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Bibliography on: Metagenomics

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 04 Mar 2024 at 01:31 Created: 

Metagenomics

While genomics is the study of DNA extracted from individuals — individual cells, tissues, or organisms — metagenomics is a more recent refinement that analyzes samples of pooled DNA taken from the environment, not from an individual. Like genomics, metagenomic methods have great potential in many areas of biology, but none so much as in providing access to the hitherto invisible world of unculturable microbes, often estimated to comprise 90% or more of bacterial species and, in some ecosystems, the bulk of the biomass. A recent describes how this new science of metagenomics is beginning to reveal the secrets of our microbial world: The opportunity that stands before microbiologists today is akin to a reinvention of the microscope in the expanse of research questions it opens to investigation. Metagenomics provides a new way of examining the microbial world that not only will transform modern microbiology but has the potential to revolutionize understanding of the entire living world. In metagenomics, the power of genomic analysis is applied to entire communities of microbes, bypassing the need to isolate and culture individual bacterial community members.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( metagenomic OR metagenomics OR metagenome ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-03-02

Garmaeva S, Sinha T, Gulyaeva A, et al (2024)

Transmission and dynamics of mother-infant gut viruses during pregnancy and early life.

Nature communications, 15(1):1945.

Early development of the gut ecosystem is crucial for lifelong health. While infant gut bacterial communities have been studied extensively, the infant gut virome remains under-explored. To study the development of the infant gut virome over time and the factors that shape it, we longitudinally assess the composition of gut viruses and their bacterial hosts in 30 women during and after pregnancy and in their 32 infants during their first year of life. Using shotgun metagenomic sequencing applied to dsDNA extracted from Virus-Like Particles (VLPs) and bacteria, we generate 205 VLP metaviromes and 322 total metagenomes. With this data, we show that while the maternal gut virome composition remains stable during late pregnancy and after birth, the infant gut virome is dynamic in the first year of life. Notably, infant gut viromes contain a higher abundance of active temperate phages compared to maternal gut viromes, which decreases over the first year of life. Moreover, we show that the feeding mode and place of delivery influence the gut virome composition of infants. Lastly, we provide evidence of co-transmission of viral and bacterial strains from mothers to infants, demonstrating that infants acquire some of their virome from their mother's gut.

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Shahzad M, Saeed M, Amin H, et al (2024)

The oral microbiome of newly diagnosed tuberculosis patients; a pilot study.

Genomics pii:S0888-7543(24)00037-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Changes in oral microbiota composition (dysbiosis) has long been known to play a key role in the pathogenesis of oral and systemic diseases including respiratory diseases. However, till now, no study has assessed changes in oral microbiota following tuberculosis (TB) infection in humans.

AIMS: This is the first study of its kind that aimed to investigate oral microbial dysbiosis in newly diagnosed, treatment naïve, TB patients.

METHODS: Oral swab samples were collected from newly diagnosed TB patients (n = 20) and age, gender and ethnicity matched healthy controls (n = 10). DNA was extracted and microbiota analyzed by sequencing the hypervariable (V3-V4) region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene using Illumina MiSeq platform. Bioinformatics and statistical analyses were performed using QIIME and R.

RESULTS: Bacterial richness, diversity and community composition were significantly different between TB patients and healthy controls. The two groups also exhibit differential abundance at phylum, class, genus and species levels. The LEfSe analysis revealed enrichment (LDA scores (log10) >2, P < 0.05) of Firmicutes (especially Streptococcus) and Actinobacteriota (especially Rothia) in TB patients relative to healthy controls. Gene function prediction analysis showed upregulation of metabolic pathways related to carbohydrates (butanoate, galactose) and fatty acids metabolism, antibiotics biosynthesis, proteosome and immune system signaling.

CONCLUSION: These observations suggest significant variations in diversity, relative abundance and functional potential of oral microbiota of TB patients compared to healthy controls thereby suggesting potential role of oral bacterial dysbiosis in TB pathogenesis. However, longitudinal studies using powerful metagenomic and transcriptomic approaches are crucial to identify and these findings.

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Zhu S, Zhao W, Sun S, et al (2024)

Metagenomic analysis revealed N-metabolizing microbial response of Iris tectorum to Cr stress after colonization by arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 273:116157 pii:S0147-6513(24)00232-X [Epub ahead of print].

Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) and plant growth-promoting bacteria enhance plant tolerance to abiotic stress and promote plant growth in contaminated soil. However, the interaction mechanism between rhizosphere microbial communities under chromium (Cr) stress remains unclear. This study conducted a greenhouse pot experiment and metagenomics analysis to reveal the comprehensive effects of the interaction between AMF (Rhizophagus intraradices) and nitrogen-N metabolizing plant growth promoters on the growth of Iris tectorum. The results showed that AMF significantly increased the biomass and nutrient levels of I. tectorum in contaminated soil and decreased the content of Cr in the soil. Metagenomics analysis revealed that the structure and composition of the rhizosphere microbial community involved in nitrogen metabolism changed significantly after inoculation with AMF under Cr stress. Functional genes related to soil nitrogen mineralization (gltB, gltD, gdhA, ureC, and glnA), nitrate reduction to ammonium (nirB, nrfA, and nasA), and soil nitrogen assimilation (NRT, nrtA, and nrtC) were up-regulated in the N-metabolizing microbial community. In contrast, the abundance of functional genes involved in denitrification (nirK and narI) was down-regulated. In addition, the inoculation of AMF regulates the synergies between the N-metabolic rhizosphere microbial communities and enhances the complexity and stability of the rhizosphere ecological network. This study provides a basis for improving plant tolerance to heavy metal stress by regulating the functional abundance of N-metabolizing plant growth-promoting bacteria through AMF inoculation. It helps to understand the potential mechanism of wetland plant remediation of Cr-contaminated soil.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Wang C, Chang J, Tian L, et al (2024)

A Synthetic Microbiome Based on Dominant Microbes in Wild Rice Rhizosphere to Promote Sulfur Utilization.

Rice (New York, N.Y.), 17(1):18.

Sulfur (S) is one of the main components of important biomolecules, which has been paid more attention in the anaerobic environment of rice cultivation. In this study, 12 accessions of rice materials, belonging to two Asian rice domestication systems and one African rice domestication system, were used by shotgun metagenomics sequencing to compare the structure and function involved in S cycle of rhizosphere microbiome between wild and cultivated rice. The sulfur cycle functional genes abundances were significantly different between wild and cultivated rice rhizosphere in the processes of sulfate reduction and other sulfur compounds conversion, implicating that wild rice had a stronger mutually-beneficial relationship with rhizosphere microbiome, enhancing sulfur utilization. To assess the effects of sulfate reduction synthetic microbiomes, Comamonadaceae and Rhodospirillaceae, two families containing the genes of two key steps in the dissimilatory sulfate reduction, aprA and dsrA respectively, were isolated from wild rice rhizosphere. Compared with the control group, the dissimilatory sulfate reduction in cultivated rice rhizosphere was significantly improved in the inoculated with different proportions groups. It confirmed that the synthetic microbiome can promote the S-cycling in rice, and suggested that may be feasible to construct the synthetic microbiome step by step based on functional genes to achieve the target functional pathway. In summary, this study reveals the response of rice rhizosphere microbial community structure and function to domestication, and provides a new idea for the construction of synthetic microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Gunjur A, Shao Y, Rozday T, et al (2024)

A gut microbial signature for combination immune checkpoint blockade across cancer types.

Nature medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Immune checkpoint blockade (ICB) targeting programmed cell death protein 1 (PD-1) and cytotoxic T lymphocyte protein 4 (CTLA-4) can induce remarkable, yet unpredictable, responses across a variety of cancers. Studies suggest that there is a relationship between a cancer patient's gut microbiota composition and clinical response to ICB; however, defining microbiome-based biomarkers that generalize across cohorts has been challenging. This may relate to previous efforts quantifying microbiota to species (or higher taxonomic rank) abundances, whereas microbial functions are often strain specific. Here, we performed deep shotgun metagenomic sequencing of baseline fecal samples from a unique, richly annotated phase 2 trial cohort of patients with diverse rare cancers treated with combination ICB (n = 106 discovery cohort). We demonstrate that strain-resolved microbial abundances improve machine learning predictions of ICB response and 12-month progression-free survival relative to models built using species-rank quantifications or comprehensive pretreatment clinical factors. Through a meta-analysis of gut metagenomes from a further six comparable studies (n = 364 validation cohort), we found cross-cancer (and cross-country) validity of strain-response signatures, but only when the training and test cohorts used concordant ICB regimens (anti-PD-1 monotherapy or combination anti-PD-1 plus anti-CTLA-4). This suggests that future development of gut microbiome diagnostics or therapeutics should be tailored according to ICB treatment regimen rather than according to cancer type.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Yu W, Luo H, Yang J, et al (2024)

Comprehensive assessment of 11 de novo HiFi assemblers on complex eukaryotic genomes and metagenomes.

Genome research pii:gr.278232.123 [Epub ahead of print].

Pacific Biosciences (PacBio) HiFi sequencing technology generates long reads (>10 kbp) with very high accuracy (<0.01% sequencing error). Although several de novo assembly tools are available for HiFi reads, there are no comprehensive studies on the evaluation of these assemblers. We evaluated the performance of 11 de novo HiFi assemblers on (1) real data for three eukaryotic genomes; (2) 34 synthetic data sets with different ploidy, sequencing coverage levels, heterozygosity rates, and sequencing error rates; (3) one real metagenomic data set; and (4) five synthetic metagenomic data sets with different composition abundance and heterozygosity rates. The 11 assemblers were evaluated using quality assessment tool (QUAST) and benchmarking universal single-copy ortholog (BUSCO). We also used several additional criteria, namely, completion rate, single-copy completion rate, duplicated completion rate, average proportion of largest category, average distance difference, quality value, run-time, and memory utilization. Results show that hifiasm and hifiasm-meta should be the first choice for assembling eukaryotic genomes and metagenomes with HiFi data. We performed a comprehensive benchmarking study of commonly used assemblers on complex eukaryotic genomes and metagenomes. Our study will help the research community to choose the most appropriate assembler for their data and identify possible improvements in assembly algorithms.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Su Y, Qian J, Wang J, et al (2024)

Unraveling the mechanism of norfloxacin removal and fate of antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) in the sulfur-mediated autotrophic denitrification via metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analyses.

The co-contamination of antibiotics and nitrogen has attracted widespread concerns due to its potential harm to ecological safety and human health. Sulfur-driven autotrophic denitrification (SAD) with low sludge production rate was adopted to treat antibiotics laden-organic deficient wastewater. Herein, a lab-scale sequencing batch reactor (SBR) was established to explore the simultaneous removal of nitrate and antibiotics, i.e. Norfloxacin (NOR), as well as microbial response mechanism of SAD sludge system towards NOR exposure. About 80.78 % of NOR was removed by SAD sludge when the influent NOR level was 0.5 mg/L, in which biodegradation was dominant removal route. The nitrate removal efficiency decreased slightly from 98.37 ± 0.58 % to 96.58 ± 1.03 % in the presence of NOR. Thiobacillus and Sulfurimonas were the most abundant sulfur-oxidizing bacteria (SOB) in SAD system, but Thiobacillus was more sensitive to NOR. The up-regulated genes related to Xenobiotics biodegradation and metabolism and CYP450 indicated the occurrence of NOR biotransformation in SAD system. The resistance of SAD sludge to the exposure of NOR was mainly ascribed to antibiotic efflux. And the effect of antibiotic inactivation was enhanced after long-term fed with NOR. The NOR exposure resulted in the increased level of antibiotics resistance genes (ARGs) and mobile genetic elements (MGEs). Besides, the enhanced ARG-MGE co-existence patterns further reveals the higher horizontal mobility potential of ARGs under NOR exposure pressures. The most enriched sulfur oxidizing bacterium Thiobacillus was a potential host for most of ARGs. This study provides a new insight for the treatment of NOR-laden wastewater with low C/N ratio based on the sulfur-mediated biological process.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Fogarty EC, Schechter MS, Lolans K, et al (2024)

A cryptic plasmid is among the most numerous genetic elements in the human gut.

Cell, 187(5):1206-1222.e16.

Plasmids are extrachromosomal genetic elements that often encode fitness-enhancing features. However, many bacteria carry "cryptic" plasmids that do not confer clear beneficial functions. We identified one such cryptic plasmid, pBI143, which is ubiquitous across industrialized gut microbiomes and is 14 times as numerous as crAssphage, currently established as the most abundant extrachromosomal genetic element in the human gut. The majority of mutations in pBI143 accumulate in specific positions across thousands of metagenomes, indicating strong purifying selection. pBI143 is monoclonal in most individuals, likely due to the priority effect of the version first acquired, often from one's mother. pBI143 can transfer between Bacteroidales, and although it does not appear to impact bacterial host fitness in vivo, it can transiently acquire additional genetic content. We identified important practical applications of pBI143, including its use in identifying human fecal contamination and its potential as an alternative approach to track human colonic inflammatory states.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Schiaffino F, Parker CT, Garcia Bardales PF, et al (2024)

Novel rpsK / rpsD primer-probe assay improves detection of Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli in human stool.

PLoS neglected tropical diseases, 18(3):e0012018 pii:PNTD-D-23-01546 [Epub ahead of print].

Campylobacter causes bacterial enteritis, dysentery, and growth faltering in children in low- and middle-income countries (LMICs). Campylobacter spp. are fastidious organisms, and their detection often relies on culture independent diagnostic technologies, especially in LMICs. Campylobacter jejuni and Campylobacter coli are most often the infectious agents and in high income settings together account for 95% of Campylobacter infections. Several other Campylobacter species have been detected in LMIC children at an increased prevalence relative to high income settings. After doing extensive whole genome sequencing of isolates of C. jejuni and C. coli in Peru, we observed heterogeneity in the binding sites for the main species-specific PCR assay (cadF) and designed an alternative rpsKD-based qPCR assay to detect both C. jejuni and C. coli. The rpsKD-based qPCR assay identified 23% more C.jejuni/ C.coli samples than the cadF assay among 47 Campylobacter genus positive cadF negative samples verified to have C. jejuni and or C. coli with shotgun metagenomics. This assay can be expected to be useful in diagnostic studies of enteric infectious diseases and be useful in revising the attribution estimates of Campylobacter in LMICs.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Filipov T, Teutsch B, Szabó A, et al (2024)

Investigating the role of ultrasound-based shear wave elastography in kidney transplanted patients: correlation between non-invasive fibrosis detection, kidney dysfunction and biopsy results-a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Journal of nephrology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy are leading causes of renal allograft failure. Shear wave elastography could be a promising noninvasive method for providing information on the state of the kidney, with specific regard to fibrosis but currently available data in the literature are controversial. Our study aimed to analyze the correlation between shear wave elastography and various kidney dysfunction measures.

METHODS: This review was registered on PROSPERO (CRD42021283152). We systematically searched three major databases (MEDLINE, Embase, and CENTRAL) for articles concerning renal transplant recipients, shear wave elastography, fibrosis, and kidney dysfunction. Meta-analytical calculations for pooled Pearson and Spearman correlation coefficients (r) were interpreted with 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Heterogeneity was tested with Cochran's Q test. I[2] statistic and 95% CI were reported as a measurement of between-study heterogeneity. Study quality was assessed with the QUADAS2 tool.

RESULTS: In total, 16 studies were included in our meta-analysis. Results showed a moderate correlation between kidney stiffness and interstitial fibrosis and tubular atrophy, graded according to BANFF classification, on biopsy findings for pooled Pearson (r = 0.48; CI: 0.20, 0.69; I[2] = 84%) and Spearman correlations (r = 0.57; CI: 0.35, 0.72; I[2] = 74%). When compared to kidney dysfunction parameters, we found a moderate correlation between shear wave elastography and resistive index (r = 0.34 CI: 0.13, 0.51; I[2] = 67%) and between shear wave elastography and estimated Glomerular Filtration Rate (eGFR) (r = -0.65; CI: - 0.81, - 0.40; I[2] = 73%). All our outcomes had marked heterogeneity.

CONCLUSION: Our results showed a moderate correlation between kidney stiffness measured by shear wave elastography and biopsy results. While noninvasive assessment of kidney fibrosis after transplantation is an important clinical goal, there is insufficient evidence to support the use of elastography over the performance of a kidney biopsy.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Tamang A, Kaur A, Thakur D, et al (2024)

Unraveling endophytic diversity in dioecious Siraitia grosvenorii: implications for mogroside production.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 108(1):247.

Host and tissue-specificity of endophytes are important attributes that limit the endophyte application on multiple crops. Therefore, understanding the endophytic composition of the targeted crop is essential, especially for the dioecious plants where the male and female plants are different. Here, efforts were made to understand the endophytic bacterial composition of the dioecious Siraitia grosvenorii plant using 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. The present study revealed the association of distinct endophytic bacterial communities with different parts of male and female plants. Roots of male and female plants had a higher bacterial diversity than other parts of plants, and the roots of male plants had more bacterial diversity than the roots of female plants. Endophytes belonging to the phylum Proteobacteria were abundant in all parts of male and female plants except male stems and fruit pulp, where the Firmicutes were most abundant. Class Gammaproteobacteria predominated in both male and female plants, with the genus Acinetobacter as the most dominant and part of the core microbiome of the plant (present in all parts of both, male and female plants). The presence of distinct taxa specific to male and female plants was also identified. Macrococcus, Facklamia, and Propionibacterium were the distinct genera found only in fruit pulp, the edible part of S. grosvenorii. Predictive functional analysis revealed the abundance of enzymes of secondary metabolite (especially mogroside) biosynthesis in the associated endophytic community with predominance in roots. The present study revealed bacterial endophytic communities of male and female S. grosvenorii plants that can be further explored for monk fruit cultivation, mogroside production, and early-stage identification of male and female plants. KEY POINTS: • Male and female Siraitia grosvenorii plants had distinct endophytic communities • The diversity of endophytic communities was specific to different parts of plants • S. grosvenorii-associated endophytes may be valuable for mogroside biosynthesis and monk fruit cultivation.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Antillon SF, Bernhardt TG, Chamakura K, et al (2024)

Physiological characterization of single-gene lysis proteins.

Journal of bacteriology [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Single-strand RNA (ssRNA) and single-strand DNA phages elicit host lysis using a single gene, in each case designated as sgl. Of the 11 identified Sgls, three have been shown to be specific inhibitors of different steps in the pathway that supplies lipid II to the peptidoglycan (PG) biosynthesis machinery. These Sgls have been called "protein antibiotics" because the lytic event is a septal catastrophe indistinguishable from that caused by cell wall antibiotics. Here, we designate these as type I Sgls. In this formalism, the other eight Sgls are assigned to type II, the best-studied of which is protein L of the paradigm F-specific ssRNA phage MS2. Comparisons have suggested that type II Sgls have four sequence elements distinguished by hydrophobic and polar character. Environmental metatranscriptomics has revealed thousands of new ssRNA phage genomes, each of which presumably has an Sgl. Here, we describe methods to distinguish type I and type II Sgls. Using phase contrast microscopy, we show that both classes of Sgls cause the formation of blebs prior to lysis, but the location of the blebs differs significantly. In addition, we show that L and other type II Sgls do not inhibit the net synthesis of PG, as measured by radio-labeling of PG. Finally, we provide direct evidence that the Sgl from Pseudomonas phage PP7 is a type I Sgl, in support of a recent report based on a genetic selection. This shows that the putative four-element sequence structure suggested for L is not a reliable discriminator for the operational characterization of Sgls.

IMPORTANCE: The ssRNA phage world has recently undergone a metagenomic expansion upward of a thousandfold. Each genome likely carries at least one single-gene lysis (sgl) cistron encoding a protein that single-handedly induces host autolysis. Here, we initiate an approach to segregate the Sgls into operational types based on physiological analysis, as a first step toward the alluring goal of finding many new ways to induce bacterial death and the attendant expectations for new antibiotic development.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Zhang L, Yuan L, Wen Y, et al (2024)

Maize functional requirements drive the selection of rhizobacteria under long-term fertilization practices.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Rhizosphere microbiomes are pivotal for crop fitness, but the principles underlying microbial assembly during root-soil interactions across soils with different nutrient statuses remain elusive. We examined the microbiomes in the rhizosphere and bulk soils of maize plants grown under six long-term (≥ 29 yr) fertilization experiments in three soil types across middle temperate to subtropical zones. The assembly of rhizosphere microbial communities was primarily driven by deterministic processes. Plant selection interacted with soil types and fertilization regimes to shape the structure and function of rhizosphere microbiomes. Predictive functional profiling showed that, to adapt to nutrient-deficient conditions, maize recruited more rhizobacteria involved in nutrient availability from bulk soil, although these functions were performed by different species. Metagenomic analyses confirmed that the number of significantly enriched Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes Orthology functional categories in the rhizosphere microbial community was significantly higher without fertilization than with fertilization. Notably, some key genes involved in carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus cycling and purine metabolism were dominantly enriched in the rhizosphere soil without fertilizer input. In conclusion, our results show that maize selects microbes at the root-soil interface based on microbial functional traits beneficial to its own performance, rather than selecting particular species.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Argentini C, Lugli GA, Tarracchini C, et al (2024)

Genomic and ecological approaches to identify the Bifidobacterium breve prototype of the healthy human gut microbiota.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1349391.

Members of the genus Bifidobacterium are among the first microorganisms colonizing the human gut. Among these species, strains of Bifidobacterium breve are known to be commonly transmitted from mother to her newborn, while this species has also been linked with activities supporting human wellbeing. In the current study, an in silico approach, guided by ecology- and phylogenome-based analyses, was employed to identify a representative strain of B. breve to be exploited as a novel health-promoting candidate. The selected strain, i.e., B. breve PRL2012, was found to well represent the genetic content and functional genomic features of the B. breve taxon. We evaluated the ability of PRL2012 to survive in the gastrointestinal tract and to interact with other human gut commensal microbes. When co-cultivated with various human gut commensals, B. breve PRL2012 revealed an enhancement of its metabolic activity coupled with the activation of cellular defense mechanisms to apparently improve its survivability in a simulated ecosystem resembling the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Cantin LJ, Dunning Hotopp JC, JM Foster (2024)

Improved metagenome assemblies through selective enrichment of bacterial genomic DNA from eukaryotic host genomic DNA using ATAC-seq.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1352378.

Genomics can be used to study the complex relationships between hosts and their microbiota. Many bacteria cannot be cultured in the laboratory, making it difficult to obtain adequate amounts of bacterial DNA and to limit host DNA contamination for the construction of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). For example, Wolbachia is a genus of exclusively obligate intracellular bacteria that live in a wide range of arthropods and some nematodes. While Wolbachia endosymbionts are frequently described as facultative reproductive parasites in arthropods, the bacteria are obligate mutualistic endosymbionts of filarial worms. Here, we achieve 50-fold enrichment of bacterial sequences using ATAC-seq (Assay for Transposase-Accessible Chromatin using sequencing) with Brugia malayi nematodes, containing Wolbachia (wBm). ATAC-seq uses the Tn5 transposase to cut and attach Illumina sequencing adapters to accessible DNA lacking histones, typically thought to be open chromatin. Bacterial and mitochondrial DNA in the lysates are also cut preferentially since they lack histones, leading to the enrichment of these sequences. The benefits of this include minimal tissue input (<1 mg of tissue), a quick protocol (<4 h), low sequencing costs, less bias, correct assembly of lateral gene transfers and no prior sequence knowledge required. We assembled the wBm genome with as few as 1 million Illumina short paired-end reads with >97% coverage of the published genome, compared to only 12% coverage with the standard gDNA libraries. We found significant bacterial sequence enrichment that facilitated genome assembly in previously published ATAC-seq data sets from human cells infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis and C. elegans contaminated with their food source, the OP50 strain of E. coli. These results demonstrate the feasibility and benefits of using ATAC-seq to easily obtain bacterial genomes to aid in symbiosis, infectious disease, and microbiome research.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Cai Y, Luo Y, Dai N, et al (2024)

Corrigendum: Functional metagenomic and metabolomics analysis of gut dysbiosis induced by hyperoxia.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1382290.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2023.1197970.].

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Chen D, Chew D, Xiang Q, et al (2024)

Interactions and effects of a stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice on oral pathogens and the oral microbiome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1327913.

Numerous studies have investigated the effects of stannous ions on specific microbes and their efficacy in reducing dental plaque. Nonetheless, our understanding of their impact on the oral microbiome is still a subject of ongoing exploration. Therefore, this study sought to evaluate the effects of a stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice in comparison to a zinc-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice and a control group on intact, healthy oral biofilms. Utilizing the novel 2bRAD-M approach for species-resolved metagenomics, and FISH/CLSM with probes targeting periodontal and caries associated species alongside Sn[2+] and Zn[2+] ions, we collected and analyzed in situ biofilms from 15 generally healthy individuals with measurable dental plaque and treated the biofilms with dentifrices to elucidate variations in microbial distribution. Although significant shifts in the microbiome upon treatment were not observed, the use of a stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice primarily led to an increase in health-associated commensal species and decrease in pathogenic species. Notably, FISH/CLSM analysis highlighted a marked reduction in representative species associated with periodontitis and caries following treatment with the use of a stannous-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice, as opposed to a zinc-containing sodium fluoride dentifrice and the control group. Additionally, Sn[2+] specific intracellular imaging reflected the colocalization of Sn[2+] ions with P. gingivalis but not with other species. In contrast, Zn[2+] ions exhibited non-specific binding, thus suggesting that Sn[2+] could exhibit selective binding toward pathogenic species. Altogether, our results demonstrate that stannous ions could help to maintain a healthy oral microbiome by preferentially targeting certain pathogenic bacteria to reverse dysbiosis and underscores the importance of the continual usage of such products as a preventive measure for oral diseases and the maintenance of health.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Xu H, Wang D, Cui K, et al (2024)

18F-FDG PET/CT findings in fatal Balamuthia Mandrillaris encephalitis in brain stem: A case report.

Radiology case reports, 19(5):1851-1854 pii:S1930-0433(24)00112-2.

We presented a case of a 66-year-old female whose initial symptom was headache without obvious inducement. The patient's condition progressed rapidly to a semi-coma state after symptomatic treatment. The [18]F-FDG PET/CT scan revealed circular FDG hypermetabolism and central metabolic defect of the pons and left frontal lobe lesions. The combination of clinical findings, MRI, and Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (NGS) of cerebrospinal fluid led to the diagnosis of Balamuthia mandrillaris encephalitis. The patient died 5 days after discharge.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Yi L, Zhu J, Li Q, et al (2024)

Panax notoginseng stems and leaves affect microbial community and function in cecum of duzang pigs.

Translational animal science, 8:txad142 pii:txad142.

Panax notoginseng is a Chinese medicine with a long history in which stems and leaves are the wastes of processing Panax notoginseng and have not been effectively utilized. The effects of diets containing Panax notoginseng stems and leaves on the cecal short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) concentration and microbiome of independent pigs were studied. Diets containing Panax notoginseng stems and leaves did not affect the concentration of SCFA in the cecal contents of Duzang pigs but affected the microbial composition and diversity. Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Bacteroidetes dominate in the cecal of Duzang pigs. Feeding Duzang pigs with a 10% Panax notoginseng stems and leaves diet increases the abundance of Lactobacillus, Christensenellaceae R-7 group, and Akkermansia in the cecal. We found 14 genera positively associated with acetate, and they were Lactobacillus, Ruminococcaceae UCG 005, Ruminiclostridium 6; Escherichia Shigella and Family XIII AD3011 group showed negative correlations. Solobacterium, Desulfovibrio, and Erysipelatoclostridium were positively associated with propionate. Campylobacter, Clostridium sensu stricto 11, and Angelakisella were positively associated with butyrate. In conclusion, Panax notoginseng stems and leaves could affect the cecal microbial community and functional composition of Duzang pigs. Panax notoginseng stems and leaves reduce the enrichment of lipopolysaccharide biosynthetic pathway of the cecal microbiome, which may have a positive effect on intestinal health. The higher abundance of GH25 family in Duzang pig's cecal microbiome of fed Panax notoginseng stems and leaves diet. This increase may be the reason for the microbial diversity decrease.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Garg D, Patel N, Rawat A, et al (2024)

Cutting edge tools in the field of soil microbiology.

Current research in microbial sciences, 6:100226 pii:S2666-5174(24)00008-7.

The study of the whole of the genetic material contained within the microbial populations found in a certain environment is made possible by metagenomics. This technique enables a thorough knowledge of the variety, function, and interactions of microbial communities that are notoriously difficult to research. Due to the limitations of conventional techniques such as culturing and PCR-based methodologies, soil microbiology is a particularly challenging field. Metagenomics has emerged as an effective technique for overcoming these obstacles and shedding light on the dynamic nature of the microbial communities in soil. This review focuses on the principle of metagenomics techniques, their potential applications and limitations in soil microbial diversity analysis. The effectiveness of target-based metagenomics in determining the function of individual genes and microorganisms in soil ecosystems is also highlighted. Targeted metagenomics, including high-throughput sequencing and stable-isotope probing, is essential for studying microbial taxa and genes in complex ecosystems. Shotgun metagenomics may reveal the diversity of soil bacteria, composition, and function impacted by land use and soil management. Sanger, Next Generation Sequencing, Illumina, and Ion Torrent sequencing revolutionise soil microbiome research. Oxford Nanopore Technology (ONT) and Pacific Biosciences (PacBio)'s third and fourth generation sequencing systems revolutionise long-read technology. GeoChip, clone libraries, metagenomics, and metabarcoding help comprehend soil microbial communities. The article indicates that metagenomics may improve environmental management and agriculture despite existing limitations.Metagenomics has revolutionised soil microbiology research by revealing the complete diversity, function, and interactions of microorganisms in soil. Metagenomics is anticipated to continue defining the future of soil microbiology research despite some limitations, such as the difficulty of locating the appropriate sequencing method for specific genes.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Chen J, Chen X, Zhu Y, et al (2024)

New insights into bioaugmented removal of sulfamethoxazole in sediment microcosms: degradation efficiency, ecological risk and microbial mechanisms.

Microbiome, 12(1):43.

BACKGROUND: Bioaugmentation has the potential to enhance the ability of ecological technology to treat sulfonamide-containing wastewater, but the low viability of the exogenous degraders limits their practical application. Understanding the mechanism is important to enhance and optimize performance of the bioaugmentation, which requires a multifaceted analysis of the microbial communities. Here, DNA-stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) and metagenomic analysis were conducted to decipher the bioaugmentation mechanisms in stabilization pond sediment microcosms inoculated with sulfamethoxazole (SMX)-degrading bacteria (Pseudomonas sp. M2 or Paenarthrobacter sp. R1).

RESULTS: The bioaugmentation with both strains M2 and R1, especially strain R1, significantly improved the biodegradation rate of SMX, and its biodegradation capacity was sustainable within a certain cycle (subjected to three repeated SMX additions). The removal strategy using exogenous degrading bacteria also significantly abated the accumulation and transmission risk of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). Strain M2 inoculation significantly lowered bacterial diversity and altered the sediment bacterial community, while strain R1 inoculation had a slight effect on the bacterial community and was closely associated with indigenous microorganisms. Paenarthrobacter was identified as the primary SMX-assimilating bacteria in both bioaugmentation systems based on DNA-SIP analysis. Combining genomic information with pure culture evidence, strain R1 enhanced SMX removal by directly participating in SMX degradation, while strain M2 did it by both participating in SMX degradation and stimulating SMX-degrading activity of indigenous microorganisms (Paenarthrobacter) in the community.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings demonstrate that bioaugmentation using SMX-degrading bacteria was a feasible strategy for SMX clean-up in terms of the degradation efficiency of SMX, the risk of ARG transmission, as well as the impact on the bacterial community, and the advantage of bioaugmentation with Paenarthrobacter sp. R1 was also highlighted. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Zeng S, Almeida A, Li S, et al (2024)

A metagenomic catalog of the early-life human gut virome.

Nature communications, 15(1):1864.

Early-life human gut microbiome is a pivotal driver of gut homeostasis and infant health. However, the viral component (known as "virome") remains mostly unexplored. Here, we establish the Early-Life Gut Virome (ELGV), a catalog of 160,478 non-redundant DNA and RNA viral sequences from 8130 gut virus-like particles (VLPs) enriched or bulk metagenomes in the first three years of life. By clustering, 82,141 viral species are identified, 68.3% of which are absent in existing databases built mainly from adults, and 64 and 8 viral species based on VLPs-enriched and bulk metagenomes, respectively, exhibit potentials as biomarkers to distinguish infants from adults. With the largest longitudinal population of infants profiled by either VLPs-enriched or bulk metagenomic sequencing, we track the inherent instability and temporal development of the early-life human gut virome, and identify differential viruses associated with multiple clinical factors. The mother-infant shared virome and interactions between gut virome and bacteriome early in life are further expanded. Together, the ELGV catalog provides the most comprehensive and complete metagenomic blueprint of the early-life human gut virome, facilitating the discovery of pediatric disease-virome associations in future.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Liu Z, Gu H, Yao Q, et al (2024)

Soil pH and carbon quality index regulate the biogeochemical cycle couplings of carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus in the profiles of Isohumosols.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)01408-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Soil biogeochemical cycles are essential for regulating ecosystem functions and services. However, little knowledge has been revealed on microbe-driven biogeochemical processes and their coupling mechanisms in soil profiles. This study investigated the vertical distribution of soil functional composition and their contribution to carbon (C), nitrogen (N) and phosphorus (P) cycling in the humus horizons (A-horizons) and parent material horizons (C-horizons) in Udic and Ustic Isohumosols using shotgun sequencing. Results showed that the diversity and relative abundance of microbial functional genes was influenced by soil horizons and soil types. In A-horizons, the relative abundances of N mineralization and liable C decomposition genes were significantly greater, but the P cycle-related genes, recalcitrant C decomposition and denitrification genes were lower compared to C-horizons. While, Ustic Isohumosols had lower relative abundances of C decomposition genes but higher relative abundances of N mineralization and P cycling-related pathways compared to Udic Isohumosols. The network analysis revealed that C-horizons had more interactions and stronger stability of functional gene networks than in A-horizons. Importantly, our results provide new insights into the potential mechanisms for the coupling processes of soil biogeochemical cycles among C, N and P, which is mediated by specific microbial taxa. Soil pH and carbon quality index (CQI) were two sensitive indicators for regulating the relative abundances and the relationships of functional genes in biogeochemical cycles. This study contributes to a deeper understanding of the ecological functions of soil microorganisms, thus providing a theoretical basis for the exploration and utilization of soil microbial resources and the development of soil ecological control strategies.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Xiang Y, Yu Y, Wang J, et al (2024)

Neural network establishes co-occurrence links between transformation products of the contaminant and the soil microbiome.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)01426-8 [Epub ahead of print].

It remains challenging to establish reliable links between transformation products (TPs) of contaminants and corresponding microbes. This challenge arises due to the sophisticated experimental regime required for TP discovery and the compositional nature of 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and mass spectrometry datasets, which can potentially confound statistical inference. In this study, we present a new strategy by combining the use of [2]H-labeled Stable Isotope-Assisted Metabolomics ([2]H-SIAM) with a neural network-based algorithm (i.e., MMvec) to explore links between TPs of pyrene and the soil microbiome. The links established by this novel strategy were further validated using different approaches. Briefly, a metagenomic study provided indirect evidence for the established links, while the identification of pyrene degraders from soils, and a DNA-based stable isotope probing (DNA-SIP) study offered direct evidence. The comparison among different approaches, including Pearson's and Spearman's correlations, further confirmed the superior performance of our strategy. In conclusion, we summarize the unique features of the combined use of [2]H-SIAM and MMvec. This study not only addresses the challenges in linking TPs to microbes but also introduces an innovative and effective approach for such investigations. Environmental Implication: Taxonomically diverse bacteria performing successive metabolic steps of the contaminant were firstly depicted in the environmental matrix.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Carasso S, Zaatry R, Hajjo H, et al (2024)

Inflammation and bacteriophages affect DNA inversion states and functionality of the gut microbiota.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(24)00042-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Reversible genomic DNA inversions control the expression of numerous gut bacterial molecules, but how this impacts disease remains uncertain. By analyzing metagenomic samples from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) cohorts, we identified multiple invertible regions where a particular orientation correlated with disease. These include the promoter of polysaccharide A (PSA) of Bacteroides fragilis, which induces regulatory T cells (Tregs) and ameliorates experimental colitis. The PSA promoter was mostly oriented "OFF" in IBD patients, which correlated with increased B. fragilis-associated bacteriophages. Similarly, in mice colonized with a healthy human microbiota and B. fragilis, induction of colitis caused a decline of PSA in the "ON" orientation that reversed as inflammation resolved. Monocolonization of mice with B. fragilis revealed that bacteriophage infection increased the frequency of PSA in the "OFF" orientation, causing reduced PSA expression and decreased Treg cells. Altogether, we reveal dynamic bacterial phase variations driven by bacteriophages and host inflammation, signifying bacterial functional plasticity during disease.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Cui Z, Li Y, Jing X, et al (2024)

Cycloalkane degradation by an uncultivated novel genus of Gammaproteobacteria derived from China's marginal seas.

Journal of hazardous materials, 469:133904 pii:S0304-3894(24)00483-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The consumption of cycloalkanes is prevalent in low-temperature marine environments, likely influenced by psychrophilic microorganisms. Despite their significance, the primary active species responsible for marine cycloalkane degradation remain largely unidentified due to cultivation challenges. In this study, we provide compelling evidence indicating that the uncultured genus C1-B045 of Gammaproteobacteria is a pivotal participant in cycloalkane decomposition within China's marginal seas. Notably, the relative abundance of C1-B045 surged from 15.9% in the methylcyclohexane (MCH)-consuming starter culture to as high as 97.5% in MCH-utilizing extinction cultures following successive dilution-to-extinction and incubation cycles. We used stable isotope probing, Raman-activated gravity-driven encapsulation, and 16 S rRNA gene sequencing to link cycloalkane-metabolizing phenotype to genotype at the single-cell level. By annotating key enzymes (e.g., alkane monooxygenase, cyclohexanone monooxygenase, and 6-hexanolactone hydrolase) involved in MCH metabolism within C1-B045's representative metagenome-assembled genome, we developed a putative MCH degradation pathway.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Istvan P, Birkeland E, Avershina E, et al (2024)

Exploring the gut DNA virome in fecal immunochemical test stool samples reveals associations with lifestyle in a large population-based study.

Nature communications, 15(1):1791.

Stool samples for fecal immunochemical tests (FIT) are collected in large numbers worldwide as part of colorectal cancer screening programs. Employing FIT samples from 1034 CRCbiome participants, recruited from a Norwegian colorectal cancer screening study, we identify, annotate and characterize more than 18000 DNA viruses, using shotgun metagenome sequencing. Only six percent of them are assigned to a known taxonomic family, with Microviridae being the most prevalent viral family. Linking individual profiles to comprehensive lifestyle and demographic data shows 17/25 of the variables to be associated with the gut virome. Physical activity, smoking, and dietary fiber consumption exhibit strong and consistent associations with both diversity and relative abundance of individual viruses, as well as with enrichment for auxiliary metabolic genes. We demonstrate the suitability of FIT samples for virome analysis, opening an opportunity for large-scale studies of this enigmatic part of the gut microbiome. The diverse viral populations and their connections to the individual lifestyle uncovered herein paves the way for further exploration of the role of the gut virome in health and disease.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Zhong ZP, Du J, Köstlbacher S, et al (2024)

Viral potential to modulate microbial methane metabolism varies by habitat.

Nature communications, 15(1):1857.

Methane is a potent greenhouse gas contributing to global warming. Microorganisms largely drive the biogeochemical cycling of methane, yet little is known about viral contributions to methane metabolism (MM). We analyzed 982 publicly available metagenomes from host-associated and environmental habitats containing microbial MM genes, expanding the known MM auxiliary metabolic genes (AMGs) from three to 24, including seven genes exclusive to MM pathways. These AMGs are recovered on 911 viral contigs predicted to infect 14 prokaryotic phyla including Halobacteriota, Methanobacteriota, and Thermoproteota. Of those 24, most were encoded by viruses from rumen (16/24), with substantially fewer by viruses from environmental habitats (0-7/24). To search for additional MM AMGs from an environmental habitat, we generate metagenomes from methane-rich sediments in Vrana Lake, Croatia. Therein, we find diverse viral communities, with most viruses predicted to infect methanogens and methanotrophs and some encoding 13 AMGs that can modulate host metabolisms. However, none of these AMGs directly participate in MM pathways. Together these findings suggest that the extent to which viruses use AMGs to modulate host metabolic processes (e.g., MM) varies depending on the ecological properties of the habitat in which they dwell and is not always predictable by habitat biogeochemical properties.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Anu K, Kumari S, Choudhary G, et al (2024)

Microbial diversity analysis of Chumathang geothermal spring, Ladakh, India.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

In light of their unique and challenging environment, the high-altitude Chumathang geothermal springs in Ladakh, India, are undeniably intriguing for microbiological study. The purpose of this study was to employ a culture-independent sequencing approach to give a comprehensive characterization of the unknown bacterial and archaeal community structure, composition and networks in water and soil from the Chumathang geothermal spring. A total of 50%, and 42.86% bacterial phyla were found in the water, and soil samples respectively and this analysis also showed a total of 9.62% and 7.94% of archaeal phyla in both the samples, respectively. Further, the presence of unclassified (derived from other sequences, water: 17.31%, and soil: 19.05%) and unclassified (derived from bacteria, water: 13.46%, and soil: 12.70%) were also observed in the current metagenomics investigation. Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were the most abundant bacterial phyla in water, whereas Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes were the most abundant bacterial phyla in geothermal soil. Crenarchaeota and Euryarchaeota dominated archeal communities in soil and water, respectively. This metagenomic study gave a detailed insight into the microbial diversity found in Chumathang geothermal spring and surrounding area, located in Ladakh, India. Surprisingly, this finding indicated the existence of geographically distinct microbial communities that were suited to various geothermal water habitats along the Himalayan Geothermal Belt. Future studies must take into account the metabolic pathways of these microbial communities that exist in these extreme environments. This will allow us to obtain a better knowledge of the microbial metabolisms that are common at these geothermal locations, which have a lot of potential for biotechnological applications. They will also enable us to establish links between the microbial community composition and the physicochemical environment of geothermal water and area.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Matchado MS, Rühlemann M, Reitmeier S, et al (2024)

On the limits of 16S rRNA gene-based metagenome prediction and functional profiling.

Microbial genomics, 10(2):.

Molecular profiling techniques such as metagenomics, metatranscriptomics or metabolomics offer important insights into the functional diversity of the microbiome. In contrast, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, a widespread and cost-effective technique to measure microbial diversity, only allows for indirect estimation of microbial function. To mitigate this, tools such as PICRUSt2, Tax4Fun2, PanFP and MetGEM infer functional profiles from 16S rRNA gene sequencing data using different algorithms. Prior studies have cast doubts on the quality of these predictions, motivating us to systematically evaluate these tools using matched 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomic datasets, and simulated data. Our contribution is threefold: (i) using simulated data, we investigate if technical biases could explain the discordance between inferred and expected results; (ii) considering human cohorts for type two diabetes, colorectal cancer and obesity, we test if health-related differential abundance measures of functional categories are concordant between 16S rRNA gene-inferred and metagenome-derived profiles and; (iii) since 16S rRNA gene copy number is an important confounder in functional profiles inference, we investigate if a customised copy number normalisation with the rrnDB database could improve the results. Our results show that 16S rRNA gene-based functional inference tools generally do not have the necessary sensitivity to delineate health-related functional changes in the microbiome and should thus be used with care. Furthermore, we outline important differences in the individual tools tested and offer recommendations for tool selection.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Zhang N, Gao X, Li D, et al (2024)

Sleep deprivation-induced anxiety-like behaviors are associated with alterations in the gut microbiota and metabolites.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: The present study aimed to characterize the gut microbiota and serum metabolome changes associated with sleep deprivation (SD) as well as to explore the potential benefits of multi-probiotic supplementation in alleviating SD-related mental health disorders. Rats were subjected to 7 days of SD, followed by 14 days of multi-probiotics or saline administration. Open-field tests were conducted at baseline, end of SD (day 7), and after 14 days of saline or multi-probiotic gavage (day 21). Metagenomic sequencing was conducted on fecal samples, and serum metabolites were measured by untargeted liquid chromatography tandem-mass spectrometry. At day 7, anxiety-like behaviors, including significant decreases in total movement distance (P = 0.0002) and staying time in the central zone (P = 0.021), were observed. In addition, increased levels of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; P = 0.028) and decreased levels of uridine (P = 0.018) and tryptophan (P = 0.01) were detected in rats after 7 days of SD. After SD, the richness of the gut bacterial community increased, and the levels of Akkermansia muciniphila, Muribaculum intestinale, and Bacteroides caecimuris decreased. The changes in the host metabolism and gut microbiota composition were strongly associated with the anxiety-like behaviors caused by SD. In addition, multi-probiotic supplementation for 14 days modestly improved the anxiety-like behaviors in SD rats but significantly reduced the serum level of LPS (P = 0.045). In conclusion, SD induces changes in the gut microbiota and serum metabolites, which may contribute to the development of chronic inflammatory responses and affect the gut-brain axis, causing anxiety-like behaviors. Probiotic supplementation significantly reduces serum LPS, which may alleviate the influence of chronic inflammation.

IMPORTANCE: The disturbance in the gut microbiome and serum metabolome induced by SD may be involved in anxiety-like behaviors. Probiotic supplementation decreases serum levels of LPS, but this reduction may be insufficient for alleviating SD-induced anxiety-like behaviors.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Long Y, Xia X, Feng H, et al (2024)

Improving pulmonary infection diagnosis with metagenomic next-generation sequencing of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid.

Journal of medical microbiology, 73(2):.

Introduction. Inappropriate use of antibiotics and inadequate therapeutic regimens for early-stage pulmonary infections are major contributors to increased prevalence of complications and mortality. Moreover, due to the limitations in sensitivity of conventional testing, there is an urgent need for more diagnostically efficient methods for the detection and characterization of pathogens in pulmonary infections.Hypothesis/Gap Statement. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) can contribute to the diagnosis and management of pulmonary infections.Aim. This study aimed to evaluate the clinical application and value of mNGS in the diagnosis of clinically suspected pulmonary infections by comparing with conventional testing.Methodology. In this study, the diagnosis performance of mNGS was evaluated using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples from 143 patients with suspected lung infections. First, we conducted a prospective study on 31 patients admitted to Yuebei People's Hospital Affiliated to Shantou University Medical College to investigate the clinical value. Then a retrospective analysis was performed by including more patients (n=112) to reduce the random error. Pathogens were detected by mNGS and conventional methods (culture and PCR). Then, the types and cases of detected pathogens, as well as the specificity and sensitivity, were compared between the two methods. We evaluated the performance of mNGS in detecting bacterial, fungal, viral and mixed infections in BALF. The effect of disease severity in pulmonary infections on the integrity of mNGS pathogen detection was also explored.Results. The mNGS provided an earlier and more comprehensive pathogen profile than conventional testing, which in turn prompted a change in clinical medication, which led to improvement in eight patients (8/31=25.81 %) in the presence of other serious comorbidities. In a retrospective analysis, mNGS was much more sensitive than conventional testing in the diagnosis of pulmonary infections (95.33 % vs. 55.56 %; P<0.001), with a 39.77 % increase in sensitivity. The detection rate of mNGS for mixed infections was significantly higher than that of conventional testing methods for both common and severe pneumonia (48/67=71.64 % vs. 12/52=23.08 %, P<0.001; 44/59=74.58 % vs. 11/59=18.64 %, P<0.0001).Conclusion. The sensitivity of mNGS in the diagnosis of pathogenic microorganisms in pulmonary infections far exceeds that of conventional culture tests. As a complementary method to conventional methods, mNGS can help improve the diagnosis of pulmonary infections. In addition, mNGS pathogen integrity detection rate was similar in common and severe pneumonia. We recommend the prompt use of mNGS when mixed or rare pathogen infections are suspected, especially in immunocompromised individuals and/or critically ill individuals.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Zhu K, Jin Y, Zhao Y, et al (2024)

Proteomic scrutiny of nasal microbiomes: implications for the clinic.

Expert review of proteomics [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The nasal cavity is the initial site of the human respiratory tract and is one of the habitats where microorganisms colonize. The findings from a growing number of studies have shown that the nasal microbiome is an important factor for human disease and health. 16S rRNA sequencing and metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) are the most commonly used means of microbiome evaluation. Among them, 16S rRNA sequencing is the primary method used in previous studies of nasal microbiomes. However, neither 16S rRNA sequencing nor mNGS can be used to analyze the genes specifically expressed by nasal microorganisms and their functions. This problem can be addressed by proteomic analysis of the nasal microbiome.

AREAS COVERED: In this review, we summarize current advances in research on the nasal microbiome, introduce the methods for proteomic evaluation of the nasal microbiome, and focus on the important roles of proteomic evaluation of the nasal microbiome in the diagnosis and treatment of related diseases.

EXPERT OPINION: The detection method for microbiome-expressed proteins is known as metaproteomics. Metaproteomic analysis can help us dig deeper into the nasal microbiomes and provide new targets and ideas for clinical diagnosis and treatment of many nasal dysbiosis-related diseases.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Lu Y, Zhang L, Liu X, et al (2024)

Red pandas with different diets and environments exhibit different gut microbial functional composition and capacity.

Integrative zoology [Epub ahead of print].

The red panda (Ailurus fulgens) is a distinctive mammal known for its reliance on a diet primarily consisting of bamboo. The gut microbiota and overall health of animals are strongly influenced by diets and environments. Therefore, conducting research to explore the taxonomical and functional variances within the gut microbiota of red pandas exposed to various dietary and environmental conditions could shed light on the dynamic complexities of their microbial communities. In this study, normal fecal samples were obtained from red pandas residing in captive and semi-free environments under different dietary regimes and used for metabolomic, 16S rRNA, and metagenomic sequencing analysis, with the pandas classified into four distinct cohorts according to diet and environment. In addition, metagenomic sequencing was conducted on mucus fecal samples to elucidate potential etiological agents of disease. Results revealed an increased risk of gastrointestinal diseases in red pandas consuming bamboo shoots due to the heightened presence of pathogenic bacteria, although an increased presence of microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolites appeared to facilitate intestinal balance. The red pandas fed bamboo leaves also exhibited a decrease in gut microbial diversity, which may be attributed to the antibacterial flavonoids and lower protein levels in leaves. Notably, red pandas residing in semi-free environments demonstrated an enriched gut microbial diversity. Moreover, the occurrence of mucus secretion may be due to an increased presence of species associated with diarrhea and a reduced level of microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolites. In summary, our findings substantiate the influential role of diet and environment in modulating the gut microbiota of red pandas, offering potential implications for improved captive breeding practices.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Saikh SR, Mushtaque MA, Pramanick A, et al (2024)

Fog caused distinct diversity of airborne bacterial communities enriched with pathogens over central Indo-Gangetic plain in India.

Heliyon, 10(4):e26370.

Fog causes enhancement of bacterial loading in the atmosphere. Current study represents the impact of occurrences of fog on the alteration of diversity of airborne bacteria and their network computed from metagenomic data of airborne samples collected at Arthauli (25.95°N, 85.10°E) situated at central Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) during 1-14 January 2021. A distinct bacterial diversity with a complex network is identified in foggy condition due to the enrichment of unique types of bacteria. Present investigation highlights a statistically significant enrichment of airborne pathogenic bacteria found in a unique ecosystem within air evolved due to the occurrences of fog over central IGP. In the foggy network, Cutibacterium, an opportunistic pathogen, is identified to be interacting maximum (21 edges) with other bacteria with statistically significant copresence relation, which are responsible for various infections for human beings. A 40-60% increase (p < 0.01) in the abundance of pathogenic bacteria for respiratory and skin diseases is noticed in fog period. Among the fog-enriched bacteria, Cutibacterium, Herbaspirillum, Paenibacillus, and Tsukamurella are examples of opportunistic bacteria causing various respiratory diseases, while Paenibacillus can even cause skin cancer and acute lymphoblastic leukemia.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Sharko FS, Mazloum A, Krotova AO, et al (2024)

Metagenomic profiling of viral and microbial communities from the pox lesions of lumpy skin disease virus and sheeppox virus-infected hosts.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 11:1321202.

INTRODUCTION: It has been recognized that capripoxvirus infections have a strong cutaneous tropism with the manifestation of skin lesions in the form of nodules and scabs in the respective hosts, followed by necrosis and sloughing off. Considering that the skin microbiota is a complex community of commensal bacteria, fungi and viruses that are influenced by infections leading to pathological states, there is no evidence on how the skin microbiome is affected during capripoxvirus pathogenesis.

METHODS: In this study, shotgun metagenomic sequencing was used to investigate the microbiome in pox lesions from hosts infected with lumpy skin disease virus and sheep pox virus.

RESULTS: The analysis revealed a high degree of variability in bacterial community structures across affected skin samples, indicating the importance of specific commensal microorganisms colonizing individual hosts. The most common and abundant bacteria found in scab samples were Fusobacterium necrophorum, Streptococcus dysgalactiae, Helcococcus ovis and Trueperella pyogenes, irrespective of host. Bacterial reads belonging to the genera Moraxella, Mannheimia, Corynebacterium, Staphylococcus and Micrococcus were identified.

DISCUSSION: This study is the first to investigate capripox virus-associated changes in the skin microbiome using whole-genome metagenomic profiling. The findings will provide a basis for further investigation into capripoxvirus pathogenesis. In addition, this study highlights the challenge of selecting an optimal bioinformatics approach for the analysis of metagenomic data in clinical and veterinary practice. For example, direct classification of reads using a kmer-based algorithm resulted in a significant number of systematic false positives, which may be attributed to the peculiarities of the algorithm and database selection. On the contrary, the process of de novo assembly requires a large number of target reads from the symbiotic microbial community. In this work, the obtained sequencing data were processed by three different approaches, including direct classification of reads based on k-mers, mapping of reads to a marker gene database, and de novo assembly and binning of metagenomic contigs. The advantages and disadvantages of these techniques and their practicality in veterinary settings are discussed in relation to the results obtained.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Kumar B, Lorusso E, Fosso B, et al (2024)

A comprehensive overview of microbiome data in the light of machine learning applications: categorization, accessibility, and future directions.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1343572.

Metagenomics, Metabolomics, and Metaproteomics have significantly advanced our knowledge of microbial communities by providing culture-independent insights into their composition and functional potential. However, a critical challenge in this field is the lack of standard and comprehensive metadata associated with raw data, hindering the ability to perform robust data stratifications and consider confounding factors. In this comprehensive review, we categorize publicly available microbiome data into five types: shotgun sequencing, amplicon sequencing, metatranscriptomic, metabolomic, and metaproteomic data. We explore the importance of metadata for data reuse and address the challenges in collecting standardized metadata. We also, assess the limitations in metadata collection of existing public repositories collecting metagenomic data. This review emphasizes the vital role of metadata in interpreting and comparing datasets and highlights the need for standardized metadata protocols to fully leverage metagenomic data's potential. Furthermore, we explore future directions of implementation of Machine Learning (ML) in metadata retrieval, offering promising avenues for a deeper understanding of microbial communities and their ecological roles. Leveraging these tools will enhance our insights into microbial functional capabilities and ecological dynamics in diverse ecosystems. Finally, we emphasize the crucial metadata role in ML models development.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Cui N, Yang X, Sui H, et al (2024)

Virome characterization of diarrheic red-crowned crane (G. japonensis).

Animal microbiome, 6(1):8.

BACKGROUND: The red-crowned crane is one of the vulnerable bird species. Although the captive population has markedly increased over the last decade, infectious diseases can lead to the death of young red-crowned cranes while few virological studies have been conducted.

METHODS: Using a viral metagenomics approach, we analyzed the virome of tissues of the dead captive red-crowned crane with diarrhea symptoms in Dongying Biosphere Reserve, Shandong Province, China and feces of individual birds breeding at the corresponding captive breeding center, which were pooled separately.

RESULTS: There is much more DNA and RNA viruses in the feces than that of the tissues. RNA virus belonging to the families Picornaviridae, and DNA viruses belonging to the families Parvoviridae, associated with enteric diseases were detected in the tissues and feces. Genomes of the picornavirus, genomovirus, and parvovirus identified in the study were fully characterized, which further suggested that infectious viruses of these families were possibly presented in the diseased red-crowned crane.

CONCLUSION: RNA virus belonging to the families Picornaviridae, and DNA viruses belonging to the families Genomoviridae and Parvoviridae were possibly the causative agent for diarrhea of red-crowned crane. This study has expanded our understanding of the virome of red-crowned crane and provides a baseline for elucidating the etiology for diarrhea of the birds.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Nooij S, Vendrik KEW, Zwittink RD, et al (2024)

Long-term beneficial effect of faecal microbiota transplantation on colonisation of multidrug-resistant bacteria and resistome abundance in patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection.

Genome medicine, 16(1):37.

BACKGROUND: Multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacteria are a growing global threat, especially in healthcare facilities. Faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an effective prevention strategy for recurrences of Clostridioides difficile infections and can also be useful for other microbiota-related diseases.

METHODS: We study the effect of FMT in patients with multiple recurrent C. difficile infections on colonisation with MDR bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARG) on the short (3 weeks) and long term (1-3 years), combining culture methods and faecal metagenomics.

RESULTS: Based on MDR culture (n = 87 patients), we notice a decrease of 11.5% in the colonisation rate of MDR bacteria after FMT (20/87 before FMT = 23%, 10/87 3 weeks after FMT). Metagenomic sequencing of patient stool samples (n = 63) shows a reduction in relative abundances of ARGs in faeces, while the number of different resistance genes in patients remained higher compared to stools of their corresponding healthy donors (n = 11). Furthermore, plasmid predictions in metagenomic data indicate that patients harboured increased levels of resistance plasmids, which appear unaffected by FMT. In the long term (n = 22 patients), the recipients' resistomes are still donor-like, suggesting the effect of FMT may last for years.

CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, we hypothesise that FMT restores the gut microbiota to a composition that is closer to the composition of healthy donors, and potential pathogens are either lost or decreased to very low abundances. This process, however, does not end in the days following FMT. It may take months for the gut microbiome to re-establish a balanced state. Even though a reservoir of resistance genes remains, a notable part of which on plasmids, FMT decreases the total load of resistance genes.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Zhang H, Zhang P, Xiao Z, et al (2024)

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis caused by herpes simplex virus type 1 in a young adult: a case report with literature review.

Journal of hematopathology [Epub ahead of print].

Hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis is a severe hyperinflammatory syndrome that can be potentially life-threatening without appropriate treatment. Although viral infection is the most common trigger of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis, cases of herpes simplex virus type 1-induced hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis are rare in adults. This study aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the clinical characteristics and treatment outcomes associated with HSV-1-induced HLH. We herein report an adult case of hemophagocytic lymphohistiocytosis caused by herpes simplex virus type 1, diagnosed on the basis of peripheral blood metagenomic next-generation sequencing results. The patient exhibited a favorable response to treatment, involving dexamethasone, intravenous immunoglobulin, and acyclovir. Notably, etoposide administration was deemed unnecessary, and there has been no recurrence of the disease within the year following treatment. Early and sensitive recognition, rapid and precise diagnosis, and timely and appropriate treatment facilitated the successful treatment of this case.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Xie Z, Huang J, Sun G, et al (2024)

Integrated multi-omics analysis reveals gut microbiota dysbiosis and systemic disturbance in major depressive disorder.

Psychiatry research, 334:115804 pii:S0165-1781(24)00089-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Major depressive disorder (MDD) involves systemic changes in peripheral blood and gut microbiota, but the current understanding is incomplete. Herein, we conducted a multi-omics analysis of fecal and blood samples obtained from an observational cohort including MDD patients (n = 99) and healthy control (HC, n = 50). 16S rRNA sequencing of gut microbiota showed structural alterations in MDD, as characterized by increased Enterococcus. Metagenomics sequencing of gut microbiota showed substantial functional alterations including upregulation in the superpathway of the glyoxylate cycle and fatty acid degradation and downregulation in various metabolic pathways in MDD. Plasma metabolomics revealed decreased amino acids and bile acids, together with increased sphingolipids and cholesterol esters in MDD. Notably, metabolites involved in arginine and proline metabolism were decreased while sphingolipid metabolic pathway were increased. Mass cytometry analysis of blood immune cell subtypes showed rises in proinflammatory immune subsets and declines in anti-inflammatory immune subsets in MDD. Furthermore, our findings revealed disease severity-related factors of MDD. Interestingly, we classified MDD into two immune subtypes that were highly correlated with disease relapse. Moreover, we established discriminative signatures that differentiate MDD from HC. These findings contribute to a comprehensive understanding of the MDD pathogenesis and provide valuable resources for the discovery of biomarkers.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Halleran J, Sylvester H, Jacob M, et al (2024)

Impact of florfenicol dosing regimen on the phenotypic and genotypic resistance of enteric bacteria in steers.

Scientific reports, 14(1):4920.

The food animal sector's use of antimicrobials is heavily critiqued for its role in allowing resistance to develop against critically important antimicrobials in human health. The WHO recommends using lower tier antimicrobials such as florfenicol for disease treatment. The primary objective of this study was to assess the differences in resistance profiles of enteric microbes following administration of florfenicol to steers using both FDA-approved dosing regimens and two different detection methods. Our hypothesis was that we would identify an increased prevalence of resistance in the steers administered the repeated, lower dose of florfenicol; additionally, we hypothesized resistance profiles would be similar between both detection methods. Twelve steers were administered either two intramuscular (20 mg/kg q 48 h; n = 6) or a single subcutaneous dose (40 mg/kg, n = 6). Fecal samples were collected for 38 days, and E. coli and Enterococcus were isolated and tested for resistance. Fecal samples were submitted for metagenomic sequencing analysis. Metagenomics revealed genes conferring resistance to aminoglycosides as the most abundant drug class. Most multidrug resistance genes contained phenicols. The genotypic and phenotypic patterns of resistance were not similar between drug classes. Observed increases in resistant isolates and relative abundance of resistance genes peaked after drug administration and returned to baseline by the end of the sampling period. The use of a "lower tier" antimicrobial, such as florfenicol, may cause an increased amount of resistance to critically important antimicrobials for a brief period, but these changes largely resolve by the end of the drug withdrawal period.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Raghav N, Saraswat P, Kumar S, et al (2024)

Metagenomics analysis of water samples collected from the Yamuna River of Agra city, India.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 40(4):113.

Yamuna River water in Agra city of India is contaminated with toxic pollutants, including heavy metals that cause damage to the environment and human health. At present, the direct use of river water for drinking purposes and household activities lead to the direct exposure of society to the contaminants. In this study, Yamuna River water samples were collected from three different sites in Agra city during the monsoon, summer, and winter seasons. The physico-chemical parameters were estimated along with heavy metals. In physico-chemical parameter, the values found were mostly above the permissible limits. The results water samples contain high levels of cadmium, chromium, lead, and nickel above the desirable levels in most cases. The metagenomic analysis revealed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, and Planctobacteria were the most abundant phyla with a relative abundance of 61%, 9.34%, 5.23%, 4.64%, and 4.3%, respectively. The Comamonadaceae, the most abundant family consists of the genera involved in hydrogen oxidation, iron reduction, degraders of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, and fermentation. The presence of Pseudomonas, Nitrosomonas sp., Thauera humireducens and Dechloromonas denitrificans (decomposition of sewage and organic matter) and Pseudomonas aeruginosa indicates the presence of heavy metal degrading bacteria in water sample. Functional prediction showed the presence of genes responsible for different metabolic pathways that could help developing new bioremediation strategies. The study concludes the status of water contamination, the presence of complex microbial community and suggests the futuristic use and their role in bioremediation.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Zheng R, Wang C, C Sun (2024)

Deep-sea in situ and laboratory multi-omics provide insights into the sulfur assimilation of a deep-sea Chloroflexota bacterium.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Chloroflexota bacteria are abundant and globally distributed in various deep-sea ecosystems. It has been reported based on metagenomics data that two deep-sea Chloroflexota lineages (the SAR202 group and Dehalococcoidia class) have the potential to drive sulfur cycling. However, the absence of cultured Chloroflexota representatives is a significant bottleneck toward understanding their contribution to the deep-sea sulfur cycling. In this study, we find that Phototrophicus methaneseepsis ZRK33 isolated from deep-sea sediment has a heterotrophic lifestyle and can assimilate sulfate and thiosulfate. Using combined physiological, genomic, proteomic, and in situ transcriptomic methods, we find that strain ZRK33 can perform assimilatory sulfate reduction in both laboratory and deep-sea conditions. Metabolism of sulfate or thiosulfate by strain ZRK33 significantly promotes the transport and degradation of various macromolecules and thereby stimulates the energy production. In addition, metagenomic results show that genes associated with assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate reduction are ubiquitously distributed in the metagenome-assembled genomes of Chloroflexota members derived from deep-sea sediments. Metatranscriptomic results also show that the expression levels of related genes are upregulated, strongly suggesting that Chloroflexota bacteria may play undocumented roles in deep-sea sulfur cycling.

IMPORTANCE: The cycling of sulfur is one of Earth's major biogeochemical processes and is closely related to the energy metabolism of microorganisms living in the deep-sea cold seep and hydrothermal vents. To date, some of the members of Chloroflexota are proposed to play a previously unrecognized role in sulfur cycling. However, the sulfur metabolic characteristics of deep-sea Chloroflexota bacteria have never been reported, and remain to be verified in cultured deep-sea representatives. Here, we show that the deep-sea Chloroflexota bacterium ZRK33 can perform sulfate assimilation in both laboratory and deep-sea conditions, which expands our knowledge of the sulfur metabolic potential of deep-sea Chloroflexota bacteria. We also show that the genes associated with assimilatory and dissimilatory sulfate reduction ubiquitously distribute in the deep-sea Chloroflexota members, providing hints to the roles of Chloroflexota bacteria in deep-sea sulfur biogeochemical cycling.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Genitsaris S, Stefanidou N, Hatzinikolaou D, et al (2024)

Marine Microbiota Responses to Shipping Scrubber Effluent Assessed at Community Structure and Function Endpoints.

Environmental toxicology and chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The use of novel high-throughput sequencing (HTS) technologies to examine the responses of natural multidomain microbial communities to scrubber effluent discharges to the marine environment is still limited. Thus, we applied metabarcoding sequencing targeting the planktonic unicellular eukaryotic and prokaryotic fraction (phytoplankton, bacterioplankton, and protozooplankton) in mesocosm experiments with natural microbial communities from a polluted and an unpolluted site. Furthermore, metagenomic analysis revealed changes in the taxonomic and functional dominance of multidomain marine microbial communities after scrubber effluent additions. The results indicated a clear shift in the microbial communities after such additions, which favored bacterial taxa with known oil and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) biodegradation capacities. These bacteria exhibited high connectedness with planktonic unicellular eukaryotes employing variable trophic strategies, suggesting that environmentally relevant bacteria can influence eukaryotic community structure. Furthermore, Clusters of Orthologous Genes associated with pathways of PAHs and monocyclic hydrocarbon degradation increased in numbers at treatments with high scrubber effluent additions acutely. These genes are known to express enzymes acting at various substrates including PAHs. These indications, in combination with the abrupt decrease in the most abundant PAHs in the scrubber effluent below the limit of detection-much faster than their known half-lives-could point toward a bacterioplankton-initiated rapid ultimate biodegradation of the most abundant toxic contaminants of the scrubber effluent. The implementation of HTS could be a valuable tool to develop multilevel biodiversity indicators of the scrubber effluent impacts on the marine environment, which could lead to improved impact assessment. Environ Toxicol Chem 2024;00:1-18. © 2024 The Authors. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of SETAC.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Bai L, Paek J, Shin Y, et al (2024)

Aerococcus kribbianus sp. nov., a facultatively anaerobic bacterium isolated from pig faeces.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 74(2):.

Two cocci-shaped, facultatively anaerobic, Gram-positive bacteria isolated from the faeces of a pig were designated as strains YH-aer221[T] and YH-aer222. Analysis of the 16S rRNA gene sequences revealed that the isolates were most closely related to Aerococcus suis JCM 18035[T] with 96.6 % similarity. The multi-locus sequence tree revealed that the isolates formed a sub-cluster adjacent to A. suis JCM 18035[T]. The average nucleotide identity values for the isolates and their most closely related strains were 71.8 and 71.7 %, respectively; and the digital DNA-DNA hybridization values for the isolates and their most closely related strains were 25.6 and 25.5 %, respectively. The main fatty acids were C18 : 1ω9c, C16 : 0 and C18 : 0. The cell wall contained the meso-diaminopimelic acid-based peptidoglycan. The two isolates shared the same metabolic pathways. Isolates YH-aer221[T] and YH-aer222 harboured the same CRISPR array with 33 and 46 spacers, respectively. Single-genome vs. metagenome analysis showed that the genomes of the isolates were not found in the available metagenome database. Given their chemotaxonomic, phenotypic and phylogenetic properties, YH-aer221[T] (= KCTC 25571[T]=JCM 35699[T]) and YH-aer222 (=KCTC 25573=JCM 35700) represent a novel taxon. The name Aerococcus kribbianus sp. nov. is proposed.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Minami S, Kotaki T, Sakai Y, et al (2024)

Vero cell-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain shows increased viral growth through furin-mediated efficient spike cleavage.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) utilizes several host proteases to cleave the spike (S) protein to enter host cells. SARS-CoV-2 S protein is cleaved into S1 and S2 subunits by furin, which is closely involved in the pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2. However, the effects of the modulated protease cleavage activity due to S protein mutations on viral replication and pathogenesis remain unclear. Herein, we serially passaged two SARS-CoV-2 strains in Vero cells and characterized the cell-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strains in vitro and in vivo. The adapted strains showed high viral growth, effective S1/S2 cleavage of the S protein, and low pathogenicity compared with the wild-type strain. Furthermore, the viral growth and S1/S2 cleavage were enhanced by the combination of the Δ68-76 and H655Y mutations using recombinant SARS-CoV-2 strains generated by the circular polymerase extension reaction. The recombinant SARS-CoV-2 strain, which contained the mutation of the adapted strain, showed increased susceptibility to the furin inhibitor, suggesting that the adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain utilized furin more effectively than the wild-type strain. Pathogenicity was attenuated by infection with effectively cleaved recombinant SARS-CoV-2 strains, suggesting that the excessive cleavage of the S proteins decreases virulence. Finally, the high-growth-adapted SARS-CoV-2 strain could be used as the seed for a low-cost inactivated vaccine; immunization with this vaccine can effectively protect the host from SARS-CoV-2 variants. Our findings provide novel insights into the growth and pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 in the evolution of cell-cell transmission.IMPORTANCEThe efficacy of the S protein cleavage generally differs among the SARS-CoV-2 variants, resulting in distinct viral characteristics. The relationship between a mutation and the entry of SARS-CoV-2 into host cells remains unclear. In this study, we analyzed the sequence of high-growth Vero cell-adapted SARS-CoV-2 and factors determining the enhancement of the growth of the adapted virus and confirmed the characteristics of the adapted strain by analyzing the recombinant SARS-CoV-2 strain. We successfully identified mutations Δ68-76 and H655Y, which enhance viral growth and the S protein cleavage by furin. Using recombinant viruses enabled us to conduct a virus challenge experiment in vivo. The pathogenicity of SARS-CoV-2 introduced with the mutations Δ68-76, H655Y, P812L, and Q853L was attenuated in hamsters, indicating the possibility of the attenuation of excessive cleaved SARS-CoV-2. These findings provide novel insights into the infectivity and pathogenesis of SARS-CoV-2 strains, thereby significantly contributing to the field of virology.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Stewart RD, Myers KS, Amstadt C, et al (2024)

Refinement of the "Candidatus Accumulibacter" genus based on metagenomic analysis of biological nutrient removal (BNR) pilot-scale plants operated with reduced aeration.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Members of the "Candidatus Accumulibacter" genus are widely studied as key polyphosphate-accumulating organisms (PAOs) in biological nutrient removal (BNR) facilities performing enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR). This diverse lineage includes 18 "Ca. Accumulibacter" species, which have been proposed based on the phylogenetic divergence of the polyphosphate kinase 1 (ppk1) gene and genome-scale comparisons of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Phylogenetic classification based on the 16S rRNA genetic marker has been difficult to attain because most "Ca. Accumulibacter" MAGs are incomplete and often do not include the rRNA operon. Here, we investigate the "Ca. Accumulibacter" diversity in pilot-scale treatment trains performing BNR under low dissolved oxygen (DO) conditions using genome-resolved metagenomics. Using long-read sequencing, we recovered medium- and high-quality MAGs for 5 of the 18 "Ca. Accumulibacter" species, all with rRNA operons assembled, which allowed a reassessment of the 16S rRNA-based phylogeny of this genus and an analysis of phylogeny based on the 23S rRNA gene. In addition, we recovered a cluster of MAGs that based on 16S rRNA, 23S rRNA, ppk1, and genome-scale phylogenetic analyses do not belong to any of the currently recognized "Ca. Accumulibacter" species for which we propose the new species designation "Ca. Accumulibacter jenkinsii" sp. nov. Relative abundance evaluations of the genus across all pilot plant operations revealed that regardless of the operational mode, "Ca. A. necessarius" and "Ca. A. propinquus" accounted for more than 40% of the "Ca. Accumulibacter" community, whereas the newly proposed "Ca. A. jenkinsii" accounted for about 5% of the "Ca. Accumulibacter" community.IMPORTANCEOne of the main drivers of energy use and operational costs in activated sludge processes is the amount of oxygen provided to enable biological phosphorus and nitrogen removal. Wastewater treatment facilities are increasingly considering reduced aeration to decrease energy consumption, and whereas successful BNR has been demonstrated in systems with minimal aeration, an adequate understanding of the microbial communities that facilitate nutrient removal under these conditions is still lacking. In this study, we used genome-resolved metagenomics to evaluate the diversity of the "Candidatus Accumulibacter" genus in pilot-scale plants operating with minimal aeration. We identified the "Ca. Accumulibacter" species enriched under these conditions, including one novel species for which we propose "Ca. Accumulibacter jenkinsii" sp. nov. as its designation. Furthermore, the MAGs obtained for five additional "Ca. Accumulibacter" species further refine the phylogeny of the "Ca. Accumulibacter" genus and provide new insight into its diversity within unconventional biological nutrient removal systems.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Jhaveri TA, Weiss ZF, Winkler ML, et al (2024)

A decade of clinical microbiology: top 10 advances in 10 years: what every infection preventionist and antimicrobial steward should know.

Antimicrobial stewardship & healthcare epidemiology : ASHE, 4(1):e8.

The past 10 years have brought paradigm-shifting changes to clinical microbiology. This paper explores the top 10 transformative innovations across the diagnostic spectrum, including not only state of the art technologies but also preanalytic and post-analytic advances. Clinical decision support tools have reshaped testing practices, curbing unnecessary tests. Innovations like broad-range polymerase chain reaction and metagenomic sequencing, whole genome sequencing, multiplex molecular panels, rapid phenotypic susceptibility testing, and matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry have all expanded our diagnostic armamentarium. Rapid home-based testing has made diagnostic testing more accessible than ever. Enhancements to clinician-laboratory interfaces allow for automated stewardship interventions and education. Laboratory restructuring and consolidation efforts are reshaping the field of microbiology, presenting both opportunities and challenges for the future of clinical microbiology laboratories. Here, we review key innovations of the last decade.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Ahsan A, Wagner D, Varaljay VA, et al (2024)

Screening putative polyester polyurethane degrading enzymes with semi-automated cell-free expression and nitrophenyl probes.

Synthetic biology (Oxford, England), 9(1):ysae005.

Cell-free expression (CFE) has shown recent utility in prototyping enzymes for discovery efforts. In this work, CFE is demonstrated as an effective tool to screen putative polyester polyurethane degrading enzyme sequences sourced from metagenomic analysis of biofilms prospected on aircraft and vehicles. An automated fluid handler with a controlled temperature block is used to assemble the numerous 30 µL CFE reactions to provide more consistent results over human assembly. In sum, 13 putative hydrolase enzymes from the biofilm organisms as well as a previously verified, polyester-degrading cutinase were expressed using in-house E. coli extract and minimal linear templates. The enzymes were then tested for esterase activity directly in extract using nitrophenyl conjugated substrates, showing highest sensitivity to shorter substrates (4-nitrophenyl hexanoate and 4-nNitrophenyl valerate). This screen identified 10 enzymes with statistically significant activities against these substrates; however, all were lower in measured relative activity, on a CFE volume basis, to the established cutinase control. This approach portends the use of CFE and reporter probes to rapidly prototype, screen and design for synthetic polymer degrading enzymes from environmental consortia. Graphical Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Chen J, Guo J, Lu X, et al (2024)

Microbiome-friendly PS/PVP electrospun fibrous membrane with antibiofilm properties for dental engineering.

Regenerative biomaterials, 11:rbae011.

Dental caries is one of the most prevalent and biofilm-associated oral diseases in humans. Streptococcus mutans, with a high ability to form biofilms by adhering to hard surfaces, has been established as an important etiological agent for dental caries. Therefore, it is crucial to find a way to prevent the formation of cariogenic biofilm. Here, we report an electrospun fibrous membrane that could inhibit the adhesion and biofilm formation of S. mutans. Also, the polystyrene (PS)/polyvinyl pyrrolidone (PVP) electrospun fibrous membrane altered the 3D biofilm architecture and decreased water-insoluble extracellular polysaccharide production. Notably, the anti-adhesion mechanism which laid in Coulomb repulsion between the negatively charged PS/PVP electrospun fibrous membrane and S. mutans was detected by zeta potential. Furthermore, metagenomics sequencing analysis and CCK-8 assay indicated that PS/PVP electrospun fibrous membrane was microbiome-friendly and displayed no influence on the cell viability of human gingival epithelial cells and human oral keratinocytes. Moreover, an in vitro simulation experiment demonstrated that PS/PVP electrospun fibrous membrane could decrease colony-forming unit counts of S. mutans effectively, and PS/PVP electrospun fibrous membrane carrying calcium fluoride displayed better anti-adhesion ability than that of PS/PVP electrospun fibrous membrane alone. Collectively, this research showed that the PS/PVP electrospun fibrous membrane has potential applications in controlling and preventing dental caries.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Deng Y, Zhang H, Lu J, et al (2024)

Whipple's disease of the respiratory system: A case report.

Experimental and therapeutic medicine, 27(4):133.

Whipple's disease (WD) is a multiple-system chronic disease caused by Tropheryma whipplei (T. whipplei) infection. The present study describes 3 cases of WD with clinical manifestations of cough, chest pain, headache, dyspnea, sputum, joint pain, abdominal pain, diarrhea and weight loss. Chest computed tomography (CT) showed signs of plaques, nodules and pleural thickening; and bronchoscopic alveolar lavage fluid metagenomic-sequencing indicated that it was T. whipplei. One patient was treated with meropenem as the starting regimen and two patients were treated with ceftriaxone as the starting regimen. Furthermore, two patients were provided with a maintenance regimen of cotrimoxazole and one was given a maintenance regimen of minocycline, which was combined with meropenem and ceftriaxone in order to improve their cough, chest pain, headache and dyspnea symptoms. To the best of our knowledge, there are few reports on WD of the respiratory system caused by T. whipplei, and differential diagnosis is the key to clinical diagnosis. When WD of the respiratory system is difficult to diagnose, metagenomic second-generation sequencing (mNGS) may be a better choice, which can achieve early diagnosis and early treatment. However, its clinical value is still limited; therefore, more research needs to be conducted in the future.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Song R, Zhu WZ, Li H, et al (2024)

Impact of wine-grape continuous cropping on soil enzyme activity and the composition and function of the soil microbial community in arid areas.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1348259.

INTRODUCTION: Continuous cropping affected the stability of soil enzyme activity and the structural characteristics of microbial community. Owing to challenges in the study of complex rhizosphere microbial communities, the composition and function of these microbial communities in farmland ecosystems remain elusive. Here, we studied the microbial communities of the rhizosphere of wine grapes with different years of continuous cropping and investigated their relationships with soil enzyme activity.

METHODS: Metagenomic sequencing was conducted on the rhizosphere soils from one uncultivated wasteland and four vineyards with varying durations of continuous cropping.

RESULTS: The predominant microbial were bacteria (98.39%), followed by archaea (1.15%) and eukaryotes (0.45%). Continuous cropping caused a significant increase in the relative abundance of Rhizobiales and Micrococcales but a marked decrease in Solirubrobacterales. At the genus level, 75, 88, 65, 132, and 128 microbial genera were unique to uncultivated wasteland, 5, 10, 15, and 20 years of continuous cropping, respectively. The relative abundance of genes with signal transduction function was the highest. The activity of all enzymes measured in this study peaked at 5 years of continuous cropping, and then decreased with 10 to 15 year of continuous cropping, but increased at 20 years again. In addition, soil enzyme activity, especially of alkaline phosphatase was significantly correlated with the diversity of the dominant microorganisms at the genus level. Moreover, the coupled enzyme activities had a greater impact on the diversity of the microbial community than that of individual enzymes.

CONCLUSION: Our findings reveal the composition and function of the soil microbial communities and enzymes activity in response to changes in cropping years, which has important implications for overcoming continuous cropping obstacles and optimizing land use.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Zhang Y, Gong H, Zhu D, et al (2024)

A two-stage partial nitritation-denitritation/anammox (PN-DN/A) process to treat high-solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) reject water: Verification based on pilot-scale and full-scale projects.

Water research X, 22:100213.

High-solid anaerobic digestion (HSAD) reject water, distinguished by elevated levels of chemical oxygen demand (COD), NH4[+]-N and an imbalanced COD/TIN, presents a significant challenge for treatment through conventional partial nitritation/ anammox (PN/A) process. This study introduced a revised two-stage PN/A process, namely partial nitritation/denitritation-anammox (PN-DN/A) process. Its effectiveness was investigated through both pilot-scale (12 t/d) and full-scale (400 t/d) operations, showcasing stable operation with an impressive total removal rate of over 90 % for total inorganic nitrogen (TIN) and exceeding 60 % for COD. Notably, 30 % of TIN was eliminated through heterotrophic denitritation in partial nitritation-denitritation (PN-DN) stage, while approximately 55 % of TIN removal occurred in the anammox stage with anaerobic ammonium oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) enrichment (Candidatus Kuenenia, 25.9 % and 26.6 % relative abundance for pilot and full scale). In the PN-DN stage, aerobic-anaerobic alternation promoted organics elimination (around 50 % COD) and balanced nitrogen species. Microbial and metagenomic analysis verified the coupling between autotrophic and heterotrophic denitritation and demonstrated that PN-DN stage acted as a protective buffer for anammox stage. This comprehensive study highlights the PN-DN/A process's efficacy in stably treating HSAD reject water.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Kim MG, Kim S, Jeon JY, et al (2024)

Profiling of endogenous metabolites and changes in intestinal microbiota distribution after GEN-001 (Lactococcus lactis) administration.

The Korean journal of physiology & pharmacology : official journal of the Korean Physiological Society and the Korean Society of Pharmacology, 28(2):153-164.

This study aimed to identify metabolic biomarkers and investigate changes in intestinal microbiota in the feces of healthy participants following administration of Lactococcus lactis GEN-001. GEN-001 is a single-strain L. lactis strain isolated from the gut of a healthy human volunteer. The study was conducted as a parallel, randomized, phase 1, open design trial. Twenty healthy Korean males were divided into five groups according to the GEN-001 dosage and dietary control. Groups A, B, C, and D1 received 1, 3, 6, and 9 GEN-001 capsules (1 × 10[11] colony forming units), respectively, without dietary adjustment, whereas group D2 received 9 GEN-001 capsules with dietary adjustment. All groups received a single dose. Fecal samples were collected 2 days before GEN-001 administration to 7 days after for untargeted metabolomics and gut microbial metagenomic analyses; blood samples were collected simultaneously for immunogenicity analysis. Levels of phenylalanine, tyrosine, cholic acid, deoxycholic acid, and tryptophan were significantly increased at 5-6 days after GEN-001 administration when compared with predose levels. Compared with predose, the relative abundance (%) of Parabacteroides and Alistipes significantly decreased, whereas that of Lactobacillus and Lactococcus increased; Lactobacillus and tryptophan levels were negatively correlated. A single administration of GEN-001 shifted the gut microbiota in healthy volunteers to a more balanced state as evidenced by an increased abundance of beneficial bacteria, including Lactobacillus, and higher levels of the metabolites that have immunogenic properties.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Torma F, Kerepesi C, Jókai M, et al (2024)

Alterations of the gut microbiome are associated with epigenetic age acceleration and physical fitness.

Aging cell [Epub ahead of print].

Epigenetic clocks can measure aging and predict the incidence of diseases and mortality. Higher levels of physical fitness are associated with a slower aging process and a healthier lifespan. Microbiome alterations occur in various diseases and during the aging process, yet their relation to epigenetic clocks is not explored. To fill this gap, we collected metagenomic (from stool), epigenetic (from blood), and exercise-related data from physically active individuals and, by applying epigenetic clocks, we examined the relationship between gut flora, blood-based epigenetic age acceleration, and physical fitness. We revealed that an increased entropy in the gut microbiome of physically active middle-aged/old individuals is associated with accelerated epigenetic aging, decreased fitness, or impaired health status. We also observed that a slower epigenetic aging and higher fitness level can be linked to altered abundance of some bacterial species often linked to anti-inflammatory effects. Overall our data suggest that alterations in the microbiome can be associated with epigenetic age acceleration and physical fitness.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Workman AM, Harhay GP, Groves JT, et al (2024)

Two bovine hepacivirus genome sequences from U.S. cattle.

Journal of veterinary diagnostic investigation : official publication of the American Association of Veterinary Laboratory Diagnosticians, Inc [Epub ahead of print].

Bovine hepacivirus (BoHV) is closely related to the hepatitis C virus (HCV) in humans and can cause both acute and chronic liver infections in cattle. BoHV was first identified in Ghana and Germany in 2015 and since then it has been detected and characterized in other countries around the world, but no strains have been sequenced from U.S. cattle. To date, BoHV has been classified into 2 genotypes (1 and 2), with genotype 1 being further divided into 11 subtypes (A-K). However, the true genetic diversity of BoHV is likely underestimated given limited surveillance and a lack of published genome sequences. Here, we sequenced 2 nearly complete BoHV genomes from serum samples collected in 2019 from beef cattle in Missouri. Sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis showed that isolate MARC/2019/60 had high sequence homology with genotype 1, subtype E isolates from China. In contrast, isolate MARC/2019/50 represented a novel BoHV subtype within genotype 2. Thus, we report the first genomic characterization of BoHV isolates from U.S. cattle, and the second complete BoHV2 genome worldwide. This work increases our knowledge of the global genetic diversity of BoHV and demonstrates the co-circulation of divergent BoHV strains in U.S. cattle.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Mücke MM, Hernández-Tejero M, Gu W, et al (2024)

Terlipressin therapy is associated with increased risk of colonisation with multidrug-resistant bacteria in patients with decompensated cirrhosis.

Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Patients with cirrhosis are susceptible to develop bacterial infections that trigger acute decompensation (AD) and acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF). Infections with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDRO) are associated with deleterious outcome. MDRO colonisation frequently proceeds MDRO infections and antibiotic therapy has been associated with MDRO colonisation.

AIM: The aim of the study was to assess the influence of non-antibiotic medication contributing to MDRO colonisation.

METHODS: Three hundred twenty-four patients with AD and ACLF admitted to the ICU of Frankfurt University Hospital with MDRO screening were included. Regression models were performed to identify drugs associated with MDRO colonisation. Another cohort (n = 129) from Barcelona was included to validate. A third multi-centre cohort (n = 203) with metagenomic sequencing data of stool was included to detect antibiotic resistance genes.

RESULTS: A total of 97 patients (30%) were identified to have MDRO colonisation and 35 of them (11%) developed MDRO infection. Patients with MDRO colonisation had significantly higher risk of MDRO infection than those without (p = 0.0098). Apart from antibiotic therapy (odds ratio (OR) 2.91, 95%-confidence interval (CI) 1.82-4.93, p < 0.0001), terlipressin therapy in the previous 14 days was the only independent covariate associated with MDRO colonisation in both cohorts, the overall (OR 9.47, 95%-CI 2.96-30.23, p < 0.0001) and after propensity score matching (OR 5.30, 95%-CI 1.22-23.03, p = 0.011). In the second cohort, prior terlipressin therapy was a risk factor for MDRO colonisation (OR 2.49, 95% CI 0.911-6.823, p = 0.075) and associated with risk of MDRO infection during follow-up (p = 0.017). The validation cohort demonstrated that antibiotic inactivation genes were significantly associated with terlipressin administration (p = 0.001).

CONCLUSIONS: Our study reports an increased risk of MDRO colonisation in patients with AD or ACLF, who recently received terlipressin therapy, while other commonly prescribed non-antibiotic co-medications had negligible influence. Future prospective trials are needed to confirm these results.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Lemane T, Lezzoche N, Lecubin J, et al (2024)

Indexing and real-time user-friendly queries in terabyte-sized complex genomic datasets with kmindex and ORA.

Nature computational science, 4(2):104-109.

Public sequencing databases contain vast amounts of biological information, yet they are largely underutilized as it is challenging to efficiently search them for any sequence(s) of interest. We present kmindex, an approach that can index thousands of metagenomes and perform sequence searches in a fraction of a second. The index construction is an order of magnitude faster than previous methods, while search times are two orders of magnitude faster. With negligible false positive rates below 0.01%, kmindex outperforms the precision of existing approaches by four orders of magnitude. Here we demonstrate the scalability of kmindex by successfully indexing 1,393 marine seawater metagenome samples from the Tara Oceans project. Additionally, we introduce the publicly accessible web server Ocean Read Atlas, which enables real-time queries on the Tara Oceans dataset.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Remesh AT, R Viswanathan (2024)

CrAss-Like Phages: From Discovery in Human Fecal Metagenome to Application as a Microbial Source Tracking Marker.

Food and environmental virology [Epub ahead of print].

CrAss-like phages are a diverse group of bacteriophages genetically similar to the prototypical crAssphage (p-crAssphage), which was discovered in the human gut microbiome through a metagenomics approach. It was identified as a ubiquitous and highly abundant bacteriophage group in the gut microbiome. Initial co-occurrence analysis postulated Bacteroides spp. as the prospective bacterial host. Subsequent studies have confirmed multiple host species under Phylum Bacteroidetes and some Firmicutes. Detection of crAss-like phages in sewage-contaminated environmental water and robust correlation with enteric viruses and bacteria has culminated in their adoption as a microbial source tracking (MST) marker. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and real-time PCR assays have been developed utilizing the conserved genes in the p-crAssphage genome to detect human fecal contamination of different water sources, with high specificity. Numerous investigations have examined the implications of crAss-like phages in diverse disease conditions, including ulcerative colitis, obesity and metabolic syndrome, autism spectrum disorders, rheumatoid arthritis, atopic eczema, and other autoimmune disorders. These studies have unveiled associations between certain diseases and diminished abundance and diversity of crAss-like phages. This review offers insights into the diverse aspects of research on crAss-like phages, including their discovery, genomic characteristics, structure, taxonomy, isolation, molecular detection, application as an MST marker, and role as a gut microbiome modulator with consequential health implications.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Choy WH, Adler A, Morgan-Lang C, et al (2024)

Deficient butyrate metabolism in the intestinal microbiome is a potential risk factor for recurrent kidney stone disease.

Urolithiasis, 52(1):38.

Intestinal microbiome dysbiosis is a known risk factor for recurrent kidney stone disease (KSD) with prior data suggesting a role for dysfunctional metabolic pathways other than those directly utilizing oxalate. To identify alternative mechanisms, the current study analyzed differences in the metabolic potential of intestinal microbiomes of patients (n = 17) and live-in controls (n = 17) and determined their relevance to increased risk for KSD using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We found no differences in the abundance of genes associated with known oxalate degradation pathways, supporting the notion that dysfunction in other metabolic pathways plays a role in KSD. Further analysis showed decreased abundance of key enzymes involved in butyrate biosynthesis in patient intestinal microbiomes. Furthermore, de novo construction of microbial genomes showed that the majority of genes significantly enriched in non-stone formers are affiliated with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a major butyrate producer. Specifically pertaining to butyrate metabolism, the majority of abundant genes mapped back to F. prausnitzii, Alistipes spp., and Akkermansia muciniphila. No differences were observed in ascorbate or glyoxylate metabolic pathways. Collectively, these data suggest that impaired bacterial-associated butyrate metabolism may be an oxalate-independent mechanism that contributes to an increased risk for recurrent KSD. This indicates that the role of the intestinal microbiome in recurrent KSD is multi-factorial, which is representative of the highly intertwined metabolic nature of this complex environment. Future bacteria-based treatments must not be restricted to targeting only oxalate metabolism.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Xu YX, Liu LD, Zhu JY, et al (2024)

Alistipes indistinctus-derived hippuric acid promotes intestinal urate excretion to alleviate hyperuricemia.

Cell host & microbe pii:S1931-3128(24)00036-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Hyperuricemia induces inflammatory arthritis and accelerates the progression of renal and cardiovascular diseases. Gut microbiota has been linked to the development of hyperuricemia through unclear mechanisms. Here, we show that the abundance and centrality of Alistipes indistinctus are depleted in subjects with hyperuricemia. Integrative metagenomic and metabolomic analysis identified hippuric acid as the key microbial effector that mediates the uric-acid-lowering effect of A. indistinctus. Mechanistically, A. indistinctus-derived hippuric acid enhances the binding of peroxisome-proliferator-activated receptor γ (PPARγ) to the promoter of ATP-binding cassette subfamily G member 2 (ABCG2), which in turn boosts intestinal urate excretion. To facilitate this enhanced excretion, hippuric acid also promotes ABCG2 localization to the brush border membranes in a PDZ-domain-containing 1 (PDZK1)-dependent manner. These findings indicate that A. indistinctus and hippuric acid promote intestinal urate excretion and offer insights into microbiota-host crosstalk in the maintenance of uric acid homeostasis.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Song B, Guo H, Chen Z, et al (2024)

Analysis of landfill leachate promoting efficient application of weathered coal anaerobic fermentation.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 273:116151 pii:S0147-6513(24)00226-4 [Epub ahead of print].

This research aimed to develop a new method for clean utilization and treatment of landfill leachate and solid waste weathered coal. Landfill leachate and weathered coal were adopted for combined anaerobic fermentation for methane production. The characteristics of microbial community, mechanism of biological methane production, and utilization characteristics of fermentation broth and solid residue for co-fermentation were analyzed through metagenomics, soluble organic matter detection and thermogravimetric (TG) analysis. The obtained results revealed that combined anaerobic fermentation increased methane production by 80.1%. Syntrophomonas, Salipiger, Methanosaeta and Methanothrix were highly correlated. Gene abundances of 2-oxoacid ferredoxin oxidoreductase and enolase were increased in methane conversion pathway mainly by acetic acid. Pyruvate-ferroredoxin oxidoreductase, 2-oxoglutarate synthase and succinate dehydrogenase acetate synthase intensified electron transfer pathways among microorganisms. Fulvic acid, tyrosine and tryptophan contents were high in fermentation broth. Volatile decomposition temperature, ignition point and residual char combustion temperature of residual coal were decreased and combustion was more stable. The obtained results showed that the co-fermentation of landfill leachate and weathered coal improved biological methane gas production, degraded weathered coal and improved combustion performance, which provided a new idea for weathered coal clean utilization.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Ding Y, Yanagi K, Yang F, et al (2024)

Oral supplementation of gut microbial metabolite indole-3-acetate alleviates diet-induced steatosis and inflammation in mice.

eLife, 12: pii:87458.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. There is growing evidence that dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and disruption of microbiota-host interactions contribute to the pathology of NAFLD. We previously demonstrated that gut microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolite indole-3-acetate (I3A) was decreased in both cecum and liver of high-fat diet-fed mice and attenuated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages and Tnfa and fatty acid-induced inflammatory responses in an aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent manner in hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated the effect of orally administered I3A in a mouse model of diet-induced NAFLD. Western diet (WD)-fed mice given sugar water (SW) with I3A showed dramatically decreased serum ALT, hepatic triglycerides (TG), liver steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, lobular inflammation, and hepatic production of inflammatory cytokines, compared to WD-fed mice given only SW. Metagenomic analysis show that I3A administration did not significantly modify the intestinal microbiome, suggesting that I3A's beneficial effects likely reflect the metabolite's direct actions on the liver. Administration of I3A partially reversed WD-induced alterations of liver metabolome and proteome, notably, decreasing expression of several enzymes in hepatic lipogenesis and β-oxidation. Mechanistically, we also show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of I3A in macrophages. The potency of I3A in alleviating liver steatosis and inflammation clearly demonstrates its potential as a therapeutic modality for preventing the progression of steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Iwaloye OF, Michaud B, Alloy T, et al (2024)

Lake Erie ice is a repository of organisms.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

Organism abundance and diversity were assessed in Lake Erie ice samples using sequences derived from a combined metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis. The 68,417 unique sequences were from Bacteria (77.5%), Eukarya (22.3%), and Archaea (0.2%) and indicated diverse species of organisms from 32 bacterial, 8 eukaryotic, and 2 archaeal taxonomic groups.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Zhang Y, Deng Y, Wang C, et al (2024)

Effects of operational parameters on bacterial communities in Hong Kong and global wastewater treatment plants.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are indispensable biotechnology facilities for modern cities and play an essential role in modern urban infrastructure by employing microorganisms to remove pollutants in wastewater, thus protecting public health and the environment. This study conducted a 13-month bacterial community survey of six full-scale WWTPs in Hong Kong with samples of influent, activated sludge (AS), and effluent to explore their synchronism and asynchronism of bacterial community. Besides, we compared AS results of six Hong Kong WWTPs with data from 1,186 AS amplicon data in 269 global WWTPs and a 9-year metagenomic sequencing survey of a Hong Kong WWTP. Our results showed the compositions of bacterial communities varied and the bacterial community structure of AS had obvious differences across Hong Kong WWTPs. The co-occurrence analysis identified 40 pairs of relationships that existed among Hong Kong WWTPs to show solid associations between two species and stochastic processes took large proportions for the bacterial community assembly of six WWTPs. The abundance and distribution of the functional bacteria in worldwide and Hong Kong WWTPs were examined and compared, and we found that ammonia-oxidizing bacteria had more diversity than nitrite-oxidizing bacteria. Besides, Hong Kong WWTPs could make great contributions to the genome mining of microbial dark matter in the global "wanted list." Operational parameters had important effects on OTUs' abundance, such as the temperature to the genera of Tetrasphaera, Gordonia and Nitrospira. All these results obtained from this study can deepen our understanding of the microbial ecology in WWTPs and provide foundations for further studies.IMPORTANCEWastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) are an indispensable component of modern cities, as they can remove pollutants in wastewater to prevent anthropogenic activities. Activated sludge (AS) is a fundamental wastewater treatment process and it harbors a highly complex microbial community that forms the main components and contains functional groups. Unveiling "who is there" is a long-term goal of the research on AS microbiology. High-throughput sequencing provides insights into the inventory diversity of microbial communities to an unprecedented level of detail. At present, the analysis of communities in WWTPs usually comes from a specific WWTP and lacks comparisons and verification among different WWTPs. The wide-scale and long-term sampling project and research in this study could help us evaluate the AS community more accurately to find the similarities and different results for different WWTPs in Hong Kong and other regions of the world.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Zhou Y, Tang J, Du W, et al (2024)

Screening potential biomarkers associated with insulin resistance in high-fat diet-fed mice by integrating metagenomics and untargeted metabolomics.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Insulin resistance is the primary pathophysiological basis for metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. Gut microbiota and microbiota-derived metabolites are pivotal in insulin resistance. However, identifying the specific microbes and key metabolites with causal roles is a challenging task, and the underlying mechanisms require further exploration. Here, we successfully constructed a model of insulin resistance in mice induced by a high-fat diet (HFD) and screened potential biomarkers associated with insulin resistance by integrating metagenomics and untargeted metabolomics. Our findings showed a significant increase in the abundance of 30 species of Alistipes in HFD mice compared to normal diet (ND) mice, while the abundance of Desulfovibrio and Candidatus Amulumruptor was significantly lower in HFD mice than in ND mice. Non-targeted metabolomics analysis identified 21 insulin resistance-associated metabolites, originating from the microbiota or co-metabolized by both the microbiota and the host. These metabolites were primarily enriched in aromatic amino acid metabolism (tryptophan metabolism, tyrosine metabolism, and phenylalanine metabolism) and arginine biosynthesis. Further analysis revealed a significant association between the three distinct genera and 21 differentiated metabolites in the HFD and ND mice. Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) analysis of representative genomes from 12 species of the three distinct genera further revealed the functional potential in aromatic amino acid metabolism and arginine biosynthesis. This study lays the groundwork for future investigations into the mechanisms through which the gut microbiota and its metabolites impact insulin resistance.IMPORTANCEIn this study, we aim to identify the microbes and metabolites linked to insulin resistance, some of which have not been previously reported in insulin resistance-related studies. This adds a complementary dimension to existing research. Furthermore, we establish a correlation between alterations in the gut microbiota and metabolite levels. These findings serve as a foundation for identifying the causal bacterial species and metabolites. They also offer insights that guide further exploration into the mechanisms through which these factors influence host insulin resistance.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Zhang H, Liao Y, Zhu Z, et al (2024)

Assistance of next-generation sequencing for diagnosis of disseminated Bacillus Calmette-Guerin disease with X-SCID in an infant: a case report and literature review.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1341236.

Bacille Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is a live strain of Mycobacterium bovis (M.bovis) for use as an attenuated vaccine to prevent tuberculosis (TB) infection, while it could also lead to an infection in immunodeficient patients. M.bovis could infect patients with immunodeficiency via BCG vaccination. Disseminated BCG disease (BCGosis) is extremely rare and has a high mortality rate. This article presents a case of a 3-month-old patient with disseminated BCG infection who was initially diagnosed with hemophagocytic syndrome (HPS) and eventually found to have X-linked severe combined immunodeficiency (X-SCID). M.bovis and its drug resistance genes were identified by metagenomics next-generation sequencing (mNGS) combined with targeted next-generation sequencing (tNGS) in blood and cerebrospinal fluid. Whole exome sequencing (WES) revealed a pathogenic variant in the common γ-chain gene (IL2RG), confirming X-SCID. Finally, antituberculosis therapy and umbilical cord blood transplantation were given to the patient. He was successfully cured of BCGosis, and his immune function was restored. The mNGS combined with the tNGS provided effective methods for diagnosing rare BCG infections in children. Their combined application significantly improved the sensitivity and specificity of the detection of M.bovis.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Zhou Z, Wu W, Ho H, et al (2024)

DNABERT-S: Learning Species-Aware DNA Embedding with Genome Foundation Models.

ArXiv pii:2402.08777.

Effective DNA embedding remains crucial in genomic analysis, particularly in scenarios lacking labeled data for model fine-tuning, despite the significant advancements in genome foundation models. A prime example is metagenomics binning, a critical process in microbiome research that aims to group DNA sequences by their species from a complex mixture of DNA sequences derived from potentially thousands of distinct, often uncharacterized species. To fill the lack of effective DNA embedding models, we introduce DNABERT-S, a genome foundation model that specializes in creating species-aware DNA embeddings. To encourage effective embeddings to error-prone long-read DNA sequences, we introduce Manifold Instance Mixup (MI-Mix), a contrastive objective that mixes the hidden representations of DNA sequences at randomly selected layers and trains the model to recognize and differentiate these mixed proportions at the output layer. We further enhance it with the proposed Curriculum Contrastive Learning (C$^2$LR) strategy. Empirical results on 18 diverse datasets showed DNABERT-S's remarkable performance. It outperforms the top baseline's performance in 10-shot species classification with just a 2-shot training while doubling the Adjusted Rand Index (ARI) in species clustering and substantially increasing the number of correctly identified species in metagenomics binning. The code, data, and pre-trained model are publicly available at https://github.com/Zhihan1996/DNABERT_S.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Lim TW, Huang S, Jiang Y, et al (2024)

Characterization of pathogenic microbiome on removable prostheses with different levels of cleanliness using 2bRAD-M metagenomic sequencing.

Journal of oral microbiology, 16(1):2317059.

BACKGROUND: The microbiomes on the surface of unclean removable prostheses are complex and yet largely underexplored using metagenomic sequencing technology.

OBJECTIVES: To characterize the microbiome of removable prostheses with different levels of cleanliness using Type IIB Restriction-site Associated DNA for Microbiome (2bRAD-M) sequencing and compare the Microbial Index of Pathogenic Bacteria (MIP) between clean and unclean prostheses.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Ninety-seven removable prostheses were classified into 'clean' and 'unclean' groups. All prosthesis plaque samples underwent 2bRAD metagenomic sequencing to characterize the species-resolved microbial composition. MIPs for clean and unclean prostheses were calculated based on the sum of the relative abundance of pathogenic bacteria in a microbiome using a reference database that contains opportunistic pathogenic bacteria and disease-associated information.

RESULTS: Beta diversity analyses based on Jaccard qualitative and Bray-Curtis quantitative distance matrices identified significant differences between the two groups (p < 0.05). There was a significant enrichment of many pathogenic bacteria in the unclean prosthesis group. The MIP for unclean prostheses (0.47 ± 0.25) was significantly higher than for clean prostheses (0.37 ± 0.29), p = 0.029.

CONCLUSIONS: The microbial community of plaque samples from 'unclean' prostheses demonstrated compositional differences compared with 'clean' prostheses. In addition, the pathogenic microbiome in the 'unclean' versus 'clean' group differed.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Li X, Bei Q, Rabiei Nematabad M, et al (2024)

Time-shifted expression of acetoclastic and methylotrophic methanogenesis by a single Methanosarcina genomospecies predominates the methanogen dynamics in Philippine rice field soil.

Microbiome, 12(1):39.

BACKGROUND: The final step in the anaerobic decomposition of biopolymers is methanogenesis. Rice field soils are a major anthropogenic source of methane, with straw commonly used as a fertilizer in rice farming. Here, we aimed to decipher the structural and functional responses of the methanogenic community to rice straw addition during an extended anoxic incubation (120 days) of Philippine paddy soil. The research combined process measurements, quantitative real-time PCR and RT-PCR of particular biomarkers (16S rRNA, mcrA), and meta-omics (environmental genomics and transcriptomics).

RESULTS: The analysis methods collectively revealed two major bacterial and methanogenic activity phases: early (days 7 to 21) and late (days 28 to 60) community responses, separated by a significant transient decline in microbial gene and transcript abundances and CH4 production rate. The two methanogenic activity phases corresponded to the greatest rRNA and mRNA abundances of the Methanosarcinaceae but differed in the methanogenic pathways expressed. While three genetically distinct Methanosarcina populations contributed to acetoclastic methanogenesis during the early activity phase, the late activity phase was defined by methylotrophic methanogenesis performed by a single Methanosarcina genomospecies. Closely related to Methanosarcina sp. MSH10X1, mapping of environmental transcripts onto metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) and population-specific reference genomes revealed this genomospecies as the key player in acetoclastic and methylotrophic methanogenesis. The anaerobic food web was driven by a complex bacterial community, with Geobacteraceae and Peptococcaceae being putative candidates for a functional interplay with Methanosarcina. Members of the Methanocellaceae were the key players in hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis, while the acetoclastic activity of Methanotrichaceae members was detectable only during the very late community response.

CONCLUSIONS: The predominant but time-shifted expression of acetoclastic and methylotrophic methanogenesis by a single Methanosarcina genomospecies represents a novel finding that expands our hitherto knowledge of the methanogenic pathways being highly expressed in paddy soils. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Xiong D, Zhang X, Xu B, et al (2024)

PHDtools: A platform for pathogen detection and multi-dimensional genetic signatures decoding to realize pathogen genomics data analyses online.

Gene, 909:148306 pii:S0378-1119(24)00187-2 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Facing the emerging diseases, rapid identification of the pathogen and multi-dimensional characterization of the genomic features at both isolate-level and population-level through high-throughput sequencing data can provide invaluable information to guide the development of antiviral agents and strategies. However, a user-friendly program is in urgent need for clinical laboratories without bioinformatics background to decode the complex big genomics data.

METHODS: In this study, we developed an interactive online platform named PHDtools with a total of 15 functions to analyze metagenomics data to identify the potential pathogen and decode multi-dimensional genetic signatures including intra-/inter-host variations and lineage-level variations. The platform was applied to analyze the meta-genomic data of the samples collected from the 172 imported COVID-19 cases.

RESULTS: According to the analytical results of mNGS, 27 patients were found to have the co-infections of SARS-CoV-2 with either influenza virus (n = 9) or human picobirnavirus (n = 19). Enough coverages of all the assembled SARS-CoV-2 genomes provided the sub-lineages of Omicron variant, and the number of mutations in the non-structural genes and M gene was increased, as well as the intra-host variations occurred in E and M gene were under positive selection (Ka/Ks > 1). These findings of increased or changed mutations in the SARS-CoV-2 genome characterized the current adaptive evolution patterns of Omicron sub-lineages, and revealed the evolution speed of these sub-lineages might increase.

CONCLUSIONS: Consequently, the application of PHDtools has proved that this platform is accurate, user-friendly and convenient for clinical users who are deficient in bioinformatics, and the clinical monitor of SARS-CoV-2 genomes by PHDtools also highlighted the potential evolution features of current SARS-CoV-2 and indicated that the development of anti-SARS-CoV-2 agents and new-designed vaccines should incorporate the gene variations other than S gene.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Ranauda MA, Zuzolo D, Maisto M, et al (2024)

Microplastics affect soil-plant system: Implications for rhizosphere biology and fitness of sage (Salvia officinalis L.).

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(24)00370-1 [Epub ahead of print].

A mesocosm experiment was set-up to investigate the effects of low-density polyethylene (LDPE) fragments deriving from plastic film on soil ecology, rhizosphere and plant (Salvia officinalis L.) fitness. The internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and 16S metagenomic analysis was adopted to evaluate taxonomic and functional shifts of both soil and rhizosphere under the influence of microplastics (MPs). Photosynthetic parameters and enzymes involved in oxidative stress were assessed to unveil the plant physiological state. MP fragments were analysed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and metagenomics to investigate the plastisphere. Microbial biomarkers of MPs pollution were identified in soil and rhizosphere, reinforcing the concept of molecular biomonitoring. Overall, Bacillus, Nocardioides and Streptomyces genera are bacterial biomarkers of MPs pollution in soil whereas Aspergillus, Fusarium and Trichoderma genera, and Nectriaceae family are fungal biomarkers of MPs polluted soil. The data show that the presence of MPs promotes the abundance of taxa involved in the soil N cycle, but simultaneously reduces the endophytic interaction capability and enhances pathogen related functions at the rhizosphere level. A significant decrease in chlorophyll levels and increase of oxidative stress enzymes was observed in plants grown in MPs-polluted soil. The SEM observations of MPs fragments revealed a complex colonisation, where bacteria (Bacillus in MPSo and Microvirga in MPRz) and fungi (Aspergillus in MPSo and Trichoderma in MPRz) represent the main colonisers. The results demonstrate that the presence of MPs causes changes in the soil and rhizosphere microbial community and functions leading to negative effects on plant fitness.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Mishra R, Modi A, Pandit R, et al (2024)

Cloning and characterization of FMN dependent azoreductases from textile industry effluent identified through metagenomic sequencing.

Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association (1995) [Epub ahead of print].

Azo dyes, when released untreated in the environment, cause detrimental effects on flora and fauna. Azoreductases are enzymes capable of cleaving commercially used azo dyes, sometimes in less toxic by-products which can be further degraded via synergistic microbial cometabolism. In this study, azoreductases encoded by FMN1 and FMN2 genes were screened from metagenome shotgun sequences generated from the samples of textile dye industries' effluents, cloned, expressed, and evaluated for its azo dye decolorization efficacy. At pH 7 and 45°C temperature, both recombinant enzymes, FMN1 and FMN2 were able to decolorize methyl red at 20 and 100ppm concentrations, respectively. FMN2 was found to be more efficient in decolorization/degradation of methyl red than FMN1. This study offers valuable insights into possible application of azoreductases to reduce the environmental damage caused by azo dyes, with the hope of contributing to sustainable and eco-friendly practices for the environment management. This enzymatic approach offers a promising solution for the bioremediation of textile industrial effluents. However, the study acknowledges the need for further process optimization to enhance the efficacy of these enzymes in large-scale applications.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Vishwakarma A, D Verma (2024)

16S rDNA-Based Amplicon Analysis Unveiled a Correlation Between the Bacterial Diversity and Antibiotic Resistance Genes of Bacteriome of Commercial Smokeless Tobacco Products.

Applied biochemistry and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

The distribution of bacterial-derived antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in smokeless tobacco products is less explored and encourages understanding of the ARG profile of Indian smokeless tobacco products. Therefore, in the present investigation, ten commercial smokeless tobacco products were assessed for their bacterial diversity to understand the correlation between the inhabitant bacteria and predicted ARGs using a 16S rDNA-based metagenome analysis. Overall analysis showed the dominance of two phyla, i.e., Firmicutes (43.07%) and Proteobacteria (8.13%) among the samples, where Bacillus (9.76%), Terribacillus (8.06%), Lysinibacillus (5.8%), Alkalibacterium (5.6%), Oceanobacillus (3.52%), and Dickeya (3.1%) like genera were prevalent among these phyla. The phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states (PICRUSt)-based analysis revealed 217 ARGs which were categorized into nine groups. Cationic antimicrobial polypeptides (CAMP, 33.8%), vancomycin (23.4%), penicillin-binding protein (13.8%), multidrug resistance MDR (10%), and β-lactam (9.3%) were among the top five contributors to ARGs. Staphylococcus, Dickeya, Bacillus, Aerococcus, and Alkalibacterium showed their strong and significant correlation (p value < 0.05) with various antibiotic resistance mechanisms. ARGs of different classes (blaTEM, blaSHV, blaCTX, tetX, vanA, aac3-II, mcr-1, intI-1, and intI2) were also successfully amplified in the metagenomes of SMT samples using their specific primers. The prevalence of ARGs in inhabitant bacteria of smokeless tobacco products suggests making steady policies to regulate the hygiene of commercial smokeless tobacco products.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Sandås K, Lewerentz J, Karlsson E, et al (2024)

Nanometa live: a user-friendly application for real-time metagenomic data analysis and pathogen identification.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:7614092 [Epub ahead of print].

SUMMARY: Nanometa Live presents a user-friendly interface designed for real-time metagenomic data analysis and pathogen identification utilizing Oxford Nanopore Technologies' MinION and Flongle flow cells. It offers an efficient workflow and graphical interface for the visualization and interpretation of metagenomic data as it is being generated. Key features include automated BLAST validation, streamlined handling of custom Kraken2 databases, and a simplified graphical user interface (GUI) for enhanced user experience. Nanometa Live is particularly notable for its capability to run without constant internet or server access once installed, setting it apart from similar tools. It provides a comprehensive view of taxonomic composition and facilitates the detection of user-defined pathogens or other species of interest, catering to both researchers and clinicians.

Nanometa Live has been implemented as a local web application using the Dash framework with Snakemake handling the data processing. The source code is freely accessible on the GitHub repository at https://github.com/FOI-Bioinformatics/nanometa_live and it is easily installable using Bioconda. It includes containerization support via Docker and Singularity, ensuring ease of use, reproducibility, and portability.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Li A, Liu A, Wang J, et al (2024)

The prophylaxis functions of lactobacillus fermentum GLF-217 and lactobacillus plantarum FLP-215 on ulcerative colitis via modulating gut microbiota of mice.

Journal of the science of food and agriculture [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The strong connection between gut microbes and human health has been confirmed by an increasing number of studies. Although probiotics have been found to relieve ulcerative colitis, the mechanism varies by the species involved. In this study, the physiological, immune and pathological factors of mice were measured and shotgun metagenomic was conducted to investigate the potential mechanisms in preventing ulcerative colitis.

RESULTS: The results demonstrated that ingestion of Lactobacillus fermentum GLF-217 and Lactobacillus plantarum FLP-215 significantly alleviated ulcerative colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), as evidenced by the increase in body weight, food intake, water intake and colon length as well as the decreased in disease activity index, histopathological score and inflammatory factor. Both strains not only improved intestinal mucosa by increasing mucin-2 and zonula occludens-1, but also improved the immune system response by elevating interleukin-10 levels and decreasing the levels of interleukin-1β, interleukin-6, tumor necrosis factor-α and interferon-γ. Moreover, L. fermentum GLF-217 and L. plantarum FLP-215 play a role in preventing DSS-induced colitis by regulating the structure of gut microbiota and promoting the formation of short-chain fatty acids.

CONCLUSIONS: This study may provide reference for the prevention strategy of ulcerative colitis. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Banar M, Rokaya D, Azizian R, et al (2024)

Oral bacteriophages: metagenomic clues to interpret microbiomes.

PeerJ, 12:e16947.

Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are distributed throughout the environment. Lytic phages and prophages in saliva, oral mucosa, and dental plaque interact with the oral microbiota and can change biofilm formation. The interactions between phages and bacteria can be considered a portion of oral metagenomics. The metagenomic profile of the oral microbiome indicates various bacteria. Indeed, there are various phages against these bacteria in the oral cavity. However, some other phages, like phages against Absconditabacteria, Chlamydiae, or Chloroflexi, have not been identified in the oral cavity. This review gives an overview of oral bacteriophage and used for metagenomics. Metagenomics of these phages deals with multi-drug-resistant bacterial plaques (biofilms) in oral cavities and oral infection. Hence, dentists and pharmacologists should know this metagenomic profile to cope with predental and dental infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Xiong C, Wu J, Ma Y, et al (2024)

Effects of Glucagon-Like Peptide-1 Receptor Agonists on Gut Microbiota in Dehydroepiandrosterone-Induced Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Mice: Compared Evaluation of Liraglutide and Semaglutide Intervention.

Diabetes, metabolic syndrome and obesity : targets and therapy, 17:865-880.

PURPOSE: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a frequent cause of infertility in reproductive-age women. Our work aims to evaluate the effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RAs) on gut microbiota, with metabolic parameters including body weight and the hormone profile in PCOS.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS mice were established and then treated with two GLP-1RAs: liraglutide and novel form semaglutide for four weeks. Changes in body weight and metabolic parameters were measured. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed using metagenomic sequencing.

RESULTS: Liraglutide and semaglutide modulated both alpha and beta diversity of the gut microbiota in PCOS. Liraglutide increased the Bacillota-to-Bacteroidota ratio through up-regulating the abundance of butyrate-producing members of Bacillota like Lachnospiraceae. Moreover, liraglutide showed the ability to reverse the altered microbial composition and the disrupted microbiota functions caused by PCOS. Semaglutide increased the abundance of Helicobacter in PCOS mice (p < 0.01) which was the only bacteria found negatively correlated with body weight. Moreover, pathways involving porphyrin and flavonoids were increased after semaglutide intervention.

CONCLUSION: Liraglutide and semaglutide improved reproductive and metabolic disorders by modulating the whole structure of gut microbiota in PCOS. The greater efficacy in weight loss compared with liraglutide observed after semaglutide intervention was positively related with Helicobacter. The study may provide new ideas in the treatment and the underlying mechanisms of GLP-1RAs to improve PCOS.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Sabsay K, AJW Te Velthuis (2024)

Using structure prediction of negative sense RNA virus nucleoproteins to assess evolutionary relationships.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.02.16.580771.

Negative sense RNA viruses (NSV) include some of the most detrimental human pathogens, including the influenza, Ebola and measles viruses. NSV genomes consist of one or multiple single-stranded RNA molecules that are encapsidated into one or more ribonucleoprotein (RNP) complexes. Current evolutionary relationships within the NSV phylum are based on alignment of conserved RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) domain amino acid sequences. However, the RdRp-based phylogeny does not address whether other core proteins in the NSV genome evolved along the same trajectory. Moreover, the current classification of NSVs does not consistently match the segmented and non-segmented nature of negative-sense virus genomes. Viruses belonging to e.g. the Serpentovirales have a segmented genome but are classified among the non-segmented negative-sense RNA viruses. We hypothesized that RNA genome segmentation is not coupled to the RdRp domain, but rather to the nucleocapsid protein (NP) that forms RNP complexes with the viral RNA. Because NP sequences are too short to infer robust phylogenetic relationships, we here used experimentally-obtained and AlphaFold 2.0-predicted NP structures to probe whether evolutionary relationships can be estimated using NSV NP sequences and potentially improve our understanding of the relationships between NSV subphyla and the NSV genome organization. Following flexible structure alignments of modeled structures, we find that the structural homology of the NSV NPs reveals phylogenetic clusters that are consistent with the currently accepted NSV taxonomy based on RdRp sequences with one key difference: the NPs of the segmented Serpentovirales cluster with the other segmented NSV. In addition, we were able to assign viruses for which RdRp sequences are currently missing to phylogenetic clusters. Overall, our results suggest that the NSV RdRp and NP genes largely evolved along similar trajectories, that NP-based clustering is better correlated with the NSV genome structure organization, and that even short pieces of genetic, protein-coding information can be used to infer evolutionary relationships, potentially making metagenomic analyses more valuable.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Tuladhar ET, Shrestha S, Vernon S, et al (2024)

Gemykibivirus detection in acute encephalitis patients from Nepal.

medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences pii:2024.02.13.24302648.

Acute Encephalitis Syndrome (AES) causes significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. In Nepal, Japanese encephalitis virus (JEV) accounts for ∼ 5-20% of AES cases, but ∼75% of AES cases are of unknown etiology. We identified a gemykibivirus in CSF collected in 2020 from a male child with AES using metagenomic next-generation sequencing. Gemykibiviruses are single stranded, circular DNA viruses in the family Genomoviridae . The complete genome of 2211 nucleotides was sequenced which shared 98.69% nucleotide identity to its closest relative, Human associated gemykibivirus 2 isolate SAfia-449D. Two real-time PCR assays were designed, and screening of 337 CSF and 164 serum samples from AES patients in Nepal collected in 2020 and 2022 yielded 11 CSF and 1 serum sample that were positive in both PCR assays. Complete genomes of 7 of the positives were sequenced. These results identify a candidate etiologic agent of encephalitis in Nepal.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Hallberg ZF, Nicolas AM, Alvarez-Aponte ZI, et al (2024)

Vitamin B 12 variants structure soil microbial communities despite soil's vast reservoir of B 12.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.02.12.580003.

Soil microbial communities perform critical ecosystem services through the collective metabolic activities of numerous individual organisms. Most microbes use corrinoids, a structurally diverse family of cofactors related to vitamin B 12 . Corrinoid structure influences the growth of individual microbes, yet how these growth responses scale to the community level remains unknown. Analysis of metagenome-assembled genomes suggests corrinoids are supplied to the community by members of the archaeal and bacterial phyla Thermoproteota, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria. Corrinoids were found largely adhered to the soil matrix in a grassland soil, at levels exceeding those required by cultured bacteria. Enrichment cultures and soil microcosms seeded with different corrinoids show distinct shifts in bacterial 16S composition, supporting the hypothesis that corrinoid structure can shape communities. Environmental context influenced both community and taxon-specific responses to specific corrinoids. These results implicate corrinoids as key determinants of soil microbiome structure and suggest that environmental micronutrient reservoirs promote community stability.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Del Amo LL, Durán-González E, Ramírez-Tejero JA, et al (2024)

Corrigendum: Study protocol for FIBROKIT: a new tool for fibromyalgia diagnosis and patient follow-up.

Frontiers in neurology, 15:1375764.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fneur.2023.1286539.].

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Liu K, Wu L, Chen G, et al (2024)

Clinical Characteristics of Chlamydia psittaci Infection Diagnosed by Metagenomic Next-Generation Sequencing: A Retrospective Multi-Center Study in Fujian, China.

Infection and drug resistance, 17:697-708.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to describe and compare the epidemiological, demographic, clinical, laboratory and radiological characteristics as well as the complications, treatments, and outcomes of these patients.

METHODS: We retrospectively investigated clinical data of patients with C. psittaci infection (psittacosis) in eight Grade IIIA hospitals of Fujian. Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) was used identify C. psittaci in clinical samples of all included patients.

RESULTS: A total of 74 patients (39 severe/35 non-severe) was diagnosed with psittacosis, 25 (33.8%) of whom had history of poultry exposure. Common symptoms included high fever (98% [37/74]), fatigue (52.7% [39/74]), and dyspnea (51.4% [38/74]). Common manifestations in imaging included consolidation (89.2%), pleural effusion (77.0%), and air bronchogram (66.2%). Common complications included acute respiratory distress syndrome (55.4% [41/74]), type I respiratory failure (52.7% [39/74]), acute liver injury (41.9% [31/74]), and secondary infection (27.0% [20/74]). The in-hospital mortality rate was 8.11% (6/74).

CONCLUSION: C. psittaci infection is represents an underestimated cause of CAP. For SCAP patients with poultry and bird contact history, specimens were encouraged to be sended for mNGS test in time. C. psittaci infection can lead to severe, multiple system involvement, and several complications. mNGS facilitate timely diagnosis of C. psittaci infection.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Williams A, Webster WZ, Cai C, et al (2024)

Evaluation of the diagnostic utility of metagenomic next-generation sequencing testing for pathogen identification in infected hosts: a retrospective cohort study.

Therapeutic advances in infectious disease, 11:20499361241232854.

BACKGROUND: Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) testing identifies thousands of potential pathogens in a single blood test, though data on its real-world diagnostic utility are lacking.

OBJECTIVES: Determine the diagnostic utility of mNGS testing in practice and factors associated with high clinical utility.

DESIGN: Retrospective cohort study of mNGS tests ordered from June 2018 through May 2020 at a community teaching hospital.

METHODS: Tests were included if ordered for diagnostic purposes in patients with probable or high clinical suspicion of infection. Exclusions included patient expiration, hospice care, or transfer outside of the institution. Utility criteria were established a priori by the research team. Two investigators independently reviewed each test and categorized it to either high or low diagnostic utility. Reviewer discordance was referred to a third investigator. The stepwise multiple regression method was used to identify clinical factors associated with high diagnostic utility.

RESULTS: Among 96 individual tests from 82 unique patients, 80 tests met the inclusion criteria for analysis. At least one potential pathogen was identified in 58% of tests. Among 112 pathogens identified, there were 74 bacteria, 25 viruses, 12 fungi, and 1 protozoon. In all, 46 tests (57.5%) were determined to be of high diagnostic utility. Positive mNGS tests were identified in 36 (78.3%) and 11 (32.4%) of high and low diagnostic utility tests, respectively (p < 0.001). Antimicrobials were changed after receiving test results in 31 (67.4%) of high utility tests and 4 (11.8%) of low utility tests (p < 0.0001). In the multiple regression model, a positive test [odds ratio (OR) = 10.9; 95% confidence interval (CI), 3.2-44.4] and consultation with the company medical director (OR = 3.6; 95% CI, 1.1-13.7) remained significantly associated with high diagnostic utility.

CONCLUSION: mNGS testing resulted in high clinical utility in most cases. Positive mNGS tests were associated with high diagnostic utility. Consultation with the Karius[®] medical director is recommended to maximize utility.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Yasir M, Al-Zahrani IA, Khan R, et al (2024)

Microbiological risk assessment and resistome analysis from shotgun metagenomics of bovine colostrum microbiome.

Saudi journal of biological sciences, 31(4):103957.

Colostrum is known for its nutraceutical qualities, probiotic attributes, and health benefits. The aim of this study was to profile colostrum microbiome from bovine in rural sites of a developing country. The focus was on microbiological safety assessments and antimicrobial resistance, taking into account the risks linked with the consumption of raw colostrum. Shotgun sequencing was employed to analyze microbiome in raw buffalo and cow colostrum. Alpha and beta diversity analyses revealed increased inter and intra-variability within colostrum samples' microbiome from both livestock species. The colostrum microbiome was mainly comprised of bacteria, with over 90% abundance, whereas fungi and viruses were found in minor abundance. Known probiotic species, such as Leuconostoc mesenteroides, Lactococcus lactis, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Lactobacillus paracasei, were found in the colostrum samples. A relatively higher number of pathogenic and opportunistic pathogenic bacteria were identified in colostrum from both animals, including clinically significant bacteria like Clostridium botulinum, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Listeria monocytogenes. Binning retrieved 11 high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), with three MAGs potentially representing novel species from the genera Psychrobacter and Pantoea. Notably, 175 antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and variants were detected, with 55 of them common to both buffalo and cow colostrum metagenomes. These ARGs confer resistance against aminoglycoside, fluoroquinolone, tetracycline, sulfonamide, and peptide antibiotics. In conclusion, this study describes a thorough overview of microbial communities in buffalo and cow colostrum samples. It emphasizes the importance of hygienic processing and pasteurization in minimizing the potential transmission of harmful microorganisms linked to the consumption of colostrum.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Alshareef SA (2024)

Metabolic analysis of the CAZy class glycosyltransferases in rhizospheric soil fungiome of the plant species Moringa oleifera.

Saudi journal of biological sciences, 31(4):103956.

The target of the present work is to study the most abundant carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) of glycosyltransferase (GT) class, which are encoded by fungiome genes present in the rhizospheric soil of the plant species Moringa oleifera. The datasets of this CAZy class were recovered using metagenomic whole shotgun genome sequencing approach, and the resultant CAZymes were searched against the KEGG pathway database to identify function. High emphasis was given to the two GT families, GT4 and GT2, which were the highest within GT class in the number and abundance of gene queries in this soil compartment. These two GT families harbor CAZymes playing crucial roles in cell membrane and cell wall processes. These CAZymes are responsible for synthesizing essential structural components such as cellulose and chitin, which contribute to the integrity of cell walls in plants and fungi. The CAZyme beta-1,3-glucan synthase of GT2 family accumulates 1,3-β-glucan, which provides elasticity as well as tensile strength to the fungal cell wall. Other GT CAZymes contribute to the biosynthesis of several compounds crucial for cell membrane and wall integrity, including lipopolysaccharide, e.g., lipopolysaccharide N-acetylglucosaminyltransferase, cell wall teichoic acid, e.g., alpha-glucosyltransferase, and cellulose, e.g., cellulose synthase. These compounds also play pivotal roles in ion homeostasis, organic carbon mineralization, and osmoprotection against abiotic stresses in plants. This study emphasizes the major roles of these two CAZy GT families in connecting the structure and function of cell membranes and cell walls of fungal and plant cells. The study also sheds light on the potential occurrence of tripartite symbiotic relationships involving the plant, rhizospheric bacteriome, and fungiome via the action of CAZymes of GT4 and GT2 families. These findings provide valuable insights towards the generation of innovative agricultural practices to enhance the performance of crop plants in the future.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Conrad MA, Bittinger K, Ren Y, et al (2024)

The intestinal microbiome of inflammatory bowel disease across the pediatric age range.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2317932.

Dysbiosis is associated with pediatric and adult-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the role of dysbiosis and the microbiome in very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD) has not yet been described. Here, we aimed to demonstrate the impact of age and inflammation on microbial community structure using shotgun metagenomic sequencing in children with VEO-IBD, pediatric-onset IBD, and age-matched pediatric healthy controls (HC) observed longitudinally over the course of 8 weeks. We found disease-related differences in alpha and beta diversity between HC and children with IBD or VEO-IBD. Using a healthy microbial maturity index modeled from HC across the age range to characterize their gut microbiota, we found that children with pediatric-onset IBD and VEO-IBD had lower maturity than their age-matched HC groups, suggesting a disease effect on the microbial community. In addition, patients with pediatric IBD had significantly lower maturity than those with VEO-IBD, who had more heterogeneity at the youngest ages, highlighting differences in these two cohorts that were not captured in standard comparisons of alpha and beta diversity. These results demonstrate that young age and inflammation independently impact microbial community structure. However, the effect is not additive in the youngest patients, likely because of the heterogeneous and dynamic stool microbiome in this population.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Ren Y, Chen L, Guo R, et al (2024)

Altered gut mycobiome in patients with end-stage renal disease and its correlations with serum and fecal metabolomes.

Journal of translational medicine, 22(1):202.

BACKGROUND: The relationship between the gut mycobiome and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains largely unexplored.

METHODS: In this study, we compared the gut fungal populations of 223 ESRD patients and 69 healthy controls (HCs) based on shotgun metagenomic sequencing data, and analyzed their associations with host serum and fecal metabolites.

RESULTS: Our findings revealed that ESRD patients had a higher diversity in the gut mycobiome compared to HCs. Dysbiosis of the gut mycobiome in ESRD patients was characterized by a decrease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an increase in various opportunistic pathogens, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladophialophora immunda, Exophiala spinifera, Hortaea werneckii, Trichophyton rubrum, and others. Through multi-omics analysis, we observed a substantial contribution of the gut mycobiome to host serum and fecal metabolomes. The opportunistic pathogens enriched in ESRD patients were frequently and positively correlated with the levels of creatinine, homocysteine, and phenylacetylglycine in the serum. The populations of Saccharomyces, including the HC-enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were frequently and negatively correlated with the levels of various toxic metabolites in the feces.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided a comprehensive understanding of the associations between the gut mycobiome and the development of ESRD, which had important implications for guiding future therapeutic studies in this field.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Román-Camacho JJ, Mauricio JC, Santos-Dueñas IM, et al (2024)

Recent advances in applying omic technologies for studying acetic acid bacteria in industrial vinegar production: A comprehensive review.

Biotechnology journal, 19(2):e2300566.

Vinegar and related bioproducts containing acetic acid as the main component are among the most appreciated fermented foodstuffs in numerous European and Asian countries because of their exceptional organoleptic and bio-healthy properties. Regarding the acetification process and obtaining of final products, there is still a lack of knowledge on fundamental aspects, especially those related to the study of biodiversity and metabolism of the present microbiota. In this context, omic technologies currently allow for the massive analysis of macromolecules and metabolites for the identification and characterization of these microorganisms working in their natural media without the need for isolation. This review approaches comprehensive research on the application of omic tools for the identification of vinegar microbiota, mainly acetic acid bacteria, with subsequent emphasis on the study of the microbial diversity, behavior, and key molecular strategies used by the predominant groups throughout acetification. The current omics tools are enabling both the finding of new vinegar microbiota members and exploring underlying strategies during the elaboration process. The species Komagataeibacter europaeus may be a model organism for present and future research in this industry; moreover, the development of integrated meta-omic analysis may facilitate the achievement of numerous of the proposed milestones. This work might provide useful guidance for the vinegar industry establishing the first steps towards the improvement of the acetification conditions and the development of new products with sensory and bio-healthy profiles adapted to the agri-food market.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

da Fonseca RR, Campos PF, Rey-Iglesia A, et al (2024)

Population Genomics Reveals the Underlying Structure of the Small Pelagic European Sardine and Suggests Low Connectivity within Macaronesia.

Genes, 15(2):.

The European sardine (Sardina pilchardus, Walbaum 1792) is indisputably a commercially important species. Previous studies using uneven sampling or a limited number of makers have presented sometimes conflicting evidence of the genetic structure of S. pilchardus populations. Here, we show that whole genome data from 108 individuals from 16 sampling areas across 5000 km of the species' distribution range (from the Eastern Mediterranean to the archipelago of Azores) support at least three genetic clusters. One includes individuals from Azores and Madeira, with evidence of substructure separating these two archipelagos in the Atlantic. Another cluster broadly corresponds to the center of the distribution, including the sampling sites around Iberia, separated by the Almeria-Oran front from the third cluster that includes all of the Mediterranean samples, except those from the Alboran Sea. Individuals from the Canary Islands appear to belong to the Mediterranean cluster. This suggests at least two important geographical barriers to gene flow, even though these do not seem complete, with many individuals from around Iberia and the Mediterranean showing some patterns compatible with admixture with other genetic clusters. Genomic regions corresponding to the top outliers of genetic differentiation are located in areas of low recombination indicative that genetic architecture also has a role in shaping population structure. These regions include genes related to otolith formation, a calcium carbonate structure in the inner ear previously used to distinguish S. pilchardus populations. Our results provide a baseline for further characterization of physical and genetic barriers that divide European sardine populations, and information for transnational stock management of this highly exploited species towards sustainable fisheries.

RevDate: 2024-02-26

Mercado-Evans V, Chew C, Serchejian C, et al (2024)

Tamm-Horsfall protein augments neutrophil NETosis during urinary tract infection.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology.

Urinary neutrophils are a hallmark of urinary tract infection (UTI), yet the mechanisms governing their activation, function, and efficacy in controlling infection remain incompletely understood. Tamm-Horsfall glycoprotein (THP), the most abundant protein in urine, uses terminal sialic acids to bind an inhibitory receptor and dampen neutrophil inflammatory responses. We hypothesized that neutrophil modulation is an integral part of THP-mediated host protection. In a UTI model, THP-deficient mice showed elevated urinary tract bacterial burdens, increased neutrophil recruitment, and more severe tissue histopathological changes compared to WT mice. Furthermore, THP-deficient mice displayed impaired urinary NETosis during UTI. To investigate the impact of THP on NETosis, we coupled in vitro fluorescence-based NET assays, proteomic analyses, and standard and imaging flow cytometry with peripheral human neutrophils. We found that THP increases proteins involved in respiratory chain, neutrophil granules, and chromatin remodeling pathways, enhances NETosis in an ROS-dependent manner, and drives NET-associated morphologic features including nuclear decondensation. These effects were observed only in the presence of a NETosis stimulus and could not be solely replicated with equivalent levels of sialic acid alone. We conclude that THP is a critical regulator of NETosis in the urinary tract, playing a key role in host defense against UTI.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Molina-Hoyos K, Montoya-Ruíz C, Aguilar PV, et al (2024)

Virome analyses of Amblyomma cajennense and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks collected in Colombia.

Acta tropica pii:S0001-706X(24)00042-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Tick-borne viruses (TBV) have gained public health relevance in recent years due to the recognition of human-associated fatal cases and the increase in tick-borne disease and transmission. However, many tick species have not been studied for their potential to transmit pathogenic viruses, especially those found in Latin America. To gain better understanding of the tick virome, we conducted targeted amplification using broadly-reactive consensus-degenerate pan-viral targeting viruses from the genera Flavivirus, Bandavirus, Uukuvirus, and Orthonairovirus genus. Additionally, we conducted unbiased metagenomic analyses to investigate the presence of viral RNA sequences in Amblyomma cajennense, A. patinoi and Rhipicephalus microplus ticks collected from a horse slaughter plant in Medellín, Colombia. While no viral products were detected by PCR, results of the metagenomic analyses revealed the presence of viral genomes belonging to the genera Phlebovirus, Bandavirus, and Uukuvirus, including Lihan Tick Virus (LTV), which was previously reported in Rhipicephalus microplus from Colombia. Overall, the results emphasized the enormous utility of the next-generation sequencing in identifying virus genetic diversity presents in ticks and other species of vectors and reservoirs.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Wang R, Li X, Lv F, et al (2024)

Sesame bacterial wilt significantly alters rhizosphere soil bacterial community structure, function, and metabolites in continuous cropping systems.

Microbiological research, 282:127649 pii:S0944-5013(24)00050-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial wilt is the leading disease of sesame and alters the bacterial community composition, function, and metabolism of sesame rhizosphere soil. However, its pattern of change is unclear. Here, the purpose of this study was to investigate how these communities respond to three differing severities of bacterial wilt in mature continuously cropped sesame plants by metagenomic and metabolomic techniques, namely, absence (WH), moderate (WD5), and severe (WD9) wilt. The results indicated that bacterial wilt could significantly change the bacterial community structure in the rhizosphere soil of continuously cropped sesame plants. The biomarker species with significant differences will also change with increasing disease severity. In particular, the gene expression levels of Ralstonia solanacearum in the WD9 and WD5 treatments increased by 25.29% and 33.61%, respectively, compared to those in the WH treatment (4.35 log10 copies g-1). The occurrence of bacterial wilt significantly altered the functions of the bacterial community in rhizosphere soil. KEEG and CAZy functional annotations revealed that the number of significantly different functions in WH was greater than that in WD5 and WD9. Bacterial wilt significantly affected the relative content of metabolites, especially acids, in the rhizosphere soil, and compared with those in the rhizosphere soil from WH, 10 acids (including S-adenosylmethionine, N-acetylleucine, and desaminotyrosine, etc.) in the rhizosphere soil from WD5 or WD9 significantly increased. In comparison, the changes in the other 10 acids (including hypotaurine, erucic acid, and 6-hydroxynicotinic acid, etc.) were reversed. The occurrence of bacterial wilt also significantly inhibited metabolic pathways such as ABC transporter and amino acid biosynthesis pathways in rhizosphere soil and had a significant impact on two key enzymes (1.1.1.11 and 2.6.1.44). In conclusion, sesame bacterial wilt significantly alters the rhizosphere soil bacterial community structure, function, and metabolites. This study enhances the understanding of sesame bacterial wilt mechanisms and lays the groundwork for future prevention and control strategies against this disease.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Ijeomah IM, Temitope FOC, Lander C, et al (2024)

Classic human astrovirus 4, 8, MLB-3, and likely new genotype 5 sublineage in stool samples of children in Nigeria.

Journal of medical virology, 96(3):e29489.

Human astrovirus (HAstV) is a nonenveloped RNA virus and has been implicated in acute gastroenteritis among children and elderly. However, there exists a substantial dearth of information on HAstV strains circulating in Nigeria. Viral-like particles were purified from archived 254 stool samples of children with acute flaccid paralysis between January and December 2020 from five states in Nigeria, using the NetoVIR protocol. Extracted viral RNA and DNA were subjected to a reverse transcription step and subsequent random polymerase chain reaction amplification. Library preparation and Illumina sequencing were performed. Using the virome paired-end reads pipeline, raw reads were processed into genomic contigs. Phylogenetic and pairwise identity analysis of the recovered HAstV genomes was performed. Six near-complete genome sequences of HAstV were identified and classified as HAstV4 (n = 1), HAstV5 (n = 1), HAstV8 (n = 1), and MLB-3 (n = 3). The HAstV5 belonged to a yet unclassified sublineage, which we tentatively named HAstV-5d. Phylogenetic analysis of open reading frames 1a, 1b, and 2 suggested recombination events inside the MAstV1 species. Furthermore, phylogenetic analysis implied a geographic linkage between the HAstV5 strain from this study with two strains from Cameroon across all the genomic regions. We report for the first time the circulation of HAstV genotypes 4, 8, and MLB-3 in Nigeria and present data suggestive for the existence of a new sublineage of HAstV5. To further understand the burden, diversity, and evolution of HAstV, increased research interest as well as robust HAstV surveillance in Nigeria is essential.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Li C, Xiao NS, Ke BY, et al (2024)

Application of metagenomic next-generation sequencing in suspected spinal infectious diseases.

World neurosurgery pii:S1878-8750(24)00268-7 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to explore the clinical efficacy of metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) in diagnosing and treating suspected spinal infectious diseases.

METHODS: Between October 2022 to December 2023, a retrospective analysis was performed on patient records within the Department of Spinal Surgery at Guilin People's Hospital. The analysis included comprehensive data on patients with presumed spinal infectious diseases, incorporating results from mNGS tests conducted externally, conventional pathogen detection results, laboratory examination results, and imaging findings. The study aimed to assess the applicability of mNGS in the context of suspected spinal infectious lesions.

RESULTS: Twenty-seven patients were included in the final analysis. Pathogenic microorganisms were identified in 23 cases. The included cases encompassed one case of tuberculous spondylitis, one case of fungal infection, three cases of Brucella spondylitis, three cases of viral infection, nine cases of bacterial infection, and six cases of mixed infections. Pathogenic microorganisms remained elusive in four cases. The application of the mNGS method demonstrated a significantly elevated positive detection rate compared to conventional methods (85.19% vs. 48.15%, P < 0.05). Moreover, the mNGS method detected a greater variety of pathogen species than traditional methods (Z = 10.69, P < 0.05). Additionally, the mNGS method exhibited a shorter detection time.

CONCLUSION: mNGS demonstrated significantly higher detection rates for bacterial, fungal, viral, and mixed infections in cases of suspected spinal infectious diseases. The clinical implementation of mNGS could further enhance the efficiency of diagnosing and treating suspected spinal infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Liu X, Fang H, Pan L, et al (2024)

S-amlodipine induces liver inflammation and dysfunction through the alteration of intestinal microbiome in a rat model.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2316923.

S-amlodipine, a commonly prescribed antihypertensive agent, is widely used in clinical settings to treat hypertension. However, the potential adverse effects of long-term S-amlodipine treatment on the liver remain uncertain, given the cautionary recommendations from clinicians regarding its administration in individuals with impaired liver function. To address this, we conducted a study using an eight-week-old male rat model and administered a daily dose of 0.6 ~ 5 mg/kg of S-amlodipine for 7 weeks. Our findings demonstrated that 1.2 ~ 5 mg/kg of S-amlodipine treatment induced liver inflammation and associated dysfunction in rats, further in vitro experiments revealed that the observed liver inflammation and dysfunction were not attributable to direct effects of S-amlodipine on the liver. Metagenome sequencing analysis revealed that S-amlodipine treatment led to alterations in the gut microbiome of rats, with the bloom of E. coli (4.5 ~ 6.6-fold increase) and a decrease in A. muciniphila (1,613.4 ~ 2,000-fold decrease) and B. uniformis (20.6 ~ 202.7-fold decrease), subsequently causing an increase in the gut bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content (1.4 ~ 1.5-fold increase in feces). S-amlodipine treatment also induced damage to the intestinal barrier and increased intestinal permeability, as confirmed by elevated levels of fecal albumin; furthermore, the flux of gut bacterial LPS into the bloodstream through the portal vein resulted in an increase in serum LPS content (3.3 ~ 4-fold increase). LPS induces liver inflammation and subsequent dysfunction in rats by activating the TLR4 pathway. This study is the first to show that S-amlodipine induces liver inflammation and dysfunction by perturbing the rat gut microbiome. These results indicate the adverse effects of S-amlodipine on the liver and provide a rich understanding of the safety of long-term S-amlodipine administration.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Cui X, Qiu J, Huang F, et al (2024)

Herpes Simplex Keratitis as a Complication of Pterygium Surgery.

The American journal of case reports, 25:e942401 pii:942401.

BACKGROUND Infectious keratitis after pterygium surgery is a rare but potentially devastating complication. The present study presents 5 cases of herpes simplex keratitis (HSK) after pterygium surgery. CASE REPORT This study was conducted in our clinic in a 5-year period from February 2017 to September 2021. The 5 patients were men, aged between 42 and 73 years, with no prior history of herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. Symptoms appeared near 1 month (median 30 days, range 10 to 70 days) after primary pterygium surgery. Diagnosis was based on clinical symptoms and laboratory test results, such as tear HSV-sIgA, corneal tissue polymerase chain reaction, and next-generation sequencing of metagenomics. The epithelial (1/5) and stromal (4/5) subtypes of HSK were identified. The patients received topical ganciclovir gel, immunosuppressive eyedrops, and oral acyclovir tablets, along with additional surgical interventions if necessary. Three were healed with conservative therapy, 1 eye required amniotic membrane transplantation due to corneal melt, and 1 was perforated and followed by corneal grafting. Finally, a literature review of previous publications on HSK after ocular surgeries was conducted. CONCLUSIONS HSK is a rare but serious complication that can arise after uneventful pterygium surgery. It is worthy of attention that both epithelial and stromal forms can occur. Timely diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent unfavorable outcomes. Consequently, routine corneal fluorescein staining, tear sIgA examination, and corneal scraping for polymerase chain reaction or next-generation sequencing of metagenomics should be performed in any suspected cases.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Desmecht S, Latka A, Ceyssens PJ, et al (2024)

Meeting Report of the Second Symposium of the Belgian Society for Viruses of Microbes and Launch of the Phage Valley.

Viruses, 16(2): pii:v16020299.

The second symposium of the Belgian Society for Viruses of Microbes (BSVoM) took place on 8 September 2023 at the University of Liège with 141 participants from 10 countries. The meeting program covered three thematic sessions opened by international keynote speakers: two sessions were devoted to "Fundamental research in phage ecology and biology" and the third one to the "Present and future applications of phages". During this one day symposium, four invited keynote lectures, nine selected talks and eight student pitches were given along with thirty presented posters. The president of the Belgian Society for Viruses of Microbes, Prof. Yves Briers, took advantage of this symposium to launch the Phage Valley concept that will put the spotlight on the exceptionally high density of researchers investigating viruses of microbes as well as the successful triple helix approach between academia, industry and government in Belgium.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Zhu P, Liu C, Liu GF, et al (2024)

Unveiling CRESS DNA Virus Diversity in Oysters by Virome.

Viruses, 16(2): pii:v16020228.

Oysters that filter feed can accumulate numerous pathogens, including viruses, which can serve as a valuable viral repository. As oyster farming becomes more prevalent, concerns are mounting about diseases that can harm both cultivated and wild oysters. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on the viruses and other factors that can cause illness in shellfish. This means that it is harder to find ways to prevent these diseases and protect the oysters. This is part of a previously started project, the Dataset of Oyster Virome, in which we further study 30 almost complete genomes of oyster-associated CRESS DNA viruses. The replication-associated proteins and capsid proteins found in CRESS DNA viruses display varying evolutionary rates and frequently undergo recombination. Additionally, some CRESS DNA viruses have the capability for cross-species transmission. A plethora of unclassified CRESS DNA viruses are detectable in transcriptome libraries, exhibiting higher levels of transcriptional activity than those found in metagenome libraries. The study significantly enhances our understanding of the diversity of oyster-associated CRESS DNA viruses, emphasizing the widespread presence of CRESS DNA viruses in the natural environment and the substantial portion of CRESS DNA viruses that remain unidentified. This study's findings provide a basis for further research on the biological and ecological roles of viruses in oysters and their environment.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Although we can't usually see them, microbes are essential for every part of human life—indeed all life on Earth. The emerging field of metagenomics offers a new way of exploring the microbial world that will transform modern microbiology and lead to practical applications in medicine, agriculture, alternative energy, environmental remediation, and many others areas. Metagenomics allows researchers to look at the genomes of all of the microbes in an environment at once, providing a "meta" view of the whole microbial community and the complex interactions within it. It's a quantum leap beyond traditional research techniques that rely on studying—one at a time—the few microbes that can be grown in the laboratory. At the request of the National Science Foundation, five Institutes of the National Institutes of Health, and the Department of Energy, the National Research Council organized a committee to address the current state of metagenomics and identify obstacles current researchers are facing in order to determine how to best support the field and encourage its success. The New Science of Metagenomics recommends the establishment of a "Global Metagenomics Initiative" comprising a small number of large-scale metagenomics projects as well as many medium- and small-scale projects to advance the technology and develop the standard practices needed to advance the field. The report also addresses database needs, methodological challenges, and the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration in supporting this new field.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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