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Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 28 Feb 2020 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2020-02-27
CmpDate: 2020-02-27

Li Q, Chen H, Zhang M, et al (2019)

Altered short chain fatty acid profiles induced by dietary fiber intervention regulate AMPK levels and intestinal homeostasis.

Food & function, 10(11):7174-7187.

The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of dietary intervention on intestinal microbiota-mediated change in short chain fatty acid (SCFA) profile and intestinal homeostasis. Sequencing of the 16S rDNA of gut bacteria, metagenomics, intestinal epithelial transcriptomics, and metabonomics were conducted. Results showed that the dietary interventions altered the microbiota composition of cecal digesta, microbiota-mediated metabolism, and the gene expression profile in intestinal epithelial cells. Compared with red meat-diet-fed mice, fiber-diet-fed mice presented a shift in the gut microbiome toward increased production of butanoate, which was accompanied by up-regulation of microbiota- and AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK)-dependent gene expression and decrease in serum concentrations of trimethylamine N-oxide (TMAO), triglyceride (TG) and glucose (GLU). The results suggested a new regulatory mechanism via which butanoate and AMPK activation contributed to intestinal integrity and homeostasis by affecting metabolism, intestinal barrier function and transporter expression.

RevDate: 2020-02-27
CmpDate: 2020-02-27

Jiao S, Chen W, G Wei (2019)

Resilience and Assemblage of Soil Microbiome in Response to Chemical Contamination Combined with Plant Growth.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 85(6): pii:AEM.02523-18.

A lack of knowledge of the microbial responses to environmental change at the species and functional levels hinders our ability to understand the intrinsic mechanisms underlying the maintenance of microbial ecosystems. Here, we present results from temporal microcosms that introduced inorganic and organic contaminants into agro-soils for 90 days, with three common legume plants. Temporal dynamics and assemblage of soil microbial communities and functions in response to contamination under the influence of growth of different plants were explored via sequencing of the 16S rRNA amplicon and by shotgun metagenomics. Soil microbial alpha diversity and structure at the taxonomic and functional levels exhibited resilience patterns. Functional profiles showed greater resilience than did taxonomic ones. Different legume plants imposed stronger selection on taxonomic profiles than on functional ones. Network and random forest analyses revealed that the functional potential of soil microbial communities was fostered by various taxonomic groups. Betaproteobacteria were important predictors of key functional traits such as amino acid metabolism, nucleic acid metabolism, and hydrocarbon degradation. Our study reveals the strong resilience of the soil microbiome to chemical contamination and sensitive responses of taxonomic rather than functional profiles to selection processes induced by different legume plants. This is pivotal to develop approaches and policies for the protection of soil microbial diversity and functions in agro-ecosystems with different response strategies from global environmental drivers, such as soil contamination and plant invasion.IMPORTANCE Exploring the microbial responses to environmental disturbances is a central issue in microbial ecology. Understanding the dynamic responses of soil microbial communities to chemical contamination and the microbe-soil-plant interactions is essential for forecasting the long-term changes in soil ecosystems. Nevertheless, few studies have applied multi-omics approaches to assess the microbial responses to soil contamination and the microbe-soil-plant interactions at the taxonomic and functional levels simultaneously. Our study reveals clear succession and resilience patterns of soil microbial diversity and structure in response to chemical contamination. Different legume plants exerted stronger selection processes on taxonomic than on functional profiles in contaminated soils, which could benefit plant growth and fitness as well as foster the potential abilities of hydrocarbon degradation and metal tolerance. These results provide new insight into the resilience and assemblage of soil microbiome in response to environmental disturbances in agro-ecosystems at the species and functional levels.

RevDate: 2020-02-27
CmpDate: 2020-02-27

Malmuthuge N, Liang G, Griebel PJ, et al (2019)

Taxonomic and Functional Compositions of the Small Intestinal Microbiome in Neonatal Calves Provide a Framework for Understanding Early Life Gut Health.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 85(6): pii:AEM.02534-18.

A lack of information on the intestinal microbiome of neonatal calves prevents the use of microbial intervention strategies to improve calf gut health. This study profiled the taxonomic and functional composition of the small intestinal luminal microbiome of neonatal calves using whole-genome sequencing of the metagenome, aiming to understand the dynamics of microbial establishment during early life. Despite highly individualized microbial communities, we identified two distinct taxonomy-based clusters from the collective luminal microbiomes comprising a high level of either Lactobacillus or Bacteroides Among the clustered microbiomes, Lactobacillus-dominant ileal microbiomes had significantly lower abundances of Bacteroides, Prevotella, Roseburia, Ruminococcus, and Veillonella compared to the Bacteroides-dominated ileal microbiomes. In addition, the upregulated ileal genes of the Lactobacillus-dominant calves were related to leukocyte and lymphocyte chemotaxis, the cytokine/chemokine-mediated signaling pathway, and inflammatory responses, while the upregulated ileal genes of the Bacteroides-dominant calves were related to cell adhesion, response to stimulus, cell communication and regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinase cascades. The functional profiles of the luminal microbiomes also revealed two distinct clusters consisting of functions related to either high protein metabolism or sulfur metabolism. A lower abundance of Bifidobacterium and a higher abundance of sulfur-reducing bacteria (SRB) were observed in the sulfur metabolism-dominant cluster (0.2% ± 0.1%) compared to the protein metabolism-dominant cluster (12.6% ± 5.7%), suggesting an antagonistic relationship between SRB and Bifidobacterium, which both compete for cysteine. These distinct taxonomic and functional clusters may provide a framework to further analyze interactions between the intestinal microbiome and the immune function and health of neonatal calves.IMPORTANCE Dietary interventions to manipulate neonatal gut microbiota have been proposed to generate long-term impacts on hosts. Currently, our understanding of the early gut microbiome of neonatal calves is limited to 16S rRNA gene amplicon based microbial profiling, which is a barrier to developing dietary interventions to improve calf gut health. The use of a metagenome sequencing-based approach in the present study revealed high individual animal variation in taxonomic and functional abundance of intestinal microbiome and potential impacts of early microbiome on mucosal immune responses during the preweaning period. During this developmental period, age- and diet-related changes in microbial diversity, richness, density, and the abundance of taxa and functions were observed. A correlation-based approach to further explore the individual animal variation revealed potential enterotypes that can be linked to calf gut health, which may pave the way to developing strategies to manipulate the microbiome and improve calf health.

RevDate: 2020-02-27
CmpDate: 2020-02-27

Rizo J, Guillén D, Farrés A, et al (2020)

Omics in traditional vegetable fermented foods and beverages.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition, 60(5):791-809.

For a long time, food microbiota has been studied using traditional microbiological techniques. With the arrival of molecular or culture-independent techniques, a strong understanding of microbiota dynamics has been achieved. However, analyzing the functional role of microbial communities is not an easy task. The application of omics sciences to the study of fermented foods would provide the metabolic and functional understanding of the microbial communities and their impact on the fermented product, including the molecules that define its aroma and flavor, as well as its nutritional properties. Until now, most omics studies have focused on commercial fermented products, such as cheese, wine, bread and beer, but traditional fermented foods have been neglected. Therefore, the information that allows to relate the present microbiota in the food and its properties remains limited. In this review, reports on the applications of omics in the study of traditional fermented foods and beverages are reviewed to propose new ways to analyze the fermentation phenomena.

RevDate: 2020-02-27
CmpDate: 2020-02-27

Chang Y, Desirò A, Na H, et al (2019)

Phylogenomics of Endogonaceae and evolution of mycorrhizas within Mucoromycota.

The New phytologist, 222(1):511-525.

Endogonales (Mucoromycotina), composed of Endogonaceae and Densosporaceae, is the only known non-Dikarya order with ectomycorrhizal members. They also form mycorrhizal-like association with some nonspermatophyte plants. It has been recently proposed that Endogonales were among the earliest mycorrhizal partners with land plants. It remains unknown whether Endogonales possess genomes with mycorrhizal-lifestyle signatures and whether Endogonales originated around the same time as land plants did. We sampled sporocarp tissue from four Endogonaceae collections and performed shotgun genome sequencing. After binning the metagenome data, we assembled and annotated the Endogonaceae genomes. We performed comparative analysis on plant-cell-wall-degrading enzymes (PCWDEs) and small secreted proteins (SSPs). We inferred phylogenetic placement of Endogonaceae and estimated the ages of Endogonaceae and Endogonales with expanded taxon sampling. Endogonaceae have large genomes with high repeat content, low diversity of PCWDEs, but without elevated SSP/secretome ratios. Dating analysis estimated that Endogonaceae originated in the Permian-Triassic boundary and Endogonales originated in the mid-late Silurian. Mycoplasma-related endobacterium sequences were identified in three Endogonaceae genomes. Endogonaceae genomes possess typical signatures of mycorrhizal lifestyle. The early origin of Endogonales suggests that the mycorrhizal association between Endogonales and plants might have played an important role during the colonization of land by plants.

RevDate: 2020-02-26
CmpDate: 2020-02-26

Knight SJ, Karon O, MR Goddard (2020)

Small scale fungal community differentiation in a vineyard system.

Food microbiology, 87:103358.

Microbes influence the quality of agricultural commodities and contribute to their distinctive sensorial attributes. Increasingly studies have demonstrated not only differential geographic patterns in microbial communities and populations, but that these contribute to valuable regionally distinct agricultural product identities, the most well-known example being wine. However, little is understood about microbial geographic patterns at scales of less than 100 km. For wine, single vineyards are the smallest (and most valuable) scale at which wine is asserted to differ; however, it is unknown whether microbes play any role in agricultural produce differentiation at this scale. Here we investigate whether vineyard fungal communities and yeast populations driving the spontaneous fermentation of fruit from these same vineyards are differentiated using metagenomics and population genetics. Significant differentiation of fungal communities was revealed between four Central Otago (New Zealand) Pinot Noir vineyard sites. However, there was no vineyard demarcation between fermenting populations of S. cerevisiae. Overall, this provides evidence that vineyard microbiomes potentially contribute to vineyard specific attributes in wine. Understanding the scale at which microbial communities are differentiated, and how these communities influence food product attributes has direct economic implications for industry and could inform sustainable management practices that maintain and enhance microbial diversity.

RevDate: 2020-02-25
CmpDate: 2020-02-25

Royo-Llonch M, Sánchez P, González JM, et al (2020)

Ecological and functional capabilities of an uncultured Kordia sp.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 43(1):126045.

Cultivable bacteria represent only a fraction of the diversity in microbial communities. However, the official procedures for classification and characterization of a novel prokaryotic species still rely on isolates. Nevertheless, due to single cell genomics, it is possible to retrieve genomes from environmental samples by sequencing them individually, and to assign specific genes to a specific taxon, regardless of their ability to grow in culture. In this study, a complete description was performed for uncultured Kordia sp. TARA_039_SRF, a proposed novel species within the genus Kordia, using culture-independent techniques. The type material was a high-quality draft genome (94.97% complete, 4.65% gene redundancy) co-assembled using ten nearly identical single amplified genomes (SAGs) from surface seawater in the North Indian Ocean during the Tara Oceans Expedition. The assembly process was optimized to obtain the best possible assembly metrics and a less fragmented genome. The closest relative of the species was Kordia periserrulae, which shared 97.56% similarity of the 16S rRNA gene, 75% orthologs and 89.13% average nucleotide identity. The functional potential of the proposed novel species included proteorhodopsin, the ability to incorporate nitrate, cytochrome oxidases with high affinity for oxygen, and CAZymes that were unique features within the genus. Its abundance at different depths and size fractions was also evaluated together with its functional annotation, revealing that its putative ecological niche could be particles of phytoplanktonic origin. It could putatively attach to these particles and consume them while sinking to the deeper and oxygen depleted layers of the North Indian Ocean.

RevDate: 2020-02-25
CmpDate: 2020-02-25

Dai W, Wang H, Zhou Q, et al (2019)

An integrated respiratory microbial gene catalogue to better understand the microbial aetiology of Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia.

GigaScience, 8(8):.

BACKGROUND: The imbalanced respiratory microbiota observed in pneumonia causes high morbidity and mortality in childhood. Respiratory metagenomic analysis demands a comprehensive microbial gene catalogue, which will significantly advance our understanding of host-microorganism interactions.

RESULTS: We collected 334 respiratory microbial samples from 171 healthy children and 76 children with pneumonia. The respiratory microbial gene catalogue we established comprised 2.25 million non-redundant microbial genes, covering 90.52% of prevalent genes. The major oropharyngeal microbial species found in healthy children were Prevotella and Streptococcus. In children with Mycoplasma pneumoniae pneumonia (MPP), oropharyngeal microbial diversity and associated gene numbers decreased compared with those of healthy children. The concurrence network of oropharyngeal microorganisms in patients predominantly featured Staphylococcus spp. and M. pneumoniae. Functional orthologues, which are associated with the metabolism of various lipids, membrane transport, and signal transduction, accumulated in the oropharyngeal microbiome of children with pneumonia. Several antibiotic resistance genes and virulence factor genes were identified in the genomes of M. pneumoniae and 13 other microorganisms reconstructed via metagenomic data. Although the common macrolide/β-lactam resistance genes were not identified in the assembled M. pneumoniae genome, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (A2063G) related to macrolide resistance was identified in a 23S ribosomal RNA gene.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study will facilitate exploration of unknown microbial components and host-microorganism interactions in studies of the respiratory microbiome. They will also yield further insights into the microbial aetiology of MPP.

RevDate: 2020-02-25
CmpDate: 2020-02-25

Sheahan T, Hakstol R, Kailasam S, et al (2019)

Rapid metagenomics analysis of EMS vehicles for monitoring pathogen load using nanopore DNA sequencing.

PloS one, 14(7):e0219961 pii:PONE-D-19-05938.

Pathogen monitoring, detection and removal are essential to public health and outbreak management. Systems are in place for monitoring the microbial load of hospitals and public health facilities with strategies to mitigate pathogen spread. However, no such strategies are in place for ambulances, which are tasked with transporting at-risk individuals in immunocompromised states. As standard culturing techniques require a laboratory setting, and are time consuming and labour intensive, our approach was designed to be portable, inexpensive and easy to use based on the MinION third-generation sequencing platform from Oxford Nanopore Technologies. We developed a transferable sampling-to-analysis pipeline to characterize the microbial community in emergency medical service vehicles. Our approach identified over sixty-eight organisms in ambulances to the genera level, with a proportion of these being connected with health-care associated infections, such as Clostridium spp. and Staphylococcus spp. We also monitored the microbiome of different locations across three ambulances over time, and examined the dynamic community of microorganisms found in emergency medical service vehicles. Observed differences identified hot spots, which may require heightened monitoring and extensive cleaning. Through metagenomics analysis it is also possible to identify how microorganisms spread between patients and colonize an ambulance over time. The sequencing results aid in the development of practices to mitigate disease spread, while also providing a useful tool for outbreak prediction through ongoing analysis of the ambulance microbiome to identify new and emerging pathogens. Overall, this pipeline allows for the tracking and monitoring of pathogenic microorganisms of epidemiological interest, including those related to health-care associated infections.

RevDate: 2020-02-25
CmpDate: 2020-02-25

Negi A, IP Sarethy (2019)

Microbial Biodeterioration of Cultural Heritage: Events, Colonization, and Analyses.

Microbial ecology, 78(4):1014-1029.

Geochemical cycles result in the chemical, physical, and mineralogical modification of rocks, eventually leading to formation of soil. However, when the stones and rocks are a part of historic buildings and monuments, the effects are deleterious. In addition, microorganisms also colonize these monuments over a period of time, resulting in formation of biofilms; their metabolites lead to physical weakening and discoloration of stone eventually. This process, known as biodeterioration, leads to a significant loss of cultural heritage. For formulating effective conservation strategies to prevent biodeterioration and restore monuments, it is important to know which microorganisms are colonizing the substrate and the different energy sources they consume to sustain themselves. With this view in scope, this review focuses on studies that have attempted to understand the process of biodeterioration, the mechanisms by which they colonize and affect the monuments, the techniques used for assessment of biodeterioration, and conservation strategies that aim to preserve the original integrity of the monuments. This review also includes the "omics" technologies that have started playing a large role in elucidating the nature of microorganisms, and how they can play a role in hastening the formulation of effective conservation strategies.

RevDate: 2020-02-24
CmpDate: 2020-02-24

Wang T, Yang C, H Zhao (2019)

Prediction analysis for microbiome sequencing data.

Biometrics, 75(3):875-884.

One goal of human microbiome studies is to relate host traits with human microbiome compositions. The analysis of microbial community sequencing data presents great statistical challenges, especially when the samples have different library sizes and the data are overdispersed with many zeros. To address these challenges, we introduce a new statistical framework, called predictive analysis in metagenomics via inverse regression (PAMIR), to analyze microbiome sequencing data. Within this framework, an inverse regression model is developed for overdispersed microbiota counts given the trait, and then a prediction rule is constructed by taking advantage of the dimension-reduction structure in the model. An efficient Monte Carlo expectation-maximization algorithm is proposed for maximum likelihood estimation. The method is further generalized to accommodate other types of covariates. We demonstrate the advantages of PAMIR through simulations and two real data examples.

RevDate: 2020-02-24
CmpDate: 2020-02-24

Al-Masaudi S, El Kaoutari A, Drula E, et al (2019)

A metagenomics investigation of carbohydrate-active enzymes along the goat and camel intestinal tract.

International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology, 22(4):429-435.

Studies of the digestive microbiota of ruminant animals most often focus on the bacterial diversity in the rumen or the feces of the animals, but little is known about the diversity and functions of their distal intestine. Here, the bacterial microbiota of the distal intestinal tract of two goats and two camels was investigated by metagenomics techniques. The bacterial taxonomic diversity and carbohydrate-active enzyme profile were estimated for samples taken from the small intestine, the large intestine, and the rectum of each animal. The bacterial diversity and abundance in the small intestine were lower than in the rectal and large intestinal samples. Analysis of the carbohydrate-active enzyme profiles at each site revealed a comparatively low abundance of enzymes targeting xylan and cellulose in all animals examined, similar to what has been reported earlier for sheep and therefore suggesting that plant cell wall digestion probably takes place elsewhere, such as in the rumen.

RevDate: 2020-02-24
CmpDate: 2020-02-24

Ni YH (2019)

Bugs to debug? The exploration of gut microbiome in human health and diseases.

Journal of the Formosan Medical Association = Taiwan yi zhi, 118 Suppl 1:S1-S2.

RevDate: 2020-02-24
CmpDate: 2020-02-24

Umiker B, Lee HH, Cope J, et al (2019)

The NLRP3 inflammasome mediates DSS-induced intestinal inflammation in Nod2 knockout mice.

Innate immunity, 25(2):132-143.

Crohn's disease (CD) is a chronic disorder of the gastrointestinal tract characterized by inflammation and intestinal epithelial injury. Loss of function mutations in the intracellular bacterial sensor NOD2 are major risk factors for the development of CD. In the absence of robust bacterial recognition by NOD2 an inflammatory cascade is initiated through alternative PRRs leading to CD. In the present study, MCC950, a specific small molecule inhibitor of NLR pyrin domain-containing protein 3 (NLRP3), abrogated dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced intestinal inflammation in Nod2-/- mice. NLRP3 inflammasome formation was observed at a higher rate in NOD2-deficient small intestinal lamina propria cells after insult by DSS. NLRP3 complex formation led to an increase in IL-1β secretion in both the small intestine and colon of Nod2ko mice. This increase in IL-1β secretion in the intestine was attenuated by MCC950 leading to decreased disease severity in Nod2ko mice. Our work suggests that NLRP3 inflammasome activation may be a key driver of intestinal inflammation in the absence of functional NOD2. NLRP3 pathway inhibition can prevent intestinal inflammation in the absence of robust NOD2 signaling.

RevDate: 2020-02-21
CmpDate: 2020-02-21

Wang L, Ravichandran V, Yin Y, et al (2019)

Natural Products from Mammalian Gut Microbiota.

Trends in biotechnology, 37(5):492-504.

The mammalian gut has a remarkable abundance of microbes. These microbes have strong potential to biosynthesize distinct metabolites that are promising drugs, and many more bioactive compounds have yet to be explored as potential drug candidates. These small bioactive molecules often mediate important host-microbe and microbe-microbe interactions. In this review, we provide perspectives on and challenges associated with three mining strategies - culture-based, (meta)genomics-based, and metabolomics-based mining approaches - for discovering natural products derived from biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) in mammalian gut microbiota. In addition, we comprehensively summarize the structures, biological functions, and BGCs of these compounds. Improving these techniques, including by using combinatorial approaches, may accelerate drug discovery from gut microbes.

RevDate: 2020-02-18
CmpDate: 2020-02-18

Bernstein DB, Dewhirst FE, D Segrè (2019)

Metabolic network percolation quantifies biosynthetic capabilities across the human oral microbiome.

eLife, 8: pii:39733.

The biosynthetic capabilities of microbes underlie their growth and interactions, playing a prominent role in microbial community structure. For large, diverse microbial communities, prediction of these capabilities is limited by uncertainty about metabolic functions and environmental conditions. To address this challenge, we propose a probabilistic method, inspired by percolation theory, to computationally quantify how robustly a genome-derived metabolic network produces a given set of metabolites under an ensemble of variable environments. We used this method to compile an atlas of predicted biosynthetic capabilities for 97 metabolites across 456 human oral microbes. This atlas captures taxonomically-related trends in biomass composition, and makes it possible to estimate inter-microbial metabolic distances that correlate with microbial co-occurrences. We also found a distinct cluster of fastidious/uncultivated taxa, including several Saccharibacteria (TM7) species, characterized by their abundant metabolic deficiencies. By embracing uncertainty, our approach can be broadly applied to understanding metabolic interactions in complex microbial ecosystems.

RevDate: 2020-02-20
CmpDate: 2020-02-20

Chen SH, Fegan N, Kocharunchitt C, et al (2020)

Changes of the bacterial community diversity on chicken carcasses through an Australian poultry processing line.

Food microbiology, 86:103350.

Understanding the bacterial community profile through poultry processing could help the industry to produce better poultry products. In this study, 10 chicken carcasses were randomly sampled from before and after scalding, before and after immersion chilling, and after air chilling each through a modern commercial processing line, along with the contents of 10 caeca. The sampled processing line effectively reduced the bacterial counts by > 4.6 Log10 CFU/ml for each of Total Viable Counts, Escherichia coli and Campylobacter. However, the metagenomics results suggested that Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus and unclassified Lachnospiraceae persisted at all sampling stages. Pseudomonas, Paeniglutamicibacter, Chryseobacterium and Pseudarthrobacter comprised 47.2% in the bacterial community on samples after air chilling compared to 0.3% on samples after immersion chilling, whereas TVCs were the same. Overall, the current interventions of the investigated poultry processing line were unable to eliminate persistence of certain foodborne pathogens, despite a significant reduction of the overall bacterial counts. Chilling is an important controlling point in contamination/cross-contamination, particularly extended air chilling. Lastly, the large presence of Pseudomonas on chickens after air chilling may lead to downstream spoilage related issues, which needs more investigation to explore quantitatively the effect on the shelf life of poultry products.

RevDate: 2020-02-20
CmpDate: 2020-02-20

Stewart DB, Wright JR, Fowler M, et al (2019)

Integrated Meta-omics Reveals a Fungus-Associated Bacteriome and Distinct Functional Pathways in Clostridioides difficile Infection.

mSphere, 4(4): pii:4/4/e00454-19.

There has been no prior application of matched metagenomics and metatranscriptomics in Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) evaluating the role of fungi in CDI or identifying community functions that contribute to the development of this disease. We collected diarrheal stools from 49 inpatients (18 of whom tested positive for CDI) under stringent inclusion criteria. We utilized a tiered sequencing approach to identify enriched bacterial and fungal taxa, using 16S and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, with matched metagenomics and metatranscriptomics performed on a subset of the population. Distinct bacterial and fungal compositions distinguished CDI-positive and -negative patients, with the greatest differentiation between the cohorts observed based on bacterial metatranscriptomics. Bipartite network analyses demonstrated that Aspergillus and Penicillium taxa shared a strong positive relationship in CDI patients and together formed negative cooccurring relationships with several bacterial taxa, including the Oscillospira, Comamonadaceae, Microbacteriaceae, and Cytophagaceae Metatranscriptomics revealed enriched pathways in CDI patients associated with biofilm production primarily driven by Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas, quorum-sensing proteins, and two-component systems related to functions such as osmotic regulation, linoleic acid metabolism, and flagellar assembly. Differential expression of functional pathways unveiled a mechanism by which the causal dysbiosis of CDI may self-perpetuate, potentially contributing to treatment failures. We propose that CDI has a distinct fungus-associated bacteriome, and this first description of metatranscriptomics in human subjects with CDI demonstrates that inflammation, osmotic changes, and biofilm production are key elements of CDI pathophysiology.IMPORTANCE Our data suggest a potential role for fungi in the most common nosocomial bacterial infection in the United States, introducing the concept of a transkingdom interaction between bacteria and fungi in this disease. We also provide the first direct measure of microbial community function in Clostridioides difficile infection using patient-derived tissue samples, revealing antibiotic-independent mechanisms by which C. difficile infection may resist a return to a healthy gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-02-20
CmpDate: 2020-02-20

Yue S, He T, Li B, et al (2019)

Effectiveness of Yi-Zhi-An-Shen granules on cognition and sleep quality in older adults with amnestic mild cognitive impairment: protocol for a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Trials, 20(1):518 pii:10.1186/s13063-019-3607-x.

BACKGROUND: Amnestic mild cognitive impairment (aMCI) is a syndrome characterized by significant forgetfulness that does not meet the criteria of dementia. Individuals with aMCI are at greater risk of progressing to dementia. Current studies suggest that good sleep quality is linked with preserved cognition in the elderly, and sleep complaints are common among the elderly with amnesia. Therefore, improving their sleep may be helpful for maintaining and improving their cognitive capacity. According to the theory of traditional Chinese medicine, Yi-Zhi-An-Shen is an herbal compound which may ameliorate forgetfulness and sleep disorders. As growing evidence indicates that the gut microbiome is associated with major mental symptoms, a hypothesis was proposed that Yi-Zhi-An-Shen granules (YZASG) might work by alternating microbial abundance and diversity. In this study, the investigators intend to assess the efficacy of YZASG on global cognition in the elderly suffering from aMCI and evaluate its safety as well as its potential mechanisms via sleep quality, fecal microbial 16S ribosomal DNA and metagenomics analyses, and serum markers.

METHODS/DESIGN: This study is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. A total of 80 patients (aged 60-85 years) will be recruited and allocated randomly to a treatment group and a placebo group in a 1:1 ratio and will then be administered YZASG or isodose placebo three times a day. The intervention course is 16 weeks, with an 18 months follow-up. The primary outcome is the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale. Secondary outcome measures are the Mini-Mental State Examination, Montreal Cognitive Assessment, Pittsburgh Sleep Quality Index, serum concentrations of immunological factors and inflammatory cytokines, and fecal microbiota. Fecal microbiota will only be collected at the baseline and endpoint of the intervention.

DISCUSSION: The results of this trial will be conducive to assessing the safety and effectiveness on cognition of YZASG in intervening aMCI among the elderly and determining if it takes effect via the improvement of sleep quality, regulation of gut microbiota, and concentration of certain serum markers.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT03601000 . Registered on 26 July 2018.

RevDate: 2020-02-20
CmpDate: 2020-02-20

Moeller AH, Gomes-Neto JC, Mantz S, et al (2019)

Experimental Evidence for Adaptation to Species-Specific Gut Microbiota in House Mice.

mSphere, 4(4): pii:4/4/e00387-19.

The gut microbial communities of mammals have codiversified with host species, and changes in the gut microbiota can have profound effects on host fitness. Therefore, the gut microbiota may drive adaptation in mammalian species, but this possibility is underexplored. Here, we show that the gut microbiota has codiversified with mice in the genus Mus over the past ∼6 million years, and we present experimental evidence that the gut microbiota has driven adaptive evolution of the house mouse, Mus musculusdomesticus Phylogenetic analyses of metagenome-assembled bacterial genomic sequences revealed that gut bacterial lineages have been retained within and diversified alongside Mus species over evolutionary time. Transplantation of gut microbiotas from various Mus species into germfree M. m. domesticus showed that foreign gut microbiotas slowed growth rate and upregulated macrophage inflammatory protein in hosts. These results suggest adaptation by M. m. domesticus to its gut microbiota since it diverged from other Mus species.IMPORTANCE The communities of bacteria that reside within mammalian guts are deeply integrated with their hosts, but the impact of this gut microbiota on mammalian evolution remains poorly understood. Experimental transplantation of the gut microbiota between mouse species revealed that foreign gut microbiotas lowered the host growth rate and upregulated the expression of an immunomodulating cytokine. In addition, foreign gut microbiotas increased host liver sizes and attenuated sex-specific differences in host muscle and fat content. These results suggest that the house mouse has adapted to its species-specific gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2020-02-19
CmpDate: 2020-02-19

Ali NABM, Mac Aogáin M, Morales RF, et al (2019)

Optimisation and Benchmarking of Targeted Amplicon Sequencing for Mycobiome Analysis of Respiratory Specimens.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(20):.

(1) Background: Firm consensus has yet to be established in relation to taxonomic classification and primer choice in targeted amplicon sequencing of the mycobiome. While the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region are recognized as the formal fungal taxonomic barcode, appraisal of different ITS sub-regions and the influence of DNA extraction methods have not been comprehensively undertaken using human respiratory specimens. (2) Methods: We performed ITS analysis of respiratory (sputum) samples by assessing (a) the effect of alternate DNA extraction techniques and (b) an evaluation of four different ITS primer pairs (ITS1F and ITS2; ITS1-30F and ITS1-217R; gITS7ngs and ITS4ng; and Fseq and Rseq) on the mycobiome profiles generated for mock fungal communities and their respective clinical (airway) specimens. (3) Results: Primer pairs varied in their resulting ITS mycobiome profiles, suggesting that particular pairs may be more relevant for analysis of respiratory samples compared to others. Assessment of DNA extraction methods highlighted lower final DNA concentrations achieved by mechanical disruption compared to enzymatic lysis. However, despite lower yields, DNA liberated by mechanical lysis more readily yielded ITS bands with highest success in combination with the Fseq and Rseq primers. (4) Conclusion: Choice of extraction method, primers used, and sequencing approach are all important considerations in sequencing the mycobiome and should be tailored to sample type. A standardization of approach to mycobiome studies using respiratory specimens will permit more reliable comparisons between studies and improve our understanding of the role of fungi in the human airway.

RevDate: 2020-02-19
CmpDate: 2020-02-19

McLaren MR, Willis AD, BJ Callahan (2019)

Consistent and correctable bias in metagenomic sequencing experiments.

eLife, 8: pii:46923.

Marker-gene and metagenomic sequencing have profoundly expanded our ability to measure biological communities. But the measurements they provide differ from the truth, often dramatically, because these experiments are biased toward detecting some taxa over others. This experimental bias makes the taxon or gene abundances measured by different protocols quantitatively incomparable and can lead to spurious biological conclusions. We propose a mathematical model for how bias distorts community measurements based on the properties of real experiments. We validate this model with 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomics data from defined bacterial communities. Our model better fits the experimental data despite being simpler than previous models. We illustrate how our model can be used to evaluate protocols, to understand the effect of bias on downstream statistical analyses, and to measure and correct bias given suitable calibration controls. These results illuminate new avenues toward truly quantitative and reproducible metagenomics measurements.

RevDate: 2020-02-19
CmpDate: 2020-02-19

Forsberg KJ, Bhatt IV, Schmidtke DT, et al (2019)

Functional metagenomics-guided discovery of potent Cas9 inhibitors in the human microbiome.

eLife, 8: pii:46540.

CRISPR-Cas systems protect bacteria and archaea from phages and other mobile genetic elements, which use small anti-CRISPR (Acr) proteins to overcome CRISPR-Cas immunity. Because Acrs are challenging to identify, their natural diversity and impact on microbial ecosystems are underappreciated. To overcome this discovery bottleneck, we developed a high-throughput functional selection to isolate ten DNA fragments from human oral and fecal metagenomes that inhibit Streptococcus pyogenes Cas9 (SpyCas9) in Escherichia coli. The most potent Acr from this set, AcrIIA11, was recovered from a Lachnospiraceae phage. We found that AcrIIA11 inhibits SpyCas9 in bacteria and in human cells. AcrIIA11 homologs are distributed across diverse bacteria; many distantly-related homologs inhibit both SpyCas9 and a divergent Cas9 from Treponema denticola. We find that AcrIIA11 antagonizes SpyCas9 using a different mechanism than other previously characterized Type II-A Acrs. Our study highlights the power of functional selection to uncover widespread Cas9 inhibitors within diverse microbiomes.

RevDate: 2020-02-18
CmpDate: 2020-02-18

Zhou P, Li Z, Xu D, et al (2019)

Cepharanthine Hydrochloride Improves Cisplatin Chemotherapy and Enhances Immunity by Regulating Intestinal Microbes in Mice.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:225.

Chemotherapy is one of the major treatment strategies for esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). Unfortunately, most chemotherapeutic drugs have significant impacts on the intestinal microbes, resulting in side effects and reduced efficiency. Therefore, new strategies capable of overcoming these disadvantages of current chemotherapies are in urgent need. The natural product, Cepharanthine hydrochloride (CEH), is known for its anticancer and immunoregulatory properties. By sequencing the V4 region of 16S rDNA, we characterized the microbes of tumor-bearing mice treated with different chemotherapy strategies, including with CEH. We found that CEH improved the therapeutic effect of CDDP by manipulating the gut microbiota. Through metagenomic analyses of the microbes community, we identified a severe compositional and functional imbalance in the gut microbes community after CDDP treatment. However, CEH improved the effect of chemotherapy and ameliorated CDDP treatment-induced imbalance in the intestinal microbes. Mechanically, CEH activated TLR4 and MYD88 innate immune signaling, which is advantageous for the activation of the host's innate immunity to exert a balanced intestinal environment as well as to trigger a better chemotherapeutic response to esophageal cancer. In addition, TNFR death receptors were activated to induce apoptosis. In summary, our findings suggest that chemotherapy of CDDP combined with CEH increased the effect of chemotherapy and reduced the side effects on the microbes and intestinal mucosal immunity. We believe that these findings provide a theoretical basis for new clinical treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2020-02-17

Santos SS, Schöler A, Nielsen TK, et al (2020)

Land use as a driver for protist community structure in soils under agricultural use across Europe.

The Science of the total environment, 717:137228 pii:S0048-9697(20)30738-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Soil biodiversity is threatened by intensification of land use. The consequences of different land use on belowground biodiversity remain insufficiently explored for soil protists. Alongside being abundant and extremely diverse in soil, protists provide many ecosystem services: key players in the microbial loop, turnover of organic matter and stimulation of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria. However, we lack knowledge of effects of site, land use intensity and management on diversity of soil protists. Here we assessed protist communities in four European arable sites with contrasting land use intensities at each site: Lusignan, France; Moskanjci, Slovenia; Castro Verde, Portugal and Scheyern, Germany as well as two grassland sites: Hainich, Germany and Lancaster, UK. Each site has consistent agricultural management history of low and high land use intensities quantified in terms of land use index (LUI). We employed high-throughput sequencing of environmental DNA, targeting the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene. By assigning the protist composition to trophic groups, we inspected for effects of management, and other biotic and abiotic variables. While overall protist richness was unaffected by LUI within sites, specific trophic groups such as plant pathogens and saprotrophs were affected. Effects on protist biome across land uses and sites were also observed. LUI sensitive taxa were taxonomically diverse in each plot, and their trophic groups responded in specific patterns to specific practices. The most abundant trophic group was phagotrophs (73%), followed by photoautotrophs (16%), plant pathogens (4%), animal parasites (2%) and saprotrophs (1%). Community compositions and factors affecting the structure of individual trophic groups differed between land uses and management systems. The agricultural management selected for distinct protist populations as well as specific functional traits, and the protist community and diversity were indeed affected by site, LUI and management, which indicates the ecological significance of protists in the soil food web.

RevDate: 2020-02-17

van der Heyde M, Bunce M, Wardell-Johnson G, et al (2020)

Testing multiple substrates for terrestrial biodiversity monitoring using environmental DNA (eDNA) metabarcoding.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Biological surveys based on visual identification of the biota are challenging, expensive, and time consuming, yet crucial for effective biomonitoring. DNA metabarcoding is a rapidly developing technology that can also facilitate biological surveys. This method involves the use of next generation sequencing technology to determine the community composition of a sample. However, it is uncertain as to what biological substrate should be the primary focus of metabarcoding surveys. This study aims to test multiple sample substrates (soil, scat, plant material and bulk arthropods) to determine what organisms can be detected from each and where they overlap. Samples (n = 200) were collected in the Pilbara (hot desert climate) and Swan Coastal Plain (hot mediterranean climate) regions of Western Australia. Soil samples yielded little plant or animal DNA, especially in the Pilbara, likely due to conditions not conducive to long-term preservation. In contrast, scat samples contained the highest overall diversity with 131 plant, vertebrate, and invertebrate families detected. Invertebrate and plant sequences were detected in the plant (86 families), pitfall (127 families), and vane trap (126 families) samples. In total 278 families were recovered from the survey, 217 in the Swan Coastal Plain and 156 in the Pilbara. Aside from soil, 22-43% of the families detected were unique to the particular substrate and community composition varied significantly between substrates. These results demonstrate the importance of selecting appropriate metabarcoding substrates when undertaking terrestrial surveys. If the aim is to broadly capture all biota then multiple substrates will be required.

RevDate: 2020-02-17
CmpDate: 2020-02-17

Jadeja NB, Purohit HJ, A Kapley (2019)

Decoding microbial community intelligence through metagenomics for efficient wastewater treatment.

Functional & integrative genomics, 19(6):839-851.

Activated sludge, a microbial ecosystem at industrial wastewater treatment plants, is an active collection of diverse gene pool that creates the intelligence required for coexistence at the cost of pollutants. This study has analyzed one such ecosystem from a site treating wastewater pooled from over 200 different industries. The metagenomics approach used could predict the degradative pathways of more than 30 dominating molecules commonly found in wastewater. Results were extended to design a bioremediation strategy using 4-methylphenol, 2-chlorobenzoate, and 4-chlorobenzoate as target compounds. Catabolic potential required to degrade four aromatic families, namely benzoate family, PAH family, phenol family, and PCB family, was mapped. Results demonstrated a network of diverse genera, where a few phylotypes were seen to contain diverse catabolic capacities and were seen to be present in multiple networks. The study highlights the importance of looking more closely at the microbial community of activated sludge to harness its latent potential. Conventionally treated as a black box, the activated biomass does not perform at its full potential. Metagenomics allows a clearer insight into the complex pathways operating at the site and the detailed documentation of genes allows the activated biomass to be used as a bioresource.

RevDate: 2020-02-14

Khachatryan L, de Leeuw RH, Kraakman MEM, et al (2020)

Taxonomic classification and abundance estimation using 16S and WGS-A comparison using controlled reference samples.

Forensic science international. Genetics, 46:102257 pii:S1872-4973(20)30028-4 [Epub ahead of print].

The assessment of microbiome biodiversity is the most common application of metagenomics. While 16S sequencing remains standard procedure for taxonomic profiling of metagenomic data, a growing number of studies have clearly demonstrated biases associated with this method. By using Whole Genome Shotgun sequencing (WGS) metagenomics, most of the known restrictions associated with 16S data are alleviated. However, due to the computationally intensive data analyses and higher sequencing costs, WGS based metagenomics remains a less popular option. Selecting the experiment type that provides a comprehensive, yet manageable amount of information is a challenge encountered in many metagenomics studies. In this work, we created a series of artificial bacterial mixes, each with a different distribution of skin-associated microbial species. These mixes were used to estimate the resolution of two different metagenomic experiments - 16S and WGS - and to evaluate several different bioinformatics approaches for taxonomic read classification. In all test cases, WGS approaches provide much more accurate results, in terms of taxa prediction and abundance estimation, in comparison to those of 16S. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a 16S dataset, analysed using different state of the art techniques and reference databases, can produce widely different results. In light of the fact that most forensic metagenomic analysis are still performed using 16S data, our results are especially important.

RevDate: 2020-02-14
CmpDate: 2020-02-14

Watts GS, Thornton JE, Youens-Clark K, et al (2019)

Identification and quantitation of clinically relevant microbes in patient samples: Comparison of three k-mer based classifiers for speed, accuracy, and sensitivity.

PLoS computational biology, 15(11):e1006863.

Infections are a serious health concern worldwide, particularly in vulnerable populations such as the immunocompromised, elderly, and young. Advances in metagenomic sequencing availability, speed, and decreased cost offer the opportunity to supplement or even replace culture-based identification of pathogens with DNA sequence-based diagnostics. Adopting metagenomic analysis for clinical use requires that all aspects of the workflow are optimized and tested, including data analysis and computational time and resources. We tested the accuracy, sensitivity, and resource requirements of three top metagenomic taxonomic classifiers that use fast k-mer based algorithms: Centrifuge, CLARK, and KrakenUniq. Binary mixtures of bacteria showed all three reliably identified organisms down to 1% relative abundance, while only the relative abundance estimates of Centrifuge and CLARK were accurate. All three classifiers identified the organisms present in their default databases from a mock bacterial community of 20 organisms, but only Centrifuge had no false positives. In addition, Centrifuge required far less computational resources and time for analysis. Centrifuge analysis of metagenomes obtained from samples of VAP, infected DFUs, and FN showed Centrifuge identified pathogenic bacteria and one virus that were corroborated by culture or a clinical PCR assay. Importantly, in both diabetic foot ulcer patients, metagenomic sequencing identified pathogens 4-6 weeks before culture. Finally, we show that Centrifuge results were minimally affected by elimination of time-consuming read quality control and host screening steps.

RevDate: 2020-02-14
CmpDate: 2020-02-14

Gu S, Zaidi S, Hassan MI, et al (2020)

Mutated CEACAMs Disrupt Transforming Growth Factor Beta Signaling and Alter the Intestinal Microbiome to Promote Colorectal Carcinogenesis.

Gastroenterology, 158(1):238-252.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: We studied interactions among proteins of the carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM) family, which interact with microbes, and transforming growth factor beta (TGFB) signaling pathway, which is often altered in colorectal cancer cells. We investigated mechanisms by which CEACAM proteins inhibit TGFB signaling and alter the intestinal microbiome to promote colorectal carcinogenesis.

METHODS: We collected data on DNA sequences, messenger RNA expression levels, and patient survival times from 456 colorectal adenocarcinoma cases, and a separate set of 594 samples of colorectal adenocarcinomas, in The Cancer Genome Atlas. We performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing analyses of feces from wild-type mice and mice with defects in TGFB signaling (Sptbn1+/- and Smad4+/-/Sptbn1+/-) to identify changes in microbiota composition before development of colon tumors. CEACAM protein and its mutants were overexpressed in SW480 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines, which were analyzed by immunoblotting and proliferation and colony formation assays.

RESULTS: In colorectal adenocarcinomas, high expression levels of genes encoding CEACAM proteins, especially CEACAM5, were associated with reduced survival times of patients. There was an inverse correlation between expression of CEACAM genes and expression of TGFB pathway genes (TGFBR1, TGFBR2, and SMAD3). In colorectal adenocarcinomas, we also found an inverse correlation between expression of genes in the TGFB signaling pathway and genes that regulate stem cell features of cells. We found mutations encoding L640I and A643T in the B3 domain of human CEACAM5 in colorectal adenocarcinomas; structural studies indicated that these mutations would alter the interaction between CEACAM5 and TGFBR1. Overexpression of these mutants in SW480 and HCT116 colorectal cancer cell lines increased their anchorage-independent growth and inhibited TGFB signaling to a greater extent than overexpression of wild-type CEACAM5, indicating that they are gain-of-function mutations. Compared with feces from wild-type mice, feces from mice with defects in TGFB signaling had increased abundance of bacterial species that have been associated with the development of colon tumors, including Clostridium septicum, and decreased amounts of beneficial bacteria, such as Bacteroides vulgatus and Parabacteroides distasonis.

CONCLUSION: We found expression of CEACAMs and genes that regulate stem cell features of cells to be increased in colorectal adenocarcinomas and inversely correlated with expression of TGFB pathway genes. We found colorectal adenocarcinomas to express mutant forms of CEACAM5 that inhibit TGFB signaling and increase proliferation and colony formation. We propose that CEACAM proteins disrupt TGFB signaling, which alters the composition of the intestinal microbiome to promote colorectal carcinogenesis.

RevDate: 2020-02-14
CmpDate: 2020-02-14

Benic GZ, Farella M, Morgan XC, et al (2019)

Oral probiotics reduce halitosis in patients wearing orthodontic braces: a randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial.

Journal of breath research, 13(3):036010.

Orthodontic braces can impede oral hygiene and promote halitosis. The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of the oral probiotic Streptococcus salivarius M18 on oral hygiene indices and halitosis in patients wearing orthodontic braces. The study was a prospective, randomized, triple-blind, placebo-controlled trial. Patients undergoing fixed orthodontic treatment were randomly allocated to a probiotic group (n = 32) and a placebo group (n = 32). Patients consumed 2 lozenges d-1 for one month. Assessments were taken at baseline, at the end of the intervention, and at a 3 month follow-up. The outcome measures were plaque index (PI), gingival index (GI) and halitosis-causing volatile sulfur compound (VSC) levels. The dental biofilms before and after the intervention were analyzed utilizing next-generation sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA genes. PI and GI scores were not significantly influenced by the probiotic intervention (intervention × time: p > 0.05). The level of VSCs decreased significantly in both the probiotic group (VSC reduction = -8.5%, 95%CI = -7.4% to -9.1%, p = 0.015) and the placebo group (-6.5%, 95%CI = -6.0% to -7.4%, p = 0.039) after 1 month intervention. However, at the 3 month follow-up, the VSC levels in the placebo group returned to baseline levels whereas those in the probiotic group decreased further (-10.8%, 95%CI = -10.5% to -12.9%, p = 0.005). Time, but not treatment, was associated with the decrease in microbial community alpha diversity and a modest effect on beta diversity. Oral probiotic S. salivarius M18 reduced the level of halitosis in patients with orthodontic braces, but had minimal effects on PI, GI and dental biofilm microflora.

RevDate: 2020-02-12
CmpDate: 2020-02-12

Li W, Tan Q, Zhou W, et al (2020)

Impact of substrate material and chlorine/chloramine on the composition and function of a young biofilm microbial community as revealed by high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing.

Chemosphere, 242:125310.

The bacterial composition of biofilms in drinking water distribution systems is significantly impacted by the disinfection regime and substrate material. However, studies that have addressed the changes in the biofilm community during the early stage of formation (less than 10 weeks) were not yet adequate. Here, we explore the effects of the substrate materials (cast iron, stainless steel, copper, polyvinyl chloride, and high density polyethylene) and different disinfectants (chlorine and chloramine) on the community composition and function of young biofilm by using 16S rDNA sequencing. The results showed that Alphaproteobacteria (39.14%-80.87%) and Actinobacteria (5.90%-40.03%) were the dominant classes in chlorine-disinfection samples, while Alphaproteobacteria (17.46%-74.18%) and Betaproteobacteria (3.79%-68.50%) became dominant in a chloraminated group. The infrequently discussed genus Phreatobacter became predominant in the chlorinated samples, but it was inhibited by chloramine and copper ions. The key driver of the community composition was indicated as different disinfectants according to principle coordination analysis (PCoA) and Permutational multivariate analysis of variance (Adonis test), and the bacterial community changed significantly over time. Communities of biofilms grown on cast iron showed a great distance from the other materials according to Bray-Curtis dissimilarity, and they had a unique dominant genus, Dechloromonas. A metagenomics prediction based on 16S rDNA was used to detect the functional pathways of antibiotic biosynthesis and beta-lactam resistance, and it revealed that several pathways were significantly different in terms of their chlorinated and chloraminated groups.

RevDate: 2020-02-11
CmpDate: 2020-02-11

Fuentes-Valencia MA, Fajer-Ávila EJ, Chávez-Sánchez MC, et al (2020)

Silver nanoparticles are lethal to the ciliate model Tetrahymena and safe to the pike silverside Chirostoma estor.

Experimental parasitology, 209:107825.

Ciliate ectoparasites are one of the most important groups of pathogens in fish culture, and the traditional treatments are sometimes harmful to the fish and the environment. Thus, the search for novel compounds that are effective at low concentrations and safe for fish are necessary to optimise treatments in aquaculture. The antiprotozoal capacity of silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) against the ciliate Tetrahymena has been documented; however, their toxicity may vary with the synthesis methodology and nanoparticle size. The objectives of this study were a) to evaluate the acute toxicity in vitro of two AgNPs (Argovit™ and UTSA) on Tetrahymena sp., a biological model for ciliated ectoparasites of fish and b) to test the safety of lethal and higher doses of UTSA AgNPs for ciliates on the fish C. estor. Light microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were used to determine whether AgNPs affected the structure of the cell surface of Tetrahymena. The mortality, histopathological alterations and metagenomics of the fish were used to determine the major effects of UTSA AgNPs. In Tetrahymena, the median lethal concentration (LC50) for Argovit™ was 2501 ± 1717 ng/L at 15 min and 796 ± 510 ng/L at 60 min, while the LC50 for UTSA AgNPs was 4 ± 2 and 1 ± 0.6 ng/L at 15 min and 60 min, respectively. A concentration of 3300 ng/L Argovit™ and 10.6 ng/L UTSA AgNPs for 15 and 60 min, respectively, was 100% effective against Tetrahymena. After 60 min of exposure to 0.25 and 0.50 ng/L UTSA AgNPs, the number of cilia significantly reduced, there were small holes on the cell surface, and the cellular membrane was ruptured. In fish exposed to lethal (10.6 ng/L) and higher (31.8 and 95.4 ng/L) doses of UTSA, the AgNPs did not affect fish survival after 96 h, and there were no signs of histopathological damage or gut microbial changes. This study is the first report on microscopic and ultrastructural changes in Tetrahymena after exposure to significantly low concentrations of UTSA AgNPs with antiprotozoal efficacy without evidence of harmful effects on fish. These results provide the basis for further studies of both pet aquarium and commercial fish that may validate these findings at a larger experimental scale, taking into account AgNPs bioaccumulation, safety for human consumption and environmental impact.

RevDate: 2020-02-11
CmpDate: 2020-02-11

Enagbonma BJ, Aremu BR, OO Babalola (2019)

Profiling the Functional Diversity of Termite Mound Soil Bacteria as Revealed by Shotgun Sequencing.

Genes, 10(9):.

Profiling the metabolic processes performed by bacteria is vital both for understanding and for manipulating ecosystems for industrial or research purposes. In this study we aim to assess the bacterial functional diversity in termite mound soils with the assumption that significant differences will be observed in the functional diversity of bacteria between the termite mound soils and their surrounding soils and that each environment has a distinguishing metabolic profile. Here, metagenomic DNA extracted from termite mound soils and their corresponding surrounding soils, which are 10 m apart, were sequenced using a shotgun sequencing approach. Our results revealed that the relative abundances of 16 functional categories differed significantly between both habitats. The α diversity analysis indicated no significant difference in bacterial functional categories within the habitats while the β diversity showed that the bacterial functional categories varied significantly between the termite mound soils and the surrounding soil samples. The variations in soil physical and chemical properties existing between the two environments were held accountable for the differences in bacterial functional structure. With the high relative abundance of functional categories with unknown function reported in this study, this could signify the likelihood of getting novel genes from termite mound soils, which are needed for research and commercial applications.

RevDate: 2020-02-11
CmpDate: 2020-02-11

Zhang J, Lacroix C, Wortmann E, et al (2019)

Gut microbial beta-glucuronidase and glycerol/diol dehydratase activity contribute to dietary heterocyclic amine biotransformation.

BMC microbiology, 19(1):99 pii:10.1186/s12866-019-1483-x.

BACKGROUND: Consuming red and processed meat has been associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), which is partly attributed to exposure to carcinogens such as heterocyclic amines (HCA) formed during cooking and preservation processes. The interaction of gut microbes and HCA can result in altered bioactivities and it has been shown previously that human gut microbiota can transform mutagenic HCA to a glycerol conjugate with reduced mutagenic potential. However, the major form of HCA in the colon are glucuronides (HCA-G) and it is not known whether these metabolites, via stepwise microbial hydrolysis and acrolein conjugation, are viable precursors for glycerol conjugated metabolites. We hypothesized that such a process could be concurrently catalyzed by bacterial beta-glucuronidase (B-GUS) and glycerol/diol dehydratase (GDH) activity. We therefore investigated how the HCA-G PhIP-N2-β-D-glucuronide (PhIP-G), a representative liver metabolite of PhIP (2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo [4,5-b] pyridine), which is the most abundant carcinogenic HCA in well-cooked meat, is transformed by enzymatic activity of human gut microbial representatives of the phyla Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and Proteobacteria.

RESULTS: We employed a combination of growth and enzymatic assays, and a bioanalysis approach combined with metagenomics. B-GUS of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii converted PhIP-G to PhIP and GDH of Flavonifractor plautii, Blautia obeum, Eubacterium hallii, and Lactobacillus reuteri converted PhIP to PhIP-M1 in the presence of glycerol. In addition, B-GUS- and GDH-positive bacteria cooperatively converted PhIP-G to PhIP-M1. A screen of genes encoding B-GUS and GDH was performed for fecal microbiome data from healthy individuals (n = 103) and from CRC patients (n = 53), which revealed a decrease in abundance of taxa with confirmed GDH and HCA transformation activity in CRC patients.

CONCLUSIONS: This study for the first time demonstrates that gut microbes mediate the stepwise transformation of PhIP-G to PhIP-M1 via the intermediate production of PhIP. Findings from this study suggest that targeted manipulation with gut microbes bearing specific functions, or dietary glycerol supplementation might modify gut microbial activity to reduce HCA-induced CRC risk.

RevDate: 2020-02-11
CmpDate: 2020-02-11

Dos Santos HRM, Argolo CS, Argôlo-Filho RC, et al (2019)

A 16S rDNA PCR-based theoretical to actual delta approach on culturable mock communities revealed severe losses of diversity information.

BMC microbiology, 19(1):74 pii:10.1186/s12866-019-1446-2.

BACKGROUND: Subunits of ribosomal RNA genes (rDNAs) characterized by PCR-based protocols have been the proxy for studies in microbial taxonomy, phylogenetics, evolution and ecology. However, relevant factors have shown to interfere in the experimental outputs in a variety of systems. In this work, a 'theoretical' to 'actual' delta approach was applied to data on culturable mock bacterial communities (MBCs) to study the levels of losses in operational taxonomic units (OTUs) detectability. Computational and lab-bench strategies based on 16S rDNA amplification by 799F and U1492R primers were employed, using a fingerprinting method with highly improved detectability of fragments as a case-study tool. MBCs were of two major types: in silico MBCs, assembled with database-retrieved sequences, and in vitro MBCs, with AluI digestions of PCR data generated from culturable endophytes isolated from cacao trees.

RESULTS: Interfering factors for the 16 s rDNA amplifications, such as the type of template, direct and nested PCR, proportion of chloroplast DNA from a tropical plant source (Virola officinalis), and biased-amplification by the primers resulted in altered bacterial 16S rDNA amplification, both on MBCs and V. officinalis leaf-extracted DNA. For the theoretical data, the maximum number of fragments for in silico and in vitro cuts were not significantly different from each other. Primers' preferences for certain sequences were detected, depending on the MBCs' composition prior to PCR. The results indicated overall losses from 2.3 up to 8.2 times in the number of OTUs detected from actual AluI digestions of MBCs when compared to in silico and in vitro theoretical data.

CONCLUSIONS: Due to all those effects, the final amplification profile of the bacterial community assembled was remarkably simplified when compared to the expected number of detectable fragments known to be present in the MBC. From these findings, the scope of hypotheses generation and conclusions from experiments based on PCR amplifications of bacterial communities was discussed.

RevDate: 2020-02-11
CmpDate: 2020-02-11

Stewart CJ, Fatemizadeh R, Parsons P, et al (2019)

Using formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue to characterize the preterm gut microbiota in necrotising enterocolitis and spontaneous isolated perforation using marginal and diseased tissue.

BMC microbiology, 19(1):52 pii:10.1186/s12866-019-1426-6.

BACKGROUND: Necrotising enterocolitis (NEC) is a common cause of death in preterm infants and is closely linked to the gut microbiota. Spontaneous intestinal perforation (SIP) also occurs in preterm neonates, but results in lower mortality and less adverse neonatal outcomes than NEC. Existing studies are largely limited to non-invasive stool samples, which may not be reflective of the anatomical site of disease. Therefore, we analysed historical formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissue from NEC and SIP preterm infants. A total of 13 NEC and 16 SIP infants were included. Extracted DNA from FFPE tissue blocks underwent 16S rRNA gene sequencing. For a subset of infants, diseased tissue and marginal healthy tissue from the same infant were compared.

RESULTS: Xylene provided a cost and time effective means of deparaffinization. Tissue from the site of disease was highly comparable to adjacent healthier tissue. Comparing only diseased tissue from all infants showed significantly lower Shannon diversity in NEC (P = 0.026). The overall bacterial communities were also significantly different in NEC samples compared to SIP (P = 0.038), and large variability within NEC infants was observed. While no single OTU or genus was significantly associated with NEC or SIP, at the phylum level Proteobacteria (P = 0.045) and Bacteroidetes (P = 0.024) were significantly higher in NEC and SIP infants, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Existing banks of intestinal FFPE blocks provide a robust and specific sample for profiling the microbiota at the site of disease. We showed preterm infants with NEC have lower diversity and different bacterial communities when compared to SIP controls.

RevDate: 2020-02-10
CmpDate: 2020-02-10

Millán-Aguiñaga N, Soldatou S, Brozio S, et al (2019)

Awakening ancient polar Actinobacteria: diversity, evolution and specialized metabolite potential.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 165(11):1169-1180.

Polar and subpolar ecosystems are highly vulnerable to global climate change with consequences for biodiversity and community composition. Bacteria are directly impacted by future environmental change and it is therefore essential to have a better understanding of microbial communities in fluctuating ecosystems. Exploration of Polar environments, specifically sediments, represents an exciting opportunity to uncover bacterial and chemical diversity and link this to ecosystem and evolutionary parameters. In terms of specialized metabolite production, the bacterial order Actinomycetales, within the phylum Actinobacteria are unsurpassed, producing 10 000 specialized metabolites accounting for over 45 % of all bioactive microbial metabolites. A selective isolation approach focused on spore-forming Actinobacteria of 12 sediment cores from the Antarctic and sub-Arctic generated a culture collection of 50 strains. This consisted of 39 strains belonging to rare Actinomycetales genera including Microbacterium, Rhodococcus and Pseudonocardia. This study used a combination of nanopore sequencing and molecular networking to explore the community composition, culturable bacterial diversity, evolutionary relatedness and specialized metabolite potential of these strains. Metagenomic analyses using MinION sequencing was able to detect the phylum Actinobacteria across polar sediment cores at an average of 13 % of the total bacterial reads. The resulting molecular network consisted of 1652 parent ions and the lack of known metabolite identification supports the argument that Polar bacteria are likely to produce previously unreported chemistry.

RevDate: 2020-02-10
CmpDate: 2020-02-10

Sandhu SS, Pourang A, RK Sivamani (2019)

A review of next generation sequencing technologies used in the evaluation of the skin microbiome: what a time to be alive.

Dermatology online journal, 25(7):.

The role of the microbiome in healthy and disease states of the human body is progressively being found to extend beyond the gastrointestinal tract and into other organ systems such as the skin. Researching the microbiome thus has become paramount to understanding additional physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms that may be at play between microbes and their hosts. Cell cultures have traditionally been used to study the microbiome, but in our current day and age, advanced metagenomic techniques - such as 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and whole metagenomic shotgun sequencing - are better able to classify the microorganisms making up the microbiome. Utilizing metagenomics alone, however, does not allow for the study of the more complex effects of the microbiome, such as changes in gene expression and metabolic byproducts. Thus, incorporation of other modalities such as metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics, and metabolomics are needed to further elucidate the extensive intricacies of the skin microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-02-10
CmpDate: 2020-02-10

Mattei V, Murugesan S, Al Hashmi M, et al (2019)

Evaluation of Methods for the Extraction of Microbial DNA From Vaginal Swabs Used for Microbiome Studies.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:197.

Background: The composition of the microbiome in human body sites plays an important role in health. The vaginal environment is colonized by several species of bacteria that have a major influence on reproductive health. The advancement of sequencing technologies has made the assessment of the composition of the microbiota possible through microbial DNA extraction and sequencing. Therefore, it is of a paramount importance to select a sensitive and reproducible DNA extraction method, that facilitates isolation of microbial DNA with a sufficient quantity and purity, from microbial species living in the vaginal environment. Here, we have evaluated four different DNA extraction protocols from self-collected vaginal swabs. Methods: Five healthy female volunteers were enrolled in the study. Each donor was asked to self-collect 4 samples using Copan ESwab. DNA was extracted using Qiagen DNeasy kit and three modified protocols of the MoBio PowerSoil kit ("DNeasy PowerSoil" after acquisition from Qiagen). DNA quantity and integrity was checked through Nanodrop and LabChip GX. DNA was further tested through quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) and 16S sequencing. Vaginal microbiota diversities were determined using MiSeq-Illumina high-throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rDNA V1-V3 fingerprint. Sequencing data were analyzed using QIIME pipeline. Results: Qiagen DNeasy protocol resulted in the highest DNA yield as compared to the modified protocols of MoBio Powersoil kit. The size of the DNA extracted using each protocol was ~40 kb. Qiagen DNeasy protocol gave the highest Genomic Quality Score (average ± standard deviation: 4.24 ± 0.36), followed by the different MoBio Powersoil protocols. A substantial variability in microbial DNA abundance was found across the protocols. The vaginal microbiota of the healthy volunteers was dominated by Lactobacillus species. MoBio Powersoil kit provided a significantly higher alpha diversity as compared to the Qiagen DNeasy kit, while beta diversity measures did not reveal any significant cluster changes, except when the Bray-Curtis method was applied. Conclusion: We were able to isolate microbial DNA from the vaginal swabs. Qiagen DNeasy method gave the highest DNA yield and quality but was not optimal in detecting microbial diversity. The modified MoBio PowerSoil protocols showed higher microbial diversities as compared to the standard protocol.

RevDate: 2020-02-10
CmpDate: 2020-02-10

Wang S, El-Fahmawi A, Christian DA, et al (2019)

Infection-Induced Intestinal Dysbiosis Is Mediated by Macrophage Activation and Nitrate Production.

mBio, 10(3): pii:mBio.00935-19.

Oral infection of C57BL/6J mice with Toxoplasma gondii results in a marked bacterial dysbiosis and the development of severe pathology in the distal small intestine that is dependent on CD4+ T cells and interferon gamma (IFN-γ). This dysbiosis and bacterial translocation contribute to the development of ileal pathology, but the factors that support the bloom of bacterial pathobionts are unclear. The use of microbial community profiling and shotgun metagenomics revealed that Toxoplasma infection induces a dysbiosis dominated by Enterobacteriaceae and an increased potential for nitrate respiration. In vivo experiments using bacterial metabolic mutants revealed that during this infection, host-derived nitrate supports the expansion of Enterobacteriaceae in the ileum via nitrate respiration. Additional experiments with infected mice indicate that the IFN-γ/STAT1/iNOS axis, while essential for parasite control, also supplies a pool of nitrate that serves as a source for anaerobic respiration and supports overgrowth of Enterobacteriaceae Together, these data reveal a trade-off in intestinal immunity after oral infection of C57BL/6J mice with T. gondii, in which inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) is required for parasite control, while this host enzyme is responsible for specific modification of the composition of the microbiome that contributes to pathology.IMPORTANCEToxoplasma gondii is a protozoan parasite and a leading cause of foodborne illness. Infection is initiated when the parasite invades the intestinal epithelium, and in many host species, this leads to intense inflammation and a dramatic disruption of the normal microbial ecosystem that resides in the healthy gut (the so-called microbiome). One characteristic change in the microbiome during infection with Toxoplasma-as well as numerous other pathogens-is the overgrowth of Escherichia coli or similar bacteria and a breakdown of commensal containment leading to seeding of peripheral organs with gut bacteria and subsequent sepsis. Our findings provide one clear explanation for how this process is regulated, thereby improving our understanding of the relationship between parasite infection, inflammation, and disease. Furthermore, our results could serve as the basis for the development of novel therapeutics to reduce the potential for harmful bacteria to bloom in the gut during infection.

RevDate: 2020-02-10
CmpDate: 2020-02-10

Carrasco J, Tello ML, de Toro M, et al (2019)

Casing microbiome dynamics during button mushroom cultivation: implications for dry and wet bubble diseases.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 165(6):611-624.

The casing material required in mushroom cultivation presents a very rich ecological niche, which is inhabited by a diverse population of bacteria and fungi. In this work three different casing materials, blonde peat, black peat and a 50 : 50 mixture of both, were compared for their capacity to show a natural suppressive response against dry bubble, Lecanicillium fungicola (Preuss) Zare and Gams, and wet bubble, Mycogone perniciosa (Magnus) Delacroix. The highest mushroom production was collected from crops cultivated using the mixed casing and black peat, which were not significantly different in yield. However, artificial infection with mycoparasites resulted in similar yield losses irrespective of the material used, indicating that the casing materials do not confer advantages in disease suppression. The composition of the microbiome of the 50 : 50 casing mixture along the crop cycle and the compost and basidiomes was evaluated through next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene and the fungal ITS2 region. Once colonized by Agaricus bisporus, the bacterial diversity of the casing microbiome increased and the fungal diversity drastically decreased. From then on, the composition of the casing microbiome remained relatively stable. Analysis of the composition of the bacterial microbiome in basidiomes indicated that it is highly influenced by the casing microbiota. Notably, L. fungicola was consistently detected in uninoculated control samples of compost and casing using NGS, even in asymptomatic crops. This suggests that the naturally established casing microbiota was able to help to suppress disease development when inoculum levels were low, but was not effective in suppressing high pressure from artificially introduced fungal inoculum. Determination of the composition of the casing microbiome paves the way for the development of synthetic casing communities that can be used to investigate the role of specific components of the casing microbiota in mushroom production and disease control.

RevDate: 2020-02-10
CmpDate: 2020-02-10

Paul VJ, Freeman CJ, V Agarwal (2019)

Chemical Ecology of Marine Sponges: New Opportunities through "-Omics".

Integrative and comparative biology, 59(4):765-776.

The chemical ecology and chemical defenses of sponges have been investigated for decades; consequently, sponges are among the best understood marine organisms in terms of their chemical ecology, from the level of molecules to ecosystems. Thousands of natural products have been isolated and characterized from sponges, and although relatively few of these compounds have been studied for their ecological functions, some are known to serve as chemical defenses against predators, microorganisms, fouling organisms, and other competitors. Sponges are hosts to an exceptional diversity of microorganisms, with almost 40 microbial phyla found in these associations to date. Microbial community composition and abundance are highly variable across host taxa, with a continuum from diverse assemblages of many microbial taxa to those that are dominated by a single microbial group. Microbial communities expand the nutritional repertoire of their hosts by providing access to inorganic and dissolved sources of nutrients. Not only does this continuum of microorganism-sponge associations lead to divergent nutritional characteristics in sponges, these associated microorganisms and symbionts have long been suspected, and are now known, to biosynthesize some of the natural products found in sponges. Modern "omics" tools provide ways to study these sponge-microbe associations that would have been difficult even a decade ago. Metabolomics facilitate comparisons of sponge compounds produced within and among taxa, and metagenomics and metatranscriptomics provide tools to understand the biology of host-microbe associations and the biosynthesis of ecologically relevant natural products. These combinations of ecological, microbiological, metabolomic and genomics tools, and techniques provide unprecedented opportunities to advance sponge biology and chemical ecology across many marine ecosystems.

RevDate: 2020-02-10
CmpDate: 2020-02-10

Kraberger S, Cook CN, Schmidlin K, et al (2019)

Diverse single-stranded DNA viruses associated with honey bees (Apis mellifera).

Infection, genetics and evolution : journal of molecular epidemiology and evolutionary genetics in infectious diseases, 71:179-188.

Honey bees (Apis mellifera) research has increased in light of their progressive global decline over the last decade and the important role they play in pollination. One expanding area of honey bee research is analysis of their microbial community including viruses. Several RNA viruses have been characterized but little is known about DNA viruses associated with bees. Here, using a metagenomics based approach, we reveal the presence of a broad range of novel single-stranded DNA viruses from the hemolymph and brain of nurse and forager (worker divisions of labour) bees belonging to two honey bees subspecies, Italian (Apis mellifera linguistica) and New World Carniolan (Apis mellifera carnica). Genomes of 100 diverse viruses were identified, designated into three groupings; genomoviruses (family Genomoviridae) (n = 4), unclassified replication associated protein encoding single-stranded DNA viruses (n = 28), and microviruses (family Microviridae; subfamily Gokushovirinae) (n = 70). Amongst the viruses identified, it appears that nurses harbour a higher diversity of these viruses comparative to the foragers. Between subspecies, the most striking outcome was the extremely high number of diverse microviruses identified in the Italian bees comparative to the New World Carniolan, likely indicating an association to the diversity of the bacterial community associated with these subspecies.

RevDate: 2020-02-10
CmpDate: 2020-02-10

Bjørkhaug ST, Aanes H, Neupane SP, et al (2019)

Characterization of gut microbiota composition and functions in patients with chronic alcohol overconsumption.

Gut microbes, 10(6):663-675.

Excessive alcohol intake can alter the gut microbiota, which may underlie the pathophysiology of alcohol-related diseases. We examined gut microbiota composition and functions in patients with alcohol overconsumption for >10 years, compared to a control group of patients with a history of no or low alcohol intake. Faecal microbiota composition was assessed by 16S rRNA sequencing. Gut microbiota functions were evaluated by quantification of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and predictive metagenome profiling (PICRUSt). Twenty-four patients, mean age 64.8 years (19 males), with alcohol overconsumption, and 18 control patients, mean age 58.2 years (14 males) were included. The two groups were comparable regarding basic clinical variables. Nutritional assessment revealed lower total score on the screening tool Mini Nutritional Assessment, lower muscle mass as assessed by handgrip strength, and lower plasma vitamin C levels in the alcohol overconsumption group. Bacteria from phylum Proteobacteria were found in higher relative abundance, while bacteria from genus Faecalibacterium were found in lower relative abundance in the group of alcohol overconsumers. The group also had higher levels of the genera Sutterella, Holdemania and Clostridium, and lower concentration and percentage of butyric acid. When applying PICRUSt to predict the metagenomic composition, we found that genes related to invasion of epithelial cells were more common in the group of alcohol overconsumers. We conclude that gut microbiota composition and functions in patients with alcohol overconsumption differ from patients with low consumption of alcohol, and seem to be skewed into a putative pro-inflammatory direction.

RevDate: 2020-02-10
CmpDate: 2020-02-10

Park H, Laffin MR, Jovel J, et al (2019)

The success of fecal microbial transplantation in Clostridium difficile infection correlates with bacteriophage relative abundance in the donor: a retrospective cohort study.

Gut microbes, 10(6):676-687.

Background: Fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) is used in the treatment of relapsing Clostridium difficile infection (rCDI). Failure rate for FMT is as high as 10% but the mechanisms contributing to a failed FMT are not understood. We utilized metagenomic data to identify the role of bacteria and bacteriophages on FMT success.Results: Subjects with rCDI (n = 19) received FMT from volunteer donors (n = 7) via colonoscopy. Twelve patients fully recovered after a single FMT, while seven patients required a subsequent FMT. DNA was extracted from patient and donor stool samples for shotgun metagenomic analysis. Metagenomics libraries were analyzed focusing on bacterial taxonomy and bacteriophage sequences. Gammaproteobacteria were dominant in rCDI patients prior to FMT largely due to elevated levels of Klebsiella and Escherichia. A successful FMT led to increased levels of Clostridia and Bacteroidia and a reduction in Gammaproteobacteria. In contrast, a failed FMT led to no significant changes in bacterial composition. Bacteriophages were classified during whole metagenomic analysis of each sample and were markedly different between rCDI patients, donors, and a healthy control cohort (n = 96). Bacteriophage sequence reads were increased in CDI patients compared with donors and healthy controls. Successful FMT donors had higher bacteriophage α-diversity and lower relative abundance compared to the donors of a failed initial FMT.Conclusions: In this retrospective analysis, FMTs with increased bacteriophage α-diversity were more likely to successfully treat rCDI. In addition, the relative number of bacteriophage reads was lower in donations leading to a successful FMT. These results suggest that bacteriophage abundance may have some role in determining the relative success of FMT.

RevDate: 2020-02-10
CmpDate: 2020-02-10

Ruppé E, J Schrenzel (2019)

Messages from the third International Conference on Clinical Metagenomics (ICCMg3).

Microbes and infection, 21(7):273-277.

Clinical metagenomics (CMg), referring to as the application of metagenomic sequencing of clinical samples in order to recover clinically-relevant information, has been rapidly evolving these last years. Following this trend, we held the third International Conference on Clinical Metagenomics (ICCMg3) in Geneva in October 2018. During the two days of the conference, several aspects of CMg were addressed, which we propose to summarize in the present manuscript. During this ICCMg3, we kept on following the progresses achieved worldwide on clinical metagenomics, but also this year in clinical genomics. Besides, the use of metagenomics in cancer diagnostic and management was addressed. Some new challenges have also been raised such as the way to report clinical (meta)genomics output to clinicians and the pivotal place of ethics in this expanding field.

RevDate: 2020-02-10
CmpDate: 2020-02-10

Schiffer L, Azhar R, Shepherd L, et al (2019)

HMP16SData: Efficient Access to the Human Microbiome Project Through Bioconductor.

American journal of epidemiology, 188(6):1023-1026.

Phase 1 of the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) investigated 18 body subsites of 242 healthy American adults to produce the first comprehensive reference for the composition and variation of the "healthy" human microbiome. Publicly available data sets from amplicon sequencing of two 16S ribosomal RNA variable regions, with extensive controlled-access participant data, provide a reference for ongoing microbiome studies. However, utilization of these data sets can be hindered by the complex bioinformatic steps required to access, import, decrypt, and merge the various components in formats suitable for ecological and statistical analysis. The HMP16SData package provides count data for both 16S ribosomal RNA variable regions, integrated with phylogeny, taxonomy, public participant data, and controlled participant data for authorized researchers, using standard integrative Bioconductor data objects. By removing bioinformatic hurdles of data access and management, HMP16SData enables epidemiologists with only basic R skills to quickly analyze HMP data.

RevDate: 2020-02-07
CmpDate: 2020-02-07

Giannattasio-Ferraz S, Laguardia-Nascimento M, Gasparini MR, et al (2019)

A common vaginal microbiota composition among breeds of Bos taurus indicus (Gyr and Nellore).

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology], 50(4):1115-1124.

Describing the bovine vaginal microbiota is essential to better understand its physiology and its impact on health maintenance. Despite the economic importance of reproduction of these animals, bovine vaginal microbial community is still poorly described in comparison with rumen microbiome. Previous studies of our group described the vaginal microbiota of Nellore, an important Bos taurus indicus breed, using metagenomics. In order to better understand this microbiota, the present work aims to investigate another important breed, Gyr. Results have shown bacterial dominance over Archaea and Fungi was observed, with the most abundant bacterial phylum (Firmicutes) representing 40-50% of bacterial population, followed by Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria. The Fungi kingdom had the Mycosphaerella genus as its main representative, followed by Cladosporium. Archaea were observed at a very low abundance in all animals, with a high relative abundance of Methanobrevibacter genus. These results demonstrate a high microbial diversity on vaginal tract of Gyr, as demonstrated for Nellore and different from the previously described for other species. Our results indicate a great similarity between vaginal microbiota of Nellore and Gyr despite the differences in animal handling and genetic improvement. As observed for both breeds, individual variation is the largest source of microbial diversity between animals.

RevDate: 2020-02-05
CmpDate: 2020-02-05

Kang JB, Siranosian BA, Moss EL, et al (2019)

Intestinal microbiota domination under extreme selective pressures characterized by metagenomic read cloud sequencing and assembly.

BMC bioinformatics, 20(Suppl 16):585.

BACKGROUND: Low diversity of the gut microbiome, often progressing to the point of intestinal domination by a single species, has been linked to poor outcomes in patients undergoing hematopoietic cell transplantation (HCT). Our ability to understand how certain organisms attain intestinal domination over others has been restricted in part by current metagenomic sequencing technologies that are typically unable to reconstruct complete genomes for individual organisms present within a sequenced microbial community. We recently developed a metagenomic read cloud sequencing and assembly approach that generates improved draft genomes for individual organisms compared to conventional short-read sequencing and assembly methods. Herein, we applied metagenomic read cloud sequencing to four stool samples collected longitudinally from an HCT patient preceding treatment and over the course of heavy antibiotic exposure.

RESULTS: Characterization of microbiome composition by taxonomic classification of reads reveals that that upon antibiotic exposure, the subject's gut microbiome experienced a marked decrease in diversity and became dominated by Escherichia coli. While diversity is restored at the final time point, this occurs without recovery of the original species and strain-level composition. Draft genomes for individual organisms within each sample were generated using both read cloud and conventional assembly. Read clouds were found to improve the completeness and contiguity of genome assemblies compared to conventional assembly. Moreover, read clouds enabled the placement of antibiotic resistance genes present in multiple copies both within a single draft genome and across multiple organisms. The occurrence of resistance genes associates with the timing of antibiotics administered to the patient, and comparative genomic analysis of the various intestinal E. coli strains across time points as well as the bloodstream isolate showed that the subject's E. coli bloodstream infection likely originated from the intestine. The E. coli genome from the initial pre-transplant stool sample harbors 46 known antimicrobial resistance genes, while all other species from the pre-transplant sample each contain at most 5 genes, consistent with a model of heavy antibiotic exposure resulting in selective outgrowth of the highly antibiotic-resistant E. coli.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates the application and utility of metagenomic read cloud sequencing and assembly to study the underlying strain-level genomic factors influencing gut microbiome dynamics under extreme selective pressures in the clinical context of HCT.

RevDate: 2020-02-03
CmpDate: 2020-02-03

Wang Y, Shi Q, Yang P, et al (2019)

Fueling ab initio folding with marine metagenomics enables structure and function predictions of new protein families.

Genome biology, 20(1):229.

INTRODUCTION: The ocean microbiome represents one of the largest microbiomes and produces nearly half of the primary energy on the planet through photosynthesis or chemosynthesis. Using recent advances in marine genomics, we explore new applications of oceanic metagenomes for protein structure and function prediction.

RESULTS: By processing 1.3 TB of high-quality reads from the Tara Oceans data, we obtain 97 million non-redundant genes. Of the 5721 Pfam families that lack experimental structures, 2801 have at least one member associated with the oceanic metagenomics dataset. We apply C-QUARK, a deep-learning contact-guided ab initio structure prediction pipeline, to model 27 families, where 20 are predicted to have a reliable fold with estimated template modeling score (TM-score) at least 0.5. Detailed analyses reveal that the abundance of microbial genera in the ocean is highly correlated to the frequency of occurrence in the modeled Pfam families, suggesting the significant role of the Tara Oceans genomes in the contact-map prediction and subsequent ab initio folding simulations. Of interesting note, PF15461, which has a majority of members coming from ocean-related bacteria, is identified as an important photosynthetic protein by structure-based function annotations. The pipeline is extended to a set of 417 Pfam families, built on the combination of Tara with other metagenomics datasets, which results in 235 families with an estimated TM-score over 0.5.

CONCLUSIONS: These results demonstrate a new avenue to improve the capacity of protein structure and function modeling through marine metagenomics, especially for difficult proteins with few homologous sequences.

RevDate: 2020-02-03
CmpDate: 2020-02-03

Sanders JG, Nurk S, Salido RA, et al (2019)

Optimizing sequencing protocols for leaderboard metagenomics by combining long and short reads.

Genome biology, 20(1):226.

As metagenomic studies move to increasing numbers of samples, communities like the human gut may benefit more from the assembly of abundant microbes in many samples, rather than the exhaustive assembly of fewer samples. We term this approach leaderboard metagenome sequencing. To explore protocol optimization for leaderboard metagenomics in real samples, we introduce a benchmark of library prep and sequencing using internal references generated by synthetic long-read technology, allowing us to evaluate high-throughput library preparation methods against gold-standard reference genomes derived from the samples themselves. We introduce a low-cost protocol for high-throughput library preparation and sequencing.

RevDate: 2020-02-04
CmpDate: 2020-02-04

Kaehler BD, Bokulich NA, McDonald D, et al (2019)

Species abundance information improves sequence taxonomy classification accuracy.

Nature communications, 10(1):4643.

Popular naive Bayes taxonomic classifiers for amplicon sequences assume that all species in the reference database are equally likely to be observed. We demonstrate that classification accuracy degrades linearly with the degree to which that assumption is violated, and in practice it is always violated. By incorporating environment-specific taxonomic abundance information, we demonstrate a significant increase in the species-level classification accuracy across common sample types. At the species level, overall average error rates decline from 25% to 14%, which is favourably comparable to the error rates that existing classifiers achieve at the genus level (16%). Our findings indicate that for most practical purposes, the assumption that reference species are equally likely to be observed is untenable. q2-clawback provides a straightforward alternative for samples from common environments.

RevDate: 2020-02-03
CmpDate: 2020-02-03

Berman HL, McLaren MR, BJ Callahan (2020)

Understanding and interpreting community sequencing measurements of the vaginal microbiome.

BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 127(2):139-146.

Community-wide high-throughput sequencing has transformed the study of the vaginal microbiome, and clinical applications are on the horizon. Here we outline the three main community sequencing methods: (1) amplicon sequencing, (2) shotgun metagenomic sequencing, and (3) metatranscriptomic sequencing. We discuss the advantages and limitations of community sequencing generally, and the unique strengths and weaknesses of each method. We briefly review the contributions of community sequencing to vaginal microbiome research and practice. We develop suggestions for critically interpreting research results and potential clinical applications based on community sequencing of the vaginal microbiome. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: We review the advantages and limitations of amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and metatranscriptomics methods for the study of the vaginal microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-02-03
CmpDate: 2020-02-03

O'Callaghan JL, Turner R, Dekker Nitert M, et al (2020)

Re-assessing microbiomes in the low-biomass reproductive niche.

BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 127(2):147-158.

The female reproductive tract represents a continuum between the vagina and the upper genital tract. New evidence from cultivation-independent studies suggests that the female upper genital tract is not sterile; however, the significance of this for reproductive health and disease remains to be elucidated fully. Further, diagnosis and treatment of infectious reproductive tract pathologies using cultivation-independent technologies represents a largely unchartered area of modern medical science. The challenge now is to design well-controlled experiments to account for the ease of contamination known to confound molecular-based studies of low-biomass niches, including the uterus and placenta. This will support robust assessment of the potential function of microorganisms, microbial metabolites, and cell-free bacterial DNA on reproductive function in health and disease. TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Molecular microbial studies of low-biomass niches require stringent experimental controls to reveal causal relations in reproductive health and disease.

RevDate: 2020-02-05
CmpDate: 2020-02-05

Torres GG, Figueroa-Galvis I, Muñoz-García A, et al (2019)

Potential bacterial bioindicators of urban pollution in mangroves.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 255(Pt 2):113293.

Despite their ecological and socioeconomic importance, mangroves are among the most threatened tropical environments in the world. In the past two decades, the world's mangrove degradation and loss were estimated to lie between an 35% and >80%. However, appropriate bioindicators for assessing the impact of external factors, and for differentiating polluted from unpolluted areas are still scarce. Here, we determine the physicochemical profiles of the soils of two mangroves, one exposed to and one not exposed to anthropogenic factors. By metagenomic analysis based on 16S rRNA, we generated the bacterial diversity profiles of the soils and estimated their functional profiles. Our results showed that the two examined mangrove forests differed significantly in the physicochemical properties of the soils, especially regarding organic carbon, phosphorus and metal content, as well as in their microbial communities, which was likely caused by anthropogenic pollution. The physicochemical differences between the soils explained 76% of the differential bacterial composition, and 64% depended solely on gradients of phosphorus, metal ions and potassium. We found two genera JL-ETNP-Z39 and TA06 exclusively in polluted and non-polluted mangroves, respectively. Additionally, the polluted mangrove was enriched in Gemmatimonadetes, Cyanobacteria, Chloroflexi, Firmicutes, Acidobacteria, and Nitrospirae. A total of 77 genera were affected by anthropic contamination, of which we propose 33 as bioindicators; 26 enriched, and 7 depleted upon pollution.

RevDate: 2020-02-03
CmpDate: 2020-02-03

Jahn MT, Arkhipova K, Markert SM, et al (2019)

A Phage Protein Aids Bacterial Symbionts in Eukaryote Immune Evasion.

Cell host & microbe, 26(4):542-550.e5.

Phages are increasingly recognized as important members of host-associated microbiomes, with a vast genomic diversity. The new frontier is to understand how phages may affect higher order processes, such as in the context of host-microbe interactions. Here, we use marine sponges as a model to investigate the interplay between phages, bacterial symbionts, and eukaryotic hosts. Using viral metagenomics, we find that sponges, although massively filtering seawater, harbor species-specific and even individually unique viral signatures that are taxonomically distinct from other environments. We further discover a symbiont phage-encoded ankyrin-domain-containing protein, which is widely spread in phages of many host-associated contexts including human. We confirm in macrophage infection assays that the ankyrin protein (ANKp) modulates the eukaryotic host immune response against bacteria. We predict that the role of ANKp in nature is to facilitate coexistence in the tripartite interplay between phages, symbionts, and sponges and possibly many other host-microbe associations.

RevDate: 2020-02-05
CmpDate: 2020-02-05

Planes S, Allemand D, Agostini S, et al (2019)

The Tara Pacific expedition-A pan-ecosystemic approach of the "-omics" complexity of coral reef holobionts across the Pacific Ocean.

PLoS biology, 17(9):e3000483.

Coral reefs are the most diverse habitats in the marine realm. Their productivity, structural complexity, and biodiversity critically depend on ecosystem services provided by corals that are threatened because of climate change effects-in particular, ocean warming and acidification. The coral holobiont is composed of the coral animal host, endosymbiotic dinoflagellates, associated viruses, bacteria, and other microeukaryotes. In particular, the mandatory photosymbiosis with microalgae of the family Symbiodiniaceae and its consequences on the evolution, physiology, and stress resilience of the coral holobiont have yet to be fully elucidated. The functioning of the holobiont as a whole is largely unknown, although bacteria and viruses are presumed to play roles in metabolic interactions, immunity, and stress tolerance. In the context of climate change and anthropogenic threats on coral reef ecosystems, the Tara Pacific project aims to provide a baseline of the "-omics" complexity of the coral holobiont and its ecosystem across the Pacific Ocean and for various oceanographically distinct defined areas. Inspired by the previous Tara Oceans expeditions, the Tara Pacific expedition (2016-2018) has applied a pan-ecosystemic approach on coral reefs throughout the Pacific Ocean, drawing an east-west transect from Panama to Papua New Guinea and a south-north transect from Australia to Japan, sampling corals throughout 32 island systems with local replicates. Tara Pacific has developed and applied state-of-the-art technologies in very-high-throughput genetic sequencing and molecular analysis to reveal the entire microbial and chemical diversity as well as functional traits associated with coral holobionts, together with various measures on environmental forcing. This ambitious project aims at revealing a massive amount of novel biodiversity, shedding light on the complex links between genomes, transcriptomes, metabolomes, organisms, and ecosystem functions in coral reefs and providing a reference of the biological state of modern coral reefs in the Anthropocene.

RevDate: 2020-02-04
CmpDate: 2020-02-04

Zhong H, Ren H, Lu Y, et al (2019)

Distinct gut metagenomics and metaproteomics signatures in prediabetics and treatment-naïve type 2 diabetics.

EBioMedicine, 47:373-383.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiota plays important roles in modulating host metabolism. Previous studies have demonstrated differences in the gut microbiome of T2D and prediabetic individuals compared to healthy individuals, with distinct disease-related microbial profiles being reported in groups of different age and ethnicity. However, confounding factors such as anti-diabetic medication hamper identification of the gut microbial changes in disease development.

METHOD: We used a combination of in-depth metagenomics and metaproteomics analyses of faecal samples from treatment-naïve type 2 diabetic (TN-T2D, n = 77), pre-diabetic (Pre-DM, n = 80), and normal glucose tolerant (NGT, n = 97) individuals to investigate compositional and functional changes of the gut microbiota and the faecal content of microbial and host proteins in Pre-DM and treatment-naïve T2D individuals to elucidate possible host-microbial interplays characterizing different disease stages.

FINDINGS: We observed distinct differences characterizing the gut microbiota of these three groups and validated several key features in an independent TN-T2D cohort. We also demonstrated that the content of several human antimicrobial peptides and pancreatic enzymes differed in faecal samples between three groups.

INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest a complex, disease stage-dependent interplay between the gut microbiota and the host and point to the value of metaproteomics to gain further insight into interplays between the gut microbiota and the host. FUND: The study was supported by the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 31601073), the National Key Research and Development Program of China (No. 2017YFC0909703) and the Shenzhen Municipal Government of China (No. JCYJ20170817145809215). The funders had no role in study design, data collection and analysis, decision to publish, or preparation of the manuscript.

RevDate: 2020-02-03
CmpDate: 2020-02-03

Ari O, Karabudak S, Kalcioglu MT, et al (2019)

The bacteriome of otitis media with effusion: Does it originate from the adenoid?.

International journal of pediatric otorhinolaryngology, 126:109624.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the composition and the diversity of bacteriome in middle ear effusion (MEE) and adenoid specimens of pediatric patients having otitis media with effusion (OME).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample collection from children with OME followed by next generation sequencing. Seventeen adenoid and 43 middle ear effusion specimens from 25 children having OME were evaluated. Microbiome analysis was performed via Ion 16S rRNA metagenomics kit.

RESULTS: Twenty-two different bacterial species were identified from all of the samples analyzed. There were variations in the prevalence and relative abundance of the bacteriome observed between adenoid and MEE samples. MEE microbiome was significantly dominated by Alloicoccus otitis (44%), Turicella otitidis (6%), and Staphylococcus auricularis (3%). Whereas, Rothia mucilaginosa (39%), R. dentocariosa (11%), S. aureus (5%), Veillonella rogosae (2%), Granulicatella elegans (2%), Granulicatella adiacens (2%), Eikenella corrodens (1%), and Prevotella nanceiensis (1%) had significantly higher relative abundance in adenoid samples. Overall, there was no statistically significant difference in alpha diversity of MEE and adenoid samples, whereas adenoid samples constituted a cluster in the beta diversity graph.

CONCLUSION: Bacteriome of MEE is mostly dominated by A. otitis yet accompanied by other bacteria with lower relative abundances suggests that OME is likely to be a polymicrobial process. Despite similarities, significant differences in relative abundances of several predominant species between bacteriome in the MEE and adenoid put the theory that OME in children is originated from the adenoids under question.

RevDate: 2020-02-03
CmpDate: 2020-02-03

Kuperman AA, Zimmerman A, Hamadia S, et al (2020)

Deep microbial analysis of multiple placentas shows no evidence for a placental microbiome.

BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 127(2):159-169.

OBJECTIVES: To resolve the controversy regarding the presence of a microbiota in the placenta.

DESIGN: Classical and molecular microbiological study.

SETTING: All samples were collected during caesarean section.

POPULATION: A total of 28 human placentas and six murine placentas.

METHODS: All 28 human placentas were checked for 16S rRNA gene amplification products. Three locations from four selected human placentas and three 'environmental controls' for each placenta were placed in seven culture media. The four selected human placentas were further analysed using Gram stain, immunohistochemistry for bacteria, electron microscopy, and TaqMan RT-qPCR. Six placentas from three SPF mice were cut into four pieces each, and further analysed for 16S rRNA gene amplification.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Microbiological and molecular evidence of bacteria.

RESULTS: None of the placental cultures used for the full analysis, or their environmental cultures, was positive for bacterial growth. None of the other methods showed any evidence of bacteria. Immunohistochemistry showed negligible bacterial counts. None of the murine placentas showed evidence of 16S rRNA gene amplification.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results support that the fetal environment in the womb is sterile. Based on the immunohistochemistry and the limit of detection of the other methods used, if a placental microbiome exists, it is of extreme low biomass, and thus its effect on clinical phenotypes is probably minor, if it exists at all.

TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Using several microbiological and molecular methods in parallel, we found no compelling evidence of bacteria in human and mouse placentas.

RevDate: 2020-02-03
CmpDate: 2020-02-03

Williams GM, Leary SD, Ajami NJ, et al (2019)

Gut microbiome analysis by post: Evaluation of the optimal method to collect stool samples from infants within a national cohort study.

PloS one, 14(6):e0216557 pii:PONE-D-19-00084.

BACKGROUND: Understanding the role of the gut microbiome is pivotal for the future development of therapies for the prevention and management of autoimmune conditions such as type 1 diabetes when sampling during early life may be particularly important. The current standard methods for collecting gut microbiome samples for research is to extract fresh samples or freeze samples immediately after collection. This is often impractical however for population-based studies. The aim of this study was to determine the optimal method for the stabilization of stool bacterial DNA obtained from nappies and transported by post in ambient conditions to the research centre for a national birth cohort study.

METHODS: Four methods to collect samples were compared to immediate freezing of samples: 1) collecting faeces onto a swab which was immediately frozen, 2) using a commercially available kit with stabilisation solution (OMNIgene•GUT kit) at ambient temperature, 3) collecting onto a swab and 4) collecting into a sterile plain tube. Samples 3) and 4) were returned to the laboratory by post at ambient temperatures. A Bland Altman analysis was used to assess the agreement between the different methods and the frozen standard.

RESULTS: Stool samples were collected by parents. For samples transported in ambient conditions, the limits of agreement showed that the OMNIgene•GUT kit had the narrowest 95% limits of agreement with the frozen standard as measured by the number of operational taxonomic units and the Shannon diversity index.

CONCLUSIONS: All methods assessed for preserving samples collected from nappies at a distance and delivered by post for gut microbiome analysis showed variation / disagreement from the frozen standard. Overall, the OMNIgene•GUT kit preserved the samples with minimal changes compared to other methods and was practical for parents to use.

RevDate: 2020-02-04
CmpDate: 2020-02-04

Zuo K, Li J, Li K, et al (2019)

Disordered gut microbiota and alterations in metabolic patterns are associated with atrial fibrillation.

GigaScience, 8(6):.

BACKGROUND: With the establishment of the heart-gut axis concept, accumulating studies suggest that the gut microbiome plays an important role in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Yet, little evidence has been reported in characterizing the gut microbiota shift in atrial fibrillation.

METHODS: We include the result of the global alterations that occur in the intestinal microbiota in a cohort of 50 patients with atrial fibrillation and 50 matched controls based on a strategy of metagenomic and metabolomic analyses.

RESULTS: The alterations include a dramatic elevation in microbial diversity and a specific perturbation of gut microbiota composition. Overgrowth of Ruminococcus, Streptococcus, and Enterococcus, as well as reduction of Faecalibacterium, Alistipes, Oscillibacter, and Bilophila were detected in patients with atrial fibrillation. A gut microbial function imbalance and correlated metabolic pattern changes were observed with atrial fibrillation in both fecal and serum samples. The differential gut microbiome signatures could be used to identify patients with atrial fibrillation.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings characterize the disordered gut microbiota and microbial metabolite profiles in atrial fibrillation. Further research could determine whether intervention strategies targeting intestinal microbiome composition might be useful to counteract the progression of atrial fibrillation.

RevDate: 2020-02-03
CmpDate: 2020-02-03

Czech L, A Stamatakis (2019)

Scalable methods for analyzing and visualizing phylogenetic placement of metagenomic samples.

PloS one, 14(5):e0217050 pii:PONE-D-18-18879.

BACKGROUND: The exponential decrease in molecular sequencing cost generates unprecedented amounts of data. Hence, scalable methods to analyze these data are required. Phylogenetic (or Evolutionary) Placement methods identify the evolutionary provenance of anonymous sequences with respect to a given reference phylogeny. This increasingly popular method is deployed for scrutinizing metagenomic samples from environments such as water, soil, or the human gut.

NOVEL METHODS: Here, we present novel and, more importantly, highly scalable methods for analyzing phylogenetic placements of metagenomic samples. More specifically, we introduce methods for (a) visualizing differences between samples and their correlation with associated meta-data on the reference phylogeny, (b) clustering similar samples using a variant of the k-means method, and (c) finding phylogenetic factors using an adaptation of the Phylofactorization method. These methods enable to interpret metagenomic data in a phylogenetic context, to find patterns in the data, and to identify branches of the phylogeny that are driving these patterns.

RESULTS: To demonstrate the scalability and utility of our methods, as well as to provide exemplary interpretations of our methods, we applied them to 3 publicly available datasets comprising 9782 samples with a total of approximately 168 million sequences. The results indicate that new biological insights can be attained via our methods.

RevDate: 2020-02-03
CmpDate: 2020-02-03

Coker MO, Hoen AG, Dade E, et al (2020)

Specific class of intrapartum antibiotics relates to maturation of the infant gut microbiota: a prospective cohort study.

BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology, 127(2):217-227.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential impact of intrapartum antibiotics, and their specific classes, on the infant gut microbiota in the first year of life.

DESIGN: Prospective study of infants in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study (NHBCS).

SETTINGS: Rural New Hampshire, USA.

POPULATION OR SAMPLE: Two hundred and sixty-six full-term infants from the NHBCS.

METHODS: Intrapartum antibiotic use during labour and delivery was abstracted from medical records. Faecal samples collected at 6 weeks and 1 year of age were characterised by 16S rRNA sequencing, and metagenomics analysis in a subset of samples.

EXPOSURES: Maternal exposure to antibiotics during labour and delivery.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Taxonomic and functional profiles of faecal samples.

RESULTS: Infant exposure to intrapartum antibiotics, particularly to two or more antibiotic classes, was independently associated with lower microbial diversity scores as well as a unique bacterial community at 6 weeks (GUnifrac, P = 0.02). At 1 year, infants in the penicillin-only group had significantly lower α diversity scores than infants not exposed to intrapartum antibiotics. Within the first year of life, intrapartum exposure to penicillins was related to a significantly lower increase in several taxa including Bacteroides, use of cephalosporins was associated with a significantly lower rise over time in Bifidobacterium and infants in the multi-class group experienced a significantly higher increase in Veillonella dispar.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest that intrapartum antibiotics alter the developmental trajectory of the infant gut microbiome, and specific antibiotic types may impact community composition, diversity and keystone immune training taxa.

TWEETABLE ABSTRACT: Class of intrapartum antibiotics administered during delivery relates to maturation of infant gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2020-02-04
CmpDate: 2020-02-04

Hjorth MF, Blædel T, Bendtsen LQ, et al (2019)

Prevotella-to-Bacteroides ratio predicts body weight and fat loss success on 24-week diets varying in macronutrient composition and dietary fiber: results from a post-hoc analysis.

International journal of obesity (2005), 43(1):149-157.

BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Individuals with high pre-treatment bacterial Prevotella-to-Bacteroides (P/B) ratio have been reported to lose more body weight on diets high in fiber than subjects with a low P/B ratio. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to examine potential differences in dietary weight loss responses between participants with low and high P/B.

SUBJECTS/METHODS: Eighty overweight participants were randomized (52 completed) to a 500 kcal/d energy deficit diet with a macronutrient composition of 30 energy percentage (E%) fat, 52 E% carbohydrate and 18 E% protein either high (≈1500 mg calcium/day) or low (≤ 600 mg calcium/day) in dairy products for 24 weeks. Body weight, body fat, and dietary intake (by 7-day dietary records) were determined. Individuals were dichotomized according to their pre-treatment P/B ratio derived from 16S rRNA gene sequencing of collected fecal samples to test the potential modification of dietary effects using linear mixed models.

RESULTS: Independent of the randomized diets, individuals with high P/B lost 3.8 kg (95%CI, 1.8,5.8; P < 0.001) more body weight and 3.8 kg (95% CI, 1.1, 6.5; P = 0.005) more body fat compared to individuals with low P/B. After adjustment for multiple covariates, individuals with high P/B ratio lost 8.3 kg (95% CI, 5.8;10.9, P < 0.001) more body weight when consuming above compared to below 30 g fiber/10MJ whereas this weight loss was 3.2 kg (95% CI, 0.8;5.5, P = 0.008) among individuals with low P/B ratio [Mean difference: 5.1 kg (95% CI, 1.7;8.6, P = 0.003)]. Partial correlation coefficients between fiber intake and weight change was 0.90 (P < 0.001) among individuals with high P/B ratio and 0.25 (P = 0.29) among individuals with low P/B ratio.

CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with high P/B lost more body weight and body fat compared to individuals with low P/B, confirming that individuals with a high P/B are more susceptible to weight loss on a diet rich in fiber.

RevDate: 2020-02-01

Krotman Y, Yergaliyev TM, Alexander Shani R, et al (2020)

Dissecting the factors shaping fish skin microbiomes in a heterogeneous inland water system.

Microbiome, 8(1):9 pii:10.1186/s40168-020-0784-5.

BACKGROUND: Fish skin microbiomes are rarely studied in inland water systems, in spite of their importance for fish health and ecology. This is mainly because fish species distribution often covaries with other biotic and abiotic factors, complicating the study design. We tackled this issue in the northern part of the Jordan River system, in which a few fish species geographically overlap, across steep gradients of water temperature and salinity.

RESULTS: Using 16S rRNA metabarcoding, we studied the water properties that shape the skin bacterial communities, and their interaction with fish taxonomy. To better characterise the indigenous skin community, we excluded bacteria that were equally abundant in the skin samples and in the water samples, from our analysis of the skin samples. With this in mind, we found alpha diversity of the skin communities to be stable across sites, but higher in benthic loaches, compared to other fish. Beta diversity was found to be different among sites and to weakly covary with the dissolved oxygen, when treated skin communities were considered. In contrast, water temperature and conductivity were strong factors explaining beta diversity in the untreated skin communities. Beta diversity differences between co-occurring fish species emerged only for the treated skin communities. Metagenomics predictions highlighted the microbiome functional implications of excluding the water community contamination from the fish skin communities. Finally, we found that human-induced eutrophication promotes dysbiosis of the fish skin community, with signatures relating to fish health.

CONCLUSIONS: Consideration of the background water microbiome when studying fish skin microbiomes, across varying fish species and water properties, exposes patterns otherwise undetected and highlight among-fish-species differences. We suggest that sporadic nutrient pollution events, otherwise undetected, drive fish skin communities to dysbiosis. This finding is in line with a recent study, showing that biofilms capture sporadic pollution events, undetectable by interspersed water monitoring. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2020-01-29
CmpDate: 2020-01-29

Weinroth MD, Martin JN, Doster E, et al (2019)

Investigation of tylosin in feed of feedlot cattle and effects on liver abscess prevalence, and fecal and soil microbiomes and resistomes1.

Journal of animal science, 97(11):4567-4578.

Liver abscesses in feedlot cattle are detrimental to animal performance and economic return. Tylosin, a macrolide antibiotic, is used to reduce prevalence of liver abscesses, though there is variable efficacy among different groups of cattle. There is an increased importance in better understanding the etiology and pathogenesis of this condition because of growing concern over antibiotic resistance and increased scrutiny regarding use of antibiotics in food animal production. The objective of this study was to compare the microbiomes and antimicrobial resistance genes (resistomes) of feces of feedlot cattle administered or not administered tylosin and in their pen soil in 3 geographical regions with differing liver abscess prevalences. Cattle (total of 2,256) from 3 geographical regions were selected for inclusion based on dietary supplementation with tylosin (yes/no). Feces and pen soil samples were collected before harvest, and liver abscesses were identified at harvest. Shotgun and 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing were used to evaluate the soil and feces. Microbiome and resistome composition of feces (as compared by UniFrac distances and Euclidian distances, respectively) did not differ (P > 0.05) among tylosin or no tylosin-administered cattle. However, feedlot location was associated with differences (P ≤ 0.05) of resistomes and microbiomes. Using LASSO, a statistical model identified both fecal and soil microbial communities as predictive of liver abscess prevalence in pens. This model explained 75% of the variation in liver abscess prevalence, though a larger sample size would be needed to increase robustness of the model. These data suggest that tylosin exposure does not have a large impact on cattle resistomes or microbiomes, but instead, location of cattle production may be a stronger driver of both the resistome and microbiome composition of feces.

RevDate: 2020-01-28
CmpDate: 2020-01-28

Ghurye J, Treangen T, Fedarko M, et al (2019)

MetaCarvel: linking assembly graph motifs to biological variants.

Genome biology, 20(1):174 pii:10.1186/s13059-019-1791-3.

Reconstructing genomic segments from metagenomics data is a highly complex task. In addition to general challenges, such as repeats and sequencing errors, metagenomic assembly needs to tolerate the uneven depth of coverage among organisms in a community and differences between nearly identical strains. Previous methods have addressed these issues by smoothing genomic variants. We present a variant-aware metagenomic scaffolder called MetaCarvel, which combines new strategies for repeat detection with graph analytics for the discovery of variants. We show that MetaCarvel can accurately reconstruct genomic segments from complex microbial mixtures and correctly identify and characterize several classes of common genomic variants.

RevDate: 2020-01-28
CmpDate: 2020-01-28

Rhoades N, Barr T, Hendrickson S, et al (2019)

Maturation of the infant rhesus macaque gut microbiome and its role in the development of diarrheal disease.

Genome biology, 20(1):173 pii:10.1186/s13059-019-1789-x.

BACKGROUND: Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death in children under 5 years of age. Enhanced understanding of causal pathways, pathogenesis, and sequelae of diarrhea is urgently needed. Although the gut microbiota is believed to play a role in susceptibility to diarrheal diseases, our understanding of this association remains incomplete. Infant rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) are susceptible to diarrhea making them an ideal model to address this question.

RESULTS: The maturation of the infant rhesus macaque gut microbiome throughout the first 8 months of life occurs in a similar pattern as that described for human infants. Moreover, the microbiome of the captive reared infant rhesus macaque more closely resembles that of human infants in the developing world than in the western world. Importantly, prior to disease onset, the gut microbiome of infants that later develop diarrhea is enriched in pathways of immunomodulatory metabolite synthesis, while those of infants that remain asymptomatic are enriched in pathways for short-chain fatty acid production. We identify Prevotella strains that are more abundant at 1 month in infants that later develop diarrhea. At 8 months, the microbiomes of animals that experience diarrhea show increased abundance of Campylobacter and a reduction in Helicobacter macacae.

CONCLUSION: The composition of the microbial community could provide a phenotypic marker of an infant's susceptibility to diarrheal disease. Given the significant physiological and immunological similarities between human and nonhuman primates, these findings provide potential markers of susceptibility to diarrhea that could be modulated to improve infant health, especially in the developing world.

RevDate: 2020-01-28
CmpDate: 2020-01-28

Malmuthuge N, Liang G, LL Guan (2019)

Regulation of rumen development in neonatal ruminants through microbial metagenomes and host transcriptomes.

Genome biology, 20(1):172 pii:10.1186/s13059-019-1786-0.

BACKGROUND: In ruminants, early rumen development is vital for efficient fermentation that converts plant materials to human edible food such as milk and meat. Here, we investigate the extent and functional basis of host-microbial interactions regulating rumen development during the first 6 weeks of life.

RESULTS: The use of microbial metagenomics, together with quantification of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and qPCR, reveals the colonization of an active bacterial community in the rumen at birth. Colonization of active complex carbohydrate fermenters and archaea with methyl-coenzyme M reductase activity was also observed from the first week of life in the absence of a solid diet. Integrating microbial metagenomics and host transcriptomics reveals only 26.3% of mRNA transcripts, and 46.4% of miRNAs were responsive to VFAs, while others were ontogenic. Among these, one host gene module was positively associated with VFAs, while two other host gene modules and one miRNA module were negatively associated with VFAs. Eight host genes and five miRNAs involved in zinc ion binding-related transcriptional regulation were associated with a rumen bacterial cluster consisting of Prevotella, Bacteroides, and Ruminococcus.

CONCLUSION: This three-way interaction suggests a potential role of bacteria-driven transcriptional regulation in early rumen development via miRNAs. Our results reveal a highly active early microbiome that regulates rumen development of neonatal calves at the cellular level, and miRNAs may coordinate these host-microbial interactions.

RevDate: 2020-01-28
CmpDate: 2020-01-28

Evangelista DE, de Oliveira Arnoldi Pellegrini V, Santo ME, et al (2019)

Biochemical characterization and low-resolution SAXS shape of a novel GH11 exo-1,4-β-xylanase identified in a microbial consortium.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 103(19):8035-8049.

Biotechnologies that aim to produce renewable fuels, chemicals, and bioproducts from residual ligno(hemi)cellulosic biomass mostly rely on enzymatic depolymerization of plant cell walls (PCW). This process requires an arsenal of diverse enzymes, including xylanases, which synergistically act on the hemicellulose, reducing the long and complex xylan chains to oligomers and simple sugars. Thus, xylanases play a crucial role in PCW depolymerization. Until recently, the largest xylanase family, glycoside hydrolase family 11 (GH11) has been exclusively represented by endo-catalytic β-1,4- and β-1,3-xylanases. Analysis of a metatranscriptome library from a microbial lignocellulose community resulted in the identification of an unusual exo-acting GH11 β-1,4-xylanase (MetXyn11). Detailed characterization has been performed on recombinant MetXyn11 including determination of its low-resolution small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) molecular envelope in solution. Our results reveal that MetXyn11 is a monomeric globular enzyme that liberates xylobiose from heteroxylans as the only product. MetXyn11 has an optimal activity in a pH range from 6 to 9 and an optimal temperature of 50 °C. The enzyme maintained above 65% of its original activity in the pH range 5 to 6 after being incubated for 72 h at 50 °C. Addition of the enzyme to a commercial enzymatic cocktail (CelicCtec3) promoted a significant increase of enzymatic hydrolysis yields of hydrothermally pretreated sugarcane bagasse (16% after 24 h of hydrolysis).

RevDate: 2020-01-28
CmpDate: 2020-01-28

Chen J, Yu B, Chen D, et al (2019)

Changes of porcine gut microbiota in response to dietary chlorogenic acid supplementation.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 103(19):8157-8168.

Chlorogenic acids (CGA), the most abundant natural polyphenol present in human diet and plants, have attracted considerable research interest because of their broad bioactivities including the antimicrobial activity. However, little is known about their influences on intestinal bacterial communities. Here, we described a response in intestinal microbiome to CGA using a porcine model. Twenty-four weaned pigs were allotted to two groups and fed with a basal diet or a basal diet containing 1000 mg/kg CGA. Results showed that CGA significantly increased the length of the small intestine (P < 0.05) and enhanced the activity of diamine oxidase (DAO) and the concentration of MHC-II in the jejunal and ileal mucosa (P < 0.05). Moreover, the acetate concentration in ileum and cecum digesta, and the propionate and butyrate concentrations in the cecum digesta, were significantly elevated by CGA (P < 0.05). Interestingly, CGA significantly increased the total 16S rRNA gene copies and bacterial alpha diversity in the cecum (P < 0.05). The relative abundance of bacteria from phyla Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes was increased in the cecum digesta (P < 0.05), whereas the abundance of bacteria from phylum Protebacteria was decreased by CGA (P < 0.05). Importantly, pigs on CGA-containing diet had higher abundance of Lactobacillus spp., Prevotella spp., Anaerovibrio spp., and Alloprevotella spp. in the cecum (P < 0.05). Not only did our study suggest a synergic response of intestinal barrier function and microbiota to the CGA, but the result will also contribute to understanding of the mechanisms behind the CGA-modulated gut health.

RevDate: 2020-01-27
CmpDate: 2020-01-27

Gupta SK, Raza S, T Unno (2019)

Comparison of de-novo assembly tools for plasmid metagenome analysis.

Genes & genomics, 41(9):1077-1083.

BACKGROUND: With the advent of next-generation sequencing techniques, culture-independent metagenome approaches have now made it possible to predict possible presence of genes in the environmental bacteria most of which may be non-cultivable. Short reads obtained from the deep sequencing can be assembled into long contigs some of which include plasmids. Plasmids are the circular double stranded DNA in bacteria and known as one of the major carriers of antibiotic resistance genes.

OBJECTIVE: Metagenomic analyses, especially focused on plasmids, could help us predict dissemination mechanisms of antibiotic resistance genes in the environment. However, with the availability of a myriad of metagenomic assemblers, the selection of the most appropriate metagenome assembler for the plasmid metagenome study might be challenging. Therefore, in this study, we compared five open source assemblers to suggest most effective way of plasmid metagenome analysis.

METHODS: IDBA-UD, MEGAHIT, SPAdes, SOAPdenovo2, and Velvet are compared for conducting plasmid metagenome analyses using two water samples.

RESULTS: Our results clearly showed that abundance and types of antibiotic resistance genes on plasmids varied depending on the selection of assembly tools. IDBA-UD and MEGAHIT demonstrated the overall best assembly statistics with high N50 values with higher portion of longer contigs.

CONCLUSION: These two assemblers also detected more diverse plasmids. Among the two, MEGAHIT showed more memory efficient assembly, therefore we suggest that the use of MEGAHIT for plasmid metagenome analysis may offer more diverse plasmids with less computer resource required. Here, we also summarized a fundamental plasmid metagenome work flow, especially for antibiotic resistance gene investigation.

RevDate: 2020-01-24
CmpDate: 2020-01-24

Rehman ZU, Fortunato L, Cheng T, et al (2020)

Metagenomic analysis of sludge and early-stage biofilm communities of a submerged membrane bioreactor.

The Science of the total environment, 701:134682.

Biofilm formation on membranes in activated sludge membrane bioreactors (MBR), commonly identified as biofouling, is a significant problem for MBR operations. A better understanding of microbial species involved in the biofilm formation is needed to develop anti-biofilm measures. A read-based and genome-resolved shotgun metagenomic approach was applied to characterize the composition and functional potential of the sludge and early stage biofilm microbial communities in an MBR process. Read-based analysis revealed that the prevalence of different phyla are relatively similar in both the sludge and biofilm samples, with Proteobacteria as the most dominant, followed by Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes. However, the relative abundance of these phyla slightly varies between the sludge and biofilm. Phyla such as Actinobacteria, bacterial candidate phyla, Chlamydiae, Cyanobacteria/Melainabacteria and Firmicutes are 2 to 4 times more abundant in the biofilm than in the sludge. At the genus level, genera belonging to Proteobacteria (Legionella, Caulobacter, Sphingomonas, Acinetobacter and Rhizobium), Cyanobacteria (Hassallia), and Spirochaetes (Turneriella) are at least twice more abundant in the biofilm. These genera, especially those belonging to Phylum Proteobacteria, are known to play an important role in the formation of biofilms on surfaces. The Alpha diversity is found slightly higher in the biofilm, compared with sludge samples. Functional classification of reads through the SEED subsystem shows that functional classes such as those involved in the metabolism of various molecules are significantly different in the biofilm and sludge. A phylogenomic analysis of the six extracted metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) shows that three MAGs belong to Proteobacteria, and one MAG belong to each of Chloroflexi, Bacteroidetes and Planctomycetes. The relative abundance of the MAG belonging to Alphaproteobacteria is higher in the biofilm. A functional potential analysis of the MAGs reveals their potential to metabolize carbon and nitrogen sources, as well as the prevalence of antibiotic resistance genes.

RevDate: 2020-01-24
CmpDate: 2020-01-24

Steury RA, Currey MC, Cresko WA, et al (2019)

Population Genetic Divergence and Environment Influence the Gut Microbiome in Oregon Threespine Stickleback.

Genes, 10(7): pii:genes10070484.

Much of animal-associated microbiome research has been conducted in&nbsp;species&nbsp;for which little is known of their natural ecology and evolution.&nbsp;Microbiome studies that combine population genetic, environment, and geographic data for wild organisms can be very informative, especially in situations where host genetic variation and the environment both influence microbiome variation.&nbsp;The few studies that have&nbsp;related&nbsp;population genetic&nbsp;and microbiome variation in wild populations&nbsp;have been constrained by observation-based kinship data or&nbsp;incomplete genomic information. Here we&nbsp;integrate population genomic&nbsp;and microbiome analyses&nbsp;in wild threespine stickleback fish distributed throughout western Oregon, USA. We found that gut microbiome diversity and composition partitioned more among than within wild host populations and was better explained by host population genetic divergence than&nbsp;by environment and geography. We also identified gut microbial taxa that were most differentially abundant across environments and across genetically divergent populations. Our findings highlight the benefits of studies that investigate host-associated microbiomes in wild organisms.

RevDate: 2020-01-24
CmpDate: 2020-01-24

Namasivayam S, Kauffman KD, McCulloch JA, et al (2019)

Correlation between Disease Severity and the Intestinal Microbiome in Mycobacterium tuberculosis-Infected Rhesus Macaques.

mBio, 10(3): pii:mBio.01018-19.

The factors that determine host susceptibility to tuberculosis (TB) are poorly defined. The microbiota has been identified as a key influence on the nutritional, metabolic, and immunological status of the host, although its role in the pathogenesis of TB is currently unclear. Here, we investigated the influence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis exposure on the microbiome and conversely the impact of the intestinal microbiome on the outcome of M. tuberculosis exposure in a rhesus macaque model of tuberculosis. Animals were infected with different strains and doses of M. tuberculosis in three independent experiments, resulting in a range of disease severities. The compositions of the microbiotas were then assessed using a combination of 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing in fecal samples collected pre- and postinfection. Clustering analyses of the microbiota compositions revealed that alterations in the microbiome after M. tuberculosis infection were of much lower magnitude than the variability seen between individual monkeys. However, the microbiomes of macaques that developed severe disease were noticeably distinct from those of the animals with less severe disease as well as from each other. In particular, the bacterial families Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiaceae were enriched in monkeys that were more susceptible to infection, while numbers of Streptococcaceae were decreased. These findings in infected nonhuman primates reveal that certain baseline microbiome communities may strongly associate with the development of severe tuberculosis following infection and can be more important disease correlates than alterations to the microbiota following M. tuberculosis infection itself.IMPORTANCE Why some but not all individuals infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis develop disease is poorly understood. Previous studies have revealed an important influence of the microbiota on host resistance to infection with a number of different disease agents. Here, we investigated the possible role of the individual's microbiome in impacting the outcome of M. tuberculosis infection in rhesus monkeys experimentally exposed to this important human pathogen. Although M. tuberculosis infection itself caused only minor alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota in these animals, we observed a significant correlation between an individual monkey's microbiome and the severity of pulmonary disease. More importantly, this correlation between microbiota structure and disease outcome was evident even prior to infection. Taken together, our findings suggest that the composition of the microbiome may be a useful predictor of tuberculosis progression in infected individuals either directly because of the microbiome's direct influence on host resistance or indirectly because of its association with other host factors that have this influence. This calls for exploration of the potential of the microbiota composition as a predictive biomarker through carefully designed prospective studies.

RevDate: 2020-01-24
CmpDate: 2020-01-24

Federici M (2019)

Gut microbiome and microbial metabolites: a new system affecting metabolic disorders.

Journal of endocrinological investigation, 42(9):1011-1018.

INTRODUCTION: The gut microbiome is emerging as an important player in the field of metabolic disorders.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Currently, several studies are ongoing to determine whether the effect of gut microbiome on obesity, type 2 diabetes, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and other metabolic diseases is determined by singular species or rather by a functional role of bacterial metabolism at higher taxonomical level. Deciphering if a single or more species are responsible for metabolic traits or rather microbial metabolic pathways are responsible for effects on host metabolism may help to identify appropriate dietary interventions to support microbial functions according to the prevalent host disease. Furthermore, the combination of metagenomics and metabolomics-based signature might be applied in the future to improve the risk prediction in healthy subjects.

CONCLUSION: In this review, I will summarize the current findings regarding the role of gut microbiome and metabolites in metabolic disorders to argue whether the current achievements may be translated into clinical practice.

RevDate: 2020-01-24
CmpDate: 2020-01-24

Taylor SL, O'Farrell HE, Simpson JL, et al (2019)

The contribution of respiratory microbiome analysis to a treatable traits model of care.

Respirology (Carlton, Vic.), 24(1):19-28.

The composition of the airway microbiome in patients with chronic airway diseases, such as severe asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), bronchiectasis and cystic fibrosis (CF), has the potential to inform a precision model of clinical care. Patients with these conditions share overlapping disease characteristics, including airway inflammation and airflow limitation. The clinical management of chronic respiratory conditions is increasingly moving away from a one-size-fits-all model based on primary diagnosis, towards care targeting individual disease traits, and is particularly useful for subgroups of patients who respond poorly to conventional therapies. Respiratory microbiome analysis is an important potential contributor to such a 'treatable traits' approach, providing insight into both microbial drivers of airways disease, and the selective characteristics of the changing lower airway environment. We explore the potential to integrate respiratory microbiome analysis into a treatable traits model of clinical care and provide a practical guide to the application and clinical interpretation of respiratory microbiome analysis.

RevDate: 2020-01-22

Muñoz-Arenas LC, Fusaro C, Hernández-Guzmán M, et al (2020)

Soil microbial diversity drops with land use change in a high mountain temperate forest: a metagenomics survey.

Environmental microbiology reports [Epub ahead of print].

Land-use change has been identified as the most severe threat to biodiversity. Soils are important biodiversity reservoirs, but to what extent conversion of high altitude temperate forest to arable land affects taxonomic and functional soil biodiversity is still largely unknown. Shotgun metagenomics was used to determine the taxonomic and functional diversity of Bacteria, Archaea and DNA Virus in terms of effective number of species in high altitude temperate Oak and Pine-oak forest and arable soils from Mexico. Generally, the soil ecosystem maintained its microbial species richness notwithstanding land-use change. Archaea diversity was not affected by land-use change, but the bacterial diversity decreased with 45-55% when the oak forest was converted to arable land and 65-75% when the pine-oak forest was. Loss in bacterial diversity as a result of land-use change was positively correlated (R2 = 0.41) with the 10 to 25% loss in functional diversity. The archaeal communities were evener than the bacterial ones, which might explain their different response to land-use change. We expected a decrease in DNA viral communities as the bacterial diversity decreased, i.e. their potential hosts. However, a higher viral diversity was found in the arable than in the forest soils. It was found that converting high altitude oak and pine-oak forests to arable land more than halved the bacterial diversity, but did not affect the archaeal and even increased the viral diversity. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2020-01-22
CmpDate: 2020-01-22

Barton W, O'Sullivan O, PD Cotter (2019)

Metabolic phenotyping of the human microbiome.

F1000Research, 8:.

The human microbiome has been identified as having a key role in health and numerous diseases. Trillions of microbial cells and viral particles comprise the microbiome, each representing modifiable working elements of an intricate bioactive ecosystem. The significance of the human microbiome as it relates to human biology has progressed through culture-dependent (for example, media-based methods) and, more recently, molecular (for example, genetic sequencing and metabolomic analysis) techniques. The latter have become increasingly popular and evolved from being used for taxonomic identification of microbiota to elucidation of functional capacity (sequencing) and metabolic activity (metabolomics). This review summarises key elements of the human microbiome and its metabolic capabilities within the context of health and disease.

RevDate: 2020-01-22
CmpDate: 2020-01-22

Almeida AR, Alves M, Domingues I, et al (2019)

The impact of antibiotic exposure in water and zebrafish gut microbiomes: A 16S rRNA gene-based metagenomic analysis.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 186:109771.

In order to supply human demand for food, the aquaculture industry has been growing fast in the last years, being fish usually cultivated in overcrowded conditions. Hence, to prevent the rapidly disease spreading, antibiotics may be applied to both sick and healthy animals. Due to its broad spectrum, oxytetracycline (OTC) is one of the most used antibiotics in food-production. Yet, although useful to prevent infections, antibiotics may reshape aquatic animals' microbiome, disturbing hosts' welfare. However, the impact of this exposure to the organism microbiome and its surrounding environment is poorly understood. Then, the objective of this study was to analyze in detail the long-term effect of OTC in both zebrafish gut and water microbiomes. Zebrafish adults were exposed, via water, for two months to three concentrations of OTC (0, 10 and 10000 μg/L). Total DNA was extracted from gut and water samples and the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16 S rRNA gene was sequenced using Illumina technology. Results of alpha and beta-diversity analyses revealed that long-term exposure to OTC impacted both zebrafish gut and water microbiomes. In water samples, effects were observed even at the lowest (10 μg/L) OTC concentration tested resulting in an increase in Deltaproteobacteria, namely the Myxococcales and Bdellovibrionales orders. On the other hand, effects on zebrafish gut were only observed at the highest concentration with the selection of Alphaproteobacteria and Actinobacteria classes. Although these classes are common in fish gut, the increase of Actinobacteria may represent a health problem since some genera like Gordonia are linked to some human infection disease. Nevertheless, in both gut and water, it was observed a decrease in Gamaproteobacteria, probably due to OTC mode of action. In silico functional metagenomic analysis revealed that OTC exposure selected general detoxification mechanisms. In addition, the abundance of functional genes involved in Quorum Sensing (QS) increased under OTC exposure suggesting that QS may help bacteria to survive OTC stress. Thus, future studies should consider post-exposure scenarios for a deeper analysis of the water and zebrafish gut resistome, since bacteria may react differently after exposure ceased.

RevDate: 2020-01-22
CmpDate: 2020-01-22

Borghi E, A Vignoli (2019)

Rett Syndrome and Other Neurodevelopmental Disorders Share Common Changes in Gut Microbial Community: A Descriptive Review.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(17): pii:ijms20174160.

In this narrative review, we summarize recent pieces of evidence of the role of microbiota alterations in Rett syndrome (RTT). Neurological problems are prominent features of the syndrome, but the pathogenic mechanisms modulating its severity are still poorly understood. Gut microbiota was recently demonstrated to be altered both in animal models and humans with different neurodevelopmental disorders and/or epilepsy. By investigating gut microbiota in RTT cohorts, a less rich microbial community was identified which was associated with alterations of fecal microbial short-chain fatty acids. These changes were positively correlated with severe clinical outcomes. Indeed, microbial metabolites can play a crucial role both locally and systemically, having dynamic effects on host metabolism and gene expression in many organs. Similar alterations were found in patients with autism and down syndrome as well, suggesting a potential common pathway of gut microbiota involvement in neurodevelopmental disorders.

RevDate: 2020-01-22
CmpDate: 2020-01-22

Aarnoutse R, Ziemons J, Penders J, et al (2019)

The Clinical Link between Human Intestinal Microbiota and Systemic Cancer Therapy.

International journal of molecular sciences, 20(17): pii:ijms20174145.

Clinical interest in the human intestinal microbiota has increased considerably. However, an overview of clinical studies investigating the link between the human intestinal microbiota and systemic cancer therapy is lacking. This systematic review summarizes all clinical studies describing the association between baseline intestinal microbiota and systemic cancer therapy outcome as well as therapy-related changes in intestinal microbiota composition. A systematic literature search was performed and provided 23 articles. There were strong indications for a close association between the intestinal microbiota and outcome of immunotherapy. Furthermore, the development of chemotherapy-induced infectious complications seemed to be associated with the baseline microbiota profile. Both chemotherapy and immunotherapy induced drastic changes in gut microbiota composition with possible consequences for treatment efficacy. Evidence in the field of hormonal therapy was very limited. Large heterogeneity concerning study design, study population, and methods used for analysis limited comparability and generalization of results. For the future, longitudinal studies investigating the predictive ability of baseline intestinal microbiota concerning treatment outcome and complications as well as the potential use of microbiota-modulating strategies in cancer patients are required. More knowledge in this field is likely to be of clinical benefit since modulation of the microbiota might support cancer therapy in the future.

RevDate: 2020-01-22
CmpDate: 2020-01-22

Govender Y, Gabriel I, Minassian V, et al (2019)

The Current Evidence on the Association Between the Urinary Microbiome and Urinary Incontinence in Women.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 9:133.

Urinary incontinence (UI) is a burdensome condition with high prevalence in middle-aged to older women and an unclear etiology. Advances in our understanding of host-microbe interactions in the urogenital tract have stimulated interest in the urinary microbiome. DNA sequencing and enhanced urine culture suggest that similarly to other mucosal sites, the urinary bladder of healthy individuals harbors resident microbial communities that may play distinct roles in bladder function. This review focused on the urobiome (expanded quantitative urine culture-based or genomic sequencing-based urinary microbiome) associated with different subtypes of UI, including stress, urgency and mixed urinary incontinence, and related syndromes, such as interstitial cystitis and overactive bladder in women, contrasted to urinary tract infections. Furthermore, we examined clinical evidence for the association of the urinary microbiome with responses to pharmacotherapy for amelioration of UI symptoms. Although published studies are still relatively limited in number, study design and sample size, cumulative evidence suggests that certain Lactobacillus species may play a role in maintaining a healthy bladder milieu. Higher bacterial diversity in the absence of Lactobacillus dominance was associated with urgency UI and resistance to anticholinergic treatment for this condition. UI may also facilitate the persistence of uropathogens following antibiotic treatment, which in turn can alter the commensal/potentially beneficial microbial communities. Risk factors of UI, including age, menopausal status, sex steroid hormones, and body mass index may also impact the urinary microbiome. However, it is yet unclear whether the effects of these risks factors on UI are mediated by urinary host-microbe interactions and a mechanistic link with the female urogenital microbiome is still to be established. Strategies for future research are suggested.

RevDate: 2020-01-22
CmpDate: 2020-01-22

Van Dexter S, Oubre C, R Boopathy (2019)

Carbon ecology of termite gut and phenol degradation by a bacterium isolated from the gut of termite.

Journal of industrial microbiology & biotechnology, 46(9-10):1265-1271.

Metagenomics and transcriptomics have had some success analyzing community and functional ecology of the termite gut, but carbon utilization ecology and the effect of diet on the gut community are not well understood. This study was done to determine the effect of three hardwood tree types, oak (Quercus spp.), red maple (Acer rubrum), and tupelo (Nyssa aquatica) on the termite species, Reticulitermes flavipes in the family Rhinotermitidae. Termite abdomen homogenates were incubated on agar plates containing three common carbon sources in the termite gut, namely, acetate, cellobiose, and phenol under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Bacterial growth was higher on cellobiose than any other carbon source. Higher bacterial growth on cellobiose was observed from termite colonies feeding on oak than on phenol from the other two wood types. The difference between aerobic and anaerobic conditions was not significant. A bacterium, Acinetobacter tandoii isolated and identified from our previous study was subjected to high concentrations of phenol as the sole carbon source and this bacterium was able to degrade phenol concentration up to 600 mg/L.

RevDate: 2020-01-21
CmpDate: 2020-01-21

Breton-Deval L, Sanchez-Flores A, Juárez K, et al (2019)

Integrative study of microbial community dynamics and water quality along The Apatlaco River.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 255(Pt 1):113158.

The increasing demand for clean water resources for human consumption, is raising concerning about the sustainable worldwide provisioning. In Mexico, rivers near to high-density urbanizations are subject to irrational exploitation where polluted water is a risk for human health. Therefore, the aims of this study are to analyze water quality parameters and bacterial community dynamics to understand the relation between them, in the Apatlaco river, which presents a clear environmental perturbance. Parameters such as total coliforms, chemical oxygen demand, harness, ammonium, nitrite, nitrate, total Kjeldahl nitrogen, dissolved oxygen, total phosphorus, total dissolved solids, and temperature were analyzed in 17 sampling points along the river. The high pollution level was registered in the sampling point 10 with 480 mg/L chemical oxygen demand, 7 mg/L nitrite, 34 mg/L nitrate, 2 mg/L dissolved oxygen, and 299 mg/L of total dissolved solids. From these sites, we selected four samples for DNA extraction and performed a metagenomic analysis using a whole metagenome shotgun approach, to compare the microbial communities between polluted and non-polluted sites. In general, Proteobacteria was the most representative phylum in all sites. However, the clean water reference point was enriched with microorganism from the Limnohabitans genus, a planktonic bacterium widespread in freshwater ecosystems. Nevertheless, in the polluted sampled sites, we found a high abundance of potential opportunistic pathogen genera such as Acinetobacter, Arcobacter, and Myroides, among others. This suggests that in addition to water contamination, an imminent human health risk due to pathogenic bacteria can potentially affect a population of ∼1.6 million people dwelling nearby. These results will contribute to the knowledge regarding anthropogenic pollution on the microbial population dynamic and how they affect human health and life quality.

RevDate: 2020-01-21
CmpDate: 2020-01-21

Diamond S, Andeer PF, Li Z, et al (2019)

Mediterranean grassland soil C-N compound turnover is dependent on rainfall and depth, and is mediated by genomically divergent microorganisms.

Nature microbiology, 4(8):1356-1367.

Soil microbial activity drives the carbon and nitrogen cycles and is an important determinant of atmospheric trace gas turnover, yet most soils are dominated by microorganisms with unknown metabolic capacities. Even Acidobacteria, among the most abundant bacteria in soil, remain poorly characterized, and functions across groups such as Verrucomicrobia, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi and Rokubacteria are understudied. Here, we have resolved 60 metagenomic and 20 proteomic data sets from a Mediterranean grassland soil ecosystem and recovered 793 near-complete microbial genomes from 18 phyla, representing around one-third of all microorganisms detected. Importantly, this enabled extensive genomics-based metabolic predictions for these communities. Acidobacteria from multiple previously unstudied classes have genomes that encode large enzyme complements for complex carbohydrate degradation. Alternatively, most microorganisms encode carbohydrate esterases that strip readily accessible methyl and acetyl groups from polymers like pectin and xylan, forming methanol and acetate, the availability of which could explain the high prevalence of C1 metabolism and acetate utilization in genomes. Microorganism abundances among samples collected at three soil depths and under natural and amended rainfall regimes indicate statistically higher associations of inorganic nitrogen metabolism and carbon degradation in deep and shallow soils, respectively. This partitioning decreased in samples under extended spring rainfall, indicating that long-term climate alteration can affect both carbon and nitrogen cycling. Overall, by leveraging natural and experimental gradients with genome-resolved metabolic profiles, we link microorganisms lacking prior genomic characterization to specific roles in complex carbon, C1, nitrate and ammonia transformations, and constrain factors that impact their distributions in soil.

RevDate: 2020-01-21
CmpDate: 2020-01-21

Seferovic MD, Pace RM, Carroll M, et al (2019)

Visualization of microbes by 16S in situ hybridization in term and preterm placentas without intraamniotic infection.

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology, 221(2):146.e1-146.e23.

BACKGROUND: Numerous reports have documented bacteria in the placental membranes and basal plate decidua in the absence of immunopathology using histologic techniques. Similarly, independent metagenomic characterizations have identified an altered taxonomic makeup in association with spontaneous preterm birth. Here we sought to corroborate these findings by localizing presumptive intact bacteria using molecular histology within the placental microanatomy.

OBJECTIVE: Here we examined for microbes in term and preterm gestations using a signal-amplified 16S universal in situ hybridization probe set for bacterial rRNA, alongside traditional histologic methods of Warthin-Starry and Gram stains, as well as clinical culture methodologies. We further sought to differentiate accompanying 16S gene sequencing taxonomic profiles from germ-free (gnotobiotic) mouse and extraction and amplicon contamination controls.

STUDY DESIGN: Placentas were collected from a total of 53 subjects, composed of term labored (n = 4) and unlabored cesarean deliveries (n = 22) and preterm vaginal (n = 18) and cesarean deliveries (n = 8); a placenta from a single subject with clinical and histologic evident choriomanionitis was employed as a positive control (n = 1). The preterm cohort included spontaneous preterm birth with (n = 6) and without (n = 10) preterm premature rupture of membranes, as well as medically indicated preterm births (n = 10). Placental microbes were visualized using an in situ hybridization probe set designed against highly conserved regions of the bacterial 16S ribosome, which produces an amplified stable signal using branched DNA probes. Extracted bacterial nucleic acids from these same samples were subjected to 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing (Illumina, V4) for course taxonomic analysis, alongside environmental and kit contaminant controls. A subset of unlabored, cesarean-delivered term pregnancies were also assessed with clinical culture for readily cultivatable pathogenic microbes.

RESULTS: Molecular in situ hybridization of bacterial rRNA enabled visualization and localization of low-abundance microbes after systematic high-power scanning. Despite the absence of clinical or histologic chorioamnionitis in 52 of 53 subjects, instances of 16S rRNA signal were confidently observed in 13 of 16 spontaneous preterm birth placentas, which was not significantly different from term unlabored cesarean specimens (18 of 22; P > .05). 16S rRNA signal was largely localized to the villous parenchyma and/or syncytiotrophoblast, and less commonly the chorion and the maternal intervillous space. In all term and unlabored cesarean deliveries, visualization of evident placental microbes by in situ hybridization occurred in the absence of clinical or histologic detection using conventional clinical cultivation, hematoxylin-eosin, and Gram staining. In 1 subject, appreciable villous bacteria localized to an infarction, where 16S microbial detection was confirmed by Warthin-Starry stain. In all instances, parallel sample principle coordinate analysis using Bray-Cutis distances of 16S rRNA gene sequencing data demonstrated consistent taxonomic distinction from all negative or potential contamination controls (P = .024, PERMANOVA). Classification from contaminant filtered data identified a distinct taxonomic makeup among term and preterm cohorts when compared with contaminant controls (false discovery rate <0.05).

CONCLUSION: Presumptively intact placental microbes are visualized as low-abundance, low-biomass and sparse populations within the placenta regardless of gestational age and mode of delivery. Their taxonomic makeup is distinct from contamination controls. These findings further support several previously published findings, including our own, which have used metagenomics to characterize low-abundance and low-biomass microbial communities in the placenta.

RevDate: 2020-01-20
CmpDate: 2020-01-20

Youens-Clark K, Bomhoff M, Ponsero AJ, et al (2019)

iMicrobe: Tools and data-dreaiven discovery platform for the microbiome sciences.

GigaScience, 8(7):.

BACKGROUND: Scientists have amassed a wealth of microbiome datasets, making it possible to study microbes in biotic and abiotic systems on a population or planetary scale; however, this potential has not been fully realized given that the tools, datasets, and computation are available in diverse repositories and locations. To address this challenge, we developed iMicrobe.us, a community-driven microbiome data marketplace and tool exchange for users to integrate their own data and tools with those from the broader community.

FINDINGS: The iMicrobe platform brings together analysis tools and microbiome datasets by leveraging National Science Foundation-supported cyberinfrastructure and computing resources from CyVerse, Agave, and XSEDE. The primary purpose of iMicrobe is to provide users with a freely available, web-based platform to (1) maintain and share project data, metadata, and analysis products, (2) search for related public datasets, and (3) use and publish bioinformatics tools that run on highly scalable computing resources. Analysis tools are implemented in containers that encapsulate complex software dependencies and run on freely available XSEDE resources via the Agave API, which can retrieve datasets from the CyVerse Data Store or any web-accessible location (e.g., FTP, HTTP).

CONCLUSIONS: iMicrobe promotes data integration, sharing, and community-driven tool development by making open source data and tools accessible to the research community in a web-based platform.

RevDate: 2020-01-17
CmpDate: 2020-01-17

Matesanz S, Pescador DS, Pías B, et al (2019)

Estimating belowground plant abundance with DNA metabarcoding.

Molecular ecology resources, 19(5):1265-1277.

Most work on plant community ecology has been performed above ground, neglecting the processes that occur in the soil. DNA metabarcoding, in which multiple species are computationally identified in bulk samples, can help to overcome the logistical limitations involved in sampling plant communities belowground. However, a major limitation of this methodology is the quantification of species' abundances based on the percentage of sequences assigned to each taxon. Using root tissues of five dominant species in a semi-arid Mediterranean shrubland (Bupleurum fruticescens, Helianthemum cinereum, Linum suffruticosum, Stipa pennata and Thymus vulgaris), we built pairwise mixtures of relative abundance (20%, 50% and 80% biomass), and implemented two methods (linear model fits and correction indices) to improve estimates of root biomass. We validated both methods with multispecies mixtures that simulate field-collected samples. For all species, we found a positive and highly significant relationship between the percentage of sequences and biomass in the mixtures (R2 = .44-.66), but the equations for each species (slope and intercept) differed among them, and two species were consistently over- and under-estimated. The correction indices greatly improved the estimates of biomass percentage for all five species in the multispecies mixtures, and reduced the overall error from 17% to 6%. Our results show that, through the use of post-sequencing quantification methods on mock communities, DNA metabarcoding can be effectively used to determine not only species' presence but also their relative abundance in field samples of root mixtures. Importantly, knowledge of these aspects will allow us to study key, yet poorly understood, belowground processes.

RevDate: 2020-01-15
CmpDate: 2020-01-15

Powell EA, Fontanella S, Boakes E, et al (2019)

Temporal association of the development of oropharyngeal microbiota with early life wheeze in a population-based birth cohort.

EBioMedicine, 46:486-498.

BACKGROUND: A critical window in infancy has been proposed, during which the microbiota may affect subsequent health. The longitudinal development of the oropharyngeal microbiota is under-studied and may be associated with early-life wheeze. We aimed to investigate the temporal association of the development of the oropharyngeal microbiota with early-life wheeze.

METHODS: A population-based birth cohort based in London, UK was followed for 24 months. We collected oropharyngeal swabs at six time-points. Microbiota was determined using sequencing of the V3-V5 region of the 16S rRNA-encoding gene. Medical records were reviewed for the outcome of doctor diagnosed wheeze. We used a time-varying model to investigate the temporal association between the development of microbiota and doctor-diagnosed wheeze.

FINDINGS: 159 participants completed the study to 24 months and for 98 there was complete sequencing data at all timepoints and outcome data. Of these, 26 had doctor-diagnosed wheeze. We observed significant increase in the abundance of Neisseria between 9 and 24 months in children who developed wheeze (p = 0∙003), while in those without wheezing there was a significant increment in the abundance of Granulicatella (p = 0∙012) between 9 and 12 months, and of Prevotella (p = 0∙018) after 18 months.

INTERPRETATION: A temporal association between the respiratory commensal Granulicatella and also Prevotella with wheeze (negative), and between Neisseria and wheeze (positive) was identified in infants prior to one year of age. This adds to evidence for the proposed role of the microbiota in the development of wheeze. FUND: Research funding from the Winnicott Foundation, Meningitis Now and Micropathology Ltd.

RevDate: 2020-01-15
CmpDate: 2020-01-15

Clos-Garcia M, Andrés-Marin N, Fernández-Eulate G, et al (2019)

Gut microbiome and serum metabolome analyses identify molecular biomarkers and altered glutamate metabolism in fibromyalgia.

EBioMedicine, 46:499-511.

BACKGROUND: Fibromyalgia is a complex, relatively unknown disease characterised by chronic, widespread musculoskeletal pain. The gut-brain axis connects the gut microbiome with the brain through the enteric nervous system (ENS); its disruption has been associated with psychiatric and gastrointestinal disorders. To gain an insight into the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia and identify diagnostic biomarkers, we combined different omics techniques to analyse microbiome and serum composition.

METHODS: We collected faeces and blood samples to study the microbiome, the serum metabolome and circulating cytokines and miRNAs from a cohort of 105 fibromyalgia patients and 54 age- and environment-matched healthy individuals. We sequenced the V3 and V4 regions of the 16S rDNA gene from faeces samples. UPLC-MS metabolomics and custom multiplex cytokine and miRNA analysis (FirePlex™ technology) were used to examine sera samples. Finally, we combined the different data types to search for potential biomarkers.

RESULTS: We found that the diversity of bacteria is reduced in fibromyalgia patients. The abundance of the Bifidobacterium and Eubacterium genera (bacteria participating in the metabolism of neurotransmitters in the host) in these patients was significantly reduced. The serum metabolome analysis revealed altered levels of glutamate and serine, suggesting changes in neurotransmitter metabolism. The combined serum metabolomics and gut microbiome datasets showed a certain degree of correlation, reflecting the effect of the microbiome on metabolic activity. We also examined the microbiome and serum metabolites, cytokines and miRNAs as potential sources of molecular biomarkers of fibromyalgia.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that the microbiome analysis provides more significant biomarkers than the other techniques employed in the work. Gut microbiome analysis combined with serum metabolomics can shed new light onto the pathogenesis of fibromyalgia. We provide a list of bacteria whose abundance changes in this disease and propose several molecules as potential biomarkers that can be used to evaluate the current diagnostic criteria.

RevDate: 2020-01-15
CmpDate: 2020-01-15

Wassan JT, Wang H, Browne F, et al (2019)

Phy-PMRFI: Phylogeny-Aware Prediction of Metagenomic Functions Using Random Forest Feature Importance.

IEEE transactions on nanobioscience, 18(3):273-282.

High-throughput sequencing techniques have accelerated functional metagenomics studies through the generation of large volumes of omics data. The integration of these data using computational approaches is potentially useful for predicting metagenomic functions. Machine learning (ML) models can be trained using microbial features which are then used to classify microbial data into different functional classes. For example, ML analyses over the human microbiome data has been linked to the prediction of important biological states. For analysing omics data, integrating abundance count of taxonomical features with their biological relationships is important. These relationships can potentially be uncovered from the phylogenetic tree of microbial taxa. In this paper, we propose a novel integrative framework Phy-PMRFI. This framework is driven by the phylogeny-based modeling of omics data to predict metagenomic functions using important features selected by a random forest importance (RFI) strategy. The proposed framework integrates the underlying phylogenetic tree information with abundance measures of microbial species (features) by creating a novel phylogeny and abundance aware matrix structure (PAAM). Phy-PMRFI progresses by ranking the microbial features using an RFI measure. This is then used as input for microbiome classification. The resultant feature set enhances the performance of the state-of-art methods such as support vector machines. Our proposed integrative framework also outperforms the state-of-the-art pipeline of phylogenetic isometric log-ratio transform (PhILR) and MetaPhyl. Prediction accuracy of 90 % is obtained with Phy-PMRFI over human throat microbiome in comparison to other approaches of PhILR with 53% and MetaPhyl with 71% accuracy.

RevDate: 2019-12-19

Watahiki S, Kimura N, Yamazoe A, et al (2019)

Ecological impact assessment of a bioaugmentation site on remediation of chlorinated ethylenes by multi-omics analysis.

The Journal of general and applied microbiology, 65(5):225-233.

Bioremediation may affect the ecological system around bioremediation sites. However, little is known about how microbial community structures change over time after the initial injection of degraders. In this study, we have assessed the ecological impact of bioaugmentation using metagenomic and metatranscriptomic approaches to remove trichlorinated ethylene/cis-dichloroethylene (TCE/cDCE) by Rhodococcus jostii strain RHA1 as an aerobic chemical compound degrader. Metagenomic analysis showed that the number of organisms belonging to the genus Rhodococcus, including strain RHA1, increased from 0.1% to 76.6% of the total microbial community on day 0 at the injection site. Subsequently, the populations of strain RHA1 and other TCE/cDCE-degrading bacteria gradually decreased over time, whereas the populations of the anaerobic dechlorinators Geobacter and Dehalococcoides increased at later stages. Metatranscriptomic analysis revealed a high expression of aromatic compound-degrading genes (bphA1-A4) in strain RHA1 after RHA1 injection. From these results, we concluded that the key dechlorinators of TCE/cDCE were mainly aerobic bacteria, such as RHA1, until day 1, after which the key dechlorinators changed to anaerobic bacteria, such as Geobacter and Dehalococcocides, after day 6 at the injection well. Based on the α-diversity, the richness levels of the microbial community were increased after injection of strain RHA1, and the microbial community composition had not been restored to that of the original composition during the 19 days after treatment. These results provide insights into the assessment of the ecological impact and bioaugmentation process of RHA1 at bioremediation sites.

RevDate: 2019-11-20

Schwarzer M, Hermanova P, Srutkova D, et al (2019)

Germ-Free Mice Exhibit Mast Cells With Impaired Functionality and Gut Homing and Do Not Develop Food Allergy.

Frontiers in immunology, 10:205.

Background: Mucosal mast cells (MC) are key players in IgE-mediated food allergy (FA). The evidence on the interaction between gut microbiota, MC and susceptibility to FA is contradictory. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that commensal bacteria are essential for MC migration to the gut and their maturation impacting the susceptibility to FA. Methods: The development and severity of FA symptoms was studied in sensitized germ-free (GF), conventional (CV), and mice mono-colonized with L. plantarum WCFS1 or co-housed with CV mice. MC were phenotypically and functionally characterized. Results: Systemic sensitization and oral challenge of GF mice with ovalbumin led to increased levels of specific IgE in serum compared to CV mice. Remarkably, despite the high levels of sensitization, GF mice did not develop diarrhea or anaphylactic hypothermia, common symptoms of FA. In the gut, GF mice expressed low levels of the MC tissue-homing markers CXCL1 and CXCL2, and harbored fewer MC which exhibited lower levels of MC protease-1 after challenge. Additionally, MC in GF mice were less mature as confirmed by flow-cytometry and their functionality was impaired as shown by reduced edema formation after injection of degranulation-provoking compound 48/80. Co-housing of GF mice with CV mice fully restored their susceptibility to develop FA. However, this did not occur when mice were mono-colonized with L. plantarum. Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that microbiota-induced maturation and gut-homing of MC is a critical step for the development of symptoms of experimental FA. This new mechanistic insight into microbiota-MC-FA axis can be exploited in the prevention and treatment of FA in humans.

RevDate: 2020-01-14
CmpDate: 2020-01-14

Zhang L, Li YY, Tang X, et al (2020)

Faecal microbial dysbiosis in children with Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome.

Scandinavian journal of immunology, 91(1):e12805.

Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome (WAS) is an X-linked primary immunodeficiency disease caused by a mutation in the WAS gene that encodes the WAS protein (WASp); up to 5-10% of these patients develop inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The mechanisms by which WASp deficiency causes IBD are unclear. Intestinal microbial dysbiosis and imbalances in host immune responses play important roles in the pathogenesis of polygenetic IBD; however, few studies have conducted detailed examination of the microbial alterations and their relationship with IBD in WAS. Here, we collected faecal samples from 19 children (all less than 2 years old) with WAS and samples from WASp-KO mice with IBD and subjected them to 16S ribosomal RNA sequencing. We found that microbial community richness and structure in WAS children were different from those in controls; WAS children revealed reduced microbial community richness and diversity. Relative abundance of Bacteroidetes and Verrucomicrobiain in WAS children was significantly lower, while that of Proteobacteria was markedly higher. WASp-KO mice revealed a significantly decreased abundance of Firmicutes. Faecal microbial dysbiosis caused by WASp deficiency is similar to that observed for polygenetic IBD, suggesting that WASp may play crucial function in microbial homoeostasis and that microbial dysbiosis may contribute to IBD in WAS. These microbial alterations may be useful targets for monitoring and therapeutically managing intestinal inflammation in WAS.