds number. Rectification is achieved, when the type of high Weissenberg number elastic instabilities changes with the flow direction. The flow resistance differs across the two directions of the anisotropic porous medium geometry. We have identified the type of elastic instabilities that appear in both forward and backward directions. Particularly, we found a qualitative relation between the dead-zone instability and the onset of fluidic rectification.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-14

**Impact of the TiO₂ Nanosolution Concentration on Heat Transfer Enhancement of the Twin Impingement Jet of a Heated Aluminum Plate.**

*Micromachines*, **10(3):** pii:mi10030176.

Here, the researchers carried out an experimental analysis of the effect of the TiO₂ nanosolution concentration on the heat transfer of the twin jet impingement on an aluminum plate surface. We used three different heat transfer enhancement processes. We considered the TiO₂ nanosolution coat, aluminum plate heat sink, and a twin jet impingement system. We also analyzed several other parameters like the nozzle spacing, nanosolution concentration, and the nozzle-to-plate distance and noted if these parameters could increase the heat transfer rate of the twin jet impingement system on a hot aluminum surface. The researchers prepared different nanosolutions, which consisted of varying concentrations, and coated them on the metal surface. Thereafter, we carried out an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis for determining the structure and the homogeneous surface coating of the nanosolutions. This article also studied the different positions of the twin jets for determining the maximal Nusselt number (Nu). The researchers analyzed all the results and noted that the flow structure of the twin impingement jets at the interference zone was the major issue affecting the increase in the heat transfer rate. The combined influence of the spacing and nanoparticle concentration affected the flow structure, and therefore the heat transfer properties, wherein the Reynolds number (1% by volume concentration) maximally affected the Nusselt number. This improved the performance of various industrial and engineering applications. Hypothesis: Nusselt number was affected by the ratio of the nanoparticle size to the surface roughness. Heat transfer characteristics could be improved if the researchers selected an appropriate impingement system and selected the optimal levels of other factors. The surface coating with the TiO₂ nanosolution also positively affected the heat transfer rate.

Additional Links: PMID-30866409

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@article {pmid30866409,

year = {2019},

author = {Faris Abdullah, M and Zulkifli, R and Harun, Z and Abdullah, S and Wan Ghopa, WA and Soheil Najm, A and Humam Sulaiman, N},

title = {Impact of the TiO₂ Nanosolution Concentration on Heat Transfer Enhancement of the Twin Impingement Jet of a Heated Aluminum Plate.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {3},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/mi10030176},

pmid = {30866409},

issn = {2072-666X},

abstract = {Here, the researchers carried out an experimental analysis of the effect of the TiO₂ nanosolution concentration on the heat transfer of the twin jet impingement on an aluminum plate surface. We used three different heat transfer enhancement processes. We considered the TiO₂ nanosolution coat, aluminum plate heat sink, and a twin jet impingement system. We also analyzed several other parameters like the nozzle spacing, nanosolution concentration, and the nozzle-to-plate distance and noted if these parameters could increase the heat transfer rate of the twin jet impingement system on a hot aluminum surface. The researchers prepared different nanosolutions, which consisted of varying concentrations, and coated them on the metal surface. Thereafter, we carried out an X-ray diffraction (XRD) and a Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM) analysis for determining the structure and the homogeneous surface coating of the nanosolutions. This article also studied the different positions of the twin jets for determining the maximal Nusselt number (Nu). The researchers analyzed all the results and noted that the flow structure of the twin impingement jets at the interference zone was the major issue affecting the increase in the heat transfer rate. The combined influence of the spacing and nanoparticle concentration affected the flow structure, and therefore the heat transfer properties, wherein the Reynolds number (1% by volume concentration) maximally affected the Nusselt number. This improved the performance of various industrial and engineering applications. Hypothesis: Nusselt number was affected by the ratio of the nanoparticle size to the surface roughness. Heat transfer characteristics could be improved if the researchers selected an appropriate impingement system and selected the optimal levels of other factors. The surface coating with the TiO₂ nanosolution also positively affected the heat transfer rate.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-13

**Numerical study of hydromagnetic axisymmetric peristaltic flow at high Reynolds number and wave number.**

*Biophysical reviews* pii:10.1007/s12551-019-00511-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The computational study of MHD peristaltic motion is investigated for axisymmetric flow problem. The developed model is present in the form of partial differential equations. Then obtained partial differential equations are transferred into stream-vorticity (ψ - ω) form. Then Galerkin Finite element method is used to find the computational results of governing problem. The current study is compared with the existing well-known results at low Reynolds number and wave number. It is revealed that the present results are in well agreement with existing results in the literature. So, it is effective for higher values of Reynolds number and wave number. The variations of streamline are present graphically against high Reynolds number. It concludes that high Reynolds number and Hartmann number increase pressure rise per unit wavelength in positive pumping region sharply.

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@article {pmid30863983,

year = {2019},

author = {Hamid, AH and Javed, T and Ali, N},

title = {Numerical study of hydromagnetic axisymmetric peristaltic flow at high Reynolds number and wave number.},

journal = {Biophysical reviews},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1007/s12551-019-00511-8},

pmid = {30863983},

issn = {1867-2450},

abstract = {The computational study of MHD peristaltic motion is investigated for axisymmetric flow problem. The developed model is present in the form of partial differential equations. Then obtained partial differential equations are transferred into stream-vorticity (ψ - ω) form. Then Galerkin Finite element method is used to find the computational results of governing problem. The current study is compared with the existing well-known results at low Reynolds number and wave number. It is revealed that the present results are in well agreement with existing results in the literature. So, it is effective for higher values of Reynolds number and wave number. The variations of streamline are present graphically against high Reynolds number. It concludes that high Reynolds number and Hartmann number increase pressure rise per unit wavelength in positive pumping region sharply.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-12

**Enhanced mixing of binary droplets induced by capillary pressure.**

*Journal of colloid and interface science*, **545:**35-42 pii:S0021-9797(19)30296-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The mixing of binary droplets is of paramount importance in microfluidic systems. In order to reveal the mixing mechanism of two free droplets suspended in the immiscible phase, we have developed a novel experimental setup to study the internal mixing in coalescing droplets with varying interfacial tension differences and droplet sizes. It is confirmed that the interfacial energy of droplets supports the jet flow and liquid bridge expansion during the coalescence of droplets. The increase of interfacial tension difference can increase the intensity of jet flow accompanied with slower liquid bridge expansion, which enhances the mixing of droplets. The decrease of droplet size can increase the initial velocity of jet flow. However, the intensity of jet flow decreases due to the rapid expansion of the liquid bridge, which results in weaker internal mixing. On this basis, a Reynolds number incorporating the jet velocity and droplet size is proposed to characterize the vortex size, which represents the degree of droplet mixing. This study presents an effective approach for enhancing the mixing of droplets.

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@article {pmid30861480,

year = {2019},

author = {Luo, X and Yin, H and Ren, J and Yan, H and Huang, X and Yang, D and He, L},

title = {Enhanced mixing of binary droplets induced by capillary pressure.},

journal = {Journal of colloid and interface science},

volume = {545},

number = {},

pages = {35-42},

doi = {10.1016/j.jcis.2019.03.016},

pmid = {30861480},

issn = {1095-7103},

abstract = {The mixing of binary droplets is of paramount importance in microfluidic systems. In order to reveal the mixing mechanism of two free droplets suspended in the immiscible phase, we have developed a novel experimental setup to study the internal mixing in coalescing droplets with varying interfacial tension differences and droplet sizes. It is confirmed that the interfacial energy of droplets supports the jet flow and liquid bridge expansion during the coalescence of droplets. The increase of interfacial tension difference can increase the intensity of jet flow accompanied with slower liquid bridge expansion, which enhances the mixing of droplets. The decrease of droplet size can increase the initial velocity of jet flow. However, the intensity of jet flow decreases due to the rapid expansion of the liquid bridge, which results in weaker internal mixing. On this basis, a Reynolds number incorporating the jet velocity and droplet size is proposed to characterize the vortex size, which represents the degree of droplet mixing. This study presents an effective approach for enhancing the mixing of droplets.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-08

**Hydrophobicity Influence on Swimming Performance of Magnetically Driven Miniature Helical Swimmers.**

*Micromachines*, **10(3):** pii:mi10030175.

Helical microswimmers have been involved in a wide variety of applications, ranging from in vivo tasks such as targeted drug delivery to in vitro tasks such as transporting micro objects. Over the past decades, a number of studies have been established on the swimming performance of helical microswimmers and geometrical factors influencing their swimming performance. However, limited studies have focused on the influence of the hydrophobicity of swimmers' surface on their swimming performance. In this paper, we first demonstrated through theoretical analysis that the hydrophobicity of swimmer's surface material of the swimmer does affect its swimming performance: the swimmer with more hydrophobic surface is exerted less friction drag torque, and should therefore exhibit a higher step-out frequency, indicating that the swimmer with more hydrophobic surface should have better swimming performance. Then a series of experiments were conducted to verify the theoretical analysis. As a result, the main contribution of this paper is to demonstrate that one potential approach to improve the helical microswimmers' swimming performance could be making its surface more hydrophobic.

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@article {pmid30845732,

year = {2019},

author = {Ye, C and Liu, J and Wu, X and Wang, B and Zhang, L and Zheng, Y and Xu, T},

title = {Hydrophobicity Influence on Swimming Performance of Magnetically Driven Miniature Helical Swimmers.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {3},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/mi10030175},

pmid = {30845732},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {61703392//National Natural Science Foundation of China(NSFC) for Young Scholar with 223 the Project/ ; U1713201//the joint Research Fund between the NSFC and Shenzhen/ ; JCYJ20170413152640731//Fundamental Research and 224 Discipline Layout project/ ; 2018YFC0115200//National Key R&D Program of China/ ; },

abstract = {Helical microswimmers have been involved in a wide variety of applications, ranging from in vivo tasks such as targeted drug delivery to in vitro tasks such as transporting micro objects. Over the past decades, a number of studies have been established on the swimming performance of helical microswimmers and geometrical factors influencing their swimming performance. However, limited studies have focused on the influence of the hydrophobicity of swimmers' surface on their swimming performance. In this paper, we first demonstrated through theoretical analysis that the hydrophobicity of swimmer's surface material of the swimmer does affect its swimming performance: the swimmer with more hydrophobic surface is exerted less friction drag torque, and should therefore exhibit a higher step-out frequency, indicating that the swimmer with more hydrophobic surface should have better swimming performance. Then a series of experiments were conducted to verify the theoretical analysis. As a result, the main contribution of this paper is to demonstrate that one potential approach to improve the helical microswimmers' swimming performance could be making its surface more hydrophobic.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-08

**Droplet Impact on the Super-Hydrophobic Surface with Micro-Pillar Arrays Fabricated by Hybrid Laser Ablation and Silanization Process.**

*Materials (Basel, Switzerland)*, **12(5):** pii:ma12050765.

A super-hydrophobic aluminum alloy surface with decorated pillar arrays was obtained by hybrid laser ablation and further silanization process. The as-prepared surface showed a high apparent contact angle of 158.2 ± 2.0° and low sliding angle of 3 ± 1°. Surface morphologies and surface chemistry were explored to obtain insights into the generation process of super-hydrophobicity. The main objective of this current work is to investigate the maximum spreading factor of water droplets impacting on the pillar-patterned super-hydrophobic surface based on the energy conservation concept. Although many previous studies have investigated the droplet impacting behavior on flat solid surfaces, the empirical models were proposed based on a few parameters including the Reynolds number (Re), Weber number (We), as well as the Ohnesorge number (Oh). This resulted in limitations for the super-hydrophobic surfaces due to the ignorance of the geometrical parameters of the pillars and viscous energy dissipation for liquid flow within the pillar arrays. In this paper, the maximum spreading factor was deduced from the perspective of energy balance, and the predicted results were in good agreement with our experimental results with a mean error of 4.99% and standard deviation of 0.10.

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@article {pmid30845671,

year = {2019},

author = {Xia, Z and Xiao, Y and Yang, Z and Li, L and Wang, S and Liu, X and Tian, Y},

title = {Droplet Impact on the Super-Hydrophobic Surface with Micro-Pillar Arrays Fabricated by Hybrid Laser Ablation and Silanization Process.},

journal = {Materials (Basel, Switzerland)},

volume = {12},

number = {5},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/ma12050765},

pmid = {30845671},

issn = {1996-1944},

support = {51675371//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; },

abstract = {A super-hydrophobic aluminum alloy surface with decorated pillar arrays was obtained by hybrid laser ablation and further silanization process. The as-prepared surface showed a high apparent contact angle of 158.2 ± 2.0° and low sliding angle of 3 ± 1°. Surface morphologies and surface chemistry were explored to obtain insights into the generation process of super-hydrophobicity. The main objective of this current work is to investigate the maximum spreading factor of water droplets impacting on the pillar-patterned super-hydrophobic surface based on the energy conservation concept. Although many previous studies have investigated the droplet impacting behavior on flat solid surfaces, the empirical models were proposed based on a few parameters including the Reynolds number (Re), Weber number (We), as well as the Ohnesorge number (Oh). This resulted in limitations for the super-hydrophobic surfaces due to the ignorance of the geometrical parameters of the pillars and viscous energy dissipation for liquid flow within the pillar arrays. In this paper, the maximum spreading factor was deduced from the perspective of energy balance, and the predicted results were in good agreement with our experimental results with a mean error of 4.99% and standard deviation of 0.10.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-07

**Comparison of convective heat transfer for Kagome and tetrahedral truss-cored lattice sandwich panels.**

*Scientific reports*, **9(1):**3731 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-39704-2.

The aim of this paper is to make a thorough comparison between Kagome and tetrahedral truss-cored lattices both experimentally and numerically. Two titanium sandwich panels -one cored with the Kagome lattice and the other with the tetrahedral lattice -are manufactured by 3D printing technology. Comparisons of the thermal insulation, the inner flow pattern and the heat transfer between the two sandwich panels are completed subsequently according to the results from forced convective experiments and numerical simulation. Within the Reynolds number range of interest for this study, the Kagome lattice exhibits excellent heat dissipation compared with the tetrahedral lattice. In particular, when the cooling air flows in the direction OB of the two sandwich panels, the Kagome lattice provides an 8~37% higher overall Nusselt number for the sandwich panel compared to the tetrahedral lattice. The superiority of the Kagome lattice comes from a unique configuration in which the centre vertex acting as the vortex generator not only disturbs the primary flow but also induces more serious flow stagnation and separation. The complex fluid flow behaviours enhance heat transfer on both the endwalls and the trusses while causing a pressure drop that is almost two times higher than that of the tetrahedral lattice in the flow direction OB.

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@article {pmid30842437,

year = {2019},

author = {Yang, G and Hou, C and Zhao, M and Mao, W},

title = {Comparison of convective heat transfer for Kagome and tetrahedral truss-cored lattice sandwich panels.},

journal = {Scientific reports},

volume = {9},

number = {1},

pages = {3731},

doi = {10.1038/s41598-019-39704-2},

pmid = {30842437},

issn = {2045-2322},

support = {20160953008//Aeronautical Science Foundation of China (Aeronautic Science Foundation of China)/ ; },

abstract = {The aim of this paper is to make a thorough comparison between Kagome and tetrahedral truss-cored lattices both experimentally and numerically. Two titanium sandwich panels -one cored with the Kagome lattice and the other with the tetrahedral lattice -are manufactured by 3D printing technology. Comparisons of the thermal insulation, the inner flow pattern and the heat transfer between the two sandwich panels are completed subsequently according to the results from forced convective experiments and numerical simulation. Within the Reynolds number range of interest for this study, the Kagome lattice exhibits excellent heat dissipation compared with the tetrahedral lattice. In particular, when the cooling air flows in the direction OB of the two sandwich panels, the Kagome lattice provides an 8~37% higher overall Nusselt number for the sandwich panel compared to the tetrahedral lattice. The superiority of the Kagome lattice comes from a unique configuration in which the centre vertex acting as the vortex generator not only disturbs the primary flow but also induces more serious flow stagnation and separation. The complex fluid flow behaviours enhance heat transfer on both the endwalls and the trusses while causing a pressure drop that is almost two times higher than that of the tetrahedral lattice in the flow direction OB.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-04

**The lift force on a charged sphere that translates and rotates in an electrolyte.**

*Electrophoresis* [Epub ahead of print].

The distortion of the charge cloud around a uniformly charged, dielectric, rigid sphere that translates and rotates in an unbounded binary, symmetric electrolyte at zero Reynolds number is examined. The zeta potential of the particle ζ is assumed small relative to the thermal voltage scale. It is assumed that the equilibrium structure of the cloud is slightly distorted, which requires that the Péclet numbers characterizing distortion due to particle translation, Pet = Ua/D, and rotation, Per = Ωa2 /D, are small compared to unity. Here, a is radius of the particle; D is the ionic diffusion coefficient; U = |U| and Ω =|Ω|, where U and Ω are the rectilinear and angular velocities of the particle, respectively. Perturbation expansions for small Pet and Per are employed to calculate the non-equilibrium structure of the cloud, whence the force and torque on the particle are determined. In particular, we predict that the sphere experiences a force orthogonal to its directions of translation and rotation. This 'lift' force arises from the nonlinear distortion of the cloud under the combined actions of particle translation and rotation. The lift force is given by Flift = L(κa)(ɛa3 ζ2 /D2)U × Ω[1 + O(Pet , Per)]. Here, ε is the permittivity of the electrolyte; κ-1 is the Debye length; and L(κa) is a negative function that decreases in magnitude with increasing κa. The lift force implies that an unconstrained particle would follow a curved path; an electrokinetic analog of the inertial Magnus effect. Finally, the implication of the lift force on cross-streamline migration of an electrophoretic particle in shear flow is discussed.

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@article {pmid30830969,

year = {2019},

author = {Khair, AS and Balu, B},

title = {The lift force on a charged sphere that translates and rotates in an electrolyte.},

journal = {Electrophoresis},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1002/elps.201900029},

pmid = {30830969},

issn = {1522-2683},

abstract = {The distortion of the charge cloud around a uniformly charged, dielectric, rigid sphere that translates and rotates in an unbounded binary, symmetric electrolyte at zero Reynolds number is examined. The zeta potential of the particle ζ is assumed small relative to the thermal voltage scale. It is assumed that the equilibrium structure of the cloud is slightly distorted, which requires that the Péclet numbers characterizing distortion due to particle translation, Pet = Ua/D, and rotation, Per = Ωa2 /D, are small compared to unity. Here, a is radius of the particle; D is the ionic diffusion coefficient; U = |U| and Ω =|Ω|, where U and Ω are the rectilinear and angular velocities of the particle, respectively. Perturbation expansions for small Pet and Per are employed to calculate the non-equilibrium structure of the cloud, whence the force and torque on the particle are determined. In particular, we predict that the sphere experiences a force orthogonal to its directions of translation and rotation. This 'lift' force arises from the nonlinear distortion of the cloud under the combined actions of particle translation and rotation. The lift force is given by Flift = L(κa)(ɛa3 ζ2 /D2)U × Ω[1 + O(Pet , Per)]. Here, ε is the permittivity of the electrolyte; κ-1 is the Debye length; and L(κa) is a negative function that decreases in magnitude with increasing κa. The lift force implies that an unconstrained particle would follow a curved path; an electrokinetic analog of the inertial Magnus effect. Finally, the implication of the lift force on cross-streamline migration of an electrophoretic particle in shear flow is discussed.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-02

**A Comparison of Data Reduction Methods for Average Friction Factor Calculation of Adiabatic Gas Flows in Microchannels.**

*Micromachines*, **10(2):** pii:mi10030171.

In this paper, a combined numerical and experimental approach for the estimation of the average friction factor along adiabatic microchannels with compressible gas flows is presented. Pressure-drop experiments are performed for a rectangular microchannel with a hydraulic diameter of 295 μ m by varying Reynolds number up to 17,000. In parallel, the calculation of friction factor has been repeated numerically and results are compared with the experimental work. The validated numerical model was also used to gain an insight of flow physics by varying the aspect ratio and hydraulic diameter of rectangular microchannels with respect to the channel tested experimentally. This was done with an aim of verifying the role of minor loss coefficients for the estimation of the average friction factor. To have laminar, transitional, and turbulent regimes captured, numerical analysis has been performed by varying Reynolds number from 200 to 20,000. Comparison of numerically and experimentally calculated gas flow characteristics has shown that adiabatic wall treatment (Fanno flow) results in better agreement of average friction factor values with conventional theory than the isothermal treatment of gas along the microchannel. The use of a constant value for minor loss coefficients available in the literature is not recommended for microflows as they change from one assembly to the other and their accurate estimation for compressible flows requires a coupling of numerical analysis with experimental data reduction. Results presented in this work demonstrate how an adiabatic wall treatment along the length of the channel coupled with the assumption of an isentropic flow from manifold to microchannel inlet results in a self-sustained experimental data reduction method for the accurate estimation of friction factor values even in presence of significant compressibility effects. Results also demonstrate that both the assumption of perfect expansion and consequently wrong estimation of average temperature between inlet and outlet of a microchannel can be responsible for an apparent increase in experimental average friction factor in choked flow regime.

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@article {pmid30823482,

year = {2019},

author = {Rehman, D and Morini, GL and Hong, C},

title = {A Comparison of Data Reduction Methods for Average Friction Factor Calculation of Adiabatic Gas Flows in Microchannels.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {2},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/mi10030171},

pmid = {30823482},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {643095//Horizon 2020 Framework Programme/ ; },

abstract = {In this paper, a combined numerical and experimental approach for the estimation of the average friction factor along adiabatic microchannels with compressible gas flows is presented. Pressure-drop experiments are performed for a rectangular microchannel with a hydraulic diameter of 295 μ m by varying Reynolds number up to 17,000. In parallel, the calculation of friction factor has been repeated numerically and results are compared with the experimental work. The validated numerical model was also used to gain an insight of flow physics by varying the aspect ratio and hydraulic diameter of rectangular microchannels with respect to the channel tested experimentally. This was done with an aim of verifying the role of minor loss coefficients for the estimation of the average friction factor. To have laminar, transitional, and turbulent regimes captured, numerical analysis has been performed by varying Reynolds number from 200 to 20,000. Comparison of numerically and experimentally calculated gas flow characteristics has shown that adiabatic wall treatment (Fanno flow) results in better agreement of average friction factor values with conventional theory than the isothermal treatment of gas along the microchannel. The use of a constant value for minor loss coefficients available in the literature is not recommended for microflows as they change from one assembly to the other and their accurate estimation for compressible flows requires a coupling of numerical analysis with experimental data reduction. Results presented in this work demonstrate how an adiabatic wall treatment along the length of the channel coupled with the assumption of an isentropic flow from manifold to microchannel inlet results in a self-sustained experimental data reduction method for the accurate estimation of friction factor values even in presence of significant compressibility effects. Results also demonstrate that both the assumption of perfect expansion and consequently wrong estimation of average temperature between inlet and outlet of a microchannel can be responsible for an apparent increase in experimental average friction factor in choked flow regime.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-28

**Liquid jet breakup: A new method for the preparation of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres.**

*European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V* pii:S0939-6411(18)31001-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The purpose of this study was to apply the phenomenon of liquid jet breakup to the preparation of sustained-release microspheres. The mechanisms of liquid jet breakup in different jet states were investigated and the single factor method was used to study the effect of each process parameter on the particle size and size distribution of microspheres. Meantime, the prepared microspheres were characterized by morphology, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release. The results indicated that the process of liquid jet breakup could have 5 different states. The laminar flow state dominated when the Reynolds number (Re) was low, and the prepared microspheres had larger particle sizes. When the Re was high, the turbulent state was dominant and the microspheres had smaller particle sizes. And during the transition state from the laminar flow to the turbulence, the microspheres had a wide particle size distribution. Different process parameters could affect the particle size and distribution of microspheres by changing the Re, surface tension coefficient and viscosity. The microspheres prepared by liquid jet breakup were smooth and round with the drug loading of 35% and the encapsulation efficiency of 88%. In addition, when the polymeric carrier materials were different, the microspheres could have various drug release models such as sustained release with a lag phase, sustained release with no lag phase, pulsed release and so on, which could be applied widespread in the future.

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@article {pmid30818010,

year = {2019},

author = {Xia, Y and Yuan, M and Chen, M and Li, J and Ci, T and Ke, X},

title = {Liquid jet breakup: A new method for the preparation of poly lactic-co-glycolic acid microspheres.},

journal = {European journal of pharmaceutics and biopharmaceutics : official journal of Arbeitsgemeinschaft fur Pharmazeutische Verfahrenstechnik e.V},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1016/j.ejpb.2019.02.021},

pmid = {30818010},

issn = {1873-3441},

abstract = {The purpose of this study was to apply the phenomenon of liquid jet breakup to the preparation of sustained-release microspheres. The mechanisms of liquid jet breakup in different jet states were investigated and the single factor method was used to study the effect of each process parameter on the particle size and size distribution of microspheres. Meantime, the prepared microspheres were characterized by morphology, drug loading, encapsulation efficiency and in vitro release. The results indicated that the process of liquid jet breakup could have 5 different states. The laminar flow state dominated when the Reynolds number (Re) was low, and the prepared microspheres had larger particle sizes. When the Re was high, the turbulent state was dominant and the microspheres had smaller particle sizes. And during the transition state from the laminar flow to the turbulence, the microspheres had a wide particle size distribution. Different process parameters could affect the particle size and distribution of microspheres by changing the Re, surface tension coefficient and viscosity. The microspheres prepared by liquid jet breakup were smooth and round with the drug loading of 35% and the encapsulation efficiency of 88%. In addition, when the polymeric carrier materials were different, the microspheres could have various drug release models such as sustained release with a lag phase, sustained release with no lag phase, pulsed release and so on, which could be applied widespread in the future.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-28

**Characterization of Chaotic Electroconvection near Flat Inert Electrodes under Oscillatory Voltages.**

*Micromachines*, **10(3):** pii:mi10030161.

The onset of electroconvective instability in an aqueous binary electrolyte under external oscillatory electric fields at a single constant frequency is investigated in a 2D parallel flat electrode setup. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Poisson⁻Nernst⁻Planck equations coupled with the Navier⁻Stokes equations at a low Reynolds number are carried out. Previous studies show that direct current (DC) electric field can create electroconvection near ion-selecting membranes in microfluidic devices. In this study, we show that electroconvection can be generated near flat inert electrodes when the applied electric field is oscillatory in time. A range of applied voltage, the oscillation frequency and the ratio of ionic diffusivities is examined to characterize the regime in which electroconvection takes place. Similar to electroconvection under DC voltages, AC electroconvection occurs at sufficiently high applied voltages in units of thermal volts and is characterized by transverse instabilities, physically manifested by an array of counter-rotating vortices near the electrode surfaces. The oscillating external electric field periodically generate and destroy such unsteady vortical structures. As the oscillation frequency is reduced to O (10 - 1) of the intrinsic resistor⁻capacitor (RC) frequency of electrolyte, electroconvective instability is considerably amplified. This is accompanied by severe depletion of ionic species outside the thin electric double layer and by vigorous convective transport involving a wide range of scales including those comparable to the distance L between the parallel electrodes. The underlying mechanisms are distinctly nonlinear and multi-dimensional. However, at higher frequencies of order of the RC frequency, the electrolyte response becomes linear, and the present DNS prediction closely resembles those explained by 1D asymptotic studies. Electroconvective instability supports increased electric current across the system. Increasing anion diffusivity results in stronger amplification of electroconvection over all oscillation frequencies examined in this study. Such asymmetry in ionic diffusivity, however, does not yield consistent changes in statistics and energy spectrum at all wall-normal locations and frequencies, implying more complex dynamics and different scaling for electrolytes with unequal diffusivities. Electric current is substantially amplified beyond the ohmic current at high oscillation frequencies. Also, it is found that anion diffusivity higher than cation has stronger impact on smaller-scale motions (≲ 0.1 L).

Additional Links: PMID-30813604

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@article {pmid30813604,

year = {2019},

author = {Kim, J and Davidson, S and Mani, A},

title = {Characterization of Chaotic Electroconvection near Flat Inert Electrodes under Oscillatory Voltages.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {3},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/mi10030161},

pmid = {30813604},

issn = {2072-666X},

abstract = {The onset of electroconvective instability in an aqueous binary electrolyte under external oscillatory electric fields at a single constant frequency is investigated in a 2D parallel flat electrode setup. Direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Poisson⁻Nernst⁻Planck equations coupled with the Navier⁻Stokes equations at a low Reynolds number are carried out. Previous studies show that direct current (DC) electric field can create electroconvection near ion-selecting membranes in microfluidic devices. In this study, we show that electroconvection can be generated near flat inert electrodes when the applied electric field is oscillatory in time. A range of applied voltage, the oscillation frequency and the ratio of ionic diffusivities is examined to characterize the regime in which electroconvection takes place. Similar to electroconvection under DC voltages, AC electroconvection occurs at sufficiently high applied voltages in units of thermal volts and is characterized by transverse instabilities, physically manifested by an array of counter-rotating vortices near the electrode surfaces. The oscillating external electric field periodically generate and destroy such unsteady vortical structures. As the oscillation frequency is reduced to O (10 - 1) of the intrinsic resistor⁻capacitor (RC) frequency of electrolyte, electroconvective instability is considerably amplified. This is accompanied by severe depletion of ionic species outside the thin electric double layer and by vigorous convective transport involving a wide range of scales including those comparable to the distance L between the parallel electrodes. The underlying mechanisms are distinctly nonlinear and multi-dimensional. However, at higher frequencies of order of the RC frequency, the electrolyte response becomes linear, and the present DNS prediction closely resembles those explained by 1D asymptotic studies. Electroconvective instability supports increased electric current across the system. Increasing anion diffusivity results in stronger amplification of electroconvection over all oscillation frequencies examined in this study. Such asymmetry in ionic diffusivity, however, does not yield consistent changes in statistics and energy spectrum at all wall-normal locations and frequencies, implying more complex dynamics and different scaling for electrolytes with unequal diffusivities. Electric current is substantially amplified beyond the ohmic current at high oscillation frequencies. Also, it is found that anion diffusivity higher than cation has stronger impact on smaller-scale motions (≲ 0.1 L).},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-27

**Characterization of intrathecal cerebrospinal fluid geometry and dynamics in cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis) by magnetic resonance imaging.**

*PloS one*, **14(2):**e0212239 pii:PONE-D-18-36037.

Recent advancements have been made toward understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and related hydrodynamics. Increased understanding of CSF dynamics may lead to improved detection of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and optimized delivery of CSF based CNS therapeutics, with many proposed therapeutics hoping to successfully treat or cure debilitating neurological conditions. Before significant strides can be made toward the research and development of interventions designed for human use, additional research must be carried out with representative subjects such as non-human primates (NHP). This study presents a geometric and hydrodynamic characterization of CSF in eight cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) at baseline and two-week follow-up. Results showed that CSF flow along the entire spine was laminar with a Reynolds number ranging up to 80 and average Womersley number ranging from 4.1-7.7. Maximum CSF flow rate occurred ~25 mm caudal to the foramen magnum. Peak CSF flow rate ranged from 0.3-0.6 ml/s at the C3-C4 level. Geometric analysis indicated that average intrathecal CSF volume below the foramen magnum was 7.4 ml. The average surface area of the spinal cord and dura was 44.7 and 66.7 cm2 respectively. Subarachnoid space cross-sectional area and hydraulic diameter ranged from 7-75 mm2 and 2-3.7 mm, respectively. Stroke volume had the greatest value of 0.14 ml at an axial location corresponding to C3-C4.

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@article {pmid30811449,

year = {2019},

author = {Khani, M and Lawrence, BJ and Sass, LR and Gibbs, CP and Pluid, JJ and Oshinski, JN and Stewart, GR and Zeller, JR and Martin, BA},

title = {Characterization of intrathecal cerebrospinal fluid geometry and dynamics in cynomolgus monkeys (macaca fascicularis) by magnetic resonance imaging.},

journal = {PloS one},

volume = {14},

number = {2},

pages = {e0212239},

doi = {10.1371/journal.pone.0212239},

pmid = {30811449},

issn = {1932-6203},

abstract = {Recent advancements have been made toward understanding the diagnostic and therapeutic potential of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and related hydrodynamics. Increased understanding of CSF dynamics may lead to improved detection of central nervous system (CNS) diseases and optimized delivery of CSF based CNS therapeutics, with many proposed therapeutics hoping to successfully treat or cure debilitating neurological conditions. Before significant strides can be made toward the research and development of interventions designed for human use, additional research must be carried out with representative subjects such as non-human primates (NHP). This study presents a geometric and hydrodynamic characterization of CSF in eight cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) at baseline and two-week follow-up. Results showed that CSF flow along the entire spine was laminar with a Reynolds number ranging up to 80 and average Womersley number ranging from 4.1-7.7. Maximum CSF flow rate occurred ~25 mm caudal to the foramen magnum. Peak CSF flow rate ranged from 0.3-0.6 ml/s at the C3-C4 level. Geometric analysis indicated that average intrathecal CSF volume below the foramen magnum was 7.4 ml. The average surface area of the spinal cord and dura was 44.7 and 66.7 cm2 respectively. Subarachnoid space cross-sectional area and hydraulic diameter ranged from 7-75 mm2 and 2-3.7 mm, respectively. Stroke volume had the greatest value of 0.14 ml at an axial location corresponding to C3-C4.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-03

**Stokes flow analogous to viscous electron current in graphene.**

*Nature communications*, **10(1):**937 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-08916-5.

Electron transport in two-dimensional conducting materials such as graphene, with dominant electron-electron interaction, exhibits unusual vortex flow that leads to a nonlocal current-field relation (negative resistance), distinct from the classical Ohm's law. The transport behavior of these materials is best described by low Reynolds number hydrodynamics, where the constitutive pressure-speed relation is Stoke's law. Here we report evidence of such vortices observed in a viscous flow of Newtonian fluid in a microfluidic device consisting of a rectangular cavity-analogous to the electronic system. We extend our experimental observations to elliptic cavities of different eccentricities, and validate them by numerically solving bi-harmonic equation obtained for the viscous flow with no-slip boundary conditions. We verify the existence of a predicted threshold at which vortices appear. Strikingly, we find that a two-dimensional theoretical model captures the essential features of three-dimensional Stokes flow in experiments.

Additional Links: PMID-30808870

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@article {pmid30808870,

year = {2019},

author = {Mayzel, J and Steinberg, V and Varshney, A},

title = {Stokes flow analogous to viscous electron current in graphene.},

journal = {Nature communications},

volume = {10},

number = {1},

pages = {937},

doi = {10.1038/s41467-019-08916-5},

pmid = {30808870},

issn = {2041-1723},

abstract = {Electron transport in two-dimensional conducting materials such as graphene, with dominant electron-electron interaction, exhibits unusual vortex flow that leads to a nonlocal current-field relation (negative resistance), distinct from the classical Ohm's law. The transport behavior of these materials is best described by low Reynolds number hydrodynamics, where the constitutive pressure-speed relation is Stoke's law. Here we report evidence of such vortices observed in a viscous flow of Newtonian fluid in a microfluidic device consisting of a rectangular cavity-analogous to the electronic system. We extend our experimental observations to elliptic cavities of different eccentricities, and validate them by numerically solving bi-harmonic equation obtained for the viscous flow with no-slip boundary conditions. We verify the existence of a predicted threshold at which vortices appear. Strikingly, we find that a two-dimensional theoretical model captures the essential features of three-dimensional Stokes flow in experiments.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-25

**Settling velocity and size distribution measurement of anaerobic granular sludge using microscopic image analysis.**

*Journal of microbiological methods* pii:S0167-7012(19)30094-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Settling velocity and size distribution of anaerobic granular sludge samples were studied using microscopic image analysis and settling column experiments. Five granule samples were considered in this study. Three samples were collected at the Top, Middle and Bottom sections of a lab scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor (UASB). Two other granule samples were obtained from industries. This paper aims to establish a method that uses microscopic image analysis and shape factor as a tool to determine the size distribution and settling velocity of anaerobic granules. Image analysis technique was used to calculate the shape factor and equivalent diameter of granules. The equivalent diameter was then used to calculate the theoretical settling velocities based on Allen's formula and estimate size distributions. The results showed that there was a good agreement between the theoretical and experimental mean settling velocity values. Both measured and calculated settling velocities increased with increasing Reynolds number (Re). However, the agreement between measured and calculated values was found to be weaker at higher Re values. Size distribution analyses of the granules have revealed that there was significant difference in the size distribution of granule samples collected at different heights of the lab scale reactor. Overall, granules from the bottom section of the reactor had larger diameter, settling velocity and shape factor than those at the middle and top section granules. Whereas granules collected from the top section exhibited the smallest granular diameter, settling velocity and shape factor.

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@article {pmid30802483,

year = {2019},

author = {Tassew, FA and Bergland, WH and Dinamarca, C and Bakke, R},

title = {Settling velocity and size distribution measurement of anaerobic granular sludge using microscopic image analysis.},

journal = {Journal of microbiological methods},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1016/j.mimet.2019.02.013},

pmid = {30802483},

issn = {1872-8359},

abstract = {Settling velocity and size distribution of anaerobic granular sludge samples were studied using microscopic image analysis and settling column experiments. Five granule samples were considered in this study. Three samples were collected at the Top, Middle and Bottom sections of a lab scale upflow anaerobic sludge bed reactor (UASB). Two other granule samples were obtained from industries. This paper aims to establish a method that uses microscopic image analysis and shape factor as a tool to determine the size distribution and settling velocity of anaerobic granules. Image analysis technique was used to calculate the shape factor and equivalent diameter of granules. The equivalent diameter was then used to calculate the theoretical settling velocities based on Allen's formula and estimate size distributions. The results showed that there was a good agreement between the theoretical and experimental mean settling velocity values. Both measured and calculated settling velocities increased with increasing Reynolds number (Re). However, the agreement between measured and calculated values was found to be weaker at higher Re values. Size distribution analyses of the granules have revealed that there was significant difference in the size distribution of granule samples collected at different heights of the lab scale reactor. Overall, granules from the bottom section of the reactor had larger diameter, settling velocity and shape factor than those at the middle and top section granules. Whereas granules collected from the top section exhibited the smallest granular diameter, settling velocity and shape factor.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-27

**Competing Lagrangians for incompressible and compressible viscous flow.**

*Royal Society open science*, **6(1):**181595 pii:rsos181595.

A recently proposed variational principle with a discontinuous Lagrangian for viscous flow is reinterpreted against the background of stochastic variational descriptions of dissipative systems, underpinning its physical basis from a different viewpoint. It is shown that additional non-classical contributions to the friction force occurring in the momentum balance vanish by time averaging. Accordingly, the discontinuous Lagrangian can alternatively be understood from the standpoint of an analogous deterministic model for irreversible processes of stochastic character. A comparison is made with established stochastic variational descriptions and an alternative deterministic approach based on a first integral of Navier-Stokes equations is undertaken. The applicability of the discontinuous Lagrangian approach for different Reynolds number regimes is discussed considering the Kolmogorov time scale. A generalization for compressible flow is elaborated and its use demonstrated for damped sound waves.

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@article {pmid30800393,

year = {2019},

author = {Marner, F and Scholle, M and Herrmann, D and Gaskell, PH},

title = {Competing Lagrangians for incompressible and compressible viscous flow.},

journal = {Royal Society open science},

volume = {6},

number = {1},

pages = {181595},

doi = {10.1098/rsos.181595},

pmid = {30800393},

issn = {2054-5703},

abstract = {A recently proposed variational principle with a discontinuous Lagrangian for viscous flow is reinterpreted against the background of stochastic variational descriptions of dissipative systems, underpinning its physical basis from a different viewpoint. It is shown that additional non-classical contributions to the friction force occurring in the momentum balance vanish by time averaging. Accordingly, the discontinuous Lagrangian can alternatively be understood from the standpoint of an analogous deterministic model for irreversible processes of stochastic character. A comparison is made with established stochastic variational descriptions and an alternative deterministic approach based on a first integral of Navier-Stokes equations is undertaken. The applicability of the discontinuous Lagrangian approach for different Reynolds number regimes is discussed considering the Kolmogorov time scale. A generalization for compressible flow is elaborated and its use demonstrated for damped sound waves.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-23

**Groundwater flow velocities in a fractured carbonate aquifer-type: Implications for contaminant transport.**

*Journal of contaminant hydrology* pii:S0169-7722(18)30290-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Contaminants that are highly soluble in groundwater are rapidly transported via fractures in mechanically resistant sedimentary rock aquifers. Hence, a rigorous methodology is needed to estimate groundwater flow velocities in such fractured aquifers. Here, we propose an approach using borehole hydraulic testing to compute flow velocities in an un-faulted area of a fractured carbonate aquifer by applying the cubic law to a parallel plate model. The Cadeby Formation (Yorkshire, NE England) - a Permian dolostone aquifer present beneath the University of Leeds Farm - is the fractured aquifer selected for this hydraulic experiment. The bedding plane fractures of this dolostone aquifer, which are sub-horizontal, sub-parallel and laterally persistent, largely dominate the flow at shallow (<~40 mBGL) depths. These flowing bedding plane discontinuities are separated by a rock matrix which is relatively impermeable (Kwell-test/Kcore-plug~104) as is common in fractured carbonate aquifers. In the workflow reported here, the number of flowing fractures - mainly bedding plane fractures - intersecting three open monitoring wells are found from temperature/fluid conductivity and acoustic/optical televiewer logging. Following well installation, average fracture hydraulic apertures for screened intervals are found from analysis of slug tests. For the case study aquifer, this workflow predicts hydraulic apertures ranging from 0.10 up to 0.54 mm. However, groundwater flow velocities range within two order of magnitude from 13 up to 242 m/day. Notably, fracture apertures and flow velocities rapidly reduce with increasing depth below the water table; the upper ~10 m shows relatively high values of hydraulic conductivity (0.30-2.85 m/day) and corresponding flow velocity (33-242 m/day). Permeability development around the water table in carbonate aquifer-types is common, and arises where high pCO2 recharge water from the soil zone causes calcite/dolomite dissolution. Hence, agricultural contaminants entering the aquifer with recharge water are laterally transported rapidly within this upper part. Computation of groundwater flow velocities allows determination of the Reynolds number. Values of up ~1, indicating the lower limit of the transition from laminar to turbulent flow, are found at the studied site, which is situated away from major fault traces. Hence, turbulent flow is likely to arise in proximity to tectonic structures, such as normal faults, which localize flow and enhance karstification. The occurrence of turbulent flow in correspondence of such tectonic structures should be represented in regional groundwater flow simulations.

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@article {pmid30795856,

year = {2019},

author = {Medici, G and West, LJ and Banwart, SA},

title = {Groundwater flow velocities in a fractured carbonate aquifer-type: Implications for contaminant transport.},

journal = {Journal of contaminant hydrology},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1016/j.jconhyd.2019.02.001},

pmid = {30795856},

issn = {1873-6009},

abstract = {Contaminants that are highly soluble in groundwater are rapidly transported via fractures in mechanically resistant sedimentary rock aquifers. Hence, a rigorous methodology is needed to estimate groundwater flow velocities in such fractured aquifers. Here, we propose an approach using borehole hydraulic testing to compute flow velocities in an un-faulted area of a fractured carbonate aquifer by applying the cubic law to a parallel plate model. The Cadeby Formation (Yorkshire, NE England) - a Permian dolostone aquifer present beneath the University of Leeds Farm - is the fractured aquifer selected for this hydraulic experiment. The bedding plane fractures of this dolostone aquifer, which are sub-horizontal, sub-parallel and laterally persistent, largely dominate the flow at shallow (<~40 mBGL) depths. These flowing bedding plane discontinuities are separated by a rock matrix which is relatively impermeable (Kwell-test/Kcore-plug~104) as is common in fractured carbonate aquifers. In the workflow reported here, the number of flowing fractures - mainly bedding plane fractures - intersecting three open monitoring wells are found from temperature/fluid conductivity and acoustic/optical televiewer logging. Following well installation, average fracture hydraulic apertures for screened intervals are found from analysis of slug tests. For the case study aquifer, this workflow predicts hydraulic apertures ranging from 0.10 up to 0.54 mm. However, groundwater flow velocities range within two order of magnitude from 13 up to 242 m/day. Notably, fracture apertures and flow velocities rapidly reduce with increasing depth below the water table; the upper ~10 m shows relatively high values of hydraulic conductivity (0.30-2.85 m/day) and corresponding flow velocity (33-242 m/day). Permeability development around the water table in carbonate aquifer-types is common, and arises where high pCO2 recharge water from the soil zone causes calcite/dolomite dissolution. Hence, agricultural contaminants entering the aquifer with recharge water are laterally transported rapidly within this upper part. Computation of groundwater flow velocities allows determination of the Reynolds number. Values of up ~1, indicating the lower limit of the transition from laminar to turbulent flow, are found at the studied site, which is situated away from major fault traces. Hence, turbulent flow is likely to arise in proximity to tectonic structures, such as normal faults, which localize flow and enhance karstification. The occurrence of turbulent flow in correspondence of such tectonic structures should be represented in regional groundwater flow simulations.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-21

**Microfabricaton of microfluidic check valves using comb-shaped moving plug for suppression of backflow in microchannel.**

*Biomedical microdevices*, **21(1):**19 pii:10.1007/s10544-019-0365-1.

This study reports on an efficient microscale one-way valve system that combines the physical properties of photopolymerized microstructures and viscoelastic microchannels to rectify flows with low Reynolds numbers. The comb-shaped moving plug in the microchannel prevented backflow in the closed state to ensure that the microchannel remained completely blocked in the closed state, but allowed forward flow in the open state. This microfluidic check valve was microfabricated using the combination of the soft lithography and the releasing methods with the use of a double photoresist layer to create microchannels and free-moving comb-shaped microstructures, respectively. As a result, the microfluidic check valves elicited average high-pressure differences as much as 10.75 kPa between the backward and forward flows at low Reynolds numbers of the order of 0.253, thus demonstrating efficient rectification of microfluids. This study supports the use of rectification systems for the development of biomedical devices, such as drug delivery, micropumps, and lab-on-a-chip, by allowing unidirectional flow.

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@article {pmid30790045,

year = {2019},

author = {Hyeon, J and So, H},

title = {Microfabricaton of microfluidic check valves using comb-shaped moving plug for suppression of backflow in microchannel.},

journal = {Biomedical microdevices},

volume = {21},

number = {1},

pages = {19},

doi = {10.1007/s10544-019-0365-1},

pmid = {30790045},

issn = {1572-8781},

support = {2018R1D1A1B07051411//National Research Foundation of Korea/ ; },

abstract = {This study reports on an efficient microscale one-way valve system that combines the physical properties of photopolymerized microstructures and viscoelastic microchannels to rectify flows with low Reynolds numbers. The comb-shaped moving plug in the microchannel prevented backflow in the closed state to ensure that the microchannel remained completely blocked in the closed state, but allowed forward flow in the open state. This microfluidic check valve was microfabricated using the combination of the soft lithography and the releasing methods with the use of a double photoresist layer to create microchannels and free-moving comb-shaped microstructures, respectively. As a result, the microfluidic check valves elicited average high-pressure differences as much as 10.75 kPa between the backward and forward flows at low Reynolds numbers of the order of 0.253, thus demonstrating efficient rectification of microfluids. This study supports the use of rectification systems for the development of biomedical devices, such as drug delivery, micropumps, and lab-on-a-chip, by allowing unidirectional flow.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-01

**Effect of Particle Size on the Rising Behavior of Particle-Laden Bubbles.**

*Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids* [Epub ahead of print].

The rising behavior of bubbles, initially half and fully coated with glass beads of various sizes, was investigated. The bubble velocity, aspect ratio, and oscillation periods were determined using high-speed photography and image analysis. In addition, the acting forces, drag modification factor, and modified drag coefficient were calculated and interpreted. Results show that the aspect ratio oscillation of the rising bubbles is similar, irrespective of the attached particle size. As the particle size is increased, the rising bubbles have a lower velocity and aspect ratio amplitude, with the time from release to each aspect ratio peak increasing. Higher particle coverage is shown to decrease the bubble velocity and dampen the oscillations, reducing the number of aspect ratio peaks observed. The highest rise velocities correspond to the lowest aspect ratios and vice versa, whereas a constant aspect ratio yields a constant rise velocity, independent of the particle size. Force analysis shows that the particle drag modification factor increases with the increased particle size and is greatest for fully laden bubbles. The modified drag coefficient of particle-laden bubbles increases with the increased particle size, although it decreases with the increased Reynolds number independent of the particle size. The drag force exerted by the particles plays a more dominant role in decreasing bubble velocities as the particle size increases. The results and interpretation produced a quantitative description of the behavior of rising particle-laden bubbles and the development of correlations will enhance the modeling of industrial applications.

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@article {pmid30785756,

year = {2019},

author = {Wang, P and Cilliers, JJ and Neethling, SJ and Brito-Parada, PR},

title = {Effect of Particle Size on the Rising Behavior of Particle-Laden Bubbles.},

journal = {Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1021/acs.langmuir.8b04112},

pmid = {30785756},

issn = {1520-5827},

abstract = {The rising behavior of bubbles, initially half and fully coated with glass beads of various sizes, was investigated. The bubble velocity, aspect ratio, and oscillation periods were determined using high-speed photography and image analysis. In addition, the acting forces, drag modification factor, and modified drag coefficient were calculated and interpreted. Results show that the aspect ratio oscillation of the rising bubbles is similar, irrespective of the attached particle size. As the particle size is increased, the rising bubbles have a lower velocity and aspect ratio amplitude, with the time from release to each aspect ratio peak increasing. Higher particle coverage is shown to decrease the bubble velocity and dampen the oscillations, reducing the number of aspect ratio peaks observed. The highest rise velocities correspond to the lowest aspect ratios and vice versa, whereas a constant aspect ratio yields a constant rise velocity, independent of the particle size. Force analysis shows that the particle drag modification factor increases with the increased particle size and is greatest for fully laden bubbles. The modified drag coefficient of particle-laden bubbles increases with the increased particle size, although it decreases with the increased Reynolds number independent of the particle size. The drag force exerted by the particles plays a more dominant role in decreasing bubble velocities as the particle size increases. The results and interpretation produced a quantitative description of the behavior of rising particle-laden bubbles and the development of correlations will enhance the modeling of industrial applications.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-20

**Experimental Convection Heat Transfer Analysis of a Nano-Enhanced Industrial Coolant.**

*Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)*, **9(2):** pii:nano9020267.

Convection heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops of four functionalized graphene nanoplatelet nanofluids based on the commercial coolant Havoline® XLC Pre-mixed 50/50 were experimentally determined to assess its thermal performance. The potential heat transfer enhancement produced by nanofluids could play an important role in increasing the efficiency of cooling systems. Particularly in wind power, the increasing size of the wind turbines, up to 10 MW nowadays, requires sophisticated liquid cooling systems to keep the nominal temperature conditions and protect the components from temperature degradation and hazardous environment in off-shore wind parks. The effect of nanoadditive loading, temperature and Reynolds number in convection heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops is discussed. A dimensionless analysis of the results is carried out and empirical correlations for the Nusselt number and Darcy friction factor are proposed. A maximum enhancement in the convection heat transfer coefficient of 7% was found for the nanofluid with nanoadditive loading of 0.25 wt %. Contrarily, no enhancement was found for the nanofluids of higher functionalized graphene nanoplatelet mass fraction.

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@article {pmid30781378,

year = {2019},

author = {Álvarez-Regueiro, E and Vallejo, JP and Fernández-Seara, J and Fernández, J and Lugo, L},

title = {Experimental Convection Heat Transfer Analysis of a Nano-Enhanced Industrial Coolant.},

journal = {Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland)},

volume = {9},

number = {2},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/nano9020267},

pmid = {30781378},

issn = {2079-4991},

support = {ENE2014-55489-C2-1/2-R; ENE2017-86425-C2-1/2-R//Ministerio de Economía, Industria y Competitividad, Gobierno de España/ ; },

abstract = {Convection heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops of four functionalized graphene nanoplatelet nanofluids based on the commercial coolant Havoline® XLC Pre-mixed 50/50 were experimentally determined to assess its thermal performance. The potential heat transfer enhancement produced by nanofluids could play an important role in increasing the efficiency of cooling systems. Particularly in wind power, the increasing size of the wind turbines, up to 10 MW nowadays, requires sophisticated liquid cooling systems to keep the nominal temperature conditions and protect the components from temperature degradation and hazardous environment in off-shore wind parks. The effect of nanoadditive loading, temperature and Reynolds number in convection heat transfer coefficients and pressure drops is discussed. A dimensionless analysis of the results is carried out and empirical correlations for the Nusselt number and Darcy friction factor are proposed. A maximum enhancement in the convection heat transfer coefficient of 7% was found for the nanofluid with nanoadditive loading of 0.25 wt %. Contrarily, no enhancement was found for the nanofluids of higher functionalized graphene nanoplatelet mass fraction.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-20

**Flapping-mode changes and aerodynamic mechanisms in miniature insects.**

*Physical review. E*, **99(1-1):**012419.

Miniature insects fly at very low Reynolds number (Re); low Re means large viscous effect. If flapping as larger insects, sufficient vertical force cannot be produced. We measure the wing kinematics for miniature-insect species of different sizes and compute the aerodynamic forces. The planar upstroke commonly used by larger insects changes to a U-shaped upstroke, which becomes deeper as size or Re decreases. For relatively large miniature insects, the U-shaped upstroke produces a larger vertical force than a planar upstroke by having a larger wing velocity and, for very small ones, the deep U-shaped upstroke produces a large transient drag directed upwards, providing the required vertical force.

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@article {pmid30780337,

year = {2019},

author = {Lyu, YZ and Zhu, HJ and Sun, M},

title = {Flapping-mode changes and aerodynamic mechanisms in miniature insects.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {99},

number = {1-1},

pages = {012419},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.99.012419},

pmid = {30780337},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {Miniature insects fly at very low Reynolds number (Re); low Re means large viscous effect. If flapping as larger insects, sufficient vertical force cannot be produced. We measure the wing kinematics for miniature-insect species of different sizes and compute the aerodynamic forces. The planar upstroke commonly used by larger insects changes to a U-shaped upstroke, which becomes deeper as size or Re decreases. For relatively large miniature insects, the U-shaped upstroke produces a larger vertical force than a planar upstroke by having a larger wing velocity and, for very small ones, the deep U-shaped upstroke produces a large transient drag directed upwards, providing the required vertical force.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-26

CmpDate: 2019-02-26

**Robustness of heat transfer in confined inclined convection at high Prandtl number.**

*Physical review. E*, **99(1-1):**013108.

We investigate the dependency of the magnitude of heat transfer in a convection cell as a function of its inclination by means of experiments and simulations. The study is performed with a working fluid of large Prandtl number, Pr≃480, and at Rayleigh numbers Ra≃10^{8} and Ra≃5×10^{8} in a quasi-two-dimensional rectangular cell with unit aspect ratio. By changing the inclination angle (β) of the convection cell, the character of the flow can be changed from moderately turbulent, for β=0^{∘}, to laminar and steady at β=90^{∘}. The global heat transfer is found to be insensitive to the drastic reduction of turbulent intensity, with maximal relative variations of the order of 20% at Ra≃10^{8} and 10% at Ra≃5×10^{8}, while the Reynolds number, based on the global root-mean-square velocity, is strongly affected with a decay of more than 85% occurring in the laminar regime. We show that the intensity of the heat flux in the turbulent regime can be only weakly enhanced by establishing a large-scale circulation flow by means of small inclinations. However, in the laminar regime the heat is transported solely by a slow large-scale circulation flow which exhibits large correlations between the velocity and temperature fields. For inclination angles close to the transition regime in-between the turbulentlike and laminar state, a quasiperiodic heat-flow bursting phenomenon is observed.

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@article {pmid30780316,

year = {2019},

author = {Jiang, L and Sun, C and Calzavarini, E},

title = {Robustness of heat transfer in confined inclined convection at high Prandtl number.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {99},

number = {1-1},

pages = {013108},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.99.013108},

pmid = {30780316},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {We investigate the dependency of the magnitude of heat transfer in a convection cell as a function of its inclination by means of experiments and simulations. The study is performed with a working fluid of large Prandtl number, Pr≃480, and at Rayleigh numbers Ra≃10^{8}

and Ra≃5×10^{8}

in a quasi-two-dimensional rectangular cell with unit aspect ratio. By changing the inclination angle (β) of the convection cell, the character of the flow can be changed from moderately turbulent, for β=0^{∘},

to laminar and steady at β=90^{∘}.

The global heat transfer is found to be insensitive to the drastic reduction of turbulent intensity, with maximal relative variations of the order of 20% at Ra≃10^{8}

and 10% at Ra≃5×10^{8},

while the Reynolds number, based on the global root-mean-square velocity, is strongly affected with a decay of more than 85% occurring in the laminar regime. We show that the intensity of the heat flux in the turbulent regime can be only weakly enhanced by establishing a large-scale circulation flow by means of small inclinations. However, in the laminar regime the heat is transported solely by a slow large-scale circulation flow which exhibits large correlations between the velocity and temperature fields. For inclination angles close to the transition regime in-between the turbulentlike and laminar state, a quasiperiodic heat-flow bursting phenomenon is observed.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-26

CmpDate: 2019-02-26

**Grid sensitivity and role of error in computing a lid-driven cavity problem.**

*Physical review. E*, **99(1-1):**013305.

The investigation on grid sensitivity for the bifurcation problem of the canonical lid-driven cavity (LDC) flow results is reported here with very fine grids. This is motivated by different researchers presenting different first bifurcation critical Reynolds number (Re_{cr1}), which appears to depend on the formulation, numerical method, and choice of grid. By using a very-high-accuracy parallel algorithm, and the same method with which sequential results were presented by Lestandi et al. [Comput. Fluids 166, 86 (2018)CPFLBI0045-793010.1016/j.compfluid.2018.01.038] [for (257 × 257) and (513 × 513) uniformly spaced grid], we present results using (1025×1025) and (2049×2049) grid points. Detailed results presented using these grids help us understand the computational physics of the numerical receptivity of the LDC flow, with and without explicit excitation. The mathematical physics of the investigated problem will become apparent when we identify the roles of numerical errors with the ambient omnipresent disturbances in real physical flows as interchangeable. In physical or in numerical setups, presence of disturbances cannot be ignored. In this context, the need for explicit excitation for the used compact scheme arises for a definitive threshold amplitude, below which the flow relaxes back to quiescent state after the excitation is removed in computations. We also implement the present parallel method to show the physical aspects of primary and secondary instabilities to be maintained for other numerical schemes, and we show the results to reflect the complex physics during multiple subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Also, we relate the various sources of errors during computations that is typical of such shear-driven flow. These results, with near spectral accuracy, constitute universal benchmark results for the solution of Navier-Stokes equation for LDC.

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@article {pmid30780239,

year = {2019},

author = {Suman, VK and Viknesh S, S and Tekriwal, MK and Bhaumik, S and Sengupta, TK},

title = {Grid sensitivity and role of error in computing a lid-driven cavity problem.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {99},

number = {1-1},

pages = {013305},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.99.013305},

pmid = {30780239},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {The investigation on grid sensitivity for the bifurcation problem of the canonical lid-driven cavity (LDC) flow results is reported here with very fine grids. This is motivated by different researchers presenting different first bifurcation critical Reynolds number (Re_{cr1})

, which appears to depend on the formulation, numerical method, and choice of grid. By using a very-high-accuracy parallel algorithm, and the same method with which sequential results were presented by Lestandi et al. [Comput. Fluids 166, 86 (2018)CPFLBI0045-793010.1016/j.compfluid.2018.01.038] [for (257 × 257) and (513 × 513) uniformly spaced grid], we present results using (1025×1025) and (2049×2049) grid points. Detailed results presented using these grids help us understand the computational physics of the numerical receptivity of the LDC flow, with and without explicit excitation. The mathematical physics of the investigated problem will become apparent when we identify the roles of numerical errors with the ambient omnipresent disturbances in real physical flows as interchangeable. In physical or in numerical setups, presence of disturbances cannot be ignored. In this context, the need for explicit excitation for the used compact scheme arises for a definitive threshold amplitude, below which the flow relaxes back to quiescent state after the excitation is removed in computations. We also implement the present parallel method to show the physical aspects of primary and secondary instabilities to be maintained for other numerical schemes, and we show the results to reflect the complex physics during multiple subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Also, we relate the various sources of errors during computations that is typical of such shear-driven flow. These results, with near spectral accuracy, constitute universal benchmark results for the solution of Navier-Stokes equation for LDC.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-26

CmpDate: 2019-02-26

**Relative importance of initial conditions on outflows from multiple fans.**

*Physical review. E*, **99(1-1):**013112.

Generation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence was attempted using an innovative "multifan wind tunnel" with 99 fans installed. The driving method used is based on a principle that the shear layers generated between outflows from the adjacent ducts lead to turbulent flow downstream. First, a signal composed of two frequency components is set, and then it is fed to all the fans for three kinds of arrangements of phases. Here, parameter N is introduced as the number of phases used for the 99 fans, which represents a variety of emanated shear layers. Furthermore, S is introduced as a measure of shear magnitude at the inlet of the test section. Relative importance of the initial conditions (N and S) in the development of turbulence was investigated. To estimate the contribution from naturally induced turbulence, we numerically decomposed the resulting velocity fluctuations into the periodic and nonperiodic component. Energy spectra for three values of N were calculated using nonperiodic data. The inertial subrange of a gradient of -5/3 widens with increasing N. The value S is the largest for N=2, but the turbulence intensity of the nonperiodic component is the largest for N=99. Hence, it might be suggested that the shear magnitude at the inlet of the test section is not as important as the variety of shear layers for effective generation of high-Reynolds-number turbulence.

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@article {pmid30780221,

year = {2019},

author = {Takamure, K and Ozono, S},

title = {Relative importance of initial conditions on outflows from multiple fans.},

journal = {Physical review. E},

volume = {99},

number = {1-1},

pages = {013112},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevE.99.013112},

pmid = {30780221},

issn = {2470-0053},

abstract = {Generation of homogeneous isotropic turbulence was attempted using an innovative "multifan wind tunnel" with 99 fans installed. The driving method used is based on a principle that the shear layers generated between outflows from the adjacent ducts lead to turbulent flow downstream. First, a signal composed of two frequency components is set, and then it is fed to all the fans for three kinds of arrangements of phases. Here, parameter N is introduced as the number of phases used for the 99 fans, which represents a variety of emanated shear layers. Furthermore, S is introduced as a measure of shear magnitude at the inlet of the test section. Relative importance of the initial conditions (N and S) in the development of turbulence was investigated. To estimate the contribution from naturally induced turbulence, we numerically decomposed the resulting velocity fluctuations into the periodic and nonperiodic component. Energy spectra for three values of N were calculated using nonperiodic data. The inertial subrange of a gradient of -5/3 widens with increasing N. The value S is the largest for N=2, but the turbulence intensity of the nonperiodic component is the largest for N=99. Hence, it might be suggested that the shear magnitude at the inlet of the test section is not as important as the variety of shear layers for effective generation of high-Reynolds-number turbulence.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-16

**Effects of channel morphology on nitrate retention in a headwater agricultural stream in Lake Chaohu Basin, China.**

*Environmental science and pollution research international* pii:10.1007/s11356-019-04484-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Five field tracer experiments and relevant detailed investigations of physical characterizations were conducted to investigate the effects of channel geomorphic settings on nitrate uptake efficiency on a 310-m long geomorphically distinct stream reach in a headwater agricultural stream in Hefei District, Lake Chaohu Basin. The model-fitted parameters from the one-dimensional transport with inflow and storage model were used to estimate the transient storage metric ([Formula: see text]) and determine the total nitrate uptake coefficient (k) for the study reach. And then, a nutrient spiraling approach was applied to reach-scale nitrate uptake estimates (Sw, Vf, and U). The results showed that the main channel was the major contributor to nitrate uptake retention, and the higher geomorphic complexity might result in better nitrate uptake efficiency. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis showed strong correlations between the independent variables as geomorphic settings, Reynolds number and transient storage, and the dependent variables as nitrate uptake metrics, which further underscored the importance of stream physical characteristics on measurement of stream nitrate uptake.

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@article {pmid30771128,

year = {2019},

author = {Li, R and Xu, D and Yin, Q},

title = {Effects of channel morphology on nitrate retention in a headwater agricultural stream in Lake Chaohu Basin, China.},

journal = {Environmental science and pollution research international},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1007/s11356-019-04484-9},

pmid = {30771128},

issn = {1614-7499},

support = {Grant No. 51579061//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; },

abstract = {Five field tracer experiments and relevant detailed investigations of physical characterizations were conducted to investigate the effects of channel geomorphic settings on nitrate uptake efficiency on a 310-m long geomorphically distinct stream reach in a headwater agricultural stream in Hefei District, Lake Chaohu Basin. The model-fitted parameters from the one-dimensional transport with inflow and storage model were used to estimate the transient storage metric ([Formula: see text]) and determine the total nitrate uptake coefficient (k) for the study reach. And then, a nutrient spiraling approach was applied to reach-scale nitrate uptake estimates (Sw, Vf, and U). The results showed that the main channel was the major contributor to nitrate uptake retention, and the higher geomorphic complexity might result in better nitrate uptake efficiency. The partial least squares regression (PLSR) analysis showed strong correlations between the independent variables as geomorphic settings, Reynolds number and transient storage, and the dependent variables as nitrate uptake metrics, which further underscored the importance of stream physical characteristics on measurement of stream nitrate uptake.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-16

**Characterization of Blood Flow Patterns and Endothelial Shear Stress during Flow Mediated Dilation.**

*Clinical physiology and functional imaging* [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Endothelial dysfunction is considered the first step in the development of atherosclerosis. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) has been the most common assessment of endothelial function in research but it has failed in obtaining a widespread use in clinical settings due to a lack of standardization and a large inter-subject variability. Normalization of FMD to endothelial shear stress (ESS) has been proposed to solve its technical limitations. However, studies have not considered the characteristic of the blood flow during FMD under pulsatile conditions in their ESS estimations.

METHODS: A total of 26 young healthy subjects (15 females and 11 males) underwent FMD testing. Microhematocrit measurement was used to determine blood viscosity (μ). ESS was calculated by Womersley's approximation, ESS = μ*2K*Velocity/Diameter, where K is a function of Womersley's parameter (α). Blood flow patterns were determined by critical Reynolds number. Statistical analysis included repeated measures ANOVA to detect ESS differences during FMD until peak dilation. Significance vas established at p≤0·05.

RESULTS: The mean (SD) FMD% and time to peak dilation were 7·4 (3·1) % and 35 (9·3) seconds, respectively. ESS was significantly reduced during FMD until peak dilation (p<0·001). Turbulent blood flow was the only pattern observed until peak dilation in 96·15% of the sample.

CONCLUSION: Peak FMD dilation in a young healthy population is triggered mostly by high-ESS under turbulent flow conditions. Due to the pulsatile nature of blood flow and the appearance of a turbulent pattern during FMD, ESS should be estimated by Womersley's approximation rather than Poiseuille's law. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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@article {pmid30770644,

year = {2019},

author = {Morales-Acuna, F and Ochoa, L and Valencia, C and Gurovich, AN},

title = {Characterization of Blood Flow Patterns and Endothelial Shear Stress during Flow Mediated Dilation.},

journal = {Clinical physiology and functional imaging},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1111/cpf.12564},

pmid = {30770644},

issn = {1475-097X},

abstract = {INTRODUCTION: Endothelial dysfunction is considered the first step in the development of atherosclerosis. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) has been the most common assessment of endothelial function in research but it has failed in obtaining a widespread use in clinical settings due to a lack of standardization and a large inter-subject variability. Normalization of FMD to endothelial shear stress (ESS) has been proposed to solve its technical limitations. However, studies have not considered the characteristic of the blood flow during FMD under pulsatile conditions in their ESS estimations.

METHODS: A total of 26 young healthy subjects (15 females and 11 males) underwent FMD testing. Microhematocrit measurement was used to determine blood viscosity (μ). ESS was calculated by Womersley's approximation, ESS = μ*2K*Velocity/Diameter, where K is a function of Womersley's parameter (α). Blood flow patterns were determined by critical Reynolds number. Statistical analysis included repeated measures ANOVA to detect ESS differences during FMD until peak dilation. Significance vas established at p≤0·05.

RESULTS: The mean (SD) FMD% and time to peak dilation were 7·4 (3·1) % and 35 (9·3) seconds, respectively. ESS was significantly reduced during FMD until peak dilation (p<0·001). Turbulent blood flow was the only pattern observed until peak dilation in 96·15% of the sample.

CONCLUSION: Peak FMD dilation in a young healthy population is triggered mostly by high-ESS under turbulent flow conditions. Due to the pulsatile nature of blood flow and the appearance of a turbulent pattern during FMD, ESS should be estimated by Womersley's approximation rather than Poiseuille's law. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-20

**Variations in hydrodynamic characteristics of netting panels with various twine materials, knot types, and weave patterns at small attack angles.**

*Scientific reports*, **9(1):**1923 pii:10.1038/s41598-018-35907-1.

It is essential to conduct hydrodynamic experiments for fishing gear at small attack angles along the flow direction to better understand the hydrodynamic characteristics of netting and application of gear. The hydrodynamic characteristics of netting panels made of different materials at small attack angles were investigated by a self-designed setup; this is essential for the effective use of netting on different types of gears. As confirmed by experiments, the measured drag of designed frame without netting accounted for less than 20% of the total setup drag including experimental netting and remained in a steady state under various current speeds and small attack angles, indicating that the self-designed frame setup is suitable for such trials. The drag coefficient was determined by varying the attack angle, solidity ratio, Reynolds number, knot types, weave pattern, and twine materials at small attack angles. The results indicate that the drag coefficient increased as the attack angle increased, but decreased as the solidity ratio and Reynolds number increased. The drag generated by knot accounted for 21% of the total drag of nylon (PA) netting. For braided knotless netting, the drag coefficient of PA netting was about 8.4% lower than that of polythene netting (PE) and 7% lower than that of polyester netting (PES). Compared with twined netting, the braided netting exhibited a higher resistance to flow, corresponding to higher values of drag coefficient.

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@article {pmid30760794,

year = {2019},

author = {Tang, H and Hu, F and Xu, L and Dong, S and Zhou, C and Wang, X},

title = {Variations in hydrodynamic characteristics of netting panels with various twine materials, knot types, and weave patterns at small attack angles.},

journal = {Scientific reports},

volume = {9},

number = {1},

pages = {1923},

doi = {10.1038/s41598-018-35907-1},

pmid = {30760794},

issn = {2045-2322},

support = {41506151//Guandong Natural Science Foundation/ ; },

abstract = {It is essential to conduct hydrodynamic experiments for fishing gear at small attack angles along the flow direction to better understand the hydrodynamic characteristics of netting and application of gear. The hydrodynamic characteristics of netting panels made of different materials at small attack angles were investigated by a self-designed setup; this is essential for the effective use of netting on different types of gears. As confirmed by experiments, the measured drag of designed frame without netting accounted for less than 20% of the total setup drag including experimental netting and remained in a steady state under various current speeds and small attack angles, indicating that the self-designed frame setup is suitable for such trials. The drag coefficient was determined by varying the attack angle, solidity ratio, Reynolds number, knot types, weave pattern, and twine materials at small attack angles. The results indicate that the drag coefficient increased as the attack angle increased, but decreased as the solidity ratio and Reynolds number increased. The drag generated by knot accounted for 21% of the total drag of nylon (PA) netting. For braided knotless netting, the drag coefficient of PA netting was about 8.4% lower than that of polythene netting (PE) and 7% lower than that of polyester netting (PES). Compared with twined netting, the braided netting exhibited a higher resistance to flow, corresponding to higher values of drag coefficient.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-13

**The Effectiveness of An Averaged Airway Model in Predicting the Airflow and Particle Transport Through the Airway.**

*Journal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery* [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: In this study, we proposed an averaged airway model design based on four healthy subjects and numerically evaluated its effectiveness for predicting the airflow and particle transport through an airway.

METHODS: Direct-averaged models of the conducting airways of four subjects were restored by averaging the three-dimensional (3D) skeletons of four healthy airways, which were calculated using an inverse 3D thinning algorithm. We simulated the airflow and particle transport in the individual and the averaged airway models using computational fluid dynamics.

RESULTS: The bifurcation geometry differs even among healthy subjects, but the averaged model retains the typical geometrical characteristics of the airways. The Reynolds number of the averaged model varied within the range found in the individual subject models, and the averaged model had similar inspiratory flow characteristics as the individual subject models. The deposition fractions at almost all individual lobes ranged within the variation observed in the subjects, however, the deposition fraction was higher in only one lobe. The deposition distribution at the main bifurcation point differed among the healthy subjects, but the characteristics of the averaged model fell within the variation observed in the individual subject models. On the contrary, the deposition fraction of the averaged model was higher than that of the average of the individual subject models and deviated from the range observed in the subject models.

CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the direct-averaged model may be useful for predicting the individual airflow and particle transport on a macroscopic scale.

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@article {pmid30759039,

year = {2019},

author = {Sera, T and Kuninaga, H and Fukasaku, K and Yokota, H and Tanaka, M},

title = {The Effectiveness of An Averaged Airway Model in Predicting the Airflow and Particle Transport Through the Airway.},

journal = {Journal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1089/jamp.2018.1500},

pmid = {30759039},

issn = {1941-2703},

abstract = {BACKGROUND: In this study, we proposed an averaged airway model design based on four healthy subjects and numerically evaluated its effectiveness for predicting the airflow and particle transport through an airway.

METHODS: Direct-averaged models of the conducting airways of four subjects were restored by averaging the three-dimensional (3D) skeletons of four healthy airways, which were calculated using an inverse 3D thinning algorithm. We simulated the airflow and particle transport in the individual and the averaged airway models using computational fluid dynamics.

RESULTS: The bifurcation geometry differs even among healthy subjects, but the averaged model retains the typical geometrical characteristics of the airways. The Reynolds number of the averaged model varied within the range found in the individual subject models, and the averaged model had similar inspiratory flow characteristics as the individual subject models. The deposition fractions at almost all individual lobes ranged within the variation observed in the subjects, however, the deposition fraction was higher in only one lobe. The deposition distribution at the main bifurcation point differed among the healthy subjects, but the characteristics of the averaged model fell within the variation observed in the individual subject models. On the contrary, the deposition fraction of the averaged model was higher than that of the average of the individual subject models and deviated from the range observed in the subject models.

CONCLUSION: These results indicate that the direct-averaged model may be useful for predicting the individual airflow and particle transport on a macroscopic scale.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-13

**Using CFD Simulations and Statistical Analysis to Correlate Oxygen Mass Transfer Coefficient to Both Geometrical Parameters and Operating Conditions in a Stirred-Tank Bioreactor.**

*Biotechnology progress* [Epub ahead of print].

Optimization of a bioreactor design can be an especially challenging process. For instance, testing different bioreactor vessel geometries and different impeller and sparger types, locations, and dimensions can lead to an exceedingly large number of configurations and necessary experiments. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), therefore, has been widely used to model multiphase flow in stirred-tank bioreactors to minimize the number of optimization experiments. In this current study, a multiphase CFD model with population balance equations is used to model gas-liquid mixing, as well as gas bubble distribution, in a 50 L single-use bioreactor vessel. The vessel is the larger chamber in an early prototype of a multi-chamber bioreactor for mammalian cell culture. The model results are validated with oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kL a) measurements within the prototype. The validated model is projected to predict the effect of using ring or pipe spargers of different sizes and the effect of varying the impeller diameter on kL a. The simulations show that ring spargers result in a superior kL a compared to pipe spargers, with an optimum sparger-to-impeller diameter ratio of 0.8. Also, larger impellers are shown to improve kL a. A correlation of kL a is presented as a function of both the reactor geometry (i.e. sparger-to-impeller diameter ratio and impeller-to-vessel diameter ratio) and operating conditions (i.e. Reynolds number and gas flow rate). The resulting correlation can be used to predict kL a in a bioreactor and to optimize its design, geometry, and operating conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

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@article {pmid30758910,

year = {2019},

author = {Ramsey, JD and Amer, M and Feng, Y},

title = {Using CFD Simulations and Statistical Analysis to Correlate Oxygen Mass Transfer Coefficient to Both Geometrical Parameters and Operating Conditions in a Stirred-Tank Bioreactor.},

journal = {Biotechnology progress},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {e2785},

doi = {10.1002/btpr.2785},

pmid = {30758910},

issn = {1520-6033},

abstract = {Optimization of a bioreactor design can be an especially challenging process. For instance, testing different bioreactor vessel geometries and different impeller and sparger types, locations, and dimensions can lead to an exceedingly large number of configurations and necessary experiments. Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD), therefore, has been widely used to model multiphase flow in stirred-tank bioreactors to minimize the number of optimization experiments. In this current study, a multiphase CFD model with population balance equations is used to model gas-liquid mixing, as well as gas bubble distribution, in a 50 L single-use bioreactor vessel. The vessel is the larger chamber in an early prototype of a multi-chamber bioreactor for mammalian cell culture. The model results are validated with oxygen mass transfer coefficient (kL a) measurements within the prototype. The validated model is projected to predict the effect of using ring or pipe spargers of different sizes and the effect of varying the impeller diameter on kL a. The simulations show that ring spargers result in a superior kL a compared to pipe spargers, with an optimum sparger-to-impeller diameter ratio of 0.8. Also, larger impellers are shown to improve kL a. A correlation of kL a is presented as a function of both the reactor geometry (i.e. sparger-to-impeller diameter ratio and impeller-to-vessel diameter ratio) and operating conditions (i.e. Reynolds number and gas flow rate). The resulting correlation can be used to predict kL a in a bioreactor and to optimize its design, geometry, and operating conditions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-14

**Adaptive locomotion of artificial microswimmers.**

*Science advances*, **5(1):**eaau1532 pii:aau1532.

Bacteria can exploit mechanics to display remarkable plasticity in response to locally changing physical and chemical conditions. Compliant structures play a notable role in their taxis behavior, specifically for navigation inside complex and structured environments. Bioinspired mechanisms with rationally designed architectures capable of large, nonlinear deformation present opportunities for introducing autonomy into engineered small-scale devices. This work analyzes the effect of hydrodynamic forces and rheology of local surroundings on swimming at low Reynolds number, identifies the challenges and benefits of using elastohydrodynamic coupling in locomotion, and further develops a suite of machinery for building untethered microrobots with self-regulated mobility. We demonstrate that coupling the structural and magnetic properties of artificial microswimmers with the dynamic properties of the fluid leads to adaptive locomotion in the absence of on-board sensors.

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@article {pmid30746446,

year = {2019},

author = {Huang, HW and Uslu, FE and Katsamba, P and Lauga, E and Sakar, MS and Nelson, BJ},

title = {Adaptive locomotion of artificial microswimmers.},

journal = {Science advances},

volume = {5},

number = {1},

pages = {eaau1532},

doi = {10.1126/sciadv.aau1532},

pmid = {30746446},

issn = {2375-2548},

abstract = {Bacteria can exploit mechanics to display remarkable plasticity in response to locally changing physical and chemical conditions. Compliant structures play a notable role in their taxis behavior, specifically for navigation inside complex and structured environments. Bioinspired mechanisms with rationally designed architectures capable of large, nonlinear deformation present opportunities for introducing autonomy into engineered small-scale devices. This work analyzes the effect of hydrodynamic forces and rheology of local surroundings on swimming at low Reynolds number, identifies the challenges and benefits of using elastohydrodynamic coupling in locomotion, and further develops a suite of machinery for building untethered microrobots with self-regulated mobility. We demonstrate that coupling the structural and magnetic properties of artificial microswimmers with the dynamic properties of the fluid leads to adaptive locomotion in the absence of on-board sensors.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-15

CmpDate: 2019-02-12

**Investigation of DPD transport properties in modeling bioparticle motion under the effect of external forces: Low Reynolds number and high Schmidt scenarios.**

*The Journal of chemical physics*, **150(5):**054901.

We have used a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model to study the movement of microparticles in a microfluidic device at extremely low Reynolds number (Re). The particles, immersed in a medium, are transported in the microchannel by a flow force and deflected transversely by an external force along the way. An in-house Fortran code is developed to simulate a two-dimensional fluid flow using DPD at Re ≥ 0.0005, which is two orders of magnitude less than the minimum Re value previously reported in the DPD literature. The DPD flow profile is verified by comparing it with the exact solution of Hagen-Poiseuille flow. A bioparticle based on a rigid spring-bead model is introduced in the DPD fluid, and the employed model is verified via comparing the velocity profile past a stationary infinite cylinder against the profile obtained via the finite element method. Moreover, the drag force and drag coefficient on the stationary cylinder are also computed and compared with the reported literature results. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is investigated as a case study for the proposed DPD model to compute the trajectories of red blood cells in a microfluidic device. A mapping mechanism to scale the external deflecting force from the physical to DPD domain is performed. We designed and built our own experimental setup with the aim to compare the experimental trajectories of cells in a microfluidic device to validate our DPD model. These experimental results are used to investigate the dependence of the trajectory results on the Reynolds number and the Schmidt number. The numerical results agree well with the experiment results, and it is found that the Schmidt number is not a significant parameter for the current application; Reynolds numbers combined with the DEP-to-drag force ratio are the only important parameters influencing the behavior of particles inside the microchannel.

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@article {pmid30736676,

year = {2019},

author = {Waheed, W and Alazzam, A and Al-Khateeb, AN and Sung, HJ and Abu-Nada, E},

title = {Investigation of DPD transport properties in modeling bioparticle motion under the effect of external forces: Low Reynolds number and high Schmidt scenarios.},

journal = {The Journal of chemical physics},

volume = {150},

number = {5},

pages = {054901},

doi = {10.1063/1.5079835},

pmid = {30736676},

issn = {1089-7690},

abstract = {We have used a dissipative particle dynamics (DPD) model to study the movement of microparticles in a microfluidic device at extremely low Reynolds number (Re). The particles, immersed in a medium, are transported in the microchannel by a flow force and deflected transversely by an external force along the way. An in-house Fortran code is developed to simulate a two-dimensional fluid flow using DPD at Re ≥ 0.0005, which is two orders of magnitude less than the minimum Re value previously reported in the DPD literature. The DPD flow profile is verified by comparing it with the exact solution of Hagen-Poiseuille flow. A bioparticle based on a rigid spring-bead model is introduced in the DPD fluid, and the employed model is verified via comparing the velocity profile past a stationary infinite cylinder against the profile obtained via the finite element method. Moreover, the drag force and drag coefficient on the stationary cylinder are also computed and compared with the reported literature results. Dielectrophoresis (DEP) is investigated as a case study for the proposed DPD model to compute the trajectories of red blood cells in a microfluidic device. A mapping mechanism to scale the external deflecting force from the physical to DPD domain is performed. We designed and built our own experimental setup with the aim to compare the experimental trajectories of cells in a microfluidic device to validate our DPD model. These experimental results are used to investigate the dependence of the trajectory results on the Reynolds number and the Schmidt number. The numerical results agree well with the experiment results, and it is found that the Schmidt number is not a significant parameter for the current application; Reynolds numbers combined with the DEP-to-drag force ratio are the only important parameters influencing the behavior of particles inside the microchannel.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-09

**Elastic Turbulence of Aqueous Polymer Solution in Multi-Stream Micro-Channel Flow.**

*Micromachines*, **10(2):** pii:mi10020110.

Viscous liquid flow in micro-channels is typically laminar because of the low Reynolds number constraint. However, by introducing elasticity into the fluids, the flow behavior could change drastically to become turbulent; this elasticity can be realized by dissolving small quantities of polymer molecules into an aqueous solvent. Our recent investigation has directly visualized the extension and relaxation of these polymer molecules in an aqueous solution. This elastic-driven phenomenon is known as 'elastic turbulence'. Hitherto, existing studies on elastic flow instability are mostly limited to single-stream flows, and a comprehensive statistical analysis of a multi-stream elastic turbulent micro-channel flow is needed to provide additional physical understanding. Here, we investigate the flow field characteristics of elastic turbulence in a 3-stream contraction-expansion micro-channel flow. By applying statistical analyses and flow visualization tools, we show that the flow field bares many similarities to that of inertia-driven turbulence. More interestingly, we observed regions with two different types of power-law dependence in the velocity power spectra at high frequencies. This is a typical characteristic of two-dimensional turbulence and has hitherto not been reported for elastic turbulent micro-channel flows.

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@article {pmid30736476,

year = {2019},

author = {Tai, J and Lam, YC},

title = {Elastic Turbulence of Aqueous Polymer Solution in Multi-Stream Micro-Channel Flow.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {2},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/mi10020110},

pmid = {30736476},

issn = {2072-666X},

abstract = {Viscous liquid flow in micro-channels is typically laminar because of the low Reynolds number constraint. However, by introducing elasticity into the fluids, the flow behavior could change drastically to become turbulent; this elasticity can be realized by dissolving small quantities of polymer molecules into an aqueous solvent. Our recent investigation has directly visualized the extension and relaxation of these polymer molecules in an aqueous solution. This elastic-driven phenomenon is known as 'elastic turbulence'. Hitherto, existing studies on elastic flow instability are mostly limited to single-stream flows, and a comprehensive statistical analysis of a multi-stream elastic turbulent micro-channel flow is needed to provide additional physical understanding. Here, we investigate the flow field characteristics of elastic turbulence in a 3-stream contraction-expansion micro-channel flow. By applying statistical analyses and flow visualization tools, we show that the flow field bares many similarities to that of inertia-driven turbulence. More interestingly, we observed regions with two different types of power-law dependence in the velocity power spectra at high frequencies. This is a typical characteristic of two-dimensional turbulence and has hitherto not been reported for elastic turbulent micro-channel flows.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-06

**Novel Variable Radius Spiral⁻Shaped Micromixer: From Numerical Analysis to Experimental Validation.**

*Micromachines*, **9(11):** pii:mi9110552.

A novel type of spiral micromixer with expansion and contraction parts is presented in order to enhance the mixing quality in the low Reynolds number regimes for point-of-care tests (POCT). Three classes of micromixers with different numbers of loops and modified geometries were studied. Numerical simulation was performed to study the flow behavior and mixing performance solving the steady-state Navier⁻Stokes and the convection-diffusion equations in the Reynolds range of 0.1⁻10.0. Comparisons between the mixers with and without expansion parts were made to illustrate the effect of disturbing the streamlines on the mixing performance. Image analysis of the mixing results from fabricated micromixers was used to verify the results of the simulations. Since the proposed mixer provides up to 92% of homogeneity at Re 1.0, generating 442 Pa of pressure drop, this mixer makes a suitable candidate for research in the POCT field.

Additional Links: PMID-30715051

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@article {pmid30715051,

year = {2018},

author = {Mehrdel, P and Karimi, S and Farré-Lladós, J and Casals-Terré, J},

title = {Novel Variable Radius Spiral⁻Shaped Micromixer: From Numerical Analysis to Experimental Validation.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {9},

number = {11},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/mi9110552},

pmid = {30715051},

issn = {2072-666X},

abstract = {A novel type of spiral micromixer with expansion and contraction parts is presented in order to enhance the mixing quality in the low Reynolds number regimes for point-of-care tests (POCT). Three classes of micromixers with different numbers of loops and modified geometries were studied. Numerical simulation was performed to study the flow behavior and mixing performance solving the steady-state Navier⁻Stokes and the convection-diffusion equations in the Reynolds range of 0.1⁻10.0. Comparisons between the mixers with and without expansion parts were made to illustrate the effect of disturbing the streamlines on the mixing performance. Image analysis of the mixing results from fabricated micromixers was used to verify the results of the simulations. Since the proposed mixer provides up to 92% of homogeneity at Re 1.0, generating 442 Pa of pressure drop, this mixer makes a suitable candidate for research in the POCT field.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-28

**A flowing pair of particles in inertial microfluidics.**

*Soft matter*, **15(9):**1988-1998.

A flowing pair of particles in inertial microfluidics gives important insights into understanding and controlling the collective dynamics of particles like cells or droplets in microfluidic devices. They are applied in medical cell analysis and engineering. We study the dynamics of a pair of solid particles flowing through a rectangular microchannel using lattice Boltzmann simulations. We determine the inertial lift force profiles as a function of the two particle positions, their axial distance, and the Reynolds number. Generally, the profiles strongly differ between particles leading and lagging in flow and the lift forces are enhanced due to the presence of a second particle. At small axial distances, they are determined by viscous forces, while inertial forces dominate at large separations. We identify cross-streamline pairs as stable fixed points in the lift force profiles and argue that same-streamline configurations are only one-sided stable. Depending on the initial conditions, the two-particle lift forces in combination with the Poiseuille flow give rise to three types of unbound particle trajectories, called moving-apart, passing, and swapping, and one type of bound trajectory, where the particles perform damped oscillations towards the cross-stream line configuration. The damping rate scales with Reynolds number squared, since inertial forces are responsible for driving the particles to their steady-state positions.

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@article {pmid30714602,

year = {2019},

author = {Schaaf, C and Rühle, F and Stark, H},

title = {A flowing pair of particles in inertial microfluidics.},

journal = {Soft matter},

volume = {15},

number = {9},

pages = {1988-1998},

doi = {10.1039/c8sm02476f},

pmid = {30714602},

issn = {1744-6848},

abstract = {A flowing pair of particles in inertial microfluidics gives important insights into understanding and controlling the collective dynamics of particles like cells or droplets in microfluidic devices. They are applied in medical cell analysis and engineering. We study the dynamics of a pair of solid particles flowing through a rectangular microchannel using lattice Boltzmann simulations. We determine the inertial lift force profiles as a function of the two particle positions, their axial distance, and the Reynolds number. Generally, the profiles strongly differ between particles leading and lagging in flow and the lift forces are enhanced due to the presence of a second particle. At small axial distances, they are determined by viscous forces, while inertial forces dominate at large separations. We identify cross-streamline pairs as stable fixed points in the lift force profiles and argue that same-streamline configurations are only one-sided stable. Depending on the initial conditions, the two-particle lift forces in combination with the Poiseuille flow give rise to three types of unbound particle trajectories, called moving-apart, passing, and swapping, and one type of bound trajectory, where the particles perform damped oscillations towards the cross-stream line configuration. The damping rate scales with Reynolds number squared, since inertial forces are responsible for driving the particles to their steady-state positions.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-04

**Impact of ultrasound-induced cavitation on the fluid dynamics of water and sewage sludge in ultrasonic flatbed reactors.**

*Ultrasonics sonochemistry* pii:S1350-4177(18)31722-X [Epub ahead of print].

The fluid dynamics of water, thickened waste activated sludge (WAS, total solids concentration 4.4%) and digested sludge (DS, total solids concentration 2.5%) within a lab-scale ultrasonic flatbed reactor were experimentally investigated. For a visual observation of the opaque sludge flow, sewage sludges were approximated by transparent xanthan solutions with identical flow behavior. The visualization of the flow was realized by use of an ultrasonic reactor with a transparent panel and dye streams injected into the flow. Without ultrasonic treatment, xanthan solutions showed distinct laminar flow behavior (generalized Reynolds numbers < 1), at a flow rate of 100 L/h. In water, dye streams remained coherent as well, but with slightly unsteady features (Reynolds number ∼ 350). Activation of the ultrasound reactor caused strong fluid dynamic disturbance in the water flow and dye streams were dissolved instantly, thus indicating turbulent mixing. For the xanthan solutions, however, mixing was considerably less pronounced. The dye streams in the DS substitute (0.5% xanthan solution) remained overall in laminar shape, but exhibited an eruption-like branching and an increase in diameter with advancing treatment duration. For the solution resembling WAS (2.0% xanthan solution), only weak dye stream disruption was observed, thus indicating that WAS flow in flatbed reactors is nearly laminar during ultrasonic treatment.

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@article {pmid30712849,

year = {2019},

author = {Lippert, T and Bandelin, J and Schlederer, F and Drewes, JE and Koch, K},

title = {Impact of ultrasound-induced cavitation on the fluid dynamics of water and sewage sludge in ultrasonic flatbed reactors.},

journal = {Ultrasonics sonochemistry},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1016/j.ultsonch.2019.01.024},

pmid = {30712849},

issn = {1873-2828},

abstract = {The fluid dynamics of water, thickened waste activated sludge (WAS, total solids concentration 4.4%) and digested sludge (DS, total solids concentration 2.5%) within a lab-scale ultrasonic flatbed reactor were experimentally investigated. For a visual observation of the opaque sludge flow, sewage sludges were approximated by transparent xanthan solutions with identical flow behavior. The visualization of the flow was realized by use of an ultrasonic reactor with a transparent panel and dye streams injected into the flow. Without ultrasonic treatment, xanthan solutions showed distinct laminar flow behavior (generalized Reynolds numbers < 1), at a flow rate of 100 L/h. In water, dye streams remained coherent as well, but with slightly unsteady features (Reynolds number ∼ 350). Activation of the ultrasound reactor caused strong fluid dynamic disturbance in the water flow and dye streams were dissolved instantly, thus indicating turbulent mixing. For the xanthan solutions, however, mixing was considerably less pronounced. The dye streams in the DS substitute (0.5% xanthan solution) remained overall in laminar shape, but exhibited an eruption-like branching and an increase in diameter with advancing treatment duration. For the solution resembling WAS (2.0% xanthan solution), only weak dye stream disruption was observed, thus indicating that WAS flow in flatbed reactors is nearly laminar during ultrasonic treatment.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-04

**Concentration-dependent viscosity and thermal radiation effects on MHD peristaltic motion of Synovial Nanofluid: Applications to rheumatoid arthritis treatment.**

*Computer methods and programs in biomedicine*, **170:**39-52.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The biomedical fluid which fills the Synovial joint cavity is called Synovial fluid which behaves as in the fluid classifications to Non-Newtonian fluids. Also it's described as a several micrometers thick layer among the interstitial cartilages with very low friction coefficient. Consequently, the present paper opts to investigate the influence of the concentration-dependent viscosity on Magnetohydrodynamic peristaltic flow of Synovial Nanofluid in an asymmetric channel in presence of thermal radiation effect.

METHOD: Our problem is solved for two models, in the first model which referred as Model-(I), viscosity is considered exponentially dependent on the concentration. Model-(2), Shear thinning index is considered as a function of concentration. Those models are introduced for the first time in peristaltic or Nanofluid flows literature. The governing problem is reformulated under the assumption of low Reynolds number and long wavelength. The resulting system of equations is solved numerically with the aid of Parametric ND Solve.

RESULTS: Detailed comparisons have been made between Model-(I) and Model-(2) and found unrealistic results between them. Results for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration distributions as well as pressure gradient and pressure rise are offered graphically for different values of various physical parameters.

CONCLUSIONS: Such models are applicable to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. Rheumatoid arthritis patients can be treated by applying the magnetic field on an electrically conducting fluid, due to the movement of the ions within the cell which accelerates the metabolism of fluids.

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@article {pmid30712603,

year = {2019},

author = {Ibrahim, MG and Hasona, WM and ElShekhipy, AA},

title = {Concentration-dependent viscosity and thermal radiation effects on MHD peristaltic motion of Synovial Nanofluid: Applications to rheumatoid arthritis treatment.},

journal = {Computer methods and programs in biomedicine},

volume = {170},

number = {},

pages = {39-52},

doi = {10.1016/j.cmpb.2019.01.001},

pmid = {30712603},

issn = {1872-7565},

abstract = {BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: The biomedical fluid which fills the Synovial joint cavity is called Synovial fluid which behaves as in the fluid classifications to Non-Newtonian fluids. Also it's described as a several micrometers thick layer among the interstitial cartilages with very low friction coefficient. Consequently, the present paper opts to investigate the influence of the concentration-dependent viscosity on Magnetohydrodynamic peristaltic flow of Synovial Nanofluid in an asymmetric channel in presence of thermal radiation effect.

METHOD: Our problem is solved for two models, in the first model which referred as Model-(I), viscosity is considered exponentially dependent on the concentration. Model-(2), Shear thinning index is considered as a function of concentration. Those models are introduced for the first time in peristaltic or Nanofluid flows literature. The governing problem is reformulated under the assumption of low Reynolds number and long wavelength. The resulting system of equations is solved numerically with the aid of Parametric ND Solve.

RESULTS: Detailed comparisons have been made between Model-(I) and Model-(2) and found unrealistic results between them. Results for velocity, temperature and nanoparticle concentration distributions as well as pressure gradient and pressure rise are offered graphically for different values of various physical parameters.

CONCLUSIONS: Such models are applicable to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) treatment. Rheumatoid arthritis patients can be treated by applying the magnetic field on an electrically conducting fluid, due to the movement of the ions within the cell which accelerates the metabolism of fluids.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-14

**Drag coefficient estimates from coasting bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus.**

*Journal of fish biology* [Epub ahead of print].

The drag coefficient bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus was estimated from coasting deceleration as (mean ± SD) 0.0154 ± 0.0070 at a Reynolds number of 41,000 ± 14,000. This was within the coasting range in other species and lower than values obtained from dead drag measurements in this species and others. Low momentum losses during coasting may allow its use during intermittent propulsion to modulate power output or maximize energy economy.

Additional Links: PMID-30671967

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@article {pmid30671967,

year = {2019},

author = {Tandler, T and Gellman, E and De La Cruz, D and Ellerby, DJ},

title = {Drag coefficient estimates from coasting bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus.},

journal = {Journal of fish biology},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1111/jfb.13906},

pmid = {30671967},

issn = {1095-8649},

support = {IOS1354274//NSF/ ; IOS1754650//NSF/ ; 1354274//Division of Integrative Organismal Systems/ ; 1754650//Division of Integrative Organismal Systems/ ; },

abstract = {The drag coefficient bluegill sunfish Lepomis macrochirus was estimated from coasting deceleration as (mean ± SD) 0.0154 ± 0.0070 at a Reynolds number of 41,000 ± 14,000. This was within the coasting range in other species and lower than values obtained from dead drag measurements in this species and others. Low momentum losses during coasting may allow its use during intermittent propulsion to modulate power output or maximize energy economy.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-28

**Flow of wormlike micellar solutions around microfluidic cylinders with high aspect ratio and low blockage ratio.**

*Soft matter*, **15(9):**1927-1941.

We employ time-resolved flow velocimetry and birefringence imaging methods to study the flow of a well-characterized shear-banding wormlike micellar solution around a novel glass-fabricated microfluidic circular cylinder. In contrast with typical microfluidic cylinders, our geometry is characterized by a high aspect ratio α = H/W = 5 and a low blockage ratio β = 2r/W = 0.1, where H and W are the channel height and width, and the cylinder radius r = 20 μm. The small cylinder radius allows access up to very high Weissenberg numbers 1.9 ≤ Wi = λMU/r ≤ 3750 (where λM is the Maxwell relaxation time) while inertial effects remain entirely negligible (Reynolds number, Re < 10-4). At low Wi values, the flow remains steady and symmetric and a birefringent region (indicating micellar alignment and tensile stress) develops downstream of the cylinder. Above a critical value Wic ≈ 60 the flow transitions to a steady asymmetric state, characterized as a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation, in which the fluid takes a preferential path around one side of the cylinder. At a second critical value Wic2 ≈ 130, the flow becomes time-dependent, with a characteristic frequency f0 ≈ 1/λM. This initial transition to time dependence has characteristics of a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Power spectra of the measured fluctuations become complex as Wi is increased further, showing a gradual slowing down of the dynamics and emergence of harmonics. A final transition at very high Wic3 corresponds to the re-emergence of a single peak in the power spectrum but at much higher frequency. We discuss this in terms of possible flow-induced breakage of micelles into shorter species with a faster relaxation time.

Additional Links: PMID-30657156

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@article {pmid30657156,

year = {2019},

author = {Haward, SJ and Kitajima, N and Toda-Peters, K and Takahashi, T and Shen, AQ},

title = {Flow of wormlike micellar solutions around microfluidic cylinders with high aspect ratio and low blockage ratio.},

journal = {Soft matter},

volume = {15},

number = {9},

pages = {1927-1941},

doi = {10.1039/c8sm02099j},

pmid = {30657156},

issn = {1744-6848},

abstract = {We employ time-resolved flow velocimetry and birefringence imaging methods to study the flow of a well-characterized shear-banding wormlike micellar solution around a novel glass-fabricated microfluidic circular cylinder. In contrast with typical microfluidic cylinders, our geometry is characterized by a high aspect ratio α = H/W = 5 and a low blockage ratio β = 2r/W = 0.1, where H and W are the channel height and width, and the cylinder radius r = 20 μm. The small cylinder radius allows access up to very high Weissenberg numbers 1.9 ≤ Wi = λMU/r ≤ 3750 (where λM is the Maxwell relaxation time) while inertial effects remain entirely negligible (Reynolds number, Re < 10-4). At low Wi values, the flow remains steady and symmetric and a birefringent region (indicating micellar alignment and tensile stress) develops downstream of the cylinder. Above a critical value Wic ≈ 60 the flow transitions to a steady asymmetric state, characterized as a supercritical pitchfork bifurcation, in which the fluid takes a preferential path around one side of the cylinder. At a second critical value Wic2 ≈ 130, the flow becomes time-dependent, with a characteristic frequency f0 ≈ 1/λM. This initial transition to time dependence has characteristics of a subcritical Hopf bifurcation. Power spectra of the measured fluctuations become complex as Wi is increased further, showing a gradual slowing down of the dynamics and emergence of harmonics. A final transition at very high Wic3 corresponds to the re-emergence of a single peak in the power spectrum but at much higher frequency. We discuss this in terms of possible flow-induced breakage of micelles into shorter species with a faster relaxation time.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-06

**Magnetically Induced Flow Focusing of Non-Magnetic Microparticles in Ferrofluids under Inclined Magnetic Fields.**

*Micromachines*, **10(1):** pii:mi10010056.

The ability to focus biological particles into a designated position of a microchannel is vital for various biological applications. This paper reports particle focusing under vertical and inclined magnetic fields. We analyzed the effect of the angle of rotation (θ) of the permanent magnets and the critical Reynolds number (Rec) on the particle focusing in depth. We found that a rotation angle of 10° is preferred; a particle loop has formed when Re < Rec and Rec of the inclined magnetic field is larger than that of the vertical magnetic field. We also conducted experiments with polystyrene particles (10.4 μm in diameter) to prove the calculations. Experimental results show that the focusing effectiveness improved with increasing applied magnetic field strength or decreasing inlet flow rate.

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@article {pmid30650659,

year = {2019},

author = {Luo, L and He, Y},

title = {Magnetically Induced Flow Focusing of Non-Magnetic Microparticles in Ferrofluids under Inclined Magnetic Fields.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {10},

number = {1},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/mi10010056},

pmid = {30650659},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {11502102//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; },

abstract = {The ability to focus biological particles into a designated position of a microchannel is vital for various biological applications. This paper reports particle focusing under vertical and inclined magnetic fields. We analyzed the effect of the angle of rotation (θ) of the permanent magnets and the critical Reynolds number (Rec) on the particle focusing in depth. We found that a rotation angle of 10° is preferred; a particle loop has formed when Re < Rec and Rec of the inclined magnetic field is larger than that of the vertical magnetic field. We also conducted experiments with polystyrene particles (10.4 μm in diameter) to prove the calculations. Experimental results show that the focusing effectiveness improved with increasing applied magnetic field strength or decreasing inlet flow rate.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-28

CmpDate: 2019-01-28

**Steep Cliffs and Saturated Exponents in Three-Dimensional Scalar Turbulence.**

*Physical review letters*, **121(26):**264501.

The intermittency of a passive scalar advected by three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of 650 is studied using direct numerical simulations on a 4096^{3} grid; the Schmidt number is unity. By measuring scalar increment moments of high orders, while ensuring statistical convergence, we provide unambiguous evidence that the scaling exponents saturate to 1.2 for moment orders beyond about 12, indicating that scalar intermittency is dominated by the most singular shocklike cliffs in the scalar field. We show that the fractal dimension of the spatial support of steep cliffs is about 1.8, whose sum with the saturation exponent value of 1.2 adds up to the space dimension of 3, thus demonstrating a deep connection between the geometry and statistics in turbulent scalar mixing. The anomaly for the fourth and sixth order moments is comparable to that in the Kraichnan model for the roughness exponent of 4/3.

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@article {pmid30636127,

year = {2018},

author = {Iyer, KP and Schumacher, J and Sreenivasan, KR and Yeung, PK},

title = {Steep Cliffs and Saturated Exponents in Three-Dimensional Scalar Turbulence.},

journal = {Physical review letters},

volume = {121},

number = {26},

pages = {264501},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.264501},

pmid = {30636127},

issn = {1079-7114},

abstract = {The intermittency of a passive scalar advected by three-dimensional Navier-Stokes turbulence at a Taylor-scale Reynolds number of 650 is studied using direct numerical simulations on a 4096^{3}

grid; the Schmidt number is unity. By measuring scalar increment moments of high orders, while ensuring statistical convergence, we provide unambiguous evidence that the scaling exponents saturate to 1.2 for moment orders beyond about 12, indicating that scalar intermittency is dominated by the most singular shocklike cliffs in the scalar field. We show that the fractal dimension of the spatial support of steep cliffs is about 1.8, whose sum with the saturation exponent value of 1.2 adds up to the space dimension of 3, thus demonstrating a deep connection between the geometry and statistics in turbulent scalar mixing. The anomaly for the fourth and sixth order moments is comparable to that in the Kraichnan model for the roughness exponent of 4/3.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-09

**Morphological Variability Among Broods of First-Stage Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) Zoeae.**

*The Biological bulletin*, **235(3):**123-133.

External morphology has been shown to influence predation and locomotion of decapod larvae and is, therefore, directly related to their ability to survive and disperse. The first goal of this study was to characterize first-stage blue crab zoeal morphology and its variability across larval broods to test whether inter-brood differences in morphology exist. The second was to identify possible correlations between maternal characteristics and zoeal morphology. The offspring of 21 individuals were hatched in the laboratory, photographed, and measured. Zoeae exhibited substantial variability, with all metrics showing significant inter-brood differences. The greatest variability was seen in the zoeal abdomen, rostrum, and dorsal spine length. A principal component analysis showed no distinct clustering of broods, with variation generally driven by larger zoeae. Using observed morphology, models of drag induced by swimming and sinking also showed significant inter-brood differences, with a maximum twofold difference across broods. In contrast to trends in other decapod taxa, maternal characteristics (female carapace width and mass and egg sponge volume and mass) are not significant predictors of zoeal morphology. These results suggest that brood effects are present across a wide range of morphological characteristics and that future experiments involving Callinectes sapidus morphology or its functionality should explicitly account for inter-brood variation. Additionally, inter-brood morphological differences may result in differential predation mortality and locomotory abilities among broods.

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@article {pmid30624119,

year = {2018},

author = {Caracappa, JC and Munroe, DM},

title = {Morphological Variability Among Broods of First-Stage Blue Crab (Callinectes sapidus) Zoeae.},

journal = {The Biological bulletin},

volume = {235},

number = {3},

pages = {123-133},

doi = {10.1086/699922},

pmid = {30624119},

issn = {1939-8697},

abstract = {External morphology has been shown to influence predation and locomotion of decapod larvae and is, therefore, directly related to their ability to survive and disperse. The first goal of this study was to characterize first-stage blue crab zoeal morphology and its variability across larval broods to test whether inter-brood differences in morphology exist. The second was to identify possible correlations between maternal characteristics and zoeal morphology. The offspring of 21 individuals were hatched in the laboratory, photographed, and measured. Zoeae exhibited substantial variability, with all metrics showing significant inter-brood differences. The greatest variability was seen in the zoeal abdomen, rostrum, and dorsal spine length. A principal component analysis showed no distinct clustering of broods, with variation generally driven by larger zoeae. Using observed morphology, models of drag induced by swimming and sinking also showed significant inter-brood differences, with a maximum twofold difference across broods. In contrast to trends in other decapod taxa, maternal characteristics (female carapace width and mass and egg sponge volume and mass) are not significant predictors of zoeal morphology. These results suggest that brood effects are present across a wide range of morphological characteristics and that future experiments involving Callinectes sapidus morphology or its functionality should explicitly account for inter-brood variation. Additionally, inter-brood morphological differences may result in differential predation mortality and locomotory abilities among broods.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-09

**Permanently Fused Setules Create Unusual Folding Fans Used for Swimming in Cyprid Larvae of Barnacles.**

*The Biological bulletin*, **235(3):**185-194.

Many crustacean swimming appendages carry arrays of plumose setae-exoskeletal, feather-like structures of long bristles (setae) with short branches (setules) distributed along two sides. Although closely spaced, setae are not physically interconnected. Setal arrays function during swimming as drag-based leaky paddles that push the organism through water. Barnacle cyprids, the final, non-feeding larval stage, swim with six pairs of legs (thoracopods) that open and close setal arrays in alternating high-drag power strokes and low-drag recovery strokes. While studying cyprid swimming, we found that their thoracopods contained setae permanently cross-linked by fused setules. These cuticular connections would seem highly unlikely because setae are individually produced exoskeletal secretions, and the connections imply unknown processes for the production or modification of crustacean setae. We describe the morphology and function of plumose setae on cyprids of Balanus glandula and other species across the clade Cirripedia. Setules from adjacent plumose setae are seamlessly joined at their tips and occur in three distinct linkage patterns. Thoracopods lack muscles to open and close the array; interconnected setae are instead pulled apart, producing a paddle-like fan with high drag when appendages spread laterally during power strokes. Setules are spring-like, passively closing setae into tight bundles with low drag during recovery strokes. The linked setules occur in the three main clades of the Cirripedia. This cuticular arrangement is effective in swimming, may eliminate the need for muscles to close the setal array, and may represent a unique swimming structure within the Crustacea.

Additional Links: PMID-30624117

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@article {pmid30624117,

year = {2018},

author = {Lamont, EI and Emlet, RB},

title = {Permanently Fused Setules Create Unusual Folding Fans Used for Swimming in Cyprid Larvae of Barnacles.},

journal = {The Biological bulletin},

volume = {235},

number = {3},

pages = {185-194},

doi = {10.1086/700084},

pmid = {30624117},

issn = {1939-8697},

abstract = {Many crustacean swimming appendages carry arrays of plumose setae-exoskeletal, feather-like structures of long bristles (setae) with short branches (setules) distributed along two sides. Although closely spaced, setae are not physically interconnected. Setal arrays function during swimming as drag-based leaky paddles that push the organism through water. Barnacle cyprids, the final, non-feeding larval stage, swim with six pairs of legs (thoracopods) that open and close setal arrays in alternating high-drag power strokes and low-drag recovery strokes. While studying cyprid swimming, we found that their thoracopods contained setae permanently cross-linked by fused setules. These cuticular connections would seem highly unlikely because setae are individually produced exoskeletal secretions, and the connections imply unknown processes for the production or modification of crustacean setae. We describe the morphology and function of plumose setae on cyprids of Balanus glandula and other species across the clade Cirripedia. Setules from adjacent plumose setae are seamlessly joined at their tips and occur in three distinct linkage patterns. Thoracopods lack muscles to open and close the array; interconnected setae are instead pulled apart, producing a paddle-like fan with high drag when appendages spread laterally during power strokes. Setules are spring-like, passively closing setae into tight bundles with low drag during recovery strokes. The linked setules occur in the three main clades of the Cirripedia. This cuticular arrangement is effective in swimming, may eliminate the need for muscles to close the setal array, and may represent a unique swimming structure within the Crustacea.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-04

**Biologically Generated Mixing in the Ocean.**

*Annual review of marine science*, **11:**215-226.

This article assesses the contribution to ocean mixing by the marine biosphere at both high and low Reynolds numbers Re= uℓ/ ν. While back-of-the-envelope estimates have suggested that swimming marine organisms might generate as much high-Reynolds-number turbulence as deep-ocean tide- and wind-generated internal waves, and that turbulent dissipation rates of O(10-5 W kg-1) (Re ∼ 105) could be produced by aggregations of organisms ranging from O(0.01 m) krill to O(10 m) cetaceans, comparable to strong wind and buoyancy forcing near the surface, microstructure measurements do not find consistently elevated dissipation associated with diel vertically migrating krill. Elevated dissipation rates are associated with schools of O(0.1- 1 m) fish but with low mixing coefficients (γ ∼ 0.002-0.02, as compared with γ ∼ 0.2 for geophysical turbulence). Likewise, viscously induced drift at low Reynolds numbers produces little mixing of temperature, solutes, dissolved nutrients, and gases when realistic swimmers and molecular scalar diffusion are taken into account. The conclusion is that, while the marine biosphere can generate turbulence, it contributes little ocean mixing compared with breaking internal gravity waves.

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@article {pmid30606096,

year = {2019},

author = {Kunze, E},

title = {Biologically Generated Mixing in the Ocean.},

journal = {Annual review of marine science},

volume = {11},

number = {},

pages = {215-226},

doi = {10.1146/annurev-marine-010318-095047},

pmid = {30606096},

issn = {1941-0611},

abstract = {This article assesses the contribution to ocean mixing by the marine biosphere at both high and low Reynolds numbers Re= uℓ/ ν. While back-of-the-envelope estimates have suggested that swimming marine organisms might generate as much high-Reynolds-number turbulence as deep-ocean tide- and wind-generated internal waves, and that turbulent dissipation rates of O(10-5 W kg-1) (Re ∼ 105) could be produced by aggregations of organisms ranging from O(0.01 m) krill to O(10 m) cetaceans, comparable to strong wind and buoyancy forcing near the surface, microstructure measurements do not find consistently elevated dissipation associated with diel vertically migrating krill. Elevated dissipation rates are associated with schools of O(0.1- 1 m) fish but with low mixing coefficients (γ ∼ 0.002-0.02, as compared with γ ∼ 0.2 for geophysical turbulence). Likewise, viscously induced drift at low Reynolds numbers produces little mixing of temperature, solutes, dissolved nutrients, and gases when realistic swimmers and molecular scalar diffusion are taken into account. The conclusion is that, while the marine biosphere can generate turbulence, it contributes little ocean mixing compared with breaking internal gravity waves.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-03

**Aerodynamic Factors Affecting Rebreathing in Infants.**

*Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)* [Epub ahead of print].

The rebreathing of expired air, with high carbon dioxide and low oxygen concentrations, has long been implicated in unexplained Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) when infants are placed to sleep in a prone (facedown) position. This study elucidates the effect of aerodynamic parameters: Reynolds number, Strouhal number and Froude number, on the percentage of expired air that is re-inspired (rebreathed). A nasal module was designed that served as a simplified geometric representation of infant nostrils and placed above a hard flat surface. Quantitative and flow visualization experiments were performed to measure rebreathing, using water as the working medium, under conditions of dynamic similarity. Different anatomical (e.g. tidal volume, nostril diameter), physiological (e.g. breathing frequency) and environmental (e.g. temperature, distance from the surface) factors were considered. Increases in Strouhal number (breathing frequency), always produced higher rebreathed percentages, because rolled-up vortices in the vicinity of the nostrils had less time to move away by self-induction. Positively and negatively buoyant flows resulted in significant rebreathing. In the latter case, consistent with a warm environment or a high percentage of rebreathed CO2, denser gas pooled in the vicinity of the nostrils. Reynolds numbers below 200 also dramatically increased rebreathing because the expired gas pooled much closer to the nostrils. These results clearly elucidated how the prone position dramatically increases rebreathing by a number of different mechanisms. Furthermore, the results offer plausible explanations of why a high temperature environment and low birthweight are SIDS risk factors.

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@article {pmid30605404,

year = {2019},

author = {Itzhak, N and Greenblatt, D},

title = {Aerodynamic Factors Affecting Rebreathing in Infants.},

journal = {Journal of applied physiology (Bethesda, Md. : 1985)},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1152/japplphysiol.00784.2018},

pmid = {30605404},

issn = {1522-1601},

abstract = {The rebreathing of expired air, with high carbon dioxide and low oxygen concentrations, has long been implicated in unexplained Sudden Infant Death Syndrome (SIDS) when infants are placed to sleep in a prone (facedown) position. This study elucidates the effect of aerodynamic parameters: Reynolds number, Strouhal number and Froude number, on the percentage of expired air that is re-inspired (rebreathed). A nasal module was designed that served as a simplified geometric representation of infant nostrils and placed above a hard flat surface. Quantitative and flow visualization experiments were performed to measure rebreathing, using water as the working medium, under conditions of dynamic similarity. Different anatomical (e.g. tidal volume, nostril diameter), physiological (e.g. breathing frequency) and environmental (e.g. temperature, distance from the surface) factors were considered. Increases in Strouhal number (breathing frequency), always produced higher rebreathed percentages, because rolled-up vortices in the vicinity of the nostrils had less time to move away by self-induction. Positively and negatively buoyant flows resulted in significant rebreathing. In the latter case, consistent with a warm environment or a high percentage of rebreathed CO2, denser gas pooled in the vicinity of the nostrils. Reynolds numbers below 200 also dramatically increased rebreathing because the expired gas pooled much closer to the nostrils. These results clearly elucidated how the prone position dramatically increases rebreathing by a number of different mechanisms. Furthermore, the results offer plausible explanations of why a high temperature environment and low birthweight are SIDS risk factors.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-03

**On the representation of effective stress for computing hemolysis.**

*Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology* pii:10.1007/s10237-018-01108-y [Epub ahead of print].

Hemolysis is a major concern in blood-circulating devices, which arises due to hydrodynamic loading on red blood cells from ambient flow environment. Hemolysis estimation models have often been used to aid hemocompatibility design. The preponderance of hemolysis models was formulated on the basis of laminar flows. However, flows in blood-circulating devices are rather complex and can be laminar, transitional or turbulent. It is an extrapolation to apply these models to turbulent flows. For the commonly used power-law models, effective stress has often been represented using Reynolds stresses for estimating hemolysis in turbulent flows. This practice tends to overpredict hemolysis. This study focused on the representation of effective stress in power-law models. Through arithmetic manipulations from Navier-Stokes equation, we showed that effective stress can be represented in terms of energy dissipation, which can be readily obtained from CFD simulations. Three cases were tested, including a capillary tube, the FDA benchmark cases of nozzle model and blood pump. The results showed that the representation of effective stress in terms of energy dissipation greatly improved the prediction of hemolysis for a wide range of flow conditions. The improvement increases as Reynolds number increases; the overprediction of hemolysis was reduced by up to two orders of magnitude.

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@article {pmid30604300,

year = {2019},

author = {Wu, P and Gao, Q and Hsu, PL},

title = {On the representation of effective stress for computing hemolysis.},

journal = {Biomechanics and modeling in mechanobiology},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1007/s10237-018-01108-y},

pmid = {30604300},

issn = {1617-7940},

support = {51406127//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; BK20140344//Natural Science Foundation of Jiangsu Province/ ; },

abstract = {Hemolysis is a major concern in blood-circulating devices, which arises due to hydrodynamic loading on red blood cells from ambient flow environment. Hemolysis estimation models have often been used to aid hemocompatibility design. The preponderance of hemolysis models was formulated on the basis of laminar flows. However, flows in blood-circulating devices are rather complex and can be laminar, transitional or turbulent. It is an extrapolation to apply these models to turbulent flows. For the commonly used power-law models, effective stress has often been represented using Reynolds stresses for estimating hemolysis in turbulent flows. This practice tends to overpredict hemolysis. This study focused on the representation of effective stress in power-law models. Through arithmetic manipulations from Navier-Stokes equation, we showed that effective stress can be represented in terms of energy dissipation, which can be readily obtained from CFD simulations. Three cases were tested, including a capillary tube, the FDA benchmark cases of nozzle model and blood pump. The results showed that the representation of effective stress in terms of energy dissipation greatly improved the prediction of hemolysis for a wide range of flow conditions. The improvement increases as Reynolds number increases; the overprediction of hemolysis was reduced by up to two orders of magnitude.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-08

**A novel type of semi-active jet turbulence grid.**

*Heliyon*, **4(12):**e01026 pii:e01026.

This article describes a novel approach to generate increased turbulence levels in an incoming flow. It relies on a cost-effective and robust semi-active jet grid, equipped with flexible tubes as moving elements attached onto tube connections placed at the intersections of a fixed, regular grid. For the present study, these flexible tubes are oriented in counter-flow direction in a wind tunnel. Tube motion is governed by multiple interactions between the main flow and the jets exiting the tubes, resulting in chaotic velocity fluctuations and high turbulence intensities in the test section. After describing the structure of the turbulence generator, the turbulent properties of the airflow downstream of the grid in both passive and active modes are measured by hot-wire anemometry and compared with one another. When activating the turbulence generator, turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, and the Taylor Reynolds number are noticeably increased in comparison with the passive mode (corresponding to simple grid turbulence). Furthermore, the inertial subrange of the turbulent energy spectrum becomes wider and closely follows Kolmogorov's -5/3 law. These results show that the semi-active grid, in contrast to passive systems, is capable of producing high turbulence levels, even at low incoming flow velocity. Compared to alternatives based on actuators driven by servo-motors, the production and operation costs of the semi-active grid are very moderate and its robustness is much higher.

Additional Links: PMID-30603681

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@article {pmid30603681,

year = {2018},

author = {Szaszák, N and Roloff, C and Bordás, R and Bencs, P and Szabó, S and Thévenin, D},

title = {A novel type of semi-active jet turbulence grid.},

journal = {Heliyon},

volume = {4},

number = {12},

pages = {e01026},

doi = {10.1016/j.heliyon.2018.e01026},

pmid = {30603681},

issn = {2405-8440},

abstract = {This article describes a novel approach to generate increased turbulence levels in an incoming flow. It relies on a cost-effective and robust semi-active jet grid, equipped with flexible tubes as moving elements attached onto tube connections placed at the intersections of a fixed, regular grid. For the present study, these flexible tubes are oriented in counter-flow direction in a wind tunnel. Tube motion is governed by multiple interactions between the main flow and the jets exiting the tubes, resulting in chaotic velocity fluctuations and high turbulence intensities in the test section. After describing the structure of the turbulence generator, the turbulent properties of the airflow downstream of the grid in both passive and active modes are measured by hot-wire anemometry and compared with one another. When activating the turbulence generator, turbulence intensity, turbulent kinetic energy, and the Taylor Reynolds number are noticeably increased in comparison with the passive mode (corresponding to simple grid turbulence). Furthermore, the inertial subrange of the turbulent energy spectrum becomes wider and closely follows Kolmogorov's -5/3 law. These results show that the semi-active grid, in contrast to passive systems, is capable of producing high turbulence levels, even at low incoming flow velocity. Compared to alternatives based on actuators driven by servo-motors, the production and operation costs of the semi-active grid are very moderate and its robustness is much higher.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-08

**Continuation and stability of rotating waves in the magnetized spherical Couette system: secondary transitions and multistability.**

*Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences*, **474(2220):**20180281.

Rotating waves (RW) bifurcating from the axisymmetric basic magnetized spherical Couette (MSC) flow are computed by means of Newton-Krylov continuation techniques for periodic orbits. In addition, their stability is analysed in the framework of Floquet theory. The inner sphere rotates while the outer is kept at rest and the fluid is subjected to an axial magnetic field. For a moderate Reynolds number Re = 103 (measuring inner rotation), the effect of increasing the magnetic field strength (measured by the Hartmann number Ha) is addressed in the range Ha∈(0, 80) corresponding to the working conditions of the HEDGEHOG experiment at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The study reveals several regions of multistability of waves with azimuthal wavenumber m = 2, 3, 4, and several transitions to quasi-periodic flows, i.e modulated rotating waves. These nonlinear flows can be classified as the three different instabilities of the radial jet, the return flow and the shear layer, as found in the previous studies. These two flows are continuously linked, and part of the same branch, as the magnetic forcing is increased. Midway between the two instabilities, at a certain critical Ha, the non-axisymmetric component of the flow is maximum.

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@article {pmid30602925,

year = {2018},

author = {Garcia, F and Stefani, F},

title = {Continuation and stability of rotating waves in the magnetized spherical Couette system: secondary transitions and multistability.},

journal = {Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences},

volume = {474},

number = {2220},

pages = {20180281},

doi = {10.1098/rspa.2018.0281},

pmid = {30602925},

issn = {1364-5021},

abstract = {Rotating waves (RW) bifurcating from the axisymmetric basic magnetized spherical Couette (MSC) flow are computed by means of Newton-Krylov continuation techniques for periodic orbits. In addition, their stability is analysed in the framework of Floquet theory. The inner sphere rotates while the outer is kept at rest and the fluid is subjected to an axial magnetic field. For a moderate Reynolds number Re = 103 (measuring inner rotation), the effect of increasing the magnetic field strength (measured by the Hartmann number Ha) is addressed in the range Ha∈(0, 80) corresponding to the working conditions of the HEDGEHOG experiment at Helmholtz-Zentrum Dresden-Rossendorf. The study reveals several regions of multistability of waves with azimuthal wavenumber m = 2, 3, 4, and several transitions to quasi-periodic flows, i.e modulated rotating waves. These nonlinear flows can be classified as the three different instabilities of the radial jet, the return flow and the shear layer, as found in the previous studies. These two flows are continuously linked, and part of the same branch, as the magnetic forcing is increased. Midway between the two instabilities, at a certain critical Ha, the non-axisymmetric component of the flow is maximum.},

}

RevDate: 2019-03-01

**Roughness effects of diatomaceous slime fouling on turbulent boundary layer hydrodynamics.**

*Biofouling*, **34(9):**976-988.

Biofilm fouling significantly impacts ship performance. Here, the impact of biofilm on boundary layer structure at a ship-relevant, low Reynolds number was investigated. Boundary layer measurements were performed over slime-fouled plates using high resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV). The velocity profile over the biofilm showed a downward shift in the log-law region (ΔU+), resulting in an effective roughness height (ks) of 8.8 mm, significantly larger than the physical thickness of the biofilm (1.7 ± 0.5 mm) and generating more than three times as much frictional drag as the smooth-wall. The skin-friction coefficient, Cf, of the biofilm was 9.0 × 10-3 compared with 2.9 × 10-3 for the smooth wall. The biofilm also enhances turbulent kinetic energy (tke) and Reynolds shear stress, which are more heterogeneous in the streamwise direction than smooth-wall flows. This suggests that biofilms increase drag due to high levels of momentum transport, likely resulting from protruding streamers and surface compliance.

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@article {pmid30602310,

year = {2018},

author = {Murphy, EAK and Barros, JM and Schultz, MP and Flack, KA and Steppe, CN and Reidenbach, MA},

title = {Roughness effects of diatomaceous slime fouling on turbulent boundary layer hydrodynamics.},

journal = {Biofouling},

volume = {34},

number = {9},

pages = {976-988},

doi = {10.1080/08927014.2018.1517867},

pmid = {30602310},

issn = {1029-2454},

abstract = {Biofilm fouling significantly impacts ship performance. Here, the impact of biofilm on boundary layer structure at a ship-relevant, low Reynolds number was investigated. Boundary layer measurements were performed over slime-fouled plates using high resolution particle image velocimetry (PIV). The velocity profile over the biofilm showed a downward shift in the log-law region (ΔU+), resulting in an effective roughness height (ks) of 8.8 mm, significantly larger than the physical thickness of the biofilm (1.7 ± 0.5 mm) and generating more than three times as much frictional drag as the smooth-wall. The skin-friction coefficient, Cf, of the biofilm was 9.0 × 10-3 compared with 2.9 × 10-3 for the smooth wall. The biofilm also enhances turbulent kinetic energy (tke) and Reynolds shear stress, which are more heterogeneous in the streamwise direction than smooth-wall flows. This suggests that biofilms increase drag due to high levels of momentum transport, likely resulting from protruding streamers and surface compliance.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-25

**Effect of naturally restored grassland on the ephemeral gully erosion in the loess hilly and gully region.**

*Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology*, **29(12):**3891-3899.

Ephemeral gully erosion is an important erosion type in hilly and gully regions of Loess Plateau. While previous studies mainly focused on ephemeral gullies in agricultural land, little is known about the effects of naturally restored grassland on ephemeral gully erosion. In this study, taking the bare ephemeral gullies as the baseline, we conducted in-situ flushing tests to explore runoff and sediment yield characteristics and erosion mechanism of grassland ephemeral gullies under the runoff conditions of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 L·min-1. Compared to the bare ephemeral gully, average flow velocity, stable runoff rate, Reynolds number and Froude number of grassland ephe-meral gullies was reduced by 25.4%-67.3%, 8.4%-26.6%, 54.9%-80.5%, 18.6%-65.1%, respectively, whereas resistance coefficient was increased by 0.09-7.18 folds. Compared to the bare ephemeral gully, the maximum sediment yield rate, stable sediment yield rate, average sediment yield rate of grassland ephemeral gullies was decreased by 55.1%-90.9%, 61.8%-95.4%, and 64.8%-92.4%, respectively. The sediment yield reduction benefit of the naturally restored grassland under the discharge flow rate of 5-25 L·min-1 could reach 65.9%-88.8%, which decreased with increasing discharge flow rate. Compared to the bare ephemeral gully, average stream power and average shear stress of grassland ephemeral gullies was reduced by 54.9%-80.5% and 12.4%-51.1%, respectively, whereas the critical stream power and critical shear stress was increased by 1.43 folds and 33.7%, respectively. The average sediment yield of grassland and bare ephemeral gullies was signifi-cantly linearly related to average stream power and shear stress. Naturally restored grassland significantly increased the erosion resistance and reduced runoff erosion potential of ephemeral gullies.

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@article {pmid30584714,

year = {2018},

author = {Wang, WX and Wang, WL and Kang, HL and Guo, MM and Yang, B and Chen, ZX and Zhao, M},

title = {Effect of naturally restored grassland on the ephemeral gully erosion in the loess hilly and gully region.},

journal = {Ying yong sheng tai xue bao = The journal of applied ecology},

volume = {29},

number = {12},

pages = {3891-3899},

doi = {10.13287/j.1001-9332.201812.016},

pmid = {30584714},

issn = {1001-9332},

abstract = {Ephemeral gully erosion is an important erosion type in hilly and gully regions of Loess Plateau. While previous studies mainly focused on ephemeral gullies in agricultural land, little is known about the effects of naturally restored grassland on ephemeral gully erosion. In this study, taking the bare ephemeral gullies as the baseline, we conducted in-situ flushing tests to explore runoff and sediment yield characteristics and erosion mechanism of grassland ephemeral gullies under the runoff conditions of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 L·min-1. Compared to the bare ephemeral gully, average flow velocity, stable runoff rate, Reynolds number and Froude number of grassland ephe-meral gullies was reduced by 25.4%-67.3%, 8.4%-26.6%, 54.9%-80.5%, 18.6%-65.1%, respectively, whereas resistance coefficient was increased by 0.09-7.18 folds. Compared to the bare ephemeral gully, the maximum sediment yield rate, stable sediment yield rate, average sediment yield rate of grassland ephemeral gullies was decreased by 55.1%-90.9%, 61.8%-95.4%, and 64.8%-92.4%, respectively. The sediment yield reduction benefit of the naturally restored grassland under the discharge flow rate of 5-25 L·min-1 could reach 65.9%-88.8%, which decreased with increasing discharge flow rate. Compared to the bare ephemeral gully, average stream power and average shear stress of grassland ephemeral gullies was reduced by 54.9%-80.5% and 12.4%-51.1%, respectively, whereas the critical stream power and critical shear stress was increased by 1.43 folds and 33.7%, respectively. The average sediment yield of grassland and bare ephemeral gullies was signifi-cantly linearly related to average stream power and shear stress. Naturally restored grassland significantly increased the erosion resistance and reduced runoff erosion potential of ephemeral gullies.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-28

CmpDate: 2018-12-28

**Prospects for the Detection of Electronic Preturbulence in Graphene.**

*Physical review letters*, **121(23):**236602.

Based on extensive numerical simulations, accounting for electrostatic interactions and dissipative electron-phonon scattering, we propose experimentally realizable geometries capable of sustaining electronic preturbulence in graphene samples. In particular, preturbulence is predicted to occur at experimentally attainable values of the Reynolds number between 10 and 50, over a broad spectrum of frequencies between 10 and 100 GHz.

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@article {pmid30576199,

year = {2018},

author = {Gabbana, A and Polini, M and Succi, S and Tripiccione, R and Pellegrino, FMD},

title = {Prospects for the Detection of Electronic Preturbulence in Graphene.},

journal = {Physical review letters},

volume = {121},

number = {23},

pages = {236602},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.236602},

pmid = {30576199},

issn = {1079-7114},

abstract = {Based on extensive numerical simulations, accounting for electrostatic interactions and dissipative electron-phonon scattering, we propose experimentally realizable geometries capable of sustaining electronic preturbulence in graphene samples. In particular, preturbulence is predicted to occur at experimentally attainable values of the Reynolds number between 10 and 50, over a broad spectrum of frequencies between 10 and 100 GHz.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-17

**High-Efficiency Nose-to-Lung Aerosol Delivery in an Infant: Development of a Validated Computational Fluid Dynamics Method.**

*Journal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery* [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provides a powerful tool for developing new high-efficiency aerosol delivery strategies, such as nose-to-lung (N2L) aerosol administration to infants and children using correctly sized aerosols. The objective of this study was to establish numerically efficient CFD solution methods and guidelines for simulating N2L aerosol administration to an infant based on comparisons with concurrent in vitro experiments.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: N2L administration of a micrometer-sized aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter [MMAD] = 1.4 μm) was evaluated using concurrent CFD simulations and in vitro experiments. Aerosol transport and deposition was assessed in a new nasal airway geometry of a 6-month-old infant with a streamlined nasal cannula interface, which was constructed as a CFD mesh and three-dimensionally printed to form an identical physical prototype. CFD meshes explored were a conventional tetrahedral approach with near-wall (NW) prism elements and a new polyhedral mesh style with an equally refined NW layer. The presence of turbulence in the model was evaluated using a highly efficient low-Reynolds number (LRN) k-ω turbulence model, with previously established NW corrections that accounted for anisotropic wall-normal turbulence as well as improved NW velocity interpolations and hydrodynamic particle damping.

RESULTS: Use of the new polyhedral mesh was found to improve numerical efficiency by providing more rapid convergence and requiring fewer control volumes. Turbulent flow was found in the nasal geometry, generated by the inlet jets from the nasal cannula interface. However, due to the small particle size, turbulent dispersion was shown to have little effect on deposition. Good agreement was established between the CFD predictions using the numerically efficient LRN k-ω model with appropriate NW corrections and in vitro deposition data. Aerosol transmission efficiencies through the delivery tube, nasal cannula, and infant nasal model, based on experimental and CFD predictions, were 93.0% and 91.5%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: A numerically efficient CFD approach was established to develop transnasal aerosol administration to infants and children. Small particle aerosols with aerodynamic diameters of ∼1.5 μm were confirmed to have low inertial depositional loss, and have low deposition from turbulent dispersion, making them ideal for high-efficiency lung delivery through an infant nasal cannula interface.

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@article {pmid30556777,

year = {2018},

author = {Bass, K and Boc, S and Hindle, M and Dodson, K and Longest, W},

title = {High-Efficiency Nose-to-Lung Aerosol Delivery in an Infant: Development of a Validated Computational Fluid Dynamics Method.},

journal = {Journal of aerosol medicine and pulmonary drug delivery},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1089/jamp.2018.1490},

pmid = {30556777},

issn = {1941-2703},

abstract = {BACKGROUND: Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) provides a powerful tool for developing new high-efficiency aerosol delivery strategies, such as nose-to-lung (N2L) aerosol administration to infants and children using correctly sized aerosols. The objective of this study was to establish numerically efficient CFD solution methods and guidelines for simulating N2L aerosol administration to an infant based on comparisons with concurrent in vitro experiments.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: N2L administration of a micrometer-sized aerosol (mass median aerodynamic diameter [MMAD] = 1.4 μm) was evaluated using concurrent CFD simulations and in vitro experiments. Aerosol transport and deposition was assessed in a new nasal airway geometry of a 6-month-old infant with a streamlined nasal cannula interface, which was constructed as a CFD mesh and three-dimensionally printed to form an identical physical prototype. CFD meshes explored were a conventional tetrahedral approach with near-wall (NW) prism elements and a new polyhedral mesh style with an equally refined NW layer. The presence of turbulence in the model was evaluated using a highly efficient low-Reynolds number (LRN) k-ω turbulence model, with previously established NW corrections that accounted for anisotropic wall-normal turbulence as well as improved NW velocity interpolations and hydrodynamic particle damping.

RESULTS: Use of the new polyhedral mesh was found to improve numerical efficiency by providing more rapid convergence and requiring fewer control volumes. Turbulent flow was found in the nasal geometry, generated by the inlet jets from the nasal cannula interface. However, due to the small particle size, turbulent dispersion was shown to have little effect on deposition. Good agreement was established between the CFD predictions using the numerically efficient LRN k-ω model with appropriate NW corrections and in vitro deposition data. Aerosol transmission efficiencies through the delivery tube, nasal cannula, and infant nasal model, based on experimental and CFD predictions, were 93.0% and 91.5%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: A numerically efficient CFD approach was established to develop transnasal aerosol administration to infants and children. Small particle aerosols with aerodynamic diameters of ∼1.5 μm were confirmed to have low inertial depositional loss, and have low deposition from turbulent dispersion, making them ideal for high-efficiency lung delivery through an infant nasal cannula interface.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-11

**3D Printed Microfluidic Mixers-A Comparative Study on Mixing Unit Performances.**

*Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)*, **15(2):**e1804326.

One of the basic operations in microfluidic systems for biological and chemical applications is the rapid mixing of different fluids. However, flow profiles in microfluidic systems are laminar, which means molecular diffusion is the only mixing effect. Therefore, mixing structures are crucial to enable more efficient mixing in shorter times. Since traditional microfabrication methods remain laborious and expensive, 3D printing has emerged as a potential alternative for the fabrication of microfluidic devices. In this work, five different passive micromixers known from literature are redesigned in comparable dimensions and manufactured using high-definition MultiJet 3D printing. Their mixing performance is evaluated experimentally, using sodium hydroxide and phenolphthalein solutions, and numerically via computational fluid dynamics. Both experimental and numerical analysis results show that HC and Tesla-like mixers achieve complete mixing after 0.99 s and 0.78 s, respectively, at the highest flow rate (Reynolds number (Re) = 37.04). In comparison, Caterpillar mixers exhibit a lower mixing rate with complete mixing after 1.46 s and 1.9 s. Furthermore, the HC mixer achieves very good mixing performances over all flow rates (Re = 3.7 to 37.04), while other mixers show improved mixing only at higher flow rates.

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@article {pmid30548194,

year = {2019},

author = {Enders, A and Siller, IG and Urmann, K and Hoffmann, MR and Bahnemann, J},

title = {3D Printed Microfluidic Mixers-A Comparative Study on Mixing Unit Performances.},

journal = {Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany)},

volume = {15},

number = {2},

pages = {e1804326},

doi = {10.1002/smll.201804326},

pmid = {30548194},

issn = {1613-6829},

support = {//German Research Foundation/ ; },

abstract = {One of the basic operations in microfluidic systems for biological and chemical applications is the rapid mixing of different fluids. However, flow profiles in microfluidic systems are laminar, which means molecular diffusion is the only mixing effect. Therefore, mixing structures are crucial to enable more efficient mixing in shorter times. Since traditional microfabrication methods remain laborious and expensive, 3D printing has emerged as a potential alternative for the fabrication of microfluidic devices. In this work, five different passive micromixers known from literature are redesigned in comparable dimensions and manufactured using high-definition MultiJet 3D printing. Their mixing performance is evaluated experimentally, using sodium hydroxide and phenolphthalein solutions, and numerically via computational fluid dynamics. Both experimental and numerical analysis results show that HC and Tesla-like mixers achieve complete mixing after 0.99 s and 0.78 s, respectively, at the highest flow rate (Reynolds number (Re) = 37.04). In comparison, Caterpillar mixers exhibit a lower mixing rate with complete mixing after 1.46 s and 1.9 s. Furthermore, the HC mixer achieves very good mixing performances over all flow rates (Re = 3.7 to 37.04), while other mixers show improved mixing only at higher flow rates.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-14

**Turbulent mixing: A perspective.**

*Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America* pii:1800463115 [Epub ahead of print].

Mixing of initially distinct substances plays an important role in our daily lives as well as in ecological and technological worlds. From the continuum point of view, which we adopt here, mixing is complete when the substances come together across smallest flow scales determined in part by molecular mechanisms, but important stages of the process occur via the advection of substances by an underlying flow. We know how smooth flows enable mixing but less well the manner in which a turbulent flow influences it; but the latter is the more common occurrence on Earth and in the universe. We focus here on turbulent mixing, with more attention paid to the postmixing state than to the transient process of initiation. In particular, we examine turbulent mixing when the substance is a scalar (i.e., characterized only by the scalar property of its concentration), and the mixing process does not influence the flow itself (i.e., the scalar is "passive"). This is the simplest paradigm of turbulent mixing. Within this paradigm, we discuss how a turbulently mixed state depends on the flow Reynolds number and the Schmidt number of the scalar (the ratio of fluid viscosity to the scalar diffusivity), point out some fundamental aspects of turbulent mixing that render it difficult to be addressed quantitatively, and summarize a set of ideas that help us appreciate its physics in diverse circumstances. We consider the so-called universal and anomalous features and summarize a few model studies that help us understand them both.

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@article {pmid30545916,

year = {2018},

author = {Sreenivasan, KR},

title = {Turbulent mixing: A perspective.},

journal = {Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1073/pnas.1800463115},

pmid = {30545916},

issn = {1091-6490},

abstract = {Mixing of initially distinct substances plays an important role in our daily lives as well as in ecological and technological worlds. From the continuum point of view, which we adopt here, mixing is complete when the substances come together across smallest flow scales determined in part by molecular mechanisms, but important stages of the process occur via the advection of substances by an underlying flow. We know how smooth flows enable mixing but less well the manner in which a turbulent flow influences it; but the latter is the more common occurrence on Earth and in the universe. We focus here on turbulent mixing, with more attention paid to the postmixing state than to the transient process of initiation. In particular, we examine turbulent mixing when the substance is a scalar (i.e., characterized only by the scalar property of its concentration), and the mixing process does not influence the flow itself (i.e., the scalar is "passive"). This is the simplest paradigm of turbulent mixing. Within this paradigm, we discuss how a turbulently mixed state depends on the flow Reynolds number and the Schmidt number of the scalar (the ratio of fluid viscosity to the scalar diffusivity), point out some fundamental aspects of turbulent mixing that render it difficult to be addressed quantitatively, and summarize a set of ideas that help us appreciate its physics in diverse circumstances. We consider the so-called universal and anomalous features and summarize a few model studies that help us understand them both.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-07

**Numerical investigation of low-noise airfoils inspired by the down coat of owls.**

*Bioinspiration & biomimetics*, **14(1):**016013.

Numerical analysis of airfoil geometries inspired by the down coat of the night owl is presented. The bioinspired geometry consists of an array of 'finlet fences', which is placed near the trailing edge of the baseline (NACA 0012) airfoil. Two fences with maximum nondimensional heights, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are investigated, where [Formula: see text] is the displacement thickness at 2.9% chord upstream of the airfoil trailing edge. Wall-resolved large eddy simulations are performed at chord-based Reynolds number, [Formula: see text], flow Mach number, [Formula: see text], and angle of attack, [Formula: see text]. The simulation results show significant reductions in unsteady surface pressure and farfield radiated noise with the fences, in agreement with the measurements available in the literature. Analysis of the results reveals that the fences increase the distance between the boundary layer turbulence (source) and the airfoil trailing (scattering) edge, which is identified to be the mechanism behind high-frequency noise reduction. These reductions are larger for the taller fence as the source-scattering edge separation is greater. Two-point correlations show that the fences reduce the spanwise coherence at low frequencies for separation distances greater than a fence pitch (distance between two adjacent fences) and increase the coherence for smaller distances, the increase being higher for the taller fence. This increase in coherence and the reduced obliqueness of the leading edge of the fence are hypothesized to be responsible for the small increase in farfield noise at low frequencies observed in the simulations with the taller fence.

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@article {pmid30523914,

year = {2018},

author = {Bodling, A and Sharma, A},

title = {Numerical investigation of low-noise airfoils inspired by the down coat of owls.},

journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics},

volume = {14},

number = {1},

pages = {016013},

doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/aaf19c},

pmid = {30523914},

issn = {1748-3190},

abstract = {Numerical analysis of airfoil geometries inspired by the down coat of the night owl is presented. The bioinspired geometry consists of an array of 'finlet fences', which is placed near the trailing edge of the baseline (NACA 0012) airfoil. Two fences with maximum nondimensional heights, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] are investigated, where [Formula: see text] is the displacement thickness at 2.9% chord upstream of the airfoil trailing edge. Wall-resolved large eddy simulations are performed at chord-based Reynolds number, [Formula: see text], flow Mach number, [Formula: see text], and angle of attack, [Formula: see text]. The simulation results show significant reductions in unsteady surface pressure and farfield radiated noise with the fences, in agreement with the measurements available in the literature. Analysis of the results reveals that the fences increase the distance between the boundary layer turbulence (source) and the airfoil trailing (scattering) edge, which is identified to be the mechanism behind high-frequency noise reduction. These reductions are larger for the taller fence as the source-scattering edge separation is greater. Two-point correlations show that the fences reduce the spanwise coherence at low frequencies for separation distances greater than a fence pitch (distance between two adjacent fences) and increase the coherence for smaller distances, the increase being higher for the taller fence. This increase in coherence and the reduced obliqueness of the leading edge of the fence are hypothesized to be responsible for the small increase in farfield noise at low frequencies observed in the simulations with the taller fence.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-28

**Experimental evaluation of pressure drop for flows of air and heliox through upper and central conducting airway replicas of 4- to 8-year-old children.**

*Journal of biomechanics*, **82:**134-141.

Airway resistance describes the ratio between pressure drop and flow rate through the conducting respiratory airways. Analytical models of airway resistance for tracheobronchial airways have previously been developed and assessed without upper airways positioned upstream of the trachea. This work investigated pressure drop as a function of flow rate and gas properties for upper and central airway replicas of 10 child subjects, ages 4-8. Replica geometries were built based on computed tomography scan data and included airways from the nose through 3-5 distal branching airway generations. Pressure drop through the replicas was measured for constant inspiratory flows of air and heliox. For both the nose-throat and branching airways, the relationship between non-dimensional coefficient of friction, CF, with Reynolds number, Re, was found to resemble the turbulent Blasius equation for pipe flow, where CF∝Re-0.25. Additionally, pressure drop ratios between heliox and air were consistent with analytical predictions for turbulent flow. The presence of turbulence in the branching airways likely resulted from convection of turbulence produced upstream in the nose and throat. An airway resistance model based on the Blasius pipe friction correlation for turbulent flow was proposed for prediction of pressure drop through the branching bronchial airways downstream from the upper airway.

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@article {pmid30522876,

year = {2019},

author = {Paxman, T and Noga, M and Finlay, WH and Martin, AR},

title = {Experimental evaluation of pressure drop for flows of air and heliox through upper and central conducting airway replicas of 4- to 8-year-old children.},

journal = {Journal of biomechanics},

volume = {82},

number = {},

pages = {134-141},

doi = {10.1016/j.jbiomech.2018.10.028},

pmid = {30522876},

issn = {1873-2380},

abstract = {Airway resistance describes the ratio between pressure drop and flow rate through the conducting respiratory airways. Analytical models of airway resistance for tracheobronchial airways have previously been developed and assessed without upper airways positioned upstream of the trachea. This work investigated pressure drop as a function of flow rate and gas properties for upper and central airway replicas of 10 child subjects, ages 4-8. Replica geometries were built based on computed tomography scan data and included airways from the nose through 3-5 distal branching airway generations. Pressure drop through the replicas was measured for constant inspiratory flows of air and heliox. For both the nose-throat and branching airways, the relationship between non-dimensional coefficient of friction, CF, with Reynolds number, Re, was found to resemble the turbulent Blasius equation for pipe flow, where CF∝Re-0.25. Additionally, pressure drop ratios between heliox and air were consistent with analytical predictions for turbulent flow. The presence of turbulence in the branching airways likely resulted from convection of turbulence produced upstream in the nose and throat. An airway resistance model based on the Blasius pipe friction correlation for turbulent flow was proposed for prediction of pressure drop through the branching bronchial airways downstream from the upper airway.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-07

**Translational dynamics of individual microbubbles with millisecond scale ultrasound pulses.**

*The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America*, **144(5):**2859.

It is established that radiation forces can be used to transport ultrasound contrast agents, particularly for molecular imaging applications. However, the ability to model and control this process in the context of therapeutic ultrasound is limited by a paucity of data on the translational dynamics of encapsulated microbubbles under the influence of longer pulses. In this work, the translation of individual microbubbles, isolated with optical tweezers, was experimentally investigated over a range of diameters (1.8-8.8 μm, n = 187) and pressures (25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kPa) with millisecond pulses. Data were compared with theoretical predictions of the translational dynamics, assessing the role of shell and history force effects. A pronounced feature of the displacement curves was an effective threshold size, below which there was only minimal translation. At higher pressures (≥150 kPa) a noticeable structure emerged where multiple local maxima occurred as a function of bubble size. The ability to accurately capture these salient features depended on the encapsulation model employed. In low Reynolds number conditions (i.e., low pressures, or high pressures, off-resonance) the inclusion of history force more accurately fit the data. After pulse cessation, bubbles exhibited substantial displacements consistent with the influence of history effects.

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@article {pmid30522286,

year = {2018},

author = {Acconcia, CN and Wright, A and Goertz, DE},

title = {Translational dynamics of individual microbubbles with millisecond scale ultrasound pulses.},

journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},

volume = {144},

number = {5},

pages = {2859},

doi = {10.1121/1.5063353},

pmid = {30522286},

issn = {1520-8524},

abstract = {It is established that radiation forces can be used to transport ultrasound contrast agents, particularly for molecular imaging applications. However, the ability to model and control this process in the context of therapeutic ultrasound is limited by a paucity of data on the translational dynamics of encapsulated microbubbles under the influence of longer pulses. In this work, the translation of individual microbubbles, isolated with optical tweezers, was experimentally investigated over a range of diameters (1.8-8.8 μm, n = 187) and pressures (25, 50, 100, 150, and 200 kPa) with millisecond pulses. Data were compared with theoretical predictions of the translational dynamics, assessing the role of shell and history force effects. A pronounced feature of the displacement curves was an effective threshold size, below which there was only minimal translation. At higher pressures (≥150 kPa) a noticeable structure emerged where multiple local maxima occurred as a function of bubble size. The ability to accurately capture these salient features depended on the encapsulation model employed. In low Reynolds number conditions (i.e., low pressures, or high pressures, off-resonance) the inclusion of history force more accurately fit the data. After pulse cessation, bubbles exhibited substantial displacements consistent with the influence of history effects.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-14

CmpDate: 2018-12-14

**Fast mass transport-assisted convective heat transfer through a multi-walled carbon nanotube array.**

*Nanoscale*, **10(48):**23103-23112.

The recently reported fast mass transport through nanochannels provides a unique opportunity to explore nanoscale energy transport. Here we experimentally investigated the convective heat transport of air through vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWNTs). The flow through the unit cell, defined as an interstitial space among four adjacent nanotubes (hydraulic diameter = 84.9 nm), was in the transition (0.62 ≤ Knudsen number ≤ 0.78) and creeping flow (3.83 × 10-5 ≤ Reynolds number (Re) ≤ 1.55 × 10-4) regime. The constant heat flux (0.102 or 0.286 W m-2) was supplied by a single-mode microwave (2.45 GHz) instantly heating the VAMWNTs. The volume flow rate was two orders of magnitude greater than the Hagen-Poiseuille theory value. The experimentally determined convective heat transfer coefficient (h, 3.70 × 10-4-4.01 × 10-3 W m-2 K-1) and Nusselt number (Nu, 1.17 × 10-9-1.26 × 10-8) were small partly due to the small Re. A further increase in Re (2.12 × 10-3) with the support of a polytetrafluoroethylene mesh significantly increased h (5.48 × 10-2 W m-2 K-1) and Nu (2.37 × 10-7). A large number of nanochannels in a given cross-section of heat sinks may enhance the heat dissipation significantly.

Additional Links: PMID-30511712

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@article {pmid30511712,

year = {2018},

author = {Jeon, W and Kim, T and Kim, SM and Baik, S},

title = {Fast mass transport-assisted convective heat transfer through a multi-walled carbon nanotube array.},

journal = {Nanoscale},

volume = {10},

number = {48},

pages = {23103-23112},

doi = {10.1039/c8nr07529h},

pmid = {30511712},

issn = {2040-3372},

abstract = {The recently reported fast mass transport through nanochannels provides a unique opportunity to explore nanoscale energy transport. Here we experimentally investigated the convective heat transport of air through vertically aligned multi-walled carbon nanotubes (VAMWNTs). The flow through the unit cell, defined as an interstitial space among four adjacent nanotubes (hydraulic diameter = 84.9 nm), was in the transition (0.62 ≤ Knudsen number ≤ 0.78) and creeping flow (3.83 × 10-5 ≤ Reynolds number (Re) ≤ 1.55 × 10-4) regime. The constant heat flux (0.102 or 0.286 W m-2) was supplied by a single-mode microwave (2.45 GHz) instantly heating the VAMWNTs. The volume flow rate was two orders of magnitude greater than the Hagen-Poiseuille theory value. The experimentally determined convective heat transfer coefficient (h, 3.70 × 10-4-4.01 × 10-3 W m-2 K-1) and Nusselt number (Nu, 1.17 × 10-9-1.26 × 10-8) were small partly due to the small Re. A further increase in Re (2.12 × 10-3) with the support of a polytetrafluoroethylene mesh significantly increased h (5.48 × 10-2 W m-2 K-1) and Nu (2.37 × 10-7). A large number of nanochannels in a given cross-section of heat sinks may enhance the heat dissipation significantly.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-04

**Influence of complex driving motion on propulsion performance of a heaving flexible foil.**

*Bioinspiration & biomimetics*, **14(1):**016011.

This study explores the effects of complex driving motion on the propulsion performance of a flexible foil heaving in the flight regimes of natural flyers. Such a fluid-structure interaction problem is numerically studied using an immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method (IBLBM) based numerical framework. It is found that, at the Reynolds number 200 and when the foil's bending stiffness and mass ratio are moderate, adding an extra driving motion of doubled frequency to a purely harmonic motion on the foil's leading edge can enhance the thrust and propulsive efficiency by about 860% and 70%, respectively. The improvement in thrust increases with the extra-driving-motion amplitude. When the extra-driving-motion amplitude is fixed, there exists an optimal extra-driving-motion phase angle. As the foil becomes much stiffer or lighter, the improvement in the propulsion performance turns less. On the other hand, as the foil becomes much more flexible or heavier, drag instead of thrust is generated, and extra driving motion brings no improvement. Although the extra driving motion can improve the foil's propulsion performance in flows of different Reynolds numbers, the increasing rate of the thrust reduces with the Reynolds number. Through this study, details about the competitions among various forces exerted on the foil and their roles in the foil's dynamics are also revealed.

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@article {pmid30511653,

year = {2018},

author = {Wang, C and Tang, H},

title = {Influence of complex driving motion on propulsion performance of a heaving flexible foil.},

journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics},

volume = {14},

number = {1},

pages = {016011},

doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/aaf17a},

pmid = {30511653},

issn = {1748-3190},

abstract = {This study explores the effects of complex driving motion on the propulsion performance of a flexible foil heaving in the flight regimes of natural flyers. Such a fluid-structure interaction problem is numerically studied using an immersed boundary lattice Boltzmann method (IBLBM) based numerical framework. It is found that, at the Reynolds number 200 and when the foil's bending stiffness and mass ratio are moderate, adding an extra driving motion of doubled frequency to a purely harmonic motion on the foil's leading edge can enhance the thrust and propulsive efficiency by about 860% and 70%, respectively. The improvement in thrust increases with the extra-driving-motion amplitude. When the extra-driving-motion amplitude is fixed, there exists an optimal extra-driving-motion phase angle. As the foil becomes much stiffer or lighter, the improvement in the propulsion performance turns less. On the other hand, as the foil becomes much more flexible or heavier, drag instead of thrust is generated, and extra driving motion brings no improvement. Although the extra driving motion can improve the foil's propulsion performance in flows of different Reynolds numbers, the increasing rate of the thrust reduces with the Reynolds number. Through this study, details about the competitions among various forces exerted on the foil and their roles in the foil's dynamics are also revealed.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-18

**Enhanced locomotion, effective diffusion and trapping of undulatory micro-swimmers in heterogeneous environments.**

*Journal of the Royal Society, Interface*, **15(148):** pii:rsif.2018.0592.

Swimming cells and microorganisms must often move through complex fluids that contain an immersed microstructure such as polymer molecules or filaments. In many important biological processes, such as mammalian reproduction and bacterial infection, the size of the immersed microstructure is comparable to that of the swimming cells. This leads to discrete swimmer-microstructure interactions that alter the swimmer's path and speed. In this paper, we use a combination of detailed simulation and data-driven stochastic models to examine the motion of a planar undulatory swimmer in an environment of spherical obstacles tethered via linear springs to random points in the plane of locomotion. We find that, depending on environmental parameters, the interactions with the obstacles can enhance swimming speeds or prevent the swimmer from moving at all. We also show how the discrete interactions produce translational and angular velocity fluctuations that over time lead to diffusive behaviour primarily due to the coupling of swimming and rotational diffusion. Our results demonstrate that direct swimmer-microstructure interactions can produce changes in swimmer motion that may have important implications for the spreading of cell populations in or the trapping of harmful pathogens by complex fluids.

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@article {pmid30487240,

year = {2018},

author = {Kamal, A and Keaveny, EE},

title = {Enhanced locomotion, effective diffusion and trapping of undulatory micro-swimmers in heterogeneous environments.},

journal = {Journal of the Royal Society, Interface},

volume = {15},

number = {148},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1098/rsif.2018.0592},

pmid = {30487240},

issn = {1742-5662},

abstract = {Swimming cells and microorganisms must often move through complex fluids that contain an immersed microstructure such as polymer molecules or filaments. In many important biological processes, such as mammalian reproduction and bacterial infection, the size of the immersed microstructure is comparable to that of the swimming cells. This leads to discrete swimmer-microstructure interactions that alter the swimmer's path and speed. In this paper, we use a combination of detailed simulation and data-driven stochastic models to examine the motion of a planar undulatory swimmer in an environment of spherical obstacles tethered via linear springs to random points in the plane of locomotion. We find that, depending on environmental parameters, the interactions with the obstacles can enhance swimming speeds or prevent the swimmer from moving at all. We also show how the discrete interactions produce translational and angular velocity fluctuations that over time lead to diffusive behaviour primarily due to the coupling of swimming and rotational diffusion. Our results demonstrate that direct swimmer-microstructure interactions can produce changes in swimmer motion that may have important implications for the spreading of cell populations in or the trapping of harmful pathogens by complex fluids.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-07

CmpDate: 2018-11-26

**Surface swimmers, harnessing the interface to self-propel.**

*The European physical journal. E, Soft matter*, **41(11):**137.

In the study of microscopic flows, self-propulsion has been particularly topical in recent years, with the rise of miniature artificial swimmers as a new tool for flow control, low Reynolds number mixing, micromanipulation or even drug delivery. It is possible to take advantage of interfacial physics to propel these microrobots, as demonstrated by recent experiments using the proximity of an interface, or the interface itself, to generate propulsion at low Reynolds number. This paper discusses how a nearby interface can provide the symmetry breaking necessary for propulsion. An overview of recent experiments illustrates how forces at the interface can be used to generate locomotion. Surface swimmers ranging from the microscopic scale to typically the capillary length are covered. Two systems are then discussed in greater detail. The first is composed of floating ferromagnetic spheres that assemble through capillarity into swimming structures. Two previously studied configurations, triangular and collinear, are discussed and contrasted. A new interpretation for the triangular swimmer is presented. Then, the non-monotonic influence of surface tension and viscosity is evidenced in the collinear case. Finally, a new system is introduced. It is a magnetically powered, centimeter-sized piece that swims similarly to water striders.

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@article {pmid30467607,

year = {2018},

author = {Grosjean, G and Hubert, M and Collard, Y and Pillitteri, S and Vandewalle, N},

title = {Surface swimmers, harnessing the interface to self-propel.},

journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter},

volume = {41},

number = {11},

pages = {137},

pmid = {30467607},

issn = {1292-895X},

abstract = {In the study of microscopic flows, self-propulsion has been particularly topical in recent years, with the rise of miniature artificial swimmers as a new tool for flow control, low Reynolds number mixing, micromanipulation or even drug delivery. It is possible to take advantage of interfacial physics to propel these microrobots, as demonstrated by recent experiments using the proximity of an interface, or the interface itself, to generate propulsion at low Reynolds number. This paper discusses how a nearby interface can provide the symmetry breaking necessary for propulsion. An overview of recent experiments illustrates how forces at the interface can be used to generate locomotion. Surface swimmers ranging from the microscopic scale to typically the capillary length are covered. Two systems are then discussed in greater detail. The first is composed of floating ferromagnetic spheres that assemble through capillarity into swimming structures. Two previously studied configurations, triangular and collinear, are discussed and contrasted. A new interpretation for the triangular swimmer is presented. Then, the non-monotonic influence of surface tension and viscosity is evidenced in the collinear case. Finally, a new system is introduced. It is a magnetically powered, centimeter-sized piece that swims similarly to water striders.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-07

**Boundary behaviours of Leishmania mexicana: A hydrodynamic simulation study.**

*Journal of theoretical biology*, **462:**311-320.

It is well established that the parasites of the genus Leishmania exhibit complex surface interactions with the sandfly vector midgut epithelium, but no prior study has considered the details of their hydrodynamics. Here, the boundary behaviours of motile Leishmania mexicana promastigotes are explored in a computational study using the boundary element method, with a model flagellar beating pattern that has been identified from digital videomicroscopy. In particular a simple flagellar kinematics is observed and quantified using image processing and mode identification techniques, suggesting a simple mechanical driver for the Leishmania beat. Phase plane analysis and long-time simulation of a range of Leishmania swimming scenarios demonstrate an absence of stable boundary motility for an idealised model promastigote, with behaviours ranging from boundary capture to deflection into the bulk both with and without surface forces between the swimmer and the boundary. Indeed, the inclusion of a short-range repulsive surface force results in the deflection of all surface-bound promastigotes, suggesting that the documented surface detachment of infective metacyclic promastigotes may be the result of their particular morphology and simple hydrodynamics. Further, simulation elucidates a remarkable morphology-dependent hydrodynamic mechanism of boundary approach, hypothesised to be the cause of the well-established phenomenon of tip-first epithelial attachment of Leishmania promastigotes to the sandfly vector midgut.

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@article {pmid30465777,

year = {2019},

author = {Walker, BJ and Wheeler, RJ and Ishimoto, K and Gaffney, EA},

title = {Boundary behaviours of Leishmania mexicana: A hydrodynamic simulation study.},

journal = {Journal of theoretical biology},

volume = {462},

number = {},

pages = {311-320},

doi = {10.1016/j.jtbi.2018.11.016},

pmid = {30465777},

issn = {1095-8541},

abstract = {It is well established that the parasites of the genus Leishmania exhibit complex surface interactions with the sandfly vector midgut epithelium, but no prior study has considered the details of their hydrodynamics. Here, the boundary behaviours of motile Leishmania mexicana promastigotes are explored in a computational study using the boundary element method, with a model flagellar beating pattern that has been identified from digital videomicroscopy. In particular a simple flagellar kinematics is observed and quantified using image processing and mode identification techniques, suggesting a simple mechanical driver for the Leishmania beat. Phase plane analysis and long-time simulation of a range of Leishmania swimming scenarios demonstrate an absence of stable boundary motility for an idealised model promastigote, with behaviours ranging from boundary capture to deflection into the bulk both with and without surface forces between the swimmer and the boundary. Indeed, the inclusion of a short-range repulsive surface force results in the deflection of all surface-bound promastigotes, suggesting that the documented surface detachment of infective metacyclic promastigotes may be the result of their particular morphology and simple hydrodynamics. Further, simulation elucidates a remarkable morphology-dependent hydrodynamic mechanism of boundary approach, hypothesised to be the cause of the well-established phenomenon of tip-first epithelial attachment of Leishmania promastigotes to the sandfly vector midgut.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-18

**EuMoBot: replicating euglenoid movement in a soft robot.**

*Journal of the Royal Society, Interface*, **15(148):** pii:rsif.2018.0301.

Swimming is employed as a form of locomotion by many organisms in nature across a wide range of scales. Varied strategies of shape change are employed to achieve fluidic propulsion at different scales due to changes in hydrodynamics. In the case of microorganisms, the small mass, low Reynolds number and dominance of viscous forces in the medium, requires a change in shape that is non-invariant under time reversal to achieve movement. The Euglena family of unicellular flagellates evolved a characteristic type of locomotion called euglenoid movement to overcome this challenge, wherein the body undergoes a giant change in shape. It is believed that these large deformations enable the organism to move through viscous fluids and tiny spaces. The ability to drastically change the shape of the body is particularly attractive in robots designed to move through constrained spaces and cluttered environments such as through the human body for invasive medical procedures or through collapsed rubble in search of survivors. Inspired by the euglenoids, we present the design of EuMoBot, a multi-segment soft robot that replicates large body deformations to achieve locomotion. Two robots have been fabricated at different sizes operating with a constant internal volume, which exploit hyperelasticity of fluid-filled elastomeric chambers to replicate the motion of euglenoids. The smaller robot moves at a speed of [Formula: see text] body lengths per cycle (20 mm min-1 or 2.2 cycles min-1) while the larger one attains a speed of [Formula: see text] body lengths per cycle (4.5 mm min-1 or 0.4 cycles min-1). We show the potential for biomimetic soft robots employing shape change to both replicate biological motion and act as a tool for studying it. In addition, we present a quantitative method based on elliptic Fourier descriptors to characterize and compare the shape of the robot with that of its biological counterpart. Our results show a similarity in shape of 85% and indicate that this method can be applied to understand the evolution of shape in other nonlinear, dynamic soft robots where a model for the shape does not exist.

Additional Links: PMID-30464056

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@article {pmid30464056,

year = {2018},

author = {Digumarti, KM and Conn, AT and Rossiter, J},

title = {EuMoBot: replicating euglenoid movement in a soft robot.},

journal = {Journal of the Royal Society, Interface},

volume = {15},

number = {148},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1098/rsif.2018.0301},

pmid = {30464056},

issn = {1742-5662},

abstract = {Swimming is employed as a form of locomotion by many organisms in nature across a wide range of scales. Varied strategies of shape change are employed to achieve fluidic propulsion at different scales due to changes in hydrodynamics. In the case of microorganisms, the small mass, low Reynolds number and dominance of viscous forces in the medium, requires a change in shape that is non-invariant under time reversal to achieve movement. The Euglena family of unicellular flagellates evolved a characteristic type of locomotion called euglenoid movement to overcome this challenge, wherein the body undergoes a giant change in shape. It is believed that these large deformations enable the organism to move through viscous fluids and tiny spaces. The ability to drastically change the shape of the body is particularly attractive in robots designed to move through constrained spaces and cluttered environments such as through the human body for invasive medical procedures or through collapsed rubble in search of survivors. Inspired by the euglenoids, we present the design of EuMoBot, a multi-segment soft robot that replicates large body deformations to achieve locomotion. Two robots have been fabricated at different sizes operating with a constant internal volume, which exploit hyperelasticity of fluid-filled elastomeric chambers to replicate the motion of euglenoids. The smaller robot moves at a speed of [Formula: see text] body lengths per cycle (20 mm min-1 or 2.2 cycles min-1) while the larger one attains a speed of [Formula: see text] body lengths per cycle (4.5 mm min-1 or 0.4 cycles min-1). We show the potential for biomimetic soft robots employing shape change to both replicate biological motion and act as a tool for studying it. In addition, we present a quantitative method based on elliptic Fourier descriptors to characterize and compare the shape of the robot with that of its biological counterpart. Our results show a similarity in shape of 85% and indicate that this method can be applied to understand the evolution of shape in other nonlinear, dynamic soft robots where a model for the shape does not exist.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-13

**Matryoshka-Inspired Micro-Origami Capsules to Enhance Loading, Encapsulation, and Transport of Drugs.**

*Soft robotics*, **6(1):**150-159.

Stimuli-responsive hydrogels are promising candidates for use in the targeted delivery of drugs using microrobotics. These devices enable the delivery and sustained release of quantities of drugs several times greater than their dry weight and are responsive to external stimuli. However, existing systems have two major drawbacks: (1) severe drug leakage before reaching the targeted areas within the body and (2) impeded locomotion through liquids due to the inherent hydrophilicity of hydrogels. This article outlines an approach to the assembly of hydrogel-based microcapsules in which one device is assembled within another to prevent drug leakage during transport. Inspired by the famous Russian stacking dolls (Matryoshka), the proposed scheme not only improves drug-loading efficiency but also facilitates the movement of hydrogel-based microcapsules driven by an external magnetic field. At room temperature, drug leakage from the hydrogel matrix is 90%. However, at body temperature the device folds up and assembles to encapsulate the drug, thereby reducing leakage to a mere 6%. The Matryoshka-inspired micro-origami capsule (MIMC) can disassemble autonomously when it arrives at a targeted site, where the temperature is slightly above body temperature. Up to 30% of the encapsulated drug was shown to diffuse from the hydrogel matrix within 1 h when it unfolds and disassembles. The MIMC is also shown to enhance the movement of magnetically driven microcapsules while navigating through media with a low Reynolds number. The translational velocity of the proposed MIMC (four hydrogel-based microcapsules) driven by magnetic gradients is more than three times greater than that of a conventional (single) hydrogel-based microcapsule.

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@article {pmid30457929,

year = {2019},

author = {Huang, HW and Tibbitt, MW and Huang, TY and Nelson, BJ},

title = {Matryoshka-Inspired Micro-Origami Capsules to Enhance Loading, Encapsulation, and Transport of Drugs.},

journal = {Soft robotics},

volume = {6},

number = {1},

pages = {150-159},

doi = {10.1089/soro.2018.0028},

pmid = {30457929},

issn = {2169-5180},

abstract = {Stimuli-responsive hydrogels are promising candidates for use in the targeted delivery of drugs using microrobotics. These devices enable the delivery and sustained release of quantities of drugs several times greater than their dry weight and are responsive to external stimuli. However, existing systems have two major drawbacks: (1) severe drug leakage before reaching the targeted areas within the body and (2) impeded locomotion through liquids due to the inherent hydrophilicity of hydrogels. This article outlines an approach to the assembly of hydrogel-based microcapsules in which one device is assembled within another to prevent drug leakage during transport. Inspired by the famous Russian stacking dolls (Matryoshka), the proposed scheme not only improves drug-loading efficiency but also facilitates the movement of hydrogel-based microcapsules driven by an external magnetic field. At room temperature, drug leakage from the hydrogel matrix is 90%. However, at body temperature the device folds up and assembles to encapsulate the drug, thereby reducing leakage to a mere 6%. The Matryoshka-inspired micro-origami capsule (MIMC) can disassemble autonomously when it arrives at a targeted site, where the temperature is slightly above body temperature. Up to 30% of the encapsulated drug was shown to diffuse from the hydrogel matrix within 1 h when it unfolds and disassembles. The MIMC is also shown to enhance the movement of magnetically driven microcapsules while navigating through media with a low Reynolds number. The translational velocity of the proposed MIMC (four hydrogel-based microcapsules) driven by magnetic gradients is more than three times greater than that of a conventional (single) hydrogel-based microcapsule.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-28

**Non-invasive Evaluation of Fluid Dynamic of Aortoiliac Atherosclerotic Disease: Impact of Bifurcation Angle and Different Stent Configurations.**

*Journal of translational internal medicine*, **6(3):**138-145.

Objectives: To non-invasively evaluate by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis the physiology and rheology of aortoiliac bifurcation disease at different angles and different stent configurations.

Material and methods: For the analysis, we considered a physiologic model of abdominal aorta with an iliac bifurcation set at 30°, 45° and 70° without stenosis. Subsequently, a bilateral ostial common iliac stenosis of 80% was considered for each type of bifurcation. For the stent simulation, we reconstructed Zilver vascular self-expanding (Zilver; Cook, Bloomington, MN) and Palmaz Genesis Peripheral (Cordis, Miami, FL) stents.

Results: The physiologic model, across the different angles, static pressure, Reynolds number and stream function, were lower for the 30° bifurcation angle with a gradient from 70° to 30° angles, whereas all the other parameters were inversely higher. After stenting, all the fluid parameters decreased homogenously independent of the stent type, maintaining a gradient in favour of 30° compared to 45° and 70° angles. The absolute greater deviation from physiology was observed for low kissing when self-expandable stents were used across all angles; in particular, the wall shear stress was high at at 45° angle.

Conclusion: Bifurcation angle deeply impacts the physiology of aortoiliac bifurcations, which are used to predict the fluid dynamic profile after stenting. CFD, having the potential to be derived both from computed tomography scan or invasive angiography, appears to be an ideal tool to predict fluid dynamic profile before and after stenting in aortoiliac bifurcation.

Additional Links: PMID-30425950

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@article {pmid30425950,

year = {2018},

author = {Rigatelli, G and Zuin, M and Dell'Avvocata, F and Nanjundappa, A and Daggubati, R and Nguyen, T},

title = {Non-invasive Evaluation of Fluid Dynamic of Aortoiliac Atherosclerotic Disease: Impact of Bifurcation Angle and Different Stent Configurations.},

journal = {Journal of translational internal medicine},

volume = {6},

number = {3},

pages = {138-145},

pmid = {30425950},

issn = {2450-131X},

abstract = {Objectives: To non-invasively evaluate by computational fluid dynamic (CFD) analysis the physiology and rheology of aortoiliac bifurcation disease at different angles and different stent configurations.

Material and methods: For the analysis, we considered a physiologic model of abdominal aorta with an iliac bifurcation set at 30°, 45° and 70° without stenosis. Subsequently, a bilateral ostial common iliac stenosis of 80% was considered for each type of bifurcation. For the stent simulation, we reconstructed Zilver vascular self-expanding (Zilver; Cook, Bloomington, MN) and Palmaz Genesis Peripheral (Cordis, Miami, FL) stents.

Results: The physiologic model, across the different angles, static pressure, Reynolds number and stream function, were lower for the 30° bifurcation angle with a gradient from 70° to 30° angles, whereas all the other parameters were inversely higher. After stenting, all the fluid parameters decreased homogenously independent of the stent type, maintaining a gradient in favour of 30° compared to 45° and 70° angles. The absolute greater deviation from physiology was observed for low kissing when self-expandable stents were used across all angles; in particular, the wall shear stress was high at at 45° angle.

Conclusion: Bifurcation angle deeply impacts the physiology of aortoiliac bifurcations, which are used to predict the fluid dynamic profile after stenting. CFD, having the potential to be derived both from computed tomography scan or invasive angiography, appears to be an ideal tool to predict fluid dynamic profile before and after stenting in aortoiliac bifurcation.},

}

RevDate: 2018-11-14

**Prediction of fluid flow and acoustic field of a supersonic jet using vorticity confinement.**

*The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America*, **144(3):**1521.

In this study, the numerical simulation of the fluid flow and acoustic field of a supersonic jet is performed by using high-order discretization and the vorticity confinement (VC) method on coarse grids. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are considered in the generalized curvilinear coordinate system and the high-order compact finite-difference scheme is applied for the space discretization, and the time integration is performed by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. A low-pass high-order filter is applied to stabilize the numerical solution. The non-reflecting boundary conditions are adopted for all the free boundaries, and the Kirchhoff surface integration is utilized to obtain the far-field sound pressure levels in a number of observer locations. Comparisons of the jet mean flow and jet aeroacoustics results with the other numerical and experimental data at similar flow conditions are made and show a reasonable agreement. The study shows that the proposed solution methodology based on the high-order compact finite-difference scheme in conjunction with the VC method can reasonably predict the near-field flow and the far-field noise of high Reynolds number jets with a fairly coarser grid than that used in the large eddy simulations and, thus, the computational cost can be significantly decreased.

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@article {pmid30424640,

year = {2018},

author = {Sadri, M and Hejranfar, K and Ebrahimi, M},

title = {Prediction of fluid flow and acoustic field of a supersonic jet using vorticity confinement.},

journal = {The Journal of the Acoustical Society of America},

volume = {144},

number = {3},

pages = {1521},

doi = {10.1121/1.5055215},

pmid = {30424640},

issn = {1520-8524},

abstract = {In this study, the numerical simulation of the fluid flow and acoustic field of a supersonic jet is performed by using high-order discretization and the vorticity confinement (VC) method on coarse grids. The three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations are considered in the generalized curvilinear coordinate system and the high-order compact finite-difference scheme is applied for the space discretization, and the time integration is performed by the fourth-order Runge-Kutta scheme. A low-pass high-order filter is applied to stabilize the numerical solution. The non-reflecting boundary conditions are adopted for all the free boundaries, and the Kirchhoff surface integration is utilized to obtain the far-field sound pressure levels in a number of observer locations. Comparisons of the jet mean flow and jet aeroacoustics results with the other numerical and experimental data at similar flow conditions are made and show a reasonable agreement. The study shows that the proposed solution methodology based on the high-order compact finite-difference scheme in conjunction with the VC method can reasonably predict the near-field flow and the far-field noise of high Reynolds number jets with a fairly coarser grid than that used in the large eddy simulations and, thus, the computational cost can be significantly decreased.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-07

**PDMS-Parylene Hybrid, Flexible Microfluidics for Real-Time Modulation of 3D Helical Inertial Microfluidics.**

*Micromachines*, **9(6):**.

Inertial microfluidics has drawn much attention for its applications for circulating tumor cell separations from blood. The fluid flows and the inertial particle focusing in inertial microfluidic systems are highly dependent on the channel geometry and structure. Flexible microfluidic systems can have adjustable 3D channel geometries by curving planar 2D channels into 3D structures, which will enable tunable inertial separation. We present a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-parylene hybrid thin-film microfluidic system that can provide high flexibility for 3D channel shaping while maintaining the channel cross-sectional shape. The PDMS-parylene hybrid microfluidic channels were fabricated by a molding and bonding technique using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) bonding. We constructed 3D helical inertial microfluidic channels by coiling a straight 2D channel and studied the inertial focusing while varying radius of curvature and Reynolds number. This thin film structure allows for high channel curvature and high Dean numbers which leads to faster inertial particle focusing and shorter channel lengths than 2D spiral channels. Most importantly, the focusing positions of particles and cells in the microchannel can be tuned in real time by simply modulating the channel curvature. The simple mechanical modulation of these 3D structure microfluidic systems is expected to provide unique advantages of convenient tuning of cell separation thresholds with a single device.

Additional Links: PMID-30424188

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@article {pmid30424188,

year = {2018},

author = {Jung, BJ and Kim, J and Kim, JA and Jang, H and Seo, S and Lee, W},

title = {PDMS-Parylene Hybrid, Flexible Microfluidics for Real-Time Modulation of 3D Helical Inertial Microfluidics.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {9},

number = {6},

pages = {},

pmid = {30424188},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {NRF-2015M2A2A4A02044826//National Research Foundation of Korea/ ; 10054488//Ministry of Trade, Industry & Energy (MOTIE, Korea)/ ; },

abstract = {Inertial microfluidics has drawn much attention for its applications for circulating tumor cell separations from blood. The fluid flows and the inertial particle focusing in inertial microfluidic systems are highly dependent on the channel geometry and structure. Flexible microfluidic systems can have adjustable 3D channel geometries by curving planar 2D channels into 3D structures, which will enable tunable inertial separation. We present a poly(dimethylsiloxane) (PDMS)-parylene hybrid thin-film microfluidic system that can provide high flexibility for 3D channel shaping while maintaining the channel cross-sectional shape. The PDMS-parylene hybrid microfluidic channels were fabricated by a molding and bonding technique using initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) bonding. We constructed 3D helical inertial microfluidic channels by coiling a straight 2D channel and studied the inertial focusing while varying radius of curvature and Reynolds number. This thin film structure allows for high channel curvature and high Dean numbers which leads to faster inertial particle focusing and shorter channel lengths than 2D spiral channels. Most importantly, the focusing positions of particles and cells in the microchannel can be tuned in real time by simply modulating the channel curvature. The simple mechanical modulation of these 3D structure microfluidic systems is expected to provide unique advantages of convenient tuning of cell separation thresholds with a single device.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-07

**Numerical and Experimental Study on Mixing Performances of Simple and Vortex Micro T-Mixers.**

*Micromachines*, **9(5):**.

Vortex flow increases the interface area of fluid streams by stretching along with providing continuous stirring action to the fluids in micromixers. In this study, experimental and numerical analyses on a design of micromixer that creates vortex flow were carried out, and the mixing performance was compared with a simple micro T-mixer. In the vortex micro T-mixer, the height of the inlet channels is half of the height of the main mixing channel. The inlet channel connects to the main mixing channel (micromixer) at the one end at an offset position in a fashion that creates vortex flow. In the simple micro T-mixer, the height of the inlet channels is equal to the height of the channel after connection (main mixing channel). Mixing of fluids and flow field have been analyzed for Reynolds numbers in a range from 1⁻80. The study has been further extended to planar serpentine microchannels, which were combined with a simple and a vortex T-junction, to evaluate and verify their mixing performances. The mixing performance of the vortex T-mixer is higher than the simple T-mixer and significantly increases with the Reynolds number. The design is promising for efficiently increasing mixing simply at the T-junction and can be applied to all micromixers.

Additional Links: PMID-30424137

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@article {pmid30424137,

year = {2018},

author = {Ansari, MA and Kim, KY and Kim, SM},

title = {Numerical and Experimental Study on Mixing Performances of Simple and Vortex Micro T-Mixers.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {9},

number = {5},

pages = {},

pmid = {30424137},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {NRF- 2016R1A2B4006987//National Research Foundation of Korea/ ; //Inha University/ ; },

abstract = {Vortex flow increases the interface area of fluid streams by stretching along with providing continuous stirring action to the fluids in micromixers. In this study, experimental and numerical analyses on a design of micromixer that creates vortex flow were carried out, and the mixing performance was compared with a simple micro T-mixer. In the vortex micro T-mixer, the height of the inlet channels is half of the height of the main mixing channel. The inlet channel connects to the main mixing channel (micromixer) at the one end at an offset position in a fashion that creates vortex flow. In the simple micro T-mixer, the height of the inlet channels is equal to the height of the channel after connection (main mixing channel). Mixing of fluids and flow field have been analyzed for Reynolds numbers in a range from 1⁻80. The study has been further extended to planar serpentine microchannels, which were combined with a simple and a vortex T-junction, to evaluate and verify their mixing performances. The mixing performance of the vortex T-mixer is higher than the simple T-mixer and significantly increases with the Reynolds number. The design is promising for efficiently increasing mixing simply at the T-junction and can be applied to all micromixers.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-07

**Multi-Objective Optimizations of a Serpentine Micromixer with Crossing Channels at Low and High Reynolds Numbers.**

*Micromachines*, **9(3):**.

In order to maximize the mixing performance of a micromixer with an integrated three-dimensional serpentine and split-and-recombination configuration, multi-objective optimizations were performed at two different Reynolds numbers, 1 and 120, based on numerical simulation. Numerical analyses of fluid flow and mixing in the micromixer were performed using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and convection-diffusion equation. Three dimensionless design variables that were related to the geometry of the micromixer were selected as design variables for optimization. Mixing index at the exit and pressure drop through the micromixer were employed as two objective functions. A parametric study was carried out to explore the effects of the design variables on the objective functions. Latin hypercube sampling method as a design-of-experiment technique has been used to select design points in the design space. Surrogate modeling of the objective functions was performed by using radial basis neural network. Concave Pareto-optimal curves comprising of Pareto-optimal solutions that represents the trade-off between the objective functions were obtained using a multi-objective genetic algorithm at Re = 1 and 120. Through the optimizations, maximum enhancements of 18.8% and 6.0% in mixing index were achieved at Re = 1 and 120, respectively.

Additional Links: PMID-30424044

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@article {pmid30424044,

year = {2018},

author = {Raza, W and Ma, SB and Kim, KY},

title = {Multi-Objective Optimizations of a Serpentine Micromixer with Crossing Channels at Low and High Reynolds Numbers.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {9},

number = {3},

pages = {},

pmid = {30424044},

issn = {2072-666X},

abstract = {In order to maximize the mixing performance of a micromixer with an integrated three-dimensional serpentine and split-and-recombination configuration, multi-objective optimizations were performed at two different Reynolds numbers, 1 and 120, based on numerical simulation. Numerical analyses of fluid flow and mixing in the micromixer were performed using three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations and convection-diffusion equation. Three dimensionless design variables that were related to the geometry of the micromixer were selected as design variables for optimization. Mixing index at the exit and pressure drop through the micromixer were employed as two objective functions. A parametric study was carried out to explore the effects of the design variables on the objective functions. Latin hypercube sampling method as a design-of-experiment technique has been used to select design points in the design space. Surrogate modeling of the objective functions was performed by using radial basis neural network. Concave Pareto-optimal curves comprising of Pareto-optimal solutions that represents the trade-off between the objective functions were obtained using a multi-objective genetic algorithm at Re = 1 and 120. Through the optimizations, maximum enhancements of 18.8% and 6.0% in mixing index were achieved at Re = 1 and 120, respectively.},

}

RevDate: 2018-11-13

CmpDate: 2018-11-13

**Dynamo Effect and Turbulence in Hydrodynamic Weyl Metals.**

*Physical review letters*, **121(17):**176603.

The dynamo effect is a class of macroscopic phenomena responsible for generating and maintaining magnetic fields in astrophysical bodies. It hinges on the hydrodynamic three-dimensional motion of conducting gases and plasmas that achieve high hydrodynamic and/or magnetic Reynolds numbers due to the large length scales involved. The existing laboratory experiments modeling dynamos are challenging and involve large apparatuses containing conducting fluids subject to fast helical flows. Here we propose that electronic solid-state materials-in particular, hydrodynamic metals-may serve as an alternative platform to observe some aspects of the dynamo effect. Motivated by recent experimental developments, this Letter focuses on hydrodynamic Weyl semimetals, where the dominant scattering mechanism is due to interactions. We derive Navier-Stokes equations along with equations of magnetohydrodynamics that describe the transport of a Weyl electron-hole plasma appropriate in this regime. We estimate the hydrodynamic and magnetic Reynolds numbers for this system. The latter is a key figure of merit of the dynamo mechanism. We show that it can be relatively large to enable observation of the dynamo-induced magnetic field bootstrap in an experiment. Finally, we generalize the simplest dynamo instability model-the Ponomarenko dynamo-to the case of a hydrodynamic Weyl semimetal and show that the chiral anomaly term reduces the threshold magnetic Reynolds number for the dynamo instability.

Additional Links: PMID-30411937

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@article {pmid30411937,

year = {2018},

author = {Galitski, V and Kargarian, M and Syzranov, S},

title = {Dynamo Effect and Turbulence in Hydrodynamic Weyl Metals.},

journal = {Physical review letters},

volume = {121},

number = {17},

pages = {176603},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.176603},

pmid = {30411937},

issn = {1079-7114},

abstract = {The dynamo effect is a class of macroscopic phenomena responsible for generating and maintaining magnetic fields in astrophysical bodies. It hinges on the hydrodynamic three-dimensional motion of conducting gases and plasmas that achieve high hydrodynamic and/or magnetic Reynolds numbers due to the large length scales involved. The existing laboratory experiments modeling dynamos are challenging and involve large apparatuses containing conducting fluids subject to fast helical flows. Here we propose that electronic solid-state materials-in particular, hydrodynamic metals-may serve as an alternative platform to observe some aspects of the dynamo effect. Motivated by recent experimental developments, this Letter focuses on hydrodynamic Weyl semimetals, where the dominant scattering mechanism is due to interactions. We derive Navier-Stokes equations along with equations of magnetohydrodynamics that describe the transport of a Weyl electron-hole plasma appropriate in this regime. We estimate the hydrodynamic and magnetic Reynolds numbers for this system. The latter is a key figure of merit of the dynamo mechanism. We show that it can be relatively large to enable observation of the dynamo-induced magnetic field bootstrap in an experiment. Finally, we generalize the simplest dynamo instability model-the Ponomarenko dynamo-to the case of a hydrodynamic Weyl semimetal and show that the chiral anomaly term reduces the threshold magnetic Reynolds number for the dynamo instability.},

}

RevDate: 2018-11-14

**Analytical Solution of Electro-Osmotic Peristalsis of Fractional Jeffreys Fluid in a Micro-Channel.**

*Micromachines*, **8(12):**.

The electro-osmotic peristaltic flow of a viscoelastic fluid through a cylindrical micro-channel is studied in this paper. The fractional Jeffreys constitutive model, including the relaxation time and retardation time, is utilized to describe the viscoelasticity of the fluid. Under the assumptions of long wavelength, low Reynolds number, and Debye-Hückel linearization, the analytical solutions of pressure gradient, stream function and axial velocity are explored in terms of Mittag-Leffler function by Laplace transform method. The corresponding solutions of fractional Maxwell fluid and generalized second grade fluid are also obtained as special cases. The numerical analysis of the results are depicted graphically, and the effects of electro-osmotic parameter, external electric field, fractional parameters and viscoelastic parameters on the peristaltic flow are discussed.

Additional Links: PMID-30400531

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@article {pmid30400531,

year = {2017},

author = {Guo, X and Qi, H},

title = {Analytical Solution of Electro-Osmotic Peristalsis of Fractional Jeffreys Fluid in a Micro-Channel.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {8},

number = {12},

pages = {},

pmid = {30400531},

issn = {2072-666X},

support = {11402108//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 11672163//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; 11571157//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; },

abstract = {The electro-osmotic peristaltic flow of a viscoelastic fluid through a cylindrical micro-channel is studied in this paper. The fractional Jeffreys constitutive model, including the relaxation time and retardation time, is utilized to describe the viscoelasticity of the fluid. Under the assumptions of long wavelength, low Reynolds number, and Debye-Hückel linearization, the analytical solutions of pressure gradient, stream function and axial velocity are explored in terms of Mittag-Leffler function by Laplace transform method. The corresponding solutions of fractional Maxwell fluid and generalized second grade fluid are also obtained as special cases. The numerical analysis of the results are depicted graphically, and the effects of electro-osmotic parameter, external electric field, fractional parameters and viscoelastic parameters on the peristaltic flow are discussed.},

}

RevDate: 2018-11-08

**On the expedient solution of the magneto-hydrodynamic Jeffery-Hamel flow of Casson fluid.**

*Scientific reports*, **8(1):**16358 pii:10.1038/s41598-018-34778-w.

The equation of magneto-hydrodynamic Jeffery-Hamel flow of non-Newtonian Casson fluid in a stretching/shrinking convergent/divergent channel is derived and solved using a new modified Adomian decomposition method (ADM). So far in all problems where semi-analytical methods are used the boundary conditions are not satisfied completely. In the present research, a hybrid of the Fourier transform and the Adomian decomposition method (FTADM), is presented in order to incorporate all boundary conditions into our solution of magneto-hydrodynamic Jeffery-Hamel flow of non-Newtonian Casson fluid in a stretching/shrinking convergent/divergent channel flow. The effects of various emerging parameters such as channel angle, stretching/shrinking parameter, Casson fluid parameter, Reynolds number and Hartmann number on velocity profile are considered. The results using the FTADM are compared with the results of ADM and numerical Range-Kutta fourth-order method. The comparison reveals that, for the same number of components of the recursive sequences over a wide range of spatial domain, the relative errors associated with the new method, FTADM, are much less than the ADM. The results of the new method show that the method is an accurate and expedient approximate analytic method in solving the third-order nonlinear equation of Jeffery-Hamel flow of non-Newtonian Casson fluid.

Additional Links: PMID-30397239

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@article {pmid30397239,

year = {2018},

author = {Nourazar, SS and Nazari-Golshan, A and Soleymanpour, F},

title = {On the expedient solution of the magneto-hydrodynamic Jeffery-Hamel flow of Casson fluid.},

journal = {Scientific reports},

volume = {8},

number = {1},

pages = {16358},

doi = {10.1038/s41598-018-34778-w},

pmid = {30397239},

issn = {2045-2322},

abstract = {The equation of magneto-hydrodynamic Jeffery-Hamel flow of non-Newtonian Casson fluid in a stretching/shrinking convergent/divergent channel is derived and solved using a new modified Adomian decomposition method (ADM). So far in all problems where semi-analytical methods are used the boundary conditions are not satisfied completely. In the present research, a hybrid of the Fourier transform and the Adomian decomposition method (FTADM), is presented in order to incorporate all boundary conditions into our solution of magneto-hydrodynamic Jeffery-Hamel flow of non-Newtonian Casson fluid in a stretching/shrinking convergent/divergent channel flow. The effects of various emerging parameters such as channel angle, stretching/shrinking parameter, Casson fluid parameter, Reynolds number and Hartmann number on velocity profile are considered. The results using the FTADM are compared with the results of ADM and numerical Range-Kutta fourth-order method. The comparison reveals that, for the same number of components of the recursive sequences over a wide range of spatial domain, the relative errors associated with the new method, FTADM, are much less than the ADM. The results of the new method show that the method is an accurate and expedient approximate analytic method in solving the third-order nonlinear equation of Jeffery-Hamel flow of non-Newtonian Casson fluid.},

}

RevDate: 2018-11-14

**Aggregation and clogging phenomena of rigid microparticles in microfluidics: Comparison of a discrete element method (DEM) and CFD-DEM coupling method.**

*Microfluidics and nanofluidics*, **22(9):**104.

We developed a numerical tool to investigate the phenomena of aggregation and clogging of rigid microparticles suspended in a Newtonian fluid transported through a straight microchannel. In a first step, we implement a time-dependent one-way coupling Discrete Element Method (DEM) technique to simulate the movement and effect of adhesion on rigid microparticles in two- and three-dimensional computational domains. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory of adhesion is applied to investigate the contact mechanics of particle-particle and particle-wall interactions. Using the one-way coupled solver, the agglomeration, aggregation and deposition behavior of the microparticles is studied by varying the Reynolds number and the particle adhesion. In a second step, we apply a two-way coupling CFD-DEM approach, which solves the equation of motion for each particle, and transfers the force field corresponding to particle-fluid interactions to the CFD toolbox OpenFOAM. Results for the one-way (DEM) and two-way (CFD-DEM) coupling techniques are compared in terms of aggregate size, aggregate percentages, spatial and temporal evaluation of aggregates in 2D and 3D. We conclude that two-way coupling is the more realistic approach, which can accurately capture the particle-fluid dynamics in microfluidic applications.

Additional Links: PMID-30393471

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@article {pmid30393471,

year = {2018},

author = {Shahzad, K and Aeken, WV and Mottaghi, M and Kamyab, VK and Kuhn, S},

title = {Aggregation and clogging phenomena of rigid microparticles in microfluidics: Comparison of a discrete element method (DEM) and CFD-DEM coupling method.},

journal = {Microfluidics and nanofluidics},

volume = {22},

number = {9},

pages = {104},

pmid = {30393471},

issn = {1613-4982},

abstract = {We developed a numerical tool to investigate the phenomena of aggregation and clogging of rigid microparticles suspended in a Newtonian fluid transported through a straight microchannel. In a first step, we implement a time-dependent one-way coupling Discrete Element Method (DEM) technique to simulate the movement and effect of adhesion on rigid microparticles in two- and three-dimensional computational domains. The Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) theory of adhesion is applied to investigate the contact mechanics of particle-particle and particle-wall interactions. Using the one-way coupled solver, the agglomeration, aggregation and deposition behavior of the microparticles is studied by varying the Reynolds number and the particle adhesion. In a second step, we apply a two-way coupling CFD-DEM approach, which solves the equation of motion for each particle, and transfers the force field corresponding to particle-fluid interactions to the CFD toolbox OpenFOAM. Results for the one-way (DEM) and two-way (CFD-DEM) coupling techniques are compared in terms of aggregate size, aggregate percentages, spatial and temporal evaluation of aggregates in 2D and 3D. We conclude that two-way coupling is the more realistic approach, which can accurately capture the particle-fluid dynamics in microfluidic applications.},

}

RevDate: 2018-11-14

**Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of the Hydrodynamic Entrance Region of Rectangular Microchannels in the Slip Regime.**

*Micromachines*, **9(2):**.

Developing a three-dimensional laminar flow in the entrance region of rectangular microchannels has been investigated in this paper. When the hydrodynamic development length is the same magnitude as the microchannel length, entrance effects have to be taken into account, especially in relatively short ducts. Simultaneously, there are a variety of non-continuum or rarefaction effects, such as velocity slip and temperature jump. The available data in the literature appearing on this issue is quite limited, the available study is the semi-theoretical approximate model to predict pressure drop of developing slip flow in rectangular microchannels with different aspect ratios. In this paper, we apply the lattice Boltzmann equation method (LBE) to investigate the developing slip flow through a rectangular microchannel. The effects of the Reynolds number (1 < Re < 1000), channel aspect ratio (0 < ε < 1), and Knudsen number (0.001 < Kn < 0.1) on the dimensionless hydrodynamic entrance length, and the apparent friction factor, and Reynolds number product, are examined in detail. The numerical solution of LBM can recover excellent agreement with the available data in the literature, which proves its accuracy in capturing fundamental fluid characteristics in the slip-flow regime.

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@article {pmid30393363,

year = {2018},

author = {Ma, N and Duan, Z and Ma, H and Su, L and Liang, P and Ning, X and He, B and Zhang, X},

title = {Lattice Boltzmann Simulation of the Hydrodynamic Entrance Region of Rectangular Microchannels in the Slip Regime.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {9},

number = {2},

pages = {},

pmid = {30393363},

issn = {2072-666X},

abstract = {Developing a three-dimensional laminar flow in the entrance region of rectangular microchannels has been investigated in this paper. When the hydrodynamic development length is the same magnitude as the microchannel length, entrance effects have to be taken into account, especially in relatively short ducts. Simultaneously, there are a variety of non-continuum or rarefaction effects, such as velocity slip and temperature jump. The available data in the literature appearing on this issue is quite limited, the available study is the semi-theoretical approximate model to predict pressure drop of developing slip flow in rectangular microchannels with different aspect ratios. In this paper, we apply the lattice Boltzmann equation method (LBE) to investigate the developing slip flow through a rectangular microchannel. The effects of the Reynolds number (1 < Re < 1000), channel aspect ratio (0 < ε < 1), and Knudsen number (0.001 < Kn < 0.1) on the dimensionless hydrodynamic entrance length, and the apparent friction factor, and Reynolds number product, are examined in detail. The numerical solution of LBM can recover excellent agreement with the available data in the literature, which proves its accuracy in capturing fundamental fluid characteristics in the slip-flow regime.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-25

**Sinusoidal Microchannel with Descending Curves for Varicose Veins Implantation.**

*Micromachines*, **9(2):**.

Approximately 26% of adult people, mostly females, are affected by varicose veins in old age. It is a common reason for distress, loss of efficiency, and worsening living conditions. Several traditional treatment techniques (sclerotherapy and foam sclerotherapy of large veins, laser surgeries and radiofrequency ablation, vein ligation and stripping, ambulatory phlebectomy, and endoscopic vein surgery) have failed to handle this disease effectively. Herein, authors have presented an alternative varicose vein implant method-the descending sinusoidal microchannel (DSMC). DSMC was simulated by Fuzzy logic MATLAB (The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) and ANSYS (ANSYS 18.2, perpetual license purchased by Ibadat Education Trust, The University of Lahore, Pakistan) with real and actual conditions. After simulations of DSMC, fabrication and testing were performed. The silver DSMC was manufactured by utilizing a micromachining procedure. The length, width, and depth of the silver substrate were 51 mm, 25 mm, and 1.1 mm, respectively. The measurements of the DSMC channel in the silver wafer substrate were 0.9 mm in width and 0.9 mm in depth. The three descending curves of the DSMC were 7 mm, 6 mm, and 5 mm in height. For pressure, actual conditions were carefully taken as 1.0 kPa to 1.5 kPa for varicose veins. For velocity, actual conditions were carefully taken as 0.02 m/s to 0.07 m/s for these veins. These are real and standard values used in simulations and experiments. At Reynolds number 323, the flow rate and velocity were determined as 1001.0 (0.1 nL/s), 11.4 cm/s and 1015.3 (0.1 nL/s), 12.19 cm/s by MATLAB (The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) and ANSYS simulations, respectively. The flow rate and velocity were determined to be 995.3 (0.1 nL/s) and 12.2 cm/s, respectively, at the same Reynolds number (323) in the experiment. Moreover, the Dean number was also calculated to observe Dean vortices. All simulated and experimental results were in close agreement. Consequently, DSMC can be implanted in varicose veins as a new treatment to preserve excellent blood flow in human legs from the original place to avoid tissue damage and other problems.

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@article {pmid30393335,

year = {2018},

author = {Afzal, MJ and Ashraf, MW and Tayyaba, S and Hossain, MK and Afzulpurkar, N},

title = {Sinusoidal Microchannel with Descending Curves for Varicose Veins Implantation.},

journal = {Micromachines},

volume = {9},

number = {2},

pages = {},

pmid = {30393335},

issn = {2072-666X},

abstract = {Approximately 26% of adult people, mostly females, are affected by varicose veins in old age. It is a common reason for distress, loss of efficiency, and worsening living conditions. Several traditional treatment techniques (sclerotherapy and foam sclerotherapy of large veins, laser surgeries and radiofrequency ablation, vein ligation and stripping, ambulatory phlebectomy, and endoscopic vein surgery) have failed to handle this disease effectively. Herein, authors have presented an alternative varicose vein implant method-the descending sinusoidal microchannel (DSMC). DSMC was simulated by Fuzzy logic MATLAB (The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) and ANSYS (ANSYS 18.2, perpetual license purchased by Ibadat Education Trust, The University of Lahore, Pakistan) with real and actual conditions. After simulations of DSMC, fabrication and testing were performed. The silver DSMC was manufactured by utilizing a micromachining procedure. The length, width, and depth of the silver substrate were 51 mm, 25 mm, and 1.1 mm, respectively. The measurements of the DSMC channel in the silver wafer substrate were 0.9 mm in width and 0.9 mm in depth. The three descending curves of the DSMC were 7 mm, 6 mm, and 5 mm in height. For pressure, actual conditions were carefully taken as 1.0 kPa to 1.5 kPa for varicose veins. For velocity, actual conditions were carefully taken as 0.02 m/s to 0.07 m/s for these veins. These are real and standard values used in simulations and experiments. At Reynolds number 323, the flow rate and velocity were determined as 1001.0 (0.1 nL/s), 11.4 cm/s and 1015.3 (0.1 nL/s), 12.19 cm/s by MATLAB (The MathWorks, Natick, MA, USA) and ANSYS simulations, respectively. The flow rate and velocity were determined to be 995.3 (0.1 nL/s) and 12.2 cm/s, respectively, at the same Reynolds number (323) in the experiment. Moreover, the Dean number was also calculated to observe Dean vortices. All simulated and experimental results were in close agreement. Consequently, DSMC can be implanted in varicose veins as a new treatment to preserve excellent blood flow in human legs from the original place to avoid tissue damage and other problems.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-18

CmpDate: 2018-12-18

**Experimental study on inlet turbulent flow under ultrasonic vibration: Pressure drop and heat transfer enhancement.**

*Ultrasonics sonochemistry*, **51:**151-159.

This experimental study examines the impact of ultrasonic vibration on pressure drop and heat transfer enhancement of inlet turbulent flows. A stainless steel tube connected to an ultrasonic transducer and immersed in a constant temperature two-phase fluid was considered as the test section. Regarding the designed configuration, the ultrasonic transducer utilized had an acoustic frequency of 28 kHz and two different power levels of 75 W and 100 W. The experiments were conducted for different ultrasonic power levels, inlet temperatures, and flow rates. The accuracy of measurements was successfully validated via the existing empirical correlations. The results indicate that the effect of ultrasonic vibration on pressure drop and heat transfer enhancement diminishes with the growth of both Reynolds number and inlet temperature. Based on previously reported results on inlet flows with a laminar flow regime, the effect of ultrasonic vibration is very trivial in current turbulent inlet flows (up to 7.28% for heat convection enhancement). The results of the present study will be beneficial for future investigations on designing vibrating heat exchangers.

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@article {pmid30389406,

year = {2019},

author = {Amiri Delouei, A and Sajjadi, H and Mohebbi, R and Izadi, M},

title = {Experimental study on inlet turbulent flow under ultrasonic vibration: Pressure drop and heat transfer enhancement.},

journal = {Ultrasonics sonochemistry},

volume = {51},

number = {},

pages = {151-159},

doi = {10.1016/j.ultsonch.2018.10.032},

pmid = {30389406},

issn = {1873-2828},

abstract = {This experimental study examines the impact of ultrasonic vibration on pressure drop and heat transfer enhancement of inlet turbulent flows. A stainless steel tube connected to an ultrasonic transducer and immersed in a constant temperature two-phase fluid was considered as the test section. Regarding the designed configuration, the ultrasonic transducer utilized had an acoustic frequency of 28 kHz and two different power levels of 75 W and 100 W. The experiments were conducted for different ultrasonic power levels, inlet temperatures, and flow rates. The accuracy of measurements was successfully validated via the existing empirical correlations. The results indicate that the effect of ultrasonic vibration on pressure drop and heat transfer enhancement diminishes with the growth of both Reynolds number and inlet temperature. Based on previously reported results on inlet flows with a laminar flow regime, the effect of ultrasonic vibration is very trivial in current turbulent inlet flows (up to 7.28% for heat convection enhancement). The results of the present study will be beneficial for future investigations on designing vibrating heat exchangers.},

}

RevDate: 2018-11-05

CmpDate: 2018-11-05

**Turbulence Appearance and Nonappearance in Thin Fluid Layers.**

*Physical review letters*, **121(16):**164501.

Flows in fluid layers are ubiquitous in industry, geophysics, and astrophysics. Large-scale flows in thin layers can be considered two dimensional with bottom friction added. Here we find that the properties of such flows depend dramatically on the way they are driven. We argue that a wall-driven (Couette) flow cannot sustain turbulence, no matter how small the viscosity and friction. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) up to the Reynolds number Re=10^{6} confirm that all perturbations die in a plane Couette flow. On the contrary, for sufficiently small viscosity and friction, perturbations destroy the pressure-driven laminar (Poiseuille) flow. What appears instead is a traveling wave in the form of a jet slithering between wall vortices. For 5×10^{3}

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@article {pmid30387646,

year = {2018},

author = {Falkovich, G and Vladimirova, N},

title = {Turbulence Appearance and Nonappearance in Thin Fluid Layers.},

journal = {Physical review letters},

volume = {121},

number = {16},

pages = {164501},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.164501},

pmid = {30387646},

issn = {1079-7114},

abstract = {Flows in fluid layers are ubiquitous in industry, geophysics, and astrophysics. Large-scale flows in thin layers can be considered two dimensional with bottom friction added. Here we find that the properties of such flows depend dramatically on the way they are driven. We argue that a wall-driven (Couette) flow cannot sustain turbulence, no matter how small the viscosity and friction. Direct numerical simulations (DNSs) up to the Reynolds number Re=10^{6}

confirm that all perturbations die in a plane Couette flow. On the contrary, for sufficiently small viscosity and friction, perturbations destroy the pressure-driven laminar (Poiseuille) flow. What appears instead is a traveling wave in the form of a jet slithering between wall vortices. For 5×10^{3}<

Re<3×10^{4},

the mean flow in most cases has remarkably simple structure: the jet is sinusoidal with a parabolic velocity profile, and vorticity is constant inside vortices, while the fluctuations are small. At higher Re, strong fluctuations appear, yet the mean traveling wave survives. Considering the momentum flux barrier in such a flow, we derive a new scaling law for the Re dependence of the friction factor and confirm it by DNS.},

}

RevDate: 2018-11-05

CmpDate: 2018-11-05

**Role of the Plasmoid Instability in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence.**

*Physical review letters*, **121(16):**165101.

The plasmoid instability in evolving current sheets has been widely studied due to its effects on the disruption of current sheets, the formation of plasmoids, and the resultant fast magnetic reconnection. In this Letter, we study the role of the plasmoid instability in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence by means of high-resolution direct numerical simulations. At a sufficiently large magnetic Reynolds number (R_{m}=10^{6}), the combined effects of dynamic alignment and turbulent intermittency lead to a copious formation of plasmoids in a multitude of intense current sheets. The disruption of current sheet structures facilitates the energy cascade towards small scales, leading to the breaking and steepening of the energy spectrum. In the plasmoid-mediated regime, the energy spectrum displays a scaling that is close to the spectral index -2.2 as proposed by recent analytic theories. We also demonstrate that the scale-dependent dynamic alignment exists in 2D MHD turbulence and the corresponding slope of the alignment angle is close to 0.25.

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@article {pmid30387627,

year = {2018},

author = {Dong, C and Wang, L and Huang, YM and Comisso, L and Bhattacharjee, A},

title = {Role of the Plasmoid Instability in Magnetohydrodynamic Turbulence.},

journal = {Physical review letters},

volume = {121},

number = {16},

pages = {165101},

doi = {10.1103/PhysRevLett.121.165101},

pmid = {30387627},

issn = {1079-7114},

abstract = {The plasmoid instability in evolving current sheets has been widely studied due to its effects on the disruption of current sheets, the formation of plasmoids, and the resultant fast magnetic reconnection. In this Letter, we study the role of the plasmoid instability in two-dimensional magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) turbulence by means of high-resolution direct numerical simulations. At a sufficiently large magnetic Reynolds number (R_{m}=

10^{6})

, the combined effects of dynamic alignment and turbulent intermittency lead to a copious formation of plasmoids in a multitude of intense current sheets. The disruption of current sheet structures facilitates the energy cascade towards small scales, leading to the breaking and steepening of the energy spectrum. In the plasmoid-mediated regime, the energy spectrum displays a scaling that is close to the spectral index -2.2 as proposed by recent analytic theories. We also demonstrate that the scale-dependent dynamic alignment exists in 2D MHD turbulence and the corresponding slope of the alignment angle is close to 0.25.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-20

**Stress and Exposure Time on von Willebrand Factor Degradation.**

*Artificial organs*, **43(2):**199-206.

Despite the prevailing use of the continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVAD), acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) associated with cf-LVAD still remains a major complication. As AvWS is known to be dependent on shear stress (τ) and exposure time (texp), this study examined the degradation of high molecular weight multimers (HMWM) of von Willebrand factor (vWF) in terms of τ and texp . Two custom apparatus, i.e., capillary-tubing-type degrader (CTD) and Taylor-Couette-type degrader (TCD) were developed for short-term (0.033 sec ≤ texp ≤ 1.05 s) and long-term (10 s ≤ texp ≤ 10 min) shear exposures of vWF, respectively. Flow conditions indexed by Reynolds number (Re) for CTD were 14 ≤ Re ≤ 288 with corresponding laminar stress level of 52 ≤ τ CTD ≤ 1042 dyne/cm2 . Flow conditions for TCD were 100 ≤ Re ≤ 2500 with corresponding rotor speed of 180 ≤ o ≤ 4000 RPM and laminar stress level of 50 ≤ τ TCD ≤ 1114 dyne/cm2 . Due to transitional and turbulent flows in TCD at Re > 1117, total stress (i.e., τ total = laminar + turbulent) was also calculated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver, Converge CFD (Converge Science Inc., Madison, WI, USA). Inhibition of ADAMTS13 with different concentration of EDTA (5 mM and 10 mM) was also performed to investigate the mechanism of cleavage in terms of mechanical and enzymatic aspects. Degradation of HMWM with CTD was negligible at all given testing conditions. Although no degradation of HMWM was observed with TCD at Re < 1117 (τ total = 1012 dyne/cm2), increase in degradation of HMWM was observed beyond Re of 1117 for all given exposure times. At Re ~ 2500 (τ total = 3070 dyne/cm2) with texp = 60 s, a severe degradation of HMWM (90.7 ± 3.8%, abnormal) was observed, and almost complete degradation of HMWM (96.1 ± 1.9%, abnormal) was observed with texp = 600 s. The inhibition studies with 5 mM EDTA at Re ~ 2500 showed that loss of HMWM was negligible (<10%, normal) for all given exposure times except for texp = 10 min (39.5 ± 22.3%, borderline-abnormal). With 10 mM EDTA, no degradation of HMWM was observed (11.1 ± 4.4%, normal) even for texp = 10 min. This study investigated the effect of shear stress and exposure time on the HMWM of vWF in laminar and turbulent flows. The inhibition study by EDTA confirms that degradation of HMWM is initiated by shear-induced unfolding followed by enzymatic cleavage at given conditions. Determination of magnitude of each mechanism needs further investigation. It is also important to note that the degradation of vWF is highly dependent on turbulence regardless of the time exposed within our testing conditions.

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@article {pmid30374981,

year = {2019},

author = {Jhun, CS and Siedlecki, C and Xu, L and Lukic, B and Newswanger, R and Yeager, E and Reibson, J and Cysyk, J and Weiss, W and Rosenberg, G},

title = {Stress and Exposure Time on von Willebrand Factor Degradation.},

journal = {Artificial organs},

volume = {43},

number = {2},

pages = {199-206},

doi = {10.1111/aor.13323},

pmid = {30374981},

issn = {1525-1594},

abstract = {Despite the prevailing use of the continuous flow left ventricular assist devices (cf-LVAD), acquired von Willebrand syndrome (AvWS) associated with cf-LVAD still remains a major complication. As AvWS is known to be dependent on shear stress (τ) and exposure time (texp), this study examined the degradation of high molecular weight multimers (HMWM) of von Willebrand factor (vWF) in terms of τ and texp . Two custom apparatus, i.e., capillary-tubing-type degrader (CTD) and Taylor-Couette-type degrader (TCD) were developed for short-term (0.033 sec ≤ texp ≤ 1.05 s) and long-term (10 s ≤ texp ≤ 10 min) shear exposures of vWF, respectively. Flow conditions indexed by Reynolds number (Re) for CTD were 14 ≤ Re ≤ 288 with corresponding laminar stress level of 52 ≤ τ CTD ≤ 1042 dyne/cm2 . Flow conditions for TCD were 100 ≤ Re ≤ 2500 with corresponding rotor speed of 180 ≤ o ≤ 4000 RPM and laminar stress level of 50 ≤ τ TCD ≤ 1114 dyne/cm2 . Due to transitional and turbulent flows in TCD at Re > 1117, total stress (i.e., τ total = laminar + turbulent) was also calculated using a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solver, Converge CFD (Converge Science Inc., Madison, WI, USA). Inhibition of ADAMTS13 with different concentration of EDTA (5 mM and 10 mM) was also performed to investigate the mechanism of cleavage in terms of mechanical and enzymatic aspects. Degradation of HMWM with CTD was negligible at all given testing conditions. Although no degradation of HMWM was observed with TCD at Re < 1117 (τ total = 1012 dyne/cm2), increase in degradation of HMWM was observed beyond Re of 1117 for all given exposure times. At Re ~ 2500 (τ total = 3070 dyne/cm2) with texp = 60 s, a severe degradation of HMWM (90.7 ± 3.8%, abnormal) was observed, and almost complete degradation of HMWM (96.1 ± 1.9%, abnormal) was observed with texp = 600 s. The inhibition studies with 5 mM EDTA at Re ~ 2500 showed that loss of HMWM was negligible (<10%, normal) for all given exposure times except for texp = 10 min (39.5 ± 22.3%, borderline-abnormal). With 10 mM EDTA, no degradation of HMWM was observed (11.1 ± 4.4%, normal) even for texp = 10 min. This study investigated the effect of shear stress and exposure time on the HMWM of vWF in laminar and turbulent flows. The inhibition study by EDTA confirms that degradation of HMWM is initiated by shear-induced unfolding followed by enzymatic cleavage at given conditions. Determination of magnitude of each mechanism needs further investigation. It is also important to note that the degradation of vWF is highly dependent on turbulence regardless of the time exposed within our testing conditions.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-12

**Flow structure modifications by leading-edge tubercles on a 3D wing.**

*Bioinspiration & biomimetics*, **13(6):**066011.

Leading-edge tubercles on a humpback whale flipper are known to enhance its hydrodynamic performance at post-stall angles of attack (Miklosovic et al 2004 Phys. Fluids 16 39-42). We investigate vortical structures above a three-dimensional wing with tubercles using surface-oil-flow visualization and particle image velocimetry measurement. Two wing models with and without tubercles, previously studied by Miklosovic et al (2004 Phys. Fluids 16 39-42), are considered at the Reynolds number of 180 000 based on the free-stream velocity and mean chord length. At this Reynolds number, tubercles delay the stall angle by 7° and increase the maximum lift coefficient by about 22%. At a low angle of attack, flow separation first occurs near the tip region for both wing models. While flow separation rapidly progresses inboard (toward the wing root) for the model without tubercles with increasing angle of attack, tubercles produce two types of vortical motions and block the inboard progression of flow separation, resulting in delayed stall from α = 8° to 15°. One of these two vortical structures is pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortices evolving from hemi-spherical separation bubbles near the leading-edge troughs at pre-, near-, and post-stall angles of attack, and the other is asymmetric pairs of streamwise vortices evolving from separated flow regions after the mid-chord region at near-stall angle of attack. At a post-stall angle of attack (α = 16°), strong clockwise and counter-clockwise streamwise vortices are generated from foci at the root and tip near the trailing edge, respectively, and delay flow separation in the mid-span, resulting in a higher lift coefficient than that without tubercles.

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@article {pmid30362460,

year = {2018},

author = {Kim, H and Kim, J and Choi, H},

title = {Flow structure modifications by leading-edge tubercles on a 3D wing.},

journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics},

volume = {13},

number = {6},

pages = {066011},

doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/aae6fc},

pmid = {30362460},

issn = {1748-3190},

abstract = {Leading-edge tubercles on a humpback whale flipper are known to enhance its hydrodynamic performance at post-stall angles of attack (Miklosovic et al 2004 Phys. Fluids 16 39-42). We investigate vortical structures above a three-dimensional wing with tubercles using surface-oil-flow visualization and particle image velocimetry measurement. Two wing models with and without tubercles, previously studied by Miklosovic et al (2004 Phys. Fluids 16 39-42), are considered at the Reynolds number of 180 000 based on the free-stream velocity and mean chord length. At this Reynolds number, tubercles delay the stall angle by 7° and increase the maximum lift coefficient by about 22%. At a low angle of attack, flow separation first occurs near the tip region for both wing models. While flow separation rapidly progresses inboard (toward the wing root) for the model without tubercles with increasing angle of attack, tubercles produce two types of vortical motions and block the inboard progression of flow separation, resulting in delayed stall from α = 8° to 15°. One of these two vortical structures is pairs of counter-rotating streamwise vortices evolving from hemi-spherical separation bubbles near the leading-edge troughs at pre-, near-, and post-stall angles of attack, and the other is asymmetric pairs of streamwise vortices evolving from separated flow regions after the mid-chord region at near-stall angle of attack. At a post-stall angle of attack (α = 16°), strong clockwise and counter-clockwise streamwise vortices are generated from foci at the root and tip near the trailing edge, respectively, and delay flow separation in the mid-span, resulting in a higher lift coefficient than that without tubercles.},

}

RevDate: 2018-11-14

**Recommendations for Simulating Microparticle Deposition at Conditions Similar to the Upper Airways with Two-Equation Turbulence Models.**

*Journal of aerosol science*, **119:**31-50.

The development of a CFD model, from initial geometry to experimentally validated result with engineering insight, can be a time-consuming process that often requires several iterations of meshing and solver set-up. Applying a set of guidelines in the early stages can help to streamline the process and improve consistency between different models. The objective of this study was to determine both mesh and CFD solution parameters that enable the accurate simulation of microparticle deposition under flow conditions consistent with the upper respiratory airways including turbulent flow. A 90° bend geometry was used as a characteristic model that occurs throughout the airways and for which high-quality experimental aerosol deposition data is available in the transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Four meshes with varying degrees of near-wall resolution were compared, and key solver settings were applied to determine the parameters that minimize sensitivity to the near-wall (NW) mesh. The Low Reynolds number (LRN) k-ω model was used to resolve the turbulence field, which is a numerically efficient two-equation turbulence model, but has recently been considered overly simplistic. Some recent studies have used more complex turbulence models, such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES), to overcome the perceived weaknesses of two-equation models. Therefore, the secondary objective was to determine whether the more computationally efficient LRN k-ω model was capable of providing deposition results that were comparable to LES. Results show how NW mesh sensitivity is reduced through application of the Green-Gauss Node-based gradient discretization scheme and physically realistic near-wall corrections. Using the newly recommended meshing parameters and solution guidelines gives an excellent match to experimental data. Furthermore, deposition data from the LRN k-ω model compares favorably with LES results for the same characteristic geometry. In summary, this study provides a set of meshing and solution guidelines for simulating aerosol deposition in transitional and turbulent flows found in the upper respiratory airways using the numerically efficient LRN k-ω approach.

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@article {pmid30349146,

year = {2018},

author = {Bass, K and Longest, PW},

title = {Recommendations for Simulating Microparticle Deposition at Conditions Similar to the Upper Airways with Two-Equation Turbulence Models.},

journal = {Journal of aerosol science},

volume = {119},

number = {},

pages = {31-50},

pmid = {30349146},

issn = {0021-8502},

support = {R01 HD087339/HD/NICHD NIH HHS/United States ; R01 HL107333/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; },

abstract = {The development of a CFD model, from initial geometry to experimentally validated result with engineering insight, can be a time-consuming process that often requires several iterations of meshing and solver set-up. Applying a set of guidelines in the early stages can help to streamline the process and improve consistency between different models. The objective of this study was to determine both mesh and CFD solution parameters that enable the accurate simulation of microparticle deposition under flow conditions consistent with the upper respiratory airways including turbulent flow. A 90° bend geometry was used as a characteristic model that occurs throughout the airways and for which high-quality experimental aerosol deposition data is available in the transitional and turbulent flow regimes. Four meshes with varying degrees of near-wall resolution were compared, and key solver settings were applied to determine the parameters that minimize sensitivity to the near-wall (NW) mesh. The Low Reynolds number (LRN) k-ω model was used to resolve the turbulence field, which is a numerically efficient two-equation turbulence model, but has recently been considered overly simplistic. Some recent studies have used more complex turbulence models, such as Large Eddy Simulation (LES), to overcome the perceived weaknesses of two-equation models. Therefore, the secondary objective was to determine whether the more computationally efficient LRN k-ω model was capable of providing deposition results that were comparable to LES. Results show how NW mesh sensitivity is reduced through application of the Green-Gauss Node-based gradient discretization scheme and physically realistic near-wall corrections. Using the newly recommended meshing parameters and solution guidelines gives an excellent match to experimental data. Furthermore, deposition data from the LRN k-ω model compares favorably with LES results for the same characteristic geometry. In summary, this study provides a set of meshing and solution guidelines for simulating aerosol deposition in transitional and turbulent flows found in the upper respiratory airways using the numerically efficient LRN k-ω approach.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-11

**Using a shell as a wing: pairing of dissimilar appendages in atlantiid heteropod swimming.**

*The Journal of experimental biology*, **221(Pt 23):** pii:jeb.192062.

Atlantiid heteropods are zooplanktonic marine snails which have a calcium carbonate shell and single swimming fin. They actively swim to hunt prey and vertically migrate. Previous accounts of atlantiid heteropod swimming described these animals sculling with the swimming fin while the shell passively hung beneath the body. Here, we show, via high-speed stereophotogrammetric measurements of body, fin and shell kinematics, that the atlantiid heteropod Atlanta selvagensis actively flaps both the swimming fin and shell in a highly coordinated wing-like manner in order to swim in the intermediate Reynolds number regime (Re=10-100). The fin and shell kinematics indicate that atlantiid heteropods use unsteady hydrodynamic mechanisms such as clap-and-fling and delayed stall. Unique features of atlantiid heteropod swimming include the coordinated pairing of dissimilar appendages, use of the clap and fling mechanism twice during each stroke cycle, and the fin's extremely large stroke amplitude, which exceeds 180 deg.

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@article {pmid30348646,

year = {2018},

author = {Karakas, F and D'Oliveira, D and Maas, AE and Murphy, DW},

title = {Using a shell as a wing: pairing of dissimilar appendages in atlantiid heteropod swimming.},

journal = {The Journal of experimental biology},

volume = {221},

number = {Pt 23},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1242/jeb.192062},

pmid = {30348646},

issn = {1477-9145},

abstract = {Atlantiid heteropods are zooplanktonic marine snails which have a calcium carbonate shell and single swimming fin. They actively swim to hunt prey and vertically migrate. Previous accounts of atlantiid heteropod swimming described these animals sculling with the swimming fin while the shell passively hung beneath the body. Here, we show, via high-speed stereophotogrammetric measurements of body, fin and shell kinematics, that the atlantiid heteropod Atlanta selvagensis actively flaps both the swimming fin and shell in a highly coordinated wing-like manner in order to swim in the intermediate Reynolds number regime (Re=10-100). The fin and shell kinematics indicate that atlantiid heteropods use unsteady hydrodynamic mechanisms such as clap-and-fling and delayed stall. Unique features of atlantiid heteropod swimming include the coordinated pairing of dissimilar appendages, use of the clap and fling mechanism twice during each stroke cycle, and the fin's extremely large stroke amplitude, which exceeds 180 deg.},

}

RevDate: 2018-11-20

**Trajectory and Cycle-Based Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Molecular Machines: The Importance of Microscopic Reversibility.**

*Accounts of chemical research*, **51(11):**2653-2661.

A molecular machine is a nanoscale device that provides a mechanism for coupling energy from two (or more) processes that in the absence of the machine would be independent of one another. Examples include walking of a protein in one direction along a polymeric track (process 1, driving "force" X1 = - F⃗· l⃗) and hydrolyzing ATP (process 2, driving "force" X2 = ΔμATP); or synthesis of ATP (process 1, X1 = -ΔμATP) and transport of protons from the periplasm to the cytoplasm across a membrane (process 2, X2 = ΔμH+); or rotation of a flagellum (process 1, X1 = -torque) and transport of protons across a membrane (process 2, X2 = ΔμH+). In some ways, the function of a molecular machine is similar to that of a macroscopic machine such as a car that couples combustion of gasoline to translational motion. However, the low Reynolds number regime in which molecular machines operate is very different from that relevant for macroscopic machines. Inertia is negligible in comparison to viscous drag, and omnipresent thermal noise causes the machine to undergo continual transition among many states even at thermodynamic equilibrium. Cyclic trajectories among the states of the machine that result in a change in the environment can be broken into two classes: those in which process 1 in either the forward or backward direction ([Formula: see text]) occurs and which thereby exchange work [Formula: see text] with the environment; and those in which process 2 in either the forward or backward direction ([Formula: see text]) occurs and which thereby exchange work [Formula: see text] with the evironment. These two types of trajectories, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], overlap, i.e., there are some trajectories in which both process 1 and process 2 occur, and for which the work exchanged is [Formula: see text]. The four subclasses of overlap trajectories [(+1,+2), (+1,-2), (-1,+2), (-1,-2)] are the coupled processes. The net probabilities for process 1 and process 2 are designated π+2 - π-2 and π+1 - π-1, respectively. The probabilities [Formula: see text] for any single trajectory [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for its microscopic reverse [Formula: see text] are related by microscopic reversibility (MR), [Formula: see text], an equality that holds arbitrarily far from thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e., irrespective of the magnitudes of X1 and X2, and where [Formula: see text]. Using this formalism, we arrive at a remarkably simple and general expression for the rates of the processes, [Formula: see text], i = 1, 2, where the angle brackets indicate an average over the ensemble of all microscopic reverse trajectories. Stochastic description of coupling is doubtless less familiar than typical mechanical depictions of chemical coupling in terms of ATP induced violent kicks, judo throws, force generation and power-strokes. While the mechanical description of molecular machines is comforting in its familiarity, conclusions based on such a phenomenological perspective are often wrong. Specifically, a "power-stroke" model (i.e., a model based on energy driven "promotion" of a molecular machine to a high energy state followed by directional relaxation to a lower energy state) that has been the focus of mechanistic discussions of biomolecular machines for over a half century is, for catalysis driven molecular machines, incorrect. Instead, the key principle by which catalysis driven motors work is kinetic gating by a mechanism known as an information ratchet. Amazingly, this same principle is that by which catalytic molecular systems undergo adaptation to new steady states while facilitating an exergonic chemical reaction.

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@article {pmid30346731,

year = {2018},

author = {Astumian, RD},

title = {Trajectory and Cycle-Based Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Molecular Machines: The Importance of Microscopic Reversibility.},

journal = {Accounts of chemical research},

volume = {51},

number = {11},

pages = {2653-2661},

doi = {10.1021/acs.accounts.8b00253},

pmid = {30346731},

issn = {1520-4898},

abstract = {A molecular machine is a nanoscale device that provides a mechanism for coupling energy from two (or more) processes that in the absence of the machine would be independent of one another. Examples include walking of a protein in one direction along a polymeric track (process 1, driving "force" X1 = - F⃗· l⃗) and hydrolyzing ATP (process 2, driving "force" X2 = ΔμATP); or synthesis of ATP (process 1, X1 = -ΔμATP) and transport of protons from the periplasm to the cytoplasm across a membrane (process 2, X2 = ΔμH+); or rotation of a flagellum (process 1, X1 = -torque) and transport of protons across a membrane (process 2, X2 = ΔμH+). In some ways, the function of a molecular machine is similar to that of a macroscopic machine such as a car that couples combustion of gasoline to translational motion. However, the low Reynolds number regime in which molecular machines operate is very different from that relevant for macroscopic machines. Inertia is negligible in comparison to viscous drag, and omnipresent thermal noise causes the machine to undergo continual transition among many states even at thermodynamic equilibrium. Cyclic trajectories among the states of the machine that result in a change in the environment can be broken into two classes: those in which process 1 in either the forward or backward direction ([Formula: see text]) occurs and which thereby exchange work [Formula: see text] with the environment; and those in which process 2 in either the forward or backward direction ([Formula: see text]) occurs and which thereby exchange work [Formula: see text] with the evironment. These two types of trajectories, [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text], overlap, i.e., there are some trajectories in which both process 1 and process 2 occur, and for which the work exchanged is [Formula: see text]. The four subclasses of overlap trajectories [(+1,+2), (+1,-2), (-1,+2), (-1,-2)] are the coupled processes. The net probabilities for process 1 and process 2 are designated π+2 - π-2 and π+1 - π-1, respectively. The probabilities [Formula: see text] for any single trajectory [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] for its microscopic reverse [Formula: see text] are related by microscopic reversibility (MR), [Formula: see text], an equality that holds arbitrarily far from thermodynamic equilibrium, i.e., irrespective of the magnitudes of X1 and X2, and where [Formula: see text]. Using this formalism, we arrive at a remarkably simple and general expression for the rates of the processes, [Formula: see text], i = 1, 2, where the angle brackets indicate an average over the ensemble of all microscopic reverse trajectories. Stochastic description of coupling is doubtless less familiar than typical mechanical depictions of chemical coupling in terms of ATP induced violent kicks, judo throws, force generation and power-strokes. While the mechanical description of molecular machines is comforting in its familiarity, conclusions based on such a phenomenological perspective are often wrong. Specifically, a "power-stroke" model (i.e., a model based on energy driven "promotion" of a molecular machine to a high energy state followed by directional relaxation to a lower energy state) that has been the focus of mechanistic discussions of biomolecular machines for over a half century is, for catalysis driven molecular machines, incorrect. Instead, the key principle by which catalysis driven motors work is kinetic gating by a mechanism known as an information ratchet. Amazingly, this same principle is that by which catalytic molecular systems undergo adaptation to new steady states while facilitating an exergonic chemical reaction.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-16

**Development of a helical coagulation reactor for harvesting microalgae.**

*Journal of bioscience and bioengineering* pii:S1389-1723(18)30625-X [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, an innovative helical coagulation reactor (HCR) was developed for harvesting microalgae by sedimentation with polyaluminium chloride (PAC). The effects of construction and hydrodynamic characteristics on harvesting performance were investigated. Results showed that a higher harvesting efficiency, 96.37%, was achieved for the large and compact flocs generated by the HCR, and the settling rate of flocs was substantially influenced by the velocity gradient (G) and the Reynolds number (Re). When the Reynolds number closed to the transition between laminar and turbulent flow (4000), the flocs settled faster (20.51 m h-1), although settling slowed as the Reynolds number increased further because of ruptured flocs. The settling rate of flocs could be further improved to 23.27 m h-1 by a pulse flow field, mainly due to larger and more compact flocs forming in the plug pipe flow. Furthermore, a comparative investigation of a mechanically agitated vessel and the HCR with the same Camp number (Gt) showed that the HCR achieved higher settling rates and a shorter residence time than those with a mechanical agitator. The HCR provided a uniform dissipation of energy and high velocity gradient while avoiding electrical and mechanical energy consumption, suggesting this reactor is an efficient and economic option for microalgae harvesting.

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@article {pmid30327167,

year = {2018},

author = {Zhang, H and Liu, C and Ou, Y and Chen, T and Yang, L and Hu, Z},

title = {Development of a helical coagulation reactor for harvesting microalgae.},

journal = {Journal of bioscience and bioengineering},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1016/j.jbiosc.2018.09.012},

pmid = {30327167},

issn = {1347-4421},

abstract = {In this study, an innovative helical coagulation reactor (HCR) was developed for harvesting microalgae by sedimentation with polyaluminium chloride (PAC). The effects of construction and hydrodynamic characteristics on harvesting performance were investigated. Results showed that a higher harvesting efficiency, 96.37%, was achieved for the large and compact flocs generated by the HCR, and the settling rate of flocs was substantially influenced by the velocity gradient (G) and the Reynolds number (Re). When the Reynolds number closed to the transition between laminar and turbulent flow (4000), the flocs settled faster (20.51 m h-1), although settling slowed as the Reynolds number increased further because of ruptured flocs. The settling rate of flocs could be further improved to 23.27 m h-1 by a pulse flow field, mainly due to larger and more compact flocs forming in the plug pipe flow. Furthermore, a comparative investigation of a mechanically agitated vessel and the HCR with the same Camp number (Gt) showed that the HCR achieved higher settling rates and a shorter residence time than those with a mechanical agitator. The HCR provided a uniform dissipation of energy and high velocity gradient while avoiding electrical and mechanical energy consumption, suggesting this reactor is an efficient and economic option for microalgae harvesting.},

}

RevDate: 2018-10-17

**Design and Simulation of a Passive Micromixer with Gourd-Shaped Channel.**

*Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology*, **19(1):**206-212.

A gourd-shaped contraction-expansion design is proposed for a passive planar micromixer in this study. The mixing performance of the micromixer is analyzed numerically and compared with a T-shaped planar micromixer. The gourd-shaped contraction-expansion structure can enhance the vortex-formation and mixing abilities of the micromixer. The numerical simulation reveals that the gourd-shaped structure can improved vortex generation and mixing efficiency within a high Reynolds number range. The micromixer with an optimized waist width of 50 μm reaches a mixing efficiency of approximately 83.25% and maintains a moderate pressure drop of 4860 Pa at Re = 100. This study can shed light on the design of new 2D micromixers from the point view of bionics.

Additional Links: PMID-30327024

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@article {pmid30327024,

year = {2019},

author = {Hong, W and Shi, H and Huang, Z and Long, M and Xu, H and Liu, Z},

title = {Design and Simulation of a Passive Micromixer with Gourd-Shaped Channel.},

journal = {Journal of nanoscience and nanotechnology},

volume = {19},

number = {1},

pages = {206-212},

doi = {10.1166/jnn.2019.16431},

pmid = {30327024},

issn = {1533-4880},

abstract = {A gourd-shaped contraction-expansion design is proposed for a passive planar micromixer in this study. The mixing performance of the micromixer is analyzed numerically and compared with a T-shaped planar micromixer. The gourd-shaped contraction-expansion structure can enhance the vortex-formation and mixing abilities of the micromixer. The numerical simulation reveals that the gourd-shaped structure can improved vortex generation and mixing efficiency within a high Reynolds number range. The micromixer with an optimized waist width of 50 μm reaches a mixing efficiency of approximately 83.25% and maintains a moderate pressure drop of 4860 Pa at Re = 100. This study can shed light on the design of new 2D micromixers from the point view of bionics.},

}

RevDate: 2018-11-03

CmpDate: 2018-10-17

**A Flexible Hot-Film Sensor Array for Underwater Shear Stress and Transition Measurement.**

*Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)*, **18(10):** pii:s18103469.

A flexible hot-film sensor array for wall shear stress, flow separation, and transition measurement has been fabricated and implemented in experiments. Parylene C waterproof layer is vapor phase deposited to encapsulate the sensor. Experimental studies of shear stress and flow transition on a flat plate have been undertaken in a water tunnel with the sensor array. Compared with the shear stress derived from velocity profile and empirical formulas, the measuring errors of the hot-film sensors are less than 5%. In addition, boundary layer transition of the flat plate has also been detected successfully. Ensemble-averaged mean, normalized root mean square, and power spectra of the sensor output voltage indicate that the Reynolds number when transition begins at where the sensor array located is 1.82 × 10⁵, 50% intermittency transition is 2.52 × 10⁵, and transition finishes is 3.96 × 10⁵. These results have a good agreement with the transition Reynolds numbers, as measured by the Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system.

Additional Links: PMID-30326635

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@article {pmid30326635,

year = {2018},

author = {Sun, B and Wang, P and Luo, J and Deng, J and Guo, S and Ma, B},

title = {A Flexible Hot-Film Sensor Array for Underwater Shear Stress and Transition Measurement.},

journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)},

volume = {18},

number = {10},

pages = {},

doi = {10.3390/s18103469},

pmid = {30326635},

issn = {1424-8220},

support = {2013YQ040911//National Instrumentation Program of China/ ; 51775446//National Natural Science Foundation of China/ ; },

abstract = {A flexible hot-film sensor array for wall shear stress, flow separation, and transition measurement has been fabricated and implemented in experiments. Parylene C waterproof layer is vapor phase deposited to encapsulate the sensor. Experimental studies of shear stress and flow transition on a flat plate have been undertaken in a water tunnel with the sensor array. Compared with the shear stress derived from velocity profile and empirical formulas, the measuring errors of the hot-film sensors are less than 5%. In addition, boundary layer transition of the flat plate has also been detected successfully. Ensemble-averaged mean, normalized root mean square, and power spectra of the sensor output voltage indicate that the Reynolds number when transition begins at where the sensor array located is 1.82 × 10⁵, 50% intermittency transition is 2.52 × 10⁵, and transition finishes is 3.96 × 10⁵. These results have a good agreement with the transition Reynolds numbers, as measured by the Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) system.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-23

**Effect of Varying Viscosity on Two-Fluid Model of Blood Flow through Constricted Blood Vessels: A Comparative Study.**

*Cardiovascular engineering and technology*, **10(1):**155-172.

PURPOSE: Most of the previously studied non-Newtonian blood flow models considered blood viscosity to be constant but for correct measurement of flow rate and flow resistance, the hematocrit dependent viscosity will be better as various literature suggested the variable nature of blood viscosity. Present work concerns the steady and pulsatile nature of blood flow through constricted blood vessels. Two-fluid model for blood is considered with the suspension of all the RBCs (erythrocytes) in the core region as a non-Newtonian (Herschel-Bulkley) fluid and the plasma in the cell free region near wall as a Newtonian fluid. No slip condition on the wall and radially varying viscosity has been taken.

METHODS: For steady flow the analytical approach has been taken to obtain the exact solution. Regular perturbation expansion method has been used to solve the governing equations for pulsatile flow up to first order of approximation by assuming the pulsatile Reynolds number to be very small (much less than unity).

RESULTS: Flow rate, wall shear stress and velocity profile have been graphically analyzed and compared with constant viscosity model. A noteworthy observation of the present study is that rise in viscosity index leads to decay in velocity, velocity of plug flow region, flow rate while flow resistance increases with rising viscosity index (m). The results for Power-law fluid (PL), Bingham-plastic fluid (BP), Newtonian fluid (NF) are found as special cases from this model. Like the constant viscosity model, it has been also observed that the velocity, flow rate and plug core velocity of two-fluid model are higher than the single-fluid model for variable viscosity.

CONCLUSIONS: The two-phase fluid model is more significant than the single-fluid model. Effect of viscosity parameter on various hemodynamical quantities has been obtained. It is also concluded that a rising viscosity parameter (varying nature of viscosity) significantly distinguishes the single and two-fluid models in terms of changes in blood flow resistance. The outcome of present study may leave a significant impact on analyzing blood flow through small blood vessels with constriction, where correct measurement of flow rate and flow resistance for medical treatment is very important.

Additional Links: PMID-30302623

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PubMed:

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@article {pmid30302623,

year = {2019},

author = {Tiwari, A and Chauhan, SS},

title = {Effect of Varying Viscosity on Two-Fluid Model of Blood Flow through Constricted Blood Vessels: A Comparative Study.},

journal = {Cardiovascular engineering and technology},

volume = {10},

number = {1},

pages = {155-172},

doi = {10.1007/s13239-018-00379-x},

pmid = {30302623},

issn = {1869-4098},

support = {SR/FTP/MS-038/2011//Science and Engineering Research Board/ ; },

abstract = {PURPOSE: Most of the previously studied non-Newtonian blood flow models considered blood viscosity to be constant but for correct measurement of flow rate and flow resistance, the hematocrit dependent viscosity will be better as various literature suggested the variable nature of blood viscosity. Present work concerns the steady and pulsatile nature of blood flow through constricted blood vessels. Two-fluid model for blood is considered with the suspension of all the RBCs (erythrocytes) in the core region as a non-Newtonian (Herschel-Bulkley) fluid and the plasma in the cell free region near wall as a Newtonian fluid. No slip condition on the wall and radially varying viscosity has been taken.

METHODS: For steady flow the analytical approach has been taken to obtain the exact solution. Regular perturbation expansion method has been used to solve the governing equations for pulsatile flow up to first order of approximation by assuming the pulsatile Reynolds number to be very small (much less than unity).

RESULTS: Flow rate, wall shear stress and velocity profile have been graphically analyzed and compared with constant viscosity model. A noteworthy observation of the present study is that rise in viscosity index leads to decay in velocity, velocity of plug flow region, flow rate while flow resistance increases with rising viscosity index (m). The results for Power-law fluid (PL), Bingham-plastic fluid (BP), Newtonian fluid (NF) are found as special cases from this model. Like the constant viscosity model, it has been also observed that the velocity, flow rate and plug core velocity of two-fluid model are higher than the single-fluid model for variable viscosity.

CONCLUSIONS: The two-phase fluid model is more significant than the single-fluid model. Effect of viscosity parameter on various hemodynamical quantities has been obtained. It is also concluded that a rising viscosity parameter (varying nature of viscosity) significantly distinguishes the single and two-fluid models in terms of changes in blood flow resistance. The outcome of present study may leave a significant impact on analyzing blood flow through small blood vessels with constriction, where correct measurement of flow rate and flow resistance for medical treatment is very important.},

}

RevDate: 2018-11-14

**Illustrating the effect of viscoelastic additives on cavitation and turbulence with X-ray imaging.**

*Scientific reports*, **8(1):**14968.

The effect of viscoelastic additives on the topology and dynamics of the two-phase flow arising within an axisymmetric orifice with a flow path constriction along its main axis has been investigated employing high-flux synchrotron radiation. X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging (XPCI) has been conducted to visualise the cavitating flow of different types of diesel fuel within the orifice. An additised blend containing Quaternary Ammonium Salt (QAS) additives with a concentration of 500 ppm has been comparatively examined against a pure (base) diesel compound. A high-flux, 12 keV X-ray beam has been utilised to obtain time resolved radiographs depicting the vapour extent within the orifice from two views (side and top) with reference to its main axis. Different test cases have been examined for both fuel types and for a range of flow conditions characterised by Reynolds number of 35500 and cavitation numbers (CN) lying in the range 3.0-7.7. It has been established that the behaviour of viscoelastic micelles in the regions of shear flow is not consistent depending on the cavitation regimes encountered. Namely, viscoelastic effects enhance vortical (string) cavitation, whereas hinder cloud cavitation. Furthermore, the use of additised fuel has been demonstrated to suppress the level of turbulence within the orifice.

Additional Links: PMID-30297857

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@article {pmid30297857,

year = {2018},

author = {Karathanassis, IK and Trickett, K and Koukouvinis, P and Wang, J and Barbour, R and Gavaises, M},

title = {Illustrating the effect of viscoelastic additives on cavitation and turbulence with X-ray imaging.},

journal = {Scientific reports},

volume = {8},

number = {1},

pages = {14968},

pmid = {30297857},

issn = {2045-2322},

abstract = {The effect of viscoelastic additives on the topology and dynamics of the two-phase flow arising within an axisymmetric orifice with a flow path constriction along its main axis has been investigated employing high-flux synchrotron radiation. X-ray Phase Contrast Imaging (XPCI) has been conducted to visualise the cavitating flow of different types of diesel fuel within the orifice. An additised blend containing Quaternary Ammonium Salt (QAS) additives with a concentration of 500 ppm has been comparatively examined against a pure (base) diesel compound. A high-flux, 12 keV X-ray beam has been utilised to obtain time resolved radiographs depicting the vapour extent within the orifice from two views (side and top) with reference to its main axis. Different test cases have been examined for both fuel types and for a range of flow conditions characterised by Reynolds number of 35500 and cavitation numbers (CN) lying in the range 3.0-7.7. It has been established that the behaviour of viscoelastic micelles in the regions of shear flow is not consistent depending on the cavitation regimes encountered. Namely, viscoelastic effects enhance vortical (string) cavitation, whereas hinder cloud cavitation. Furthermore, the use of additised fuel has been demonstrated to suppress the level of turbulence within the orifice.},

}

RevDate: 2018-10-30

**Characterization of a tubular electrochemical reactor for the degradation of the commercial diuron herbicide.**

*Environmental technology* [Epub ahead of print].

After designing and constructing an electrochemical reactor with concentric electrodes and tangential feed (RECT), it is necessary to characterize it and to study its performance. The experimental study of the residence time distribution (RTD) was conducted for flow rates of 2.78 × 10-6 m3 s-1, 8.33 × 10-6 m3 s-1 and 13.9 × 10-6 m3 s-1. According to the values obtained from the Pe number (0.67-1.52), the RECT fits as tubular with great dispersion. The determined empirical correlation (Sh = 18.16 Re0.50 Sc0.33) showed a laminar flow behavior in the range of Reynolds number (Re) between 23 and 117. In order to use RECT in effluent treatment, an electrochemical oxidation study of the Diuron model molecule (Nortox®) was performed to analyze reactor performance in a closed system with total reflux. A decay kinetics of pseudo-first order was associated with the decay of the concentration of diuron and 30% mineralization in 180 min of process were obtained, having a total volume of 4 × 10-3 m3 and an initial concentration of commercial Diuron in 215.83 mg dm-3. Eleven by-products were identified by HPLC-MS analysis and, from this, it was possible to propose a route of degradation of the diuron. From these observations, it can be inferred that the studied electrochemical reactor had applicability in the degradation of recalcitrant compounds, as is the case of commercial diuron. Make some changes in the electrochemical reactor studied and other advanced oxidative processes, such as electro-Fenton, can be associated with the studied system to achieve a better conversion efficiency.

Additional Links: PMID-30280982

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PubMed:

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@article {pmid30280982,

year = {2018},

author = {de Matos, DB and Barbosa, MPR and Leite, OM and Steter, JR and Lima, NS and Torres, NH and Marques, MN and de Alsina, OLS and Cavalcanti, EB},

title = {Characterization of a tubular electrochemical reactor for the degradation of the commercial diuron herbicide.},

journal = {Environmental technology},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {1-15},

doi = {10.1080/09593330.2018.1531941},

pmid = {30280982},

issn = {1479-487X},

abstract = {After designing and constructing an electrochemical reactor with concentric electrodes and tangential feed (RECT), it is necessary to characterize it and to study its performance. The experimental study of the residence time distribution (RTD) was conducted for flow rates of 2.78 × 10-6 m3 s-1, 8.33 × 10-6 m3 s-1 and 13.9 × 10-6 m3 s-1. According to the values obtained from the Pe number (0.67-1.52), the RECT fits as tubular with great dispersion. The determined empirical correlation (Sh = 18.16 Re0.50 Sc0.33) showed a laminar flow behavior in the range of Reynolds number (Re) between 23 and 117. In order to use RECT in effluent treatment, an electrochemical oxidation study of the Diuron model molecule (Nortox®) was performed to analyze reactor performance in a closed system with total reflux. A decay kinetics of pseudo-first order was associated with the decay of the concentration of diuron and 30% mineralization in 180 min of process were obtained, having a total volume of 4 × 10-3 m3 and an initial concentration of commercial Diuron in 215.83 mg dm-3. Eleven by-products were identified by HPLC-MS analysis and, from this, it was possible to propose a route of degradation of the diuron. From these observations, it can be inferred that the studied electrochemical reactor had applicability in the degradation of recalcitrant compounds, as is the case of commercial diuron. Make some changes in the electrochemical reactor studied and other advanced oxidative processes, such as electro-Fenton, can be associated with the studied system to achieve a better conversion efficiency.},

}

RevDate: 2018-12-11

CmpDate: 2018-12-11

**What Can Computational Modeling Tell Us about the Diversity of Odor-Capture Structures in the Pancrustacea?.**

*Journal of chemical ecology*, **44(12):**1084-1100.

A major transition in the history of the Pancrustacea was the invasion of several lineages of these animals onto land. We investigated the functional performance of odor-capture organs, antennae with olfactory sensilla arrays, through the use of a computational model of advection and diffusion of odorants to olfactory sensilla while varying three parameters thought to be important to odor capture (Reynolds number, gap-width-to-sensillum-diameter ratio, and angle of the sensilla array with respect to oncoming flow). We also performed a sensitivity analysis on these parameters using uncertainty quantification to analyze their relative contributions to odor-capture performance. The results of this analysis indicate that odor capture in water and in air are fundamentally different. Odor capture in water and leakiness of the array are highly sensitive to Reynolds number and moderately sensitive to angle, whereas odor capture in air is highly sensitive to gap widths between sensilla and moderately sensitive to angle. Leakiness is not a good predictor of odor capture in air, likely due to the relative importance of diffusion to odor transport in air compared to water. We also used the sensitivity analysis to make predictions about morphological and kinematic diversity in extant groups of aquatic and terrestrial crustaceans. Aquatic crustaceans will likely exhibit denser arrays and induce flow within the arrays, whereas terrestrial crustaceans will rely on more sparse arrays with wider gaps and little-to-no animal-induced currents.

Additional Links: PMID-30242545

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@article {pmid30242545,

year = {2018},

author = {Waldrop, LD and He, Y and Khatri, S},

title = {What Can Computational Modeling Tell Us about the Diversity of Odor-Capture Structures in the Pancrustacea?.},

journal = {Journal of chemical ecology},

volume = {44},

number = {12},

pages = {1084-1100},

pmid = {30242545},

issn = {1573-1561},

support = {1505061//Division of Physics/ ; TG-CDA160015//Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment/ ; TG-BIO170090//Extreme Science and Engineering Discovery Environment/ ; },

mesh = {Air ; Animals ; Arthropod Antennae/metabolism ; Biological Evolution ; *Models, Theoretical ; *Odorants/analysis ; Water/chemistry ; },

abstract = {A major transition in the history of the Pancrustacea was the invasion of several lineages of these animals onto land. We investigated the functional performance of odor-capture organs, antennae with olfactory sensilla arrays, through the use of a computational model of advection and diffusion of odorants to olfactory sensilla while varying three parameters thought to be important to odor capture (Reynolds number, gap-width-to-sensillum-diameter ratio, and angle of the sensilla array with respect to oncoming flow). We also performed a sensitivity analysis on these parameters using uncertainty quantification to analyze their relative contributions to odor-capture performance. The results of this analysis indicate that odor capture in water and in air are fundamentally different. Odor capture in water and leakiness of the array are highly sensitive to Reynolds number and moderately sensitive to angle, whereas odor capture in air is highly sensitive to gap widths between sensilla and moderately sensitive to angle. Leakiness is not a good predictor of odor capture in air, likely due to the relative importance of diffusion to odor transport in air compared to water. We also used the sensitivity analysis to make predictions about morphological and kinematic diversity in extant groups of aquatic and terrestrial crustaceans. Aquatic crustaceans will likely exhibit denser arrays and induce flow within the arrays, whereas terrestrial crustaceans will rely on more sparse arrays with wider gaps and little-to-no animal-induced currents.},

}

MeSH Terms:

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Air

Animals

Arthropod Antennae/metabolism

Biological Evolution

*Models, Theoretical

*Odorants/analysis

Water/chemistry

RevDate: 2018-10-20

**Drag reduction and shear-induced cells migration behavior of microalgae slurry in tube flow.**

*Bioresource technology*, **270:**38-45.

To optimize the designing of microalgae slurry pumping system and enhance the efficiency of microalgae products production, the flow characteristics of microalgae slurries (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) in tube flow were for the first time investigated combining experiments and numerical simulation. The drag reduction behavior of microalgae slurry in the fully developed laminar flow regime was studied. In addition, the transition Reynolds number of microalgae slurries from laminar flow to turbulent flow was about 1000-1300, which was similar to the expression of two-phase flow. To provide a further understanding of flow feature of microalgae slurries in tube, a two-phase mixture model was proposed by considering the heterogeneity of concentration due to the shear-induced microalgae cells migration behavior. Simulation results revealed that the heterogeneous distribution of concentration was affected by average velocity and volume fraction of microalgae slurries, significantly affecting the flow resistance and flow stability of microalgae slurry in the tube flow.

Additional Links: PMID-30212772

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PubMed:

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@article {pmid30212772,

year = {2018},

author = {Fu, Q and Chen, H and Liao, Q and Huang, Y and Xia, A and Zhu, X and Xiao, C and Reungsang, A and Liu, Z},

title = {Drag reduction and shear-induced cells migration behavior of microalgae slurry in tube flow.},

journal = {Bioresource technology},

volume = {270},

number = {},

pages = {38-45},

doi = {10.1016/j.biortech.2018.08.133},

pmid = {30212772},

issn = {1873-2976},

abstract = {To optimize the designing of microalgae slurry pumping system and enhance the efficiency of microalgae products production, the flow characteristics of microalgae slurries (Chlorella pyrenoidosa) in tube flow were for the first time investigated combining experiments and numerical simulation. The drag reduction behavior of microalgae slurry in the fully developed laminar flow regime was studied. In addition, the transition Reynolds number of microalgae slurries from laminar flow to turbulent flow was about 1000-1300, which was similar to the expression of two-phase flow. To provide a further understanding of flow feature of microalgae slurries in tube, a two-phase mixture model was proposed by considering the heterogeneity of concentration due to the shear-induced microalgae cells migration behavior. Simulation results revealed that the heterogeneous distribution of concentration was affected by average velocity and volume fraction of microalgae slurries, significantly affecting the flow resistance and flow stability of microalgae slurry in the tube flow.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-10

**The FDA nozzle benchmark: "In theory there is no difference between theory and practice, but in practice there is".**

*International journal for numerical methods in biomedical engineering*, **35(1):**e3150.

The utility of flow simulations relies on the robustness of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solvers and reproducibility of results. The aim of this study was to validate the Oasis CFD solver against in vitro experimental measurements of jet breakdown location from the FDA nozzle benchmark at Reynolds number 3500, which is in the particularly challenging transitional regime. Simulations were performed on meshes consisting of 5, 10, 17, and 28 million (M) tetrahedra, with Δt = 10-5 seconds. The 5M and 10M simulation jets broke down in reasonable agreement with the experiments. However, the 17M and 28M simulation jets broke down further downstream. But which of our simulations are "correct"? From a theoretical point of view, they are all wrong because the jet should not break down in the absence of disturbances. The geometry is axisymmetric with no geometrical features that can generate angular velocities. A stable flow was supported by linear stability analysis. From a physical point of view, a finite amount of "noise" will always be present in experiments, which lowers transition point. To replicate noise numerically, we prescribed minor random angular velocities (approximately 0.31%), much smaller than the reported flow asymmetry (approximately 3%) and model accuracy (approximately 1%), at the inlet of the 17M simulation, which shifted the jet breakdown location closer to the measurements. Hence, the high-resolution simulations and "noise" experiment can potentially explain discrepancies in transition between sometimes "sterile" CFD and inherently noisy "ground truth" experiments. Thus, we have shown that numerical simulations can agree with experiments, but for the wrong reasons.

Additional Links: PMID-30211982

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PubMed:

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@article {pmid30211982,

year = {2019},

author = {Bergersen, AW and Mortensen, M and Valen-Sendstad, K},

title = {The FDA nozzle benchmark: "In theory there is no difference between theory and practice, but in practice there is".},

journal = {International journal for numerical methods in biomedical engineering},

volume = {35},

number = {1},

pages = {e3150},

doi = {10.1002/cnm.3150},

pmid = {30211982},

issn = {2040-7947},

support = {179578//Center for Biomedical Computing/ ; 262827//Cardiological Innovation, and SIMMIS/ ; nn9316k//University of Oslo IT-department/ ; },

abstract = {The utility of flow simulations relies on the robustness of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solvers and reproducibility of results. The aim of this study was to validate the Oasis CFD solver against in vitro experimental measurements of jet breakdown location from the FDA nozzle benchmark at Reynolds number 3500, which is in the particularly challenging transitional regime. Simulations were performed on meshes consisting of 5, 10, 17, and 28 million (M) tetrahedra, with Δt = 10-5 seconds. The 5M and 10M simulation jets broke down in reasonable agreement with the experiments. However, the 17M and 28M simulation jets broke down further downstream. But which of our simulations are "correct"? From a theoretical point of view, they are all wrong because the jet should not break down in the absence of disturbances. The geometry is axisymmetric with no geometrical features that can generate angular velocities. A stable flow was supported by linear stability analysis. From a physical point of view, a finite amount of "noise" will always be present in experiments, which lowers transition point. To replicate noise numerically, we prescribed minor random angular velocities (approximately 0.31%), much smaller than the reported flow asymmetry (approximately 3%) and model accuracy (approximately 1%), at the inlet of the 17M simulation, which shifted the jet breakdown location closer to the measurements. Hence, the high-resolution simulations and "noise" experiment can potentially explain discrepancies in transition between sometimes "sterile" CFD and inherently noisy "ground truth" experiments. Thus, we have shown that numerical simulations can agree with experiments, but for the wrong reasons.},

}

RevDate: 2019-01-23

CmpDate: 2019-01-23

**Helical Structures Mimicking Chiral Seedpod Opening and Tendril Coiling.**

*Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)*, **18(9):**.

Helical structures are ubiquitous in natural and engineered systems across multiple length scales. Examples include DNA molecules, plants' tendrils, sea snails' shells, and spiral nanoribbons. Although this symmetry-breaking shape has shown excellent performance in elastic springs or propulsion generation in a low-Reynolds-number environment, a general principle to produce a helical structure with programmable geometry regardless of length scales is still in demand. In recent years, inspired by the chiral opening of Bauhinia variegata's seedpod and the coiling of plant's tendril, researchers have made significant breakthroughs in synthesizing state-of-the-art 3D helical structures through creating intrinsic curvatures in 2D rod-like or ribbon-like precursors. The intrinsic curvature results from the differential response to a variety of external stimuli of functional materials, such as hydrogels, liquid crystal elastomers, and shape memory polymers. In this review, we give a brief overview of the shape transformation mechanisms of these two plant's structures and then review recent progress in the fabrication of biomimetic helical structures that are categorized by the stimuli-responsive materials involved. By providing this survey on important recent advances along with our perspectives, we hope to solicit new inspirations and insights on the development and fabrication of helical structures, as well as the future development of interdisciplinary research at the interface of physics, engineering, and biology.

Additional Links: PMID-30200611

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@article {pmid30200611,

year = {2018},

author = {Wan, G and Jin, C and Trase, I and Zhao, S and Chen, Z},

title = {Helical Structures Mimicking Chiral Seedpod Opening and Tendril Coiling.},

journal = {Sensors (Basel, Switzerland)},

volume = {18},

number = {9},

pages = {},

pmid = {30200611},

issn = {1424-8220},

support = {Dartmouth College//Startup fund from Thayer School of Engineering at Dartmouth College/ ; Branco Weiss-Society in Science fellowship//Branco Weiss-Society in Science fellowship (administered by ETH Zürich)/ ; },

mesh = {Biomimetic Materials/*chemistry ; *Biomimetics ; Elastomers/chemistry ; Hydrogels/chemistry ; Liquid Crystals/chemistry ; *Plant Physiological Phenomena ; Plants/*anatomy & histology ; Polymers/chemistry ; },

abstract = {Helical structures are ubiquitous in natural and engineered systems across multiple length scales. Examples include DNA molecules, plants' tendrils, sea snails' shells, and spiral nanoribbons. Although this symmetry-breaking shape has shown excellent performance in elastic springs or propulsion generation in a low-Reynolds-number environment, a general principle to produce a helical structure with programmable geometry regardless of length scales is still in demand. In recent years, inspired by the chiral opening of Bauhinia variegata's seedpod and the coiling of plant's tendril, researchers have made significant breakthroughs in synthesizing state-of-the-art 3D helical structures through creating intrinsic curvatures in 2D rod-like or ribbon-like precursors. The intrinsic curvature results from the differential response to a variety of external stimuli of functional materials, such as hydrogels, liquid crystal elastomers, and shape memory polymers. In this review, we give a brief overview of the shape transformation mechanisms of these two plant's structures and then review recent progress in the fabrication of biomimetic helical structures that are categorized by the stimuli-responsive materials involved. By providing this survey on important recent advances along with our perspectives, we hope to solicit new inspirations and insights on the development and fabrication of helical structures, as well as the future development of interdisciplinary research at the interface of physics, engineering, and biology.},

}

MeSH Terms:

show MeSH Terms

hide MeSH Terms

Biomimetic Materials/*chemistry

*Biomimetics

Elastomers/chemistry

Hydrogels/chemistry

Liquid Crystals/chemistry

*Plant Physiological Phenomena

Plants/*anatomy & histology

Polymers/chemistry

RevDate: 2019-02-12

CmpDate: 2018-09-19

**Creeping motion of a solid particle inside a spherical elastic cavity⋆.**

*The European physical journal. E, Soft matter*, **41(9):**104.

On the basis of the linear hydrodynamic equations, we present an analytical theory for the low-Reynolds-number motion of a solid particle moving inside a larger spherical elastic cavity which can be seen as a model system for a fluid vesicle. In the particular situation where the particle is concentric with the cavity, we use the stream function technique to find exact analytical solutions of the fluid motion equations on both sides of the elastic cavity. In this particular situation, we find that the solution of the hydrodynamic equations is solely determined by membrane shear properties and that bending does not play a role. For an arbitrary position of the solid particle within the spherical cavity, we employ the image solution technique to compute the axisymmetric flow field induced by a point force (Stokeslet). We then obtain analytical expressions of the leading-order mobility function describing the fluid-mediated hydrodynamic interactions between the particle and the confining elastic cavity. In the quasi-steady limit of vanishing frequency, we find that the particle self-mobility function is higher than that predicted inside a rigid no-slip cavity. Considering the cavity motion, we find that the pair-mobility function is determined only by membrane shear properties. Our analytical predictions are supplemented and validated by fully resolved boundary integral simulations where a very good agreement is obtained over the whole range of applied forcing frequencies.

Additional Links: PMID-30194679

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Citation:

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@article {pmid30194679,

year = {2018},

author = {Daddi-Moussa-Ider, A and Löwen, H and Gekle, S},

title = {Creeping motion of a solid particle inside a spherical elastic cavity⋆.},

journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter},

volume = {41},

number = {9},

pages = {104},

pmid = {30194679},

issn = {1292-895X},

abstract = {On the basis of the linear hydrodynamic equations, we present an analytical theory for the low-Reynolds-number motion of a solid particle moving inside a larger spherical elastic cavity which can be seen as a model system for a fluid vesicle. In the particular situation where the particle is concentric with the cavity, we use the stream function technique to find exact analytical solutions of the fluid motion equations on both sides of the elastic cavity. In this particular situation, we find that the solution of the hydrodynamic equations is solely determined by membrane shear properties and that bending does not play a role. For an arbitrary position of the solid particle within the spherical cavity, we employ the image solution technique to compute the axisymmetric flow field induced by a point force (Stokeslet). We then obtain analytical expressions of the leading-order mobility function describing the fluid-mediated hydrodynamic interactions between the particle and the confining elastic cavity. In the quasi-steady limit of vanishing frequency, we find that the particle self-mobility function is higher than that predicted inside a rigid no-slip cavity. Considering the cavity motion, we find that the pair-mobility function is determined only by membrane shear properties. Our analytical predictions are supplemented and validated by fully resolved boundary integral simulations where a very good agreement is obtained over the whole range of applied forcing frequencies.},

}

RevDate: 2019-02-02

**Bulk Flow and Near Wall Hemodynamics of the Rabbit Aortic Arch: A 4D PC-MRI Derived CFD Study.**

*Journal of biomechanical engineering* pii:2698120 [Epub ahead of print].

Animal models offer a flexible experimental environment for studying atherosclerosis. The mouse is the most commonly used animal, however, the underlying hemodynamics in larger animals such as the rabbit are far closer to that of humans. The aortic arch is a vessel with complex helical flow and highly heterogeneous shear stress patterns which may influence where atherosclerotic lesions form. A better understanding of intra-species flow variation and the impact of geometry on flow may improve our understanding of where disease forms. In this work we use Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and 4D Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) to image and measure blood velocity in the rabbit aortic arch. Measured flow rates from the PC-MRI were used as boundary conditions in computational fluid dynamics models of the arches. Helical flow, cross flow index (CFI) and time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) were determined from the simulated flow field. Both traditional geometric metrics and shape modes derived from statistical shape analysis were analyzed with respect to flow helicity. High CFI and low TAWSS were found to co-localize in the ascending aorta and to a lesser extent on the inner curvature of the aortic arch. The Reynolds number was linearly associated with an increase in helical flow intensity (R=0.85, p<.05). Both traditional and statistical shape analysis correlated with increased helical flow symmetry. However, a stronger correlation was obtained from the statistical shape analysis demonstrating its potential for discerning the role of shape in hemodynamic studies.

Additional Links: PMID-30140921

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@article {pmid30140921,

year = {2018},

author = {Molony, D and Park, J and Zhou, L and Fleischer, C and Sun, HY and Hu, X and Oshinski, J and Samady, H and Giddens, DP and Rezvan, A},

title = {Bulk Flow and Near Wall Hemodynamics of the Rabbit Aortic Arch: A 4D PC-MRI Derived CFD Study.},

journal = {Journal of biomechanical engineering},

volume = {},

number = {},

pages = {},

doi = {10.1115/1.4041222},

pmid = {30140921},

issn = {1528-8951},

support = {HHSN268201000043C/HL/NHLBI NIH HHS/United States ; },

abstract = {Animal models offer a flexible experimental environment for studying atherosclerosis. The mouse is the most commonly used animal, however, the underlying hemodynamics in larger animals such as the rabbit are far closer to that of humans. The aortic arch is a vessel with complex helical flow and highly heterogeneous shear stress patterns which may influence where atherosclerotic lesions form. A better understanding of intra-species flow variation and the impact of geometry on flow may improve our understanding of where disease forms. In this work we use Magnetic Resonance Angiography (MRA) and 4D Phase contrast magnetic resonance imaging (PC-MRI) to image and measure blood velocity in the rabbit aortic arch. Measured flow rates from the PC-MRI were used as boundary conditions in computational fluid dynamics models of the arches. Helical flow, cross flow index (CFI) and time-averaged wall shear stress (TAWSS) were determined from the simulated flow field. Both traditional geometric metrics and shape modes derived from statistical shape analysis were analyzed with respect to flow helicity. High CFI and low TAWSS were found to co-localize in the ascending aorta and to a lesser extent on the inner curvature of the aortic arch. The Reynolds number was linearly associated with an increase in helical flow intensity (R=0.85, p<.05). Both traditional and statistical shape analysis correlated with increased helical flow symmetry. However, a stronger correlation was obtained from the statistical shape analysis demonstrating its potential for discerning the role of shape in hemodynamic studies.},

}

RevDate: 2018-11-16

CmpDate: 2018-11-16

**On the effects of surface corrugation on the hydrodynamic performance of cylindrical rigid structures.**

*The European physical journal. E, Soft matter*, **41(8):**95.

In this work, we perform fully three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flow field surrounding cylindrical structures characterized by different types of corrugated surface. The simulations are carried out using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), considering a flow regime with a Reynolds number [Formula: see text]. The fluid-dynamic wake structure and stability are investigated by means of PSD analyses of the velocity components and by visual inspection of the vortical coherent structure evolution. Moreover, the energy dissipation of the flow is assessed by considering an equivalent discharge coefficient [Formula: see text], which measures the total pressure losses of the flow moving around the various layout under investigation. Outcomes from our study demonstrate that the helical ridges augment energy dissipation, but might also have a role in the passive control of the characteristic frequencies of the unsteady wake flow.

Additional Links: PMID-30136131

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@article {pmid30136131,

year = {2018},

author = {Krastev, VK and Amati, G and Succi, S and Falcucci, G},

title = {On the effects of surface corrugation on the hydrodynamic performance of cylindrical rigid structures.},

journal = {The European physical journal. E, Soft matter},

volume = {41},

number = {8},

pages = {95},

pmid = {30136131},

issn = {1292-895X},

mesh = {Computer Simulation ; *Hydrodynamics ; Kinetics ; Surface Properties ; },

abstract = {In this work, we perform fully three-dimensional numerical simulations of the flow field surrounding cylindrical structures characterized by different types of corrugated surface. The simulations are carried out using the Lattice Boltzmann Method (LBM), considering a flow regime with a Reynolds number [Formula: see text]. The fluid-dynamic wake structure and stability are investigated by means of PSD analyses of the velocity components and by visual inspection of the vortical coherent structure evolution. Moreover, the energy dissipation of the flow is assessed by considering an equivalent discharge coefficient [Formula: see text], which measures the total pressure losses of the flow moving around the various layout under investigation. Outcomes from our study demonstrate that the helical ridges augment energy dissipation, but might also have a role in the passive control of the characteristic frequencies of the unsteady wake flow.},

}

MeSH Terms:

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Computer Simulation

*Hydrodynamics

Kinetics

Surface Properties

RevDate: 2019-02-12

**Wing-wake interaction: comparison of 2D and 3D flapping wings in hover flight.**

*Bioinspiration & biomimetics*, **13(6):**066003.

The wing-wake interaction of flapping wings while hovering has been investigated, with the focus on the difference in wing-wake interaction between 2D and 3D flapping wings. Numerical simulations are conducted at a Reynolds number of 100, and the flapping configurations are divided into the 2D, quasi-3D and 3D categories. Variations of the aspect ratio and Rossby number allow the flapping configuration to morph gradually between categories. The wing-wake interaction mechanisms are identified and the effect of three-dimensionality on these mechanisms is discussed. Three-dimensionality affects wing-wake interaction through four primary aerodynamic mechanisms, namely, induced jet, downwash/upwash, leading-edge vortex (LEV) shedding due to vortex pairing, and the formation of a closely attached LEV. The first two mechanisms are well-established in the literature. With regard to the LEV shedding mechanism, it is revealed that the interaction between the LEV and the residue vortex from the previous stroke plays an important role in the early vortex shedding of 2D flapping wings. This effect diminishes with increasing three-dimensionality. With regard to the mechanism of the closely attached LEV, the wake encourages the formation of an LEV that is closely attached to the wing's top surface, which is beneficial to lift generation. This closely attached LEV mechanism accounts for most of the lift enhancement that arises from wake effects. Three-dimensionality alters the efficacy of the different aerodynamic mechanisms. Consequently, the dual peak lift coefficient pattern typically seen on 2D flapping wings transforms into the single peak lift coefficient pattern of the 3D flapping wing. It is also demonstrated that the mean lift enhancement due to wing-wake interaction diminishes rapidly when three-dimensionality is introduced. Results suggest that, for wings with parameters close to those of natural flyers, wing-wake interaction yields marginal lift enhancement and a small increase in energy consumption.

Additional Links: PMID-30132443

Publisher:

PubMed:

Citation:

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@article {pmid30132443,

year = {2018},

author = {Lee, YJ and Lua, KB},

title = {Wing-wake interaction: comparison of 2D and 3D flapping wings in hover flight.},

journal = {Bioinspiration & biomimetics},

volume = {13},

number = {6},

pages = {066003},

doi = {10.1088/1748-3190/aadc31},

pmid = {30132443},

issn = {1748-3190},

abstract = {The wing-wake interaction of flapping wings while hovering has been investigated, with the focus on the difference in wing-wake interaction between 2D and 3D flapping wings. Numerical simulations are conducted at a Reynolds number of 100, and the flapping configurations are divided into the 2D, quasi-3D and 3D categories. Variations of the aspect ratio and Rossby number allow the flapping configuration to morph gradually between categories. The wing-wake interaction mechanisms are identified and the effect of three-dimensionality on these mechanisms is discussed. Three-dimensionality affects wing-wake interaction through four primary aerodynamic mechanisms, namely, induced jet, downwash/upwash, leading-edge vortex (LEV) shedding due to vortex pairing, and the formation of a closely attached LEV. The first two mechanisms are well-established in the literature. With regard to the LEV shedding mechanism, it is revealed that the interaction between the LEV and the residue vortex from the previous stroke plays an important role in the early vortex shedding of 2D flapping wings. This effect diminishes with increasing three-dimensionality. With regard to the mechanism of the closely attached LEV, the wake encourages the formation of an LEV that is closely attached to the wing's top surface, which is beneficial to lift generation. This closely attached LEV mechanism accounts for most of the lift enhancement that arises from wake effects. Three-dimensionality alters the efficacy of the different aerodynamic mechanisms. Consequently, the dual peak lift coefficient pattern typically seen on 2D flapping wings transforms into the single peak lift coefficient pattern of the 3D flapping wing. It is also demonstrated that the mean lift enhancement due to wing-wake interaction diminishes rapidly when three-dimensionality is introduced. Results suggest that, for wings with parameters close to those of natural flyers, wing-wake interaction yields marginal lift enhancement and a small increase in energy consumption.},

}

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