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Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 26 Jun 2019 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-06-24
CmpDate: 2019-06-24

Lorenzi AS, Chia MA, Lopes FAC, et al (2019)

Cyanobacterial biodiversity of semiarid public drinking water supply reservoirs assessed via next-generation DNA sequencing technology.

Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea), 57(6):450-460.

Next-generation DNA sequencing technology was applied to generate molecular data from semiarid reservoirs during well-defined seasons. Target sequences of 16S-23S rRNA ITS and cpcBA-IGS were used to reveal the taxonomic groups of cyanobacteria present in the samples, and genes coding for cyanotoxins such as microcystins (mcyE), saxitoxins (sxtA), and cylindrospermopsins (cyrJ) were investigated. The presence of saxitoxins in the environmental samples was evaluated using ELISA kit. Taxonomic analyses of high-throughput DNA sequencing data showed the dominance of the genus Microcystis in Mundaú reservoir. Furthermore, it was the most abundant genus in the dry season in Ingazeira reservoir. In the rainy season, 16S-23S rRNA ITS analysis revealed that Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii comprised 46.8% of the cyanobacterial community in Ingazeira reservoir, while the cpcBAIGS region revealed that C. raciborskii (31.8%) was the most abundant taxon followed by Sphaerospermopsis aphanizomenoides (17.3%) and Planktothrix zahidii (16.6%). Despite the presence of other potential toxin-producing genera, the detected sxtA gene belonged to C. raciborskii, while the mcyE gene belonged to Microcystis in both reservoirs. The detected mcyE gene had good correlation with MC content, while the amplification of the sxtA gene was related to the presence of STX. The cyrJ gene was not detected in these samples. Using DNA analyses, our results showed that the cyanobacterial composition of Mundaú reservoir was similar in successive dry seasons, and it varied between seasons in Ingazeira reservoir. In addition, our data suggest that some biases of analysis influenced the cyanobacterial communities seen in the NGS output of Ingazeira reservoir.

RevDate: 2019-06-24
CmpDate: 2019-06-24

Cobián Güemes AG, Lim YW, Quinn RA, et al (2019)

Cystic Fibrosis Rapid Response: Translating Multi-omics Data into Clinically Relevant Information.

mBio, 10(2): pii:mBio.00431-19.

Pulmonary exacerbations are the leading cause of death in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. To track microbial dynamics during acute exacerbations, a CF rapid response (CFRR) strategy was developed. The CFRR relies on viromics, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and metabolomics data to rapidly monitor active members of the viral and microbial community during acute CF exacerbations. To highlight CFRR, a case study of a CF patient is presented, in which an abrupt decline in lung function characterized a fatal exacerbation. The microbial community in the patient's lungs was closely monitored through the multi-omics strategy, which led to the identification of pathogenic shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli (STEC) expressing Shiga toxin. This case study illustrates the potential for the CFRR to deconstruct complicated disease dynamics and provide clinicians with alternative treatments to improve the outcomes of pulmonary exacerbations and expand the life spans of individuals with CF.IMPORTANCE Proper management of polymicrobial infections in patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) has extended their life span. Information about the composition and dynamics of each patient's microbial community aids in the selection of appropriate treatment of pulmonary exacerbations. We propose the cystic fibrosis rapid response (CFRR) as a fast approach to determine viral and microbial community composition and activity during CF pulmonary exacerbations. The CFRR potential is illustrated with a case study in which a cystic fibrosis fatal exacerbation was characterized by the presence of shigatoxigenic Escherichia coli The incorporation of the CFRR within the CF clinic could increase the life span and quality of life of CF patients.

RevDate: 2019-06-24
CmpDate: 2019-06-24

Naghoni A, Emtiazi G, Amoozegar MA, et al (2017)

Microbial diversity in the hypersaline Lake Meyghan, Iran.

Scientific reports, 7(1):11522.

Lake Meyghan is one of the largest and commercially most important salt lakes in Iran. Despite its inland location and high altitude, Lake Meyghan has a thalassohaline salt composition suggesting a marine origin. Inputs of fresh water by rivers and rainfall formed various basins characterized by different salinities. We analyzed the microbial community composition of three basins by isolation and culturing of microorganisms and by analysis of the metagenome. The basins that were investigated comprised a green ~50 g kg-1 salinity brine, a red ~180 g kg-1 salinity brine and a white ~300 g kg-1 salinity brine. Using different growth media, 57 strains of Bacteria and 48 strains of Archaea were isolated. Two bacterial isolates represent potential novel species with less than 96% 16S rRNA gene sequence identity to known species. Abundant isolates were also well represented in the metagenome. Bacteria dominated the low salinity brine, with Alteromonadales (Gammaproteobacteria) as a particularly important taxon, whereas the high salinity brines were dominated by haloarchaea. Although the brines of Lake Meyghan differ in geochemical composition, their ecosystem function appears largely conserved amongst each other while being driven by different microbial communities.

RevDate: 2019-06-21
CmpDate: 2019-06-21

Akyol Ç, Ozbayram EG, Demirel B, et al (2019)

Linking nano-ZnO contamination to microbial community profiling in sanitary landfill simulations.

Environmental science and pollution research international, 26(13):13580-13591.

Nanomaterials (NMs) commercially used for various activities mostly end up in landfills. Reduced biogas productions reported in landfill reactors create a need for more comprehensive research on these greatly-diverse microbial pools. In order to evaluate the impact of one of the most widely-used NMs, namely nano-zinc oxide (nano-ZnO), simulated bioreactor and conventional landfills were operated using real municipal solid waste (MSW) for 300 days with addition nano-ZnO. Leachate samples were taken at different phases and analyzed by 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. The bacterial communities were distinctly characterized by Cloacamonaceae (phylum WWE1), Rhodocyclaceae (phylum Proteobacteria), Porphyromonadaceae (phylum Bacteroidetes), and Synergistaceae (phylum Synergistetes). The bacterial community in the bioreactors shifted at the end of the operation and was dominated by Rhodocyclaceae. There was not a major change in the bacterial community in the conventional reactors. The methanogenic archaeal diversity highly differed between the bioreactors and conventional reactors. The dominance of Methanomicrobiaceae was observed in the bioreactors during the peak methane-production period; however, their prominence shifted to WSA2 in the nano-ZnO-added bioreactor and to Methanocorpusculaceae in the control bioreactor towards the end. Methanocorpusculaceae was the most abundant family in both conventional control and nano-ZnO-containing reactors.

RevDate: 2019-06-21
CmpDate: 2019-06-21

Wu G, Niu M, Tang W, et al (2018)

L-Fucose ameliorates high-fat diet-induced obesity and hepatic steatosis in mice.

Journal of translational medicine, 16(1):344.

BACKGROUND: L-Fucose (Fuc), a six-deoxy hexose monosaccharide, is present endogenously in humans and animals and has a wide range of biological functions. In the present study, we aimed to examine the effect of Fuc on obesity and hepatic steatosis in mice fed a high-fat diet (HFD).

METHODS: C57BL/6 mice were fed a normal chow (NC) or HFD for 18 weeks to induce obesity and fatty liver. Fuc was administered intragastrically from the 8th week to the end of the experiment (18 weeks).

RESULTS: Metagenomic analysis showed that HFD altered the genomic profile of gut microbiota in the mice; specifically, expression of alpha-L-fucosidase, the gene responsible for Fuc generation, was markedly reduced in the HFD group compared with that in the NC group. Fuc treatment decreased body weight gain, fat accumulation, and hepatic triglyceride elevation in HFD-fed mice. In addition, Fuc decreased the levels of endotoxin-producing bacteria of the Desulfovibrionaceae family and restored HFD-induced enteric dysbiosis at both compositional and functional levels.

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that Fuc might be a novel strategy to treat HFD-induced obesity and fatty liver.

RevDate: 2019-06-21
CmpDate: 2019-06-21

Guerin E, Shkoporov A, Stockdale SR, et al (2018)

Biology and Taxonomy of crAss-like Bacteriophages, the Most Abundant Virus in the Human Gut.

Cell host & microbe, 24(5):653-664.e6.

CrAssphages represent the most abundant virus in the human gut microbiota, but the lack of available genome sequences for comparison has kept them enigmatic. Recently, sequence-based classification of distantly related crAss-like phages from multiple environments was reported, leading to a proposed familial-level taxonomic group. Here, we assembled the metagenomic sequencing reads from 702 human fecal virome/phageome samples and analyzed 99 complete circular crAss-like phage genomes and 150 contigs ≥70 kb. In silico comparative genomics and taxonomic analysis enabled a classification scheme of crAss-like phages from human fecal microbiomes into four candidate subfamilies composed of ten candidate genera. Laboratory analysis was performed on fecal samples from an individual harboring seven distinct crAss-like phages. We achieved crAss-like phage propagation in ex vivo human fecal fermentations and visualized short-tailed podoviruses by electron microscopy. Mass spectrometry of a crAss-like phage capsid protein could be linked to metagenomic sequencing data, confirming crAss-like phage structural annotations.

RevDate: 2019-06-21
CmpDate: 2019-06-21

Lee J, Lim JH, Park J, et al (2018)

Temporal and Vertical Variation in Microbial Community Composition in Response to Physicochemical Characteristics in a Water Column of Highly Eutrophied Jinhae Bay, South Korea.

Journal of molecular microbiology and biotechnology, 28(2):65-77.

Microbial communities play an essential role in marine biogeochemical cycles. Physical and biogeochemical changes in Jinhae Bay, the most anthropogenically eutrophied bay on the coasts of South Korea, are well described, but less is known about the associated changes in microbial communities. Temporal and vertical variation in microbial communities at three depths (surface, middle, and bottom) at seven time points (June to December) at the J1 sampling site were investigated on the MiSeq platform based on the 16S rRNA gene. Overall, the microbial community was dominated by Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Bacteroidetes from June to November, whereas Firmicutes were dominant in December, especially in the middle and bottom layers. The results indicate that the microbial community composition strongly varied with temporal changes in the physicochemical water properties. Moreover, the community composition differed markedly between the surface and middle layers and the bottom layer in the summer, when the water column was strongly stratified and bottom water hypoxia developed. A redundancy analysis suggested a significant correlation between physicochemical variables (i.e., temperature, salinity, and oxygen concentration) and microbial community composition. This study indicates that temporal changes in water conditions and eutrophication-induced hypoxia effectively shape the structure of the microbial community.

RevDate: 2019-06-21
CmpDate: 2019-06-21

Lamichhane S, Sen P, Dickens AM, et al (2018)

Gut metabolome meets microbiome: A methodological perspective to understand the relationship between host and microbe.

Methods (San Diego, Calif.), 149:3-12.

It is well established that gut microbes and their metabolic products regulate host metabolism. The interactions between the host and its gut microbiota are highly dynamic and complex. In this review we present and discuss the metabolomic strategies to study the gut microbial ecosystem. We highlight the metabolic profiling approaches to study faecal samples aimed at deciphering the metabolic product derived from gut microbiota. We also discuss how metabolomics data can be integrated with metagenomics data derived from gut microbiota and how such approaches may lead to better understanding of the microbial functions. Finally, the emerging approaches of genome-scale metabolic modelling to study microbial co-metabolism and host-microbe interactions are highlighted.

RevDate: 2019-06-21
CmpDate: 2019-06-21

Purcell RV, Visnovska M, Biggs PJ, et al (2017)

Distinct gut microbiome patterns associate with consensus molecular subtypes of colorectal cancer.

Scientific reports, 7(1):11590.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a heterogeneous disease and recent advances in subtype classification have successfully stratified the disease using molecular profiling. The contribution of bacterial species to CRC development is increasingly acknowledged, and here, we sought to analyse CRC microbiomes and relate them to tumour consensus molecular subtypes (CMS), in order to better understand the relationship between bacterial species and the molecular mechanisms associated with CRC subtypes. We classified 34 tumours into CRC subtypes using RNA-sequencing derived gene expression and determined relative abundances of bacterial taxonomic groups using 16S rRNA amplicon metabarcoding. 16S rRNA analysis showed enrichment of Fusobacteria and Bacteroidetes, and decreased levels of Firmicutes and Proteobacteria in CMS1. A more detailed analysis of bacterial taxa using non-human RNA-sequencing reads uncovered distinct bacterial communities associated with each molecular subtype. The most highly enriched species associated with CMS1 included Fusobacterium hwasookii and Porphyromonas gingivalis. CMS2 was enriched for Selenomas and Prevotella species, while CMS3 had few significant associations. Targeted quantitative PCR validated these findings and also showed an enrichment of Fusobacterium nucleatum, Parvimonas micra and Peptostreptococcus stomatis in CMS1. In this study, we have successfully associated individual bacterial species to CRC subtypes for the first time.

RevDate: 2019-06-21
CmpDate: 2019-06-21

Zhang J, Mao L, Zhang L, et al (2017)

Metagenomic insight into the microbial networks and metabolic mechanism in anaerobic digesters for food waste by incorporating activated carbon.

Scientific reports, 7(1):11293.

Powdered activated carbon (AC) is commonly used as an effective additive to enhance anaerobic digestion (AD), but little is known about how the metabolic pathways resulting from adding AC change the microbial association network and enhance food waste treatment. In this work, the use of AC in an anaerobic digestion system for food waste was explored. Using bioinformatics analysis, taxonomic trees and the KEGG pathway analysis, changes in microbial network and biometabolic pathways were tracked. The overall effect of these changes were used to explain and validate improved digestion performance. The results showed that AC accelerated the decomposition of edible oil in food waste, enhancing the conversion of food waste to methane with the optimized dosage of 12 g AC per reactor. Specifically, when AC was added, the proponoate metabolic pathway that converts propanoic acid to acetic acid became more prominent, as measured by 16S rRNA in the microbial community. The other two metabolic pathways, Lipid Metabolism and Methane Metabolism, were also enhanced. Bioinformatics analysis revealed that AC promoted the proliferation of syntrophic microorganisms such as Methanosaeta and Geobacter, forming a highly intensive syntrophic microbial network.

RevDate: 2019-06-21
CmpDate: 2019-06-21

Potter C, Freeman C, Golyshin PN, et al (2017)

Subtle shifts in microbial communities occur alongside the release of carbon induced by drought and rewetting in contrasting peatland ecosystems.

Scientific reports, 7(1):11314.

Peat represents a globally significant pool of sequestered carbon. However, peatland carbon stocks are highly threatened by anthropogenic climate change, including drought, which leads to a large release of carbon dioxide. Although the enzymatic mechanisms underlying drought-driven carbon release are well documented, the effect of drought on peatland microbial communities has been little studied. Here, we carried out a replicated and controlled drought manipulation using intact peat 'mesocosm cores' taken from bog and fen habitats, and used a combination of community fingerprinting and sequencing of marker genes to identify community changes associated with drought. Community composition varied with habitat and depth. Moreover, community differences between mesocosm cores were stronger than the effect of the drought treatment, emphasising the importance of replication in microbial marker gene studies. While the effect of drought on the overall composition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities was weak, a subset of the microbial community did change in relative abundance, especially in the fen habitat at 5 cm depth. 'Drought-responsive' OTUs were disproportionately drawn from the phyla Bacteroidetes and Proteobacteria. Collectively, the data provide insights into the microbial community changes occurring alongside drought-driven carbon release from peatlands, and suggest a number of novel avenues for future research.

RevDate: 2019-06-21
CmpDate: 2019-06-21

Wu X, Zhang H, Chen J, et al (2017)

Analysis and comparison of the wolf microbiome under different environmental factors using three different data of Next Generation Sequencing.

Scientific reports, 7(1):11332.

Next Generation Sequencing has been widely used to characterize the prevalence of fecal bacteria in many different species. In this study, we attempted to employ a low-cost and high-throughput sequencing model to discern information pertaining to the wolf microbiota. It is hoped that this model will allow researchers to elucidate potential protective factors in relation to endangered wolf species. We propose three high-throughput sequencing models to reveal information pertaining to the micro-ecology of the wolf. Our analyses advised that, among the three models, more than 100,000 sequences are more appropriate to retrieve the communities' richness and diversity of micro-ecology. In addition, the top five wolf microbiome OTUs (99%) were members of the following five phyla: Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. While Alloprevotella, Clostridium_sensu_stricto_1, Anaerobiospirillum, Faecalibactreium and Streptococcus were shared by all samples, their relative abundances were differentially represented between domestic dogs and other wolves. Our findings suggest that altitude, human interference, age, and climate all contribute towards the micro-ecology of the wolf. Specifically, we observed that genera Succinivibrio and Turicibacter are significantly related to altitude and human interference (including hunting practices).

RevDate: 2019-06-21
CmpDate: 2019-06-21

Deng ZL, Szafrański SP, Jarek M, et al (2017)

Dysbiosis in chronic periodontitis: Key microbial players and interactions with the human host.

Scientific reports, 7(1):3703.

Periodontitis is an extremely prevalent disease worldwide and is driven by complex dysbiotic microbiota. Here we analyzed the transcriptional activity of the periodontal pocket microbiota from all domains of life as well as the human host in health and chronic periodontitis. Bacteria showed strong enrichment of 18 KEGG functional modules in chronic periodontitis, including bacterial chemotaxis, flagellar assembly, type III secretion system, type III CRISPR-Cas system, and two component system proteins. Upregulation of these functions was driven by the red-complex pathogens and candidate pathogens, e.g. Filifactor alocis, Prevotella intermedia, Fretibacterium fastidiosum and Selenomonas sputigena. Nine virulence factors were strongly up-regulated, among them the arginine deiminase arcA from Porphyromonas gingivalis and Mycoplasma arginini. Viruses and archaea accounted for about 0.1% and 0.22% of total putative mRNA reads, respectively, and a protozoan, Entamoeba gingivalis, was highly enriched in periodontitis. Fourteen human transcripts were enriched in periodontitis, including a gene for a ferric iron binding protein, indicating competition with the microbiota for iron, and genes associated with cancer, namely nucleolar phosphoprotein B23, ankyrin-repeat domain 30B-like protein and beta-enolase. The data provide evidence on the level of gene expression in vivo for the potentially severe impact of the dysbiotic microbiota on human health.

RevDate: 2019-06-20
CmpDate: 2019-06-20

Easton AV, Quiñones M, Vujkovic-Cvijin I, et al (2019)

The Impact of Anthelmintic Treatment on Human Gut Microbiota Based on Cross-Sectional and Pre- and Postdeworming Comparisons in Western Kenya.

mBio, 10(2): pii:mBio.00519-19.

Murine studies suggest that the presence of some species of intestinal helminths is associated with changes in host microbiota composition and diversity. However, studies in humans have produced varied conclusions, and the impact appears to vary widely depending on the helminth species present. To demonstrate how molecular approaches to the human gut microbiome can provide insights into the complex interplay among disparate organisms, DNA was extracted from cryopreserved stools collected from residents of 5 rural Kenyan villages prior to and 3 weeks and 3 months following albendazole (ALB) therapy. Samples were analyzed by quantitative PCR (qPCR) for the presence of 8 species of intestinal parasites and by MiSeq 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Based on pretreatment results, the presence of neither Ascaris lumbricoides nor Necator americanus infection significantly altered the overall diversity of the microbiota in comparison with age-matched controls. Following ALB therapy and clearance of soil-transmitted helminths (STH), there were significant increases in the proportion of the microbiota made up by Clostridiales (P = 0.0002; average fold change, 0.57) and reductions in the proportion made up by Enterobacteriales (P = 0.0004; average fold change, -0.58). There was a significant posttreatment decrease in Chao1 richness, even among individuals who were uninfected pretreatment, suggesting that antimicrobial effects must be considered in any posttreatment setting. Nevertheless, the helminth-associated changes in Clostridiales and Enterobacteriales suggest that clearance of STH, and of N. americanus in particular, alters the gut microbiota.IMPORTANCE The gut microbiome is an important factor in human health. It is affected by what we eat, what medicines we take, and what infections we acquire. In turn, it affects the way we absorb nutrients and whether we have excessive intestinal inflammation. Intestinal worms may have an important impact on the composition of the gut microbiome. Without a complete understanding of the impact of mass deworming programs on the microbiome, it is impossible to accurately calculate the cost-effectiveness of such public health interventions and to guard against any possible deleterious side effects. Our research examines this question in a "real-world" setting, using a longitudinal cohort, in which individuals with and without worm infections are treated with deworming medication and followed up at both three weeks and three months posttreatment. We quantify the impact of roundworms and hookworms on gut microbial composition, suggesting that the impact is small, but that treatment of hookworm infection results in significant changes. This work points to the need for follow-up studies to further examine the impact of hookworm on the gut microbiota and determine the health consequences of the observed changes.

RevDate: 2019-06-20
CmpDate: 2019-06-20

Raymond F, Boissinot M, Ouameur AA, et al (2019)

Culture-enriched human gut microbiomes reveal core and accessory resistance genes.

Microbiome, 7(1):56 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0669-7.

BACKGROUND: Low-abundance microorganisms of the gut microbiome are often referred to as a reservoir for antibiotic resistance genes. Unfortunately, these less-abundant bacteria can be overlooked by deep shotgun sequencing. In addition, it is a challenge to associate the presence of resistance genes with their risk of acquisition by pathogens. In this study, we used liquid culture enrichment of stools to assemble the genome of lower-abundance bacteria from fecal samples. We then investigated the gene content recovered from these culture-enriched and culture-independent metagenomes in relation with their taxonomic origin, specifically antibiotic resistance genes. We finally used a pangenome approach to associate resistance genes with the core or accessory genome of Enterobacteriaceae and inferred their propensity to horizontal gene transfer.

RESULTS: Using culture-enrichment approaches with stools allowed assembly of 187 bacterial species with an assembly size greater than 1 million nucleotides. Of these, 67 were found only in culture-enriched conditions, and 22 only in culture-independent microbiomes. These assembled metagenomes allowed the evaluation of the gene content of specific subcommunities of the gut microbiome. We observed that differentially distributed metabolic enzymes were associated with specific culture conditions and, for the most part, with specific taxa. Gene content differences between microbiomes, for example, antibiotic resistance, were for the most part not associated with metabolic enzymes, but with other functions. We used a pangenome approach to determine if the resistance genes found in Enterobacteriaceae, specifically E. cloacae or E. coli, were part of the core genome or of the accessory genome of this species. In our healthy volunteer cohort, we found that E. cloacae contigs harbored resistance genes that were part of the core genome of the species, while E. coli had a large accessory resistome proximal to mobile elements.

CONCLUSION: Liquid culture of stools contributed to an improved functional and comparative genomics study of less-abundant gut bacteria, specifically those associated with antibiotic resistance. Defining whether a gene is part of the core genome of a species helped in interpreting the genomes recovered from culture-independent or culture-enriched microbiomes.

RevDate: 2019-06-20
CmpDate: 2019-06-20

Wang W, Hu H, Zijlstra RT, et al (2019)

Metagenomic reconstructions of gut microbial metabolism in weanling pigs.

Microbiome, 7(1):48 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0662-1.

BACKGROUND: The piglets' transition from milk to solid feed induces a succession of bacterial communities, enhancing the hosts' ability to harvest energy from dietary carbohydrates. To reconstruct microbial carbohydrate metabolism in weanling pigs, this study combined 16S rRNA gene sequencing (n = 191) and shotgun metagenomics (n = 72).

RESULTS: Time and wheat content in feed explained most of the variation of the microbiota as assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in weanling pigs. De novo metagenomic binning reconstructed 360 high-quality genomes that represented 11 prokaryotic and 1 archaeal phylum. Analysis of carbohydrate metabolism in these genomes revealed that starch fermentation is carried out by a consortium of Firmicutes expressing extracellular α-(1 → 4)-glucan branching enzyme (GH13) and Bacteroidetes expressing periplasmic neopullulanase (GH13) and α-glucosidase (GH97). Fructans were degraded by extracellular GH32 enzymes from Bacteriodetes and Lactobacillus. Lactose fermentation by β-galactosidases (GH2 and GH42) was identified in Firmicutes. In conclusion, the assembly of 360 high-quality genomes as the first metagenomic reference for swine intestinal microbiota allowed identification of key microbial contributors to degradation of starch, fructans, and lactose.

CONCLUSIONS: Microbial consortia that are responsible for degradation of these glycans differ substantially from the microbial consortia that degrade the same glycans in humans. Our study thus enables improvement of feeding models with higher feed efficiency and better pathogen control for weanling pigs.

RevDate: 2019-06-20
CmpDate: 2019-06-20

Delafont V, Perrin Y, Bouchon D, et al (2019)

Targeted Metagenomics of Microbial Diversity in Free-Living Amoebae and Water Samples.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1921:421-428.

The presence of Legionella spp. in natural and man-made water systems is a great public health concern and heavily depends on the presence of free-living amoebae. Taking advantage of the development and affordability of next-generation sequencing technology, we present here a method to characterize the whole bacterial community directly from water samples, as well as from isolated free-living amoebae.

RevDate: 2019-06-20
CmpDate: 2019-06-20

Yang Q, Gao C, Jiang Y, et al (2019)

Metagenomic Characterization of the Viral Community of the South Scotia Ridge.

Viruses, 11(2): pii:v11020095.

Viruses are the most abundant biological entities in aquatic ecosystems and harbor an enormous amount of genetic diversity. Whereas their influence on marine ecosystems is widely acknowledged, current information about their diversity remains limited. We conducted a viral metagenomic analysis of water samples collected during the austral summer of 2016 from the South Scotia Ridge (SSR), near the Antarctic Peninsula. The taxonomic composition and diversity of the viral communities were investigated, and a functional assessment of the sequences was performed. Phylotypic analysis showed that most viruses belonged to the order Caudovirales, especially the family Podoviridae (41.92⁻48.7%), which is similar to the situation in the Pacific Ocean. Functional analysis revealed a relatively high frequency of phage-associated and metabolism genes. Phylogenetic analyses of phage TerL and Capsid_NCLDV (nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses) marker genes indicated that many sequences associated with Caudovirales and NCLDV were novel and distinct from known phage genomes. High Phaeocystis globosa virus virophage (Pgvv) signatures were found and complete and partial Pgvv-like were obtained, which influence host⁻virus interactions. Our study expands existing knowledge of viral communities and their diversities from the Antarctic region and provides basic data for further exploring polar microbiomes.

RevDate: 2019-06-20
CmpDate: 2019-06-20

Hibberd AA, Yde CC, Ziegler ML, et al (2019)

Probiotic or synbiotic alters the gut microbiota and metabolism in a randomised controlled trial of weight management in overweight adults.

Beneficial microbes, 10(2):121-135.

The gut microbiota contributes to host energy metabolism, and altered gut microbiota has been associated with obesity-related metabolic disorders. We previously reported that a probiotic alone or together with a prebiotic controls body fat mass in healthy overweight or obese individuals in a randomised, double-blind, placebo controlled clinical study (ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01978691). We now aimed to investigate whether changes in the gut microbiota may be associated with the observed clinical benefits. Faecal and plasma samples were obtained from a protocol compliant subset (n=134) of participants from a larger clinical study where participants were randomised (1:1:1:1) into four groups: (1) placebo, 12 g/d microcrystalline cellulose; (2) Litesse® Ultra™ polydextrose (LU), 12 g/day; (3) Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis 420™ (B420), 1010 cfu/d in 12 g microcrystalline cellulose; (4) LU+B420, 1010 cfu/d of B420 in 12 g/d LU for 6 months of intervention. The faecal microbiota composition and metabolites were assessed as exploratory outcomes at baseline, 2, 4, 6 months, and +1 month post-intervention and correlated to obesity-related clinical outcomes. Lactobacillus and Akkermansia were more abundant with B420 at the end of the intervention. LU+B420 increased Akkermansia, Christensenellaceae and Methanobrevibacter, while Paraprevotella was reduced. Christensenellaceae was consistently increased in the LU and LU+B420 groups across the intervention time points, and correlated negatively to waist-hip ratio and energy intake at baseline, and waist-area body fat mass after 6 months treatment with LU+B420. Functional metagenome predictions indicated alterations in pathways related to cellular processes and metabolism. Plasma bile acids glycocholic acid, glycoursodeoxycholic acid, and taurohyodeoxycholic acid and tauroursodeoxycholic acid were reduced in LU+B420 compared to Placebo. Consumption of B420 and its combination with LU resulted in alterations of the gut microbiota and its metabolism, and may support improved gut barrier function and obesity-related markers.

RevDate: 2019-06-20
CmpDate: 2019-06-20

Wang Q, Yang F, H Jia (2018)

Mining the Microbiome for Drug Targets.

Methods in enzymology, 610:59-72.

The human microbiome is our "other genome." Implicated in a growing list of complex diseases, for which genomic studies typically explain a portion of the disease susceptibility, the human gut microbiome has been at the spotlight for our understanding of human diseases. As the microbiome is intrinsically more variable than the human genome, it is important to take careful considerations at each step of a study. Here, we put forward our recommendations, which we envision would facilitate identification of true drug targets in the human microbiome in the colon as well as at other body sites.

RevDate: 2019-06-20
CmpDate: 2019-06-20

Hattori M (2018)

[Ecology and function of human microbiomes.].

Clinical calcium, 28(10):1398-1405.

Hundreds of trillions of bacteria consisting of ~1,000 species reside in various human body sites to form bacterial communities(microbiomes)specific for the sites. In the past decade, the human microbiome research in the world incredibly advanced by development of a culture-independent metagenomic analysis based on next-generation sequencing technologies. Particularly, current studies have revealed that the human gut microbiome is profoundly associated with the host's health and disease.

RevDate: 2019-06-19
CmpDate: 2019-06-19

Dhariwal A, Chong J, Habib S, et al (2017)

MicrobiomeAnalyst: a web-based tool for comprehensive statistical, visual and meta-analysis of microbiome data.

Nucleic acids research, 45(W1):W180-W188.

The widespread application of next-generation sequencing technologies has revolutionized microbiome research by enabling high-throughput profiling of the genetic contents of microbial communities. How to analyze the resulting large complex datasets remains a key challenge in current microbiome studies. Over the past decade, powerful computational pipelines and robust protocols have been established to enable efficient raw data processing and annotation. The focus has shifted toward downstream statistical analysis and functional interpretation. Here, we introduce MicrobiomeAnalyst, a user-friendly tool that integrates recent progress in statistics and visualization techniques, coupled with novel knowledge bases, to enable comprehensive analysis of common data outputs produced from microbiome studies. MicrobiomeAnalyst contains four modules - the Marker Data Profiling module offers various options for community profiling, comparative analysis and functional prediction based on 16S rRNA marker gene data; the Shotgun Data Profiling module supports exploratory data analysis, functional profiling and metabolic network visualization of shotgun metagenomics or metatranscriptomics data; the Taxon Set Enrichment Analysis module helps interpret taxonomic signatures via enrichment analysis against >300 taxon sets manually curated from literature and public databases; finally, the Projection with Public Data module allows users to visually explore their data with a public reference data for pattern discovery and biological insights. MicrobiomeAnalyst is freely available at http://www.microbiomeanalyst.ca.

RevDate: 2019-06-18
CmpDate: 2019-06-18

Reddy B, Pandey J, SK Dubey (2019)

Assessment of environmental gene tags linked with carbohydrate metabolism and chemolithotrophy associated microbial community in River Ganga.

Gene, 704:31-41.

The microbial community mediated biogeochemical cycles play important role in global C-cycle and display a sensitive response to environmental changes. Limited information is available on microbial composition and functional diversity controlling biogeochemical cycles in the riverine environment. The Ganga River water and sediment samples were studied for environmental gene tags with reference to carbohydrate metabolism, photoheterotrophy and chemolithotrophy using high throughput shotgun metagenomic sequencing and functional annotation. The diversity of environmental gene tags specific microbial community was annotated against reference sequence database using Kaiju taxonomic classifier. The metagenomic analyses revealed that the river harbored a broad range of carbohydrate and energy metabolism genes. The in-depth investigation of metagenomic data revealed that the enzymes associated with reverse TCA cycle, Calvin-Benson cycle enzyme RuBisCO, starch and sucrose metabolism genes were highly abundant. The enzymes associated with sulfur metabolism such as EC:2.7.7.4 (sulfate to ammonium per sulfate), EC:1.8.1.2, EC:1.8.7.1 (sulfite to H2S) were prevalent in both the class of samples. The principal component analysis of the functional profiles revealed that the water and sediment samples were clustered distinctly suggesting that both the sites had variable abundance of functional genes and associated microbiota. The taxonomic classification showed abundance of Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes phyla. Also, the metagenomic study showed the presence of purple sulfur bacteria viz. Thiodictyon, Nitrosococcus and purple non-sulfur bacteria viz. Bradyrhozobium and Rhodobacter. The study demonstrates that the Ganga River microbiome has prevalence of functional genes involved in carbohydrate anabolism and catabolism, and CO2 fixation with great prospects in cellulose and sulfide degrading enzyme production and characterization.

RevDate: 2019-06-18
CmpDate: 2019-06-18

Nusbaum DJ, Sun F, Ren J, et al (2018)

Gut microbial and metabolomic profiles after fecal microbiota transplantation in pediatric ulcerative colitis patients.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 94(9):.

Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon that carries a significant disease burden in children. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches are being explored to help children living with this disease. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) has been successful in some children with ulcerative colitis. However, the mechanism of its therapeutic effect in this patient population is not well understood. To characterize changes in gut microbial and metabolomic profiles after FMT, we performed 16S rRNA gene sequencing, shotgun metagenomic sequencing, virome analysis and untargeted metabolomics by gas chromatography-time of flight-mass spectrometry on stool samples collected before and after FMT from four children with ulcerative colitis who responded to this treatment. Alpha diversity of the gut microbiota increased after intervention, with species richness rising from 251 (S.D. 125) to 358 (S.D. 27). In responders, the mean relative abundance of bacteria in the class Clostridia shifted toward donor levels, increasing from 33% (S.D. 11%) to 54% (S.D. 16%). Patient metabolomic and viromic profiles exhibited a similar but less pronounced shift toward donor profiles after FMT. The fecal concentrations of several metabolites were altered after FMT, correlating with clinical improvement. Larger studies using a similar multi-omics approach may suggest novel strategies for the treatment of pediatric ulcerative colitis.

RevDate: 2019-06-18
CmpDate: 2019-06-18

Fosso B, Pesole G, Rosselló F, et al (2018)

Unbiased Taxonomic Annotation of Metagenomic Samples.

Journal of computational biology : a journal of computational molecular cell biology, 25(3):348-360.

The classification of reads from a metagenomic sample using a reference taxonomy is usually based on first mapping the reads to the reference sequences and then classifying each read at a node under the lowest common ancestor of the candidate sequences in the reference taxonomy with the least classification error. However, this taxonomic annotation can be biased by an imbalanced taxonomy and also by the presence of multiple nodes in the taxonomy with the least classification error for a given read. In this article, we show that the Rand index is a better indicator of classification error than the often used area under the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve and F-measure for both balanced and imbalanced reference taxonomies, and we also address the second source of bias by reducing the taxonomic annotation problem for a whole metagenomic sample to a set cover problem, for which a logarithmic approximation can be obtained in linear time and an exact solution can be obtained by integer linear programming. Experimental results with a proof-of-concept implementation of the set cover approach to taxonomic annotation in a next release of the TANGO software show that the set cover approach further reduces ambiguity in the taxonomic annotation obtained with TANGO without distorting the relative abundance profile of the metagenomic sample.

RevDate: 2019-06-17
CmpDate: 2019-06-17

Bridier A (2019)

Exploring Foodborne Pathogen Ecology and Antimicrobial Resistance in the Light of Shotgun Metagenomics.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1918:229-245.

In this chapter, applications of shotgun metagenomics for taxonomic profiling and functional investigation of food microbial communities with a focus on antimicrobial resistance (AMR) were overviewed in the light of last data in the field. Potentialities of metagenomic approach, along with the challenges encountered for a wider and routinely use in food safety was discussed.

RevDate: 2019-06-17
CmpDate: 2019-06-17

Feye KM, SC Ricke (2019)

Establishment of a Standardized 16S rDNA Library Preparation to Enable Analysis of Microbiome in Poultry Processing Using Illumina MiSeq Platform.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 1918:213-227.

The standardization of the microbiome sequencing of poultry rinsates is essential for generating comparable microbial composition data among poultry processing facilities if this technology is to be adopted by the industry. Samples must first be acquired, DNA must be extracted, and libraries must be constructed. In order to proceed to library sequencing, the samples should meet quality control standards. Finally, data must be analyzed using computer bioinformatics pipelines. This data can subsequently be incorporated into more advanced computer algorithms for risk assessment. Ultimately, a uniform sequencing pipeline will enable both the government regulatory agencies and the poultry industry to identify potential weaknesses in food safety. This chapter presents the different steps for monitoring the population dynamics of the microbiome in poultry processing using 16S rDNA sequencing.

RevDate: 2019-06-17
CmpDate: 2019-06-17

Duerkop BA, Kleiner M, Paez-Espino D, et al (2018)

Murine colitis reveals a disease-associated bacteriophage community.

Nature microbiology, 3(9):1023-1031.

The dysregulation of intestinal microbial communities is associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Studies aimed at understanding the contribution of the microbiota to inflammatory diseases have primarily focused on bacteria, yet the intestine harbours a viral component dominated by prokaryotic viruses known as bacteriophages (phages). Phage numbers are elevated at the intestinal mucosal surface and phages increase in abundance during IBD, suggesting that phages play an unidentified role in IBD. We used a sequence-independent approach for the selection of viral contigs and then applied quantitative metagenomics to study intestinal phages in a mouse model of colitis. We discovered that during colitis the intestinal phage population is altered and transitions from an ordered state to a stochastic dysbiosis. We identified phages specific to pathobiotic hosts associated with intestinal disease, whose abundances are altered during colitis. Additionally, phage populations in healthy and diseased mice overlapped with phages from healthy humans and humans with IBD. Our findings indicate that intestinal phage communities are altered during inflammatory disease, establishing a platform for investigating phage involvement in IBD.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Li Y, Fu X, Ma J, et al (2019)

Altered respiratory virome and serum cytokine profile associated with recurrent respiratory tract infections in children.

Nature communications, 10(1):2288 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-10294-x.

Recurrent acute respiratory tract infections (ARTIs) affect a large population, yet the specific decisive factors are largely unknown. Here we study a population of 4407 children diagnosed with ARTI, comparing respiratory virome and serum cytokine profiles associated with multiple ARTIs and single ARTI during a six-year period. The relative abundance of Propionibacterium phages is significantly elevated in multiple ARTIs compared to single ARTI group. Serum levels of TIMP-1 and PDGF-BB are markedly increased in multiple ARTIs compared to single-ARTI and non-ARTI controls, making these two cytokines potential predictors for multiple ARTIs. The presence of Propionibacterium phages is associated with higher levels of TIMP-1 and PDGF-BB. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analyses show that the combination of TIMP-1, PDGF-BB and Propionibacterium phages could be a strong predictor for multiple ARTIs. These findings indicate that respiratory microbe homeostasis and specific cytokines are associated with the onset of multiple ARTIs over time.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Zheng T, Li J, Ni Y, et al (2019)

Mining, analyzing, and integrating viral signals from metagenomic data.

Microbiome, 7(1):42 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0657-y.

BACKGROUND: Viruses are important components of microbial communities modulating community structure and function; however, only a couple of tools are currently available for phage identification and analysis from metagenomic sequencing data. Here we employed the random forest algorithm to develop VirMiner, a web-based phage contig prediction tool especially sensitive for high-abundances phage contigs, trained and validated by paired metagenomic and phagenomic sequencing data from the human gut flora.

RESULTS: VirMiner achieved 41.06% ± 17.51% sensitivity and 81.91% ± 4.04% specificity in the prediction of phage contigs. In particular, for the high-abundance phage contigs, VirMiner outperformed other tools (VirFinder and VirSorter) with much higher sensitivity (65.23% ± 16.94%) than VirFinder (34.63% ± 17.96%) and VirSorter (18.75% ± 15.23%) at almost the same specificity. Moreover, VirMiner provides the most comprehensive phage analysis pipeline which is comprised of metagenomic raw reads processing, functional annotation, phage contig identification, and phage-host relationship prediction (CRISPR-spacer recognition) and supports two-group comparison when the input (metagenomic sequence data) includes different conditions (e.g., case and control). Application of VirMiner to an independent cohort of human gut metagenomes obtained from individuals treated with antibiotics revealed that 122 KEGG orthology and 118 Pfam groups had significantly differential abundance in the pre-treatment samples compared to samples at the end of antibiotic administration, including clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR), multidrug resistance, and protein transport. The VirMiner webserver is available at http://sbb.hku.hk/VirMiner/ .

CONCLUSIONS: We developed a comprehensive tool for phage prediction and analysis for metagenomic samples. Compared to VirSorter and VirFinder-the most widely used tools-VirMiner is able to capture more high-abundance phage contigs which could play key roles in infecting bacteria and modulating microbial community dynamics.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The European Union Clinical Trials Register, EudraCT Number: 2013-003378-28 . Registered on 9 April 2014.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Westreich ST, Ardeshir A, Alkan Z, et al (2019)

Fecal metatranscriptomics of macaques with idiopathic chronic diarrhea reveals altered mucin degradation and fucose utilization.

Microbiome, 7(1):41 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0664-z.

BACKGROUND: Idiopathic chronic diarrhea (ICD) is a common cause of morbidity and mortality among juvenile rhesus macaques. Characterized by chronic inflammation of the colon and repeated bouts of diarrhea, ICD is largely unresponsive to medical interventions, including corticosteroid, antiparasitic, and antibiotic treatments. Although ICD is accompanied by large disruptions in the composition of the commensal gut microbiome, no single pathogen has been concretely identified as responsible for the onset and continuation of the disease.

RESULTS: Fecal samples were collected from 12 ICD-diagnosed macaques and 12 age- and sex-matched controls. RNA was extracted for metatranscriptomic analysis of organisms and functional annotations associated with the gut microbiome. Bacterial, fungal, archaeal, protozoan, and macaque (host) transcripts were simultaneously assessed. ICD-afflicted animals were characterized by increased expression of host-derived genes involved in inflammation and increased transcripts from bacterial pathogens such as Campylobacter and Helicobacter and the protozoan Trichomonas. Transcripts associated with known mucin-degrading organisms and mucin-degrading enzymes were elevated in the fecal microbiomes of ICD-afflicted animals. Assessment of colon sections using immunohistochemistry and of the host transcriptome suggests differential fucosylation of mucins between control and ICD-afflicted animals. Interrogation of the metatranscriptome for fucose utilization genes reveals possible mechanisms by which opportunists persist in ICD. Bacteroides sp. potentially cross-fed fucose to Haemophilus whereas Campylobacter expressed a mucosa-associated transcriptome with increased expression of adherence genes.

CONCLUSIONS: The simultaneous profiling of bacterial, fungal, archaeal, protozoan, and macaque transcripts from stool samples reveals that ICD of rhesus macaques is associated with increased gene expression by pathogens, increased mucin degradation, and altered fucose utilization. The data suggest that the ICD-afflicted host produces fucosylated mucins that are leveraged by potentially pathogenic microbes as a carbon source or as adhesion sites.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Rowe WP, Carrieri AP, Alcon-Giner C, et al (2019)

Streaming histogram sketching for rapid microbiome analytics.

Microbiome, 7(1):40 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0653-2.

BACKGROUND: The growth in publically available microbiome data in recent years has yielded an invaluable resource for genomic research, allowing for the design of new studies, augmentation of novel datasets and reanalysis of published works. This vast amount of microbiome data, as well as the widespread proliferation of microbiome research and the looming era of clinical metagenomics, means there is an urgent need to develop analytics that can process huge amounts of data in a short amount of time. To address this need, we propose a new method for tyrhe compact representation of microbiome sequencing data using similarity-preserving sketches of streaming k-mer spectra. These sketches allow for dissimilarity estimation, rapid microbiome catalogue searching and classification of microbiome samples in near real time.

RESULTS: We apply streaming histogram sketching to microbiome samples as a form of dimensionality reduction, creating a compressed 'histosketch' that can efficiently represent microbiome k-mer spectra. Using public microbiome datasets, we show that histosketches can be clustered by sample type using the pairwise Jaccard similarity estimation, consequently allowing for rapid microbiome similarity searches via a locality sensitive hashing indexing scheme. Furthermore, we use a 'real life' example to show that histosketches can train machine learning classifiers to accurately label microbiome samples. Specifically, using a collection of 108 novel microbiome samples from a cohort of premature neonates, we trained and tested a random forest classifier that could accurately predict whether the neonate had received antibiotic treatment (97% accuracy, 96% precision) and could subsequently be used to classify microbiome data streams in less than 3 s.

CONCLUSIONS: Our method offers a new approach to rapidly process microbiome data streams, allowing samples to be rapidly clustered, indexed and classified. We also provide our implementation, Histosketching Using Little K-mers (HULK), which can histosketch a typical 2 GB microbiome in 50 s on a standard laptop using four cores, with the sketch occupying 3000 bytes of disk space. (https://github.com/will-rowe/hulk).

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Yason JA, Liang YR, Png CW, et al (2019)

Interactions between a pathogenic Blastocystis subtype and gut microbiota: in vitro and in vivo studies.

Microbiome, 7(1):30 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0644-3.

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is a common gut eukaryote detected in humans and animals. It has been associated with gastrointestinal disease in the past although recent metagenomic studies also suggest that it is a member of normal microbiota. This study investigates interactions between pathogenic human isolates belonging to Blastocystis subtype 7 (ST7) and bacterial representatives of the gut microbiota.

RESULTS: Generally, Blastocystis ST7 exerts a positive effect on the viability of representative gut bacteria except on Bifidobacterium longum. Gene expression analysis and flow cytometry indicate that the bacterium may be undergoing oxidative stress in the presence of Blastocystis. In vitro assays demonstrate that Blastocystis-induced host responses are able to decrease Bifidobacterium counts. Mice infected with Blastocystis also reveal a decrease in beneficial bacteria Bifidobacterium and Lactobacillus.

CONCLUSIONS: This study shows that particular isolates of Blastocystis ST7 cause changes in microbiota populations and potentially lead to an imbalance of the gut microbiota. This study suggests that certain isolates of Blastocystis exert their pathogenic effects through disruption of the gut microbiota and provides a counterpoint to the increasing reports indicating the commensal nature of this ubiquitous parasite.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-11

Fritz B, Stavnsbjerg C, Markvart M, et al (2019)

Shotgun sequencing of clinical biofilm following scanning electron microscopy identifies bacterial community composition.

Pathogens and disease, 77(1):.

Bacterial biofilm infections often involve aggregates of bacteria heterogeneously distributed throughout a tissue or on a surface (such as an implanted medical device). Identification of a biofilm infection requires direct visualization via microscopy, followed by characterization of the microbial community by culturing or sequencing-based approaches. A sample, therefore, must be divided prior to analysis, often leading to inconsistent results. We demonstrate a combined approach, using scanning electron microscopy and next-generation shotgun sequencing, to visually identify a biofilm and characterize the microbial community, without dividing the sample. A clinical sample recovered from a patient following a dental root-filling procedure was prepared and visualized by scanning electron microscopy. DNA was then extracted from the sample several years later and analyzed by shotgun sequencing. The method was subsequently validated on in vitro cultures of Pseudomonas aeruginosa biofilm. Between 19 and 21 different genera and species were identified in the clinical sample with an estimated relative abundance greater than 1% by two different estimation approaches. Only eight genera identified were not associated with endodontic infections. This provides a proof-of-concept for a dual, microscopy and sequencing-based approach to identify and characterize bacterial biofilms, which could also easily be implemented in other scientific fields.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

NIH Human Microbiome Portfolio Analysis Team (2019)

A review of 10 years of human microbiome research activities at the US National Institutes of Health, Fiscal Years 2007-2016.

Microbiome, 7(1):31 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0620-y.

The National Institutes of Health (NIH) is the primary federal government agency for biomedical research in the USA. NIH provides extensive support for human microbiome research with 21 of 27 NIH Institutes and Centers (ICs) currently funding this area through their extramural research programs. This analysis of the NIH extramural portfolio in human microbiome research briefly reviews the early history of this field at NIH, summarizes the program objectives and the resources developed in the recently completed 10-year (fiscal years 2007-2016) $215 M Human Microbiome Project (HMP) program, evaluates the scope and range of the $728 M NIH investment in extramural human microbiome research activities outside of the HMP over fiscal years 2012-2016, and highlights some specific areas of research which emerged from this investment. This analysis closes with a few comments on the technical needs and knowledge gaps which remain for this field to be able to advance over the next decade and for the outcomes of this research to be able to progress to microbiome-based interventions for treating disease and supporting health.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Lagkouvardos I, Lesker TR, Hitch TCA, et al (2019)

Sequence and cultivation study of Muribaculaceae reveals novel species, host preference, and functional potential of this yet undescribed family.

Microbiome, 7(1):28 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0637-2.

BACKGROUND: Bacteria within family S24-7 (phylum Bacteroidetes) are dominant in the mouse gut microbiota and detected in the intestine of other animals. Because they had not been cultured until recently and the family classification is still ambiguous, interaction with their host was difficult to study and confusion still exists regarding sequence data annotation.

METHODS: We investigated family S24-7 by combining data from large-scale 16S rRNA gene analysis and from functional and taxonomic studies of metagenomic and cultured species.

RESULTS: A total of 685 species was inferred by full-length 16S rRNA gene sequence clustering. While many species could not be assigned ecological habitats (93,045 samples analyzed), the mouse was the most commonly identified host (average of 20% relative abundance and nine co-occurring species). Shotgun metagenomics allowed reconstruction of 59 molecular species, of which 34 were representative of the 16S rRNA gene-derived species clusters. In addition, cultivation efforts allowed isolating five strains representing three species, including two novel taxa. Genome analysis revealed that S24-7 spp. are functionally distinct from neighboring families and versatile with respect to complex carbohydrate degradation.

CONCLUSIONS: We provide novel data on the diversity, ecology, and description of bacterial family S24-7, for which the name Muribaculaceae is proposed.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Cota-Ruiz K, López de Los Santos Y, Hernández-Viezcas JA, et al (2019)

A comparative metagenomic and spectroscopic analysis of soils from an international point of entry between the US and Mexico.

Environment international, 123:558-566.

The Paso del Norte region is characterized by its dynamic industries and active agriculture. Throughout the years, urban and agricultural soils from this region have been exposed to xenobiotics, heavy metals, and excess of hydrocarbons. In this study, samples of urban [domestic workshops (DW)] and agricultural-intended (AI) soils from different sites of Ciudad Juárez, Mexico were evaluated for their fertility, element content, and microbial diversity. Chemical analyses showed that nitrites, nitrates, P, K, Mg, and Mn were predominantly higher in AI soils, compared to DW soils (p ≤ 0.05). The composition of soil microbial communities showed that Proteobacteria phylum was the most abundant in both soils (67%, p ≤ 0.05). In AI soils, Paracoccus denitrificans was reduced (p ≤ 0.05), concurring with an increment in nitrates, while the content of nitrogen was negatively correlated with the rhizobium group (r2 = -0.65, p ≤ 0.05). In DW soils, the Firmicutes phylum represented up to ~25%, and the relative abundance of Proteobacteria strongly correlated with a higher Cu content (r2 = 0.99, p ≤ 0.0001). The monotypic genus Sulfuricurvum was found only in oil-contaminated soil samples. Finally, all samples showed the presence of the recently created phylum Candidatus saccharibacteria. These results describe the productivity parameters of AI soils and its correlation to the microbial diversity, which are very important to understand and potentiate the productivity of soils. The data also suggest that soils impacted with hydrocarbons and metal(oid)s allow the reproduction of microorganisms with the potential to alleviate contaminated sites.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-11

Yang Y, Liu G, Song W, et al (2019)

Plastics in the marine environment are reservoirs for antibiotic and metal resistance genes.

Environment international, 123:79-86.

Plastics have been accumulated offshore and in the deep oceans at an unprecedented scale. Microbial communities have colonized the plastisphere, which has become a reservoir for both antibiotic and metal resistance genes (ARGs and MRGs). This is the first analysis of the diversity, abundance, and co-occurrence of ARGs and MRGs, and their relationships within the microbial community, using metagenomic data of plastic particles observed in the North Pacific Gyre obtained from the National Centre for Biotechnology Information Sequence Read Archive database. The abundance of ARGs and MRGs in microbial communities on the plastics were in the ranges 7.07 × 10-4-1.21 × 10-2 and 5.51 × 10-3-4.82 × 10-2 copies per 16S rRNA, respectively. Both the Shannon-Wiener indices and richness of ARGs and MRGs in plastics microbiota were significantly greater than those of ARGs and MRGs in seawater microbiota in the North Pacific Gyre via one-way analysis of variance. Multidrug resistance genes and multi-metal resistance genes were the main classes of genes detected in plastic microbiota. There were no significant differences in the abundance or diversity of ARGs and MRGs between macroplastics biota and microplastics biota, indicating that particle size had no effect on resistance genes. Procrustes analysis suggested that microbial community composition was the determining factor of the ARG profile but not for MRG. Some ARGs and MRGs had a higher incidence of non-random co-occurrence, suggesting that the co-effects of selection for antibiotic or metal resistance are important factors influencing the resistome of the microbiota on the plastic particles.

RevDate: 2019-06-14
CmpDate: 2019-06-14

Fan Y, Ya-E Z, Ji-Dong W, et al (2018)

Comparison of Microbial Diversity and Composition in Jejunum and Colon of the Alcohol-dependent Rats.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology, 28(11):1883-1895.

Alcohol dependence is a global public health problem, yet the mechanisms of alcohol dependence are incompletely understood. The traditional view has been that ethanol alters various neurotransmitters and their receptors in the brain and causes the addiction. However, an increasing amount of experimental evidence suggests that gut microbiota also influence brain functions via gut-to-brain interactions, and may therefore induce the development of alcohol use disorders. In this study, a rat model of alcohol dependence and withdrawal was employed, the gut microbiota composition was analyzed by high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing, and the metagenome function was predicted by PICRUSt software. The results suggested that chronic alcohol consumption did not significantly alter the diversity and richness of gut microbiota in the jejunum and colon, but rather markedly changed the microbiota composition structure in the colon. The phyla Bacteroidetes and eight genera including Bacteroidales S24-7, Ruminococcaceae, Parabacteroides, Butyricimonas, et al were drastically increased, however the genus Lactobacillus and gauvreauii in the colon were significantly decreased in the alcohol dependence group compared with the withdrawal and control groups. The microbial functional prediction analysis revealed that the proportions of amino acid metabolism, polyketide sugar unit biosynthesis and peroxisome were significantly increased in the AD group. This study demonstrated that chronic alcohol consumption has a dramatic effect on the microbiota composition structure in the colon but few effects on the jejunum. Inducement of colonic microbiota dysbiosis due to alcohol abuse seems to be a factor of alcohol dependence, which suggests that modulating colonic microbiota composition might be a potentially new target for treating alcohol addiction.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Munk P, Knudsen BE, Lukjancenko O, et al (2018)

Abundance and diversity of the faecal resistome in slaughter pigs and broilers in nine European countries.

Nature microbiology, 3(8):898-908.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria and associated human morbidity and mortality is increasing. The use of antimicrobials in livestock selects for AMR that can subsequently be transferred to humans. This flow of AMR between reservoirs demands surveillance in livestock and in humans. We quantified and characterized the acquired resistance gene pools (resistomes) of 181 pig and 178 poultry farms from nine European countries, sequencing more than 5,000 Gb of DNA using shotgun metagenomics. We quantified acquired AMR using the ResFinder database and a second database constructed for this study, consisting of AMR genes identified through screening environmental DNA. The pig and poultry resistomes were very different in abundance and composition. There was a significant country effect on the resistomes, more so in pigs than in poultry. We found higher AMR loads in pigs, whereas poultry resistomes were more diverse. We detected several recently described, critical AMR genes, including mcr-1 and optrA, the abundance of which differed both between host species and between countries. We found that the total acquired AMR level was associated with the overall country-specific antimicrobial usage in livestock and that countries with comparable usage patterns had similar resistomes. However, functionally determined AMR genes were not associated with total drug use.

RevDate: 2019-06-14
CmpDate: 2019-06-14

Li J, Li L, Jiang H, et al (2018)

Fecal Bacteriome and Mycobiome in Bats with Diverse Diets in South China.

Current microbiology, 75(10):1352-1361.

Bats can be divided into frugivory, nectarivory, insectivory, and sanguivory based on their diets, and are therefore ideal wild animal models to study the relationship between diets and intestinal microflora. Early studies of bat gut bacteria showed that the diversity and structure of intestinal bacterial communities in bats are closely related to dietary changes. Worthy of note, intestinal microbes are composed of bacteria, fungi, protozoa, and archaea. Although the number of gut fungi is much lower than that of gut bacteria, they also play an important role in maintaining the host homeostasis. However, there are still few reports on the relationship between the gut mycobiota and the dietary habits of the host. In addition, bats have also been shown to naturally transmit pathogenic viruses and bacteria through their feces and saliva, but fungal infections from bat are less studied. Here, we used high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S and eukaryotic 18S rRNA genes in the V4 and V9 regions to characterize fecal bacterial and fungal microbiota in phytophagous and insectivorous bats in South China. The results show that the gut microbiota in bats were dominated by bacterial phyla Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Tenericutes and Bacteroidetes, and fungal phyla Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. There was a significant difference in the diversity of bacterial and fungal microbiota between the groups, in addition to specific bacteria and fungi populations on each of them. Of note, the number of fungi in the feces of herbivorous bats is relatively higher. Most of these fungi are foodborne and are also pathogens of humans and other animals. Thus, bats are natural carriers of fungal pathogens. The current study expands the understanding of the bat gut bacterial and fungal mycobiota and provides further insight into the transmission of fungal pathogens.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Chase MA, Stankowski S, MA Streisfeld (2017)

Genomewide variation provides insight into evolutionary relationships in a monkeyflower species complex (Mimulus sect. Diplacus).

American journal of botany, 104(10):1510-1521.

PREMISE OF THE STUDY: Evolutionary radiations provide excellent opportunities to study the origins of biodiversity, but rapid divergence and ongoing gene flow make inferring evolutionary relationships among taxa difficult. Consequently, combining morphological and genomic analyses will be necessary to clarify the evolutionary history of radiations. We used an integrative approach to shed light on relationships within a diverse radiation of monkeyflowers (Mimulus section Diplacus) with a controversial taxonomic history.

METHODS: We used genomewide single nucleotide polymorphism data and a combination of phylogenetic and population genomic analyses to infer the evolutionary relationships within the group. Tests for hybridization were performed to reveal sources of shared variation, and multivariate analyses of floral trait data were conducted to examine the correspondence between phenotypic and phylogenetic data.

KEY RESULTS: We identified four primary clades with evidence for some shared variation among them. We also detected evidence for recent gene flow between closely related subclades and populations. Strong discordance between floral trait and molecular data provides evidence for divergent and convergent phenotypic evolution.

CONCLUSIONS: Mimulus section Diplacus has all the hallmarks of a rapid radiation, including diverse taxa that are at different stages of divergence, extensive shared variation among taxa, and complex patterns of phenotypic evolution. Our findings will direct future evolutionary research and have important taxonomic implications that highlight the need for a new revision of section Diplacus.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Sieber CMK, Probst AJ, Sharrar A, et al (2018)

Recovery of genomes from metagenomes via a dereplication, aggregation and scoring strategy.

Nature microbiology, 3(7):836-843.

Microbial communities are critical to ecosystem function. A key objective of metagenomic studies is to analyse organism-specific metabolic pathways and reconstruct community interaction networks. This requires accurate assignment of assembled genome fragments to genomes. Existing binning methods often fail to reconstruct a reasonable number of genomes and report many bins of low quality and completeness. Furthermore, the performance of existing algorithms varies between samples and biotopes. Here, we present a dereplication, aggregation and scoring strategy, DAS Tool, that combines the strengths of a flexible set of established binning algorithms. DAS Tool applied to a constructed community generated more accurate bins than any automated method. Indeed, when applied to environmental and host-associated samples of different complexity, DAS Tool recovered substantially more near-complete genomes, including previously unreported lineages, than any single binning method alone. The ability to reconstruct many near-complete genomes from metagenomics data will greatly advance genome-centric analyses of ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Ravi A, Avershina E, Angell IL, et al (2018)

Comparison of reduced metagenome and 16S rRNA gene sequencing for determination of genetic diversity and mother-child overlap of the gut associated microbiota.

Journal of microbiological methods, 149:44-52.

Use of the 16S rRNA gene in microbiota studies is limited by the lack of taxonomic and functional resolution. High resolution analyses are particularly important for understanding transmission and persistence of bacteria. The aim of our work was therefore to compare a novel reduced metagenome sequencing (RMS) approach with 16S rRNA gene sequencing to determine both the metagenome genetic diversity and the mother-to-child sharing of the microbiota in a cohort of 17 mother-child pairs. We found that although both approaches gave comparable results with respect to sample separation and taxonomy, RMS gave higher resolution and the potential for genomic-/functional assignment. Using RMS we estimated that the metagenome size increased from about 60 Mbp for 4-day-old children to about 225 Mbp for mothers. The 4-day-old children shared 7% of the metagenome sequences with the mothers, while the metagenome sequence sharing was >30% among the mothers. We found 15 genomes shared across >50% of the mothers, of which 10 belonged to Clostridia. Only Bacteroides showed a direct mother-child association, with B. vulgatus being abundant in both 4-day-old children and mothers. For the functional assignments, we identified a significant association between antibiotic usage during labor, and quantity of Fosfomycin resistance genes. In conclusion, our results show a higher functional and taxonomic resolution for RMS compared to 16S rRNA gene sequencing, where RMS enabled a detailed description of mother to child gut microbiota transmission - supporting a late recruitment of most gut bacteria and an effect of antibiotic treatment during labor on infant antibiotic resistance gene patterns.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Andermann TM, Peled JU, Ho C, et al (2018)

The Microbiome and Hematopoietic Cell Transplantation: Past, Present, and Future.

Biology of blood and marrow transplantation : journal of the American Society for Blood and Marrow Transplantation, 24(7):1322-1340.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Brewer TE, N Fierer (2018)

Tales from the tomb: the microbial ecology of exposed rock surfaces.

Environmental microbiology, 20(3):958-970.

Although a broad diversity of eukaryotic and bacterial taxa reside on rock surfaces where they can influence the weathering of rocks and minerals, these communities and their contributions to mineral weathering remain poorly resolved. To build a more comprehensive understanding of the diversity, ecology and potential functional attributes of microbial communities living on rock, we sampled 149 tombstones across three continents and analysed their bacterial and eukaryotic communities via marker gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We found that geographic location and climate were important factors structuring the composition of these communities. Moreover, the tombstone-associated microbial communities varied as a function of rock type, with granite and limestone tombstones from the same cemeteries harbouring taxonomically distinct microbial communities. The granite and limestone-associated communities also had distinct functional attributes, with granite-associated bacteria having more genes linked to acid tolerance and chemotaxis, while bacteria on limestone were more likely to be lichen associated and have genes involved in photosynthesis and radiation resistance. Together these results indicate that rock-dwelling microbes exhibit adaptations to survive the stresses of the rock surface, differ based on location, climate and rock type, and seem pre-disposed to different ecological strategies (symbiotic versus free-living lifestyles) depending on the rock type.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-13

Hahn A, Warnken S, Pérez-Losada M, et al (2018)

Microbial diversity within the airway microbiome in chronic pediatric lung diseases.

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 63:316-325.

The study of the airway microbiome in children is an area of emerging research, especially in relation to the role microbial diversity may play in acute and chronic inflammation. Three such pediatric airway diseases include cystic fibrosis, asthma, and chronic lung disease of prematurity. In cystic fibrosis, the presence of Pseudomonas spp. is associated with decreased microbial diversity. Decreasing microbial diversity is also associated with poor lung function. In asthma, early viral infections appear to drive changes in bacterial diversity which may be associated with asthma risk. Premature infants with Ureaplasma spp. are at higher risk for chronic lung disease due to inflammation. Microbiome changes due to prematurity also appear to affect the inflammatory response to viral infections post-natally. Importantly, microbial diversity can be measured using metataxonomic (e.g., 16S rRNA sequencing) and metagenomic (e.g., shotgun sequencing) approaches. A metagenomics approach may be preferable as it can provide further granularity of the sample composition, identifying the bacterial species or strain, information on additional microbial components, including fungal and viral components, information about functional genomics of the microbiome, and information about antimicrobial resistance mutations. Future studies of pediatric airway diseases incorporating these techniques may provide evidence for new treatment approaches for these vulnerable patient populations.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Chen L, Feng Q, Li C, et al (2017)

Impacts of aquaculture wastewater irrigation on soil microbial functional diversity and community structure in arid regions.

Scientific reports, 7(1):11193.

Aquaculture wastewater is one of the most important alternative water resources in arid regions where scarcity of fresh water is common. Irrigation with this kind of water may affect soil microbial functional diversity and community structure as changes of soil environment would be significant. Here, we conducted a field sampling to investigate these effects using Biolog and metagenomic methods. The results demonstrated that irrigation with aquaculture wastewater could dramatically reduce soil microbial functional diversity. The values of diversity indices and sole carbon source utilization were all significantly decreased. Increased soil salinity, especially Cl concentration, appeared primarily associated with the decreases. Differently, higher bacterial community diversity was obtained in aquaculture wastewater irrigated soils. More abundant phyla Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes and fewer members of Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes were found in this kind of soils. Changes in the concentration of soil Cl mainly accounted for the shifts of bacterial community composition. This research can improve our understanding of how aquaculture wastewater irrigation changes soil microbial process and as a result, be useful to manage soil and wastewater resources in arid regions.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-11

Ticinesi A, Milani C, Lauretani F, et al (2017)

Gut microbiota composition is associated with polypharmacy in elderly hospitalized patients.

Scientific reports, 7(1):11102.

Reduced biodiversity and increased representation of opportunistic pathogens are typical features of gut microbiota composition in aging. Few studies have investigated their correlation with polypharmacy, multimorbidity and frailty. To assess it, we analyzed the fecal microbiota from 76 inpatients, aged 83 ± 8. Microbiome biodiversity (Chao1 index) and relative abundance of individual bacterial taxa were determined by next-generation 16S rRNA microbial profiling. Their correlation with number of drugs, and indexes of multimorbidity and frailty were verified using multivariate linear regression models. The impact of gut microbiota biodiversity on mortality, rehospitalizations and incident sepsis was also assessed after a 2-year follow-up, using Cox regression analysis. We found a significant negative correlation between the number of drugs and Chao1 Index at multivariate analysis. The number of drugs was associated with the average relative abundance of 15 taxa. The drug classes exhibiting the strongest association with single taxa abundance were proton pump inhibitors, antidepressants and antipsychotics. Conversely, frailty and multimorbidity were not significantly associated with gut microbiota biodiversity. Very low Chao1 index was also a significant predictor of mortality, but not of rehospitalizations and sepsis, at follow-up. In aging, polypharmacy may thus represent a determinant of gut microbiota composition, with detrimental clinical consequences.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-10

Parnell LA, Briggs CM, Cao B, et al (2017)

Microbial communities in placentas from term normal pregnancy exhibit spatially variable profiles.

Scientific reports, 7(1):11200.

The placenta is the principal organ nurturing the fetus during pregnancy and was traditionally considered to be sterile. Recent work has suggested that the placenta harbours microbial communities, however the location and possible function of these microbes remain to be confirmed and elucidated. Here, we employed genomic DNA sequencing of multiple variable (V) regions of the bacterial 16S ribosomal gene, to interrogate microbial profiles in term pregnancies, from the basal plate, which is in direct contact with maternal uterine, endothelial, and immune cells; placental villi, which are bathed in maternal blood, and fetal membranes, which encapsulate the amniotic cavity. QIIME, R package "Phyloseq" analysis was used to assess alpha and beta diversity and absolute abundance of the 16S rRNA gene per location. We demonstrate that (1) microbiota exhibit spatially distinct profiles depending on the location within the placenta and (2) "semi-composite" 16S profiles using multiple V regions validated by quantitative PCR analysis confirmed that distinct bacterial taxa dominate in different placental niches. Finally, profiles are not altered by mode of delivery. Together these findings suggest that there is niche-specificity to the placental microbiota and placental microbiome studies should consider regional differences, which may affect maternal, fetal, and/or neonatal health and physiology.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-11

Kim Y, Koh I, Young Lim M, et al (2017)

Pan-genome analysis of Bacillus for microbiome profiling.

Scientific reports, 7(1):10984.

Recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technology allow for in-depth studies on microbial genomes and their communities. While multiple strains of the same species could display genomic variations with different gene contents in diverse habitats and hosts, the essential functions for a specific species are conserved as core genes that are shared among strains. We have comprehensively analyzed 238 strains of five different Bacillus species to identify the properties of core and strain-specific genes. Core and strain-specific genes in each Bacillus species show significant differences in their functions and genomic signatures. Using the core genes defined in this study, we have precisely identified the Bacillus species that exist in food microbiomes. Without resorting to culture-based whole genome sequencing, an unexpectedly large portion of the core genes, 98.22% of core genes in B. amyloliquefaciens and 97.77% of B. subtilis, were reconstructed from the microbiome. We have performed a pan-genome analysis on the core gene data of multiple Bacillus species to investigate the Bacillus species in food microbiome. Our findings provide a comprehensive genetic landscape of the Bacillus species, which is also consistent with previous studies on a limited number of strains and species. Analysis based on comprehensive core genes should thus serve as a powerful profiling tool to better understand major constituents in fermented food microbiomes.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-11

Shin JM, Luo T, Kamarajan P, et al (2017)

Microbial Communities Associated with Primary and Metastatic Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A High Fusobacterial and Low Streptococcal Signature.

Scientific reports, 7(1):9934.

Given the potential relationship between head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and microbial dysbiosis, we profiled the microbiome within healthy normal and tumorous (primary and metastatic) human tissues from the oral cavity, larynx-pharynx, and lymph nodes using 16S rRNA sequencing. Alpha and beta diversity analyses revealed that normal tissues had the greatest richness in community diversity, while the metastatic populations were most closely related to one another. Compared to the normal, the microbiota associated with tumors supported altered abundances in the phyla Fusobacteria, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria. Most notably, the relative abundance of Fusobacterium increased whereas Streptococcus decreased in both primary and metastatic samples. Principal coordinate analysis indicated a separation and clustering of samples by tissue status. However, random forest analysis revealed that the microbial profiles alone were a poor predictor for primary and metastatic HNSCC samples. Here, we report that the microbial communities residing in the tumorous tissues are compositionally distinct compared to the normal adjacent tissues. However, likely due to the smaller sample size and sample-to-sample heterogeneity, our prediction models were not able to distinguish by sample types. This work provides a foundation for future studies aimed at understanding the role of the dysbiotic tissue microbiome in HNSCC.

RevDate: 2019-06-14
CmpDate: 2019-06-14

Cohen LJ, Han S, Huang YH, et al (2018)

Identification of the Colicin V Bacteriocin Gene Cluster by Functional Screening of a Human Microbiome Metagenomic Library.

ACS infectious diseases, 4(1):27-32.

The forces that shape human microbial ecology are complex. It is likely that human microbiota, similarly to other microbiomes, use antibiotics as one way to establish an ecological niche. In this study, we use functional metagenomics to identify human microbial gene clusters that encode for antibiotic functions. Screening of a metagenomic library prepared from a healthy patient stool sample led to the identification of a family of clones with inserts that are 99% identical to a region of a virulence plasmid found in avian pathogenic Escherichia coli. Characterization of the metagenomic DNA sequence identified a colicin V biosynthetic cluster as being responsible for the observed antibiotic effect of the metagenomic clone against E. coli. This study presents a scalable method to recover antibiotic gene clusters from humans using functional metagenomics and highlights a strategy to study bacteriocins in the human microbiome which can provide a resource for therapeutic discovery.

RevDate: 2019-06-12

Chen CY, Tang SL, ST Chou (2019)

Taxonomy based performance metrics for evaluating taxonomic assignment methods.

BMC bioinformatics, 20(1):310 pii:10.1186/s12859-019-2896-0.

BACKGROUND: Metagenomics experiments often make inferences about microbial communities by sequencing 16S and 18S rRNA, and taxonomic assignment is a fundamental step in such studies. This paper addresses the weaknesses in two types of metrics commonly used by previous studies for measuring the performance of existing taxonomic assignment methods: Sequence count based metrics and Binary error measurement. These metrics made performance evaluation results biased, less informative and mutually incomparable.

RESULTS: We investigated weaknesses in two types of metrics and proposed new performance metrics including Average Taxonomy Distance (ATD) and ATD_by_Taxa, together with the visualized ATD plot.

CONCLUSIONS: By comparing the evaluation results from four popular taxonomic assignment methods across three test data sets, we found the new metrics more robust, informative and comparable.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Zhong C, Yang Y, S Yooseph (2019)

GRASP2: fast and memory-efficient gene-centric assembly and homolog search for metagenomic sequencing data.

BMC bioinformatics, 20(Suppl 11):276 pii:10.1186/s12859-019-2818-1.

BACKGROUND: A crucial task in metagenomic analysis is to annotate the function and taxonomy of the sequencing reads generated from a microbiome sample. In general, the reads can either be assembled into contigs and searched against reference databases, or individually searched without assembly. The first approach may suffer from fragmentary and incomplete assembly, while the second is hampered by the reduced functional signal contained in the short reads. To tackle these issues, we have previously developed GRASP (Guided Reference-based Assembly of Short Peptides), which accepts a reference protein sequence as input and aims to assemble its homologs from a database containing fragmentary protein sequences. In addition to a gene-centric assembly tool, GRASP also serves as a homolog search tool when using the assembled protein sequences as templates to recruit reads. GRASP has significantly improved recall rate (60-80% vs. 30-40%) compared to other homolog search tools such as BLAST. However, GRASP is both time- and space-consuming. Subsequently, we developed GRASPx, which is 30X faster than GRASP. Here, we present a completely redesigned algorithm, GRASP2, for this computational problem.

RESULTS: GRASP2 utilizes Burrows-Wheeler Transformation (BWT) and FM-index to perform assembly graph generation, and reduces the search space by employing a fast ungapped alignment strategy as a filter. GRASP2 also explicitly generates candidate paths prior to alignment, which effectively uncouples the iterative access of the assembly graph and alignment matrix. This strategy makes the execution of the program more efficient under current computer architecture, and contributes to GRASP2's speedup. GRASP2 is 8-fold faster than GRASPx (and 250-fold faster than GRASP) and uses 8-fold less memory while maintaining the original high recall rate of GRASP. GRASP2 reaches ~ 80% recall rate compared to that of ~ 40% generated by BLAST, both at a high precision level (> 95%). With such a high performance, GRASP2 is only ~3X slower than BLASTP.

CONCLUSION: GRASP2 is a high-performance gene-centric and homolog search tool with significant speedup compared to its predecessors, which makes GRASP2 a useful tool for metagenomics data analysis, GRASP2 is implemented in C++ and is freely available from http://www.sourceforge.net/projects/grasp2 .

RevDate: 2019-05-30

Kallies R, Hölzer M, Brizola Toscan R, et al (2019)

Evaluation of Sequencing Library Preparation Protocols for Viral Metagenomic Analysis from Pristine Aquifer Groundwaters.

Viruses, 11(6): pii:v11060484.

Viral ecology of terrestrial habitats is yet-to be extensively explored, in particular the terrestrial subsurface. One problem in obtaining viral sequences from groundwater aquifer samples is the relatively low amount of virus particles. As a result, the amount of extracted DNA may not be sufficient for direct sequencing of such samples. Here we compared three DNA amplification methods to enrich viral DNA from three pristine limestone aquifer assemblages of the Hainich Critical Zone Exploratory to evaluate potential bias created by the different amplification methods as determined by viral metagenomics. Linker amplification shotgun libraries resulted in lowest redundancy among the sequencing reads and showed the highest diversity, while multiple displacement amplification produced the highest number of contigs with the longest average contig size, suggesting a combination of these two methods is suitable for the successful enrichment of viral DNA from pristine groundwater samples. In total, we identified 27,173, 5,886 and 32,613 viral contigs from the three samples from which 11.92 to 18.65% could be assigned to taxonomy using blast. Among these, members of the Caudovirales order were the most abundant group (52.20 to 69.12%) dominated by Myoviridae and Siphoviridae. Those, and the high number of unknown viral sequences, substantially expand the known virosphere.

RevDate: 2019-05-18

Sahoo K, Sahoo RK, Gaur M, et al (2019)

Cellulolytic thermophilic microorganisms in white biotechnology: a review.

Folia microbiologica pii:10.1007/s12223-019-00710-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Enzymes of microbial origin are of immense importance for organic material decomposition leading to bioremediation of organic waste, bioenergy generation, large-scale industrial bioprocesses, etc. The market demand for microbial cellulase enzyme is growing more rapidly which ultimately becomes the driving force towards research on this biocatalyst, widely used in various industrial activities. The use of novel cellulase genes obtained from various thermophiles through metagenomics and genetic engineering as well as following metabolic engineering pathways would be able to enhance the production of thermophilic cellulase at industrial scale. The present review is mainly focused on thermophilic cellulolytic bacteria, discoveries on cellulase gene, genetically modified cellulase, metabolic engineering, and their various industrial applications. A lot of lacunae are yet to overcome for thermophiles such as metagenome analysis, metabolic pathway modification study, search of heterologous hosts in gene expression system, and improved recombinant strain for better cellulase yield as well as value-added product formation.

RevDate: 2019-06-06
CmpDate: 2019-06-06

Sande CJ, Njunge JM, Mwongeli Ngoi J, et al (2019)

Airway response to respiratory syncytial virus has incidental antibacterial effects.

Nature communications, 10(1):2218 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-10222-z.

RSV infection is typically associated with secondary bacterial infection. We hypothesise that the local airway immune response to RSV has incidental antibacterial effects. Using coordinated proteomics and metagenomics analysis we simultaneously analysed the microbiota and proteomes of the upper airway and determined direct antibacterial activity in airway secretions of RSV-infected children. Here, we report that the airway abundance of Streptococcus was higher in samples collected at the time of RSV infection compared with samples collected one month later. RSV infection is associated with neutrophil influx into the airway and degranulation and is marked by overexpression of proteins with known antibacterial activity including BPI, EPX, MPO and AZU1. Airway secretions of children infected with RSV, have significantly greater antibacterial activity compared to RSV-negative controls. This RSV-associated, neutrophil-mediated antibacterial response in the airway appears to act as a regulatory mechanism that modulates bacterial growth in the airways of RSV-infected children.

RevDate: 2019-06-03
CmpDate: 2019-06-03

Escudeiro P, Pothier J, Dionisio F, et al (2019)

Antibiotic Resistance Gene Diversity and Virulence Gene Diversity Are Correlated in Human Gut and Environmental Microbiomes.

mSphere, 4(3): pii:4/3/e00135-19.

Human beings have used large amounts of antibiotics, not only in medical contexts but also, for example, as growth factors in agriculture and livestock, resulting in the contamination of the environment. Even when pathogenic bacteria are the targets of antibiotics, hundreds of nonpathogenic bacterial species are affected as well. Therefore, both pathogenic and nonpathogenic bacteria have gradually become resistant to antibiotics. We tested whether there is still cooccurrence of resistance and virulence determinants. We performed a comparative study of environmental and human gut metagenomes from different individuals and from distinct human populations across the world. We found a great diversity of antibiotic resistance determinants (AR diversity [ARd]) and virulence factors (VF diversity [VFd]) in metagenomes. Importantly there is a correlation between ARd and VFd, even after correcting for protein family richness. In the human gut, there are less ARd and VFd than in more diversified environments, and yet correlations between the ARd and VFd are stronger. They can vary from very high in Malawi, where antibiotic consumption is unattended, to nonexistent in the uncontacted Amerindian population. We conclude that there is cooccurrence of resistance and virulence determinants in human gut microbiomes, suggesting a possible coselective mechanism.IMPORTANCE Every year, thousands of tons of antibiotics are used, not only in human and animal health but also as growth promoters in livestock. Consequently, during the last 75 years, antibiotic-resistant bacterial strains have been selected in human and environmental microbial communities. This implies that, even when pathogenic bacteria are the targets of antibiotics, hundreds of nonpathogenic bacterial species are also affected. Here, we performed a comparative study of environmental and human gut microbial communities issuing from different individuals and from distinct human populations across the world. We found that antibiotic resistance and pathogenicity are correlated and speculate that, by selecting for resistant bacteria, we may be selecting for more virulent strains as a side effect of antimicrobial therapy.

RevDate: 2019-05-21

Gregory AC, Zayed AA, Conceição-Neto N, et al (2019)

Marine DNA Viral Macro- and Microdiversity from Pole to Pole.

Cell, 177(5):1109-1123.e14.

Microbes drive most ecosystems and are modulated by viruses that impact their lifespan, gene flow, and metabolic outputs. However, ecosystem-level impacts of viral community diversity remain difficult to assess due to classification issues and few reference genomes. Here, we establish an ∼12-fold expanded global ocean DNA virome dataset of 195,728 viral populations, now including the Arctic Ocean, and validate that these populations form discrete genotypic clusters. Meta-community analyses revealed five ecological zones throughout the global ocean, including two distinct Arctic regions. Across the zones, local and global patterns and drivers in viral community diversity were established for both macrodiversity (inter-population diversity) and microdiversity (intra-population genetic variation). These patterns sometimes, but not always, paralleled those from macro-organisms and revealed temperate and tropical surface waters and the Arctic as biodiversity hotspots and mechanistic hypotheses to explain them. Such further understanding of ocean viruses is critical for broader inclusion in ecosystem models.

RevDate: 2019-06-07
CmpDate: 2019-06-07

Darlison J, Mogren L, Rosberg AK, et al (2019)

Leaf mineral content govern microbial community structure in the phyllosphere of spinach (Spinacia oleracea) and rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia).

The Science of the total environment, 675:501-512.

The plant microbiome is an important factor for plant health and productivity. While the impact of nitrogen (N) availability for plant growth and development is well established, its influence on the microbial phyllosphere community structure is unknown. We hypothesize that nitrogen impacts the growth and abundance of several microorganisms on the leaf surface. The bacterial and fungal communities of baby leaf spinach (Spinacia oleracea), and rocket (Diplotaxis tenuifolia) were investigated in a field trial for two years in a commercial setting. Nitrogen fertilizer was tested in four doses (basic nitrogen, basic + suboptimal, basic + commercial, basic + excess) with six replicates in each. Culture-independent (Illumina sequencing) and culture-dependent (viable count and identification of bacterial isolates) community studies were combined with monitoring of plant physiology and site weather conditions. This study found that alpha diversity of bacterial communities decreased in response to increasing nitrogen fertilizer dose, whereas viable counts showed no differences. Correspondingly, fungal communities of the spinach phyllosphere showed a decreasing pattern, whereas the decreasing diversity of fungal communities of rocket was not significant. Plant species and effects of annual variations on microbiome structure were observed for bacterial and fungal communities on both spinach and rocket. This study provides novel insights on the impact of nitrogen fertilizer regime on a nutrient scarce habitat, the phyllosphere.

RevDate: 2019-04-28

Sirén K, Mak SST, Melkonian C, et al (2019)

Taxonomic and Functional Characterization of the Microbial Community During Spontaneous in vitro Fermentation of Riesling Must.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:697.

Although there is an extensive tradition of research into the microbes that underlie the winemaking process, much remains to be learnt. We combined the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) tools of metabarcoding and metagenomics, to characterize how microbial communities of Riesling musts sampled at four different vineyards, and their subsequent spontaneously fermented derivatives, vary. We specifically explored community variation relating to three points: (i) how microbial communities vary by vineyard; (ii) how community biodiversity changes during alcoholic fermentation; and (iii) how microbial community varies between musts that successfully complete alcoholic fermentation and those that become 'stuck' in the process. Our metabarcoding data showed a general influence of microbial composition at the vineyard level. Two of the vineyards (4 and 5) had strikingly a change in the differential abundance of Metschnikowia. We therefore additionally performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing on a subset of the samples to provide preliminary insights into the potential relevance of this observation, and used the data to both investigate functional potential and reconstruct draft genomes (bins). At these two vineyards, we also observed an increase in non-Saccharomycetaceae fungal functions, and a decrease in bacterial functions during the early fermentation stage. The binning results yielded 11 coherent bins, with both vineyards sharing the yeast bins Hanseniaspora and Saccharomyces. Read recruitment and functional analysis of this data revealed that during fermentation, a high abundance of Metschnikowia might serve as a biocontrol agent against bacteria, via a putative iron depletion pathway, and this in turn could help Saccharomyces dominate the fermentation. During alcoholic fermentation, we observed a general decrease in biodiversity in both the metabarcoding and metagenomic data. Unexpected Micrococcus behavior was observed in vineyard 4 according to metagenomic analyses based on reference-based read mapping. Analysis of open reading frames using these data showed an increase of functions assigned to class Actinobacteria in the end of fermentation. Therefore, we hypothesize that bacteria might sit-and-wait until Saccharomyces activity slows down. Complementary approaches to annotation instead of relying a single database provide more coherent information true species. Lastly, our metabarcoding data enabled us to identify a relationship between stuck fermentations and Starmerella abundance. Given that robust chemical analysis indicated that although the stuck samples contained residual glucose, all fructose had been consumed, we hypothesize that this was because fructophilic Starmerella, rather than Saccharomyces, dominated these fermentations. Overall, our results showcase the different ways in which metagenomic analyses can improve our understanding of the wine alcoholic fermentation process.

RevDate: 2019-05-11

Sung CM, Lin YF, Chen KF, et al (2019)

Predicting Clinical Outcomes of Cirrhosis Patients With Hepatic Encephalopathy From the Fecal Microbiome.

Cellular and molecular gastroenterology and hepatology pii:S2352-345X(19)30047-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Gut dysbiosis plays a role in hepatic encephalopathy (HE), while its relationship at the acute episode of overt HE (AHE), the disease progression and clinical outcomes remains unclear. We aimed to identify AHE-specific microbiome and its association to patients' outcomes.

METHODS: We profiled fecal microbiome changes for a cohort of 62 patients with cirrhosis and AHE i) before treatment, ii) 2-3 days after medication and iii) 2-3 months after recovery, and three control cohorts i) healthy individuals, patients with ii) compensated or iii) decompensated cirrhosis.

RESULTS: Comparison of the microbiome shift from compensated, decompensated cirrhosis, AHE to recovery revealed the AHE-specific gut-dysbiosis. The gut microbiome diversity was decreased during AHE, further reduced after medication, and only partially reversed during the recovery. The relative abundance of Bacteroidetes phylum in the microbiome decreased, whereas that of Firmicute, Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria increased in patients during AHE compared with those with compensated cirrhosis. A total of 70 operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were significantly different between AHE and decompensated cirrhosis abundances. Of them, the abundance of Veillonella parvula increased the most during AHE via a metagenomics recovery of the genomes. Moreover, the relative abundances of three (Alistipes, Bacteroides, Phascolarctobacterium) and five OTUs (Clostridium-XI, Bacteroides, Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Clostridium-sedis) at AHE were respectively associated with HE recurrence and overall survival during the subsequent one-year follow-up.

CONCLUSIONS: AHE-specific gut OTUs were identified that may be involved in HE development and able to predict clinical outcomes, providing new strategies for the prevention and treatment of HE recurrence in patients with cirrhosis.

RevDate: 2019-05-28
CmpDate: 2019-05-28

Dong X, Greening C, Rattray JE, et al (2019)

Metabolic potential of uncultured bacteria and archaea associated with petroleum seepage in deep-sea sediments.

Nature communications, 10(1):1816 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-09747-0.

The lack of microbial genomes and isolates from the deep seabed means that very little is known about the ecology of this vast habitat. Here, we investigate energy and carbon acquisition strategies of microbial communities from three deep seabed petroleum seeps (3 km water depth) in the Eastern Gulf of Mexico. Shotgun metagenomic analysis reveals that each sediment harbors diverse communities of chemoheterotrophs and chemolithotrophs. We recovered 82 metagenome-assembled genomes affiliated with 21 different archaeal and bacterial phyla. Multiple genomes encode enzymes for anaerobic oxidation of aliphatic and aromatic compounds, including those of candidate phyla Aerophobetes, Aminicenantes, TA06 and Bathyarchaeota. Microbial interactions are predicted to be driven by acetate and molecular hydrogen. These findings are supported by sediment geochemistry, metabolomics, and thermodynamic modelling. Overall, we infer that deep-sea sediments experiencing thermogenic hydrocarbon inputs harbor phylogenetically and functionally diverse communities potentially sustained through anaerobic hydrocarbon, acetate and hydrogen metabolism.

RevDate: 2019-04-18

Singer GAC, Fahner NA, Barnes JG, et al (2019)

Comprehensive biodiversity analysis via ultra-deep patterned flow cell technology: a case study of eDNA metabarcoding seawater.

Scientific reports, 9(1):5991 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-42455-9.

The characterization of biodiversity is a crucial element of ecological investigations as well as environmental assessment and monitoring activities. Increasingly, amplicon-based environmental DNA metabarcoding (alternatively, marker gene metagenomics) is used for such studies given its ability to provide biodiversity data from various groups of organisms simply from analysis of bulk environmental samples such as water, soil or sediments. The Illumina MiSeq is currently the most popular tool for carrying out this work, but we set out to determine whether typical studies were reading enough DNA to detect rare organisms (i.e., those that may be of greatest interest such as endangered or invasive species) present in the environment. We collected sea water samples along two transects in Conception Bay, Newfoundland and analyzed them on the MiSeq with a sequencing depth of 100,000 reads per sample (exceeding the 60,000 per sample that is typical of similar studies). We then analyzed these same samples on Illumina's newest high-capacity platform, the NovaSeq, at a depth of 7 million reads per sample. Not surprisingly, the NovaSeq detected many more taxa than the MiSeq thanks to its much greater sequencing depth. However, contrary to our expectations this pattern was true even in depth-for-depth comparisons. In other words, the NovaSeq can detect more DNA sequence diversity within samples than the MiSeq, even at the exact same sequencing depth. Even when samples were reanalyzed on the MiSeq with a sequencing depth of 1 million reads each, the MiSeq's ability to detect new sequences plateaued while the NovaSeq continued to detect new sequence variants. These results have important biological implications. The NovaSeq found 40% more metazoan families in this environment than the MiSeq, including some of interest such as marine mammals and bony fish so the real-world implications of these findings are significant. These results are most likely associated to the advances incorporated in the NovaSeq, especially a patterned flow cell, which prevents similar sequences that are neighbours on the flow cell (common in metabarcoding studies) from being erroneously merged into single spots by the sequencing instrument. This study sets the stage for incorporating eDNA metabarcoding in comprehensive analysis of oceanic samples in a wide range of ecological and environmental investigations.

RevDate: 2019-04-09

Tan S, Liu J, Fang Y, et al (2019)

Insights into ecological role of a new deltaproteobacterial order Candidatus Acidulodesulfobacterales by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-019-0415-y [Epub ahead of print].

Several abundant but yet uncultivated bacterial groups exist in extreme iron- and sulfur-rich environments, and the physiology, biodiversity, and ecological roles of these bacteria remain a mystery. Here we retrieved four metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from an artificial acid mine drainage (AMD) system, and propose they belong to a new deltaproteobacterial order, Candidatus Acidulodesulfobacterales. The distribution pattern of Ca. Acidulodesulfobacterales in AMDs across Southeast China correlated strongly with ferrous iron. Reconstructed metabolic pathways and gene expression profiles showed that they were likely facultatively anaerobic autotrophs capable of nitrogen fixation. In addition to dissimilatory sulfate reduction, encoded by dsrAB, dsrD, dsrL, and dsrEFH genes, these microorganisms might also oxidize sulfide, depending on oxygen concentration and/or oxidation reduction potential. Several genes with homology to those involved in iron metabolism were also identified, suggesting their potential role in iron cycling. In addition, the expression of abundant resistance genes revealed the mechanisms of adaptation and response to the extreme environmental stresses endured by these organisms in the AMD environment. These findings shed light on the distribution, diversity, and potential ecological role of the new order Ca. Acidulodesulfobacterales in nature.

RevDate: 2019-04-09

Brink M, Rhode C, Macey BM, et al (2019)

Metagenomic assessment of body surface bacterial communities of the sea urchin, Tripneustes gratilla.

Marine genomics pii:S1874-7787(19)30038-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Sea urchins, including Tripneustes gratilla, are susceptible to a disease known as bald sea urchin disease, which has the potential to lead to economic losses in this emerging aquaculture industry in South Africa. This disease is characterized by lesions that form on sea urchin exoskeletal surfaces. This study aimed to characterize the body surface bacterial communities associated with T. gratilla, using a 16S rDNA gene metagenomics approach, to provide insight into the bacterial agents associated with this aquaculture species, as well as with this balding disease. Bacterial samples were collected from non-lesioned healthy animals obtained from natural locations along the eastern coast of South Africa, as well as from different cultured cohorts: non-lesioned healthy-, lesioned diseased- and non-lesioned stressed animals. A total of 1,067,515 individual bacterial operational taxonomic units (OTUs) were identified, belonging to 133 family-, 123 genus- and 113 species level OTU groups. Alpha diversity analyses, based on Chao1, Shannon and Simpson indices, showed that there were no statistically significant differences (ANOVA; P > 0.05) between the respective cohorts, as all cohorts displayed a high degree of bacterial diversity. Similarly, beta diversity analyses (Non-metric multidimensional scaling) showed a large degree of overlapping OTUs across the four cohorts. Within each cohort, various OTUs commonly associated with marine environments were found, predominantly belonging to the families Vibrionaceae, Saprospiraceae, Flavobacteriaceae and Sphingomonadaceae. Differential abundance analysis (DESeq2) revealed that OTUs that are differentially abundant across cohorts were likely not responsible for this balding disease, suggesting that complex bacterial agents, rather than a specific pathogenic agent, are likely causing this disease. Furthermore, the putative metabolic functions assigned to the bacterial communities showed that heterotrophic bacteria appear to be responsible for tissue lysis of degrading animal matter. The results from this study, obtained through univariate and multivariate-based approaches, contributes to future management strategies of this emerging aquaculture species by providing insight into the bacterial communities associated with both natural and cultured environments.

RevDate: 2019-05-21
CmpDate: 2019-05-21

Martí JM (2019)

Recentrifuge: Robust comparative analysis and contamination removal for metagenomics.

PLoS computational biology, 15(4):e1006967 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-18-01602.

Metagenomic sequencing is becoming widespread in biomedical and environmental research, and the pace is increasing even more thanks to nanopore sequencing. With a rising number of samples and data per sample, the challenge of efficiently comparing results within a specimen and between specimens arises. Reagents, laboratory, and host related contaminants complicate such analysis. Contamination is particularly critical in low microbial biomass body sites and environments, where it can comprise most of a sample if not all. Recentrifuge implements a robust method for the removal of negative-control and crossover taxa from the rest of samples. With Recentrifuge, researchers can analyze results from taxonomic classifiers using interactive charts with emphasis on the confidence level of the classifications. In addition to contamination-subtracted samples, Recentrifuge provides shared and exclusive taxa per sample, thus enabling robust contamination removal and comparative analysis in environmental and clinical metagenomics. Regarding the first area, Recentrifuge's novel approach has already demonstrated its benefits showing that microbiomes of Arctic and Antarctic solar panels display similar taxonomic profiles. In the clinical field, to confirm Recentrifuge's ability to analyze complex metagenomes, we challenged it with data coming from a metagenomic investigation of RNA in plasma that suffered from critical contamination to the point of preventing any positive conclusion. Recentrifuge provided results that yielded new biological insight into the problem, supporting the growing evidence of a blood microbiota even in healthy individuals, mostly translocated from the gut, the oral cavity, and the genitourinary tract. We also developed a synthetic dataset carefully designed to rate the robust contamination removal algorithm, which demonstrated a significant improvement in specificity while retaining a high sensitivity even in the presence of cross-contaminants. Recentrifuge's official website is www.recentrifuge.org. The data and source code are anonymously and freely available on GitHub and PyPI. The computing code is licensed under the AGPLv3. The Recentrifuge Wiki is the most extensive and continually-updated source of documentation for Recentrifuge, covering installation, use cases, testing, and other useful topics.

RevDate: 2019-05-20
CmpDate: 2019-05-20

Cotta SR, Cadete LL, van Elsas JD, et al (2019)

Exploring bacterial functionality in mangrove sediments and its capability to overcome anthropogenic activity.

Marine pollution bulletin, 141:586-594.

Mangrove forests are highly productive yet vulnerable ecosystems that act as important carbon sinks ("blue carbon"). The objective of this work was to analyze the impact of anthropogenic activities on microbiome structure and functioning. The metagenomic analysis revealed that the taxonomic compositions were grossly similar across all mangrove microbiomes. Remarkably, these microbiomes, along the gradient of anthropogenic impact, showed fluctuations in the relative abundances of bacterial taxa predicted to be involved in sulfur cycling processes. Functions involved in sulfur metabolism, such as APS pathways (associated with sulfate reduction and sulfur oxidation processes) were prevalent across the microbiomes, being sox and dsrAB genes highly expressed on anthropogenically-impacted areas. Apparently, the oil-impacted microbiomes were more affected in taxonomic than in functional terms, as high functional redundancies were noted across them. The microbial gene diversity found was typical for a functional system, even following the previous disturbance.

RevDate: 2019-05-21
CmpDate: 2019-05-21

Fernandes C, Kankonkar H, Meena RM, et al (2019)

Metagenomic analysis of tarball-associated bacteria from Goa, India.

Marine pollution bulletin, 141:398-403.

The beaches of Goa state in India are frequently polluted with tarballs, specifically during pre-monsoon and monsoon seasons. Tarballs contain hydrocarbons, including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons, which pose significant environmental risks. Microbes associated with tarballs reportedly possess capabilities to degrade toxic hydrocarbons present in tarballs. In this study, bacterial diversity associated with tarballs from Vagator and Morjim beaches of north Goa was analysed based on V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA gene sequenced using Illumina Miseq Platform. The Proteobacterial members were dominant in both Vagator (≥85.5%) and Morjim (≥94.0%) samples. Many of the identified taxa have been previously reported as hydrocarbon degraders (e.g. Halomonas, Marinobacter) or possible human pathogens (e.g. Acinetobacter, Klebsiella, Rhodococcus, Staphylococcus, Vibrio). This is the first study reported on a metagenomic analysis of bacteria associated with tarballs from Goa.

RevDate: 2019-04-04

Sessa L, Reddel S, Manno E, et al (2019)

Distinct gut microbiota profile in antiretroviral therapy-treated perinatally HIV-infected patients associated with cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers.

AIDS (London, England), 33(6):1001-1011.

OBJECTIVE: Persistent inflammation and higher risk to develop cardiovascular diseases still represent a major complication for HIV-infected patients despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated the correlation between the gut microbiota profile, markers of inflammation, vascular endothelial activation (VEA) and microbial translocation (MT) in perinatally HIV-infected patients (PHIV) under ART.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study including 61 ART-treated PHIV (age range 3-30 years old) and 71 age-matched healthy controls. Blood and stool sample were collected at the same time and analyzed for gut microbiota composition and plasma biomarkers.

METHODS: Gut microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA targeted-metagenomics. Soluble markers of MT, inflammation and VEA were quantified by ELISA or Luminex assay. Markers of immune activation were analyzed by flow cytometry on CD4 and CD8T cells.

RESULTS: We identified two distinct gut microbiota profiles (groups A and B) among PHIV. No different clinical parameters (age, sex, ethnicity, clinical class), dietary and sexual habits were found between the groups. The group A showed a relative dominance of Akkermansia muciniphila, whereas gut microbiota of group B was characterized by a higher biodiversity. The analysis of soluble markers revealed a significantly higher level of soluble E-selectine (P = 0.0296), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (P = 0.0028), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (P = 0.0230), IL-6 (P = 0.0247) and soluble CD14 (P = 0.0142) in group A compared with group B.

CONCLUSION: Distinctive gut microbiota profiles are differently associated with inflammation, microbial translocation and VEA. Future studies are needed to understand the role of A. muciniphila and risk to develop cardiovascular diseases in PHIV.

RevDate: 2019-06-10
CmpDate: 2019-05-10

Thomas AM, Manghi P, Asnicar F, et al (2019)

Metagenomic analysis of colorectal cancer datasets identifies cross-cohort microbial diagnostic signatures and a link with choline degradation.

Nature medicine, 25(4):667-678.

Several studies have investigated links between the gut microbiome and colorectal cancer (CRC), but questions remain about the replicability of biomarkers across cohorts and populations. We performed a meta-analysis of five publicly available datasets and two new cohorts and validated the findings on two additional cohorts, considering in total 969 fecal metagenomes. Unlike microbiome shifts associated with gastrointestinal syndromes, the gut microbiome in CRC showed reproducibly higher richness than controls (P < 0.01), partially due to expansions of species typically derived from the oral cavity. Meta-analysis of the microbiome functional potential identified gluconeogenesis and the putrefaction and fermentation pathways as being associated with CRC, whereas the stachyose and starch degradation pathways were associated with controls. Predictive microbiome signatures for CRC trained on multiple datasets showed consistently high accuracy in datasets not considered for model training and independent validation cohorts (average area under the curve, 0.84). Pooled analysis of raw metagenomes showed that the choline trimethylamine-lyase gene was overabundant in CRC (P = 0.001), identifying a relationship between microbiome choline metabolism and CRC. The combined analysis of heterogeneous CRC cohorts thus identified reproducible microbiome biomarkers and accurate disease-predictive models that can form the basis for clinical prognostic tests and hypothesis-driven mechanistic studies.

RevDate: 2019-06-07
CmpDate: 2019-06-07

Wei Z, Yu S, Huang Z, et al (2019)

Simultaneous removal of elemental mercury and NO by mercury induced thermophilic community in membrane biofilm reactor.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 176:170-177.

Thermophilic membrane biofilm reactor (TMBR) for elemental mercury (Hg0) and NO removal in simulated flue gas was investigated at oxygen content of 6% and 60 °C. The performance, the microbial community structures, gene function and the mechanism for Hg0 and NO removal in the TMBR were evaluated. TMBR achieved effective simultaneous Hg0 and NO removal in 210 days of operation, Hg0 and NO removal efficiency were up to 88.9% and 85.3%, respectively. Mercury induced thermophilic community had been formed significantly. Comamonas, Pseudomonas, Desulfomicrobium, Burkholderia and Halomonas were thermophilic mercury resistant bacteria. Brucella, Paracoccus, Tepidiphilus, Proteobacteria, Pseudomonas and Symbiobacterium were nitrifying/denitrifying genera, and had functional genes of mercury and nitrogen metabolism, as shown by16S rDNA and metagenomic sequencing. The biofilm in TMBR was characterized by XPS, HPLC. XPS and HPLC spectra indicate the formation of a mercuric species (Hg2+) from mercury oxidation. TMBR used oxygen as electron acceptor, NO and Hg0 as electron donor in nitrification; O2, NO and NO3- could be used as electron acceptor and Hg0 as electron donor in denitrification.

RevDate: 2019-04-18

Ding GC, Bai M, Han H, et al (2019)

Microbial taxonomic, nitrogen cycling and phosphorus recycling community composition during long-term organic greenhouse farming.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 95(5):.

Understanding the interplay between the farming system and soil microbiomes could aid the design of a sustainable and efficient farming system. A comparative greenhouse experiment consisting of organic (ORG), integrated (INT) and conventional (CON) farming systems was established in northern China in 2002. The effects of 12 years of organic farming on soil microbiomes were explored by metagenomic and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing analyses. Long-term ORG shifted the community composition of dominant phyla, especially Acidobacteria, increased the relative abundance of Ignavibacteria and Acidobacteria Gp6 and decreased the relative abundance of Nitrosomonas, Bacillus and Paenibacillus. Metagenomic analysis further revealed that relative abundance of ammonia oxidizing microorganisms (Bacteria and Archaea) and anaerobic ammonium oxidation bacteria decreased during ORG. Conversely, the relative abundance of bacteria-carrying periplasmic nitrate reductases (napA) was slightly higher for ORG. Long-term organic farming also caused significant alterations to the community composition of functional groups associated with ammonia oxidation, denitrification and phosphorus recycling. In summary, this study provides key insights into the composition of soil microbiomes and long-term organic farming under greenhouse conditions.

RevDate: 2019-05-20
CmpDate: 2019-05-20

Thomas M, Wongkuna S, Ghimire S, et al (2019)

Gut Microbial Dynamics during Conventionalization of Germfree Chicken.

mSphere, 4(2): pii:4/2/e00035-19.

A gnotobiotic Gallus gallus (chicken) model was developed to study the dynamics of intestinal microflora from hatching to 18 days of age employing metagenomics. Intestinal samples were collected from a local population of feral chickens and administered orally to germfree 3-day-old chicks. Animals were euthanized on days 9 and 18 postinoculation, and intestinal samples were collected and subjected to metagenomic analysis. On day 18, the five most prevalent phyla were Bacteroidetes (43.03 ± 3.19%), Firmicutes (38.51 ± 2.67%), Actinobacteria (6.77 ± 0.7%), Proteobacteria (6.38 ± 0.7%), and Spirochaetes (2.71 ± 0.55%). Principal-coordinate analysis showed that the day 18 variables clustered more closely than the day 9 variables, suggesting that the microbial communities had changed temporally. The Morista-Horn index values ranged from 0.7 to 1, indicating that the communities in the inoculum and in the day 9 and day 18 samples were more similar than dissimilar. The predicted functional profiles of the microbiomes of the inoculum and the day 9 and day 18 samples were also similar (values of 0.98 to 1). These results indicate that the gnotobiotic chicks stably maintained the phylogenetic diversity and predicted metabolic functionality of the inoculum community.IMPORTANCE The domestic chicken is the cornerstone of animal agriculture worldwide, with a flock population exceeding 40 billion birds/year. It serves as an economically valuable source of protein globally. The microbiome of poultry has important effects on chicken growth, feed conversion, immune status, and pathogen resistance. The aim of our research was to develop a gnotobiotic chicken model appropriate for the study chicken gut microbiota function. Our experimental model shows that young germfree chicks are able to colonize diverse sets of gut bacteria. Therefore, besides the use of this model to study mechanisms of gut microbiota interactions in the chicken gut, it could be also used for applied aspects such as determining the safety and efficacy of new probiotic strains derived from chicken gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Cycoń M, Mrozik A, Z Piotrowska-Seget (2019)

Antibiotics in the Soil Environment-Degradation and Their Impact on Microbial Activity and Diversity.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:338.

Antibiotics play a key role in the management of infectious diseases in humans, animals, livestock, and aquacultures all over the world. The release of increasing amount of antibiotics into waters and soils creates a potential threat to all microorganisms in these environments. This review addresses issues related to the fate and degradation of antibiotics in soils and the impact of antibiotics on the structural, genetic and functional diversity of microbial communities. Due to the emergence of bacterial resistance to antibiotics, which is considered a worldwide public health problem, the abundance and diversity of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in soils are also discussed. When antibiotic residues enter the soil, the main processes determining their persistence are sorption to organic particles and degradation/transformation. The wide range of DT50 values for antibiotic residues in soils shows that the processes governing persistence depend on a number of different factors, e.g., physico-chemical properties of the residue, characteristics of the soil, and climatic factors (temperature, rainfall, and humidity). The results presented in this review show that antibiotics affect soil microorganisms by changing their enzyme activity and ability to metabolize different carbon sources, as well as by altering the overall microbial biomass and the relative abundance of different groups (i.e., Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and fungi) in microbial communities. Studies using methods based on analyses of nucleic acids prove that antibiotics alter the biodiversity of microbial communities and the presence of many types of ARGs in soil are affected by agricultural and human activities. It is worth emphasizing that studies on ARGs in soil have resulted in the discovery of new genes and enzymes responsible for bacterial resistance to antibiotics. However, many ambiguous results indicate that precise estimation of the impact of antibiotics on the activity and diversity of soil microbial communities is a great challenge.

RevDate: 2019-04-30
CmpDate: 2019-04-30

Kumar R, Mishra A, B Jha (2019)

Bacterial community structure and functional diversity in subsurface seawater from the western coastal ecosystem of the Arabian Sea, India.

Gene, 701:55-64.

The present study revealed the spatial variability of bacteria in relation to physicochemical variations at four different locations (Diu - DIU, Veraval - VER, Porbandar - POR and Okha - OKH) along the Gujarat coast (Arabian Sea, India). The natural habitat was analyzed for temperature, salinity, pH, total dissolved solids, total organic content, total inorganic content, biological oxygen demand, conductivity and total dissolved oxygen. The lowest salinity and conductivity were observed at the VER site, whereas the highest salinity and conductivity were measured with OKH samples. In contrast, the pH was slightly alkaline at all of the sites. The VER site contained the maximum total dissolved solids (TDS), total carbon (TC), total organic carbon (TOC), and total inorganic carbon (TIC), while OKH showed the maximum dissolve oxygen (DO), biological oxygen demand (BOD), pH, temperature, conductivity, and salinity. The physicochemical characteristics showed that the Gujarat coast is alkaline and has a nutrient heterogeneous nature. Average well color development (AWCD) values, calculated using Biolog EcoPlates, showed that the microbial community from VER contained the highest metabolic activities and could metabolize all 31 substrates, followed by DIU > OKH > POR samples. In contrast, the abundance of the bacterial community, determined by qRT-PCR, was maximum in VER samples, followed by OKH > POR > DIU samples. The Shannon and Simpson indices showed that DIU, POR and OKH seawater clone libraries were more diverse. Furthermore, Chao estimator revealed the high diversity of POR and DIU clone libraries. Interestingly, DIU and OKH did not share any common operational taxonomic units (OTUs), and overall, the maximum bacterial diversity was observed with the POR seawater sample. Moreover, these observations were supported by statistical analysis, such as canonical correspondence analysis (CCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). The molecular phylogeny revealed the dominance of Proteobacteria followed by Firmicutes. Within the Proteobacteria phylum, most of the sequences were affiliated with the Gammaproteobacteria class. In total, about 726 OTUs were observed from all four sites which covers 59.79% DIU, 87.5% VER, 50% POR and 98.83% OKH of samples. This study is the first report to describe physicochemical attributes and the bacterial diversity of the coastal area of Gujarat. The study will provide useful insights about bacterial diversity, distribution, and abundance, as well as their relationships with the habitat.

RevDate: 2019-05-20
CmpDate: 2019-05-20

Majta J, Odrzywolek K, Milanovic B, et al (2019)

Identification of Differentiating Metabolic Pathways between Infant Gut Microbiome Populations Reveals Depletion of Function-Level Adaptation to Human Milk in the Finnish Population.

mSphere, 4(2): pii:4/2/e00152-19.

A variety of autoimmune and allergy events are becoming increasingly common, especially in Western countries. Some pieces of research link such conditions with the composition of microbiota during infancy. In this period, the predominant form of nutrition for gut microbiota is oligosaccharides from human milk (HMO). A number of gut-colonizing strains, such as Bifidobacterium and Bacteroides, are able to utilize HMO, but only some Bifidobacterium strains have evolved to digest the specific composition of human oligosaccharides. Differences in the proportions of the two genera that are able to utilize HMO have already been associated with the frequency of allergies and autoimmune diseases in the Finnish and the Russian populations. Our results show that differences in terms of the taxonomic annotation do not explain the reason for the differences in the Bifidobacterium/Bacteroides ratio between the Finnish and the Russian populations. In this paper, we present the results of function-level analysis. Unlike the typical workflow for gene abundance analysis, BiomeScout technology explains the differences in the Bifidobacterium/Bacteroides ratio. Our research shows the differences in the abundances of the two enzymes that are crucial for the utilization of short type 1 oligosaccharides.IMPORTANCE Knowing the limitations of taxonomy-based research, there is an emerging need for the development of higher-resolution techniques. The significance of this research is demonstrated by the novel method used for the analysis of function-level metagenomes. BiomeScout-the presented technology-utilizes proprietary algorithms for the detection of differences between functionalities present in metagenomic samples.

RevDate: 2019-04-29

Weyrich LS, Farrer AG, Eisenhofer R, et al (2019)

Laboratory contamination over time during low-biomass sample analysis.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteria are not only ubiquitous on earth but can also be incredibly diverse within clean laboratories and reagents. The presence of both living and dead bacteria in laboratory environments and reagents is especially problematic when examining samples with low endogenous content (e.g., skin swabs, tissue biopsies, ice, water, degraded forensic samples or ancient material), where contaminants can outnumber endogenous microorganisms within samples. The contribution of contaminants within high-throughput studies remains poorly understood because of the relatively low number of contaminant surveys. Here, we examined 144 negative control samples (extraction blank and no-template amplification controls) collected in both typical molecular laboratories and an ultraclean ancient DNA laboratory over 5 years to characterize long-term contaminant diversity. We additionally compared the contaminant content within a home-made silica-based extraction method, commonly used to analyse low endogenous content samples, with a widely used commercial DNA extraction kit. The contaminant taxonomic profile of the ultraclean ancient DNA laboratory was unique compared to modern molecular biology laboratories, and changed over time according to researcher, month and season. The commercial kit also contained higher microbial diversity and several human-associated taxa in comparison to the home-made silica extraction protocol. We recommend a minimum of two strategies to reduce the impacts of laboratory contaminants within low-biomass metagenomic studies: (a) extraction blank controls should be included and sequenced with every batch of extractions and (b) the contributions of laboratory contamination should be assessed and reported in each high-throughput metagenomic study.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Eisenhofer R, LS Weyrich (2019)

Assessing alignment-based taxonomic classification of ancient microbial DNA.

PeerJ, 7:e6594 pii:6594.

The field of palaeomicrobiology-the study of ancient microorganisms-is rapidly growing due to recent methodological and technological advancements. It is now possible to obtain vast quantities of DNA data from ancient specimens in a high-throughput manner and use this information to investigate the dynamics and evolution of past microbial communities. However, we still know very little about how the characteristics of ancient DNA influence our ability to accurately assign microbial taxonomies (i.e. identify species) within ancient metagenomic samples. Here, we use both simulated and published metagenomic data sets to investigate how ancient DNA characteristics affect alignment-based taxonomic classification. We find that nucleotide-to-nucleotide, rather than nucleotide-to-protein, alignments are preferable when assigning taxonomies to short DNA fragment lengths routinely identified within ancient specimens (<60 bp). We determine that deamination (a form of ancient DNA damage) and random sequence substitutions corresponding to ∼100,000 years of genomic divergence minimally impact alignment-based classification. We also test four different reference databases and find that database choice can significantly bias the results of alignment-based taxonomic classification in ancient metagenomic studies. Finally, we perform a reanalysis of previously published ancient dental calculus data, increasing the number of microbial DNA sequences assigned taxonomically by an average of 64.2-fold and identifying microbial species previously unidentified in the original study. Overall, this study enhances our understanding of how ancient DNA characteristics influence alignment-based taxonomic classification of ancient microorganisms and provides recommendations for future palaeomicrobiological studies.

RevDate: 2019-05-02
CmpDate: 2019-05-02

Perz AI, Giles CB, Brown CA, et al (2019)

MNEMONIC: MetageNomic Experiment Mining to create an OTU Network of Inhabitant Correlations.

BMC bioinformatics, 20(Suppl 2):96 pii:10.1186/s12859-019-2623-x.

BACKGROUND: The number of publicly available metagenomic experiments in various environments has been rapidly growing, empowering the potential to identify similar shifts in species abundance between different experiments. This could be a potentially powerful way to interpret new experiments, by identifying common themes and causes behind changes in species abundance.

RESULTS: We propose a novel framework for comparing microbial shifts between conditions. Using data from one of the largest human metagenome projects to date, the American Gut Project (AGP), we obtain differential abundance vectors for microbes using experimental condition information provided with the AGP metadata, such as patient age, dietary habits, or health status. We show it can be used to identify similar and opposing shifts in microbial species, and infer putative interactions between microbes. Our results show that groups of shifts with similar effects on microbiome can be identified and that similar dietary interventions display similar microbial abundance shifts.

CONCLUSIONS: Without comparison to prior data, it is difficult for experimentalists to know if their observed changes in species abundance have been observed by others, both in their conditions and in others they would never consider comparable. Yet, this can be a very important contextual factor in interpreting the significance of a shift. We've proposed and tested an algorithmic solution to this problem, which also allows for comparing the metagenomic signature shifts between conditions in the existing body of data.

RevDate: 2019-05-02
CmpDate: 2019-05-02

Thrash A, Arick M, Barbato RA, et al (2019)

Keanu: a novel visualization tool to explore biodiversity in metagenomes.

BMC bioinformatics, 20(Suppl 2):103 pii:10.1186/s12859-019-2629-4.

BACKGROUND: One of the main challenges when analyzing complex metagenomics data is the fact that large amounts of information need to be presented in a comprehensive and easy-to-navigate way. In the process of analyzing FASTQ sequencing data, visualizing which organisms are present in the data can be useful, especially with metagenomics data or data suspected to be contaminated. Here, we describe the development and application of a command-line tool, Keanu, for visualizing and exploring sample content in metagenomics data. We developed Keanu as an interactive tool to make viewing complex data easier.

RESULTS: Keanu, a tool for exploring sequence content, helps a user to understand the presence and abundance of organisms in a sample by analyzing alignments against a database that contains taxonomy data and displaying them in an interactive web page. The content of a sample can be presented either as a collapsible tree, with node size indicating abundance, or as a bilevel partition graph, with arc size indicating abundance. Here, we illustrate how Keanu works by exploring shotgun metagenomics data from a sample collected from a bluff that contained paleosols and a krotovina in an alpine site in Ft. Greely, Alaska.

CONCLUSIONS: Keanu provides a simple means by which researchers can explore and visualize species present in sequence data generated from complex communities and environments. Keanu is written in Python and is freely available at https://github.com/IGBB/keanu .

RevDate: 2019-03-23

Liu ZX, Xu J, Sun W, et al (2019)

[Application of DNA metabarcoding in species identification of Chinese herbal medicines].

Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica, 44(1):1-8.

DNA metabarcoding,one rapid and robust method using specific standard DNA fragments,has been widely used for rapid species identification of a bulk sample through high-throughput sequencing technologies.While it has been widely used in the studies of metagenomics,animal and plant biodiversity,it has gradually come to be used as a profitable method in species identification of mixed Chinese herbal medicines.In this paper,we mainly summarize the current studies of the application of DNA metabarcoding in species identification of mixed Chinese herbal medicines.Moreover,high-throughput sequencing technologies adopted in those studies,such as Sanger,the next-generation,and third-generation sequencing technologies,are discussed.It is conducted to provide a theoretical guidance for the application of DNA metabarcoding in species identification of mixed Chinese herbal medicines and in more other biodiversity studies.

RevDate: 2019-04-03
CmpDate: 2019-04-03

Hendriksen RS, Munk P, Njage P, et al (2019)

Global monitoring of antimicrobial resistance based on metagenomics analyses of urban sewage.

Nature communications, 10(1):1124 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-08853-3.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a serious threat to global public health, but obtaining representative data on AMR for healthy human populations is difficult. Here, we use metagenomic analysis of untreated sewage to characterize the bacterial resistome from 79 sites in 60 countries. We find systematic differences in abundance and diversity of AMR genes between Europe/North-America/Oceania and Africa/Asia/South-America. Antimicrobial use data and bacterial taxonomy only explains a minor part of the AMR variation that we observe. We find no evidence for cross-selection between antimicrobial classes, or for effect of air travel between sites. However, AMR gene abundance strongly correlates with socio-economic, health and environmental factors, which we use to predict AMR gene abundances in all countries in the world. Our findings suggest that global AMR gene diversity and abundance vary by region, and that improving sanitation and health could potentially limit the global burden of AMR. We propose metagenomic analysis of sewage as an ethically acceptable and economically feasible approach for continuous global surveillance and prediction of AMR.

RevDate: 2019-03-22
CmpDate: 2019-03-22

Cordeiro MC, Garcia GD, Rocha AM, et al (2019)

Insights on the freshwater microbiomes metabolic changes associated with the world's largest mining disaster.

The Science of the total environment, 654:1209-1217.

To evaluate the impacts of the Fundão tailings dam failure (Minas Gerais, Brazil) on water quality of the Doce River, we analyzed metagenomics and physicochemical parameters during the month of the disaster and again 6 and 10 months after the disaster. To compare dam conditions before and after the failure, we performed a meta-analysis of physicochemical data from a public database. Immediately after the failure, suspended particulate matter (SPM) in the Doce River was 225-1877 mg L-1. Turbidity and dissolved aluminum and iron concentrations were extremely high, whereas dissolved oxygen was below Brazilian legislation norm (<5 mg L-1) in several locations. Six months later, physicochemical values were below thresholds set by Brazilian guidelines (e.g., SPM = 8-166 mg L-1). Short-term impacts on microbial communities included an increase in Actinobacteria and Bacteroidetes and gene sequences related to microbial virulence, motility, respiration, membrane transport, iron and nitrogen metabolism, suggesting changes in microbial metabolic profiles. The 11 recovered partial genomes from metagenomes (MAGs) had genes related to Fe cycle and metal resistance.

RevDate: 2019-04-23
CmpDate: 2019-04-23

Milanese A, Mende DR, Paoli L, et al (2019)

Microbial abundance, activity and population genomic profiling with mOTUs2.

Nature communications, 10(1):1014 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-08844-4.

Metagenomic sequencing has greatly improved our ability to profile the composition of environmental and host-associated microbial communities. However, the dependency of most methods on reference genomes, which are currently unavailable for a substantial fraction of microbial species, introduces estimation biases. We present an updated and functionally extended tool based on universal (i.e., reference-independent), phylogenetic marker gene (MG)-based operational taxonomic units (mOTUs) enabling the profiling of >7700 microbial species. As more than 30% of them could not previously be quantified at this taxonomic resolution, relative abundance estimates based on mOTUs are more accurate compared to other methods. As a new feature, we show that mOTUs, which are based on essential housekeeping genes, are demonstrably well-suited for quantification of basal transcriptional activity of community members. Furthermore, single nucleotide variation profiles estimated using mOTUs reflect those from whole genomes, which allows for comparing microbial strain populations (e.g., across different human body sites).

RevDate: 2019-04-09
CmpDate: 2019-04-09

Mahnert A, Moissl-Eichinger C, Zojer M, et al (2019)

Man-made microbial resistances in built environments.

Nature communications, 10(1):968 pii:10.1038/s41467-019-08864-0.

Antimicrobial resistance is a serious threat to global public health, but little is known about the effects of microbial control on the microbiota and its associated resistome. Here we compare the microbiota present on surfaces of clinical settings with other built environments. Using state-of-the-art metagenomics approaches and genome and plasmid reconstruction, we show that increased confinement and cleaning is associated with a loss of microbial diversity and a shift from Gram-positive bacteria, such as Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, to Gram-negative such as Proteobacteria. Moreover, the microbiome of highly maintained built environments has a different resistome when compared to other built environments, as well as a higher diversity in resistance genes. Our results highlight that the loss of microbial diversity correlates with an increase in resistance, and the need for implementing strategies to restore bacterial diversity in certain built environments.

RevDate: 2019-05-14
CmpDate: 2019-05-02

Ramírez-Flandes S, González B, O Ulloa (2019)

Redox traits characterize the organization of global microbial communities.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 116(9):3630-3635.

The structure of biological communities is conventionally described as profiles of taxonomic units, whose ecological functions are assumed to be known or, at least, predictable. In environmental microbiology, however, the functions of a majority of microorganisms are unknown and expected to be highly dynamic and collectively redundant, obscuring the link between taxonomic structure and ecosystem functioning. Although genetic trait-based approaches at the community level might overcome this problem, no obvious choice of gene categories can be identified as appropriate descriptive units in a general ecological context. We used 247 microbial metagenomes from 18 biomes to determine which set of genes better characterizes the differences among biomes on the global scale. We show that profiles of oxidoreductase genes support the highest biome differentiation compared with profiles of other categories of enzymes, general protein-coding genes, transporter genes, and taxonomic gene markers. Based on oxidoreductases' description of microbial communities, the role of energetics in differentiation and particular ecosystem function of different biomes become readily apparent. We also show that taxonomic diversity is decoupled from functional diversity, e.g., grasslands and rhizospheres were the most diverse biomes in oxidoreductases but not in taxonomy. Considering that microbes underpin biogeochemical processes and nutrient recycling through oxidoreductases, this functional diversity should be relevant for a better understanding of the stability and conservation of biomes. Consequently, this approach might help to quantify the impact of environmental stressors on microbial ecosystems in the context of the global-scale biome crisis that our planet currently faces.

RevDate: 2019-04-05
CmpDate: 2019-04-05

Feng J, Penton CR, He Z, et al (2019)

Long-Term Warming in Alaska Enlarges the Diazotrophic Community in Deep Soils.

mBio, 10(1): pii:mBio.02521-18.

Tundra ecosystems are typically carbon (C) rich but nitrogen (N) limited. Since biological N2 fixation is the major source of biologically available N, the soil N2-fixing (i.e., diazotrophic) community serves as an essential N supplier to the tundra ecosystem. Recent climate warming has induced deeper permafrost thaw and adversely affected C sequestration, which is modulated by N availability. Therefore, it is crucial to examine the responses of diazotrophic communities to warming across the depths of tundra soils. Herein, we carried out one of the deepest sequencing efforts of nitrogenase gene (nifH) to investigate how 5 years of experimental winter warming affects Alaskan soil diazotrophic community composition and abundance spanning both the organic and mineral layers. Although soil depth had a stronger influence on diazotrophic community composition than warming, warming significantly (P < 0.05) enhanced diazotrophic abundance by 86.3% and aboveground plant biomass by 25.2%. Diazotrophic composition in the middle and lower organic layers, detected by nifH sequencing and a microarray-based tool (GeoChip), was markedly altered, with an increase of α-diversity. Changes in diazotrophic abundance and composition significantly correlated with soil moisture, soil thaw duration, and plant biomass, as shown by structural equation modeling analyses. Therefore, more abundant diazotrophic communities induced by warming may potentially serve as an important mechanism for supplementing biologically available N in this tundra ecosystem.IMPORTANCE With the likelihood that changes in global climate will adversely affect the soil C reservoir in the northern circumpolar permafrost zone, an understanding of the potential role of diazotrophic communities in enhancing biological N2 fixation, which constrains both plant production and microbial decomposition in tundra soils, is important in elucidating the responses of soil microbial communities to global climate change. A recent study showed that the composition of the diazotrophic community in a tundra soil exhibited no change under a short-term (1.5-year) winter warming experiment. However, it remains crucial to examine whether the lack of diazotrophic community responses to warming is persistent over a longer time period as a possibly important mechanism in stabilizing tundra soil C. Through a detailed characterization of the effects of winter warming on diazotrophic communities, we showed that a long-term (5-year) winter warming substantially enhanced diazotrophic abundance and altered community composition, though soil depth had a stronger influence on diazotrophic community composition than warming. These changes were best explained by changes in soil moisture, soil thaw duration, and plant biomass. These results provide crucial insights into the potential factors that may impact future C and N availability in tundra regions.

RevDate: 2019-03-21
CmpDate: 2019-03-21

DeMaere MZ, AE Darling (2019)

bin3C: exploiting Hi-C sequencing data to accurately resolve metagenome-assembled genomes.

Genome biology, 20(1):46 pii:10.1186/s13059-019-1643-1.

Most microbes cannot be easily cultured, and metagenomics provides a means to study them. Current techniques aim to resolve individual genomes from metagenomes, so-called metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Leading approaches depend upon time series or transect studies, the efficacy of which is a function of community complexity, target abundance, and sequencing depth. We describe an unsupervised method that exploits the hierarchical nature of Hi-C interaction rates to resolve MAGs using a single time point. We validate the method and directly compare against a recently announced proprietary service, ProxiMeta. bin3C is an open-source pipeline and makes use of the Infomap clustering algorithm (https://github.com/cerebis/bin3C).

RevDate: 2019-05-30
CmpDate: 2019-05-30

Monnahan P, Kolář F, Baduel P, et al (2019)

Pervasive population genomic consequences of genome duplication in Arabidopsis arenosa.

Nature ecology & evolution, 3(3):457-468.

Ploidy-variable species allow direct inference of the effects of chromosome copy number on fundamental evolutionary processes. While an abundance of theoretical work suggests polyploidy should leave distinct population genomic signatures, empirical data remains sparse. We sequenced ~300 individuals from 39 populations of Arabidopsis arenosa, a naturally diploid-autotetraploid species. We find that the impacts of polyploidy on population genomic processes are subtle yet pervasive, such as reduced efficiency of purifying selection, differences in linked selection and rampant gene flow from diploids. Initial masking of deleterious mutations, faster rates of nucleotide substitution and interploidy introgression likely conspire to shape the evolutionary potential of polyploids.

RevDate: 2019-03-18

Kwon YM, Patra AK, Chiura HX, et al (2019)

Production of extracellular vesicles with light-induced proton pump activity by proteorhodopsin-containing marine bacteria.

MicrobiologyOpen [Epub ahead of print].

The production and release of extracellular vesicles (EVs) is a common process occurring in various types of bacteria. However, little is known regarding the functions of EVs derived from marine bacteria. We observed that during cell growth, Sediminicola sp. YIK13, a proteorhodopsin (PR)-containing marine flavobacterium, produces EVs (S13EVs). Transmission electron microscopy showed that Sediminicola sp. YIK13 released two spherical vesicle types, with mono- and/or bi-layered membranes, in the culture. Interestingly, the S13EVs have an orange pigment, indicating the presence of putative carotenoid and PR pigments ascribed to the parental cells. The S13EVs demonstrated the same PR-derived absorption peak spectrum and light-induced proton pump activity as the parental cells. Western blot (immunoblot) analysis of the S13EVs revealed the presence of PR. We confirmed the 16S rRNA gene, pro gene, and genes required for chromophore retinal synthesis, namely blh and crtI, in the DNA packaged into these vesicles. In addition, by metagenomic sequencing, we found microbial rhodopsin-related genes in vesicles derived from natural aquatic environments. Our results suggest that EVs as well potentially pursue horizontal gene transfer of diverse microbial rhodopsin genes in marine ecosystems.

RevDate: 2019-06-04
CmpDate: 2019-06-04

Jaimes JD, Jarosova V, Vesely O, et al (2019)

Effect of Selected Stilbenoids on Human Fecal Microbiota.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(4): pii:molecules24040744.

Dietary phenolics or polyphenols are mostly metabolized by the human gut microbiota. These metabolites appear to confer the beneficial health effects attributed to phenolics. Microbial composition affects the type of metabolites produced. Reciprocally, phenolics modulate microbial composition. Understanding this relationship could be used to positively impact health by phenolic supplementation and thus create favorable colonic conditions. This study explored the effect of six stilbenoids (batatasin III, oxyresveratrol, piceatannol, pinostilbene, resveratrol, thunalbene) on the gut microbiota composition. Stilbenoids were anaerobically fermented with fecal bacteria from four donors, samples were collected at 0 and 24 h, and effects on the microbiota were assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Statistical tests identified affected microbes at three taxonomic levels. Observed microbial composition modulation by stilbenoids included a decrease in the Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes ratio, a decrease in the relative abundance of strains from the genus Clostridium, and effects on the family Lachnospiraceae. A frequently observed effect was a further decrease of the relative abundance when compared to the control. An opposite effect to the control was observed for Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, whose relative abundance increased. Observed effects were more frequently attributed to resveratrol and piceatannol, followed by thunalbene and batatasin III.

RevDate: 2019-03-25
CmpDate: 2019-03-25

López-Pérez M, Jayakumar JM, Haro-Moreno JM, et al (2019)

Evolutionary Model of Cluster Divergence of the Emergent Marine Pathogen Vibrio vulnificus: From Genotype to Ecotype.

mBio, 10(1): pii:mBio.02852-18.

Vibrio vulnificus, an opportunistic pathogen, is the causative agent of a life-threatening septicemia and a rising problem for aquaculture worldwide. The genetic factors that differentiate its clinical and environmental strains remain enigmatic. Furthermore, clinical strains have emerged from every clade of V. vulnificus In this work, we investigated the underlying genomic properties and population dynamics of the V. vulnificus species from an evolutionary and ecological point of view. Genome comparisons and bioinformatic analyses of 113 V. vulnificus isolates indicate that the population of V. vulnificus is made up of four different clusters. We found evidence that recombination and gene flow between the two largest clusters (cluster 1 [C1] and C2) have drastically decreased to the point where they are diverging independently. Pangenome and phenotypic analyses showed two markedly different lifestyles for these two clusters, indicating commensal (C2) and bloomer (C1) ecotypes, with differences in carbohydrate utilization, defense systems, and chemotaxis, among other characteristics. Nonetheless, we identified frequent intra- and interspecies exchange of mobile genetic elements (e.g., antibiotic resistance plasmids, novel "chromids," or two different and concurrent type VI secretion systems) that provide high levels of genetic diversity in the population. Surprisingly, we identified strains from both clusters in the mucosa of aquaculture species, indicating that manmade niches are bringing strains from the two clusters together. We propose an evolutionary model of V. vulnificus that could be broadly applicable to other pathogenic vibrios and facultative bacterial pathogens to pursue strategies to prevent their infections and emergence.IMPORTANCEVibrio vulnificus is an emergent marine pathogen and is the cause of a deadly septicemia. However, the genetic factors that differentiate its clinical and environmental strains and its several biotypes remain mostly enigmatic. In this work, we investigated the underlying genomic properties and population dynamics of the V. vulnificus species to elucidate the traits that make these strains emerge as a human pathogen. The acquisition of different ecological determinants could have allowed the development of highly divergent clusters with different lifestyles within the same environment. However, we identified strains from both clusters in the mucosa of aquaculture species, indicating that manmade niches are bringing strains from the two clusters together, posing a potential risk of recombination and of emergence of novel variants. We propose a new evolutionary model that provides a perspective that could be broadly applicable to other pathogenic vibrios and facultative bacterial pathogens to pursue strategies to prevent their infections.

RevDate: 2019-03-25
CmpDate: 2019-03-25

Klein C, Gonzalez D, Samwel K, et al (2019)

Relationship between the Cervical Microbiome, HIV Status, and Precancerous Lesions.

mBio, 10(1): pii:mBio.02785-18.

Nearly all cervical cancers are causally associated with human papillomavirus (HPV). The burden of HPV-associated dysplasias in sub-Saharan Africa is influenced by HIV. To investigate the role of the bacterial microbiome in cervical dysplasia, cytobrush samples were collected directly from cervical lesions of 144 Tanzanian women. The V4 hypervariable region of the 16S rRNA gene was amplified and deep sequenced. Alpha diversity metrics (Chao1, PD whole tree, and operational taxonomic unit [OTU] estimates) displayed significantly higher bacterial richness in HIV-positive patients (P = 0.01) than in HIV-negative patients. In HIV-positive patients, there was higher bacterial richness in patients with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) (P = 0.13) than those without lesions. The most abundant OTUs associated with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions were Mycoplasmatales, Pseudomonadales, and Staphylococcus We suggest that a chronic mycoplasma infection of the cervix may contribute to HPV-dependent dysplasia by sustained inflammatory signals.IMPORTANCE HPV is known to be the causal agent in the majority of cervical cancers. However, the role of the cervical bacterial microbiome in cervical cancer is not clear. To investigate that possibility, we collected cervical cytobrush samples from 144 Tanzanian women and performed deep sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. We found that HIV-positive patients had greater bacterial richness (P = 0.01) than HIV-negative patients. We also observed that women with high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSIL) had greater cervical bacterial diversity than women with cytologically normal cervices. Data from our precise sampling of cervical lesions leads us to propose that Mycoplasma contributes to a cervical microbiome status that promotes HPV-related cervical lesions. These results suggest a greater influence of the bacterial microbiota on the outcome of HPV infection than previously thought.

RevDate: 2019-06-04
CmpDate: 2019-06-04

Feng Y, Ramnarine VR, Bell R, et al (2019)

Metagenomic and metatranscriptomic analysis of human prostate microbiota from patients with prostate cancer.

BMC genomics, 20(1):146 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5457-z.

BACKGROUND: Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common malignant neoplasm among men in many countries. Since most precancerous and cancerous tissues show signs of inflammation, chronic bacterial prostatitis has been hypothesized to be a possible etiology. However, establishing a causal relationship between microbial inflammation and PCa requires a comprehensive analysis of the prostate microbiome. The aim of this study was to characterize the microbiome in prostate tissue of PCa patients and investigate its association with tumour clinical characteristics as well as host expression profiles.

RESULTS: The metagenome and metatranscriptome of tumour and the adjacent benign tissues were assessed in 65 Chinese radical prostatectomy specimens. Escherichia, Propionibacterium, Acinetobacter and Pseudomonas were abundant in both metagenome and metatranscriptome, thus constituting the core of the prostate microbiome. The biodiversity of the microbiomes could not be differentiated between the matched tumour/benign specimens or between the tumour specimens of low and high Gleason Scores. The expression profile of ten Pseudomonas genes was strongly correlated with that of eight host small RNA genes; three of the RNA genes may negatively associate with metastasis. Few viruses could be identified from the prostate microbiomes.

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study of the human prostate microbiome employing an integrated metagenomics and metatranscriptomics approach. In this Chinese cohort, both metagenome and metatranscriptome analyses showed a non-sterile microenvironment in the prostate of PCa patients, but we did not find links between the microbiome and local progression of PCa. However, the correlated expression of Pseudomonas genes and human small RNA genes may provide tantalizing preliminary evidence that Pseudomonas infection may impede metastasis.

RevDate: 2019-04-16
CmpDate: 2019-04-16

Plaza-Díaz J, Gómez-Fernández A, Chueca N, et al (2019)

Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) with and without Mental Regression is Associated with Changes in the Fecal Microbiota.

Nutrients, 11(2): pii:nu11020337.

New microbiome sequencing technologies provide novel information about the potential interactions among intestinal microorganisms and the host in some neuropathologies as autism spectrum disorders (ASD). The microbiota⁻gut⁻brain axis is an emerging aspect in the generation of autistic behaviors; evidence from animal models suggests that intestinal microbial shifts may produce changes fitting the clinical picture of autism. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the fecal metagenomic profiles in children with ASD and compare them with healthy participants. This comparison allows us to ascertain how mental regression (an important variable in ASD) could influence the intestinal microbiota profile. For this reason, a subclassification in children with ASD by mental regression (AMR) and no mental regression (ANMR) phenotype was performed. The present report was a descriptive observational study. Forty-eight children aged 2⁻6 years with ASD were included: 30 with ANMR and 18 with AMR. In addition, a control group of 57 normally developing children was selected and matched to the ASD group by sex and age. Fecal samples were analyzed with a metagenomic approach using a next-generation sequencing platform. Several differences between children with ASD, compared with the healthy group, were detected. Namely, Actinobacteria and Proteobacteria at phylum level, as well as, Actinobacteria, Bacilli, Erysipelotrichi, and Gammaproteobacteria at class level were found at higher proportions in children with ASD. Additionally, Proteobacteria levels showed to be augmented exclusively in AMR children. Preliminary results, using a principal component analysis, showed differential patterns in children with ASD, ANMR and AMR, compared to healthy group, both for intestinal microbiota and food patterns. In this study, we report, higher levels of Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria and Bacilli, aside from Erysipelotrichi, and Gammaproteobacteria in children with ASD compared to healthy group. Furthermore, AMR children exhibited higher levels of Proteobacteria. Further analysis using these preliminary results and mixing metagenomic and other "omic" technologies are needed in larger cohorts of children with ASD to confirm these intestinal microbiota changes.

RevDate: 2019-02-19

Ulloa R, Moya-Beltrán A, Rojas-Villalobos C, et al (2019)

Domestication of Local Microbial Consortia for Efficient Recovery of Gold Through Top-Down Selection in Airlift Bioreactors.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:60.

Extreme acidophiles play central roles in the geochemical cycling of diverse elements in low pH environments. This has been harnessed in biotechnologies such as biomining, where microorganisms facilitate the recovery of economically important metals such as gold. By generating both extreme acidity and a chemical oxidant (ferric iron) many species of prokaryotes that thrive in low pH environments not only catalyze mineral dissolution but also trigger both community and individual level adaptive changes. These changes vary in extent and direction depending on the ore mineralogy, water availability and local climate. The use of indigenous versus introduced microbial consortia in biomining practices is still a matter of debate. Yet, indigenous microbial consortia colonizing sulfidic ores that have been domesticated, i.e., selected for their ability to survive under specific polyextreme conditions, are claimed to outperform un-adapted foreign consortia. Despite this, little is known on the domestication of acidic microbial communities and the changes elicited in their members. In this study, high resolution targeted metagenomic techniques were used to analyze the changes occurring in the community structure of local microbial consortia acclimated to growing under extreme acidic conditions and adapted to endure the conditions imposed by the target mineral during biooxidation of a gold concentrate in an airlift reactor over a period of 2 years. The results indicated that operative conditions evolving through biooxidation of the mineral concentrate exerted strong selective pressures that, early on, purge biodiversity in favor of a few Acidithiobacillus spp. over other iron oxidizing acidophiles. Metagenomic analysis of the domesticated consortium present at the end of the adaptation experiment enabled reconstruction of the RVS1-MAG, a novel representative of Acidithiobacillus ferrooxidans from the Andacollo gold mineral district. Comparative genomic analysis performed with this genome draft revealed a net enrichment of gene functions related to heavy metal transport and stress management that are likely to play a significant role in adaptation and survival to adverse conditions experienced by these acidophiles during growth in presence of gold concentrates.

RevDate: 2019-04-18

Tremblay ÉD, Kimoto T, Bérubé JA, et al (2019)

High-Throughput Sequencing to Investigate Phytopathogenic Fungal Propagules Caught in Baited Insect Traps.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 5(1): pii:jof5010015.

Studying the means of dispersal of plant pathogens is crucial to better understand the dynamic interactions involved in plant infections. On one hand, entomologists rely mostly on both traditional molecular methods and morphological characteristics, to identify pests. On the other hand, high-throughput sequencing (HTS) is becoming the go-to avenue for scientists studying phytopathogens. These organisms sometimes infect plants, together with insects. Considering the growing number of exotic insect introductions in Canada, forest pest-management efforts would benefit from the development of a high-throughput strategy to investigate the phytopathogenic fungal and oomycete species interacting with wood-boring insects. We recycled formerly discarded preservative fluids from the Canadian Food Inspection Agency annual survey using insect traps and analysed more than one hundred samples originating from across Canada. Using the Ion Torrent Personal Genome Machine (PGM) HTS technology and fusion primers, we performed metabarcoding to screen unwanted fungi and oomycetes species, including Phytophthora spp. Community profiling was conducted on the four different wood-boring, insect-attracting semiochemicals; although the preservative (contained ethanol) also attracted other insects. Phytopathogenic fungi (e.g., Leptographium spp. and Merialaricis in the pine sawyer semiochemical) and oomycetes (mainly Peronospora spp. and Pythium aff. hypogynum in the General Longhorn semiochemical), solely associated with one of the four types of semiochemicals, were detected. This project demonstrated that the insect traps' semiochemical microbiome represents a new and powerful matrix for screening phytopathogens. Compared to traditional diagnostic techniques, the fluids allowed for a faster and higher throughput assessment of the biodiversity contained within. Additionally, minimal modifications to this approach would allow it to be used in other phytopathology fields.

RevDate: 2019-03-18
CmpDate: 2019-03-18

Wang X, Li X, Yu L, et al (2019)

Characterizing the microbiome in petroleum reservoir flooded by different water sources.

The Science of the total environment, 653:872-885.

Petroleum reservoir is an unusual subsurface biosphere, where indigenous microbes lived and evolved for million years. However, continual water injection changed the situation by introduction of new electron acceptors, donors and exogenous microbes. In this study, 16S-rRNA gene sequencing, comparative metagenomics and genomic bins reconstruction were employed to investigate the microbial community and metabolic potential in three typical water-flooded blocks of the Shen84 oil reservoir in Liaohe oil field, China. The results showed significant difference of microbial community compositions and metabolic characteristics existed between the injected water and the produced water/oil mixtures; however, there was considerable uniformity between the produced samples in different blocks. Microbial communities in the produced fluids were dominated by exogenous facultative microbes such as Pseudomonas and Thauera members from Proteobacteria phylum. Metabolic potentials for O2-dependent hydrocarbon degradation, dissimilarly nitrate reduction, and thiosulfate‑sulfur oxidation were much more abundant, whereas genes involved in dissimilatory sulfate reduction, anaerobic hydrocarbon degradation and methanogenesis were less abundant in the oil reservoir. Statistical analysis indicated the water composition had an obvious influence on microbial community composition and metabolic potential. The water-flooding process accompanied with introduction of nitrate or nitrite, and dissolved oxygen promoted the alteration of microbiome in oil reservoir from slow-growing anaerobic indigenous microbes (such as Thermotoga, Clostridia, and Syntrophobacter) to fast-growing opportunists as Beta- and Gama- Proteobacteria. The findings of this study shed light on the microbial ecology change in water flooded petroleum reservoir.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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