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Bibliography on: Reynolds Number

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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 23 Jan 2021 at 01:32 Created: 

Reynolds Number

It is well known that relative size greatly affects how organisms interact with the world. Less well known, at least among biologists, is that at sufficiently small sizes, mechanical interaction with the environment becomes difficult and then virtually impossible. In fluid dynamics, an important dimensionless parameter is the Reynolds Number (abbreviated Re), which is the ratio of inertial to viscous forces affecting the movement of objects in a fluid medium (or the movement of a fluid in a pipe). Since Re is determined mainly by the size of the object (pipe) and the properties (density and viscosity) of the fluid, organisms of different sizes exhibit significantly different Re values when moving through air or water. A fish, swimming at a high ratio of inertial to viscous forces, gives a flick of its tail and then glides for several body lengths. A bacterium, "swimming" in an environment dominated by viscosity, possesses virtually no inertia. When the bacterium stops moving its flagellum, the bacterium "coasts" for about a half of a microsecond, coming to a stop in a distance less than a tenth the diameter of a hydrogen atom. Similarly, the movement of molecules (nutrients toward, wastes away) in the vicinity of a bacterium is dominated by diffusion. Effective stirring — the generation of bulk flow through mechanical means — is impossible at very low Re. An understanding of the constraints imposed by life at low Reynolds numbers is essentially for understanding the prokaryotic biosphere.

Created with PubMed® Query: "reynolds number" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-01-22

Hein S, Theiss A, Di Giovanni A, et al (2019)

Numerical Investigation of Roughness Effects on Transition on Spherical Capsules.

Journal of spacecraft and rockets, 56(2):388-404.

To address the hitherto unknown mechanism of boundary-layer transition on blunt reentry capsules, the role of roughness-induced disturbance growth on a spherical-section forebody is assessed via optimal transient growth theory and direct numerical simulations (DNS). Optimal transient-growth studies have been performed for the blunt capsule experiments at Mach 5.9 in the Hypersonic Ludwieg tube Braunschweig (HLB) of the Technische Universität Braunschweig, which included measurements behind a patch of controlled, distributed micron-sized surface roughness. Transient-growth results for the HLB capsule indicate similar trends as the corresponding numerical data for a Mach 6 experiment in the Actively Controlled Expansion (ACE) facility of the Texas A&M University (TAMU) at a lower Reynolds number. Both configurations indicate a similar dependence on surface temperature ratio, and more important, rather low values of maximum energy gain. DNS are performed for the conditions of the HLB experiment to understand the generation of stationary disturbances by the roughness patch and the accompanying evolution of unsteady perturbations. However, no evidence of either modal or nonmodal disturbance growth in the wake of the roughness patch is found in the DNS data; thus, the physical mechanism underlying the observed onset of transition still remains unknown.

RevDate: 2021-01-22

Kim GY, Son J, Han JI, et al (2021)

Inertial Microfluidics-Based Separation of Microalgae Using a Contraction-Expansion Array Microchannel.

Micromachines, 12(1): pii:mi12010097.

Microalgae separation technology is essential for both executing laboratory-based fundamental studies and ensuring the quality of the final algal products. However, the conventional microalgae separation technology of micropipetting requires highly skilled operators and several months of repeated separation to obtain a microalgal single strain. This study therefore aimed at utilizing microfluidic cell sorting technology for the simple and effective separation of microalgae. Microalgae are characterized by their various morphologies with a wide range of sizes. In this study, a contraction-expansion array microchannel, which utilizes these unique properties of microalgae, was specifically employed for the size-based separation of microalgae. At Reynolds number of 9, two model algal cells, Chlorella vulgaris (C. vulgaris) and Haematococcus pluvialis (H. pluvialis), were successfully separated without showing any sign of cell damage, yielding a purity of 97.9% for C. vulgaris and 94.9% for H. pluvialis. The result supported that the inertia-based separation technology could be a powerful alternative to the labor-intensive and time-consuming conventional microalgae separation technologies.

RevDate: 2021-01-20

Liu C, DF Gayme (2020)

Input-output inspired method for permissible perturbation amplitude of transitional wall-bounded shear flows.

Physical review. E, 102(6-1):063108.

The precise set of parameters governing transition to turbulence in wall-bounded shear flows remains an open question; many theoretical bounds have been obtained, but there is not yet a consensus between these bounds and experimental or simulation results. In this work, we focus on a method to provide a provable Reynolds-number-dependent bound on the amplitude of perturbations a flow can sustain while maintaining the laminar state. Our analysis relies on an input-output approach that partitions the dynamics into a feedback interconnection of the linear and nonlinear dynamics (i.e., a Luré system that represents the nonlinearity as static feedback). We then construct quadratic constraints of the nonlinear term that is restricted by system physics to be energy-conserving (lossless) and to have bounded input-output energy. Computing the region of attraction of the laminar state (set of safe perturbations) and permissible perturbation amplitude are then reformulated as linear matrix inequalities, which allows more computationally efficient solutions than prevailing nonlinear approaches based on the sum of squares programming. The proposed framework can also be used for energy method computations and linear stability analysis. We apply our approach to low-dimensional nonlinear shear flow models for a range of Reynolds numbers. The results from our analytically derived bounds are consistent with the bounds identified through exhaustive simulations. However, they have the added benefit of being achieved at a much lower computational cost and providing a provable guarantee that a certain level of perturbation is permissible.

RevDate: 2021-01-19

Shaheen S, Beg OA, Gul F, et al (2021)

Electro-Osmotic Propulsion of Jeffrey Fluid in a Ciliated Channel Under the Effect of Nonlinear Radiation and Heat Source/Sink.

Journal of biomechanical engineering pii:1096600 [Epub ahead of print].

Mathematical modelling of mechanical system in microfluidics is an emerging area of interest in micro scale engineering. Since microfluidic devices use the hair like structure of artificial cilia for pumping, mixing and sensing in different fields, therefore; electro osmotic cilia driven flow help to generate the fluid velocity for the Newtonian and viscoelastic fluid. Due to the deployment of artificial ciliated walls, the present research reports the combined effect of an electro osmotic flow and convective heat transfer on Jeffrey viscoelastic electrolytic fluid flow in a two-dimensional ciliated vertical channel. Heat generation/absorption and nonlinear radiation effects are included in the present mathematical model. After applying Debye-Huckel approximation and small Reynolds number approximation to momentum and energy equation, the system of nonlinear partial differential equation is reduced into non-homogenous boundary value problem. The problem determines the velocity, pressure and temperature profiles by the application of semi-analytical technique known as Homotopy Perturbation Method (HPM) with the help of software Mathematica. The graphical results of the study suggest that HPM is a reliable methodology for thermo physical electro-osmotic rheological transport in micro channels.

RevDate: 2021-01-15

Javid K, Riaz M, Chu YM, et al (2021)

Peristaltic activity for electro-kinetic complex driven cilia transportation through a non-uniform channel.

Computer methods and programs in biomedicine, 200:105926 pii:S0169-2607(20)31759-4 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATIONS: Now-a-days in medical science, the transport study of biological fluids through non-uniform vessels are going to increase due to their close relation to the reality. Motivated through such type of complex transportation, the current study is presented of cilia hydro-dynamics of an aqueous electrolytic viscous fluid through a non-uniform channel under an applied axial electric field. Mathematical Formulations: Because of the complexity shape and nature of flow channel, we have used curvilinear coordinates in the derivation of continuity and momentum equationsin a fixed frame of reference. A linear transformation is used to renovate the flow system of equations from fixed (laboratory) to moving (wave) frame. For further simplification, the dimensionless variables are introduced to make the flow system of equations into the dimensionless form and at last convert these equations in term of stream function by using the mathematical terminologies of streamlines. The whole analysis is performed under (low Reynolds number) creeping phenomena and long wavelength approximation, respectively. Additionally, small ionic Peclet number and Debye-Huckel linearization are used to simplify the Nernst-Planck and Poisson-Boltzmann equations. The BVP4C technique is used to obtain the numerical solution for velocity distribution, pressure gradient, pressure rise and stream function through MATLAB.

MAIN OUTCOMES: The amplitude of velocity distribution is increased (decreased) at larger values of non-uniform parameter (cilia length). The non-uniform parameter played a vital role not only in the enhancement of circulation at the upper half of the channel but also the length of bolus increased. Results of straight channel are gained for larger value of the dimensionless radius of curvature parameter as well as cilia length.

RevDate: 2021-01-15

Pan Z, Nunes JK, HA Stone (2020)

Regime Map and Triple Point in Selective Withdrawal.

Physical review letters, 125(26):264502.

Entrainment in selective withdrawal occurs when both the top and bottom phases are withdrawn through a capillary tube oriented perpendicular to a flat gravitationally separated liquid-liquid interface. The tube introduces two distinct features to the conditions for fluid entrainment. First, the ratio of the two phases being withdrawn is affected by the region of influence of the flow upstream of the tube's orifice. Second, a minimum withdrawal flow rate must be reached for entrainment regardless of the distance between the interface and the tube. We show that these phenomena can be understood based on the Reynolds number that governs the external flow field around the capillary tube and the capillary number that regulates the effect of the viscosity and capillarity.

RevDate: 2021-01-13

Shit GC, A Bera (2020)

Mathematical model to verify the role of magnetic field on blood flow and its impact on thermal behavior of biological tissue for tumor treatment.

Biomedical physics & engineering express, 6(1):015032.

The numerical computation has been performed to study the effects of static magnetic field on thermal behavior of tumor surrounded by living biological tissues and blood vessels. A small rectangular shaped tumor enclosing the blood vessel surrounded by healthy tissue is considered. The model consists of two-layer composite system in which the microvessel for blood flow is considered as a fluid layer and the living biological tissue including tumor as a solid layer. The wave bioheat transfer equation in the tissue layer together with energy transport equation for blood flow layer has been used in the cylindrical polar coordinates. The analytical expression for blood velocity in the presence of magnetic field has been used from Gold's solution. The computational work has been performed by employing the Crank-Nicolson finite difference method. A comparison has been made to validate our numerical results with the previous solution by setting some parameters. The temperature profiles have been plotted at different locations of the axial tissue length for various values of the Hartmann number, Prandtl number, Womersley number and Reynolds number. It is observed that the application of magnetic field increases heat transfer rate within tumor tissues which in turn attribute to an enhancement of temperature about 316 K or above for hyperthermic treatment in cancer therapy.

RevDate: 2021-01-12

Gnapowski E, Pytka J, Józwik J, et al (2021)

Wind Tunnel Testing of Plasma Actuator with Two Mesh Electrodes to Boundary Layer Control at High Angle of Attack.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 21(2): pii:s21020363.

The manuscript presents experimental research carried out on the wing model with the SD 7003 profile. A plasma actuator with DBD (Dielectric Barrier Discharge) discharges was placed on the wing surface to control boundary layer. The experimental tests were carried out in the AeroLab wind tunnel where the forces acting on the wing during the tests were measured. The conducted experimental research concerns the analysis of the phenomena that take place on the surface of the wing with the DBD plasma actuator turned off and on. The plasma actuator used during the experimental tests has a different structure compared to the classic plasma actuator. The commonly tested plasma actuator uses solid/impermeable electrodes, while in the research, the plasma actuator uses a new type of electrodes, two mesh electrodes separated by an impermeable Kapton dielectric. The experimental research was carried out for the angle of attack α = 15° and several air velocities V = 5-15 m/s with a step of 5 m/s for the Reynolds number Re = 87,500-262,500. The critical angle of attack at which the SD 7003 profile has the maximum lift coefficient is about 11°; during the experimental research, the angle was 15°. Despite the high angle of attack, it was possible to increase the lift coefficient. The use of a plasma actuator with two mesh electrodes allowed to increase the lift by 5%, even at a high angle of attack. During experimental research used high voltage power supply for powering the DBD plasma actuator in the voltage range from 7.5 to 15 kV.

RevDate: 2021-01-08

Monsalve E, Brunet M, Gallet B, et al (2020)

Quantitative Experimental Observation of Weak Inertial-Wave Turbulence.

Physical review letters, 125(25):254502.

We report the quantitative experimental observation of the weak inertial-wave turbulence regime of rotating turbulence. We produce a statistically steady homogeneous turbulent flow that consists of nonlinearly interacting inertial waves, using rough top and bottom boundaries to prevent the emergence of a geostrophic flow. As the forcing amplitude increases, the temporal spectrum evolves from a discrete set of peaks to a continuous spectrum. Maps of the bicoherence of the velocity field confirm such a gradual transition between discrete wave interactions at weak forcing amplitude and the regime described by weak turbulence theory (WTT) for stronger forcing. In the former regime, the bicoherence maps display a near-zero background level, together with sharp localized peaks associated with discrete resonances. By contrast, in the latter regime, the bicoherence is a smooth function that takes values of the order of the Rossby number in line with the infinite-domain and random-phase assumptions of WTT. The spatial spectra then display a power-law behavior, both the spectral exponent and the spectral level being accurately predicted by WTT at high Reynolds number and low Rossby number.

RevDate: 2021-01-06

Klein AK, A Dietzel (2021)

A Primer on Microfluidics: From Basic Principles to Microfabrication.

Advances in biochemical engineering/biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Microfluidic systems enable manipulating fluids in different functional units which are integrated on a microchip. This chapter describes the basics of microfluidics, where physical effects have a different impact compared to macroscopic systems. Furthermore, an overwiew is given on the microfabrication of these systems. The focus lies on clean-room fabrication methods based on photolithography and soft lithography. Finally, an outlook on advanced maskless micro- and nanofabrication methods is given. Special attention is paid to laser structuring processes.

RevDate: 2021-01-05

Chen W, Wen Y, Fan X, et al (2021)

Magnetically actuated intelligent hydrogel-based child-parent microrobots for targeted drug delivery.

Journal of materials chemistry. B [Epub ahead of print].

Small intestine-targeted drug delivery by oral administration has aroused the growing interest of researchers. In this work, the child-parent microrobot (CPM) as a vehicle protects the child microrobots (CMs) under a gastric acid environment and releases them in the small intestinal environment. The intelligent hydrogel-based CPMs with sphere, mushroom, red blood cell, and teardrop shapes are fabricated by an extrusion-dripping method. The CPMs package uniform CMs, which are fabricated by designed microfluidic (MF) devices. The fabrication mechanism and tunability of CMs and CPMs with different sizes and shapes are analyzed, modeled, and simulated. The shape of CPM can affect its drug release efficiency and kinetic characteristics. A vision-feedback magnetic driving system (VMDS) actuates and navigates CPM along the predefined path to the destination and continuously releases drug in the simulated intestinal fluid (SIF, a low Reynolds number (Re) regime) using a new motion control method with the tracking-learning-detection (TLD) algorithm. The newly designed CPM combines the advantages of powerful propulsion, good biocompatibility, and remarkable drug loading and release capacity at the intestinal level, which is expected to be competent for oral administration of small intestine-targeted therapy in the future.

RevDate: 2021-01-05

Avila K, B Hof (2020)

Second-Order Phase Transition in Counter-Rotating Taylor-Couette Flow Experiment.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 23(1): pii:e23010058.

In many basic shear flows, such as pipe, Couette, and channel flow, turbulence does not arise from an instability of the laminar state, and both dynamical states co-exist. With decreasing flow speed (i.e., decreasing Reynolds number) the fraction of fluid in laminar motion increases while turbulence recedes and eventually the entire flow relaminarizes. The first step towards understanding the nature of this transition is to determine if the phase change is of either first or second order. In the former case, the turbulent fraction would drop discontinuously to zero as the Reynolds number decreases while in the latter the process would be continuous. For Couette flow, the flow between two parallel plates, earlier studies suggest a discontinuous scenario. In the present study we realize a Couette flow between two concentric cylinders which allows studies to be carried out in large aspect ratios and for extensive observation times. The presented measurements show that the transition in this circular Couette geometry is continuous suggesting that former studies were limited by finite size effects. A further characterization of this transition, in particular its relation to the directed percolation universality class, requires even larger system sizes than presently available.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Elsinga GE, Ishihara T, JCR Hunt (2020)

Extreme dissipation and intermittency in turbulence at very high Reynolds numbers.

Proceedings. Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 476(2243):20200591.

Extreme dissipation events in turbulent flows are rare, but they can be orders of magnitude stronger than the mean dissipation rate. Despite its importance in many small-scale physical processes, there is presently no accurate theory or model for predicting the extrema as a function of the Reynolds number. Here, we introduce a new model for the dissipation probability density function (PDF) based on the concept of significant shear layers, which are thin regions of elevated local mean dissipation. At very high Reynolds numbers, these significant shear layers develop layered substructures. The flow domain is divided into the different layer regions and a background region, each with their own PDF of dissipation. The volume-weighted regional PDFs are combined to obtain the overall PDF, which is subsequently used to determine the dissipation variance and maximum. The model yields Reynolds number scalings for the dissipation maximum and variance, which are in agreement with the available data. Moreover, the power law scaling exponent is found to increase gradually with the Reynolds numbers, which is also consistent with the data. The increasing exponent is shown to have profound implications for turbulence at atmospheric and astrophysical Reynolds numbers. The present results strongly suggest that intermittent significant shear layer structures are key to understanding and quantifying the dissipation extremes, and, more generally, extreme velocity gradients.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Foo CT, Unterberger A, Menser J, et al (2021)

Tomographic imaging using multi-simultaneous measurements (TIMes) for flame emission reconstructions.

Optics express, 29(1):244-255.

The method of tomographic imaging using multi-simultaneous measurements (TIMes) for flame emission reconstructions is presented. Measurements of the peak natural CH* chemiluminescence in the flame and luminescence from different vaporised alkali metal salts that were seeded in a multi-annulus burner were used. An array of 29 CCD cameras around the Cambridge-Sandia burner was deployed, with 3 sets of cameras each measuring a different colour channel using bandpass optical filters. The three-dimensional instantaneous and time-averaged fields of the individual measured channels were reconstructed and superimposed for two new operating conditions, with differing cold flow Reynolds numbers. The contour of the reconstructed flame front followed the interface between the burnt side of the flame, where the alkali salt luminescence appears, and the cold gas region. The increased mixing between different reconstructed channels in the downstream direction that is promoted by the higher levels of turbulence in the larger Reynolds number case was clearly demonstrated. The TIMes method enabled combustion zones originating from different streams and the flame front to be distinguished and their overlap regions to be identified, in the entire volume.

RevDate: 2020-12-28

Brum J, Bernal M, Barrere N, et al (2020)

Vortex dynamics and transport phenomena in stenotic aortic models using Echo-PIV.

Physics in medicine and biology [Epub ahead of print].

Atherosclerosis is the most fatal cardiovascular disease. As disease progresses, stenoses grow inside the arteries blocking their lumen and altering blood flow. Analysing flow dynamics can provide a deeper insight on the stenosis evolution. In this work we combined Eulerian and Lagrangian descriptors to analyse blood flow dynamics and fluid transport in stenotic aortic models with morphology, mechanical and optical properties close to those of real arteries. To this end, vorticity, particle residence time (PRT), particle's final position (FP) and finite time Lyapunov's exponents (FTLE) were computed from the experimental fluid velocity fields acquired using ultrasonic particle imaging velocimetry (Echo-PIV). For the experiments, CT-images were used to create morphological realistic models of the descending aorta with 0%, 35% and 50% occlusion degree with same mechanical properties as real arteries. Each model was connected to a circuit with a pulsatile programmable pump which mimics physiological flow and pressure conditions. The pulsatile frequency was set to ≈ 0.9 Hz (55 bpm) and the upstream peak Reynolds number (Re) was changed from 1100 to 2000. Flow in the post-stenotic region was composed of two main structures: a high velocity jet over the stenosis throat and a recirculation region behind the stenosis where vortex form and shed. We characterized vortex kinematics showing that vortex propagation velocity increases withRe. Moreover, from the FTLE field we identified Lagrangian Coherent Structures (i.e. material barriers) that dictate transport behind the stenosis. The size and strength of those barriers increased withReand the occlusion degree. Finally, from the PRT and FP maps, we showed that independently ofRe, the same amount of fluid remains on the stenosis over more than a pulsatile period.

RevDate: 2020-12-23

Wu CY, BH Lai (2020)

Numerical Study of T-Shaped Micromixers with Vortex-Inducing Obstacles in the Inlet Channels.

Micromachines, 11(12): pii:mi11121122.

To enhance fluid mixing, a new approach for inlet flow modification by adding vortex-inducing obstacles (VIOs) in the inlet channels of a T-shaped micromixer is proposed and investigated in this work. We use a commercial computational fluid dynamics code to calculate the pressure and the velocity vectors and, to reduce the numerical diffusion in high-Peclet-number flows, we employ the particle-tracking simulation with an approximation diffusion model to calculate the concentration distribution in the micromixers. The effects of geometric parameters, including the distance between the obstacles and the angle of attack of the obstacles, on the mixing performance of micromixers are studied. From the results, we can observe the following trends: (i) the stretched contact surface between different fluids caused by antisymmetric VIOs happens for the cases with the Reynolds number (Re) greater than or equal to 27 and the enhancement of mixing increases with the increase of Reynolds number gradually, and (ii) the onset of the engulfment flow happens at Re≈125 in the T-shaped mixer with symmetric VIOs or at Re≈140 in the standard planar T-shaped mixer and results in a sudden increase of the degree of mixing. The results indicate that the early initiation of transversal convection by either symmetric or antisymmetric VIOs can enhance fluid mixing at a relatively lower Re.

RevDate: 2020-12-22

Asadzadeh SS, Kiørboe T, Larsen PS, et al (2020)

Hydrodynamics of sponge pumps and evolution of the sponge body plan.

eLife, 9: pii:61012.

Sponges are suspension feeders that filter vast amounts of water. Pumping is carried out by flagellated chambers that are connected to an inhalant and exhalant canal system. In 'leucon' sponges with relatively high-pressure resistance due to a complex and narrow canal system, pumping and filtering are only possible owing to the presence of a gasket-like structure (forming a canopy above the collar filters). Here, we combine numerical and experimental work and demonstrate how sponges that lack such sealing elements are able to efficiently pump and force the flagella-driven flow through their collar filter, thanks to the formation of a 'hydrodynamic gasket' above the collar. Our findings link the architecture of flagellated chambers to that of the canal system, and lend support to the current view that the sponge aquiferous system evolved from an open-type filtration system, and that the first metazoans were filter feeders.

RevDate: 2020-12-18

Li YH, SC Chen (2020)

Propulsion Mechanism of Flexible Microbead Swimmers in the Low Reynolds Number Regime.

Micromachines, 11(12): pii:mi11121107.

A propulsion mechanism for a flexible microswimmer constructed from superparamagnetic microbeads with different diameters and subjected to an oscillating field was studied experimentally and theoretically herein. Various types of artificial swimmers with different bending patterns were fabricated to determine the flexibility and an effective waveform for a planar beating flagellum. Waveform evolutions for various swimmer configurations were studied to determine the flexible mechanism of the swimmers. A one-armed microswimmer can propel itself only if the friction of its wavelike body is anisotropic. A swimmer with a larger head and a stronger magnetic dipole moment with a flexible tail allows the bending wave to propagate from the head toward the tail to generate forward thrust. The oscillating head and tail do not simultaneously generate positive thrust all the time within a period of oscillation. To increase the propulsion for a bending swimmer, this study proposes a novel configuration for a microbead swimmer that ensures better swimming efficiency. The ratio of the oscillation amplitude of the head to the length of the swimmer (from 0.26 to 0.28) produces a faster swimmer. On the other hand, the swimmer is propelled more effectively if the ratio of the oscillation amplitude of the tail to the length of the swimmer is from 0.29 to 0.33. This study determined the optimal configuration for a flexible microbead swimmer that generates the greatest propulsion in a low Reynolds number environment.

RevDate: 2020-12-17

Dou Y, Tzelios PM, Livitz D, et al (2020)

Programmable topotaxis of magnetic rollers in time-varying fields.

Soft matter [Epub ahead of print].

We describe how spatially uniform, time-periodic magnetic fields can be designed to power and direct the migration of ferromagnetic spheres up (or down) local gradients in the topography of a solid substrate. Our results are based on a dynamical model that considers the time-varying magnetic torques on the particle and its motion through the fluid at low Reynolds number. We use both analytical theory and numerical simulation to design magnetic fields that maximize the migration velocity up (or down) an inclined plane. We show how "topotaxis" of spherical particles relies on differences in the hydrodynamic resistance to rotation about axes parallel and perpendicular to the plane. Importantly, the designed fields can drive multiple independent particles to move simultaneously in different directions as determined by gradients in their respective environments. Experiments on ferromagnetic spheres provide evidence for topotactic motions up inclined substrates. The ability to program the autonomous navigation of driven particles within anisotropic environments is relevant to the design of colloidal robots.

RevDate: 2020-12-17

Wegener WA (1981)

Diffusion coefficients for rigid macromolecules with irregular shapes that allow rotational-translational coupling.

Biopolymers, 20(2):303-326.

We consider six-dimensional diffusion and frictional tensors for a rigid macromolecule immersed in a viscous fluid at low Reynolds number. Our treatment allows for screwlike properties which couple rotational and translational movements. We show that the center of diffusion of a screwlike body can be distinct from its hydrodynamic center of reaction. Symmetry conditions which ensure coincidence are examined. The center of diffusion is found to be the point of a body with the slowest diffusive movements, while rotations about the center of reaction encounter the least average resistance. The macroscopic translational diffusion coefficient is evaluated from a perturbation analysis of the six-dimensional diffusion equation. We show that methodologies which ignore translational-rotational coupling will necessarily underestimate the diffusion rate of screwlike particles. A procedural framework is presented to calculate diffusion coefficients of complicated bodies. As an example we treat a long bent rod.

RevDate: 2020-12-17

Slanina F (2020)

Colloid particles in microfluidic inertial hydrodynamic ratchet at moderate Reynolds number.

Physical review. E, 102(5-1):052601.

The movement of spherical Brownian particle carried by an alternating fluid flow in a tube of periodically variable diameter is investigated. On the basis of our previous results [Phys. Rev. E 99, 012604 (2019)10.1103/PhysRevE.99.012604] on the hydrodynamics of the problem, we look at the competition of hydrodynamics and diffusion. We use the method of Fick-Jacobs mapping on an effective one-dimensional problem. We calculate the ratchet current and show that is is strictly related to finite size of the particles. The ratchet current grows quadratically with particle radius. We also show that the dominant contribution to the ratchet current is due to inertial hydrodynamic effects. This means that Reynolds number must be at least of order one. We discuss the possible use for separation of particles by size and perspectives of optimization of the tube shape.

RevDate: 2020-12-16

Turon V, Ollivier S, Cwicklinski G, et al (2020)

H2 production by photofermentation in an innovative plate-type photobioreactor with meandering channels.

Biotechnology and bioengineering [Epub ahead of print].

Hydrogen production by Rhodobacter capsulatus is an anaerobic, photobiological process requiring specific mixing conditions. In this study, an innovative design of photobioreactor is proposed. The design is based on a plate-type photobioreactor with an interconnected meandering channel to allow culture mixing and H2 degassing. The culture flow was characterized as a quasi plug-flow with radial mixing caused by a turbulent-like regime achieved at low Reynolds number. The dissipated volumetric power was decreased ten-fold while maintaining PBR performances (production and yields) when compared with a magnetically stirred tank reactor. To increase hydrogen production flow rate, several bacterial concentrations were tested by increasing the glutamate concentration using fed-batch cultures. The maximum hydrogen production flow rate (157.7 ± 9.3 mL H2 /L/h) achieved is one of the highest values so far reported for H2 production by R. capsulatus. These first results are encouraging for future scale-up of the plate-type reactor. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-12-16

Liu J, Xiao Y, Li M, et al (2020)

Intermittency, Moments, and Friction Coefficient during the Subcritical Transition of Channel Flow.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 22(12): pii:e22121399.

The intermittent distribution of localized turbulent structures is a key feature of the subcritical transitions in channel flows, which are studied in this paper with a wind channel and theoretical modeling. Entrance disturbances are introduced by small beads, and localized turbulent patches can be triggered at low Reynolds numbers (Re). High turbulence intensity represents strong ability of perturbation spread, and a maximum turbulence intensity is found for every test case as Re ≥ 950, where the turbulence fraction increases abruptly with Re. Skewness can reflect the velocity defects of localized turbulent patches and is revealed to become negative when Re is as low as about 660. It is shown that the third-order moments of the midplane streamwise velocities have minima, while the corresponding forth-order moments have maxima during the transition. These kinematic extremes and different variation scenarios of the friction coefficient during the transition are explained with an intermittent structure model, where the robust localized turbulent structure is simplified as a turbulence unit, a structure whose statistical properties are only weak functions of the Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2020-12-08

Yang PJ, Lee AB, Chan M, et al (2020)

Intestines of non-uniform stiffness mold the corners of wombat feces.

Soft matter [Epub ahead of print].

The bare-nosed wombat (Vombatus ursinus) is a fossorial, herbivorous, Australian marsupial, renowned for its cubic feces. However, the ability of the wombat's soft intestine to sculpt flat faces and sharp corners in feces is poorly understood. In this combined experimental and numerical study, we show one mechanism for the formation of corners in a highly damped environment. Wombat dissections show that cubes are formed within the last 17 percent of the intestine. Using histology and tensile testing, we discover that the cross-section of the intestine exhibits regions with a two-fold increase in thickness and a four-fold increase in stiffness, which we hypothesize facilitates the formation of corners by contractions of the intestine. Using a mathematical model, we simulate a series of azimuthal contractions of a damped elastic ring composed of alternating stiff and soft regions. Increased stiffness ratio and higher Reynolds number yield shapes that are more square. The corners arise from faster contraction in the stiff regions and relatively slower movement in the center of the soft regions. These results may have applications in manufacturing, clinical pathology, and digestive health.

RevDate: 2020-12-08

Agrawal R, Ng HC, Davis EA, et al (2020)

Low- and High-Drag Intermittencies in Turbulent Channel Flows.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 22(10): pii:e22101126.

Recent direct numerical simulations (DNS) and experiments in turbulent channel flow have found intermittent low- and high-drag events in Newtonian fluid flows, at Reτ=uτh/ν between 70 and 100, where uτ, h and ν are the friction velocity, channel half-height and kinematic viscosity, respectively. These intervals of low-drag and high-drag have been termed "hibernating" and "hyperactive", respectively, and in this paper, a further investigation of these intermittent events is conducted using experimental and numerical techniques. For experiments, simultaneous measurements of wall shear stress and velocity are carried out in a channel flow facility using hot-film anemometry (HFA) and laser Doppler velocimetry (LDV), respectively, for Reτ between 70 and 250. For numerical simulations, DNS of a channel flow is performed in an extended domain at Reτ = 70 and 85. These intermittent events are selected by carrying out conditional sampling of the wall shear stress data based on a combined threshold magnitude and time-duration criteria. The use of three different scalings (so-called outer, inner and mixed) for the time-duration criterion for the conditional events is explored. It is found that if the time-duration criterion is kept constant in inner units, the frequency of occurrence of these conditional events remain insensitive to Reynolds number. There exists an exponential distribution of frequency of occurrence of the conditional events with respect to their duration, implying a potentially memoryless process. An explanation for the presence of a spike (or dip) in the ensemble-averaged wall shear stress data before and after the low-drag (or high-drag) events is investigated. During the low-drag events, the conditionally-averaged streamwise velocities get closer to Virk's maximum drag reduction (MDR) asymptote, near the wall, for all Reynolds numbers studied. Reynolds shear stress (RSS) characteristics during these conditional events are investigated for Reτ = 70 and 85. Except very close to the wall, the conditionally-averaged RSS is higher than the time-averaged value during the low-drag events.

RevDate: 2020-12-08

Kashyap PV, Duguet Y, O Dauchot (2020)

Flow Statistics in the Transitional Regime of Plane Channel Flow.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 22(9): pii:e22091001.

The transitional regime of plane channel flow is investigated above the transitional point below which turbulence is not sustained, using direct numerical simulation in large domains. Statistics of laminar-turbulent spatio-temporal intermittency are reported. The geometry of the pattern is first characterized, including statistics for the angles of the laminar-turbulent stripes observed in this regime, with a comparison to experiments. High-order statistics of the local and instantaneous bulk velocity, wall shear stress and turbulent kinetic energy are then provided. The distributions of the two former quantities have non-trivial shapes, characterized by a large kurtosis and/or skewness. Interestingly, we observe a strong linear correlation between their kurtosis and their skewness squared, which is usually reported at much higher Reynolds number in the fully turbulent regime.

RevDate: 2020-12-08

Lee T (2020)

Lognormality in Turbulence Energy Spectra.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 22(6): pii:e22060669.

The maximum entropy principle states that the energy distribution will tend toward a state of maximum entropy under the physical constraints, such as the zero energy at the boundaries and a fixed total energy content. For the turbulence energy spectra, a distribution function that maximizes entropy with these physical constraints is a lognormal function due to its asymmetrical descent to zero energy at the boundary lengths scales. This distribution function agrees quite well with the experimental data over a wide range of energy and length scales. For turbulent flows, this approach is effective since the energy and length scales are determined primarily by the Reynolds number. The total turbulence kinetic energy will set the height of the distribution, while the ratio of length scales will determine the width. This makes it possible to reconstruct the power spectra using the Reynolds number as a parameter.

RevDate: 2020-12-08

Wang R, Xie Z, Yin Y, et al (2020)

Constructal Design of Elliptical Cylinders with Heat Generating for Entropy Generation Minimization.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 22(6): pii:e22060651.

A heat dissipation model of discrete elliptical cylinders with heat generation on a thermal conduction pedestal cooled by forced convection is established. Constructal design is conducted numerically by taking the distributions of thermal conductivity and heat generating intensity as design variables, the dimensionless entropy generation rate (DEGR) as performance indicator. The optimal designs for discrete elliptical cylinders with heat generating are obtained respectively, i.e., there are optimal distributions of heat generating intensity with its fixed total amount of heat sources, and there are optimal distributions of thermal conductivity with its fixed total amount of heat sources. These optimums for minimum DEGRs are different at different Reynolds numbers of airflow. The heat generating intensity can be decreased one by one appropriately in the fluid flow direction to achieve the best effect. When the Reynolds number of airflow is smaller, the thermal conductivity of heat source can be increased one by one appropriately in the fluid flow direction to achieve the best effect; when the Reynolds number of airflow is larger, the thermal conductivity of each heat source should be equalized to achieve the best effect. The results can give thermal design guidelines for the practical heat generating devices with different materials and heat generating intensities.

RevDate: 2020-12-08

Yu S, Tang T, Li J, et al (2020)

Effect of Prandtl Number on Mixed Convective Heat Transfer from a Porous Cylinder in the Steady Flow Regime.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 22(2): pii:e22020184.

The effect of the Prandtl number (Pr) on the flow and heat transfer from a porous circular cylinder with internal heat generation in the mixed convection regime is numerically investigated. The steady flow regime is considered over the ranges of the Reynolds number (Re), Darcy number (Da), and Richardson number (Ri), varying from 5 to 40, 10-6 to 10-2, and 0 to 2, respectively. The wake structure, the temperature distribution, and the heat transfer rate are discussed. Besides precipitating the growth of the recirculating wake, the Prandtl number is found to have a significant impact on the thermal characteristics. The concave isotherms, resembling a saddle-shaped structure, occur behind the cylinder at larger Pr, resulting in swells of the isotherms pairing off at the lateral sides. These swells are found to have a negative effect on heat transfer owing to a relatively smaller temperature gradient there. Then, the heat transfer rate in terms of the local Nusselt number (Nu) and enhancement ratio (Er) is calculated, which is closely related to Pr, Re, Da, and Ri. The local minimum heat transfer rate along the cylinder surface is found at the position where the swells of the isotherms form.

RevDate: 2020-12-08

Deriszadeh A, F de Monte (2020)

On Heat Transfer Performance of Cooling Systems Using Nanofluid for Electric Motor Applications.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 22(1): pii:e22010099.

This paper studies the fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of nanofluids as advance coolants for the cooling system of electric motors. Investigations are carried out using numerical analysis for a cooling system with spiral channels. To solve the governing equations, computational fluid dynamics and 3D fluid motion analysis are used. The base fluid is water with a laminar flow. The fluid Reynolds number and turn-number of spiral channels are evaluation parameters. The effect of nanoparticles volume fraction in the base fluid on the heat transfer performance of the cooling system is studied. Increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles leads to improving the heat transfer performance of the cooling system. On the other hand, a high-volume fraction of the nanofluid increases the pressure drop of the coolant fluid and increases the required pumping power. This paper aims at finding a trade-off between effective parameters by studying both fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of the nanofluid.

RevDate: 2020-12-08

Rasool G, Zhang T, Chamkha AJ, et al (2019)

Entropy Generation and Consequences of Binary Chemical Reaction on MHD Darcy-Forchheimer Williamson Nanofluid Flow Over Non-Linearly Stretching Surface.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 22(1): pii:e22010018.

The current article aims to present a numerical analysis of MHD Williamson nanofluid flow maintained to flow through porous medium bounded by a non-linearly stretching flat surface. The second law of thermodynamics was applied to analyze the fluid flow, heat and mass transport as well as the aspects of entropy generation using Buongiorno model. Thermophoresis and Brownian diffusion is considered which appears due to the concentration and random motion of nanoparticles in base fluid, respectively. Uniform magnetic effect is induced but the assumption of tiny magnetic Reynolds number results in zero magnetic induction. The governing equations (PDEs) are transformed into ordinary differential equations (ODEs) using appropriately adjusted transformations. The numerical method is used for solving the so-formulated highly nonlinear problem. The graphical presentation of results highlights that the heat flux receives enhancement for augmented Brownian diffusion. The Bejan number is found to be increasing with a larger Weissenberg number. The tabulated results for skin-friction, Nusselt number and Sherwood number are given. A decent agreement is noted in the results when compared with previously published literature on Williamson nanofluids.

RevDate: 2020-12-08

Xu L, Xiong Y, Xi L, et al (2019)

Numerical Simulation of Swirling Impinging Jet Issuing from a Threaded Hole under Inclined Condition.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 22(1): pii:e22010015.

There are some inclined jet holes in the cooling structure of the leading edge region of gas turbine blades. In order to improve the cooling effect of traditional round holes, this paper proposes to replace the round holes with threaded holes, and studies the complex flow and heat transfer performance of the swirling impinging jet (SIJ) issuing from the 45° threaded holes in the inclined condition by numerical simulation. The influencing factors include jet inclination angle α (45°-90°), jet-to-plate distance (H/d = 2, 4, 6), and Reynolds number (6000-24,000). The results show that the inclination angle and jet-to-plate distance have a great influence on the size, shape, and position of vortices in the jet space, while the Reynolds number has little effect on the vortices. In the inclined state, the impinging cooling effect of the swirling impinging jet is better than that of the circular impinging jet (CIJ), both heat transfer coefficients will degrade significantly when the inclination angle is 45°. When the inclination angle is greater than 45°, compared with the round hole, the enhanced heat transfer region for the swirling jet is in the region of r/d < 3, while both of the Nusselt numbers in the wall jet region are weak, with a value of just 20. At the same time, with the increasing of the inclination angle (α > 45°), the average Nusselt number on target surface holds a constant value. Under the inclined conditions, the heat transfer coefficient on the target surface for the swirling jet is increased totally with the increasing of the Re, but when the Re is larger than 18,000, the rate of enhanced heat transfer gradually weakens.

RevDate: 2020-12-07

Maurer L, Villette C, Reiminger N, et al (2020)

Distribution and degradation trend of micropollutants in a surface flow treatment wetland revealed by 3D numerical modelling combined with LC-MS/MS.

Water research, 190:116672 pii:S0043-1354(20)31207-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Conventional wastewater treatment plants are not designed to treat micropollutants; thus, for 20 years, several complementary treatment systems, such as surface flow wetlands have been used to address this issue. Previous studies demonstrate that higher residence time and low global velocities promote nutrient removal rates or micropollutant photodegradation. Nevertheless, these studies were restricted to the system limits (inlet/outlet). Therefore, detailed knowledge of water flow is crucial for identifying areas that promote degradation and optimise surface flow wetlands. The present study combines 3D water flow numerical modelling and liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS/MS). Using this numerical model, validated by tracer experimental data, several velocity areas were distinguished in the wetland. Four areas were selected to investigate the waterflow influence and led to the following results: on the one hand, the number and concentration of micropollutants are independent of the waterflow, which could be due to several assumptions, such as the chronic exposure associated with a low Reynolds number; on the other hand, the potential degradation products (metabolites) were also assessed in the sludge to investigate the micropollutant biodegradation processes occurring in the wetland; micropollutant metabolites or degradation products were detected in higher proportions (both number and concentration) in lower flow rate areas. The relation to higher levels of plant and microorganism metabolites suggests higher biological activity that promotes degradation.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Milana E, Zhang R, Vetrano MR, et al (2020)

Metachronal patterns in artificial cilia for low Reynolds number fluid propulsion.

Science advances, 6(49): pii:6/49/eabd2508.

Cilia are hair-like organelles, present in arrays that collectively beat to generate flow. Given their small size and consequent low Reynolds numbers, asymmetric motions are necessary to create a net flow. Here, we developed an array of six soft robotic cilia, which are individually addressable, to both mimic nature's symmetry-breaking mechanisms and control asymmetries to study their influence on fluid propulsion. Our experimental tests are corroborated with fluid dynamics simulations, where we find a good agreement between both and show how the kymographs of the flow are related to the phase shift of the metachronal waves. Compared to synchronous beating, we report a 50% increase of net flow speed when cilia move in an antiplectic wave with phase shift of -π/3 and a decrease for symplectic waves. Furthermore, we observe the formation of traveling vortices in the direction of the wave when metachrony is applied.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Ma H, Duan Z, Su L, et al (2019)

Fluid Flow and Entropy Generation Analysis of Al2O3-Water Nanofluid in Microchannel Plate Fin Heat Sinks.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 21(8): pii:e21080739.

The flow in channels of microdevices is usually in the developing regime. Three-dimensional laminar flow characteristics of a nanofluid in microchannel plate fin heat sinks are investigated numerically in this paper. Deionized water and Al2O3-water nanofluid are employed as the cooling fluid in our work. The effects of the Reynolds number (100 < Re < 1000), channel aspect ratio (0 < ε < 1), and nanoparticle volume fraction (0.5% < Φ < 5%) on pressure drop and entropy generation in microchannel plate fin heat sinks are examined in detail. Herein, the general expression of the entropy generation rate considering entrance effects is developed. The results revealed that the frictional entropy generation and pressure drop increase as nanoparticle volume fraction and Reynolds number increase, while decrease as the channel aspect ratio increases. When the nanoparticle volume fraction increases from 0 to 3% at Re = 500, the pressure drop of microchannel plate fin heat sinks with ε = 0.5 increases by 9%. It is demonstrated that the effect of the entrance region is crucial for evaluating the performance of microchannel plate fin heat sinks. The study may shed some light on the design and optimization of microchannel heat sinks.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Lee TW (2019)

Maximum Entropy Method for Solving the Turbulent Channel Flow Problem.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 21(7): pii:e21070675.

There are two components in this work that allow for solutions of the turbulent channel flow problem: One is the Galilean-transformed Navier-Stokes equation which gives a theoretical expression for the Reynolds stress (u'v'); and the second the maximum entropy principle which provides the spatial distribution of turbulent kinetic energy. The first concept transforms the momentum balance for a control volume moving at the local mean velocity, breaking the momentum exchange down to its basic components, u'v', u'2, pressure and viscous forces. The Reynolds stress gradient budget confirms this alternative interpretation of the turbulence momentum balance, as validated with DNS data. The second concept of maximum entropy principle states that turbulent kinetic energy in fully-developed flows will distribute itself until the maximum entropy is attained while conforming to the physical constraints. By equating the maximum entropy state with maximum allowable (viscous) dissipation at a given Reynolds number, along with other constraints, we arrive at function forms (inner and outer) for the turbulent kinetic energy. This allows us to compute the Reynolds stress, then integrate it to obtain the velocity profiles in channel flows. The results agree well with direct numerical simulation (DNS) data at Reτ = 400 and 1000.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Abd El-Aziz M, AA Afify (2019)

MHD Casson Fluid Flow over a Stretching Sheet with Entropy Generation Analysis and Hall Influence.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 21(6): pii:e21060592.

The impacts of entropy generation and Hall current on MHD Casson fluid over a stretching surface with velocity slip factor have been numerically analyzed. Numerical work for the governing equations is established by using a shooting method with a fourth-order Runge-Kutta integration scheme. The outcomes show that the entropy generation is enhanced with a magnetic parameter, Reynolds number and group parameter. Further, the reverse behavior is observed with the Hall parameter, Eckert number, Casson parameter and slip factor. Also, it is viewed that Bejan number reduces with a group parameter.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

de Divitiis N (2019)

Statistical Lyapunov Theory Based on Bifurcation Analysis of Energy Cascade in Isotropic Homogeneous Turbulence: A Physical-Mathematical Review.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 21(5): pii:e21050520.

This work presents a review of previous articles dealing with an original turbulence theory proposed by the author and provides new theoretical insights into some related issues. The new theoretical procedures and methodological approaches confirm and corroborate the previous results. These articles study the regime of homogeneous isotropic turbulence for incompressible fluids and propose theoretical approaches based on a specific Lyapunov theory for determining the closures of the von Kármán-Howarth and Corrsin equations and the statistics of velocity and temperature difference. While numerous works are present in the literature which concern the closures of the autocorrelation equations in the Fourier domain (i.e., Lin equation closure), few articles deal with the closures of the autocorrelation equations in the physical space. These latter, being based on the eddy-viscosity concept, describe diffusive closure models. On the other hand, the proposed Lyapunov theory leads to nondiffusive closures based on the property that, in turbulence, contiguous fluid particles trajectories continuously diverge. Therefore, the main motivation of this review is to present a theoretical formulation which does not adopt the eddy-viscosity paradigm and summarizes the results of the previous works. Next, this analysis assumes that the current fluid placements, together with velocity and temperature fields, are fluid state variables. This leads to the closures of the autocorrelation equations and helps to interpret the mechanism of energy cascade as due to the continuous divergence of the contiguous trajectories. Furthermore, novel theoretical issues are here presented among which we can mention the following ones. The bifurcation rate of the velocity gradient, calculated along fluid particles trajectories, is shown to be much larger than the corresponding maximal Lyapunov exponent. On that basis, an interpretation of the energy cascade phenomenon is given and the statistics of finite time Lyapunov exponent of the velocity gradient is shown to be represented by normal distribution functions. Next, the self-similarity produced by the proposed closures is analyzed and a proper bifurcation analysis of the closed von Kármán-Howarth equation is performed. This latter investigates the route from developed turbulence toward the non-chaotic regimes, leading to an estimate of the critical Taylor scale Reynolds number. A proper statistical decomposition based on extended distribution functions and on the Navier-Stokes equations is presented, which leads to the statistics of velocity and temperature difference.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Abd El-Aziz M, S Saleem (2019)

Numerical Simulation of Entropy Generation for Power-Law Liquid Flow over a Permeable Exponential Stretched Surface with Variable Heat Source and Heat Flux.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 21(5): pii:e21050484.

This novel work explored the second law analysis and heat transfer in a magneto non-Newtonian power-law fluid model with the presence of an internal non-uniform heat source/sink. In this investigation, the motion of the studied fluid was induced by an exponentially stretching surface. The rheological behavior of the fluid model, including the shear thinning and shear thickening properties, are also considered as special case studies. The physical problem developed meaningfully with the imposed heat flux and the porosity of the stretched surface. Extensive numerical simulations were carried out for the present boundary layer flow, in order to study the influence of each control parameter on the boundary layer flow and heat transfer characteristics via various tabular and graphical illustrations. By employing the Shooting Runge-Kutta-Fehlberg Method (SRKFM), the resulting nonlinear ordinary differential equations were solved accurately. Based on this numerical procedure, the velocity and temperature fields are displayed graphically. By applying the second law of thermodynamics, and characterizing the entropy generation and Bejan number, the present physical problem was examined and discussed thoroughly in different situations. The attained results showed that the entropy generation can be improved significantly by raising the magnetic field strength and the group parameter. From an energetic point of view, it was found that the Reynolds number boosts the entropy generation of the fluidic medium and reduces the Bejan number. Also, it was observed that an amplification of the power-law index diminished the entropy generation near the stretched surface. As main results, it was proven that the heat transfer rate can be reduced with both the internal heat source intensity and the magnetic field strength.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Hussien AA, Abdullah MZ, Yusop NM, et al (2019)

Heat Transfer and Entropy Generation Abilities of MWCNTs/GNPs Hybrid Nanofluids in Microtubes.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 21(5): pii:e21050480.

Massive improvements in the thermophysical properties of nanofluids over conventional fluids have led to the rapid evolution of using multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) and graphene nanoplatelets (GNPs) in the field of heat transfer. In this study, the heat transfer and entropy generation abilities of MWCNTs/GNPs hybrid nanofluids were explored. Experiments on forced convective flow through a brass microtube with 300 µm inner diameter and 0.27 m in length were performed under uniform heat flux. MWCNTs/GNPs hybrid nanofluids were developed by adding 0.035 wt.% GNPs to MWCNTs water-based nanofluids with mass fractions of 0.075-0.125 wt.%. The range of the Reynolds number in this experiment was maintained at Re = 200-500. Results showed that the conventional approach for predicting the heat transfer coefficient was applicable for microtubes. The heat transfer coefficient increased markedly with the use of MWCNTs and MWCNTs/GNPs nanofluids, with increased pressure dropping by 12.4%. Results further showed a reduction by 37.5% in the total entropy generation rate in microtubes for hybrid nanofluids. Overall, MWCNTs/GNPs hybrid nanofluids can be used as alternative fluids in cooling systems for thermal applications.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Geneste D, Faller H, Nguyen F, et al (2019)

About Universality and Thermodynamics of Turbulence.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 21(3): pii:e21030326.

This paper investigates the universality of the Eulerian velocity structure functions using velocity fields obtained from the stereoscopic particle image velocimetry (SPIV) technique in experiments and direct numerical simulations (DNS) of the Navier-Stokes equations. It shows that the numerical and experimental velocity structure functions up to order 9 follow a log-universality (Castaing et al. Phys. D Nonlinear Phenom. 1993); this leads to a collapse on a universal curve, when units including a logarithmic dependence on the Reynolds number are used. This paper then investigates the meaning and consequences of such log-universality, and shows that it is connected with the properties of a "multifractal free energy", based on an analogy between multifractal and thermodynamics. It shows that in such a framework, the existence of a fluctuating dissipation scale is associated with a phase transition describing the relaminarisation of rough velocity fields with different Hölder exponents. Such a phase transition has been already observed using the Lagrangian velocity structure functions, but was so far believed to be out of reach for the Eulerian data.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Kurnia JC, Lim DC, Chen L, et al (2019)

Entropy Generation and Heat Transfer Performance in Microchannel Cooling.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 21(2): pii:e21020191.

Owing to its relatively high heat transfer performance and simple configurations, liquid cooling remains the preferred choice for electronic cooling and other applications. In this cooling approach, channel design plays an important role in dictating the cooling performance of the heat sink. Most cooling channel studies evaluate the performance in view of the first thermodynamics aspect. This study is conducted to investigate flow behaviour and heat transfer performance of an incompressible fluid in a cooling channel with oblique fins with regards to first law and second law of thermodynamics. The effect of oblique fin angle and inlet Reynolds number are investigated. In addition, the performance of the cooling channels for different heat fluxes is evaluated. The results indicate that the oblique fin channel with 20° angle yields the highest figure of merit, especially at higher Re (250-1000). The entropy generation is found to be lowest for an oblique fin channel with 90° angle, which is about twice than that of a conventional parallel channel. Increasing Re decreases the entropy generation, while increasing heat flux increases the entropy generation.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Ries F, Li Y, Nishad K, et al (2019)

Entropy Generation Analysis and Thermodynamic Optimization of Jet Impingement Cooling Using Large Eddy Simulation.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 21(2): pii:e21020129.

In this work, entropy generation analysis is applied to characterize and optimize a turbulent impinging jet on a heated solid surface. In particular, the influence of plate inclinations and Reynolds numbers on the turbulent heat and fluid flow properties and its impact on the thermodynamic performance of such flow arrangements are numerically investigated. For this purpose, novel model equations are derived in the frame of Large Eddy Simulation (LES) that allows calculation of local entropy generation rates in a post-processing phase including the effect of unresolved subgrid-scale irreversibilities. From this LES-based study, distinctive features of heat and flow dynamics of the impinging fluid are detected and optimal operating designs for jet impingement cooling are identified. It turned out that (1) the location of the stagnation point and that of the maximal Nusselt number differ in the case of plate inclination; (2) predominantly the impinged wall acts as a strong source of irreversibility; and (3) a flow arrangement with a jet impinging normally on the heated surface allows the most efficient use of energy which is associated with lowest exergy lost. Furthermore, it is found that increasing the Reynolds number intensifies the heat transfer and upgrades the second law efficiency of such thermal systems. Thereby, the thermal efficiency enhancement can overwhelm the frictional exergy loss.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Zhu Z, Wang H, Peng D, et al (2019)

Modelling the Hindered Settling Velocity of a Falling Particle in a Particle-Fluid Mixture by the Tsallis Entropy Theory.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 21(1): pii:e21010055.

The settling velocity of a sediment particle is an important parameter needed for modelling the vertical flux in rivers, estuaries, deltas and the marine environment. It has been observed that a particle settles more slowly in the presence of other particles in the fluid than in a clear fluid, and this phenomenon has been termed 'hindered settling'. The Richardson and Zaki equation has been a widely used expression for relating the hindered settling velocity of a particle with that in a clear fluid in terms of a concentration function and the power of the concentration function, and the power index is known as the exponent of reduction of the settling velocity. This study attempts to formulate the model for the exponent of reduction of the settling velocity by using the probability method based on the Tsallis entropy theory. The derived expression is a function of the volumetric concentration of the suspended particle, the relative mass density of the particle and the particle's Reynolds number. This model is tested against experimental data collected from the literature and against five existing deterministic models, and this model shows good agreement with the experimental data and gives better prediction accuracy than the other deterministic models. The derived Tsallis entropy-based model is also compared with the existing Shannon entropy-based model for experimental data, and the Tsallis entropy-based model is comparable to the Shannon entropy-based model for predicting the hindered settling velocity of a falling particle in a particle-fluid mixture. This study shows the potential of using the Tsallis entropy together with the principle of maximum entropy to predict the hindered settling velocity of a falling particle in a particle-fluid mixture.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Wang W, Pan C, J Wang (2018)

Wall-Normal Variation of Spanwise Streak Spacing in Turbulent Boundary Layer With Low-to-Moderate Reynolds Number.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 21(1): pii:e21010024.

Low-speed streaks in wall-bounded turbulence are the dominant structures in the near-wall turbulent self-sustaining cycle. Existing studies have well characterized their spanwise spacing in the buffer layer and below. Recent studies suggested the existence of these small-scale structures in the higher layer where large-scale structures usually receive more attention. The present study is thus devoted to extending the understanding of the streak spacing to the log layer. An analysis is taken on two-dimensional (2D) wall-parallel velocity fields in a smooth-wall turbulent boundary layer with R e τ = 440∼2400, obtained via either 2D Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurement taken here or public Direct Numerical Simulation (DNS). Morphological-based streak identification analysis yields a R e -independent log-normal distribution of the streak spacing till the upper bound of the log layer, based on which an empirical model is proposed to account for its wall-normal growth. The small-scale part of the spanwise spectra of the streamwise fluctuating velocity below y + = 100 is reasonably restored by a synthetic simulation that distributes elementary streak units based on the proposed empirical streak spacing model, which highlights the physical significance of streaks in shaping the small-scale part of the velocity spectra beyond the buffer layer.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Abdollahzadeh Jamalabadi MY (2018)

Optimal Design of Nanoparticle Enhanced Phan-Thien-Tanner Flow of a Viscoelastic Fluid in a Microchannel.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 20(12): pii:e20120895.

The excellent thermal characteristics of nanoparticles have increased their application in the field of heat transfer. In this paper, a thermophysical and geometrical parameter study is performed to minimize the total entropy generation of the viscoelastic flow of nanofluid. Entropy generation with respect to volume fraction (<0.04), the Reynolds number (20,000-100,000), and the diameter of the microchannel (20-20,000 μm) with the circular cross-section under constant flux are calculated. As is shown, most of the entropy generation owes to heat transfer and by increasing the diameter of the channel, the Bejan number increases. The contribution of heat entropy generation in the microchannel is very poor and the major influence of entropy generation is attributable to friction. The maximum quantity of in-channel entropy generation happens in nanofluids with TiO2, CuO, Cu, and Ag nanoparticles, in turn, despite the fact in the microchannel this behavior is inverted, the minimum entropy generation occurs in nanofluids with CuO, Cu, Ag, and TiO2 nanoparticles, in turn. In the channel and microchannel for all nanofluids except water-TiO2, increasing the volume fraction of nanoparticles decreases entropy generation. In the channel and microchannel the total entropy generation increases by augmentation the Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Morimatsu H, T Tsukahara (2020)

Laminar-Turbulent Intermittency in Annular Couette-Poiseuille Flow: Whether a Puff Splits or Not.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 22(12): pii:e22121353.

Direct numerical simulations were carried out with an emphasis on the intermittency and localized turbulence structure occurring within the subcritical transitional regime of a concentric annular Couette-Poiseuille flow. In the annular system, the ratio of the inner to outer cylinder radius is an important geometrical parameter affecting the large-scale nature of the intermittency. We chose a low radius ratio of 0.1 and imposed a constant pressure gradient providing practically zero shear on the inner cylinder such that the base flow was approximated to that of a circular pipe flow. Localized turbulent puffs, that is, axial uni-directional intermittencies similar to those observed in the transitional circular pipe flow, were observed in the annular Couette-Poiseuille flow. Puff splitting events were clearly observed rather far from the global critical Reynolds number, near which given puffs survived without a splitting event throughout the observation period, which was as long as 104 outer time units. The characterization as a directed-percolation universal class was also discussed.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Qiang Y, Wei L, Luo X, et al (2018)

Heat Transfer and Flow Structures of Laminar Confined Slot Impingement Jet with Power-Law Non-Newtonian Fluid.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 20(10): pii:e20100800.

Heat transfer performances and flow structures of laminar impinging slot jets with power-law non-Newtonian fluids and corresponding typical industrial fluids (Carboxyl Methyl Cellulose (CMC) solutions and Xanthangum (XG) solutions) have been studied in this work. Investigations are performed for Reynolds number Re less than 200, power-law index n ranging from 0.5 to 1.5 and consistency index K varying from 0.001 to 0.5 to explore heat transfer and flow structure of shear-thinning fluid and shear-thickening fluid. Results indicate that with the increase of n, K for a given Re, wall Nusselt number increases mainly attributing to the increase of inlet velocity U. For a given inlet velocity, wall Nusselt number decreases with the increase of n and K, which mainly attributes to the increase of apparent viscosity and the reduction of momentum diffusion. For the same Re, U and Pr, wall Nusselt number decreases with the increase of n. Among the study of industrial power-law shear-thinning fluid, CMC solution with 100 ppm shows the best heat transfer performance at a given velocity. Moreover, new correlation of Nusselt number about industrial fluid is proposed. In general, for the heat transfer of laminar confined impinging jet, it is best to use the working fluid with low viscosity.

RevDate: 2020-12-03

Mathur A, Seddighi M, S He (2018)

Transition of Transient Channel Flow with High Reynolds Number Ratios.

Entropy (Basel, Switzerland), 20(5): pii:e20050375.

Large-eddy simulations of turbulent channel flow subjected to a step-like acceleration have been performed to investigate the effect of high Reynolds number ratios on the transient behaviour of turbulence. It is shown that the response of the flow exhibits the same fundamental characteristics described in He & Seddighi (J. Fluid Mech., vol. 715, 2013, pp. 60-102 and vol. 764, 2015, pp. 395-427)-a three-stage response resembling that of the bypass transition of boundary layer flows. The features of transition are seen to become more striking as the Re-ratio increases-the elongated streaks become stronger and longer, and the initial turbulent spot sites at the onset of transition become increasingly sparse. The critical Reynolds number of transition and the transition period Reynolds number for those cases are shown to deviate from the trends of He & Seddighi (2015). The high Re-ratio cases show double peaks in the transient response of streamwise fluctuation profiles shortly after the onset of transition. Conditionally-averaged turbulent statistics based on a λ_2-criterion are used to show that the two peaks in the fluctuation profiles are due to separate contributions of the active and inactive regions of turbulence generation. The peak closer to the wall is attributed to the generation of "new" turbulence in the active region, whereas the peak farther away from the wall is attributed to the elongated streaks in the inactive region. In the low Re-ratio cases, the peaks of these two regions are close to each other during the entire transient, resulting in a single peak in the domain-averaged profile.

RevDate: 2020-11-27

Arumuru V, Pasa J, SS Samantaray (2020)

Experimental visualization of sneezing and efficacy of face masks and shields.

Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994), 32(11):115129.

In the present work, we propose and demonstrate a simple experimental visualization to simulate sneezing by maintaining dynamic similarity to actual sneezing. A pulsed jet with Reynolds number Re = 30 000 is created using compressed air and a solenoid valve. Tracer particles are introduced in the flow to capture the emulated turbulent jet formed due to a sneeze. The visualization is accomplished using a camera and laser illumination. It is observed that a typical sneeze can travel up to 25 ft in ∼22 s in a quiescent environment. This highlights that the present widely accepted safe distance of 6 ft is highly underestimated, especially under the act of a sneeze. Our study demonstrates that a three-layer homemade mask is just adequate to impede the penetration of fine-sized particles, which may cause the spreading of the infectious pathogen responsible for COVID-19. However, a surgical mask cannot block the sneeze, and the sneeze particle can travel up to 2.5 ft. We strongly recommend using at least a three-layer homemade mask with a social distancing of 6 ft to combat the transmission of COVID-19 virus. In offices, we recommend the use of face masks and shields to prevent the spreading of droplets carrying the infectious pathogen. Interestingly, an N-95 mask blocks the sneeze in the forward direction; however, the leakage from the sides and top spreads the sneeze in the backward direction up to 2 ft. We strongly recommend using the elbow or hands to prevent droplet leakage even after wearing a mask during sneezing and coughing.

RevDate: 2020-11-27

Mallik AK, Mukherjee S, MV Panchagnula (2020)

An experimental study of respiratory aerosol transport in phantom lung bronchioles.

Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994), 32(11):111903.

The transport and deposition of micrometer-sized particles in the lung is the primary mechanism for the spread of aerosol borne diseases such as corona virus disease-19 (COVID-19). Considering the current situation, modeling the transport and deposition of drops in human lung bronchioles is of utmost importance to determine their consequences on human health. The current study reports experimental observations on deposition in micro-capillaries, representing distal lung bronchioles, over a wide range of Re that imitates the particle dynamics in the entire lung. The experiment investigated deposition in tubes of diameter ranging from 0.3 mm to 2 mm and over a wide range of Reynolds number (10-2 ⩽ Re ⩽ 103). The range of the tube diameter and Re used in this study is motivated by the dimensions of lung airways and typical breathing flow rates. The aerosol fluid was loaded with boron doped carbon quantum dots as fluorophores. An aerosol plume was generated from this mixture fluid using an ultrasonic nebulizer, producing droplets with 6.5 µm as a mean diameter and over a narrow distribution of sizes. The amount of aerosol deposited on the tube walls was measured using a spectrofluorometer. The experimental results show that dimensionless deposition (δ) varies inversely with the bronchiole aspect ratio (L ¯), with the effect of the Reynolds number (Re) being significant only at low L ¯ . δ also increased with increasing dimensionless bronchiole diameter (D ¯), but it is invariant with the particle size based Reynolds number. We show that δ L ¯ ∼ R e - 2 for 10-2 ⩽ Re ⩽ 1, which is typical of a diffusion dominated regime. For Re ⩾ 1, in the impaction dominated regime, δ L ¯ is shown to be independent of Re. We also show a crossover regime where sedimentation becomes important. The experimental results conclude that lower breathing frequency and higher breath hold time could significantly increase the chances of getting infected with COVID-19 in crowded places.

RevDate: 2020-11-21

Battista NA (2020)

Diving into a Simple Anguilliform Swimmer's Sensitivity.

Integrative and comparative biology, 60(5):1236-1250.

Computational models of aquatic locomotion range from modest individual simple swimmers in 2D to sophisticated 3D multi-swimmer models that attempt to parse collective behavioral dynamics. Each of these models contain a multitude of model input parameters to which its outputs are inherently dependent, that is, various performance metrics. In this work, the swimming performance's sensitivity to parameters is investigated for an idealized, simple anguilliform swimming model in 2D. The swimmer considered here propagates forward by dynamically varying its body curvature, similar to motion of a Caenorhabditis elegans. The parameter sensitivities were explored with respect to the fluid scale (Reynolds number), stroke (undulation) frequency, as well as a kinematic parameter controlling the velocity and acceleration of each upstroke and downstroke. The input Reynolds number and stroke frequencies sampled were from [450, 2200] and [1, 3] Hz, respectively. In total, 5000 fluid-structure interaction simulations were performed, each with a unique parameter combination selected via a Sobol sequence, in order to conduct global sensitivity analysis. Results indicate that the swimmer's performance is most sensitive to variations in its stroke frequency. Trends in swimming performance were discovered by projecting the performance data onto particular 2D subspaces. Pareto-like optimal fronts were identified. This work is a natural extension of the parameter explorations of the same model from Battista in 2020.

RevDate: 2020-11-20

Gungor A, A Hemmati (2020)

Wake symmetry impacts the performance of tandem hydrofoils during in-phase and out-of-phase oscillations differently.

Physical review. E, 102(4-1):043104.

The hydrodynamics of two oscillating foils in side-by-side configuration is numerically investigated for in-phase and out-of-phase pitching at Reynolds number of 4000 and Strouhal numbers of St=0.25-0.5. The effects of phase difference (in-phase and out-of-phase) and Strouhal number on symmetric attributes of the wake and unsteady propulsive performance of the foils are studied in detail. At lower Strouhal numbers, there is a quasisteady performance in both thrust generation and power consumption, which coincides with persistence of the wake symmetry. As Strouhal number increases, however, in-phase and out-of-phase pitching display unsteady cycle-averaged behavior with very different wake characteristics. The asymmetric wake of in-phase pitching foils at high Strouhal numbers transitions to a quasisymmetric wake, when an extensive interaction between the two vortex streets is observed in the wake. This coincides with an improvement on the propulsive performance of the foils. In contrast, the symmetric wake of the out-of-phase pitching foils at a high Strouhal number transitions to an asymmetric wake. The adverse effect of this transition is only observed on the propulsive performance of one foil while the other exploits the wake towards a better performance. The collective performance of the the out-of-phase pitching system, however, remains unchanged. There is also a strong correlation between the wake symmetric characteristics and total nonzero side-force production.

RevDate: 2020-11-20

Inubushi M, S Goto (2020)

Transfer learning for nonlinear dynamics and its application to fluid turbulence.

Physical review. E, 102(4-1):043301.

We introduce transfer learning for nonlinear dynamics, which enables efficient predictions of chaotic dynamics by utilizing a small amount of data. For the Lorenz chaos, by optimizing the transfer rate, we accomplish more accurate inference than the conventional method by an order of magnitude. Moreover, a surprisingly small amount of learning is enough to infer the energy dissipation rate of the Navier-Stokes turbulence because we can, thanks to the small-scale universality of turbulence, transfer a large amount of the knowledge learned from turbulence data at lower Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2020-11-19

Ikoma T, Suwa K, Sano M, et al (2020)

Early changes of pulmonary arterial hemodynamics in patients with systemic sclerosis: flow pattern, WSS, and OSI analysis with 4D flow MRI.

European radiology pii:10.1007/s00330-020-07301-x [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To study the pulmonary artery (PA) hemodynamics in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc) using 4D flow MRI (4D-flow).

METHODS: Twenty-three patients with SSc (M/F: 2/21, 57 ± 15 years, 3 manifest PA hypertension (PAH) by right heart catheterization) and 10 control subjects (M/F: 1/9, 55 ± 17 years) underwent 4D-flow for the in vivo measurement of 3D blood flow velocities in the PA. Data analysis included area-averaged flow quantification at the main PA, 3D wall shear stress (WSS), oscillatory shear index (OSI) calculation along the PA surface, and Reynolds number. The composite outcome of all-cause death and major adverse cardiac events was also investigated.

RESULTS: The maximum PA flow at the systole did not differ, but the minimum flow at the diastole was significantly greater in patients with SSc compared with that in control subjects (7.7 ± 16.0 ml/s vs. ‑ 13.0 ± 17.3 ml/s, p < 0.01). The maximum WSS at the peak systole was significantly lower and OSI was significantly greater in patients with SSc compared with those in control subjects (maximum WSS: 1.04 ± 0.20 Pa vs. 1.33 ± 0.34 Pa, p < 0.01, OSI: 0.139 ± 0.031 vs. 0.101 ± 0.037, p < 0.01). The cumulative event-free rate for the composite event was significantly lower in patients with minimum flow in main PA ≤ 9.22 ml/s (p = 0.012) and in patients with Reynolds number ≤ 2560 (p < 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: 4D-flow has the potential to detect changes of PA hemodynamics noninvasively and predict the outcome in patients with SSc at the stage before manifest PAH.

KEY POINTS: • The WSS at the peak systolic phase was significantly lower (p < 0.05), whereas OSI was greater (p < 0.01) in patients with SSc without manifest PAH than in controls. • The hemodynamic change detected by 4D-flow may help patient management even at the stage before manifest PAH in SSc. • The minimum PA flow and Reynolds number by 4D-flow will serve as a predictive marker for SSc.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Lochab V, S Prakash (2020)

Combined electrokinetic and shear flows control colloidal particle distribution across microchannel cross-sections.

Soft matter [Epub ahead of print].

Recent experimental observations on combined electrokinetic and shear flows of colloidal suspensions in rectangular cross-section microfluidic channels have shown unusual cross-stream colloidal particle migration and dynamic assembly. Although a new electrophoresis-induced lift force has been postulated to cause the lateral migration of colloidal particles, little is known about how fluid properties and flow conditions impact this force and therefore subsequent colloidal particle migration. Furthermore, no experimental quantification of this electrophoresis-induced lift force is available. We report several key advances by demonstrating that the kinematic viscosity of the fluid can be used to modulate the spatial distribution of particles over the entire microchannel cross-section, with suppression of the colloidal particle migration observed with increase in fluid kinematic viscosity. Colloidal particle migration of ∼10 μm from not only the top and bottom microchannel walls but also from the side walls is shown with the corresponding electrophoresis-induced lift force of up to ∼30 fN. The breadth of flow conditions tested capture the channel Reynolds number in the 0.1-1.1 range, with inertial migration of colloidal particles shown in flow regimes where the migration was previously thought to be ineffective, if not for the electrophoresis-induced lift force. The ability of the electrophoresis-induced lift force to migrate colloidal particles across the entire microchannel cross-section establishes a new paradigm for three-dimensional control of colloidal particles within confined microchannels.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Omori T, Ito H, T Ishikawa (2020)

Swimming microorganisms acquire optimal efficiency with multiple cilia.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:2011146117 [Epub ahead of print].

Planktonic microorganisms are ubiquitous in water, and their population dynamics are essential for forecasting the behavior of global aquatic ecosystems. Their population dynamics are strongly affected by these organisms' motility, which is generated by their hair-like organelles, called cilia or flagella. However, because of the complexity of ciliary dynamics, the precise role of ciliary flow in microbial life remains unclear. Here, we have used ciliary hydrodynamics to show that ciliates acquire the optimal propulsion efficiency. We found that ciliary flow highly resists an organism's propulsion and that the swimming velocity rapidly decreases with body size, proportional to the power of minus two. Accordingly, the propulsion efficiency decreases as the cube of body length. By increasing the number of cilia, however, efficiency can be significantly improved, up to 100-fold. We found that there exists an optimal number density of cilia, which provides the maximum propulsion efficiency for all ciliates. The propulsion efficiency in this case decreases inversely proportionally to body length. Our estimated optimal density of cilia corresponds to those of actual microorganisms, including species of ciliates and microalgae, which suggests that now-existing motile ciliates and microalgae have survived by acquiring the optimal propulsion efficiency. These conclusions are helpful for better understanding the ecology of microorganisms, such as the energetic costs and benefits of multicellularity in Volvocaceae, as well as for the optimal design of artificial microswimmers.

RevDate: 2020-11-17

Andersen A, T Kiørboe (2020)

The effect of tethering on the clearance rate of suspension-feeding plankton.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America pii:2017441117 [Epub ahead of print].

Many planktonic suspension feeders are attached to particles or tethered by gravity when feeding. It is commonly accepted that the feeding flows of tethered suspension feeders are stronger than those of their freely swimming counterparts. However, recent flow simulations indicate the opposite, and the cause of the opposing conclusions is not clear. To explore the effect of tethering on suspension feeding, we use a low-Reynolds-number flow model. We find that it is favorable to be freely swimming instead of tethered since the resulting feeding flow past the cell body is stronger, leading to a higher clearance rate. Our result underscores the significance of the near-field flow in shaping planktonic feeding modes, and it suggests that organisms tether for reasons that are not directly fluid dynamical (e.g., to stay near surfaces where the concentration of bacterial prey is high).

RevDate: 2020-11-16

Hatte S, R Pitchumani (2020)

Fractal Model for Drag Reduction on Multiscale Nonwetting Rough Surfaces.

Langmuir : the ACS journal of surfaces and colloids [Epub ahead of print].

Rough surfaces in contact with a flow of fluid exhibit alternating no-slip and free shear boundary conditions at the solid-liquid and air-liquid interfaces, respectively, thereby potentially offering drag reduction benefits. The balance between the dynamic pressure in the flow and the restoring capillary pressure in the interasperity spaces determines the stability of the Cassie state of wettability and is a function of the relative extent of no-slip and free shear regions per unit surface area. In the present study, using a fractal representation of rough surface topography, an analytical model is developed to quantify the stability of the Cassie state of wettability as well as drag reduction and the friction factor for laminar flow in a rectangular channel between nonwetting multiscale rough surfaces. A systematic study is conducted to quantify the effects of fractal parameters of the surfaces and the flow Reynolds number on drag reduction and the friction factor. The studies are used to develop friction factor curves extending the classical Moody diagram to hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces. On the basis of the studies, regime maps are derived for estimating the extent of drag reduction offered by hydrophobic and superhydrophobic surfaces, revealing that superhydrophobic surfaces do not always offer the best drag reduction performance. The application of the fractal model to practical topographies of nonwetting surfaces of copper, aluminum, and zinc oxide fabricated via electrodeposition and etching is also discussed.

RevDate: 2020-11-13

Rader JA, Hedrick TL, He Y, et al (2020)

Functional Morphology of Gliding Flight II. Morphology Follows Predictions of Gliding Performance.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:5903741 [Epub ahead of print].

The evolution of wing morphology among birds, and its functional consequences, remains an open question, despite much attention. This is in part because the connection between form and function is difficult to test directly. To address this deficit, in prior work, we used computational modeling and sensitivity analysis to interrogate the impact of altering wing aspect ratio (AR), camber, and Reynolds number on aerodynamic performance, revealing the performance landscapes that avian evolution has explored. In the present work, we used a dataset of three-dimensionally scanned bird wings coupled with the performance landscapes to test two hypotheses regarding the evolutionary diversification of wing morphology associated with gliding flight behavior: (1) gliding birds would exhibit higher wing AR and greater chordwise camber than their non-gliding counterparts; and (2) that two strategies for gliding flight exist, with divergent morphological conformations. In support of our first hypothesis, we found evidence of morphological divergence in both wing AR and camber between gliders and non-gliders, suggesting that wing morphology of birds that utilize gliding flight is under different selective pressures than the wings of non-gliding taxa. Furthermore, we found that these morphological differences also yielded differences in coefficient of lift measured both at the maximum lift to drag ratio and at minimum sinking speed, with gliding taxa exhibiting higher coefficient of lift in both cases. Minimum sinking speed was also lower in gliders than non-gliders. However, contrary to our hypothesis, we found that the maximum ratio of the coefficient of lift to the coefficient of drag differed between gliders and non-gliders. This may point to the need for gliders to maintain high lift capability for takeoff and landing independent of gliding performance or could be due to the divergence in flight styles among gliders, as not all gliders are predicted to optimize either quantity. However, direct evidence for the existence of two morphologically defined gliding flight strategies was equivocal, with only slightly stronger support for an evolutionary model positing separate morphological optima for these strategies than an alternative model positing a single peak. The absence of a clear result may be an artifact of low statistical power owing to a relatively small sample size of gliding flyers expected to follow the "aerial search" strategy.

RevDate: 2020-11-15

Lee JY, Kottke PA, AG Fedorov (2020)

Hydrodynamics of Vortical Gas Jets Coupled to Point-Like Suction.

Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994), 32(10):.

Vortical jet flows in the Reynolds number (Re) range from 1000 to 3425 and swirl number (S) below 0.5, alone and in combination with suction through a small aperture, are experimentally investigated using optical visualization. Schlieren photography is employed to assess the vortical flow structure and establish the fundamental understanding of the source-to-sink gas-dynamic coupling, including the role played by flow rate, jet diameter, and the separation distance between the gas jet source and the suction sink. Compared to vortex-free jets, vortical jets for Re>2700 with swirl number S>0.27 experience earlier laminar-to-turbulent transition, with resulting rapid growth of the jet boundary. The ability to control growth of the jet expansion and mass and momentum dissipation into the surrounding is demonstrated via use of a coaxially aligned flow suction placed in the path of a jet. When a swirling jet is completely coupled with a flow suction, jet expansion is significantly suppressed. The suction/sink flow rate imposes a limit on the maximum input/source flow rate of gas jet to achieve complete coupling. Furthermore, there is a maximum distance over which effective coupling can occur, and for all Reynolds numbers considered this distance is shorter than the distance at which the jet structure breaks up into turbulent eddies in the absence of a sink.

RevDate: 2020-11-11

Astudillo-Castro C, Cordova A, Oyanedel-Craver V, et al (2020)

Prediction of the Limiting Flux and Its Correlation with the Reynolds Number during the Microfiltration of Skim Milk Using an Improved Model.

Foods (Basel, Switzerland), 9(11): pii:foods9111621.

Limiting flux (JL) determination is a critical issue for membrane processing. This work presents a modified exponential model for JL calculation, based on a previously published version. Our research focused on skim milk microfiltrations. The processing variables studied were the crossflow velocity (CFV), membrane hydraulic diameter (dh), temperature, and concentration factor, totaling 62 experimental runs. Results showed that, by adding a new parameter called minimum transmembrane pressure, the modified model not only improved the fit of the experimental data compared to the former version (R2 > 97.00%), but also revealed the existence of a minimum transmembrane pressure required to obtain flux (J). This result is observed as a small shift to the right on J versus transmembrane pressure curves, and this shift increases with the flow velocity. This fact was reported in other investigations, but so far has gone uninvestigated. The JL predicted values were correlated with the Reynolds number (Re) for each dh tested. Results showed that for a same Re; JL increased as dh decreased; in a wide range of Re within the turbulent regime. Finally, from dimensionless correlations; a unique expression JL = f (Re, dh) was obtained; predicting satisfactorily JL (R2 = 84.11%) for the whole set of experiments.

RevDate: 2020-11-10

Ford M, A Santhanakrishnan (2020)

On the role of phase lag in multi-appendage metachronal swimming of euphausiids.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Metachronal paddling is a common method of drag-based aquatic propulsion, in which a series of swimming appendages are oscillated, with the motion of each appendage phase-shifted relative to the neighboring appendages. Ecologically and economically important Euphausiid species such as Antarctic krill (E. superba) swim constantly in the pelagic zone by stroking their paddling appendages (pleopods), with locomotion accounting for the bulk of their metabolic expenditure. They tailor their metachronal swimming gaits for behavioral and energetic needs by changing pleopod kinematics. The functional importance of inter-pleopod phase lag (ϕ) to metachronal swimming performance and wake structure is unknown. To examine this relation, we developed a geometrically and dynamically scaled robot ('krillbot') capable of self-propulsion. Krillbot pleopods were prescribed to mimic published kinematics of fast-forward swimming (FFW) and hovering (HOV) gaits of E. superba, and the Reynolds number and Strouhal number of the krillbot matched well with those calculated for freely-swimming E. superba. In addition to examining published kinematics with uneven ϕ between pleopod pairs, we modified E. superba kinematics to uniformly vary ϕ from 0% to 50% of the cycle. Swimming speed and thrust were largest for FFW with ϕ between 15%-25%, coincident with ϕ range observed in FFW gait of E. superba. In contrast to synchronous rowing (ϕ=0%) where distances between hinged joints of adjacent pleopods were nearly constant throughout the cycle, metachronal rowing (ϕ>0%) brought adjacent pleopods closer together and moved them farther apart. This factor minimized body position fluctuation and augmented metachronal swimming speed. Though swimming speed was lowest for HOV, a ventrally angled downward jet was generated that can assist with weight support during feeding. In summary, our findings show that inter-appendage phase lag can drastically alter both metachronal swimming speed and the large-scale wake structure.

RevDate: 2020-11-07

Ichikawa C, Ishikawa D, Yang JM, et al (2020)

Phenomenological analysis on whipping behavior of rice flour batter.

Journal of food science [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, the bubbles in rice flour batter were investigated under a constant temperature, because the bubble size distribution is important for the control of food texture. We obtained experimental data using a hand mixer and compared the properties of doughs prepared using six rice flours; each flour was prepared through a different milling process. We also added the size effect of the rice flour particles as the Bond number. Furthermore, we performed a dynamic wettability test to estimate the wettability of the rice flour surface. The results of this test were described well by the Washburn equation, and dc cosθ/dp was calculated as a wettability parameter (where, dc = effective diameter of a capillary in a powder bed, cosθ = the contact angle, dp = mean particle diameter of rice flour). If bubble sizes depend mainly on the inertial force, viscous force, surface tension, and gravity, then the normalized mean bubble diameter should be a function of the Reynolds number, Weber number, and Froude number. The mean bubble diameter (dbm) generated by whipping was expected to be affected by the thickness (d) of the rod of the mixer, its movement speed, and physical properties of the material. Therefore, dimensionless mean diameter (dbm /d) was expressed based on a dimensionless equation. In the three-phase dispersion, different empirical equations were obtained depending on the amount of rice flour added, and the bubble diameter could be predicted using dimensionless parameters. In addition, the equations were generally applicable to the various materials selected for this study. PRACTICAL APPLICATION: The powder properties of rice flour were investigated, and dimensionless parameters were analyzed to construct an appropriate process control system for rice flour-based food products. Although the process method optimized for flour products is also used for rice flour products in practical situations, the comprehensive evaluation based on dimensionless parameters leads to optimization of the process for rice-flour based products. Moreover, this optimization might strongly support the creation of a new texture, and thus, the potential for market expansion of rice-flour based products is considerable.

RevDate: 2020-11-10

Sana S, Zivkovic V, K Boodhoo (2020)

Empirical Modelling of Hydrodynamic Effects on Starch Nanoparticles Precipitation in a Spinning Disc Reactor.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:nano10112202.

Empirical correlations have been developed to relate experimentally determined starch nanoparticle size obtained in a solvent-antisolvent precipitation process with key hydrodynamic parameters of a spinning disc reactor (SDR). Three different combinations of dimensionless groups including a conventional Reynolds number (Re), rotational Reynolds number (Reω) and Rossby number (Ro) have been applied in individual models for two disc surfaces (smooth and grooved) to represent operating variables affecting film flow such as liquid flowrate and disc rotational speed, whilst initial supersaturation (S) has been included to represent varying antisolvent concentrations. Model 1 featuring a combination of Re, Reω and S shows good agreement with the experimental data for both the grooved and smooth discs. For the grooved disc, Re has a greater impact on particle size, whereas Reω is more influential on the smooth disc surface, the difference likely being due to the passive mixing induced by the grooves irrespective of the magnitude of the disc speed. Supersaturation has little impact on particle size within the limited initial supersaturation range studied. Model 2 which characterises both flow rate and disc rotational speed through Ro alone and combined with Re was less accurate in predicting particle size due to several inherent limitations.

RevDate: 2020-11-06

Harvey C, DJ Inman (2020)

Aerodynamic efficiency of gliding birds vs. comparable UAVs: a review.

Bioinspiration & biomimetics [Epub ahead of print].

Here, we reviewed published aerodynamic efficiencies of gliding birds and similar sized unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) motivated by a fundamental question: are gliding birds more efficient than comparable UAVs? Despite a multitude of studies that have quantified the aerodynamic efficiency of gliding birds, there is no comprehensive summary of these results. This lack of consolidated information inhibits a true comparison between birds and UAVs. Such a comparison is complicated by variable uncertainty levels between the different techniques used to predict avian efficiency. To support our comparative approach, we began by surveying theoretical and experimental estimates of avian aerodynamic efficiency and investigating the uncertainty associated with each estimation method. We found that the methodology used by a study affects the estimated efficiency and can lead to incongruent conclusions on gliding bird aerodynamic efficiency. Our survey showed that studies on live birds gliding in wind tunnels provide a reliable minimum estimate of a birds' aerodynamic efficiency while simultaneously quantifying the wing configurations used in flight. Next, we surveyed the aeronautical literature to collect the published aerodynamic efficiencies of similar-sized, non-copter UAVs. The compiled information allowed a direct comparison of UAVs and gliding birds. Contrary to our expectation, we found that there is no definitive evidence that any gliding bird species is either more or less efficient than a comparable UAV. This non-result highlights a critical need for new technology and analytical advances that can reduce the uncertainty associated with estimating a gliding bird's aerodynamic efficiency. Nevertheless, our survey indicated that species flying within subcritical Reynolds number regimes may inspire UAV designs that can extend their operational range to efficiently operate in subcritical regimes. The survey results provided here point the way forward for research into avian gliding flight and enable informed UAV designs.

RevDate: 2020-11-10

Friedrich J, Gallon S, Pumir A, et al (2020)

Stochastic Interpolation of Sparsely Sampled Time Series via Multipoint Fractional Brownian Bridges.

Physical review letters, 125(17):170602.

We propose and test a method to interpolate sparsely sampled signals by a stochastic process with a broad range of spatial and/or temporal scales. To this end, we extend the notion of a fractional Brownian bridge, defined as fractional Brownian motion with a given scaling (Hurst) exponent H and with prescribed start and end points, to a bridge process with an arbitrary number of intermediate and nonequidistant points. Determining the optimal value of the Hurst exponent H_{opt}, appropriate to interpolate the sparse signal, is a very important step of our method. We demonstrate the validity of our method on a signal from fluid turbulence in a high Reynolds number flow and discuss the implications of the non-self-similar character of the signal. The method introduced here could be instrumental in several physical problems, including astrophysics, particle tracking, and specific tailoring of surrogate data, as well as in domains of natural and social sciences.

RevDate: 2020-11-06

Coclite A, Coclite GM, D De Tommasi (2020)

Capsules Rheology in Carreau-Yasuda Fluids.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 10(11): pii:nano10112190.

In this paper, a Multi Relaxation Time Lattice Boltzmann scheme is used to describe the evolution of a non-Newtonian fluid. Such method is coupled with an Immersed-Boundary technique for the transport of arbitrarily shaped objects navigating the flow. The no-slip boundary conditions on immersed bodies are imposed through a convenient forcing term accounting for the hydrodynamic force generated by the presence of immersed geometries added to momentum equation. Moreover, such forcing term accounts also for the force induced by the shear-dependent viscosity model characterizing the non-Newtonian behavior of the considered fluid. Firstly, the present model is validated against well-known benchmarks, namely the parabolic velocity profile obtained for the flow within two infinite laminae for five values of the viscosity model exponent, n = 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0, and 1.5. Then, the flow within a squared lid-driven cavity for Re = 1000 and 5000 (being Re the Reynolds number) is computed as a function of n for a shear-thinning (n < 1) fluid. Indeed, the local decrements in the viscosity field achieved in high-shear zones implies the increment in the local Reynolds number, thus moving the position of near-walls minima towards lateral walls. Moreover, the revolution under shear of neutrally buoyant plain elliptical capsules with different Aspect Ratio (AR = 2 and 3) is analyzed for shear-thinning (n < 1), Newtonian (n = 1), and shear-thickening (n > 1) surrounding fluids. Interestingly, the power law by Huang et al. describing the revolution period of such capsules as a function of the Reynolds number and the existence of a critical value, Rec, after which the tumbling is inhibited in confirmed also for non-Newtonian fluids. Analogously, the equilibrium lateral position yeq of such neutrally buoyant capsules when transported in a plane-Couette flow is studied detailing the variation of yeq as a function of the Reynolds number as well as of the exponent n.

RevDate: 2020-11-11

Kim J, Jin D, Choi H, et al (2020)

A zero-dimensional predictive model for the pressure drop in the stenotic coronary artery based on its geometric characteristics.

Journal of biomechanics, 113:110076 pii:S0021-9290(20)30500-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The diameter- or area-reduction ratio measured from coronary angiography, commonly used in clinical practice, is not accurate enough to represent the functional significance of the stenosis, i.e., the pressure drop across the stenosis. We propose a new zero-dimensional model for the pressure drop across the stenosis considering its geometric characteristics and flow rate. To identify the geometric parameters affecting the pressure drop, we perform three-dimensional numerical simulations for thirty-three patient-specific coronary stenoses. From these numerical simulations, we show that the pressure drop is mostly determined by the curvature as well as the area-reduction ratio of the stenosis before the minimal luminal area (MLA), but heavily depends on the area-expansion ratio after the MLA due to flow separation. Based on this result, we divide the stenosis into the converging and diverging parts in the present zero-dimensional model. The converging part is segmented into a series of straight and curved pipes with curvatures, and the loss of each pipe is estimated by an empirical relation between the total pressure drop, flow rate, and pipe geometric parameters (length, diameter, and curvature). The loss in the diverging part is predicted by a relation among the total pressure drop, Reynolds number, and area expansion ratio with the coefficients determined by a machine learning method. The pressure drops across the stenoses predicted by the present zero-dimensional model agree very well with those obtained from three-dimensional numerical simulations.

RevDate: 2020-11-05

Wang Y, Zhou G, Yan Y, et al (2020)

Construction of Natural Loofah/Poly(vinylidene fluoride) Core-Shell Electrospun Nanofibers via a Controllable Janus Nozzle for Switchable Oil-Water Separation.

ACS applied materials & interfaces [Epub ahead of print].

Developing microstructure and multifunctional membranes toward switchable oil-water separation has been highly desired in oily wastewater treatment. Herein, a controllable Janus nozzle was employed to innovatively electrospin natural loofah/poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) nanofibers with a core-shell structure for gravity-driven water purification. By adjusting flow rates of the PVDF component, a core-shell structure of the composite fibers was obtained caused by the lower viscosity and surface tension of PVDF. In addition, a steady laminar motion of fluids was constructed based on the Reynolds number of flow fields being less than 2300. In order to investigate the formation mechanism of the microstructure, a series of Janus nozzles with different lengths were controlled to study the blending of the two immiscible components. The gravity difference between the two components might cause disturbance of the jet motion, and the PVDF component unidirectionally encapsulated the loofah to form the shell layer. Most importantly, the dry loofah/PVDF membranes could separate oil from an oil-water mixture, while the water-wetted membrane exhibited switchable separation that could separate water from the mixtures because of the hydroxyl groups of the hydrophilic loofah hydrogen-bonding with water molecules and forming a hydration layer. The composite fibers can be applied in water remediation in practice, and the method to produce core-shell structures seems attractive for technological applications involving macroscopic core-shell nano- or microfibers.

RevDate: 2020-11-11

Jeon W, Ahn J, Kim T, et al (2020)

Intertube Aggregation-Dependent Convective Heat Transfer in Vertically Aligned Carbon Nanotube Channels.

ACS applied materials & interfaces, 12(45):50355-50364.

The heat transfer of carbon nanotube fin geometry has received considerable attention. However, the flow typically occurred over or around the pillars of nanotubes due to the greater flow resistance between the tubes. Here, we investigated the forced convective heat transfer of water through the interstitial space of vertically aligned multiwalled carbon nanotubes (VAMWNTs, intertube distance = 69 nm). The water flow provided significantly a greater Reynolds number (Re) and Nusselt number (Nu) than air flow due to the greater density, heat capacity, and thermal conductivity. However, it resulted in surface tension-induced nanotube aggregation after the flow and drying process, generating random voids in the nanotube channel. This increased permeability (1.27 × 10-11 m2) and Re (2.83 × 10-1) but decreased the heat transfer coefficient (h, 9900 W m-2 K-1) and Nu (53.77), demonstrating a trade-off relationship. The h (25,927 W m-2 K-1) and Nu (153.49) could be further increased, at an equivalent permeability or Re, by increasing nanotube areal density from 2.08 × 1010 to 1.04 × 1011 cm-2. The area-normalized thermal resistance of the densified and aggregated VAMWNTs was smaller than those of the Ni foam, Si microchannel, and carbon nanotube fin array, demonstrating excellent heat transfer characteristics.

RevDate: 2020-11-03

Lyons K, Murphy CT, JA Franck (2020)

Flow over seal whiskers: Importance of geometric features for force and frequency response.

PloS one, 15(10):e0241142.

The complex undulated geometry of seal whiskers has been shown to substantially modify the turbulent structures directly downstream, resulting in a reduction of hydrodynamic forces as well as modified vortex-induced-vibration response when compared with smooth whiskers. Although the unique hydrodynamic response has been well documented, an understanding of the fluid flow effects from each geometric feature remains incomplete. In this computational investigation, nondimensional geometric parameters of the seal whisker morphology are defined in terms of their hydrodynamic relevance, such that wavelength, aspect ratio, undulation amplitudes, symmetry and undulation off-set can be varied independently of one another. A two-factor fractional factorial design of experiments procedure is used to create 16 unique geometries, each of which dramatically amplifies or attenuates the geometric parameters compared with the baseline model. The flow over each unique topography is computed with a large-eddy simulation at a Reynolds number of 500 with respect to the mean whisker thickness and the effects on force and frequency are recorded. The results determine the specific fluid flow impact of each geometric feature which will inform both biologists and engineers who seek to understand the impact of whisker morphology or lay out a framework for biomimetic design of undulated structures.

RevDate: 2020-10-26

Neuhaus L, Hölling M, Bos WJT, et al (2020)

Generation of Atmospheric Turbulence with Unprecedentedly Large Reynolds Number in a Wind Tunnel.

Physical review letters, 125(15):154503.

Generating laboratory flows resembling atmospheric turbulence is of prime importance to study the effect of wind fluctuations on objects such as buildings, vehicles, or wind turbines. A novel driving of an active grid following a stochastic process is used to generate velocity fluctuations with correlation lengths, and, thus, integral scales, much larger than the transverse dimension of the wind tunnel. The combined action of the active grid and a modulation of the fan speed allows one to generate a flow characterized by a four-decade inertial range and an integral scale Reynolds number of 2×10^{7}.

RevDate: 2020-10-30

Domínguez-Pumar M, Kowalski L, Jiménez V, et al (2020)

Analyzing the Performance of a Miniature 3D Wind Sensor for Mars.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 20(20):.

This paper analyzes the behavior of a miniature 3D wind sensor designed for Mars atmosphere. The sensor is a spherical structure of 10 mm diameter divided in four sectors. By setting all the sectors to constant temperature, above that of the air, the 3D wind velocity vector can be measured. Two sets of experiments have been performed. First, an experimental campaign made under typical Mars conditions at the Aarhus Wind Tunnel Simulator is presented. The results demonstrate that both wind speed and angle can be efficiently measured, using a simple inverse algorithm. The effect of sudden wind changes is also analyzed and fast response times in the range of 0.7 s are obtained. The second set of experiments is focused on analyzing the performance of the sensor under extreme Martian wind conditions, reaching and going beyond the Dust Devil scale. To this purpose, both high-fidelity numerical simulations of fluid dynamics and heat transfer and experiments with the sensor have been performed. The results of the experiments, made for winds in the Reynolds number 1000-2000 range, which represent 65-130 m/s of wind speed under typical Mars conditions, further confirm the simulation predictions and show that it will be possible to successfully measure wind speed and direction even under these extreme regimes.

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Czelusniak LE, Mapelli VP, Guzella MS, et al (2020)

Force approach for the pseudopotential lattice Boltzmann method.

Physical review. E, 102(3-1):033307.

One attractive feature of the original pseudopotential method consists on its simplicity of adding a force dependent on a nearest-neighbor potential function. In order to improve the method, regarding thermodynamic consistency and control of surface tension, different approaches were developed in the literature, such as multirange interactions potential and modified forcing schemes. In this work, a strategy to combine these enhancements with an appropriate interaction force field using only nearest-neighbor interactions is devised, starting from the desired pressure tensor. The final step of our procedure is implementing this external force by using the classical Guo forcing scheme. Numerical tests regarding static and dynamic flow conditions were performed. Static tests showed that current procedure is suitable to control the surface tension and phase densities. Based on thermodynamic principles, it is devised a solution for phase densities in a droplet, which states explicitly dependence on the surface tension and interface curvature. A comparison with numerical results suggest a physical inconsistency in the pseudopotential method. This fact is not commonly discussed in the literature, since most of studies are limited to the Maxwell equal area rule. However, this inconsistency is shown to be dependent on the equation of state (EOS), and its effects can be mitigated by an appropriate choice of Carnahan-Starling EOS parameters. Also, a droplet oscillation test was performed, and the most divergent solution under certain flow conditions deviated 7.5% from the expected analytical result. At the end, a droplet impact test against a solid wall was performed to verify the method stability, and it was possible to reach stable simulation results with density ratio of almost 2400 and Reynolds number of Re=373. The observed results corroborate that the proposed method is able to replicate the desired macroscopic multiphase behavior.

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Rana N, P Perlekar (2020)

Coarsening in the two-dimensional incompressible Toner-Tu equation: Signatures of turbulence.

Physical review. E, 102(3-1):032617.

We investigate coarsening dynamics in the two-dimensional, incompressible Toner-Tu equation. We show that coarsening proceeds via vortex merger events, and the dynamics crucially depend on the Reynolds number Re. For low Re, the coarsening process has similarities to Ginzburg-Landau dynamics. On the other hand, for high Re, coarsening shows signatures of turbulence. In particular, we show the presence of an enstrophy cascade from the intervortex separation scale to the dissipation scale.

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Bos WJT, Laadhari F, W Agoua (2020)

Linearly forced isotropic turbulence at low Reynolds numbers.

Physical review. E, 102(3-1):033105.

We investigate the forcing strength needed to sustain a flow using linear forcing. A critical Reynolds number R_{c} is determined, based on the longest wavelength allowed by the system, the forcing strength and the viscosity. A simple model is proposed for the dissipation rate, leading to a closed expression for the kinetic energy of the flow as a function of the Reynolds number. The dissipation model and the prediction for the kinetic energy are assessed using direct numerical simulations and two-point closure integrations. An analysis of the dissipation-rate equation and the triadic structure of the nonlinear transfer allows to refine the model in order to reproduce the low-Reynolds-number asymptotic behavior, where the kinetic energy is proportional to R-R_{c}.

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Rinoshika H, Rinoshika A, JJ Wang (2020)

Three-dimensional multiscale flow structures behind a wall-mounted short cylinder based on tomographic particle image velocimetry and three-dimensional orthogonal wavelet transform.

Physical review. E, 102(3-1):033101.

Three-dimensional (3D) flow structures around a wall-mounted short cylinder of height-to-diameter ratio 1 were instantaneously measured by a high-resolution tomographic particle image velocimetry (Tomo-PIV) at Reynolds number of 10 720 in a water tunnel. 3D velocity fields, 3D vorticity, the Q criterion, the rear separation region, and the characteristic of arch type vortex and tip vortices were first discussed. We found a strong 3D W-type arch vortex behind the short cylinder, which was originated by the interaction between upwash and downwash flows. This W-type arch vortex was reshaped to the M-shaped arch vortex downstream. It indicated that the head shape of the arch vortex structure depended on the aspect ratio of the cylinder. The large-scale streamwise vortices were originated by the downwash and upwash flows near the center location of W-type arch vortex. Then the 3D orthogonal wavelet multiresolution technique was developed to analyze instantaneous 3D velocity fields of Tomo-PIV in order to clarify 3D multiscale wake flow structures. The W-type shape arch vortex was extracted in the time-averaged intermediate-scale structure, while an M-shaped arch vortex was identified in the time-averaged large-scale structure. The tip vortices distributed in the time-averaged large- and intermediate-scale structures. The instantaneous intermediate-scale upwash vortices played an essential role in producing W-type head of arch structure. It was also observed that strong small-scale vortices appeared in the shear layer or near the bottom plate and most of them were contained in the intermediate-scale structures.

RevDate: 2020-10-22

Riasat S, Ramzan M, Kadry S, et al (2020)

Significance of magnetic Reynolds number in a three-dimensional squeezing Darcy-Forchheimer hydromagnetic nanofluid thin-film flow between two rotating disks.

Scientific reports, 10(1):17208.

The remarkable aspects of carbon nanotubes like featherweight, durability, exceptional electrical and thermal conduction capabilities, and physicochemical stability make them desirous materials for electrochemical devices. Having such astonishing characteristics of nanotubes in mind our aspiration is to examine the squeezing three dimensional Darcy-Forchheimer hydromagnetic nanofluid thin-film flow amid two rotating disks with suspended multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) submerged into the base fluid water. The analysis is done by invoking partial slip effect at the boundary in attendance of autocatalytic reactions. The mathematical model consists of axial and azimuthal momentum and magnetic fields respectively. The tangential and axial velocity profiles and components of the magnetic field are examined numerically by employing the bvp4c method for varying magnetic, rotational, and squeezing Reynolds number. The torque effect near the upper and lower disks are studied critically using their graphical depiction. The values of the torque at the upper and lower disks are obtained for rotational and squeezed Reynolds numbers and are found in an excellent concurrence when compared with the existing literature. Numerically it is computed that the torque at the lower disk is higher in comparison to the upper disk for mounting estimates of the squeezed Reynolds number and the dimensionless parameter for magnetic force in an axial direction. From the graphical illustrations, it is learned that thermal profile declines for increasing values of the squeezed Reynolds number.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Wong JY, Chan BKK, KYK Chan (2020)

Swimming kinematics and hydrodynamics of barnacle larvae throughout development.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 287(1936):20201360.

Changes in size strongly influence organisms' ecological performances. For aquatic organisms, they can transition from viscosity- to inertia-dominated fluid regimes as they grow. Such transitions are often associated with changes in morphology, swimming speed and kinematics. Barnacles do not fit into this norm as they have two morphologically distinct planktonic larval phases that swim differently but are of comparable sizes and operate in the same fluid regime (Reynolds number 100-101). We quantified the hydrodynamics of the rocky intertidal stalked barnacle Capitulum mitella from the nauplius II to cyprid stage and examined how kinematics and size increases affect its swimming performance. Cyprids beat their appendages in a metachronal wave to swim faster, more smoothly, and with less backwards slip per beat cycle than did all naupliar stages. Micro-particle image velocimetry showed that cyprids generated trailing viscous vortex rings that pushed water backwards for propulsion, contrary to the nauplii's forward suction current for particle capture. Our observations highlight that zooplankton swimming performance can shift via morphological and kinematic modifications without a significant size increase. The divergence in ecological functions through ontogeny in barnacles and the removal of feeding requirement likely contributed to the evolution of the specialized, taxonomically unique cyprid phase.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Jakob J, Gross M, T Gunther (2020)

A Fluid Flow Data Set for Machine Learning and its Application to Neural Flow Map Interpolation.

IEEE transactions on visualization and computer graphics, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years, deep learning has opened countless research opportunities across many different disciplines. At present, visualization is mainly applied to explore and explain neural networks. Its counterpart-the application of deep learning to visualization problems-requires us to share data more openly in order to enable more scientists to engage in data-driven research. In this paper, we construct a large fluid flow data set and apply it to a deep learning problem in scientific visualization. Parameterized by the Reynolds number, the data set contains a wide spectrum of laminar and turbulent fluid flow regimes. The full data set was simulated on a high-performance compute cluster and contains 8000 time-dependent 2D vector fields, accumulating to more than 16 TB in size. Using our public fluid data set, we trained deep convolutional neural networks in order to set a benchmark for an improved post-hoc Lagrangian fluid flow analysis. In in-situ settings, flow maps are exported and interpolated in order to assess the transport characteristics of time-dependent fluids. Using deep learning, we improve the accuracy of flow map interpolations, allowing a more precise flow analysis at a reduced memory IO footprint.

RevDate: 2020-10-06

Di Luca M, Mintchev S, Su Y, et al (2020)

A bioinspired Separated Flow wing provides turbulence resilience and aerodynamic efficiency for miniature drones.

Science robotics, 5(38):.

Small-scale drones have enough sensing and computing power to find use across a growing number of applications. However, flying in the low-Reynolds number regime remains challenging. High sensitivity to atmospheric turbulence compromises vehicle stability and control, and low aerodynamic efficiency limits flight duration. Conventional wing designs have thus far failed to address these two deficiencies simultaneously. Here, we draw inspiration from nature's small flyers to design a wing with lift generation robust to gusts and freestream turbulence without sacrificing aerodynamic efficiency. This performance is achieved by forcing flow separation at the airfoil leading edge. Water and wind tunnel measurements are used to demonstrate the working principle and aerodynamic performance of the wing, showing a substantial reduction in the sensitivity of lift force production to freestream turbulence, as compared with the performance of an Eppler E423 low-Reynolds number wing. The minimum cruise power of a custom-built 104-gram fixed-wing drone equipped with the Separated Flow wing was measured in the wind tunnel indicating an upper limit for the flight time of 170 minutes, which is about four times higher than comparable existing fixed-wing drones. In addition, we present scaling guidelines and outline future design and manufacturing challenges.

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Phelps PR, Lee CA, DM Morton (2020)

Episodes of fast crystal growth in pegmatites.

Nature communications, 11(1):4986.

Pegmatites are shallow, coarse-grained magmatic intrusions with crystals occasionally approaching meters in length. Compared to their plutonic hosts, pegmatites are thought to have cooled rapidly, suggesting that these large crystals must have grown fast. Growth rates and conditions, however, remain poorly constrained. Here we investigate quartz crystals and their trace element compositions from miarolitic cavities in the Stewart pegmatite in southern California, USA, to quantify crystal growth rates. Trace element concentrations deviate considerably from equilibrium and are best explained by kinetic effects associated with rapid crystal growth. Kinetic crystal growth theory is used to show that crystals accelerated from an initial growth rate of 10-6-10-7 m s-1 to 10-5-10-4 m s-1 (10-100 mm day-1 to 1-10 m day-1), indicating meter sized crystals could have formed within days, if these rates are sustained throughout pegmatite formation. The rapid growth rates require that quartz crystals grew from thin (micron scale) chemical boundary layers at the fluid-crystal interfaces. A strong advective component is required to sustain such thin boundary layers. Turbulent conditions (high Reynolds number) in these miarolitic cavities are shown to exist during crystallization, suggesting that volatile exsolution, crystallization, and cavity generation occur together.

RevDate: 2020-10-30

Qiu Y, Hu W, Wu C, et al (2020)

An Experimental Study of Microchannel and Micro-Pin-Fin Based On-Chip Cooling Systems with Silicon-to-Silicon Direct Bonding.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 20(19):.

This paper describes an experimental study of the cooling capabilities of microchannel and micro-pin-fin based on-chip cooling systems. The on-chip cooling systems integrated with a micro heat sink, simulated power IC (integrated circuit) and temperature sensors are fabricated by micromachining and silicon-to-silicon direct bonding. Three micro heat sink structures: a microchannel heat sink (MCHS), an inline micro-pin-fin heat sink (I-MPFHS) and a staggered micro-pin-fin heat sink (S-MPFHS) are tested in the Reynolds number range of 79.2 to 882.3. The results show that S-MPFHS is preferred if the water pump can provide enough pressure drop. However, S-MPFHS has the worst performance when the rated pressure drop of the pump is lower than 1.5 kPa because the endwall effect under a low Reynolds number suppresses the disturbance generated by the staggered micro pin fins but S-MPFHS is still preferred when the rated pressure drop of the pump is in the range of 1.5 to 20 kPa. When the rated pressure drop of the pump is higher than 20 kPa, I-MPFHS will be the best choice because of high heat transfer enhancement and low pressure drop price brought by the unsteady vortex street.

RevDate: 2020-10-08

Chen Y, Chen Y, Hu S, et al (2020)

Continuous ultrasonic flow measurement for aerospace small pipelines.

Ultrasonics, 109:106260 pii:S0041-624X(20)30199-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Aerospace explorations stimulate extensive research on innovative propellant flow measurement technologies in microgravity conditions. Ultrasonic-based measurements have advantages of non-invasive and non-moving-component constructions as well as fast responses to bi-directional flow detection, its applications in aerospace explorations have already been reported. To avoid the shortages of pulse ultrasonic measurement configurations, flow measurement of continuous ultrasonic wave propagation is presented to match the requirements of large measurement range and high precision. Fabrication process and laboratory validations using water flow are presented. Ground experiments show that the linearity of the proposed ultrasonic flow meter is obtained in the measurement range [0, 80 ml/s] which is typical requirement in aerospace applications. Meanwhile, the fitted linear feature from the experimental data matches well the theoretical prediction except the flow prediction of stationary fluid. Under specific configurations, the absolute measurement error is significantly affected by the corresponding Reynolds number. Furthermore, the absolute measurement error is smaller when excitation signals with higher frequency are used if the phase tracking performance for different frequencies is identical.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Ye Y, Luo X, Dong C, et al (2020)

Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Soot Suppression by Acoustic Oscillated Combustion.

ACS omega, 5(37):23866-23875.

The soot suppression by acoustic oscillations for acetylene diffusion flames was investigated combining numerical and experimental studies. The combustion and soot formation were predicted by the finite-rate detailed chemistry model and modified Moss-Brookes model, respectively, while the turbulence was predicted by the detached eddy simulation (DES) with a low Reynolds number correction. Experimental results showed that the soot rate almost decreased linearly with the amplitude of acoustic oscillation, and the pinch-off of the flame occurred at a large acoustic oscillation. Numerical results showed that the flame structure was well predicted, while the soot rate was over-predicted at large acoustic oscillations; the consumption of O2 increased obviously with the acoustic oscillation. The soot suppression was mainly caused by the decrease of the surface growth rate when the air was pushed toward the flame.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Dbouk T, D Drikakis (2020)

Weather impact on airborne coronavirus survival.

Physics of fluids (Woodbury, N.Y. : 1994), 32(9):093312.

The contribution of this paper toward understanding of airborne coronavirus survival is twofold: We develop new theoretical correlations for the unsteady evaporation of coronavirus (CoV) contaminated saliva droplets. Furthermore, we implement the new correlations in a three-dimensional multiphase Eulerian-Lagrangian computational fluid dynamics solver to study the effects of weather conditions on airborne virus transmission. The new theory introduces a thermal history kernel and provides transient Nusselt (Nu) and Sherwood (Sh) numbers as a function of the Reynolds (Re), Prandtl (Pr), and Schmidt numbers (Sc). For the first time, these new correlations take into account the mixture properties due to the concentration of CoV particles in a saliva droplet. We show that the steady-state relationships induce significant errors and must not be applied in unsteady saliva droplet evaporation. The classical theory introduces substantial deviations in Nu and Sh values when increasing the Reynolds number defined at the droplet scale. The effects of relative humidity, temperature, and wind speed on the transport and viability of CoV in a cloud of airborne saliva droplets are also examined. The results reveal that a significant reduction of virus viability occurs when both high temperature and low relative humidity occur. The droplet cloud's traveled distance and concentration remain significant at any temperature if the relative humidity is high, which is in contradiction with what was previously believed by many epidemiologists. The above could explain the increase in CoV cases in many crowded cities around the middle of July (e.g., Delhi), where both high temperature and high relative humidity values were recorded one month earlier (during June). Moreover, it creates a crucial alert for the possibility of a second wave of the pandemic in the coming autumn and winter seasons when low temperatures and high wind speeds will increase airborne virus survival and transmission.

RevDate: 2020-11-06

York CA, Bartol IK, Krueger PS, et al (2020)

Squids use multiple escape jet patterns throughout ontogeny.

Biology open, 9(11): pii:bio.054585.

Throughout their lives, squids are both predators and prey for a multitude of animals, many of which are at the top of ocean food webs, making them an integral component of the trophic structure of marine ecosystems. The escape jet, which is produced by the rapid expulsion of water from the mantle cavity through a funnel, is central to a cephalopod's ability to avoid predation throughout its life. Although squid undergo morphological and behavioral changes and experience remarkably different Reynolds number regimes throughout their development, little is known about the dynamics and propulsive efficiency of escape jets throughout ontogeny. We examine the hydrodynamics and kinematics of escape jets in squid throughout ontogeny using 2D/3D velocimetry and high-speed videography. All life stages of squid produced two escape jet patterns: (1) 'escape jet I' characterized by short rapid pulses resulting in vortex ring formation and (2) 'escape jet II' characterized by long high-volume jets, often with a leading-edge vortex ring. Paralarvae exhibited higher propulsive efficiency than adult squid during escape jet ejection, and propulsive efficiency was higher for escape jet I than escape jet II in juveniles and adults. These results indicate that although squid undergo major ecological transitions and morphology changes from paralarvae to adults, all life stages demonstrate flexibility in escape jet responses and produce escape jets of surprisingly high propulsive efficiency.This article has an associated First Person interview with the first author of the paper.

RevDate: 2020-10-29

Saqr KM, Tupin S, Rashad S, et al (2020)

Physiologic blood flow is turbulent.

Scientific reports, 10(1):15492.

Contemporary paradigm of peripheral and intracranial vascular hemodynamics considers physiologic blood flow to be laminar. Transition to turbulence is considered as a driving factor for numerous diseases such as atherosclerosis, stenosis and aneurysm. Recently, turbulent flow patterns were detected in intracranial aneurysm at Reynolds number below 400 both in vitro and in silico. Blood flow is multiharmonic with considerable frequency spectra and its transition to turbulence cannot be characterized by the current transition theory of monoharmonic pulsatile flow. Thus, we decided to explore the origins of such long-standing assumption of physiologic blood flow laminarity. Here, we hypothesize that the inherited dynamics of blood flow in main arteries dictate the existence of turbulence in physiologic conditions. To illustrate our hypothesis, we have used methods and tools from chaos theory, hydrodynamic stability theory and fluid dynamics to explore the existence of turbulence in physiologic blood flow. Our investigation shows that blood flow, both as described by the Navier-Stokes equation and in vivo, exhibits three major characteristics of turbulence. Womersley's exact solution of the Navier-Stokes equation has been used with the flow waveforms from HaeMod database, to offer reproducible evidence for our findings, as well as evidence from Doppler ultrasound measurements from healthy volunteers who are some of the authors. We evidently show that physiologic blood flow is: (1) sensitive to initial conditions, (2) in global hydrodynamic instability and (3) undergoes kinetic energy cascade of non-Kolmogorov type. We propose a novel modification of the theory of vascular hemodynamics that calls for rethinking the hemodynamic-biologic links that govern physiologic and pathologic processes.

RevDate: 2020-09-22

Gibson BM, Furbish DJ, Rahman IA, et al (2020)

Ancient life and moving fluids.

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society [Epub ahead of print].

Over 3.7 billion years of Earth history, life has evolved complex adaptations to help navigate and interact with the fluid environment. Consequently, fluid dynamics has become a powerful tool for studying ancient fossils, providing insights into the palaeobiology and palaeoecology of extinct organisms from across the tree of life. In recent years, this approach has been extended to the Ediacara biota, an enigmatic assemblage of Neoproterozoic soft-bodied organisms that represent the first major radiation of macroscopic eukaryotes. Reconstructing the ways in which Ediacaran organisms interacted with the fluids provides new insights into how these organisms fed, moved, and interacted within communities. Here, we provide an in-depth review of fluid physics aimed at palaeobiologists, in which we dispel misconceptions related to the Reynolds number and associated flow conditions, and specify the governing equations of fluid dynamics. We then review recent advances in Ediacaran palaeobiology resulting from the application of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). We provide a worked example and account of best practice in CFD analyses of fossils, including the first large eddy simulation (LES) experiment performed on extinct organisms. Lastly, we identify key questions, barriers, and emerging techniques in fluid dynamics, which will not only allow us to understand the earliest animal ecosystems better, but will also help to develop new palaeobiological tools for studying ancient life.

RevDate: 2020-09-22

Sonnenberg AH, Taylor E, Mondoñedo JR, et al (2020)

Breath Hold Facilitates Targeted Deposition of Aerosolized Droplets in a 3D Printed Bifurcating Airway Tree.

Annals of biomedical engineering pii:10.1007/s10439-020-02623-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The lungs have long been considered a desired route for drug delivery but, there is still a lack of strategies to rationally target delivery sites especially in the presence of heterogeneous airway disease. Furthermore, no standardized system has been proposed to rapidly test different ventilation strategies and how they alter the overall and regional deposition pattern in the airways. In this study, a 3D printed symmetric bifurcating tree model mimicking part of the human airway tree was developed that can be used to quantify the regional deposition patterns of different delivery methodologies. The model is constructed in a novel way that allows for repeated measurements of regional deposition using reusable parts. During ventilation, nebulized ~3-micron-sized fluid droplets were delivered into the model. Regional delivery, quantified by precision weighing individual airways, was highly reproducible. A successful strategy to control regional deposition was achieved by combining an inspiratory wave form with a "breath hold" pause after each inspiration. Specifically, the second generation of the tree was successfully targeted, and deposition was increased by up to four times in generation 2 when compared to a ventilation without the breath hold (p < 0.0001). Breath hold was also demonstrated to facilitate deposition into blocked regions of the model, which mimic airway closure during an asthma that receive no flow during inhalation. Additionally, visualization experiments demonstrated that in the absence of fluid flow, the deposition of 3-micron water droplets is dominated by gravity, which, to our knowledge, has not been confirmed under standard laboratory conditions.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Bortot M, Sharifi A, Ashworth K, et al (2020)

Pathologic Shear and Elongation Rates Do Not Cause Cleavage of Von Willebrand Factor by ADAMTS13 in a Purified System.

Cellular and molecular bioengineering, 13(4):379-390.

Introduction: Pathological flows in patients with severe aortic stenosis are associated with acquired von Willebrand syndrome. This syndrome is characterized by excessive cleavage of von Willebrand factor by its main protease, A Disintegrin and Metalloproteinase with a Thrombospondin Type 1 Motif, Member 13 (ADAMTS13) leading to decreased VWF function and mucocutaneous bleeding. Aortic valve replacement and correction of the flow behavior to physiological levels reverses the syndrome, supporting the association between pathological flow and acquired von Willebrand syndrome. We investigated the effects of shear and elongational rates on von Willebrand factor cleavage in the presence of ADAMTS13.

Methods: We identified acquired von Willebrand syndrome in five patients with severe aortic stenosis. Doppler echography values from these patients were used to develop three computational fluid dynamic (CFD) aortic valve models (normal, mild and severe stenosis). Shear, elongational rates and exposure times identified in the CFD simulations were used as parameters for the design of microfluidic devices to test the effects of pathologic shear and elongational rates on the structure and function of von Willebrand factor.

Results: The shear rates (0-10,000s-1), elongational rates (0-1000 s-1) and exposure times (1-180 ms) tested in our microfluidic designs mimicked the flow features identified in patients with aortic stenosis. The shear and elongational rates tested in vitro did not lead to excessive cleavage or decreased function of von Willebrand factor in the presence of the protease.

Conclusions: High shear and elongational rates in the presence of ADAMTS13 are not sufficient for excessive cleavage of von Willebrand Factor.

RevDate: 2020-10-05

Gao D, Bai M, Hu C, et al (2020)

Investigating control of convective heat transfer and flow resistance of Fe3O4/deionized water nanofluid in magnetic field in laminar flow.

Nanotechnology, 31(49):495402.

This paper studies the convective heat transfer and flow resistance of Fe3O4/deionized water nanofluids in laminar flow under the control of an external magnetic field. The basic thermophysical parameters including viscosity, specific heat capacity and thermal conductivity are investigated to describe the fundamental performance of heat transfer and flow resistance. In the absence of the magnetic field, the heat transfer coefficients and flow friction could not change significantly at nanoparticle volume concentration of 0.05%. In the presence of the magnetic field, it can enhance heat transfer and flow resistance by 6% and 3.5% when the magnets interlace on both sides of the tube. The dynamic magnetic experiments discussed the heat transfer increase process in detail. The heat transfer and the flow resistance increase by 11.7% and 5.4% when magnetic field strength is 600 Gs, nanoparticle volume concentration is 2% and Reynolds number is 2000. The radial shuttle movement of magnetic nanoparticles in the cross-section, micro convection in base fluid and the slip velocity between the nanoparticles and the base fluid are considered the main reasons for heat transfer enhancement.

RevDate: 2020-09-18

Mukhopadhyay S, A Mukhopadhyay (2020)

Waves and instabilities of viscoelastic fluid film flowing down an inclined wavy bottom.

Physical review. E, 102(2-1):023117.

Evolution of waves and hydrodynamic instabilities of a thin viscoelastic fluid film flowing down an inclined wavy bottom of moderate steepness have been analyzed analytically and numerically. The classical long-wave expansion method has been used to formulate a nonlinear evolution equation for the development of the free surface. A normal-mode approach has been adopted to discuss the linear stability analysis from the viewpoint of the spatial and temporal study. The method of multiple scales is used to derive a Ginzburg-Landau-type nonlinear equation for studying the weakly nonlinear stability solutions. Two significant wave families, viz., γ_{1} and γ_{2}, are found and discussed in detail along with the traveling wave solution of the evolution system. A time-dependent numerical study is performed with Scikit-FDif. The entire investigation is conducted primarily for a general periodic bottom, and the detailed results of a particular case study of sinusoidal topography are then discussed. The case study reveals that the bottom steepness ζ plays a dual role in the linear regime. Increasing ζ has a stabilizing effect in the uphill region, and the opposite occurs in the downhill region. While the viscoelastic parameter Γ has a destabilizing effect throughout the domain in both the linear and the nonlinear regime. Both supercritical and subcritical solutions are possible through a weakly nonlinear analysis. It is interesting to note that the unconditional zone decreases and the explosive zone increases in the downhill region rather than the uphill region for a fixed Γ and ζ. The same phenomena occur in a particular region if we increase Γ and keep ζ fixed. The traveling wave solution reveals the fact that to get the γ_{1} family of waves we need to increase the Reynolds number a bit more than the value at which the γ_{2} family of waves is found. The spatiotemporal evolution of the nonlinear surface equation indicates that different kinds of finite-amplitude permanent waves exist.

RevDate: 2020-09-18

Hassan MR, C Wang (2020)

Lateral migration of a ferrofluid droplet in a plane Poiseuille flow under uniform magnetic fields.

Physical review. E, 102(2-1):022611.

The lateral migration of a two-dimensional (2D) viscous ferrofluid droplet in a plane Poiseuille flow under a uniform magnetic field is studied numerically by using the level set method. Focusing on low droplet Reynolds number flows (Re_{d}≤0.05), several numerical simulations are carried out to analyze the effects of magnetic field direction and strength, droplet size, and viscosity ratio on the lateral migration behavior of the droplet. The results indicate that the magnetic field direction plays a pivotal role in the trajectory of lateral migration of the droplet and the final equilibrium position in the channel. When the magnetic field is parallel to the channel, i.e., α=0^{∘} (the direction of magnetic field), the droplet is found to settle closer to the wall with an increase in magnetic Bond number Bo_{m}, while at α=45^{∘}, the droplet settles closer to the channel center. Varying the initial droplet sizes at a fixed magnetic Bond number Bo_{m} and viscosity ratio λ results in different final equilibrium positions within the channel. Additionally, the effect of different viscosity ratios on the migration behavior of the droplet is examined at variable magnetic Bond numbers Bo_{m}. At α=45^{∘}, a critical steady state of deformation is found for λ=0.5 and 1 where the droplet changes its migration direction and shifts toward the center of the channel, while at λ=0.05, the droplet crosses the center. At α=90^{∘}, the droplet is found to settle exactly at the center of the flow domain irrespective of different magnetic Bond numbers, droplet sizes, and viscosity ratios.

RevDate: 2020-09-30

Beratlis N, Capuano F, Krishnan K, et al (2020)

Direct numerical simulations of a great horn owl in flapping flight.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:5905490 [Epub ahead of print].

The fluid dynamics of owls in flapping flight is studied by coordinated experiments and computations. The great horned owl was selected, which is nocturnal, stealthy, and relatively large sized raptor. On the experimental side, perch-to-perch flight was considered in an open wind tunnel. The owl kinematics were captured with multiple cameras from different view angles. The kinematic extraction was central in driving the computations, which were designed to resolve all significant spatio-temporal scales in the flow with an unprecedented level of resolution. The wing geometry was extracted from the planform image of the owl wing and a three-dimensional model, the reference configuration, was reconstructed. This configuration was then deformed in time to best match the kinematics recorded during flights utilizing an image-registration technique based on the large deformation diffeomorphic metric mapping framework. All simulations were conducted using an eddy-resolving, high-fidelity, solver, where the large displacements/deformations of the flapping owl model were introduced with an immersed boundary formulation. We report detailed information on the spatio-temporal flow dynamics in the near wake including variables that are challenging to measure with sufficient accuracy, such as aerodynamic forces. At the same time our results indicate that high-fidelity computations over smooth wings may have limitations in capturing the full range of flow phenomena in owl flight. The growth and subsequent separation of the laminar boundary layers developing over the wings in this Reynolds number regime is sensitive to the surface micro-features that are unique to each specie.

RevDate: 2020-09-15

Sprenger AR, Shaik VA, Ardekani AM, et al (2020)

Towards an analytical description of active microswimmers in clean and in surfactant-covered drops.

The European physical journal. E, Soft matter, 43(9):58 pii:10.1140/epje/i2020-11980-9.

Geometric confinements are frequently encountered in the biological world and strongly affect the stability, topology, and transport properties of active suspensions in viscous flow. Based on a far-field analytical model, the low-Reynolds-number locomotion of a self-propelled microswimmer moving inside a clean viscous drop or a drop covered with a homogeneously distributed surfactant, is theoretically examined. The interfacial viscous stresses induced by the surfactant are described by the well-established Boussinesq-Scriven constitutive rheological model. Moreover, the active agent is represented by a force dipole and the resulting fluid-mediated hydrodynamic couplings between the swimmer and the confining drop are investigated. We find that the presence of the surfactant significantly alters the dynamics of the encapsulated swimmer by enhancing its reorientation. Exact solutions for the velocity images for the Stokeslet and dipolar flow singularities inside the drop are introduced and expressed in terms of infinite series of harmonic components. Our results offer useful insights into guiding principles for the control of confined active matter systems and support the objective of utilizing synthetic microswimmers to drive drops for targeted drug delivery applications.

RevDate: 2020-10-30

Khan MZU, Uddin E, Akbar B, et al (2020)

Investigation of Heat Transfer and Pressure Drop in Microchannel Heat Sink Using Al2O3 and ZrO2 Nanofluids.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 10(9):.

A new micro heat exchanger was analyzed using numerical formulation of conjugate heat transfer for single-phase fluid flow across copper microchannels. The flow across bent channels harnesses asymmetric laminar flow and dean vortices phenomena for heat transfer enhancement. The single-channel analysis was performed to select the bent channel aspect ratio by varying width and height between 35-300 μm for Reynolds number and base temperature magnitude range of 100-1000 and 320-370 K, respectively. The bent channel results demonstrate dean vortices phenomenon at the bend for Reynolds number of 500 and above. Thermal performance factor analysis shows an increase of 18% in comparison to straight channels of 200 μm width and height. Alumina nanoparticles at 1% and 3% concentration enhance the Nusselt number by an average of 10.4% and 23.7%, respectively, whereas zirconia enhances Nusselt number by 16% and 33.9% for same concentrations. On the other hand, thermal performance factor analysis shows a significant increase in pressure drop at high Reynolds number with 3% particle concentration. Using zirconia for nanofluid, Nusselt number of the bent multi-channel model is improved by an average of 18% for a 3% particle concentration as compared to bent channel with deionized water.

RevDate: 2020-10-06
CmpDate: 2020-10-06

Tang W, Zhu S, Jiang D, et al (2020)

Channel innovations for inertial microfluidics.

Lab on a chip, 20(19):3485-3502.

Inertial microfluidics has gained significant attention since first being proposed in 2007 owing to the advantages of simplicity, high throughput, precise manipulation, and freedom from an external field. Superior performance in particle focusing, filtering, concentrating, and separating has been demonstrated. As a passive technology, inertial microfluidics technology relies on the unconventional use of fluid inertia in an intermediate Reynolds number range to induce inertial migration and secondary flow, which depend directly on the channel structure, leading to particle migration to the lateral equilibrium position or trapping in a specific cavity. With the advances in micromachining technology, many channel structures have been designed and fabricated in the past decade to explore the fundamentals and applications of inertial microfluidics. However, the channel innovations for inertial microfluidics have not been discussed comprehensively. In this review, the inertial particle manipulations and underlying physics in conventional channels, including straight, spiral, sinusoidal, and expansion-contraction channels, are briefly described. Then, recent innovations in channel structure for inertial microfluidics, especially channel pattern modification and unconventional cross-sectional shape, are reviewed. Finally, the prospects for future channel innovations in inertial microfluidic chips are also discussed. The purpose of this review is to provide guidance for the continued study of innovative channel designs to improve further the accuracy and throughput of inertial microfluidics.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

O'Neill G, NS Tolley (2020)

Modelling nasal airflow coefficients: an insight into the nature of airflow.

Rhinology pii:2650 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: There has been considerable discussion and conflicting views regarding the presence of laminar or turbulent flow within the nose. The aim of this study was to investigate how the modelling of variable flow coefficients can assist in the evalua- tion of the characteristics of flow in the resistive segments of the nose.

METHODOLOGY: A comparison was made between the flow coefficient for the nasal valve, obtained from a mathematical model, and resistive flow components such as a Venturi meter and orifice tube. Also, a variable loss coefficient was formulated for the whole (unilateral) nose which, by utilising the intersection of the laminar and turbulent asymptotes, provided an estimation for the critical Reynolds number (Rcrit).

RESULTS: The results show that the flow resistance of the nasal valve is considerably greater than that for both a Venturi meter and an orifice tube implying turbulent or turbulent-like flow for much of nasal inspiration. Regarding the loss coefficient for the whole (unilateral) nose, normal respiration flowrates are displaced well away from the laminar asymptote. The critical Reynolds number was estimated to be 450.

CONCLUSIONS: A novel method of determining the flow characteristics of the nose, particularly the critical Reynolds number, is presented. The analysis indicates a higher degree of turbulence than is assumed from a simple traditional calculation using a hy- draulic diameter and flow through straight tubes. There are implications for computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modelling where either the entire nasal airflow is assumed to be laminar or a low turbulence model implemented.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

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