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26 Jan 2022 at 01:30
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Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics


Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 26 Jan 2022 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-01-20

Hiraoka S, Sumida T, Hirai M, et al (2022)

Diverse DNA modification in marine prokaryotic and viral communities.

Nucleic acids research pii:6509096 [Epub ahead of print].

DNA chemical modifications, including methylation, are widespread and play important roles in prokaryotes and viruses. However, current knowledge of these modification systems is severely biased towards a limited number of culturable prokaryotes, despite the fact that a vast majority of microorganisms have not yet been cultured. Here, using single-molecule real-time sequencing, we conducted culture-independent 'metaepigenomic' analyses (an integrated analysis of metagenomics and epigenomics) of marine microbial communities. A total of 233 and 163 metagenomic-assembled genomes (MAGs) were constructed from diverse prokaryotes and viruses, respectively, and 220 modified motifs and 276 DNA methyltransferases (MTases) were identified. Most of the MTase genes were not genetically linked with the endonuclease genes predicted to be involved in defense mechanisms against extracellular DNA. The MTase-motif correspondence found in the MAGs revealed 10 novel pairs, 5 of which showed novel specificities and experimentally confirmed the catalytic specificities of the MTases. We revealed novel alternative specificities in MTases that are highly conserved in Alphaproteobacteria, which may enhance our understanding of the co-evolutionary history of the methylation systems and the genomes. Our findings highlight diverse unexplored DNA modifications that potentially affect the ecology and evolution of prokaryotes and viruses in nature.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Marcoleta AE, Arros P, Varas MA, et al (2022)

The highly diverse Antarctic Peninsula soil microbiota as a source of novel resistance genes.

The Science of the total environment, 810:152003.

The rise of multiresistant bacterial pathogens is currently one of the most critical threats to global health, encouraging a better understanding of the evolution and spread of antimicrobial resistance. In this regard, the role of the environment as a source of resistance mechanisms remains poorly understood. Moreover, we still know a minimal part of the microbial diversity and resistome present in remote and extreme environments, hosting microbes that evolved to resist harsh conditions and thus a potentially rich source of novel resistance genes. This work demonstrated that the Antarctic Peninsula soils host a remarkable microbial diversity and a widespread presence of autochthonous antibiotic-resistant bacteria and resistance genes. We observed resistance to a wide array of antibiotics among isolates, including Pseudomonas resisting ten or more different compounds, with an overall increased resistance in bacteria from non-intervened areas. In addition, genome analysis of selected isolates showed several genes encoding efflux pumps, as well as a lack of known resistance genes for some of the resisted antibiotics, including colistin, suggesting novel uncharacterized mechanisms. By combining metagenomic approaches based on analyzing raw reads, assembled contigs, and metagenome-assembled genomes, we found hundreds of widely distributed genes potentially conferring resistance to different antibiotics (including an outstanding variety of inactivation enzymes), metals, and biocides, hosted mainly by Polaromonas, Pseudomonas, Streptomyces, Variovorax, and Burkholderia. Furthermore, a proportion of these genes were found inside predicted plasmids and other mobile elements, including a putative OXA-like carbapenemase from Polaromonas harboring conserved key residues and predicted structural features. All this evidence indicates that the Antarctic Peninsula soil microbiota has a broad natural resistome, part of which could be transferred horizontally to pathogenic bacteria, acting as a potential source of novel resistance genes.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Zhang T, Li J, Wang N, et al (2022)

Metagenomic analysis reveals microbiome and resistome in the seawater and sediments of Kongsfjorden (Svalbard, High Arctic).

The Science of the total environment, 809:151937.

Kongsfjorden in the high Arctic, a typical Arctic fjord, experienced long-time input of nutrients and pollutants from the remote and local resources, providing a platform for characterizing the diversity and distribution of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, the microbiome and antibiotic resistome in this pristine marine system have not been well documented. The present study aimed to characterize the diversity and distribution of bacterial communities and associated ARGs in seawater (12 samples) and sediments (13 samples) of Kongsfjorden via metagenomic analysis. In terms of both bacterial community compositions and ARG profiles, the seawater was significantly distinct from sediment. Only 29 ARG subtypes were detected in the Arctic seawater and sediments. Furthermore, three geochemical factors (i.e., longitude, depth, and PO43-) greatly influenced the bacterial communities in sediment samples, while longitude, depth, and latitude were crucial geochemical factors influencing the ARG profiles in sediment samples. Procrustes analysis revealed a significant correlation between bacterial community compositions and ARG profiles in seawater and sediment samples. Further analysis revealed the metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) with ARG subtypes. Overall, our study provides insights into the microbiome and resistome in a pristine Arctic fjord, thereby providing vital information for environmental management.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Ang QY, Alba DL, Upadhyay V, et al (2021)

The East Asian gut microbiome is distinct from colocalized White subjects and connected to metabolic health.

eLife, 10:.

East Asians (EAs) experience worse metabolic health outcomes compared to other ethnic groups at lower body mass indices; however, the potential role of the gut microbiota in contributing to these health disparities remains unknown. We conducted a multi-omic study of 46 lean and obese East Asian and White participants living in the San Francisco Bay Area, revealing marked differences between ethnic groups in bacterial richness and community structure. White individuals were enriched for the mucin-degrading Akkermansia muciniphila. East Asian subjects had increased levels of multiple bacterial phyla, fermentative pathways detected by metagenomics, and the short-chain fatty acid end-products acetate, propionate, and isobutyrate. Differences in the gut microbiota between the East Asian and White subjects could not be explained by dietary intake, were more pronounced in lean individuals, and were associated with current geographical location. Microbiome transplantations into germ-free mice demonstrated stable diet- and host genotype-independent differences between the gut microbiotas of East Asian and White individuals that differentially impact host body composition. Taken together, our findings add to the growing body of literature describing microbiome variations between ethnicities and provide a starting point for defining the mechanisms through which the microbiome may shape disparate health outcomes in East Asians.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Moran-Ramos S, Macias-Kauffer L, López-Contreras BE, et al (2021)

A higher bacterial inward BCAA transport driven by Faecalibacterium prausnitzii is associated with lower serum levels of BCAA in early adolescents.

Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.), 27(1):108.

BACKGROUND: Elevations of circulating branched-chain amino acids (BCAA) are observed in humans with obesity and metabolic comorbidities, such as insulin resistance. Although it has been described that microbial metabolism contributes to the circulating pool of these amino acids, studies are still scarce, particularly in pediatric populations. Thus, we aimed to explore whether in early adolescents, gut microbiome was associated to circulating BCAA and in this way to insulin resistance.

METHODS: Shotgun sequencing was performed in DNA from fecal samples of 23 early adolescents (10-12 years old) and amino acid targeted metabolomics analysis was performed by LC-MS/MS in serum samples. By using the HUMAnN2 algorithm we explored microbiome functional profiles to identify whether bacterial metabolism contributed to serum BCAA levels and insulin resistance markers.

RESULTS: We identified that abundance of genes encoding bacterial BCAA inward transporters were negatively correlated with circulating BCAA and HOMA-IR (P < 0.01). Interestingly, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii contributed to approximately ~ 70% of bacterial BCAA transporters gene count. Moreover, Faecalibacterium prausnitzii abundance was also negatively correlated with circulating BCAA (P = 0.001) and with HOMA-IR (P = 0.018), after adjusting for age, sex and body adiposity. Finally, the association between Faecalibacterium genus and BCAA levels was replicated over an extended data set (N = 124).

CONCLUSIONS: We provide evidence that gut bacterial BCAA transport genes, mainly encoded by Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, are associated with lower circulating BCAA and lower insulin resistance. Based on the later, we propose that the relationship between Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and insulin resistance, could be through modulation of BCAA.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Gaio D, DeMaere MZ, Anantanawat K, et al (2021)

Post-weaning shifts in microbiome composition and metabolism revealed by over 25 000 pig gut metagenome-assembled genomes.

Microbial genomics, 7(8):.

Using a previously described metagenomics dataset of 27 billion reads, we reconstructed over 50 000 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of organisms resident in the porcine gut, 46.5 % of which were classified as >70 % complete with a <10 % contamination rate, and 24.4 % were nearly complete genomes. Here, we describe the generation and analysis of those MAGs using time-series samples. The gut microbial communities of piglets appear to follow a highly structured developmental programme in the weeks following weaning, and this development is robust to treatments including an intramuscular antibiotic treatment and two probiotic treatments. The high resolution we obtained allowed us to identify specific taxonomic 'signatures' that characterize the gut microbial development immediately after weaning. Additionally, we characterized the carbohydrate repertoire of the organisms resident in the porcine gut. We tracked the abundance shifts of 294 carbohydrate active enzymes, and identified the species and higher-level taxonomic groups carrying each of these enzymes in their MAGs. This knowledge can contribute to the design of probiotics and prebiotic interventions as a means to modify the piglet gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Langdon A, Schwartz DJ, Bulow C, et al (2021)

Microbiota restoration reduces antibiotic-resistant bacteria gut colonization in patients with recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection from the open-label PUNCH CD study.

Genome medicine, 13(1):28.

BACKGROUND: Once antibiotic-resistant bacteria become established within the gut microbiota, they can cause infections in the host and be transmitted to other people and the environment. Currently, there are no effective modalities for decreasing or preventing colonization by antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Intestinal microbiota restoration can prevent Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) recurrences. Another potential application of microbiota restoration is suppression of non-C. difficile multidrug-resistant bacteria and overall decrease in the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes (the resistome) within the gut microbiota. This study characterizes the effects of RBX2660, a microbiota-based investigational therapeutic, on the composition and abundance of the gut microbiota and resistome, as well as multidrug-resistant organism carriage, after delivery to patients suffering from recurrent CDI.

METHODS: An open-label, multi-center clinical trial in 11 centers in the USA for the safety and efficacy of RBX2660 on recurrent CDI was conducted. Fecal specimens from 29 of these subjects with recurrent CDI who received either one (N = 16) or two doses of RBX2660 (N = 13) were analyzed secondarily. Stool samples were collected prior to and at intervals up to 6 months post-therapy and analyzed in three ways: (1) 16S rRNA gene sequencing for microbiota taxonomic composition, (2) whole metagenome shotgun sequencing for functional pathways and antibiotic resistome content, and (3) selective and differential bacterial culturing followed by isolate genome sequencing to longitudinally track multidrug-resistant organisms.

RESULTS: Successful prevention of CDI recurrence with RBX2660 correlated with taxonomic convergence of patient microbiota to the donor microbiota as measured by weighted UniFrac distance. RBX2660 dramatically reduced the abundance of antibiotic-resistant Enterobacteriaceae in the 2 months after administration. Fecal antibiotic resistance gene carriage decreased in direct relationship to the degree to which donor microbiota engrafted.

CONCLUSIONS: Microbiota-based therapeutics reduce resistance gene abundance and resistant organisms in the recipient gut microbiome. This approach could potentially reduce the risk of infections caused by resistant organisms within the patient and the transfer of resistance genes or pathogens to others.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT01925417 ; registered on August 19, 2013.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Silveira CB, Cobián-Güemes AG, Uranga C, et al (2021)

Multi-Omics Study of Keystone Species in a Cystic Fibrosis Microbiome.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(21):.

Ecological networking and in vitro studies predict that anaerobic, mucus-degrading bacteria are keystone species in cystic fibrosis (CF) microbiomes. The metabolic byproducts from these bacteria facilitate the colonization and growth of CF pathogens like Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Here, a multi-omics study informed the control of putative anaerobic keystone species during a transition in antibiotic therapy of a CF patient. A quantitative metagenomics approach combining sequence data with epifluorescence microscopy showed that during periods of rapid lung function loss, the patient's lung microbiome was dominated by the anaerobic, mucus-degrading bacteria belonging to Streptococcus, Veillonella, and Prevotella genera. Untargeted metabolomics and community cultures identified high rates of fermentation in these sputa, with the accumulation of lactic acid, citric acid, and acetic acid. P. aeruginosa utilized these fermentation products for growth, as indicated by quantitative transcriptomics data. Transcription levels of P. aeruginosa genes for the utilization of fermentation products were proportional to the abundance of anaerobic bacteria. Clindamycin therapy targeting Gram-positive anaerobes rapidly suppressed anaerobic bacteria and the accumulation of fermentation products. Clindamycin also lowered the abundance and transcription of P. aeruginosa, even though this patient's strain was resistant to this antibiotic. The treatment stabilized the patient's lung function and improved respiratory health for two months, lengthening by a factor of four the between-hospitalization time for this patient. Killing anaerobes indirectly limited the growth of P. aeruginosa by disrupting the cross-feeding of fermentation products. This case study supports the hypothesis that facultative anaerobes operated as keystone species in this CF microbiome. Personalized multi-omics may become a viable approach for routine clinical diagnostics in the future, providing critical information to inform treatment decisions.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Minot SS, Barry KC, Kasman C, et al (2021)

geneshot: gene-level metagenomics identifies genome islands associated with immunotherapy response.

Genome biology, 22(1):135.

Researchers must be able to generate experimentally testable hypotheses from sequencing-based observational microbiome experiments to discover the mechanisms underlying the influence of gut microbes on human health. We describe geneshot, a novel bioinformatics tool for identifying testable hypotheses based on gene-level metagenomic analysis of WGS microbiome data. By applying geneshot to two independent previously published cohorts, we identify microbial genomic islands consistently associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitor (ICI)-based cancer treatment in culturable type strains. The identified genomic islands are within operons involved in type II secretion, TonB-dependent transport, and bacteriophage growth.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Wu G, Zhao N, Zhang C, et al (2021)

Guild-based analysis for understanding gut microbiome in human health and diseases.

Genome medicine, 13(1):22.

To demonstrate the causative role of gut microbiome in human health and diseases, we first need to identify, via next-generation sequencing, potentially important functional members associated with specific health outcomes and disease phenotypes. However, due to the strain-level genetic complexity of the gut microbiota, microbiome datasets are highly dimensional and highly sparse in nature, making it challenging to identify putative causative agents of a particular disease phenotype. Members of an ecosystem seldomly live independently from each other. Instead, they develop local interactions and form inter-member organizations to influence the ecosystem's higher-level patterns and functions. In the ecological study of macro-organisms, members are defined as belonging to the same "guild" if they exploit the same class of resources in a similar way or work together as a coherent functional group. Translating the concept of "guild" to the study of gut microbiota, we redefine guild as a group of bacteria that show consistent co-abundant behavior and likely to work together to contribute to the same ecological function. In this opinion article, we discuss how to use guilds as the aggregation unit to reduce dimensionality and sparsity in microbiome-wide association studies for identifying candidate gut bacteria that may causatively contribute to human health and diseases.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Hajiagha MN, Taghizadeh S, Asgharzadeh M, et al (2022)

Gut Microbiota and Human Body Interactions; Its Impact on Health: A Review.

Current pharmaceutical biotechnology, 23(1):4-14.

Gut microbiota (GM), as an organ of the human body, has a particular and autonomous function that is related to it. This review aims to investigate human intestinal and gut microbiota interaction and its impact on health. As a creation referable database about this dynamic and complex organ, several comprehensive projects are implemented by using culture-dependent (culturomics), culture- independent methods (e.g., metagenomics, mathematics model), and Gnotobiological together. This study was done by searching PubMed, Scopus and Google scholar database in the gut, health microbiota, and interaction keywords. The first acquired microbiota during pregnancy or childbirth is colonized in the gut by using specific and non-specific mechanisms. Its structure and shape reach relative stability with selection pressure along with host development until adulthood and keeps its resilience against external or internal variables depending on the host's genetics and negative feedback. According to research, individuals have 2 functional group microbiotas, including the core (common between vast majorities human) and flexible (transient population) microbiome. The most important role of the GM in the human body can be summarized in three basic landscapes: metabolic, immune system, and gut-brain axis interaction. So, the loss of microbial population balance will lead to disorder and disease.

RevDate: 2022-01-18
CmpDate: 2022-01-18

Lima SF, Gogokhia L, Viladomiu M, et al (2022)

Transferable Immunoglobulin A-Coated Odoribacter splanchnicus in Responders to Fecal Microbiota Transplantation for Ulcerative Colitis Limits Colonic Inflammation.

Gastroenterology, 162(1):166-178.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is an emerging treatment modality for ulcerative colitis (UC). Several randomized controlled trials have shown efficacy for FMT in the treatment of UC, but a better understanding of the transferable microbiota and their immune impact is needed to develop more efficient microbiome-based therapies for UC.

METHODS: Metagenomic analysis and strain tracking was performed on 60 donor and recipient samples receiving FMT for active UC. Sorting and sequencing of immunoglobulin (Ig) A-coated microbiota (called IgA-seq) was used to define immune-reactive microbiota. Colonization of germ-free or genetically engineered mice with patient-derived strains was performed to determine the mechanism of microbial impact on intestinal immunity.

RESULTS: Metagenomic analysis defined a core set of donor-derived transferable bacterial strains in UC subjects achieving clinical response, which predicted response in an independent trial of FMT for UC. IgA-seq of FMT recipient samples and gnotobiotic mice colonized with donor microbiota identified Odoribacter splanchnicus as a transferable strain shaping mucosal immunity, which correlated with clinical response and the induction of mucosal regulatory T cells. Colonization of mice with O splanchnicus led to an increase in Foxp3+/RORγt+ regulatory T cells, induction of interleukin (IL) 10, and production of short chain fatty acids, all of which were required for O splanchnicus to limit colitis in mouse models.

CONCLUSIONS: This work provides the first evidence of transferable, donor-derived strains that correlate with clinical response to FMT in UC and reveals O splanchnicus as a key component promoting both metabolic and immune cell protection from colitis. These mechanistic features will help enable strategies to enhance the efficacy of microbial therapy for UC. Clinicaltrials.gov ID NCT02516384.

RevDate: 2022-01-17
CmpDate: 2022-01-17

Mihindukulasuriya KA, Mars RAT, Johnson AJ, et al (2021)

Multi-Omics Analyses Show Disease, Diet, and Transcriptome Interactions With the Virome.

Gastroenterology, 161(4):1194-1207.e8.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: The gut virome includes eukaryotic viruses and bacteriophages that can shape the gut bacterial community and elicit host responses. The virome can be implicated in diseases, such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), where gut bacteria play an important role in pathogenesis. We provide a comprehensive and longitudinal characterization of the virome, including DNA and RNA viruses and paired multi-omics data in a cohort of healthy subjects and patients with IBS.

METHODS: We selected 2 consecutive stool samples per subject from a longitudinal study cohort and performed metagenomic sequencing on DNA and RNA viruses after enriching for viral-like particles. Viral sequence abundance was evaluated over time, as well as in the context of diet, bacterial composition and function, metabolite levels, colonic gene expression, host genetics, and IBS subsets.

RESULTS: We found that the gut virome was temporally stable and correlated with the colonic transcriptome. We identified IBS-subset-specific changes in phage populations; Microviridae, Myoviridae, and Podoviridae species were elevated in diarrhea-predominant IBS, and other Microviridae and Myoviridae species were elevated in constipation-predominant IBS compared to healthy controls. We identified correlations between subsets of the virome and bacterial composition (unclassifiable "dark matter" and phages) and diet (eukaryotic viruses).

CONCLUSIONS: We found that the gut virome is stable over time but varies among subsets of patients with IBS. It can be affected by diet and potentially influences host function via interactions with gut bacteria and/or altering host gene expression.

RevDate: 2022-01-18
CmpDate: 2022-01-18

Saad N, Olmstead JW, Varsani A, et al (2021)

Discovery of Known and Novel Viruses in Wild and Cultivated Blueberry in Florida through Viral Metagenomic Approaches.

Viruses, 13(6):.

Southern highbush blueberry (interspecific hybrids of Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is cultivated near wild V. corymbosum as well as closely related species in Florida, USA. The expansion of blueberry cultivation into new areas in Florida and deployment of new cultivars containing viruses can potentially increase the diversity of viruses in wild and cultivated V. corymbosum. In this study, viral diversity in wild and cultivated blueberries (V. corymbosum) is described using a metagenomic approach. RNA viromes from V. corymbosum plants collected from six locations (two cultivated and four wild) in North Central Florida were generated by high throughput sequencing (HTS) and analyzed using a bioinformatic analysis pipeline. De novo assembled contigs obtained from viromes of both commercial and wild sites produced sequences with similarities to plant virus species from a diverse range of families (Amalgaviridae, Caulimoviridae, Endornaviridae, Ophioviridae, Phenuiviridae, and Virgaviridae). In addition, this study has enabled the identification of blueberry latent virus (BlLV) and blueberry mosaic associated ophiovirus (BlMaV) for the first time in Florida, as well as a tentative novel tepovirus (blueberry virus T) (BlVT) in blueberry. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study that compares viral diversity in wild and cultivated blueberry using a metagenomic approach.

RevDate: 2022-01-17
CmpDate: 2022-01-17

Yang K, Niu J, Zuo T, et al (2021)

Alterations in the Gut Virome in Obesity and Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Gastroenterology, 161(4):1257-1269.e13.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are associated with changes in the gut bacterial composition, but little is known about the role of the viral community (virome) in disease development. This study aims to characterize the gut virome alterations in obese subjects with or without T2DM.

METHODS: There were 128 obese subjects (body mass index ≥28 kg/m2) and 101 lean controls (body mass index ≥18.5 and <23 kg/m2) recruited from 2 regions in China (Hong Kong and Kunming). Fecal virome and bacteriome were profiled by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Gut virome, bacteriome, and viral-bacterial correlations were compared between obese subjects and lean controls.

RESULTS: Obese subjects, especially those with T2DM (ObT2), had a decreased gut viral richness and diversity compared with lean controls in the Hong Kong cohort (P < .05), while no significant differences were observed in the Kunming cohort. Eleven viruses, including Escherichia phage, Geobacillus phage, and Lactobacillus phage were enriched in obese subjects (q < .1). Besides, 17 differentially abundant viruses were identified between ObT2 and lean controls (q < .1). Further ecologic analysis revealed that intensive transkingdom correlations between viruses and bacteria observed in lean controls were significantly decreased in ObT2 subjects (P < .001).

CONCLUSIONS: Obesity is characterized by altered viral taxonomic composition and weakened viral-bacterial correlations compared with lean controls. Obesity accompanied with T2DM may aggravate the obesity-associated virus signatures, signifying that the gut virome may play an important role in the development of obesity and T2DM. Geographic factors also contributed to the variations of gut virome in obesity and T2DM.

RevDate: 2022-01-17
CmpDate: 2022-01-17

Nooij S, Ducarmon QR, Laros JFJ, et al (2021)

Fecal Microbiota Transplantation Influences Procarcinogenic Escherichia coli in Recipient Recurrent Clostridioides difficile Patients.

Gastroenterology, 161(4):1218-1228.e5.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Patients with multiple recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI) have a disturbed gut microbiota that can be restored by fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Despite extensive screening, healthy feces donors may carry bacteria in their intestinal tract that could have long-term health effects, such as potentially procarcinogenic polyketide synthase-positive (pks+) Escherichia coli. Here, we aim to determine whether the pks abundance and persistence of pks+E coli is influenced by pks status of the donor feces.

METHODS: In a cohort of 49 patients with rCDI treated with FMT and matching donor samples-the largest cohort of its kind, to our knowledge-we retrospectively screened fecal metagenomes for pks+E coli and compared the presence of pks in patients before and after treatment and to their respective donors.

RESULTS: The pks island was more prevalent (P = .026) and abundant (P < .001) in patients with rCDI (pre-FMT, 27 of 49 [55%]; median, 0.46 reads per kilobase per million [RPKM] pks) than in healthy donors (3 of 8 donors [37.5%], 11 of 38 samples [29%]; median, 0.01 RPKM pks). The pks status of patients post-FMT depended on the pks status of the donor suspension with which the patient was treated (P = .046). Particularly, persistence (8 of 9 cases) or clearance (13 of 18) of pks+E coli in pks+ patients was correlated to pks in the donor (P = .004).

CONCLUSIONS: We conclude that FMT contributes to pks+E coli persistence or eradication in patients with rCDI but that donor-to-patient transmission of pks+E coli is unlikely.

RevDate: 2022-01-17
CmpDate: 2022-01-17

Heinken A, Hertel J, I Thiele (2021)

Metabolic modelling reveals broad changes in gut microbial metabolism in inflammatory bowel disease patients with dysbiosis.

NPJ systems biology and applications, 7(1):19.

Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as Crohn's Disease, are characterised by an altered blood and faecal metabolome, and changes in gut microbiome composition. Here, we present an efficient, scalable, tractable systems biology framework to mechanistically link microbial strains and faecal metabolites. We retrieve strain-level relative abundances from metagenomics data from a cohort of paediatric Crohn's Disease patients with and without dysbiosis and healthy control children and construct and interrogate a personalised microbiome model for each sample. Predicted faecal secretion profiles and strain-level contributions to each metabolite vary broadly between healthy, dysbiotic, and non-dysbiotic microbiomes. The reduced microbial diversity in IBD results in reduced numbers of secreted metabolites, especially in sulfur metabolism. We demonstrate that increased potential to synthesise amino acids is linked to Proteobacteria contributions, in agreement with experimental observations. The established modelling framework yields testable hypotheses that may result in novel therapeutic and dietary interventions targeting the host-gut microbiome-diet axis.

RevDate: 2022-01-18
CmpDate: 2022-01-18

Shamsaddini A, Gillevet PM, Acharya C, et al (2021)

Impact of Antibiotic Resistance Genes in Gut Microbiome of Patients With Cirrhosis.

Gastroenterology, 161(2):508-521.e7.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Cirrhosis is associated with changes in intestinal microbiota that can lead to hepatic encephalopathy (HE) and infections, especially with antibiotic-resistant organisms. However, the impact of gut microbial antibiotic resistance gene (ARG) burden on clinical outcomes is unclear. The aims of the study were to determine the impact of ARGs in cirrhosis-related gut metagenome on outcomes and disease progression, study the effect of rifaximin on ARG burden, and compare ARGs in cirrhosis with chronic kidney disease (CKD) and diabetes.

METHODS: In outpatients with cirrhosis who underwent metagenomics, we evaluated change in ARG abundances with progression and their multivariable impact on 90-day hospitalizations and deaths over 1 year. We also studied ARGs pre- and 8 weeks post-rifaximin in patients with compensated cirrhosis in an open-label trial. Finally, ARGs from CKD and diabetes studies were compared with cirrhosis on machine learning.

RESULTS: A total of 163 patients with cirrhosis (43 compensated, 20 ascites-only, 30 HE-only, 70 both) and 40 controls were included. ARG abundances were higher in cirrhosis versus controls and worsened with advancing cirrhosis severity; 44 patients were hospitalized and 14 died. ARG abundances were associated with hospitalizations and mortality while controlling for cirrhosis complications, medications, and demographics. Rifaximin trial: ARG abundance patterns were minimally affected in 19 patients post-rifaximin. CKD/diabetes comparison: ARG abundance patterns in cirrhosis are distinguishable on machine learning and include more gram-positive ARGs.

CONCLUSIONS: Cirrhosis is associated with high gut microbial ARG gene burden compared with controls, which worsens with disease progression and may be different from CKD and diabetes. ARGs are not affected by rifaximin and are associated with hospitalizations and death.

RevDate: 2022-01-18
CmpDate: 2022-01-18

Ducarmon QR, Terveer EM, Nooij S, et al (2021)

Microbiota-associated risk factors for asymptomatic gut colonisation with multi-drug-resistant organisms in a Dutch nursing home.

Genome medicine, 13(1):54.

BACKGROUND: Nursing home residents have increased rates of intestinal colonisation with multidrug-resistant organisms (MDROs). We assessed the colonisation and spread of MDROs among this population, determined clinical risk factors for MDRO colonisation and investigated the role of the gut microbiota in providing colonisation resistance against MDROs.

METHODS: We conducted a prospective cohort study in a Dutch nursing home. Demographical, epidemiological and clinical data were collected at four time points with 2-month intervals (October 2016-April 2017). To obtain longitudinal data, faecal samples from residents were collected for at least two time points. Ultimately, twenty-seven residents were included in the study and 93 faecal samples were analysed, of which 27 (29.0%) were MDRO-positive. Twelve residents (44.4%) were colonised with an MDRO at at least one time point throughout the 6-month study.

RESULTS: Univariable generalised estimating equation logistic regression indicated that antibiotic use in the previous 2 months and hospital admittance in the previous year were associated with MDRO colonisation. Characterisation of MDRO isolates through whole-genome sequencing revealed Escherichia coli sequence type (ST)131 to be the most prevalent MDRO and ward-specific clusters of E. coli ST131 were identified. Microbiota analysis by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing revealed no differences in alpha or beta diversity between MDRO-positive and negative samples, nor between residents who were ever or never colonised. Three bacterial taxa (Dorea, Atopobiaceae and Lachnospiraceae ND3007 group) were more abundant in residents never colonised with an MDRO throughout the 6-month study. An unexpectedly high abundance of Bifidobacterium was observed in several residents. Further investigation of a subset of samples with metagenomics showed that various Bifidobacterium species were highly abundant, of which B. longum strains remained identical within residents over time, but were different between residents.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides new evidence for the role of the gut microbiota in colonisation resistance against MDROs in the elderly living in a nursing home setting. Dorea, Atopobiaceae and Lachnospiraceae ND3007 group may be associated with protection against MDRO colonisation. Furthermore, we report a uniquely high abundance of several Bifidobacterium species in multiple residents and excluded the possibility that this was due to probiotic supplementation.

RevDate: 2022-01-14
CmpDate: 2022-01-14

Kardos M, Armstrong EE, Fitzpatrick SW, et al (2021)

The crucial role of genome-wide genetic variation in conservation.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(48):.

The unprecedented rate of extinction calls for efficient use of genetics to help conserve biodiversity. Several recent genomic and simulation-based studies have argued that the field of conservation biology has placed too much focus on conserving genome-wide genetic variation, and that the field should instead focus on managing the subset of functional genetic variation that is thought to affect fitness. Here, we critically evaluate the feasibility and likely benefits of this approach in conservation. We find that population genetics theory and empirical results show that conserving genome-wide genetic variation is generally the best approach to prevent inbreeding depression and loss of adaptive potential from driving populations toward extinction. Focusing conservation efforts on presumably functional genetic variation will only be feasible occasionally, often misleading, and counterproductive when prioritized over genome-wide genetic variation. Given the increasing rate of habitat loss and other environmental changes, failure to recognize the detrimental effects of lost genome-wide genetic variation on long-term population viability will only worsen the biodiversity crisis.

RevDate: 2022-01-14
CmpDate: 2022-01-14

Sun Y, Duan C, Cao N, et al (2022)

Biodegradable and conventional microplastics exhibit distinct microbiome, functionality, and metabolome changes in soil.

Journal of hazardous materials, 424(Pt A):127282.

Environmental concerns with liberal petroleum-based plastic use have led to demand for sustainable biodegradable alternatives. However, the inadequate end-of-life treatment of plastics may emit microplastics, either conventional or biodegradable, to the terrestrial environment. It is essential to evaluate the possible effects of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on the composition and function of soil microbial communities. Therefore, we conducted a soil microcosm experiment with polyethylene (PE), polystyrene (PS), polylactide (PLA), or polybutylene succinate (PBS) microplastics. The soil microbiome and metabolome were evaluated via 16S rRNA gene sequencing, metagenomics, and untargeted metabolomics. We reported that the presence of conventional or biodegradable microplastics can significantly alter soil microbial community composition. Compared to the control soils, the microbiome in PBS and PLA amended soils exhibited higher potential for uptake of exogenous carbohydrates and amino acids, but a reduced capacity for related metabolic function, potentially due to catabolite repression. No differences in soil metabolome can be observed between conventional microplastic treatments and the control. The potential reason may be that the functional diversity was unaffected by PE and PS microplastics, while the biodegradable particles promoted the soil microbial multifunctionality. Our findings systematically shed light on the influence of conventional and biodegradable microplastics on soil microorganisms, facilitating microplastic regulation.

RevDate: 2022-01-14
CmpDate: 2022-01-14

Liu W, Sun Z, Ma C, et al (2021)

Exposure to soil environments during earlier life stages is distinguishable in the gut microbiome of adult mice.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1-13.

Environmental exposure during earlier life stages can govern the assembly and development of gut microbiota, yet it is insufficiently understood. In this study, ex-germ-free mice were cohoused with distinct soil-microbiota (from desert, steppe, and forest) beddings within 60 days after birth and subsequently transferred to new soil beddings from 60 to 90th day. Using metagenomic shotgun sequencing, firstly, we found soil microbes from natural environments (birthplace) greatly influenced the gut community assembly in the housing experiment. About 27% microbial species and 12% functional components that associated with birthplaces at Day 60 were still discriminatory of birthplaces after transferring mice to new environments. Moreover, prior soil-exposure types are associated with the magnitude of temporal microbiome change due to environmental shifts. The appropriate soil-exposure (e.g., steppe) might help mice gut microbiome adapt to changing environments or host development. Our study demonstrated the continuous soil-exposure history earlier is associated with the gut microbiome individuality and development later.

RevDate: 2022-01-13
CmpDate: 2022-01-13

Deka N, Hassan S, Seghal Kiran G, et al (2021)

Insights into the role of vaginal microbiome in women's health.

Journal of basic microbiology, 61(12):1071-1084.

The vaginal microbiome is a complex and dynamic microecosystem that fluctuates continually throughout a woman's life. Lactobacillus, a bacterium that possesses antibacterial properties dominates a healthy vaginal microbiome. Bacterial vaginosis is the most common vaginal disorder that has been linked with the dysbiosis of normal vaginal microbiota. Despite the importance of vaginal microbiome, little is known about functions it performs especially, how it helps in protecting the female reproductive tract. This knowledge gap is a significant impediment to the development of effective and feasible clinical treatments that might be required to improve women's health. Thus, a deeper understanding of the functional aspects and not just the composition of vaginal microbiome may aid in improving the diagnostics and treatment strategies. Recent advancement in molecular methods and computational biology have allowed researchers to acquire more knowledge about the vaginal microbiome. The use of metagenomics (culture-independent high-throughput technology) and bioinformatics tools have improved our understanding of the vaginal microbiome. In this review, we have attempted to explore the factors that may alter normal vaginal microbiota homeostasis such as age, sexual behavior, ethnicity, and hygiene, and so forth. We also discuss the role of probiotics in restoring healthy vaginal microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-01-13
CmpDate: 2022-01-13

Sabater C, Cobo-Díaz JF, Álvarez-Ordóñez A, et al (2021)

Novel methods of microbiome analysis in the food industry.

International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology, 24(4):593-605.

The study of the food microbiome has gained considerable interest in recent years, mainly due to the wide range of applications that can be derived from the analysis of metagenomes. Among these applications, it is worth mentioning the possibility of using metagenomic analyses to determine food authenticity, to assess the microbiological safety of foods thanks to the detection and tracking of pathogens, antibiotic resistance genes and other undesirable traits, as well to identify the microorganisms responsible for food processing defects. Metataxonomics and metagenomics are currently the gold standard methodologies to explore the full potential of metagenomes in the food industry. However, there are still a number of challenges that must be solved in order to implement these methods routinely in food chain monitoring, and for the regulatory agencies to take them into account in their opinions. These challenges include the difficulties of analysing foods and food-related environments with a low microbial load, the lack of validated bioinformatics pipelines adapted to food microbiomes and the difficulty of assessing the viability of the detected microorganisms. This review summarizes the methods of microbiome analysis that have been used, so far, in foods and food-related environments, with a specific focus on those involving Next-Generation Sequencing technologies.

RevDate: 2022-01-13
CmpDate: 2022-01-13

Belstrøm D, Constancias F, Drautz-Moses DI, et al (2021)

Periodontitis associates with species-specific gene expression of the oral microbiota.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 7(1):76.

The purpose of the present investigation was to characterize species-specific bacterial activity of the oral microbiota in periodontitis. We tested the hypotheses that chronic inflammation, i.e., periodontitis, associates with bacterial gene expression of the oral microbiota. Oral microbial samples were collected from three oral sites-subgingival plaque, tongue, and saliva from patients with periodontitis and healthy controls. Paired metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were used to perform concomitant characterization of taxonomic composition and to determine species-specific bacterial activity as expressed by the ratio of specific messenger RNA reads to their corresponding genomic DNA reads. Here, we show the association of periodontitis with bacterial gene expression of the oral microbiota. While oral site was the main determinant of taxonomic composition as well as bacterial gene expression, periodontitis was significantly associated with a reduction of carbohydrate metabolism of the oral microbiota at three oral sites (subgingival plaque, tongue, and saliva). Data from the present study revealed the association of periodontitis with bacterial gene expression of the oral microbiota. Conditions of periodontitis was associated with bacterial activity of local subgingival plaque, but also on tongue and the salivary microbiota. Collectively, data suggest that periodontitis associates with impaired carbohydrate metabolism of the oral microbiota. Future longitudinal and interventional studies are warranted to evaluate the potential pathogenic role of impaired bacterial carbohydrate metabolism not only in periodontitis but also in other diseases with low-grade inflammation, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus.

RevDate: 2022-01-13
CmpDate: 2022-01-13

Vasquez KS, Willis L, Cira NJ, et al (2021)

Quantifying rapid bacterial evolution and transmission within the mouse intestine.

Cell host & microbe, 29(9):1454-1468.e4.

Due to limitations on high-resolution strain tracking, selection dynamics during gut microbiota colonization and transmission between hosts remain mostly mysterious. Here, we introduced hundreds of barcoded Escherichia coli strains into germ-free mice and quantified strain-level dynamics and metagenomic changes. Mutations in genes involved in motility and metabolite utilization are reproducibly selected within days. Even with rapid selection, coprophagy enforced similar barcode distributions across co-housed mice. Whole-genome sequencing of hundreds of isolates revealed linked alleles that demonstrate between-host transmission. A population-genetics model predicts substantial fitness advantages for certain mutants and that migration accounted for ∼10% of the resident microbiota each day. Treatment with ciprofloxacin suggests interplay between selection and transmission. While initial colonization was mostly uniform, in two mice a bottleneck reduced diversity and selected for ciprofloxacin resistance in the absence of drug. These findings highlight the interplay between environmental transmission and rapid, deterministic selection during evolution of the intestinal microbiota.

RevDate: 2022-01-13
CmpDate: 2022-01-13

Moore NE, LS Weyrich (2021)

A Standardized Approach for Shotgun Metagenomic Analysis of Ancient Dental Calculus.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2327:93-118.

Ancient dental calculus provides a challenging, yet unparalleled, opportunity to reconstruct ancient oral microbial communities and trace the origins of modern microbiota-associated diseases. Metagenomic analysis of ancient dental calculus using high-throughput DNA sequencing has proven itself as an effective method to accurately reconstruct microorganisms that once lived in the mouths of ancient humans. Here, we provide the strategy, methodologies, and approaches used to establish an ancient dental calculus project, from project conception, community engagement, sampling, extracting DNA, and preparing shotgun metagenomic DNA libraries for sequencing on an Illumina platform. We also discuss techniques to minimize background or contaminant DNA by monitoring and reducing contamination in calculus data sets, utilizing appropriate protective gear, and employing the use of sample decontamination strategies. In this methodology chapter, we hope to promote transparency in the ancient dental calculus research field and encourage collaboration across the ancient DNA research community.

RevDate: 2022-01-13
CmpDate: 2022-01-13

Marotz C, Zuniga C, Zaramela L, et al (2021)

Host DNA Depletion in Saliva Samples for Improved Shotgun Metagenomics.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2327:87-92.

Host DNA makes up the majority of DNA in a saliva sample. Therefore, shotgun metagenomics can be an inefficient way to evaluate the microbial populations of saliva since often <10% of the sequencing reads are microbial. In this chapter, we describe a method to deplete human DNA from fresh or frozen saliva samples, allowing for more efficient shotgun metagenomic sequencing of the salivary microbial community.

RevDate: 2022-01-13
CmpDate: 2022-01-13

Tansirichaiya S, Reynolds LJ, AP Roberts (2021)

Functional Metagenomic Screening for Antimicrobial Resistance in the Oral Microbiome.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2327:31-50.

A large proportion of bacteria, from a multitude of environments, are not yet able to be grown in the laboratory, and therefore microbiological and molecular biological investigations of these bacteria are challenging. A way to circumvent this challenge is to analyze the metagenome, the entire collection of DNA molecules that can be isolated from a particular environment or sample. This collection of DNA molecules can be sequenced and assembled to determine what is present and infer functional potential, or used as a PCR template to detect known target DNA and potentially unknown regions of DNA nearby those targets; however assigning functions to new or conserved hypothetical, functionally cryptic, genes is difficult. Functional metagenomics allows researchers to determine which genes are responsible for selectable phenotypes, such as resistance to antimicrobials and metabolic capabilities, without the prerequisite needs to grow the bacteria containing those genes or to already know which genes are of interest. It is estimated that a third of the resident species of the human oral cavity is not yet cultivable and, together with the ease of sample acquisition, makes this metagenome particularly suited to functional metagenomic studies. Here we describe the methodology related to the collection of saliva samples, extraction of metagenomic DNA, construction of metagenomic libraries, as well as the description of functional assays that have previously led to the identification of new genes conferring antimicrobial resistance.

RevDate: 2022-01-13
CmpDate: 2022-01-13

Ma L, Keng J, Cheng M, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiome and Serum Metabolome Alterations Associated with Isolated Dystonia.

mSphere, 6(4):e0028321.

Dystonia is a complex neurological movement disorder characterized by involuntary muscle contractions. Increasing studies implicate the microbiome as a possible key susceptibility factor for neurological disorders, but the relationship between the gut microbiota and dystonia remains poorly explored. Here, the gut microbiota of 57 patients with isolated dystonia and 27 age- and environment-matched healthy controls was analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Further, integrative analysis of the gut microbiome and serum metabolome measured by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry was performed. No difference in α-diversity was found, while β-diversity was significantly different, with a more heterogeneous community structure among dystonia patients than among controls. The most significant changes in dystonia highlighted an increase in Clostridiales, including Blautia obeum, Dorea longicatena, and Eubacterium hallii, and a reduction in Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides plebeius. The functional analysis revealed that genes related to tryptophan and purine biosynthesis were more abundant in gut microbiota from patients with dystonia, while genes linked to citrate cycle, vitamin B6, and glycan metabolism were less abundant. The evaluation of serum metabolites revealed altered levels of l-glutamic acid, taurine, and d-tyrosine, suggesting changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. The most modified metabolites strongly inversely correlated with the abundance of members belonging to the Clostridiales, revealing the effect of the gut microbiota on neurometabolic activity. This study is the first to reveal gut microbial dysbiosis in patients with isolated dystonia and identified potential links between gut microbiota and serum neurotransmitters, providing new insight into the pathogenesis of isolated dystonia. IMPORTANCE Dystonia is the third most common movement disorder after essential tremor and Parkinson's disease. However, the cause for the majority of cases is not known. This is the first study so far that reveals significant alterations of gut microbiome and correlates the alteration of serum metabolites with gut dysbiosis in patients with isolated dystonia. We demonstrated a general overrepresentation of Clostridiales and underrepresentation of Bacteroidetes in patients with dystonia in comparison with healthy controls. The functional analysis found that genes related to the biosynthesis of tryptophan, which is the precursor of the neurotransmitter serotonin, were more active in isolated dystonia patients. Altered levels of several serum metabolites were found to be associated with microbial changes, such as d-tyrosine, taurine, and glutamate, indicating differences in neurotransmitter metabolism in isolated dystonia. Integrative analysis suggests that neurotransmitter system dysfunction may be a possible pathway by which the gut microbiome participates in the development of dystonia. The gut microbiome changes provide new insight into the pathogenesis of dystonia, suggesting new potential therapeutic directions.

RevDate: 2022-01-13
CmpDate: 2022-01-13

Huang X, Welsh RM, Deming C, et al (2021)

Skin Metagenomic Sequence Analysis of Early Candida auris Outbreaks in U.S. Nursing Homes.

mSphere, 6(4):e0028721.

Candida auris is a human fungal pathogen classified as an urgent threat to the delivery of health care due to its extensive antimicrobial resistance and the high mortality rates associated with invasive infections. Global outbreaks have occurred in health care facilities, particularly, long-term care hospitals and nursing homes. Skin is the primary site of colonization for C. auris. To accelerate research studies, we developed microbiome sequencing protocols, including amplicon and metagenomic sequencing, directly from patient samples at health care facilities with ongoing C. auris outbreaks. We characterized the skin mycobiome with a database optimized to classify Candida species and C. auris to the clade level. While Malassezia species were the predominant skin-associated fungi, nursing home residents also harbored Candida species, including C. albicans, and C. parapsilosis. Amplicon sequencing was concordant with culturing studies to identify C. auris-colonized patients and provided further resolution that distinct clades of C. auris are colonizing facilities in New York and Illinois. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing from a clinical sample with a high fungal bioburden generated a skin-associated profile of the C. auris genome. Future larger scale clinical studies are warranted to more systematically investigate the effects of commensal microbes and patient risk factors on the colonization and transmission of C. auris. IMPORTANCE Candida auris is a human pathogen of high concern due to its extensive antifungal drug resistance and high mortality rates associated with invasive infections. Candida auris skin colonization and persistence on environmental surfaces make this pathogen difficult to control once it enters a health care facility. Residents in long-term care hospitals and nursing homes are especially vulnerable. In this study, we developed microbiome sequencing protocols directly from surveillance samples, including amplicon and metagenomic sequencing, demonstrating concordance between sequencing results and culturing.

RevDate: 2022-01-13
CmpDate: 2022-01-13

Kang Y, Sun B, Chen Y, et al (2021)

Dental Plaque Microbial Resistomes of Periodontal Health and Disease and Their Changes after Scaling and Root Planing Therapy.

mSphere, 6(4):e0016221.

The human oral microbial community has been considered a reservoir of antibiotic resistance. Currently, the effects of periodontitis and the scaling and root planing (SRP) treatment on the performance of antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) and metal-resistant genes (MRGs) in the dental plaque microbiota are not well characterized. To explore this issue, we selected 48 healthy-state (HS), 40 periodontitis-state (PS; before treatment), and 24 resolved-state (RS; after SRP treatment) metagenomic data of dental plaque samples from the Sequence Read Archive (SRA) database. NetShift analysis identified Fretibacterium fastidiosum, Tannerella forsythia, and Campylobacter rectus as key drivers during dental plaque microbiota alteration in the progression of periodontitis. Periodontitis and SRP treatment resulted in an increase in the number of ARGs and MRGs in dental plaque and significantly altered the composition of ARG and MRG profiles. Bacitracin, beta-lactam, macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS), tetracycline, and multidrug resistance genes were the main classes of ARGs with high relative abundance, whereas multimetal, iron, chromium, and copper resistance genes were the primary types of MRGs in dental plaque microbiota. The cooccurrence of ARGs, MRGs, and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) indicated that a coselection phenomenon exists in the resistomes of dental plaque microbiota. Overall, our data provide new insights into the standing of the distribution of ARGs and MRGs in oral microbiota of periodontitis patients, and it was possible to contribute to the understanding of the complicated correlations among microorganisms, resistomes, and MGEs. IMPORTANCE The emergence and development of resistance to antibiotics in periodontal pathogens have affected the success rate of treatment for periodontitis. The development of new antibacterial strategies is urgently needed to help control and treat periodontal disease, and dental plaque microbiome studies offer a promising new angle of attack. In this study, we investigated the dental plaque microbiota and resistomes in periodontal health and disease states and their changes after SRP therapy. This is the first analysis of the profile of the microbial community and antibiotic and metal resistance genes in dental plaque by the metagenomic approach, to the best of our knowledge. Monitoring the profile of these resistomes has huge potential to provide reference levels for proper antibiotics use and the development of new antimicrobial strategies in periodontitis therapy and thereby improve actual efficacy of the treatment regimens.

RevDate: 2022-01-12
CmpDate: 2022-01-12

Hernandez-Baixauli J, Puigbò P, Abasolo N, et al (2021)

Alterations in Metabolome and Microbiome Associated with an Early Stress Stage in Male Wistar Rats: A Multi-Omics Approach.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(23):.

Stress disorders have dramatically increased in recent decades becoming the most prevalent psychiatric disorder in the United States and Europe. However, the diagnosis of stress disorders is currently based on symptom checklist and psychological questionnaires, thus making the identification of candidate biomarkers necessary to gain better insights into this pathology and its related metabolic alterations. Regarding the identification of potential biomarkers, omic profiling and metabolic footprint arise as promising approaches to recognize early biochemical changes in such disease and provide opportunities for the development of integrative candidate biomarkers. Here, we studied plasma and urine metabolites together with metagenomics in a 3 days Chronic Unpredictable Mild Stress (3d CUMS) animal approach that aims to focus on the early stress period of a well-established depression model. The multi-omics integration showed a profile composed by a signature of eight plasma metabolites, six urine metabolites and five microbes. Specifically, threonic acid, malic acid, alpha-ketoglutarate, succinic acid and cholesterol were proposed as key metabolites that could serve as key potential biomarkers in plasma metabolome of early stages of stress. Such findings targeted the threonic acid metabolism and the tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle as important pathways in early stress. Additionally, an increase in opportunistic microbes as virus of the Herpesvirales was observed in the microbiota as an effect of the primary stress stages. Our results provide an experimental biochemical characterization of the early stage of CUMS accompanied by a subsequent omic profiling and a metabolic footprinting that provide potential candidate biomarkers.

RevDate: 2022-01-12
CmpDate: 2022-01-12

Lin D, Zheng X, Sanogo B, et al (2021)

Bacterial composition of midgut and entire body of laboratory colonies of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus from Southern China.

Parasites & vectors, 14(1):586.

BACKGROUND: Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus are invasive mosquito species and significantly impact human health in southern China. Microbiota are confirmed to affect the development and immunity of mosquitoes. However, scientists have focused more on midgut microbiota of female mosquitoes and bacterial differences between female and male Aedes mosquitoes. The relationship between the midgut and entire body microbiota of Aedes is unclear. In this study, we collected mosquito samples reared under the same laboratory conditions and compared the microbial composition of midgut and entire bodies of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

METHODS: In this study, we collected mosquito samples reared under the same laboratory conditions and compared the microbial composition of midgut and entire bodies of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus using 16S rRNA gene sequencing.

RESULTS: A total of 341 OTUs were identified, showing that Proteobacteria was the dominant phylum and Methylobacterium the dominant genus in both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. The bacterial diversity and community structures of the entire bodies were similar between males and females in both Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Conversely, the bacterial compositions of male and female Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus were significantly different. NMDS analysis, UPGMA analysis, diversity indices and OTU distribution demonstrated that compositions and structures in midgut microbiota were similar but significantly different in the entire bodies of Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus. Functional prediction analysis showed that metabolism and environmental information processing were the dominant KEGG pathways at level 1. Our study showed that there were significantly different level 2 and 3 KEGG pathways in the midgut microbiota (16 level 2 and 24 level 3) and the entire bodies (33 level 2 and 248 level 3) between female Aedes albopictus and Aedes Aegypti.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings that Aedes aegypti and Aedes albopictus reared in the same laboratory harbor a similar gut bacterial microbiome but different entire body microbiota imply that the gut microbiota of adult mosquitoes is environmentally determined regardless of the host genotype, but the entire body microbiota is more genetically determined. Our findings improved the understanding of the microbiota in the entire and partial tissues of Aedes mosquitoes.

RevDate: 2022-01-12
CmpDate: 2022-01-12

Cifuentes-Anticevic J, Alcamán-Arias ME, Alarcón-Schumacher T, et al (2021)

Proteorhodopsin Phototrophy in Antarctic Coastal Waters.

mSphere, 6(4):e0052521.

Microbial proton-pumping rhodopsins are considered the simplest strategy among phototrophs to conserve energy from light. Proteorhodopsins are the most studied rhodopsins thus far because of their ubiquitous presence in the ocean, except in Antarctica, where they remain understudied. We analyzed proteorhodopsin abundance and transcriptional activity in the Western Antarctic coastal seawaters. Combining quantitative PCR (qPCR) and metagenomics, the relative abundance of proteorhodopsin-bearing bacteria accounted on average for 17, 3.5, and 29.7% of the bacterial community in Chile Bay (South Shetland Islands) during 2014, 2016, and 2017 summer-autumn, respectively. The abundance of proteorhodopsin-bearing bacteria changed in relation to environmental conditions such as chlorophyll a and temperature. Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Flavobacteriia were the main bacteria that transcribed the proteorhodopsin gene during day and night. Although green light-absorbing proteorhodopsin genes were more abundant than blue-absorbing ones, the latter were transcribed more intensely, resulting in >50% of the proteorhodopsin transcripts during the day and night. Flavobacteriia were the most abundant proteorhodopsin-bearing bacteria in the metagenomes; however, Alphaproteobacteria and Gammaproteobacteria were more represented in the metatranscriptomes, with qPCR quantification suggesting the dominance of the active SAR11 clade. Our results show that proteorhodopsin-bearing bacteria are prevalent in Antarctic coastal waters in late austral summer and early autumn, and their ecological relevance needs to be elucidated to better understand how sunlight energy is used in this marine ecosystem. IMPORTANCE Proteorhodopsin-bearing microorganisms in the Southern Ocean have been overlooked since their discovery in 2000. The present study identify taxonomy and quantify the relative abundance of proteorhodopsin-bearing bacteria and proteorhodopsin gene transcription in the West Antarctic Peninsula's coastal waters. This information is crucial to understand better how sunlight enters this marine environment through alternative ways unrelated to chlorophyll-based strategies. The relative abundance of proteorhodopsin-bearing bacteria seems to be related to environmental parameters (e.g., chlorophyll a, temperature) that change yearly at the coastal water of the West Antarctic Peninsula during the austral late summers and early autumns. Proteorhodopsin-bearing bacteria from Antarctic coastal waters are potentially able to exploit both the green and blue spectrum of sunlight and are a prevalent group during the summer in this polar environment.

RevDate: 2022-01-12
CmpDate: 2022-01-12

Bruggeling CE, Garza DR, Achouiti S, et al (2021)

Optimized bacterial DNA isolation method for microbiome analysis of human tissues.

MicrobiologyOpen, 10(3):e1191.

Recent advances in microbiome sequencing have rendered new insights into the role of the microbiome in human health with potential clinical implications. Unfortunately, the presence of host DNA in tissue isolates has hampered the analysis of host-associated bacteria. Here, we present a DNA isolation protocol for tissue, optimized on biopsies from resected human colons (~2-5 mm in size), which includes reduction of human DNA without distortion of relative bacterial abundance at the phylum level. We evaluated which concentrations of Triton and saponin lyse human cells and leave bacterial cells intact, in combination with DNAse treatment to deplete released human DNA. Saponin at a concentration of 0.0125% in PBS lysed host cells, resulting in a 4.5-fold enrichment of bacterial DNA while preserving the relative abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, γ-Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria assessed by qPCR. Our optimized protocol was validated in the setting of two large clinical studies on 521 in vivo acquired colon biopsies of 226 patients using shotgun metagenomics. The resulting bacterial profiles exhibited alpha and beta diversities that are similar to the diversities found by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. A direct comparison between shotgun metagenomics and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing of 15 forceps tissue biopsies showed similar bacterial profiles and a similar Shannon diversity index between the sequencing methods. Hereby, we present the first protocol for enriching bacterial DNA from tissue biopsies that allows efficient isolation of all bacteria. Our protocol facilitates analysis of a wide spectrum of bacteria of clinical tissue samples improving their applicability for microbiome research.

RevDate: 2022-01-12
CmpDate: 2022-01-12

Méndez-Salazar EO, Vázquez-Mellado J, Casimiro-Soriguer CS, et al (2021)

Taxonomic variations in the gut microbiome of gout patients with and without tophi might have a functional impact on urate metabolism.

Molecular medicine (Cambridge, Mass.), 27(1):50.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the taxonomic composition of the gut microbiome in gout patients with and without tophi formation, and predict bacterial functions that might have an impact on urate metabolism.

METHODS: Hypervariable V3-V4 regions of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene from fecal samples of gout patients with and without tophi (n = 33 and n = 25, respectively) were sequenced and compared to fecal samples from 53 healthy controls. We explored predictive functional profiles using bioinformatics in order to identify differences in taxonomy and metabolic pathways.

RESULTS: We identified a microbiome characterized by the lowest richness and a higher abundance of Phascolarctobacterium, Bacteroides, Akkermansia, and Ruminococcus_gnavus_group genera in patients with gout without tophi when compared to controls. The Proteobacteria phylum and the Escherichia-Shigella genus were more abundant in patients with tophaceous gout than in controls. Fold change analysis detected nine genera enriched in healthy controls compared to gout groups (Bifidobacterium, Butyricicoccus, Oscillobacter, Ruminococcaceae_UCG_010, Lachnospiraceae_ND2007_group, Haemophilus, Ruminococcus_1, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, and Ruminococcaceae_UGC_013). We found that the core microbiota of both gout groups shared Bacteroides caccae, Bacteroides stercoris ATCC 43183, and Bacteroides coprocola DSM 17136. These bacteria might perform functions linked to one-carbon metabolism, nucleotide binding, amino acid biosynthesis, and purine biosynthesis. Finally, we observed differences in key bacterial enzymes involved in urate synthesis, degradation, and elimination.

CONCLUSION: Our findings revealed that taxonomic variations in the gut microbiome of gout patients with and without tophi might have a functional impact on urate metabolism.

RevDate: 2022-01-12
CmpDate: 2022-01-12

Brial F, Chilloux J, Nielsen T, et al (2021)

Human and preclinical studies of the host-gut microbiome co-metabolite hippurate as a marker and mediator of metabolic health.

Gut, 70(11):2105-2114.

OBJECTIVE: Gut microbial products are involved in regulation of host metabolism. In human and experimental studies, we explored the potential role of hippurate, a hepatic phase 2 conjugation product of microbial benzoate, as a marker and mediator of metabolic health.

DESIGN: In 271 middle-aged non-diabetic Danish individuals, who were stratified on habitual dietary intake, we applied 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy of urine samples and shotgun-sequencing-based metagenomics of the gut microbiome to explore links between the urine level of hippurate, measures of the gut microbiome, dietary fat and markers of metabolic health. In mechanistic experiments with chronic subcutaneous infusion of hippurate to high-fat-diet-fed obese mice, we tested for causality between hippurate and metabolic phenotypes.

RESULTS: In the human study, we showed that urine hippurate positively associates with microbial gene richness and functional modules for microbial benzoate biosynthetic pathways, one of which is less prevalent in the Bacteroides 2 enterotype compared with Ruminococcaceae or Prevotella enterotypes. Through dietary stratification, we identify a subset of study participants consuming a diet rich in saturated fat in which urine hippurate concentration, independently of gene richness, accounts for links with metabolic health. In the high-fat-fed mice experiments, we demonstrate causality through chronic infusion of hippurate (20 nmol/day) resulting in improved glucose tolerance and enhanced insulin secretion.

CONCLUSION: Our human and experimental studies show that a high urine hippurate concentration is a general marker of metabolic health, and in the context of obesity induced by high-fat diets, hippurate contributes to metabolic improvements, highlighting its potential as a mediator of metabolic health.

RevDate: 2022-01-12
CmpDate: 2022-01-12

Canova R, Budaszewski RF, Weber MN, et al (2021)

Spleen and lung virome analysis of South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) collected on the southern Brazilian coast.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 92:104862.

South American fur seals (Arctocephalus australis) are believed to reach the coast of Rio Grande do Sul (RS) through sea currents. They live in colonies and are frequently found resting on the beach. However, it is also common to find dead pinnipeds on beaches, sharing the environment with humans, domestic animals and other wild species on the coast and facilitating the transmission of pathogens. In the present study, a metagenomic approach was applied to evaluate the viral diversity in organs of fur seals found deceased along the coast of the state of RS, southern Brazil. The lungs and spleens of 29 animals were collected, macerated individually, pooled separately (one pool for lungs and another for spleens) and sequenced using the Illumina MiSeq platform. Sequences more closely related to members of the Anelloviridae and Circoviridae families were detected. Nine putative new species of anellovirus and one putative new genus, named Nitorquevirus, were described. Additionally, the circovirus sequences found in the lungs of A. australis have a common ancestor with PCV3, a proposed swine pathogen. Our study expanded the knowledge about viral communities in pinnipeds and could be useful for monitoring new viruses and potential viral sharing among wildlife, domestic animals, and humans.

RevDate: 2022-01-12
CmpDate: 2022-01-12

Masi AC, Embleton ND, Lamb CA, et al (2021)

Human milk oligosaccharide DSLNT and gut microbiome in preterm infants predicts necrotising enterocolitis.

Gut, 70(12):2273-2282.

OBJECTIVE: Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating intestinal disease primarily affecting preterm infants. The underlying mechanisms are poorly understood: mother's own breast milk (MOM) is protective, possibly relating to human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) and infant gut microbiome interplay. We investigated the interaction between HMO profiles and infant gut microbiome development and its association with NEC.

DESIGN: We performed HMO profiling of MOM in a large cohort of infants with NEC (n=33) with matched controls (n=37). In a subset of 48 infants (14 with NEC), we also performed longitudinal metagenomic sequencing of infant stool (n=644).

RESULTS: Concentration of a single HMO, disialyllacto-N-tetraose (DSLNT), was significantly lower in MOM received by infants with NEC compared with controls. A MOM threshold level of 241 nmol/mL had a sensitivity and specificity of 0.9 for NEC. Metagenomic sequencing before NEC onset showed significantly lower relative abundance of Bifidobacterium longum and higher relative abundance of Enterobacter cloacae in infants with NEC. Longitudinal development of the microbiome was also impacted by low MOM DSLNT associated with reduced transition into preterm gut community types dominated by Bifidobacterium spp and typically observed in older infants. Random forest analysis combining HMO and metagenome data before disease accurately classified 87.5% of infants as healthy or having NEC.

CONCLUSION: These results demonstrate the importance of HMOs and gut microbiome in preterm infant health and disease. The findings offer potential targets for biomarker development, disease risk stratification and novel avenues for supplements that may prevent life-threatening disease.

RevDate: 2022-01-11
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

Hullar MAJ, Jenkins IC, Randolph TW, et al (2021)

Associations of the gut microbiome with hepatic adiposity in the Multiethnic Cohort Adiposity Phenotype Study.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1965463.

Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a risk factor for liver cancer and prevalence varies by ethnicity. Along with genetic and lifestyle factors, the gut microbiome (GM) may contribute to NAFLD and its progression to advanced liver disease. Our cross-sectional analysis assessed the association of the GM with hepatic adiposity among African American, Japanese American, White, Latino, and Native Hawaiian participants in the Multiethnic Cohort. We used MRI to measure liver fat and determine nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) status (n = 511 cases) in 1,544 participants, aged 60-77 years, with 12-53% overall adiposity (BMI of 17.8-46.2 kg/m2). The GM was measured by 16S rRNA gene sequencing and, on a subset, by metagenomic sequencing. Alpha diversity was lower overall with NAFLD and in certain ethnicities (African Americans, Whites, and Latinos). In models regressing genus on NAFLD status, 62 of 149 genera (40%) exhibited a significant interaction between NAFLD and ethnicity stratified analysis found 69 genera significantly associated with NAFLD in at least one ethnic group. No single genus was significantly associated with NAFLD across all ethnicities. In contrast, the same bacterial metabolic pathways were over-represented in participants with NAFLD regardless of ethnicity. Imputed secondary bile acid and carbohydrate pathways were associated with NAFLD, the latter of which was corroborated by metagenomics, although different genera in different ethnicities were associated with these pathways. Overall, we found that NAFLD was associated with altered bacterial composition and metabolism, and that bacterial endotoxin, assessed by plasma lipopolysaccharide binding protein (LBP), may mediate liver fat-associated systemic inflammation in a manner that seems to vary by ethnicity.

RevDate: 2022-01-11
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

Marbouty M, R Koszul (2022)

Metagenomes Binning Using Proximity-Ligation Data.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2301:163-181.

Microbial communities are key components of all ecosystems, but characterization of their complete genomic structure remains challenging. Typical analysis tends to elude the complexity of the mixes in terms of species, strains, as well as extrachromosomal DNA molecules. Recently, approaches have been developed that bins DNA contigs into individual genomes and episomes according to their 3D contact frequencies. Those contacts are quantified by chromosome conformation capture experiments (3C, Hi-C), also known as proximity-ligation approaches, applied to metagenomics samples. Here, we present a simple computational pipeline that allows to recover high-quality Metagenomics Assemble Genomes (MAGs) starting from metagenomic 3C or Hi-C datasets and a metagenome assembly.

RevDate: 2022-01-11
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

Xie Y, Song L, Yang J, et al (2021)

Small intestinal flora graft alters fecal flora, stool, cytokines and mood status in healthy mice.

Life science alliance, 4(9):.

Fecal microbiota transplantation is widely used. Large intestinal microbiota (LIM) is more similar to fecal microbiota than small intestinal microbiota (SIM). The SIM communities are very different from those of LIM. Therefore, SIM transplantation (SIMT) and LIM transplantation (LIMT) might exert different influences. Here, healthy adult male C57Bl/6 mice received intragastric SIMT, LIMT, or sterile PBS administration. Microbiota graft samples were collected from small/large intestine of healthy mice of the same age, sex, and strain background. Compared with PBS treatment, SIMT increased pellet number, stool wet weight, and stool water percentage; induced a fecal microbiota profile shift toward the microbial composition of the SIM graft; induced a systemic anti-inflammatory cytokines profile; and ameliorated depressive-like behaviors in recipients. LIMT, however, induced merely a slight alteration in fecal microbial composition and no significant influence on the other aspects. In sum, SIMT, rather than LIMT, affected defecation features, fecal microbial composition, cytokines profile, and depressive-like behaviors in healthy mice. This study reveals the different effects of SIMT and LIMT, providing an interesting clue for further researches involving gut microbial composition change.

RevDate: 2022-01-11
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

Garg S (2021)

Computational methods for chromosome-scale haplotype reconstruction.

Genome biology, 22(1):101.

High-quality chromosome-scale haplotype sequences of diploid genomes, polyploid genomes, and metagenomes provide important insights into genetic variation associated with disease and biodiversity. However, whole-genome short read sequencing does not yield haplotype information spanning whole chromosomes directly. Computational assembly of shorter haplotype fragments is required for haplotype reconstruction, which can be challenging owing to limited fragment lengths and high haplotype and repeat variability across genomes. Recent advancements in long-read and chromosome-scale sequencing technologies, alongside computational innovations, are improving the reconstruction of haplotypes at the level of whole chromosomes. Here, we review recent and discuss methodological progress and perspectives in these areas.

RevDate: 2022-01-11
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

Fremin BJ, AS Bhatt (2021)

Comparative genomics identifies thousands of candidate structured RNAs in human microbiomes.

Genome biology, 22(1):100.

BACKGROUND: Structured RNAs play varied bioregulatory roles within microbes. To date, hundreds of candidate structured RNAs have been predicted using informatic approaches that search for motif structures in genomic sequence data. The human microbiome contains thousands of species and strains of microbes. Yet, much of the metagenomic data from the human microbiome remains unmined for structured RNA motifs primarily due to computational limitations.

RESULTS: We sought to apply a large-scale, comparative genomics approach to these organisms to identify candidate structured RNAs. With a carefully constructed, though computationally intensive automated analysis, we identify 3161 conserved candidate structured RNAs in intergenic regions, as well as 2022 additional candidate structured RNAs that may overlap coding regions. We validate the RNA expression of 177 of these candidate structures by analyzing small fragment RNA-seq data from four human fecal samples.

CONCLUSIONS: This approach identifies a wide variety of candidate structured RNAs, including tmRNAs, antitoxins, and likely ribosome protein leaders, from a wide variety of taxa. Overall, our pipeline enables conservative predictions of thousands of novel candidate structured RNAs from human microbiomes.

RevDate: 2022-01-11
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

Wirbel J, Zych K, Essex M, et al (2021)

Microbiome meta-analysis and cross-disease comparison enabled by the SIAMCAT machine learning toolbox.

Genome biology, 22(1):93.

The human microbiome is increasingly mined for diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers using machine learning (ML). However, metagenomics-specific software is scarce, and overoptimistic evaluation and limited cross-study generalization are prevailing issues. To address these, we developed SIAMCAT, a versatile R toolbox for ML-based comparative metagenomics. We demonstrate its capabilities in a meta-analysis of fecal metagenomic studies (10,803 samples). When naively transferred across studies, ML models lost accuracy and disease specificity, which could however be resolved by a novel training set augmentation strategy. This reveals some biomarkers to be disease-specific, with others shared across multiple conditions. SIAMCAT is freely available from siamcat.embl.de .

RevDate: 2022-01-11
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

Zimmermann J, Kaleta C, S Waschina (2021)

gapseq: informed prediction of bacterial metabolic pathways and reconstruction of accurate metabolic models.

Genome biology, 22(1):81.

Genome-scale metabolic models of microorganisms are powerful frameworks to predict phenotypes from an organism's genotype. While manual reconstructions are laborious, automated reconstructions often fail to recapitulate known metabolic processes. Here we present gapseq (https://github.com/jotech/gapseq), a new tool to predict metabolic pathways and automatically reconstruct microbial metabolic models using a curated reaction database and a novel gap-filling algorithm. On the basis of scientific literature and experimental data for 14,931 bacterial phenotypes, we demonstrate that gapseq outperforms state-of-the-art tools in predicting enzyme activity, carbon source utilisation, fermentation products, and metabolic interactions within microbial communities.

RevDate: 2022-01-11
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

Moll JM, Myers PN, Zhang C, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiota Perturbation in IgA Deficiency Is Influenced by IgA-Autoantibody Status.

Gastroenterology, 160(7):2423-2434.e5.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: IgA exerts its primary function at mucosal surfaces, where it binds microbial antigens to regulate bacterial growth and epithelial attachment. One third of individuals with IgA deficiency (IgAD) suffers from recurrent mucosal infections, possibly related to an altered microbiota. We aimed to delineate the impact of IgAD and the IgA-autoantibody status on the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiota.

METHODS: We performed a paired, lifestyle-balanced analysis of the effect of IgA on the gut microbiota composition and functionality based on fecal samples from individuals with IgAD and IgA-sufficient household members (n = 100), involving quantitative shotgun metagenomics, species-centric functional annotation of gut bacteria, and strain-level analyses. We supplemented the data set with 32 individuals with IgAD and examined the influence of IgA-autoantibody status on the composition and functionality of the gut microbiota.

RESULTS: The gut microbiota of individuals with IgAD exhibited decreased richness and diversity and was enriched for bacterial species encoding pathogen-related functions including multidrug and antimicrobial peptide resistance, virulence factors, and type III and VI secretion systems. These functional changes were largely attributed to Escherichia coli but were independent of E coli strain variations and most prominent in individuals with IgAD with IgA-specific autoreactive antibodies.

CONCLUSIONS: The microbiota of individuals with IgAD is enriched for species holding increased proinflammatory potential, thereby potentially decreasing the resistance to gut barrier-perturbing events. This phenotype is especially pronounced in individuals with IgAD with IgA-specific autoreactive antibodies, thus warranting a screening for IgA-specific autoreactive antibodies in IgAD to identify patients with IgAD with increased risk for gastrointestinal implications.

RevDate: 2022-01-11
CmpDate: 2022-01-11

Bajaj JS, Sikaroodi M, Shamsaddini A, et al (2021)

Interaction of bacterial metagenome and virome in patients with cirrhosis and hepatic encephalopathy.

Gut, 70(6):1162-1173.

OBJECTIVE: Altered bacterial composition is associated with disease progression in cirrhosis but the role of virome, especially phages, is unclear.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional and pre/post rifaximin cohorts were enrolled. Cross-sectional: controls and cirrhotic outpatients (compensated, on lactulose (Cirr-L), on rifaximin (Cirr-LR)) were included and followed for 90-day hospitalisations. Pre/post: compensated cirrhotics underwent stool collection pre/post 8 weeks of rifaximin. Stool metagenomics for bacteria and phages and their correlation networks were analysed in controls versus cirrhosis, within cirrhotics, hospitalised/not and pre/post rifaximin.

RESULTS: Cross-sectional: 40 controls and 163 cirrhotics (63 compensated, 43 Cirr-L, 57 Cirr-LR) were enrolled. Cirr-L/LR groups were similar on model for end-stage liver disease (MELD) score but Cirr-L developed greater hospitalisations versus Cirr-LR (56% vs 30%, p=0.008). Bacterial alpha/beta diversity worsened from controls through Cirr-LR. While phage alpha diversity was similar, beta diversity was different between groups. Autochthonous bacteria linked negatively, pathobionts linked positively with MELD but only modest phage-MELD correlations were seen. Phage-bacterial correlation network complexity was highest in controls, lowest in Cirr-L and increased in Cirr-LR. Microviridae and Faecalibacterium phages were linked with autochthonous bacteria in Cirr-LR, but not Cirr-L hospitalised patients had greater pathobionts, lower commensal bacteria and phages focused on Streptococcus, Lactococcus and Myoviridae. Pre/post: No changes in alpha/beta diversity of phages or bacteria were seen postrifaximin. Phage-bacterial linkages centred around urease-producing Streptococcus species collapsed postrifaximin.

CONCLUSION: Unlike bacteria, faecal phages are sparsely linked with cirrhosis characteristics and 90-day outcomes. Phage and bacterial linkages centred on urease-producing, ammonia-generating Streptococcus species were affected by disease progression and rifaximin therapy and were altered in patients who experienced 90-day hospitalisations.

RevDate: 2022-01-10

Ibrahim A, Maatouk M, Rajaonison A, et al (2021)

Adapted Protocol for Saccharibacteria Cocultivation: Two New Members Join the Club of Candidate Phyla Radiation.

Microbiology spectrum, 9(3):e0106921.

The growing application of metagenomics to different ecological and microbiome niches in recent years has enhanced our knowledge of global microbial biodiversity. Among these abundant and widespread microbes, the candidate phyla radiation (CPR) group has been recognized as representing a large proportion of the microbial kingdom (>26%). CPR are characterized by their obligate symbiotic or exoparasitic activity with other microbial hosts, mainly bacteria. Currently, isolating CPR is still considered challenging for microbiologists. The idea of this study was to develop an adapted protocol for the coculture of CPR with a suitable bacterial host. Based on various sputum samples, we tried to enrich CPR (Saccharibacteria members) and to cocultivate them with pure hosts (Schaalia odontolytica). This protocol was monitored by TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) using a system specific for Saccharibacteria designed in this study, as well as by electron microscopy and sequencing. We succeeded in coculturing and sequencing the complete genomes of two new Saccharibacteria species, "Candidatus Minimicrobia naudis" and "Candidatus Minimicrobia vallesae." In addition, we noticed a decrease in the CT values of Saccharibacteria and a significant multiplication through their physical association with Schaalia odontolytica strains in the enriched medium that we developed. This work may help bridge gaps in the genomic database by providing new CPR members, and in the future, their currently unknown characteristics may be revealed. IMPORTANCE In this study, the first TaqMan real-time quantitative PCR (qPCR) system, targeting Saccharibacteria phylum, has been developed. This technique can specifically quantify Saccharibacteria members in any sample of interest in order to investigate their prevalence. In addition, another easy, specific, and sensitive protocol has been developed to maintain the viability of Saccharibacteria cells in an enriched medium with their bacterial host. The use of this protocol facilitates subsequent studies of the phenotypic characteristics of CPR and their physical interactions with bacterial species, as well as the sequencing of new genomes to improve the current database.

RevDate: 2022-01-10
CmpDate: 2022-01-10

Pradhan S, Ray P, P Aich (2022)

Microbiota transplantation from younger to older mice could restore lost immunity to effectively clear salmonella infection in Th2-biased BALB/c mice.

Life sciences, 288:120201.

AIMS: The composition, overtly abundance, and diversity of gut microbiota, play a significant role in maintaining physiological homeostasis with age. Reports revealed that the gut microbial profile might be correlated with immunity and metabolism. It is, therefore, tantamount to know if an older individual can achieve the immunity and metabolic profile of a younger individual by receiving the gut microbiome of a younger individual. In the current report, we have studied the effects of cecal microbiota transplantation (CMT) from younger to older mice.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this study, older BALB/c mice (23 weeks) received CMT from younger BALB/c mice (3 weeks).

KEY FINDINGS: CMT recipient mice showed altered expressions of immune and tight junction protein genes in the colon of mice, while the non-CMT recipient mice did not. Older mice were treated with AVNM to make them compatible with CMT. Further data from metabolite studies revealed that AVNM treatment mainly affected the aromatic amino acid biosynthesis pathway while CMT mostly affected the metabolism of different carbohydrates. We repeated the analysis in C57BL/6 mice without any significant effects of CMT.

SIGNIFICANCE: Results revealed that mice who received CMT showed more efficient restoration of gut microbiota than non-CMT recipient mice. CMT caused the alleviation of Salmonella infection and efficient recovery of the cecal index in the mice following antibiotics treatment.

RevDate: 2022-01-10
CmpDate: 2022-01-10

Hakim JA, Green GBH, Watts SA, et al (2021)

Microbial Composition and Genes for Key Metabolic Attributes in the Gut Digesta of Sea Urchins Lytechinus variegatus and Strongylocentrotus purpuratus Using Shotgun Metagenomics.

Current issues in molecular biology, 43(2):978-995 pii:cimb43020070.

This paper describes the microbial community composition and genes for key metabolic genes, particularly the nitrogen fixation of the mucous-enveloped gut digesta of green (Lytechinus variegatus) and purple (Strongylocentrotus purpuratus) sea urchins by using the shotgun metagenomics approach. Both green and purple urchins showed high relative abundances of Gammaproteobacteria at 30% and 60%, respectively. However, Alphaproteobacteria in the green urchins had higher relative abundances (20%) than the purple urchins (2%). At the genus level, Vibrio was dominant in both green (~9%) and purple (~10%) urchins, whereas Psychromonas was prevalent only in purple urchins (~24%). An enrichment of Roseobacter and Ruegeria was found in the green urchins, whereas purple urchins revealed a higher abundance of Shewanella, Photobacterium, and Bacteroides (q-value < 0.01). Analysis of key metabolic genes at the KEGG-Level-2 categories revealed genes for amino acids (~20%), nucleotides (~5%), cofactors and vitamins (~6%), energy (~5%), carbohydrates (~13%) metabolisms, and an abundance of genes for assimilatory nitrogen reduction pathway in both urchins. Overall, the results from this study revealed the differences in the microbial community and genes designated for the metabolic processes in the nutrient-rich sea urchin gut digesta, suggesting their likely importance to the host and their environment.

RevDate: 2022-01-10
CmpDate: 2022-01-10

Sumbula V, Kurian PS, Girija D, et al (2022)

Impact of foliar application of fungicides on tomato leaf fungal community structure revealed by metagenomic analysis.

Folia microbiologica, 67(1):103-108.

Fungicides are commonly used to manage plant pathogens. However, little is known about their effects on the non-target fungal communities that inhabit inside and outside the plant. These fungicides may have adverse effects on beneficial microbial communities with possible consequences for plant health and productivity. Hence, a metagenomic approach, based on the ITS2 region of fungal rDNA, was used to study the impact of foliar application of two fungicides (propineb and iprodione + carbendazim) on non-target tomato leaf fungal communities, in the context of early blight disease management. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the richness and diversity of tomato leaf fungal populations were adversely affected by the chemical treatments tested. Among the two fungicides, propineb (contact fungicide) imparted less non-targeted microorganisms than iprodione + carbendazim (systemic fungicide). In addition, all samples showed association of pathogenic genera Cladosporium, Corynespora, Pseudocercospora along with early blight pathogen Alternaria on tomato leaves that otherwise were undetected. Metagenomic studies also revealed a new mode of action for fungicides and bioagents besides their direct effect that is shifting the microbial community structure so that it provides greater resistance against the pathogen.

RevDate: 2022-01-10
CmpDate: 2022-01-10

Wen M, Liu T, Zhao M, et al (2021)

Correlation Analysis between Gut Microbiota and Metabolites in Children with Systemic Lupus Erythematosus.

Journal of immunology research, 2021:5579608.

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is an autoimmune-mediated diffuse connective tissue disease characterized by immune inflammation with an unclear aetiology and pathogenesis. This work profiled the intestinal flora and faecal metabolome of patients with SLE using 16S RNA sequencing and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). We identified unchanged alpha diversity and partially altered beta diversity of the intestinal flora. Another important finding was the increase in Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriales and the decrease in Ruminococcaceae among SLE patients. For metabolites, amino acids and short-chain fatty acids were enriched when long-chain fatty acids were downregulated in SLE faecal samples. KEGG analysis showed the significance of the protein digestion and absorption pathway, and association analysis revealed the key role of 3-phenylpropanoic acid and Sphingomonas. Sphingomonas were reported to be less abundant in healthy periodontal sites of SLE patients than in those of HCs, indicating transmission of oral species to the gut. This study contributes to the understanding of the pathogenesis of SLE disease from the perspective of intestinal microorganisms, explains the pathogenesis of SLE, and serves as a basis for exploring potential treatments for the disease.

RevDate: 2022-01-10
CmpDate: 2022-01-10

Bolte LA, Vich Vila A, Imhann F, et al (2021)

Long-term dietary patterns are associated with pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory features of the gut microbiome.

Gut, 70(7):1287-1298.

OBJECTIVE: The microbiome directly affects the balance of pro-inflammatory and anti-inflammatory responses in the gut. As microbes thrive on dietary substrates, the question arises whether we can nourish an anti-inflammatory gut ecosystem. We aim to unravel interactions between diet, gut microbiota and their functional ability to induce intestinal inflammation.

DESIGN: We investigated the relation between 173 dietary factors and the microbiome of 1425 individuals spanning four cohorts: Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, irritable bowel syndrome and the general population. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed to profile gut microbial composition and function. Dietary intake was assessed through food frequency questionnaires. We performed unsupervised clustering to identify dietary patterns and microbial clusters. Associations between diet and microbial features were explored per cohort, followed by a meta-analysis and heterogeneity estimation.

RESULTS: We identified 38 associations between dietary patterns and microbial clusters. Moreover, 61 individual foods and nutrients were associated with 61 species and 249 metabolic pathways in the meta-analysis across healthy individuals and patients with IBS, Crohn's disease and UC (false discovery rate<0.05). Processed foods and animal-derived foods were consistently associated with higher abundances of Firmicutes, Ruminococcus species of the Blautia genus and endotoxin synthesis pathways. The opposite was found for plant foods and fish, which were positively associated with short-chain fatty acid-producing commensals and pathways of nutrient metabolism.

CONCLUSION: We identified dietary patterns that consistently correlate with groups of bacteria with shared functional roles in both, health and disease. Moreover, specific foods and nutrients were associated with species known to infer mucosal protection and anti-inflammatory effects. We propose microbial mechanisms through which the diet affects inflammatory responses in the gut as a rationale for future intervention studies.

RevDate: 2022-01-10
CmpDate: 2022-01-10

Copeland JK, Chao G, Vanderhout S, et al (2021)

The Impact of Migration on the Gut Metagenome of South Asian Canadians.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1-29.

South Asian (SA) Canadian immigrants have a higher risk of developing certain immune-mediated inflammatory diseases compared to non-migrant SAs. We sought to investigate the effect of migration on the gut metagenome and to identify microbiological associations between migration and conditions that may influence the development of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases. Metagenomic analysis of 58 first-generation (GEN1) SA immigrants and 38 unrelated Canadian born children-of-immigrants (GEN2) determined that the time lived in Canada was associated with continued changes in gut microbial communities. Migration of GEN1 to Canada early in life results in a gut community with similarities to GEN2 SA Canadians and non-SA North Americans. Conversely, GEN1 immigrants who arrived recently to Canada exhibited pronounced differences from GEN2, while displaying microbial similarities to a non-migrating SA cohort. Multivariate analysis identified that community composition was primarily influenced by high abundance taxa. Prevotella copri dominated in GEN1 and non-migrant SAs. Clostridia and functionally related Bacteroidia spp. replaced P. copri dominance over generations in Canada. Mutually exclusive Dialister species occurred at differing relative abundances over time and generations in Canada. This shift in species composition is accompanied by a change in genes associated with carbohydrate utilization and short-chain fatty acid production. Total energy derived from carbohydrates compared to protein consumption was significantly higher for GEN1 recent immigrants, which may influence the functional requirements of the gut community. This study demonstrates the associations between migration and the gut microbiome, which may be further associated with the altered risk of immune-mediated inflammatory diseases observed for SA Canadians.

RevDate: 2022-01-10
CmpDate: 2022-01-10

Manrique P, Zhu Y, van der Oost J, et al (2021)

Gut bacteriophage dynamics during fecal microbial transplantation in subjects with metabolic syndrome.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1-15.

Metabolic Syndrome (MetS) is a growing public health concern worldwide. Individuals with MetS have an increased risk for cardiovascular (CV) disease and type 2 diabetes (T2D). These diseases - in part preventable with the treatment of MetS - increase the chances of premature death and pose a great economic burden to health systems. A healthy gut microbiota is associated with a reduction in MetS, T2D, and CV disease. Treatment of MetS with fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) can be effective, however, its success rate is intermediate and difficult to predict. Because bacteriophages significantly affect the microbiota membership and function, the aim of this pilot study was to explore the dynamics of the gut bacteriophage community after FMT in MetS subjects. We performed a longitudinal study of stool bacteriophages from healthy donors and MetS subjects before and after FMT treatment. Subjects were assigned to either a control group (self-stool transplant, n = 3) or a treatment group (healthy-donor-stool transplant; n-recipients = 6, n-donors = 5). Stool samples were collected over an 18-week period and bacteriophage-like particles were purified and sequenced. We found that FMT from healthy donors significantly alters the gut bacteriophage community. Subjects with better clinical outcome clustered closer to the heathy donor group, suggesting that throughout the treatment, their bacteriophage community was more similar to healthy donors. Finally, we identified bacteriophage groups that could explain these differences and we examined their prevalence in individuals from a larger cohort of MetS FMT trial.Trial information- http://www.trialregister.nl/trialreg/admin/rctview.asp?TC=2705; NTR 2705.

RevDate: 2022-01-10
CmpDate: 2022-01-10

Asnicar F, Leeming ER, Dimidi E, et al (2021)

Blue poo: impact of gut transit time on the gut microbiome using a novel marker.

Gut, 70(9):1665-1674.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Gut transit time is a key modulator of host-microbiome interactions, yet this is often overlooked, partly because reliable methods are typically expensive or burdensome. The aim of this single-arm, single-blinded intervention study is to assess (1) the relationship between gut transit time and the human gut microbiome, and (2) the utility of the 'blue dye' method as an inexpensive and scalable technique to measure transit time.

METHODS: We assessed interactions between the taxonomic and functional potential profiles of the gut microbiome (profiled via shotgun metagenomic sequencing), gut transit time (measured via the blue dye method), cardiometabolic health and diet in 863 healthy individuals from the PREDICT 1 study.

RESULTS: We found that gut microbiome taxonomic composition can accurately discriminate between gut transit time classes (0.82 area under the receiver operating characteristic curve) and longer gut transit time is linked with specific microbial species such as Akkermansia muciniphila, Bacteroides spp and Alistipes spp (false discovery rate-adjusted p values <0.01). The blue dye measure of gut transit time had the strongest association with the gut microbiome over typical transit time proxies such as stool consistency and frequency.

CONCLUSIONS: Gut transit time, measured via the blue dye method, is a more informative marker of gut microbiome function than traditional measures of stool consistency and frequency. The blue dye method can be applied in large-scale epidemiological studies to advance diet-microbiome-health research. Clinical trial registry website https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT03479866 and trial number NCT03479866.

RevDate: 2022-01-07
CmpDate: 2022-01-07

Kaashyap M, Cohen M, N Mantri (2021)

Microbial Diversity and Characteristics of Kombucha as Revealed by Metagenomic and Physicochemical Analysis.

Nutrients, 13(12):.

Kombucha is a fermented tea made from a Symbiotic Culture of Bacteria and Yeast (SCOBY) with a long history of use as a health tonic. It is likely that most health benefits come from the tea and fermentation metabolites from specific microbial communities. Despite its growing importance as a functional health drink, the microbial ecosystem present in kombucha has not been fully documented. To characterize the microbial composition and biochemical properties of 'The Good Brew' original base kombucha, we used metagenomics amplicon (16S rRNA and ITS) sequencing to identify the microbial communities at the taxonomic level. We identified 34 genera with 200 microbial species yet described in kombucha. The dominance of organic acid producing microorganisms Acetobacter, Komagataeibacter and Starmerella are healthy for the human gut and their glucose metabolising activities have a putative role in preventing conditions such as diabetes and obesity. Kombucha contains high protein (3.31 µg/mL), high phenolic content (290.4 mg/100 mL) and low sugars (glucose: 1.87 g/L; sucrose 1.11 g/L; fructose: 0.05 g/L) as compared to green tea. The broad microbial diversity with proven health benefits for the human gut suggests kombucha is a powerful probiotic. These findings are important to improve the commercial value of kombucha and uncover the immense prospects for health benefits.

RevDate: 2022-01-07
CmpDate: 2022-01-07

Yap CX, Henders AK, Alvares GA, et al (2021)

Autism-related dietary preferences mediate autism-gut microbiome associations.

Cell, 184(24):5916-5931.e17.

There is increasing interest in the potential contribution of the gut microbiome to autism spectrum disorder (ASD). However, previous studies have been underpowered and have not been designed to address potential confounding factors in a comprehensive way. We performed a large autism stool metagenomics study (n = 247) based on participants from the Australian Autism Biobank and the Queensland Twin Adolescent Brain project. We found negligible direct associations between ASD diagnosis and the gut microbiome. Instead, our data support a model whereby ASD-related restricted interests are associated with less-diverse diet, and in turn reduced microbial taxonomic diversity and looser stool consistency. In contrast to ASD diagnosis, our dataset was well powered to detect microbiome associations with traits such as age, dietary intake, and stool consistency. Overall, microbiome differences in ASD may reflect dietary preferences that relate to diagnostic features, and we caution against claims that the microbiome has a driving role in ASD.

RevDate: 2022-01-07
CmpDate: 2022-01-07

Biassoni R, Di Marco E, Squillario M, et al (2022)

Pathways and microbiome modifications related to surgery and enterocolitis in Hirschsprung disease.

Pediatric surgery international, 38(1):83-98.

BACKGROUND: Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) is a congenital anomaly of the enteric nervous system. Abnormal microbiome composition was reported in HSCR patients. In this study, we addressed and analyzed microbiome modifications with relation tosurgery and HSCR associated enterocolitis (HAEC).

METHODS: The faecal microbiome of 31 HSCR patients (overall 64 samples) was analyzed. HAEC was diagnosed and classified according to a combination of Pastor's and Elhalabi's criteria. Stool samples were analyzed by 16S sequencing (7 out of 9 polymorphic regions). Compositional and relative abundance profiles, as well as the functional potentials of the microbial community, were analyzed with the marker gene sequencing profiles using PICRUSt.

RESULTS: The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes showed a severe decrease with slow recovery after surgery. Conversely, Proteobacteria transiently increased their abundance. Noteworthy, a strong linkage has been found between Proteobacteria descendants and HAEC occurrences. The inferred functional analysis indicated that virulence factors and fimbriae or pili might be associated with HAEC.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study, addressing microbiome dynamics, demonstrated relevant changes after surgical manipulation. Alpha-diversity analyses indicated that surgery deeply affects microbiome composition. Proteobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae seem to play a pivotal role in HAEC occurrences. Several virulence factors, such as fimbriae or pili, might explain the HAEC-predisposing potential of selected microbiomes. These results suggest some innovative therapeutic approaches that deserve to be tested in appropriate clinical trials.

RevDate: 2022-01-07
CmpDate: 2022-01-07

Fouladi F, Carroll IM, Sharpton TJ, et al (2021)

A microbial signature following bariatric surgery is robustly consistent across multiple cohorts.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1930872.

Bariatric surgery induces significant shifts in the gut microbiota which could potentially contribute to weight loss and metabolic benefits. The aim of this study was to characterize a microbial signature following Roux-en-Y Gastric bypass (RYGB) surgery using novel and existing gut microbiota sequence data. We generated 16S rRNA gene and metagenomic sequences from fecal samples from patients undergoing RYGB surgery (n = 61 for 16S rRNA gene and n = 135 for metagenomics) at pre-surgical baseline and one, six, and twelve-month post-surgery. We compared these data with three smaller publicly available 16S rRNA gene and one metagenomic datasets from patients who also underwent RYGB surgery. Linear mixed models and machine learning approaches were used to examine the presence of a common microbial signature across studies. Comparison of our new sequences with previous longitudinal studies revealed strikingly similar profiles in both fecal microbiota composition (r = 0.41 ± 0.10; p < .05) and metabolic pathways (r = 0.70 ± 0.05; p < .001) early after surgery across multiple datasets. Notably, Veillonella, Streptococcus, Gemella, Fusobacterium, Escherichia/Shigella, and Akkermansia increased after surgery, while Blautia decreased. Machine learning approaches revealed that the replicable gut microbiota signature associated with RYGB surgery could be used to discriminate pre- and post-surgical samples. Opportunistic pathogen abundance also increased post-surgery in a consistent manner across cohorts. Our study reveals a robust microbial signature involving many commensal and pathogenic taxa and metabolic pathways early after RYGB surgery across different studies and sites. Characterization of the effects of this robust microbial signature on outcomes of bariatric surgery could provide insights into the development of microbiome-based interventions for predicting or improving outcomes following surgery.

RevDate: 2022-01-07
CmpDate: 2022-01-07

Wang S, Zeng S, Egan M, et al (2021)

Metagenomic analysis of mother-infant gut microbiome reveals global distinct and shared microbial signatures.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1-24.

Emerging evidence indicates maternal microbiota as one major reservoir for pioneering microbes in infants. However, the global distinct and identical features of mother-infant gut microbiota at various taxonomic resolutions and metabolic functions across cohorts and potential of infant microbial prediction based on their paired mother's gut microbiota remain unclear. Here, we analyzed 376 mother-infant dyads (468 mother and 1024 infant samples) of eight studies from six countries and observed higher diversity at species and strain levels in maternal gut microbiota but not their metabolic functions. A number of 290 species were shared in at least one mother-infant dyad, with 26 species (five at strain level) observed across cohorts. The profile of mother-infant shared species and strains was further influenced by delivery mode and feeding regimen. The mother-sourced species in infants exhibited similar strain heterogeneity but more metabolic functions compared to other-sourced species, suggesting the comparable stability and fitness of shared and non-shared species and the potential role of shared species in the early gut microbial community, respectively. Predictive models showed moderate performance accuracy for shared species and strains occurrences in infants. These generalized mother-infant shared species and strains may be considered as the primary targets for future work toward infant microbiome development and probiotics exploration.

RevDate: 2022-01-07
CmpDate: 2022-01-07

Bellali S, Lagier JC, Million M, et al (2021)

Running after ghosts: are dead bacteria the dark matter of the human gut microbiota?.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1-12.

The human gut microbiota has been explored by a wide range of culture-dependent and culture-independent methods, revealing that many microbes remain uncharacterized and uncultured. In this work, we aimed to confirm the hypothesis that some of the species present in the human gut microbiota remain uncultured not because of culture limitations, but because all members of such species are dead before reaching the end of the gastro-intestinal tract.We evaluate this phenomenon by studying the microbial viability and culturability of the human gut microbiota from the fresh fecal materials of eight healthy adults. For the first time, we applied fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) combined with 16S metagenomics analysis and microbial culturomics.We identified a total of 1,020 bacterial OTUs and 495 bacterial isolates through metagenomics and culturomics, respectively. Among the FACS metagenomics results, only 735 bacterial OTUs were alive, comprising on average 42% of known species and 87% of relative abundance per individual. The remaining uncultured bacteria were rare, dead, or injured.Our strategy allowed us to shed light on the dark matter of the human gut microbiota and revealed that both metagenomics and culturomics approaches are needed for greater insight into the diversity and richness of bacteria in the human gut microbiota. Further work on culture is needed to enhance the repertoire of cultured gut bacteria by targeting low abundance bacteria and optimizing anaerobic sample conditioning and processing to preserve the viability of bacteria.

RevDate: 2022-01-07
CmpDate: 2022-01-07

Ruuskanen MO, Åberg F, Männistö V, et al (2021)

Links between gut microbiome composition and fatty liver disease in a large population sample.

Gut microbes, 13(1):1-22.

Fatty liver disease is the most common liver disease in the world. Its connection with the gut microbiome has been known for at least 80 y, but this association remains mostly unstudied in the general population because of underdiagnosis and small sample sizes. To address this knowledge gap, we studied the link between the Fatty Liver Index (FLI), a well-established proxy for fatty liver disease, and gut microbiome composition in a representative, ethnically homogeneous population sample of 6,269 Finnish participants. We based our models on biometric covariates and gut microbiome compositions from shallow metagenome sequencing. Our classification models could discriminate between individuals with a high FLI (≥60, indicates likely liver steatosis) and low FLI (<60) in internal cross-region validation, consisting of 30% of the data not used in model training, with an average AUC of 0.75 and AUPRC of 0.56 (baseline at 0.30). In addition to age and sex, our models included differences in 11 microbial groups from class Clostridia, mostly belonging to orders Lachnospirales and Oscillospirales. Our models were also predictive of the high FLI group in a different Finnish cohort, consisting of 258 participants, with an average AUC of 0.77 and AUPRC of 0.51 (baseline at 0.21). Pathway analysis of representative genomes of the positively FLI-associated taxa in (NCBI) Clostridium subclusters IV and XIVa indicated the presence of, e.g., ethanol fermentation pathways. These results support several findings from smaller case-control studies, such as the role of endogenous ethanol producers in the development of the fatty liver.

RevDate: 2022-01-07
CmpDate: 2022-01-07

He X, Gao J, Peng L, et al (2021)

Bacterial O-GlcNAcase genes abundance decreases in ulcerative colitis patients and its administration ameliorates colitis in mice.

Gut, 70(10):1872-1883.

OBJECTIVE: O-linked N-acetylglucosaminylation (O-GlcNAcylation), controlled by O-GlcNAcase (OGA) and O-GlcNAc transferase (OGT), is an important post-translational modification of eukaryotic proteins and plays an essential role in regulating gut inflammation. Gut microbiota encode various enzymes involved in O-GlcNAcylation. However, the characteristics, abundance and function of these enzymes are unknown.

DESIGN: We first investigated the structure and taxonomic distribution of bacterial OGAs and OGTs. Then, we performed metagenomic analysis to explore the OGA genes abundance in health samples and different diseases. Finally, we employed in vitro and in vivo experiments to determine the effects and mechanisms of bacterial OGAs to hydrolyse O-GlcNAcylated proteins in host cells and suppress inflammatory response in the gut.

RESULTS: We found OGAs, instead of OGTs, are enriched in Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes, the major bacterial divisions in the human gut. Most bacterial OGAs are secreted enzymes with the same conserved catalytic domain as human OGAs. A pooled analysis on 1999 metagenomic samples encompassed six diseases revealed that bacterial OGA genes were conserved in healthy human gut with high abundance, and reduced exclusively in ulcerative colitis. In vitro studies showed that bacterial OGAs could hydrolyse O-GlcNAcylated proteins in host cells, including O-GlcNAcylated NF-κB-p65 subunit, which is important for activating NF-κB signalling. In vivo studies demonstrated that gut bacteria-derived OGAs could protect mice from chemically induced colonic inflammation through hydrolysing O-GlcNAcylated proteins.

CONCLUSION: Our results reveal a previously unrecognised enzymatic activity by which gut microbiota influence intestinal physiology and highlight bacterial OGAs as a promising therapeutic strategy in colonic inflammation.

RevDate: 2022-01-06
CmpDate: 2022-01-06

Bjerre RD, Holm JB, Palleja A, et al (2021)

Skin dysbiosis in the microbiome in atopic dermatitis is site-specific and involves bacteria, fungus and virus.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):256.

BACKGROUND: Microbial dysbiosis with increased Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) colonization on the skin is a hallmark of atopic dermatitis (AD), however most microbiome studies focus on bacteria in the flexures and the microbial composition at other body sites have not been studied systematically.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the study is to characterize the skin microbiome, including bacteria, fungi and virus, at different body sites in relation to AD, lesional state, and S. aureus colonization, and to test whether the nares could be a reservoir for S. aureus strain colonization.

METHODS: Using shotgun metagenomics we characterized microbial compositions from 14 well defined skin sites from 10 patients with AD and 5 healthy controls.

RESULTS: We found clear differences in microbial composition between AD and controls at multiple skin sites, most pronounced on the flexures and neck. The flexures exhibited lower alpha-diversity and were colonized by S. aureus, accompanied by S. epidermidis in lesions. Malassezia species were absent on the neck in AD. Virus mostly constituted Propionibacterium and Staphylococcus phages, with increased abundance of Propionibacterium phages PHL041 and PHL092 and Staphylococcus epidermidis phages CNPH82 and PH15 in AD. In lesional samples, both the genus Staphylococcus and Staphylococcus phages were more abundant. S. aureus abundance was higher across all skin sites except from the feet. In samples where S. aureus was highly abundant, lower abundances of S. hominis and Cutibacterium acnes were observed. M. osloensis and M. luteus were more abundant in AD. By single nucleotide variant analysis of S. aureus we found strains to be subject specific. On skin sites some S. aureus strains were similar and some dissimilar to the ones in the nares.

CONCLUSIONS: Our data indicate a global and site-specific dysbiosis in AD, involving both bacteria, fungus and virus. When defining targeted treatment clinicians should both consider the individual and skin site and future research into potential crosstalk between microbiota in AD yields high potential.

RevDate: 2022-01-06
CmpDate: 2022-01-06

Koo H, CD Morrow (2021)

Incongruence between dominant commensal donor microbes in recipient feces post fecal transplant and response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):251.

BACKGROUND: To understand inter-individual variability of fecal microbe transplantation (FMT) to enhance anti-PD-1 immunotherapy (IT) for melanoma, we analyzed the data sets from two recent publications with a microbial strain-tracking tool to determine if donor strains were dominant in the recipient feces following FMT.

RESULTS: Analysis of the Baruch et al. data set found that the presence of commensal donor microbes in recipient feces post-FMT did not correlate with the patient response to IT. From the Davar et al., data set, we found 4 patients that responded to IT had donor's related strain post-FMT, while 2 patients that did not respond to the IT also had donor's strain post-FMT. Importantly, we identified no donor microbes in the feces in one recipient post-FMT that responded to IT. Furthermore, in depth analysis from two patients who responded to IT revealed both donor and recipient strains at different times post-FMT. Colonization of the gastrointestinal tract niches is important for the interaction with the host immune system. Using a separate data set, we show that mucosa from the cecum, transverse colon, and sigmoid colon share strains, providing a large reservoir of niches containing recipient microbes.

CONCLUSIONS: We demonstrated using strain-tracking analysis individual variation with the respect to the presence of fecal dominant donor microbes in the recipient following FMT that did not correlate with the response to anti-PD-1 immunotherapy. The inter-individual differences of FMT to enhance IT might be explained by the variability of the donor microbes to occupy and outcompete recipient microbes for the gastrointestinal niches. The result from our study supports the use of new approaches to clear the niches in the gastrointestinal tract to promote donor colonization to reduce inter-individual variability of IT for melanoma and potentially other cancers.

RevDate: 2022-01-06
CmpDate: 2022-01-06

Yan Y, Ren S, Duan Y, et al (2021)

Gut microbiota and metabolites of α-synuclein transgenic monkey models with early stage of Parkinson's disease.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 7(1):69.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most prevalent neurodegenerative disease. However, it is unclear whether microbiota and metabolites have demonstrated changes at early PD due to the difficulties in diagnosis and identification of early PD in clinical practice. In a previous study, we generated A53T transgenic monkeys with early Parkinson's symptoms, including anxiety and cognitive impairment. Here we analyzed the gut microbiota by metagenomic sequencing and metabolites by targeted gas chromatography. The gut microbiota analysis showed that the A53T monkeys have higher degree of diversity in gut microbiota with significantly elevated Sybergistetes, Akkermansia, and Eggerthella lenta compared with control monkeys. Prevotella significantly decreased in A53T transgenic monkeys. Glyceric acid, L-Aspartic acid, and p-Hydroxyphenylacetic acid were significantly elevated, whereas Myristic acid and 3-Methylindole were significantly decreased in A53T monkeys. Glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) (KO0131) and the oxidative phosphorylation reaction (KO2147) were significantly increased in metabolic pathways of A53T monkeys. Our study suggested that the transgenic A53T and α-syn aggregation may affect the intestine microbiota and metabolites of rhesus monkeys, and the identified five compositional different metabolites that are mainly associated with mitochondrial dysfunction may be related to the pathogenesis of PD.

RevDate: 2022-01-06
CmpDate: 2022-01-06

Goolam Mahomed T, Peters R, Pretorius G, et al (2021)

Comparison of targeted metagenomics and IS-Pro methods for analysing the lung microbiome.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):228.

BACKGROUND: Targeted metagenomics and IS-Pro method are two of the many methods that have been used to study the microbiome. The two methods target different regions of the 16 S rRNA gene. The aim of this study was to compare targeted metagenomics and IS-Pro methods for the ability to discern the microbial composition of the lung microbiome of COPD patients.

METHODS: Spontaneously expectorated sputum specimens were collected from COPD patients. Bacterial DNA was extracted and used for targeted metagenomics and IS-Pro method. The analysis was performed using QIIME2 (targeted metagenomics) and IS-Pro software (IS-Pro method). Additionally, a laboratory cost per isolate and time analysis was performed for each method.

RESULTS: Statistically significant differences were observed in alpha diversity when targeted metagenomics and IS-Pro methods' data were compared using the Shannon diversity measure (p-value = 0.0006) but not with the Simpson diversity measure (p-value = 0.84). Distinct clusters with no overlap between the two technologies were observed for beta diversity. Targeted metagenomics had a lower relative abundance of phyla, such as the Proteobacteria, and higher relative abundance of phyla, such as Firmicutes when compared to the IS-Pro method. Haemophilus, Prevotella and Streptococcus were most prevalent genera across both methods. Targeted metagenomics classified 23 % (144/631) of OTUs to a species level, whereas IS-Pro method classified 86 % (55/64) of OTUs to a species level. However, unclassified OTUs accounted for a higher relative abundance when using the IS-Pro method (35 %) compared to targeted metagenomics (5 %). The two methods performed comparably in terms of cost and time; however, the IS-Pro method was more user-friendly.

CONCLUSIONS: It is essential to understand the value of different methods for characterisation of the microbiome. Targeted metagenomics and IS-Pro methods showed differences in ability in identifying and characterising OTUs, diversity and microbial composition of the lung microbiome. The IS-Pro method might miss relevant species and could inflate the abundance of Proteobacteria. However, the IS-Pro kit identified most of the important lung pathogens, such as Burkholderia and Pseudomonas and may work in a more diagnostics-orientated setting. Both methods were comparable in terms of cost and time; however, the IS-Pro method was easier to use.

RevDate: 2022-01-06
CmpDate: 2022-01-06

Chu Y, Sun S, Huang Y, et al (2021)

Metagenomic analysis revealed the potential role of gut microbiome in gout.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 7(1):66.

Emerging evidence indicates an association between gut microbiome and arthritis diseases including gout. However, how and which gut bacteria affect host urate degradation and inflammation in gout remains unclear. Here we performed a metagenome analysis on 307 fecal samples from 102 gout patients and 86 healthy controls. Gout metagenomes significantly differed from those of healthy controls. The relative abundances of Prevotella, Fusobacterium, and Bacteroides were increased in gout, whereas those of Enterobacteriaceae and butyrate-producing species were decreased. Functionally, gout patients had greater abundances for genes in fructose, mannose metabolism and lipid A biosynthesis, and lower for genes in urate degradation and short chain fatty acid production. A three-pronged association between metagenomic species, functions and clinical parameters revealed that decreased abundances of species in Enterobacteriaceae were associated with reduced amino acid metabolism and environmental sensing, which together contribute to increased serum uric acid and C-reactive protein levels in gout. A random forest classifier based on three gut microbial genes showed high predictivity for gout in both discovery and validation cohorts (0.91 and 0.80 accuracy), with high specificity in the context of other chronic disorders. Longitudinal analysis showed that uric-acid-lowering and anti-inflammatory drugs partially restored gut microbiota after 24-week treatment. Comparative analysis with obesity, type 2 diabetes, ankylosing spondylitis and rheumatoid arthritis indicated that gout metagenomes were more similar to those of autoimmune than metabolic diseases. Our results suggest that gut dysbiosis was associated with dysregulated host urate degradation and systemic inflammation and may be used as non-invasive diagnostic markers for gout.

RevDate: 2022-01-06
CmpDate: 2022-01-06

Shaw AG, Sim K, Rose G, et al (2021)

Premature neonatal gut microbial community patterns supporting an epithelial TLR-mediated pathway for necrotizing enterocolitis.

BMC microbiology, 21(1):225.

BACKGROUND: Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a devastating bowel disease, primarily affecting premature infants, with a poorly understood aetiology. Prior studies have found associations in different cases with an overabundance of particular elements of the faecal microbiota (in particular Enterobacteriaceae or Clostridium perfringens), but there has been no explanation for the different results found in different cohorts. Immunological studies have indicated that stimulation of the TLR4 receptor is involved in development of NEC, with TLR4 signalling being antagonised by the activated TLR9 receptor. We speculated that differential stimulation of these two components of the signalling pathway by different microbiota might explain the dichotomous findings of microbiota-centered NEC studies. Here we used shotgun metagenomic sequencing and qPCR to characterise the faecal microbiota community of infants prior to NEC onset and in a set of matched controls. Bayesian regression was used to segregate cases from control samples using both microbial and clinical data.

RESULTS: We found that the infants suffering from NEC fell into two groups based on their microbiota; one with low levels of CpG DNA in bacterial genomes and the other with high abundances of organisms expressing LPS. The identification of these characteristic communities was reproduced using an external metagenomic validation dataset. We propose that these two patterns represent the stimulation of a common pathway at extremes; the LPS-enriched microbiome suggesting overstimulation of TLR4, whilst a microbial community with low levels of CpG DNA suggests reduction of the counterbalance to TLR4 overstimulation.

CONCLUSIONS: The identified microbial community patterns support the concept of NEC resulting from TLR-mediated pathways. Identification of these signals suggests characteristics of the gastrointestinal microbial community to be avoided to prevent NEC. Potential pre- or pro-biotic treatments may be designed to optimise TLR signalling.

RevDate: 2022-01-06
CmpDate: 2022-01-06

Schaan AP, Sarquis D, Cavalcante GC, et al (2021)

The structure of Brazilian Amazonian gut microbiomes in the process of urbanisation.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 7(1):65.

Shifts in subsistence strategy among Native American people of the Amazon may be the cause of typically western diseases previously linked to modifications of gut microbial communities. Here, we used 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing to characterise the gut microbiome of 114 rural individuals, namely Xikrin, Suruí and Tupaiú, and urban individuals from Belém city, in the Brazilian Amazon. Our findings show the degree of potential urbanisation occurring in the gut microbiome of rural Amazonian communities characterised by the gradual loss and substitution of taxa associated with rural lifestyles, such as Treponema. Comparisons to worldwide populations indicated that Native American groups are similar to South American agricultural societies and urban groups are comparable to African urban and semi-urban populations. The transitioning profile observed among traditional populations is concerning in light of increasingly urban lifestyles. Lastly, we propose the term "tropical urban" to classify the microbiome of urban populations living in tropical zones.

RevDate: 2022-01-06
CmpDate: 2022-01-06

Yen S, JS Johnson (2021)

Metagenomics: a path to understanding the gut microbiome.

Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society, 32(4):282-296.

The gut microbiome is a major determinant of host health, yet it is only in the last 2 decades that the advent of next-generation sequencing has enabled it to be studied at a genomic level. Shotgun sequencing is beginning to provide insight into the prokaryotic as well as eukaryotic and viral components of the gut community, revealing not just their taxonomy, but also the functions encoded by their collective metagenome. This revolution in understanding is being driven by continued development of sequencing technologies and in consequence necessitates reciprocal development of computational approaches that can adapt to the evolving nature of sequence datasets. In this review, we provide an overview of current bioinformatic strategies for handling metagenomic sequence data and discuss their strengths and limitations. We then go on to discuss key technological developments that have the potential to once again revolutionise the way we are able to view and hence understand the microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-01-06
CmpDate: 2022-01-06

Hayer J, Wille M, Font A, et al (2021)

Four novel picornaviruses detected in Magellanic Penguins (Spheniscus magellanicus) in Chile.

Virology, 560:116-123.

Members of the Picornaviridae family comprise a significant burden on the poultry industry, causing diseases such as gastroenteritis and hepatitis. However, with the advent of metagenomics, a number of picornaviruses have now been revealed in apparently healthy wild birds. In this study, we identified four novel viruses belonging to the family Picornaviridae in healthy Magellanic penguins, a near threatened species. All samples were subsequently screened by RT-PCR for these new viruses, and approximately 20% of the penguins were infected with at least one of these viruses. The viruses were distantly related to members of the genera Hepatovirus, Tremovirus, Gruhelivirus and Crahelvirus. Further, they had more than 60% amino acid divergence from other picornaviruses, and therefore likely constitute novel genera. Our results demonstrate the vast undersampling of wild birds for viruses, and we expect the discovery of numerous avian viruses that are related to hepatoviruses and tremoviruses in the future.

RevDate: 2022-01-06
CmpDate: 2022-01-06

Ericsson AC, CL Franklin (2021)

The gut microbiome of laboratory mice: considerations and best practices for translational research.

Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society, 32(4):239-250.

Just as the gut microbiota (GM) is now recognized as an integral mediator of environmental influences on human physiology, susceptibility to disease, and response to pharmacological intervention, so too does the GM of laboratory mice affect the phenotype of research using mouse models. Multiple experimental factors have been shown to affect the composition of the GM in research mice, as well as the model phenotype, suggesting that the GM represents a major component in experimental reproducibility. Moreover, several recent studies suggest that manipulation of the GM of laboratory mice can substantially improve the predictive power or translatability of data generated in mouse models to the human conditions under investigation. This review provides readers with information related to these various factors and practices, and recommendations regarding methods by which issues with poor reproducibility or translatability can be transformed into discoveries.

RevDate: 2022-01-06
CmpDate: 2022-01-06

Brubaker L, Putonti C, Dong Q, et al (2021)

The human urobiome.

Mammalian genome : official journal of the International Mammalian Genome Society, 32(4):232-238.

Traditionally, the healthy urinary bladder has been considered to be sterile. Several teams have used metagenomic (DNA-dependent) and metaculturomic (culture-dependent) methods to debunk this longstanding dogma. In fact, resident microbial communities (urobiome) have been detected in both adult females and males. Although the field is young, several observations have been made. For example, the urobiome differs between men and women, likely due to anatomical and hormonal differences. Importantly, the urobiome has been associated with a variety of lower urinary tract disorders, including overactive bladder and post-operative urinary tract infection, raising the possibility that clinicians might one day treat symptoms by modifying the urobiome instead of killing the suspected uropathogen. Little is known concerning the relationship between the urobiome and host genetics; so far, only a single paper has reported such a study. However, major efforts have gone into understanding the genomics of the urobiome itself, a process facilitated by the fact that many urobiome studies have used metaculturomic methods to detect and identify microbes. In this narrative review, we will introduce the urobiome with separate sections on the female and male urobiomes, discuss challenges specific to the urobiome, describe newly discovered associations between the urobiome and lower urinary tract symptoms, and highlight the one study that has attempted to relate host genetics and the urobiome. We will finish with a section on how metagenomic surveys and whole genome sequencing of bacterial isolates are improving our understanding of the urobiome and its relationship to lower urinary tract health and disorders.

RevDate: 2022-01-06
CmpDate: 2022-01-06

Shi H, Zhang B, Abo-Hamzy T, et al (2021)

Restructuring the Gut Microbiota by Intermittent Fasting Lowers Blood Pressure.

Circulation research, 128(9):1240-1254.

[Figure: see text].

RevDate: 2022-01-05
CmpDate: 2022-01-05

Henrick BM, Rodriguez L, Lakshmikanth T, et al (2021)

Bifidobacteria-mediated immune system imprinting early in life.

Cell, 184(15):3884-3898.e11.

Immune-microbe interactions early in life influence the risk of allergies, asthma, and other inflammatory diseases. Breastfeeding guides healthier immune-microbe relationships by providing nutrients to specialized microbes that in turn benefit the host's immune system. Such bacteria have co-evolved with humans but are now increasingly rare in modern societies. Here we show that a lack of bifidobacteria, and in particular depletion of genes required for human milk oligosaccharide (HMO) utilization from the metagenome, is associated with systemic inflammation and immune dysregulation early in life. In breastfed infants given Bifidobacterium infantis EVC001, which expresses all HMO-utilization genes, intestinal T helper 2 (Th2) and Th17 cytokines were silenced and interferon β (IFNβ) was induced. Fecal water from EVC001-supplemented infants contains abundant indolelactate and B. infantis-derived indole-3-lactic acid (ILA) upregulated immunoregulatory galectin-1 in Th2 and Th17 cells during polarization, providing a functional link between beneficial microbes and immunoregulation during the first months of life.

RevDate: 2022-01-05
CmpDate: 2022-01-05

Danko D, Bezdan D, Afshin EE, et al (2021)

A global metagenomic map of urban microbiomes and antimicrobial resistance.

Cell, 184(13):3376-3393.e17.

We present a global atlas of 4,728 metagenomic samples from mass-transit systems in 60 cities over 3 years, representing the first systematic, worldwide catalog of the urban microbial ecosystem. This atlas provides an annotated, geospatial profile of microbial strains, functional characteristics, antimicrobial resistance (AMR) markers, and genetic elements, including 10,928 viruses, 1,302 bacteria, 2 archaea, and 838,532 CRISPR arrays not found in reference databases. We identified 4,246 known species of urban microorganisms and a consistent set of 31 species found in 97% of samples that were distinct from human commensal organisms. Profiles of AMR genes varied widely in type and density across cities. Cities showed distinct microbial taxonomic signatures that were driven by climate and geographic differences. These results constitute a high-resolution global metagenomic atlas that enables discovery of organisms and genes, highlights potential public health and forensic applications, and provides a culture-independent view of AMR burden in cities.

RevDate: 2022-01-03
CmpDate: 2022-01-03

Peng X, Zhao Y, Lin T, et al (2021)

[Research of relationship between frailty and gut microbiota on middle-aged and the aged patients with diabetes].

Sheng wu yi xue gong cheng xue za zhi = Journal of biomedical engineering = Shengwu yixue gongchengxue zazhi, 38(6):1126-1133.

Gut microbiota plays an important role in development of diabetes with frailty. Therefore, it is of great significance to study the structural and functional characteristics of gut microbiota in Chinese with frailty. Totally 30 middle-aged and the aged participants in communities with diabetes were enrolled in this study, and their feces were collected. At the same time, we developed a metagenome analysis to explore the different of the structural and functional characteristics between diabetes with frailty and diabetes without frailty. The results showed the alpha diversity of intestinal microbiota in diabetes with frailty was lower. Collinsella and Butyricimonas were more abundant in diabetes with frailty. The functional characteristics showed that histidine metabolism, Epstein-Barr virus infection, sulfur metabolism, and biosynthesis of type Ⅱ polyketide products were upregulated in diabetes with frailty. Otherwise, butanoate metabolism and phenylalanine metabolism were down-regulated in diabetes with frailty. This research provides theoretical basic for exploring the mechanism of the gut microbiota on the occurrence and development of diabetes with frailty, and provides a basic for prevention and intervention of it.

RevDate: 2022-01-03
CmpDate: 2022-01-03

Kandathil AJ, Cox AL, Page K, et al (2021)

Plasma virome and the risk of blood-borne infection in persons with substance use disorder.

Nature communications, 12(1):6909.

There is an urgent need for innovative methods to reduce transmission of bloodborne pathogens like HIV and HCV among people who inject drugs (PWID). We investigate if PWID who acquire non-pathogenic bloodborne viruses like anelloviruses and pegiviruses might be at greater risk of acquiring a bloodborne pathogen. PWID who later acquire HCV accumulate more non-pathogenic viruses in plasma than matched controls who do not acquire HCV infection. Additionally, phylogenetic analysis of those non-pathogenic virus sequences reveals drug use networks. Here we find first in Baltimore and confirm in San Francisco that the accumulation of non-pathogenic viruses in PWID is a harbinger for subsequent acquisition of pathogenic viruses, knowledge that may guide the prioritization of the public health resources to combat HIV and HCV.

RevDate: 2022-01-04
CmpDate: 2022-01-04

Yan Y, Li H, Fayyaz A, et al (2022)

Metagenomic and network analysis revealed wide distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in monkey gut microbiota.

Microbiological research, 254:126895.

The emergence and spread of drug-resistant microorganisms that have acquired new resistance mechanisms, leading to antibiotic resistance, continue to threaten the health of humans and animals worldwide. Non-human primates (NHPs), as close living relatives of human beings in the world, have a high degree of genetic and physiological similarity to humans. However, despite its importance, we lack a comprehensive characterization or understanding of the similarities and differences of the antibiotic resistance genes of the gut microbiome carried by non-human primates and humans. In the present study, the diversity and abundance of antibiotic resistance genes carried by the gut microbiota of cynomolgus monkeys (Macaca fascicularis) were investigated by metagenomic analysis. In total, 60 resistance types conferring resistance to 11 categories of antibiotics were identified in the gut microbiome of cynomolgus monkeys. Interestingly, the composition and abundance of ARGs carried by the gut microbiota of cynomolgus monkeys can be significantly affected by dietary changes. Moreover, we found that all ARG types carried by humans are also present in cynomolgus monkeys. The tetracycline resistance gene tet(37) is evolutionarily conserved and highly homologous. Taken together, our study provides a comprehensive overview of the diversity and richness of ARGs in the gut microbiota of cynomolgus monkeys and underlines the potentially crucial role of diet in the gut health of monkeys and humans.

RevDate: 2022-01-03
CmpDate: 2022-01-03

de Medeiros Azevedo T, Aburjaile FF, Ferreira-Neto JRC, et al (2021)

The endophytome (plant-associated microbiome): methodological approaches, biological aspects, and biotech applications.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 37(12):206.

Similar to other organisms, plants establish interactions with a variety of microorganisms in their natural environment. The plant microbiome occupies the host plant's tissues, either internally or on its surfaces, showing interactions that can assist in its growth, development, and adaptation to face environmental stresses. The advance of metagenomics and metatranscriptomics approaches has strongly driven the study and recognition of plant microbiome impacts. Research in this regard provides comprehensive information about the taxonomic and functional aspects of microbial plant communities, contributing to a better understanding of their dynamics. Evidence of the plant microbiome's functional potential has boosted its exploitation to develop more ecological and sustainable agricultural practices that impact human health. Although microbial inoculants' development and use are promising to revolutionize crop production, interdisciplinary studies are needed to identify new candidates and promote effective practical applications. On the other hand, there are challenges in understanding and analyzing complex data generated within a plant microbiome project's scope. This review presents aspects about the complex structuring and assembly of the microbiome in the host plant's tissues, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics approaches for its understanding, covering descriptions of recent studies concerning metagenomics to characterize the microbiome of non-model plants under different aspects. Studies involving bio-inoculants, isolated from plant microbial communities, capable of assisting in crops' productivity, are also reviewed.

RevDate: 2022-01-03
CmpDate: 2022-01-03

Kunda P, Mukherjee A, PK Dhal (2021)

Insights into endophytic bacterial diversity of rice grown across the different agro-ecological regions of West Bengal, India.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 37(11):184.

Endophytes have recently garnered importance worldwide and multiple studies are being conducted to understand their important role and mechanism of interaction inside plants. But before we indulge in their functions it is necessary to dig into the microbiome. This will help to get a complete picture of the microbes intrinsic to their host and understand changes in community composition with respect to their habitats. To fulfil this requirement in our study we have attempted to dissect the endophytic diversity in roots of rice plant grown across the various agro-ecological zones of West Bengal by undergoing amplicon analysis of their 16S rRNA gene. Based on the measured environmental parameters agro-ecological zones can be divided into two groups: nutrient dense groups, representing zones like Gangetic, Northern hill and Terai-Teesta zone characterised by soil with higher levels of nitrogen (N) and total organic carbon and nutrient low groups representing Coastal saline, Red-laterite and Vindhyan zone mainly characterised by high electroconductivity and pH. Gammaproteobacteria, Alphaproteobacteria, Bacilli and Bacteroidetes were mostly abundant in nutrient dense sites whereas Clostridia and Planctomycetes were concentrated in nutrient low sites. Few genera (Aeromonas, Sulfurospirillum, Uliginosibacterium and Acidaminococcus) are present in samples cultivated in all the zones representing the core microbiome of rice in West Bengal, while some other genera like Lactococcus, Dickeya, Azonexus and Pectobacterium are unique to specific zone. Hence it can be concluded that this study has provided some insight in to the endophytic status of rice grown across the state of West Bengal.

RevDate: 2021-12-31
CmpDate: 2021-12-31

Li L, Zhang Y, Speakman JR, et al (2021)

The gut microbiota and its products: Establishing causal relationships with obesity related outcomes.

Obesity reviews : an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 22(12):e13341.

Gut microorganisms not only participate in the metabolism of carbohydrate, lipids, protein, and polypeptides in the intestine but also directly affect the metabolic phenotypes of the host. Although many studies have described the apparent effects of gut microbiota on human health, the development of metagenomics and culturomics in the past decade has generated a large amount of evidence suggesting a causal relationship between gut microbiota and obesity. The interaction between the gut microbiota and host is realized by microbial metabolites with multiple biological functions. We concentrated here on several representative beneficial species connected with obesity as well as the mechanisms, with particular emphasis on microbiota-dependent metabolites. Finally, we consider the potential clinical significance of these relationships to fuel the conception and realization of novel therapeutic and preventive strategies.

RevDate: 2021-12-31
CmpDate: 2021-12-31

Corralo DJ, Ev LD, Damé-Teixeira N, et al (2021)

Functionally Active Microbiome in Supragingival Biofilms in Health and Caries.

Caries research, 55(6):603-616.

The oral microbiome is unique at inter and intra-individual levels at various sites due to physical and biological factors. This study aimed to compare the bacterial composition of supragingival biofilms collected from enamel sites with different caries activity, from active and inactive-caries subjects, and from caries-free (CF) subjects. Twenty-two individuals (aged between 13 and 76 years old; med = 23.5 years old) were allocated into 3 groups: caries-active (CA) (n = 10), caries-inactive (CI) (n = 6), and CF (n = 6). From the CA group, 3 sites were sampled: CA (active non-cavitated lesion), CI (inactive non-cavitated lesion), and sound enamel surface (S). From the subjects of the CI group, biofilm from a CI lesion was collected (INCL), while for the CF subjects, a pool of biofilm from sound enamel surfaces was sampled. The total RNA was extracted, and cDNA libraries were prepared and paired-end sequenced (Illumina HiSeq 3,000). Final dental biofilm samples analysed from CA was 16 (ANCL-CA = 6, INCL-CA = 4, S-CA = 6); from CI, 3 (INCL-CI = 3); and from CF, 6 (S-CF = 6) (some samples were lost by insufficient genetic material). Read sequences were processed and analysed using the Metagenomics RAST server. High-quality sequences (3,542,190) were clustered into operational taxonomic units (97% identity; SILVA SSU), representing 915 genera belonging to 29 phyla (higher abundant: Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Fusobacteria). The presence of a core microbiome was observed (123 shared genera). The alpha diversity analysis showed less bacterial diversity in disease (S-CA) compared to health (S-CF). The dominant genera included Actinomyces, Corynebacterium, Capnocytophaga, Leptotrichia, Veillonella, Prevotella, Streptococcus, Eubacterium, and Neisseria. Veillonella and Leptotrichia were related with disease and Prevotella with health. Corynebacterium, Capnocytophaga, and Actinomyces clustered together presenting high abundance in health and disease. The Metric Multidimensional Scaling Ordination analysis shows that sites from active subjects (ANCL-CA, INCL-CA, and S-CA) are closer to each other than either INCL-CI subjects or S-CF subjects. In conclusion, supragingival bacterial communities presented intra-individual similarities, but inter-individual diversity and difference in bacterial composition reveal that the subject's caries activity status matters more than sites.

RevDate: 2022-01-03
CmpDate: 2022-01-03

Castro-Severyn J, Pardo-Esté C, Mendez KN, et al (2021)

Living to the High Extreme: Unraveling the Composition, Structure, and Functional Insights of Bacterial Communities Thriving in the Arsenic-Rich Salar de Huasco Altiplanic Ecosystem.

Microbiology spectrum, 9(1):e0044421.

Microbial communities inhabiting extreme environments such as Salar de Huasco (SH) in northern Chile are adapted to thrive while exposed to several abiotic pressures and the presence of toxic elements such as arsenic (As). Hence, we aimed to uncover the role of As in shaping bacterial composition, structure, and functional potential in five different sites in this altiplanic wetland using a shotgun metagenomic approach. The sites exhibit wide gradients of As (9 to 321 mg/kg), and our results showed highly diverse communities and a clear dominance exerted by the Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. Functional potential analyses show broadly convergent patterns, contrasting with their great taxonomic variability. As-related metabolism, as well as other functional categories such as those related to the CH4 and S cycles, differs among the five communities. Particularly, we found that the distribution and abundance of As-related genes increase as the As concentration rises. Approximately 75% of the detected genes for As metabolism belong to expulsion mechanisms; arsJ and arsP pumps are related to sites with higher As concentrations and are present almost exclusively in Proteobacteria. Furthermore, taxonomic diversity and functional potential are reflected in the 12 reconstructed high-quality metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) belonging to the Bacteroidetes (5), Proteobacteria (5), Cyanobacteria (1), and Gemmatimonadetes (1) phyla. We conclude that SH microbial communities are diverse and possess a broad genetic repertoire to thrive under extreme conditions, including increasing concentrations of highly toxic As. Finally, this environment represents a reservoir of unknown and undescribed microorganisms, with great metabolic versatility, which needs further study. IMPORTANCE As microbial communities inhabiting extreme environments are fundamental for maintaining ecosystems, many studies concerning composition, functionality, and interactions have been carried out. However, much is still unknown. Here, we sampled microbial communities in the Salar de Huasco, an extreme environment subjected to several abiotic stresses (high UV radiation, salinity and arsenic; low pressure and temperatures). We found that although microbes are taxonomically diverse, functional potential seems to have an important degree of convergence, suggesting high levels of adaptation. Particularly, arsenic metabolism showed differences associated with increasing concentrations of the metalloid throughout the area, and it effectively exerts a significant pressure over these organisms. Thus, the significance of this research is that we describe highly specialized communities thriving in little-explored environments subjected to several pressures, considered analogous of early Earth and other planets, that have the potential for unraveling technologies to face the repercussions of climate change in many areas of interest.

RevDate: 2022-01-03
CmpDate: 2022-01-03

Liwinski T, Leshem A, E Elinav (2021)

Breakthroughs and Bottlenecks in Microbiome Research.

Trends in molecular medicine, 27(4):298-301.

Over the past 15 years, the research community has witnessed unprecedented progress in microbiome research. We review this increasing knowledge and first attempts of its clinical application, and also limitations and challenges faced by the research community, in mechanistically understanding host-microbiome interactions and integrating these insights into clinical practice.

RevDate: 2021-12-30
CmpDate: 2021-12-30

Alkema W, Boekhorst J, Eijlander RT, et al (2021)

Charting host-microbe co-metabolism in skin aging and application to metagenomics data.

PloS one, 16(11):e0258960.

During aging of human skin, a number of intrinsic and extrinsic factors cause the alteration of the skin's structure, function and cutaneous physiology. Many studies have investigated the influence of the skin microbiome on these alterations, but the molecular mechanisms that dictate the interplay between these factors and the skin microbiome are still not fully understood. To obtain more insight into the connection between the skin microbiome and the human physiological processes involved in skin aging, we performed a systematic study on interconnected pathways of human and bacterial metabolic processes that are known to play a role in skin aging. The bacterial genes in these pathways were subsequently used to create Hidden Markov Models (HMMs), which were applied to screen for presence of defined functionalities in both genomic and metagenomic datasets of skin-associated bacteria. These models were further applied on 16S rRNA gene sequencing data from skin microbiota samples derived from female volunteers of two different age groups (25-28 years ('young') and 59-68 years ('old')). The results show that the main bacterial pathways associated with aging skin are those involved in the production of pigmentation intermediates, fatty acids and ceramides. This study furthermore provides evidence for a relation between skin aging and bacterial enzymes involved in protein glycation. Taken together, the results and insights described in this paper provide new leads for intervening with bacterial processes that are associated with aging of human skin.

RevDate: 2021-12-30
CmpDate: 2021-12-30

Goolam Mahomed T, Peters RPH, Allam M, et al (2021)

Lung microbiome of stable and exacerbated COPD patients in Tshwane, South Africa.

Scientific reports, 11(1):19758.

Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is characterised by the occurrence of exacerbations triggered by infections. The aim of this study was to determine the composition of the lung microbiome and lung virome in patients with COPD in an African setting and to compare their composition between the stable and exacerbated states. Twenty-four adult COPD patients were recruited from three hospitals. Sputum was collected and bacterial DNA was extracted. Targeted metagenomics was performed to determine the microbiome composition. Viral DNA and RNA were extracted from selected samples followed by cDNA conversion. Shotgun metagenomics sequencing was performed on pooled DNA and RNA. The most abundant phyla across all samples were Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. The following genera were most prevalent: Haemophilus and Streptococcus. There were no considerable differences for alpha and beta diversity measures between the disease states. However, a difference in the abundances between disease states was observed for: (i) Serratia (3% lower abundance in exacerbated state), (ii) Granulicatella (2.2% higher abundance in exacerbated state), (iii) Haemophilus (5.7% higher abundance in exacerbated state) and (iv) Veillonella (2.5% higher abundance in exacerbated state). Virome analysis showed a high abundance of the BeAn 58058 virus, a member of the Poxviridae family, in all six samples (90% to 94%). This study is among the first to report lung microbiome composition in COPD patients from Africa. In this small sample set, no differences in alpha or beta diversity between stable and exacerbated disease state was observed, but an unexpectedly high frequency of BeAn 58058 virus was observed. These observations highlight the need for further research of the lung microbiome of COPD patients in African settings.

RevDate: 2021-12-29
CmpDate: 2021-12-29

Johny TK, Puthusseri RM, SG Bhat (2021)

Metagenomic landscape of taxonomy, metabolic potential and resistome of Sardinella longiceps gut microbiome.

Archives of microbiology, 204(1):87.

Fish gut microbiota, encompassing a colossal reserve of microbes represents a dynamic ecosystem, influenced by a myriad of environmental and host factors. The current study presents a comprehensive insight into Sardinella longiceps gut microbiome using whole metagenome shotgun sequencing. Taxonomic profiling identified the predominance of phylum Proteobacteria, comprising of Photobacterium, Vibrio and Shewanella sp. Functional annotation revealed the dominance of Clustering based subsystems, Carbohydrate, and Amino acids and derivatives. Analysis of Virulence, disease and defense subsystem identified genes conferring resistance to antibiotics and toxic compounds, like multidrug resistance efflux pumps and resistance genes for fluoroquinolones and heavy metals like cobalt, zinc, cadmium and copper. The presence of overlapping genetic mechanisms of resistance to antibiotics and heavy metals, like the efflux pumps is a serious cause of concern as it is likely to aggravate co-selection pressure, leading to an increased dissemination of these resistance genes to fish and humans.

RevDate: 2021-12-29
CmpDate: 2021-12-29

Paim WP, Maggioli MF, Weber MN, et al (2021)

Virome characterization in serum of healthy show pigs raised in Oklahoma demonstrated great diversity of ssDNA viruses.

Virology, 556:87-95.

In the United States, show pigs are raised to compete in agricultural events. These animals are usually raised in small herds with extensive human, domestic, and wild animal contact. Therefore, pathogen monitoring in this animal category is critical for improved disease surveillance and preparedness. This study characterized the virome of healthy show pigs using high-throughput sequencing using pooled serum samples from 2018 or 2019 (200 samples each pool). Results demonstrated the presence of DNA viral families (Parvoviridae, Circoviridae, and Herpesviridae) and RNA families (Arteriviridae, Flaviviridae, and Retroviridae). Twenty-three viral species were identified, including the first detection of porcine bufavirus in the US. Moreover, important swine pathogens identified included porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus, atypical porcine pestivirus, and porcine circovirus (PCV). Additionally, complete coding genomes of 17 viruses from the Parvoviridae, Anelloviridae, and Circoviridae families were retrieved and included the first near full-length genomes of US Ungulate bocaparvovirus 3 species.

RevDate: 2021-12-28
CmpDate: 2021-12-28

Wagner E, Fagerlund A, Langsrud S, et al (2021)

Surveillance of Listeria monocytogenes: Early Detection, Population Dynamics, and Quasimetagenomic Sequencing during Selective Enrichment.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 87(24):e0177421.

In this study, we addressed different aspects regarding the implementation of quasimetagenomic sequencing as a hybrid surveillance method in combination with enrichment for early detection of Listeria monocytogenes in the food industry. Different experimental enrichment cultures were used, comprising seven L. monocytogenes strains of different sequence types (STs), with and without a background microbiota community. To assess whether the proportions of the different STs changed over time during enrichment, the growth and population dynamics were assessed using dapE colony sequencing and dapE and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. There was a tendency of some STs to have a higher relative abundance during the late stage of enrichment when L. monocytogenes was enriched without background microbiota. When coenriched with background microbiota, the population dynamics of the different STs was more consistent over time. To evaluate the earliest possible time point during enrichment that allows the detection of L. monocytogenes and at the same time the generation of genetic information that enables an estimation regarding the strain diversity in a sample, quasimetagenomic sequencing was performed early during enrichment in the presence of the background microbiota using Oxford Nanopore Technologies Flongle and Illumina MiSeq sequencing. The application of multiple displacement amplification (MDA) enabled detection of L. monocytogenes (and the background microbiota) after only 4 h of enrichment using both applied sequencing approaches. The MiSeq sequencing data additionally enabled the prediction of cooccurring L. monocytogenes strains in the samples. IMPORTANCE We showed that a combination of a short primary enrichment combined with MDA and Nanopore sequencing can accelerate the traditional process of cultivation and identification of L. monocytogenes. The use of Illumina MiSeq sequencing additionally allowed us to predict the presence of cooccurring L. monocytogenes strains. Our results suggest quasimetagenomic sequencing is a valuable and promising hybrid surveillance tool for the food industry that enables faster identification of L. monocytogenes during early enrichment. Routine application of this approach could lead to more efficient and proactive actions in the food industry that prevent contamination and subsequent product recalls and food destruction, economic and reputational losses, and human listeriosis cases.

RevDate: 2021-12-28
CmpDate: 2021-12-28

Mickol RL, Eddie BJ, Malanoski AP, et al (2021)

Metagenomic and Metatranscriptomic Characterization of a Microbial Community That Catalyzes Both Energy-Generating and Energy-Storing Electrode Reactions.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 87(24):e0167621.

Electroactive bacteria are living catalysts, mediating energy-generating reactions at anodes or energy storage reactions at cathodes via extracellular electron transfer (EET). The Cathode-ANode (CANode) biofilm community was recently shown to facilitate both reactions; however, the identities of the primary constituents and underlying molecular mechanisms remain unknown. Here, we used metagenomics and metatranscriptomics to characterize the CANode biofilm. We show that a previously uncharacterized member of the family Desulfobulbaceae, Desulfobulbaceae-2, which had <1% relative abundance, had the highest relative gene expression and accounted for over 60% of all differentially expressed genes. At the anode potential, differential expression of genes for a conserved flavin oxidoreductase (Flx) and heterodisulfide reductase (Hdr) known to be involved in ethanol oxidation suggests a source of electrons for the energy-generating reaction. Genes for sulfate and carbon dioxide reduction pathways were expressed by Desulfobulbaceae-2 at both potentials and are the proposed energy storage reactions. Reduction reactions may be mediated by direct electron uptake from the electrode or from hydrogen generated at the cathode potential. The Desulfobulbaceae-2 genome is predicted to encode at least 85 multiheme (≥3 hemes) c-type cytochromes, some with as many as 26 heme-binding domains, that could facilitate reversible electron transfer with the electrode. Gene expression in other CANode biofilm species was also affected by the electrode potential, although to a lesser extent, and we cannot rule out their contribution to observed current. Results provide evidence of gene expression linked to energy storage and energy-generating reactions and will enable development of the CANode biofilm as a microbially driven rechargeable battery. IMPORTANCE Microbial electrochemical technologies (METs) rely on electroactive bacteria to catalyze energy-generating and energy storage reactions at electrodes. Known electroactive bacteria are not equally capable of both reactions, and METs are typically configured to be unidirectional. Here, we report on genomic and transcriptomic characterization of a recently described microbial electrode community called the Cathode-ANode (CANode). The CANode community is able to generate or store electrical current based on the electrode potential. During periods where energy is not needed, electrons generated from a renewable source, such as solar power, could be converted into energy storage compounds to later be reversibly oxidized by the same microbial catalyst. Thus, the CANode system can be thought of as a living "rechargeable battery." Results show that a single organism may be responsible for both reactions demonstrating a new paradigm for electroactive bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-12-24

Bordugo A, Salvetti E, Rodella G, et al (2021)

Assessing Gut Microbiota in an Infant with Congenital Propionic Acidemia before and after Probiotic Supplementation.

Microorganisms, 9(12): pii:microorganisms9122599.

Propionic Acidemia (PA) is a rare inherited metabolic disorder caused by the enzymatic block of propionyl-CoA carboxylase with the consequent accumulation of propionic acid, which is toxic for the brain and cardiac cells. Since a considerable amount of propionate is produced by intestinal bacteria, interest arose in the attempt to reduce propionate-producing bacteria through a monthly antibiotic treatment of metronidazole. In the present study, we investigated the gut microbiota structure of an infant diagnosed at 4 days of life through Expanded Newborn Screening (NBS) and treated the child following international guidelines with a special low-protein diet, specific medications and strict biochemical monitoring. Microbiota composition was assessed during the first month of life, and the presence of Bacteroides fragilis, known to be associated with propionate production, was effectively decreased by metronidazole treatment. After five antibiotic therapy cycles, at 4 months of age, the infant was supplemented with a daily mixture of three bifidobacterial strains, known not to be propionate producers. The supplementation increased the population of bifidobacteria, with Bifidobacterium breve as the dominating species; Ruminococcus gnavus, an acetate and formate producer, was also identified. Metabarcoding analysis, compared with low coverage whole metagenome sequencing, proved to capture all the microbial biodiversity and could be the elected tool for fast and cost-effective monitoring protocols to be implemented in the follow up of rare metabolic disorders such as PA. Data obtained could be a possible starting point to set up tailored microbiota modification treatment studies in the attempt to improve the quality of life of people affected by propionic acidemia.

RevDate: 2021-12-24
CmpDate: 2021-12-24

Van Goethem MW, Osborn AR, Bowen BP, et al (2021)

Long-read metagenomics of soil communities reveals phylum-specific secondary metabolite dynamics.

Communications biology, 4(1):1302.

Microbial biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) encoding secondary metabolites are thought to impact a plethora of biologically mediated environmental processes, yet their discovery and functional characterization in natural microbiomes remains challenging. Here we describe deep long-read sequencing and assembly of metagenomes from biological soil crusts, a group of soil communities that are rich in BGCs. Taking advantage of the unusually long assemblies produced by this approach, we recovered nearly 3,000 BGCs for analysis, including 712 full-length BGCs. Functional exploration through metatranscriptome analysis of a 3-day wetting experiment uncovered phylum-specific BGC expression upon activation from dormancy, elucidating distinct roles and complex phylogenetic and temporal dynamics in wetting processes. For example, a pronounced increase in BGC transcription occurs at night primarily in cyanobacteria, implicating BGCs in nutrient scavenging roles and niche competition. Taken together, our results demonstrate that long-read metagenomic sequencing combined with metatranscriptomic analysis provides a direct view into the functional dynamics of BGCs in environmental processes and suggests a central role of secondary metabolites in maintaining phylogenetically conserved niches within biocrusts.

RevDate: 2021-12-27
CmpDate: 2021-12-27

Darnaud M, De Vadder F, Bogeat P, et al (2021)

A standardized gnotobiotic mouse model harboring a minimal 15-member mouse gut microbiota recapitulates SOPF/SPF phenotypes.

Nature communications, 12(1):6686.

Mus musculus is the classic mammalian model for biomedical research. Despite global efforts to standardize breeding and experimental procedures, the undefined composition and interindividual diversity of the microbiota of laboratory mice remains a limitation. In an attempt to standardize the gut microbiome in preclinical mouse studies, here we report the development of a simplified mouse microbiota composed of 15 strains from 7 of the 20 most prevalent bacterial families representative of the fecal microbiota of C57BL/6J Specific (and Opportunistic) Pathogen-Free (SPF/SOPF) animals and the derivation of a standardized gnotobiotic mouse model called GM15. GM15 recapitulates extensively the functionalities found in the C57BL/6J SOPF microbiota metagenome, and GM15 animals are phenotypically similar to SOPF or SPF animals in two different facilities. They are also less sensitive to the deleterious effects of post-weaning malnutrition. In this work, we show that the GM15 model provides increased reproducibility and robustness of preclinical studies by limiting the confounding effect of fluctuation in microbiota composition, and offers opportunities for research focused on how the microbiota shapes host physiology in health and disease.

RevDate: 2021-12-27
CmpDate: 2021-12-27

Pallikkuth S, Mendez R, Russell K, et al (2021)

Age Associated Microbiome and Microbial Metabolites Modulation and Its Association With Systemic Inflammation in a Rhesus Macaque Model.

Frontiers in immunology, 12:748397.

Aging is associated with declining immunity and inflammation as well as alterations in the gut microbiome with a decrease of beneficial microbes and increase in pathogenic ones. The aim of this study was to investigate the age associated gut microbiome in relation to immunologic and metabolic profile in a non-human primate (NHP) model. 12 geriatric (age 19-24 years) and 4 young adult (age 3-4 years) Rhesus macaques were included in this study. Immune cell subsets were characterized in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) by flow cytometry and plasma cytokines levels were determined by bead based multiplex cytokine analysis. Stool samples were collected by ileal loop and investigated for microbiome analysis by shotgun metagenomics. Serum, gut microbial lysate, and microbe-free fecal extract were subjected to metabolomic analysis by mass-spectrometry. Our results showed that the gut microbiome in geriatric animals had higher abundance of Archaeal and Proteobacterial species and lower Firmicutes than the young adults. Highly abundant microbes in the geriatric animals showed a direct association with plasma biomarkers of inflammation and immune activation such as neopterin, CRP, TNF, IL-2, IL-6, IL-8 and IFN-γ. Significant enrichment of metabolites that contribute to inflammatory and cytotoxic pathways was observed in serum and feces of geriatric animals compared to the young adults. We conclude that aging NHP undergo immunosenescence and age associated alterations in the gut microbiome that has a distinct metabolic profile. Aging NHP can serve as a model for investigating the relationship of the gut microbiome to particular age-associated comorbidities and for strategies aimed at modulating the microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-12-24
CmpDate: 2021-12-24

Barraza A, Montes-Sánchez JJ, Caamal-Chan MG, et al (2021)

Characterization of microbial communities from rumen and large intestine of lactating creole goats grazing in arid plant communities.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 167(10):.

Arid plant communities provide variable diets that can affect digestive microbial communities of free-foraging ruminants. Thus, we used next-generation sequencing of 16S and 18S rDNA to characterize microbial communities in the rumen (regurgitated digesta) and large intestine (faeces) and diet composition of lactating creole goats from five flocks grazing in native plant communities in the Sonoran Desert in the rainy season. The bacterial communities in the rumen and large intestine of the five flocks had similar alpha diversity (Chao1, Shannon, and Simpson indices). However, bacterial community compositions were different: a bacterial community dominated by Proteobacteria in the rumen transitioned to a community dominated by Firmicutes in the large intestine. Bacterial communities of rumen were similar across flocks; similarly occurred with large-intestine communities. Archaea had a minimum presence in the goat digestive tract. We detected phylum Basidiomycota, Ascomycota, and Apicomplexa as the main fungi and protozoa. Analyses suggested different diet compositions; forbs and grasses composed the bulk of plants in the rumen and forbs and shrubs in faeces. Therefore, lactating goats consuming different diets in the Sonoran Desert in the rainy season share a similar core bacterial community in the rumen and another in the large intestine and present low archaeal communities.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

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Research Gate page for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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