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29 Sep 2023 at 01:30
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Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 29 Sep 2023 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-27

Wegner CE, Stahl R, Velsko I, et al (2023)

A glimpse of the paleome in endolithic microbial communities.

Microbiome, 11(1):210.

BACKGROUND: The terrestrial subsurface is home to a significant proportion of the Earth's microbial biomass. Our understanding about terrestrial subsurface microbiomes is almost exclusively derived from groundwater and porous sediments mainly by using 16S rRNA gene surveys. To obtain more insights about biomass of consolidated rocks and the metabolic status of endolithic microbiomes, we investigated interbedded limestone and mudstone from the vadose zone, fractured aquifers, and deep aquitards.

RESULTS: By adapting methods from microbial archaeology and paleogenomics, we could recover sufficient DNA for downstream metagenomic analysis from seven rock specimens independent of porosity, lithology, and depth. Based on the extracted DNA, we estimated between 2.81 and 4.25 × 10[5] cells × g[-1] rock. Analyzing DNA damage patterns revealed paleome signatures (genetic records of past microbial communities) for three rock specimens, all obtained from the vadose zone. DNA obtained from deep aquitards isolated from surface input was not affected by DNA decay indicating that water saturation and not flow is controlling subsurface microbial survival. Decoding the taxonomy and functional potential of paleome communities revealed increased abundances for sequences affiliated with chemolithoautotrophs and taxa such as Cand. Rokubacteria. We also found a broader metabolic potential in terms of aromatic hydrocarbon breakdown, suggesting a preferred utilization of sedimentary organic matter in the past.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study suggests that limestones function as archives for genetic records of past microbial communities including those sensitive to environmental stress at modern times, due to their specific conditions facilitating long-term DNA preservation. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-09-28
CmpDate: 2023-09-27

Akter S, Rahman MS, Ali H, et al (2023)

Phylogenetic diversity and functional potential of the microbial communities along the Bay of Bengal coast.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15976.

The Bay of Bengal, the world's largest bay, is bordered by populous countries and rich in resources like fisheries, oil, gas, and minerals, while also hosting diverse marine ecosystems such as coral reefs, mangroves, and seagrass beds; regrettably, its microbial diversity and ecological significance have received limited research attention. Here, we present amplicon (16S and 18S) profiling and shotgun metagenomics data regarding microbial communities from BoB's eastern coast, viz., Saint Martin and Cox's Bazar, Bangladesh. From the 16S barcoding data, Proteobacteria appeared to be the dominant phylum in both locations, with Alteromonas, Methylophaga, Anaerospora, Marivita, and Vibrio dominating in Cox's Bazar and Pseudoalteromonas, Nautella, Marinomonas, Vibrio, and Alteromonas dominating the Saint Martin site. From the 18S barcoding data, Ochrophyta, Chlorophyta, and Protalveolata appeared among the most abundant eukaryotic divisions in both locations, with significantly higher abundance of Choanoflagellida, Florideophycidae, and Dinoflagellata in Cox's Bazar. The shotgun sequencing data reveals that in both locations, Alteromonas is the most prevalent bacterial genus, closely paralleling the dominance observed in the metabarcoding data, with Methylophaga in Cox's Bazar and Vibrio in Saint Martin. Functional annotations revealed that the microbial communities in these samples harbor genes for biofilm formation, quorum sensing, xenobiotics degradation, antimicrobial resistance, and a variety of other processes. Together, these results provide the first molecular insight into the functional and phylogenetic diversity of microbes along the BoB coast of Bangladesh. This baseline understanding of microbial community structure and functional potential will be critical for assessing impacts of climate change, pollution, and other anthropogenic disturbances on this ecologically and economically vital bay.

RevDate: 2023-09-26
CmpDate: 2023-09-26

Liu Y, Chan MTV, Chan FKL, et al (2023)

Lower gut abundance of Eubacterium rectale is linked to COVID-19 mortality.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1249069.

INTRODUCTION: Emerging preclinical and clinical studies suggest that altered gut microbiome composition and functions are associated with coronavirus 2019 (COVID- 19) severity and its long-term complications. We hypothesize that COVID-19 outcome is associated with gut microbiome status in population-based settings.

METHODS: Gut metagenomic data of the adult population consisting of 2871 subjects from 16 countries were obtained from ExperimentHub through R, while the dynamic death data of COVID-19 patients between January 22, 2020 and December 8, 2020 in each country was acquired from Johns Hopkins Coronavirus Resource Center. An adjusted stable mortality rate (SMR) was used to represent these countries' mortality and correlated with the mean relative abundance (mRA) of healthy adult gut microbiome species.

RESULTS: After excluding bacterial species with low prevalence (prevalence <0.2 in the included countries), the β-diversity was significantly higher in the countries with high SMR when compared with those with median or low SMR (p <0.001). We then identified the mRA of two butyrate producers, Eubacterium rectale and Roseburia intestinalis, that were negatively correlated with SMR during the study period. And the reduction of these species was associated with severer COVID-19 manifestation.

CONCLUSION: Population-based microbiome signatures with the stable mortality rate of COVID-19 in different countries suggest that altered gut microbiome composition and functions are associated with mortality of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2023-09-26
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Wicaksono WA, Cernava T, Wassermann B, et al (2023)

The edible plant microbiome: evidence for the occurrence of fruit and vegetable bacteria in the human gut.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2258565.

Diversity of the gut microbiota is crucial for human health. However, whether fruit and vegetable associated bacteria contribute to overall gut bacterial diversity is still unknown. We reconstructed metagenome-assembled genomes from 156 fruit and vegetable metagenomes to investigate the prevalence of associated bacteria in 2,426 publicly available gut metagenomes. The microbiomes of fresh fruits and vegetables and the human gut are represented by members in common such as Enterobacterales, Burkholderiales, and Lactobacillales. Exposure to bacteria via fruit and vegetable consumption potentially has a beneficial impact on the functional diversity of gut microbiota particularly due to the presence of putative health-promoting genes for the production of vitamin and short-chain fatty acids. In the human gut, they were consistently present, although at a low abundance, approx. 2.2%. Host age, vegetable consumption frequency, and the diversity of plants consumed were drivers favoring a higher proportion. Overall, these results provide one of the primary links between the human microbiome and the environmental microbiome. This study revealed evidence that fruit and vegetable-derived microbes could be found in the human gut and contribute to gut microbiome diversity.

RevDate: 2023-09-27
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Komori E, Kato-Kogoe N, Imai Y, et al (2023)

Changes in salivary microbiota due to gastric cancer resection and its relation to gastric fluid microbiota.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15863.

Gastric cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide, and resections are performed to cure the disease. We have previously reported the changes in the gastric microbiota after gastric cancer resection, which may be associated with the oral microbiota; however, the changes in the oral microbiota remain uncharacterized. This study aimed to characterize the changes in the salivary microbiota caused by gastric cancer resection and to evaluate their association with the gastric fluid microbiota. Saliva and gastric fluid samples were collected from 63 patients who underwent gastrectomy before and after surgery, and a 16S rRNA metagenomic analysis was performed to compare the microbiota composition. The number of bacterial species in the salivary microbiota decreased, and the bacterial composition changed after the resection of gastric cancer. In addition, we identified several bacterial genera that varied significantly in the salivary microbiota, some of which also showed similar changes in the gastric fluid microbiota. These findings indicate that changes in the gastric environment affect the oral microbiota, emphasizing the close association between the oral and gastric fluid microbiota. Our study signifies the importance of focusing on the oral microbiota in the perioperative period of gastrectomy in patients with gastric cancer.

RevDate: 2023-09-27
CmpDate: 2023-09-27

Xiong X, Rao Y, Ma J, et al (2023)

A catalog of microbial genes and metagenome-assembled genomes from the quail gut microbiome.

Poultry science, 102(10):102931.

The gut microbiome plays an important role in quail feed efficiency, immunity, production, and even behavior. Gut microbial gene catalogs and reference genomes are important for understanding the quail gut microbiome. However, quail gut microbes are lacked sequenced genomes and functional information to date. In this study, we report the first catalog of the microbial genes and metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) in fecal and cecum luminal content samples from 3 quail breeds using deep metagenomic sequencing. We identified a total of 2,419,425 nonredundant genes in the quail genome catalog, and a total of 473 MAGs were reconstructed through binning analysis. At 95% average nucleotide identity, the 473 MAGs were clustered into 283 species-level genome bins (SGBs), of which 225 SGBs belonged to species without any available genomes in the current database. Based on the quail gene catalog and MAGs, we identified 142 discriminative bacterial species and 244 discriminative MAGs between Chinese yellow quails and Japanese quails. The discriminative MAGs suggested a strain-level difference in the gut microbial composition. Additionally, a total of 25 Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional terms and 88 carbohydrate-active enzymes were distinctly enriched between Chinese yellow quails and Japanese quails. Most of the different species and MAGs were significantly interrelated with the shifts in the functional capacities of the quail gut microbiome. Taken together, we constructed a quail gut microbial gene catalog and enlarged the reference of quail gut microbial genomes. The results of this study provide a powerful and invaluable resource for quail gut microbiome-related research.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Ge F, Guo R, Liang Y, et al (2023)

Characterization and genomic analysis of Stutzerimonas stutzeri phage vB_PstS_ZQG1, representing a novel viral genus.

Virus research, 336:199226 pii:S0168-1702(23)00188-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Stutzerimonas stutzeri is an opportunistic pathogenic bacterium belonging to the Gammaproteobacteria, exhibiting wide distribution in the environment and playing significant ecological roles such as nitrogen fixation or pollutant degradation. Despite its ecological importance, only two S. stutzeri phages have been isolated to date. Here, a novel S. stutzeri phage, vB_PstS_ZQG1, was isolated from the surface seawater of Qingdao, China. Transmission electron microscopy analysis indicates that vB_PstS_ZQG1 has a morphology characterized by a long non-contractile tail. The genomic sequence of vB_PstS_ZQG1 contains a linear, double-strand 61,790-bp with the G+C content of 53.24% and encodes 90 putative open reading frames. Two auxiliary metabolic genes encoding TolA protein and nucleotide pyrophosphohydrolase were identified, which are likely involved in host adaptation and phage reproduction. Phylogenetic and comparative genomic analyses demonstrated that vB_PstS_ZQG1 exhibits low similarity with previously isolated phages or uncultured viruses (average nucleotide identity values range from 21.7 to 29.4), suggesting that it represents a novel viral genus by itself, here named as Fuevirus. Biogeographic analysis showed that vB_PstS_ZQG1 was only detected in epipelagic and mesopelagic zone with low abundance. In summary, our findings of the phage vB_PstS_ZQG1 will provide helpful insights for further research on the interactions between S. stutzeri phages and their hosts, and contribute to discovering unknown viral sequences in the metagenomic database.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Luan M, Niu M, Yang P, et al (2023)

Metagenomic sequencing reveals altered gut microbial compositions and gene functions in patients with non-segmental vitiligo.

BMC microbiology, 23(1):265.

BACKGROUND: Vitiligo has been correlated with an abnormal gut microbiota. We aimed to systematically identify characteristics of the gut microbial compositions, genetic functions, and potential metabolic features in patients with non-segmental vitiligo.

METHODS: Twenty-five patients with non-segmental vitiligo and 25 matched healthy controls (HCs) were enrolled. Metagenomic sequencing and bioinformatic analysis were performed to determine the gut microbiota profiles. Differences in gut microbiota diversity and composition between patients with vitiligo and HCs were analyzed. Gene functions and gut metabolic modules were predicted with the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Gene and Genomes (KEGG) and MetaCyc databases.

RESULTS: Compared with HCs, alpha diversity of intestinal microbiome in vitiligo patients was significantly reduced. At the species level, the relative abundance of Staphylococcus thermophiles was decreased, and that of Bacteroides fragilis was increased in patients with vitiligo compared with those of the HCs. Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) analysis revealed representative microbial markers of Lachnospiraceae_bacterium_BX3, Massilioclostridium_coli, TM7_phylum_sp_oral_taxon_348 and Bacteroides_fragilis for patients with vitiligo. KEGG gene function analysis showed that the NOD-like receptor signaling pathway was significantly enriched in patients with vitiligo. Gut metabolic modules (GMMs) analysis showed that cysteine degradation was significantly down-regulated, and galactose degradation was up-regulated in patients with vitiligo. A panel of 28 microbial features was constructed to distinguish patients with vitiligo from HCs.

CONCLUSIONS: The gut microbial profiles and genetic functions of patients with vitiligo were distinct from those of the HCs. The identified gut microbial markers may potentially be used for earlier diagnosis and treatment targets.

RevDate: 2023-09-24

Bernadus JBB, Pelealu J, Kandou GD, et al (2023)

Metagenomic Insight into the Microbiome and Virome Associated with Aedes aegypti Mosquitoes in Manado (North Sulawesi, Indonesia).

Infectious disease reports, 15(5):549-563.

The aim of this study was to investigate the microbial diversity encompassing bacteria, fungi, and viruses within the composite microbial community associated with Aedes aegypti mosquitoes in Manado, Indonesia, using a whole-genome shotgun metagenomics approach. Female mosquitoes were collected and grouped into pools of 50 individuals, from which genomic DNA (gDNA) and RNA were extracted separately. Whole-genome shotgun metagenomics were performed on gDNA samples. The bioinformatics analysis encompassed quality assessment, taxonomic classification, and visualization. The evaluation of the microbial community entailed an assessment of taxa abundance and diversity using Kraken version 2.1.2. The study delineated the prevalence of dominant bacterial phyla, including Proteobacteria, with varying abundance of Firmicutes, Bacteroidota, and Actinobacteria, and notable occurrence of Tenericutes. Furthermore, the presence of the fungal phylum Ascomycota was also detected. Among the identified barcodes, Barcode04 emerged as the most abundant and diverse, while Barcode06 exhibited greater evenness. Barcode03, 05, and 07 displayed moderate richness and diversity. Through an analysis of the relative abundance, a spectrum of viruses within Ae. aegypti populations was unveiled, with Negarnaviricota constituting the most prevalent phylum, followed by Nucleocytoviricota, Uroviricota, Artverviricota, Kitrinoviricota, Peploviricota, Phixviricota, and Cossaviricota. The presence of Negarnaviricota viruses raises pertinent public health concerns. The presence of other viral phyla underscores the intricate nature of virus-mosquito interactions. The analysis of viral diversity provides valuable insights into the range of viruses carried by Ae. aegypti. The community exhibits low biodiversity, with a few dominant species significantly influencing its composition. This has implications for healthcare and ecological management, potentially simplifying control measures but also posing risks if the dominant species are harmful. This study enriches our comprehension of the microbiome and virome associated with Ae. aegypti mosquitoes, emphasizing the importance of further research to fully comprehend their ecological significance and impact on public health. The findings shed light on the microbial ecology of Ae. aegypti, offering potential insights into mosquito biology, disease transmission, and strategies for vector control. Future studies should endeavor to establish specific associations with Ae. aegypti, elucidate the functional roles of the identified microbial and viral species, and investigate their ecological implications.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Li S, Lian WH, Han JR, et al (2023)

Capturing the microbial dark matter in desert soils using culturomics-based metagenomics and high-resolution analysis.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 9(1):67.

Deserts occupy one-third of the Earth's terrestrial surface and represent a potentially significant reservoir of microbial biodiversity, yet the majority of desert microorganisms remain uncharacterized and are seen as "microbial dark matter". Here, we introduce a multi-omics strategy, culturomics-based metagenomics (CBM) that integrates large-scale cultivation, full-length 16S rRNA gene amplicon, and shotgun metagenomic sequencing. The results showed that CBM captured a significant amount of taxonomic and functional diversity missed in direct sequencing by increasing the recovery of amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) and high/medium-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Importantly, CBM allowed the post hoc recovery of microbes of interest (e.g., novel or specific taxa), even those with extremely low abundance in the culture. Furthermore, strain-level analyses based on CBM and direct sequencing revealed that the desert soils harbored a considerable number of novel bacterial candidates (1941, 51.4%), of which 1095 (from CBM) were culturable. However, CBM would not exactly reflect the relative abundance of true microbial composition and functional pathways in the in situ environment, and its use coupled with direct metagenomic sequencing could provide greater insight into desert microbiomes. Overall, this study exemplifies the CBM strategy with high-resolution is an ideal way to deeply explore the untapped novel bacterial resources in desert soils, and substantially expands our knowledge on the microbial dark matter hidden in the vast expanse of deserts.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Malukiewicz J, D'arc M, Dias CA, et al (2023)

Bifidobacteria define gut microbiome profiles of golden lion tamarin (Leontopithecus rosalia) and marmoset (Callithrix sp.) metagenomic shotgun pools.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15679.

Gut microbiome disruptions may lead to adverse effects on wildlife fitness and viability, thus maintaining host microbiota biodiversity needs to become an integral part of wildlife conservation. The highly-endangered callitrichid golden lion tamarin (GLT-Leontopithecus rosalia) is a rare conservation success, but allochthonous callitrichid marmosets (Callithrix) serve as principle ecological GLT threats. However, incorporation of microbiome approaches to GLT conservation is impeded by limited gut microbiome studies of Brazilian primates. Here, we carried out analysis of gut metagenomic pools from 114 individuals of wild and captive GLTs and marmosets. More specifically, we analyzed the bacterial component of ultra filtered samples originally collected as part of a virome profiling study. The major findings of this study are consistent with previous studies in showing that Bifidobacterium, a bacterial species important for the metabolism of tree gums consumed by callitrichids, is an important component of the callitrichid gut microbiome - although GTLs and marmosets were enriched for different species of Bifidobacterium. Additionally, the composition of GLT and marmoset gut microbiota is sensitive to host environmental factors. Overall, our data expand baseline gut microbiome data for callitrichids to allow for the development of new tools to improve their management and conservation.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Chakraborty M, Acharya D, TK Dutta (2023)

Diversity analysis of hilsa (Tenualosa ilisha) gut microbiota using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches.

Journal of applied microbiology, 134(9):.

AIMS: The bacterial communities associated with the gastrointestinal (GI) tract are primarily involved in digestion, physiology, and the immune response against pathogenic bacteria for the overall development and health of the host. Hilsa shad (Tenualosa ilisha), a tropical anadromous fish, found predominantly in Bangladesh and India, has so far been poorly investigated for its gut bacterial communities. In this study, both culture-based and metagenomic approaches were used to detect intestinal isolates of hilsa, captured from both freshwater and seawater to investigate the community structure of intestinal microbiota.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Culture-dependent approach allowed to isolate a total of 23 distinct bacterial species comprising 16 Gram-negative, and 7 Gram-positive isolates, where Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were identified as the two most dominant phyla. While metagenomic approach explored a wide range of important GI bacteria, primarily dominated by Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes, with Proteobacteria and Firmicutes, being the most abundant in freshwater and seawater samples, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: A combination of these approaches provided the differential GI-associated bacterial diversity in freshwater and seawater hilsa with the prediction of overall functional potential.

IMPACT STATEMENT: The study explored the diversity of gut microbiota in hilsa, one of the most preferred nutritious dietary fish, captured from freshwater and seawater habitats, which may encourage to comprehend the composition of the gut microbiome in relation to the migratory behavior and polyunsaturated fatty acid profile of anadromous fish in general.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Umar M, Bowman JP, Asis C, et al (2023)

Microbial communities associated with resin canal discoloration in mango fruit.

Letters in applied microbiology, 76(9):.

Resin canal discoloration (RCD) severely impacts the fruit quality of mango, diminishes consumer confidence, and reduces sales, but the biological cause is still unclear. Using next-generation sequencing, the overall microbial community composition of RCD+ and visually healthy mango fruits was determined for the first time to examine the possible role of bacterial and fungal pathogens in RCD. The diversity profile of bacterial and fungal communities was determined using primers targeting the 16S rRNA gene and Internal Transcribed Spacer (ITS) regions. Results showed that bacterial communities in healthy fruits are clustered together and significantly different from those in RCD+ fruits. Tatumella and Pantoea species were the most abundant bacterial taxa on RCD+ fruit, and both have been linked to disease outbreaks in a variety of fruit crops. Fungal communities were generally similar between RCD+ and normal samples, though non-pathogenic yeasts Meyerozyma and Naganishia tended to dominate the fungal communities on RCD+ fruit. The study indicates that bacteria rather than fungal organisms are more likely to be associated with RCD in mango. This finding will facilitate the isolation and confirmation of RCD-causing organisms and the development of control strategies to manage RCD problem in mango.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Ahmed B, Gahlot P, Balasundaram G, et al (2023)

Semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion of thermal and thermal-alkali processed organic fraction of municipal solid waste: Methane yield, energy analysis, anaerobic microbiome.

Journal of environmental management, 345:118907.

The semi-continuous anaerobic co-digestion (AcoD) of thermal and thermal-alkali pretreated organic fraction of municipal solid waste (OFMSW) and sewage sludge (SS) was studied under varying hydraulic retention times (HRT) and organic loading rates (OLR Three semi-continuous digesters were operated under control (non-pre-treated), thermally pretreated (125 °C), and thermal-alkali pretreated (125°C-3g/L NaOH) conditions at variable OLRs at 2.5, 4.0, 5.1, and 7.6 kgVS/m[3].d and corresponding HRTs of 30, 20, 15, and 10 days. The 10 and 43% higher methane yield (0.445 m[3]/kgVS) and 11 and 57% higher VS removal (52%) was achieved for thermal-alkali pretreated digester at 5.1 kgVS/m[3].d OLR over thermally pretreated (0.408 m[3]/kgVS, 45% VS removal) and control digesters (0.310 m[3]/kgVS, 33% VS removal), respectively. Thermal and thermal-alkali digesters failed on increasing the OLR to 7.6 kgVS/m[3].d, whereas the control digester becomes upset at 5.1 kgVS/m[3].d OLR. The metagenomic study revealed that Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, Chloroflexi, Euryarchaeota, Proteobacteria, and Actinobacteria were the predominant bacterial population, whereas Methanosarcina and Methanothrix dominated the archaeal community. Energy balance analysis revealed that thermal alkali pretreatment showed the highest positive energy balance of 114.6 MJ/ton with an energy ratio of 1.25 compared with thermally pretreated (81.5 MJ/ton) and control samples (-46.9 MJ/ton). This work pave the way for scaleup of both thermal and thermal-alkali pre-treatment at 125 °C to realize the techno-economic and energy potential of the process.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Xu N, Qiu D, Zhang Z, et al (2023)

A global atlas of marine antibiotic resistance genes and their expression.

Water research, 244:120488.

Oceans serve as global reservoirs of antibiotic-resistant bacteria and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, little is known about the traits and expression of ARGs in response to environmental factors. We analyzed 347 metagenomes and 182 metatranscriptomes to determine the distribution, hosts, and expression of ARGs in oceans. Our study found that the diversity and abundance of ARGs varied with latitude and depth. The core marine resistome mainly conferred glycopeptide and multidrug resistance. The hosts of this resistome were mainly limited to the core marine microbiome, with phylogenetic barriers to the horizontal transfer of ARGs, transfers being more frequent within species than between species. Sixty-five percent of the marine ARGs identified were expressed. More than 90% of high-risk ARGs were more likely to be expressed. Anthropogenic activity might affect the expression of ARGs by altering nitrate and phosphate concentrations and ocean temperature. Machine-learning models predict >97% of marine ARGs will change expression by 2100. High-risk ARGs will shift to low latitudes and regions with high anthropogenic activity, such as the Pacific and Atlantic Oceans. Certain ARGs serve a dual role in antibiotic resistance and potentially participate in element cycling, along with other unknown functions. Determining whether changes in ARG expression are beneficial to ecosystems and human health is challenging without comprehensive understanding of their functions. Our study identified a core resistome in the oceans and quantified the expression of ARGs for the development of future control strategies under global change.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Yue Y, Zhang H, Deng P, et al (2023)

Environmental cadmium exposure facilitates mammary tumorigenesis via reprogramming gut microbiota-mediated glutamine metabolism in MMTV-Erbb2 mice.

The Science of the total environment, 897:165348.

Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal that has been widely reported to be linked to the onset and progression of breast cancer (BC). However, the mechanism of Cd-induced mammary tumorigenesis remains elusive. In our study, a transgenic mouse model that spontaneously develops tumors through overexpression of wild-type Erbb2 (MMTV-Erbb2) was constructed to investigate the effects of Cd exposure on BC tumorigenesis. The results showed that oral exposure to 3.6 mg/L Cd for 23 weeks dramatically accelerated tumor appearance and growth, increased Ki67 density and enhanced focal necrosis and neovascularization in the tumor tissue of MMTV-Erbb2 mice. Notably, Cd exposure enhanced glutamine (Gln) metabolism in tumor tissue, and 6-diazo-5-oxo-l-norleucine (DON), a Gln metabolism antagonist, inhibited Cd-induced breast carcinogenesis. Then our metagenomic sequencing and mass spectrometry-based metabolomics confirmed that Cd exposure disturbed gut microbiota homeostasis, especially Helicobacter and Campylobacter abundance remodeling, which altered the gut metabolic homeostasis of Gln. Moreover, intratumoral Gln metabolism profoundly increased under Cd-elevated gut permeability. Importantly, depletion of microbiota with an antibiotic cocktail (AbX) treatment led to a significant delay in the appearance of palpable tumors, inhibition of tumor growth, decrease in tumor weight, reduction in Ki67 expression and low-grade pathology in Cd-exposed MMTV-Erbb2 mice. Also, transplantation of Cd-modulated microbiota decreased tumor latency, accelerated tumor growth, increased tumor weight, upregulated Ki67 expression and exacerbated neovascularization as well as focal necrosis in MMTV-Erbb2 mice. In summary, Cd exposure induced gut microbiota dysbiosis, elevated gut permeability and increased intratumoral Gln metabolism, leading to the promotion of mammary tumorigenesis. This study provides novel insights into environmental Cd exposure-mediated carcinogenesis.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Tian Z, Li G, Xiong Y, et al (2023)

Step-feeding food waste fermentation liquid as supplementary carbon source for low C/N municipal wastewater treatment: Bench scale performance and response of microbial community.

Journal of environmental management, 345:118434.

Municipal wastewater treatment often lacks carbon source, while carbon-rich organics in food waste are deficiently utilized. In this study, the food waste fermentation liquid (FWFL) was step-fed into a bench-scale step-feed three-stage anoxic/aerobic system (SFTS-A/O), to investigate its performance in nutrients removal and the response of microbial community as a supplementary carbon source. The results showed that the total nitrogen (TN) removal rate increased by 21.8-109.3% after step-feeding FWFL. However, the biomass of the SFTS-A/O system was increased by 14.6% and 11.9% in the two phases of the experiment, respectively. Proteobacteria was found to be the dominant functional phyla induced by FWFL, and the increase of its abundance attributed to the enrichment of denitrifying bacteria and carbohydrate-metabolizing bacteria was responsible for the biomass increase. Azospira belonged to Proteobacteria phylum was the dominant denitrifying genera when step-fed with FWFL, its abundance was increased from 2.7% in series 1 (S1) to 18.6% in series 2 (S2) and became the keystone species in the microbial networks. Metagenomics analysis revealed that step-feeding FWFL enhanced the abundance of denitrification and carbohydrates-metabolism genes, which were encode mainly by Proteobacteria. This study constitutes a key step towards the application of FWFL as a supplementary carbon source for low C/N municipal wastewater treatment.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Zhao X, Sun C, Jin M, et al (2023)

Enrichment Culture but Not Metagenomic Sequencing Identified a Highly Prevalent Phage Infecting Lactiplantibacillus plantarum in Human Feces.

Microbiology spectrum, 11(3):e0434022.

Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (previously known as Lactobacillus plantarum) is increasingly used as a probiotic to treat human diseases, but its phages in the human gut remain unexplored. Here, we report its first gut phage, Gut-P1, which we systematically screened using metagenomic sequencing, virus-like particle (VLP) sequencing, and enrichment culture from 35 fecal samples. Gut-P1 is virulent, belongs to the Douglaswolinvirus genus, and is highly prevalent in the gut (~11% prevalence); it has a genome of 79,928 bp consisting of 125 protein coding genes and displaying low sequence similarities to public L. plantarum phages. Physiochemical characterization shows that it has a short latent period and adapts to broad ranges of temperatures and pHs. Furthermore, Gut-P1 strongly inhibits the growth of L. plantarum strains at a multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 1e-6. Together, these results indicate that Gut-P1 can greatly impede the application of L. plantarum in humans. Strikingly, Gut-P1 was identified only in the enrichment culture, not in our metagenomic or VLP sequencing data nor in any public human phage databases, indicating the inefficiency of bulk sequencing in recovering low-abundance but highly prevalent phages and pointing to the unexplored hidden diversity of the human gut virome despite recent large-scale sequencing and bioinformatics efforts. IMPORTANCE As Lactiplantibacillus plantarum (previously known as Lactobacillus plantarum) is increasingly used as a probiotic to treat human gut-related diseases, its bacteriophages may pose a certain threat to their further application and should be identified and characterized more often from the human intestine. Here, we isolated and identified the first gut L. plantarum phage that is prevalent in a Chinese population. This phage, Gut-P1, is virulent and can strongly inhibit the growth of multiple L. plantarum strains at low MOIs. Our results also show that bulk sequencing is inefficient at recovering low-abundance but highly prevalent phages such as Gut-P1, suggesting that the hidden diversity of human enteroviruses has not yet been explored. Our results call for innovative approaches to isolate and identify intestinal phages from the human gut and to rethink our current understanding of the enterovirus, particularly its underestimated diversity and overestimated individual specificity.

RevDate: 2023-09-25
CmpDate: 2023-09-25

Pryszlak A, Wenzel T, Seitz KW, et al (2022)

Enrichment of gut microbiome strains for cultivation-free genome sequencing using droplet microfluidics.

Cell reports methods, 2(1):None.

We report a droplet microfluidic method to target and sort individual cells directly from complex microbiome samples and to prepare these cells for bulk whole-genome sequencing without cultivation. We characterize this approach by recovering bacteria spiked into human stool samples at a ratio as low as 1:250 and by successfully enriching endogenous Bacteroides vulgatus to the level required for de novo assembly of high-quality genomes. Although microbiome strains are increasingly demanded for biomedical applications, a vast majority of species and strains are uncultivated and without reference genomes. We address this shortcoming by encapsulating complex microbiome samples directly into microfluidic droplets and amplifying a target-specific genomic fragment using a custom molecular TaqMan probe. We separate those positive droplets by droplet sorting, selectively enriching single target strain cells. Finally, we present a protocol to purify the genomic DNA while specifically removing amplicons and cell debris for high-quality genome sequencing.

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Sang Y, Mo S, Zeng S, et al (2023)

Model of shrimp pond-mediated spatiotemporal dynamic distribution of antibiotic resistance genes in the mangrove habitat of a subtropical gulf.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)05826-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Aquacultures are the main reason for the environmental selection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), resulting in the enrichment of ARGs. As a filter, a marine mangrove ecosystem can reduce antimicrobial resistance (AMR) or eliminate ARGs; however, its elimination mechanism remains unclear. This study investigated the spatiotemporal dynamic distribution of ARGs in two different types of mangrove habitats (shrimp ponds and virgin forests), within a subtropical gulf located in the Beibu Gulf, China, during dry and wet seasons by using metagenomics and real time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) analysis. As the key environmental factors, sulfide, salinity, and mobile genetic elements significantly were found to contribute to ARGs distribution, respectively. Wet and dry seasons influenced the dispersal of ARGs but did not affect the microbial community structure. Three potential biomarkers, TEM-116, smeD, and smeE, played key roles in seasonal differences. The key different genes in the biological relevance of absolute abundance were demonstrated by RT-qPCR. Co-occurrence network analysis indicated that high-abundance ARGs were distributed in a modular manner. For the first time, a risk index weighted by risk rank (RIR) was proposed and used to quantify the human risk of ARGs in the mangrove metagenome. The shrimp ponds during the wet season showed the highest RIR detected. In addition to offering a perspective on reducing AMR in mangrove wetlands, this study constructed the first spatiotemporal dynamic model of ARGs in the Beibu Gulf, China and contributed to revealing the global spread of ARGs. Meanwhile, this study proposes a new pipeline for assessing the risk of ARGs, while also exploring the concept of "One Health."

RevDate: 2023-09-21

Mujakić I, Cabello-Yeves PJ, Villena-Alemany C, et al (2023)

Multi-environment ecogenomics analysis of the cosmopolitan phylum Gemmatimonadota.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Gemmatimonadota is a diverse bacterial phylum commonly found in environments such as soils, rhizospheres, fresh waters, and sediments. So far, the phylum contains just six cultured species (five of them sequenced), which limits our understanding of their diversity and metabolism. Therefore, we analyzed over 400 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) and 5 culture-derived genomes representing Gemmatimonadota from various aquatic environments, hydrothermal vents, sediments, soils, and host-associated (with marine sponges and coral) species. The principal coordinate analysis based on the presence/absence of genes in Gemmatimonadota genomes and phylogenomic analysis documented that marine and host-associated Gemmatimonadota were the most distant from freshwater and wastewater species. A smaller genome size and coding sequences (CDS) number reduction were observed in marine MAGs, pointing to an oligotrophic environmental adaptation. Several metabolic pathways are restricted to specific environments. For example, genes for anoxygenic phototrophy were found only in freshwater, wastewater, and soda lake sediment genomes. There were several genomes from soda lake sediments and wastewater containing type IC/ID ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBisCO). Various genomes from wastewater harbored bacterial type II RuBisCO, whereas RuBisCO-like protein was found in genomes from fresh waters, soil, host-associated, and marine sediments. Gemmatimonadota does not contain nitrogen fixation genes; however, the nosZ gene, involved in the reduction of N2O, was present in genomes from most environments, missing only in marine water and host-associated Gemmatimonadota. The presented data suggest that Gemmatimonadota evolved as an organotrophic species relying on aerobic respiration and then remodeled its genome inventory when adapting to particular environments. IMPORTANCE Gemmatimonadota is a rarely studied bacterial phylum consisting of a handful of cultured species. Recent culture-independent studies documented that these organisms are distributed in many environments, including soil, marine, fresh, and waste waters. However, due to the lack of cultured species, information about their metabolic potential and environmental role is scarce. Therefore, we collected Gemmatimonadota metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from different habitats and performed a systematic analysis of their genomic characteristics and metabolic potential. Our results show how Gemmatimonadota have adapted their genomes to different environments.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Herzog EL, Kreuzer M, Zinkernagel MS, et al (2023)

Challenges and insights in the exploration of the low abundance human ocular surface microbiome.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1232147.

PURPOSE: The low microbial abundance on the ocular surface results in challenges in the characterization of its microbiome. The purpose of this study was to reveal factors introducing bias in the pipeline from sample collection to data analysis of low-abundant microbiomes.

METHODS: Lower conjunctiva and lower lid swabs were collected from six participants using either standard cotton or flocked nylon swabs. Microbial DNA was isolated with two different kits (with or without prior host DNA depletion and mechanical lysis), followed by whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing with a high sequencing depth set at 60 million reads per sample. The relative microbial compositions were generated using the two different tools MetaPhlan3 and Kraken2.

RESULTS: The total amount of extracted DNA was increased by using nylon flocked swabs on the lower conjunctiva. In total, 269 microbial species were detected. The most abundant bacterial phyla were Actinobacteria, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria. Depending on the DNA extraction kit and tool used for profiling, the microbial composition and the relative abundance of viruses varied.

CONCLUSION: The microbial composition on the ocular surface is not dependent on the swab type, but on the DNA extraction method and profiling tool. These factors have to be considered in further studies about the ocular surface microbiome and other sparsely colonized microbiomes in order to improve data reproducibility. Understanding challenges and biases in the characterization of the ocular surface microbiome may set the basis for microbiome-altering interventions for treatment of ocular surface associated diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Dong Z, Xie Q, Yuan Y, et al (2023)

Strain-level structure of gut microbiome showed potential association with cognitive function in major depressive disorder: A pilot study.

Journal of affective disorders, 341:236-247.

BACKGROUND: Although the association between gut microbiota and the pathogenesis of major depressive disorder (MDD) has been well studied, it is unclear whether gut microbiota affects cognitive function in patients with MDD. In this study, we explored the association between gut microbiota and cognitive function in MDD and its possible mechanisms.

METHODS: We enrolled 57 patients with MDD and 30 healthy controls (HCs) and used 16S rRNA gene sequencing analysis and shotgun metagenomic sequencing analysis to determine gut microbial composition.

RESULTS: The richness and diversity of gut microbiota in patients with MDD were the same as those in HCs, but there were differences in the abundance of Bifidobacterium and Blautia. Compared with HCs, two strains (bin_32 and bin_55) were significantly increased, and one strain (bin_31) was significantly decreased in patients with MDD based on the strain-level meta-analysis. Time to complete the Stroop-C had significant negative correlations with bin_31 and bin_32. Bin_55 had significant negative correlations with time to complete the Stroop-C, time to complete the Stroop-CW, and repeated animal words in 60 s but significant positive correlations with correct answers in 120 s on the Stroop-CW.

LIMITATIONS: This study only tested the cognitive function of MDD in a small sample, which may have caused some bias.

CONCLUSIONS: Based on our strain-level analysis, we found that gut microbiota may be associated with the pathogenesis of MDD and may have potential effects on cognitive function.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Shetty P, Shetty S, Rai P, et al (2023)

Role of oral microbiota in irreversible pulpitis - Current strategies and future perspectives.

Acta microbiologica et immunologica Hungarica, 70(3):177-186.

Irreversible pulpitis is an inflammation of the tooth pulp caused by an opportunity-driven invasion of the pulp space by oral microbiota typically prevalent in the oral cavity. Microbial organisms are extensively recognised to be the fundamental cause of endodontic infections and treatment failures. Previously, bacterial species responsible for these infections were largely recognised using conventional microbial culture techniques, lending credence to the widely held belief that anaerobic Gram-negative bacteria frequently enter the pulp space and trigger endodontic infections. The advent of novel technologies grants the advantage of detecting and studying microbial populations via an amalgamation of the modern "Omics" techniques and meticulous bioinformatics analysis, additionally detecting the metatranscriptome, metaproteome and metabolome along with the metagenome. Amongst these analytical strategies, metagenomic analyses are essentially pragmatic for investigating the oral microbiome. Metagenomics favor not only assessment of microbial composition in diseased conditions, but also contributes to detection of novel, potentially pathogenic species inclusive of non-viable bacteria. The present review describes current knowledge of root canal microbiome, including its composition and functional attributes, the novel strategies available for detection of microbiome as well as challenges associated and provides some crucial pointers for areas of future research.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Sun J, Germain A, Kaglan G, et al (2023)

The visceral adipose tissue bacterial microbiota provides a signature of obesity based on inferred metagenomic functions.

International journal of obesity (2005), 47(10):1008-1022.

BACKGROUND: Metabolic inflammation mediated obesity requires bacterial molecules to trigger immune and adipose cells leading to inflammation and adipose depot development. In addition to the well-established gut microbiota dysbiosis, a leaky gut has been identified in patients with obesity and animal models, characterized by the presence of a tissue microbiota in the adipose fat pads.

METHODS: To determine its potential role, we sequenced the bacterial 16 S rRNA genes in the visceral adipose depot of patients with obesity. Taking great care (surgical, biochemical, and bioinformatic) to avoid environmental contaminants. We performed statistical discriminant analyses to identify specific signatures and constructed network of interactions between variables.

RESULTS: The data showed that a specific 16SrRNA gene signature was composed of numerous bacterial families discriminating between lean versus patients with obesity and people with severe obesity. The main discriminant families were Burkholderiaceae, Yearsiniaceae, and Xanthomonadaceae, all of which were gram-negative. Interestingly, the Morganellaceae were totally absent from people without obesity while preponderant in all in patients with obesity. To generate hypotheses regarding their potential role, we inferred metabolic pathways from the 16SrRNA gene signatures. We identified several pathways associated with adenosyl-cobalamine previously described to be linked with adipose tissue development. We further identified chorismate biosynthesis, which is involved in aromatic amino-acid metabolism and could play a role in fat pad development. This innovative approach generates novel hypotheses regarding the gut to adipose tissue axis.

CONCLUSIONS: This innovative approach generates novel hypotheses regarding the gut to adipose tissue axis in obesity and notably the potential role of tissue microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Armstrong AJS, Horton DB, Andrews T, et al (2023)

Saliva microbiome in relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection in a prospective cohort of healthy US adults.

EBioMedicine, 94:104731.

BACKGROUND: The clinical outcomes of SARS-CoV-2 infection vary in severity, potentially influenced by the resident human microbiota. There is limited consensus on conserved microbiome changes in response to SARS-CoV-2 infection, with many studies focusing on severely ill individuals. This study aimed to assess the variation in the upper respiratory tract microbiome using saliva specimens in a cohort of individuals with primarily mild to moderate disease.

METHODS: In early 2020, a cohort of 831 adults without known SARS-CoV-2 infection was followed over a six-month period to assess the occurrence and natural history of SARS-CoV-2 infection. From this cohort, 81 participants with a SARS-CoV-2 infection, along with 57 unexposed counterparts were selected with a total of 748 serial saliva samples were collected for analysis. Total bacterial abundance, composition, population structure, and gene function of the salivary microbiome were measured using 16S rRNA gene and shotgun metagenomic sequencing.

FINDINGS: The salivary microbiome remained stable in unexposed individuals over the six-month study period, as evidenced by all measured metrics. Similarly, participants with mild to moderate SARS-CoV-2 infection showed microbiome stability throughout and after their infection. However, there were significant reductions in microbiome diversity among SARS-CoV-2-positive participants with severe symptoms early after infection. Over time, the microbiome diversity in these participants showed signs of recovery.

INTERPRETATION: These findings demonstrate the resilience of the salivary microbiome in relation to SARS-CoV-2 infection. Mild to moderate infections did not significantly disrupt the stability of the salivary microbiome, suggesting its ability to maintain its composition and function. However, severe SARS-CoV-2 infection was associated with temporary reductions in microbiome diversity, indicating the limits of microbiome resilience in the face of severe infection.

FUNDING: This project was supported in part by Danone North America and grants from the National Institutes of Health, United States.

RevDate: 2023-09-22
CmpDate: 2023-09-22

Hazime H, Ducasa GM, Santander AM, et al (2023)

Intestinal Epithelial Inactivity of Dual Oxidase 2 Results in Microbiome-Mediated Metabolic Syndrome.

Cellular and molecular gastroenterology and hepatology, 16(4):557-572.

BACKGROUND & AIMS: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) is characterized by obesity, glucose intolerance, and hepatic steatosis. Alterations in the gut microbiome play important roles in the development of MetS. However, the mechanisms by which this occurs are poorly understood. Dual oxidase 2 (DUOX2) is an antimicrobial reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase expressed in the gut epithelium. Here, we posit that epithelial DUOX2 activity provides a mechanistic link between the gut microbiome and the development of MetS.

METHODS: Mice carrying an intestinal epithelial-specific deletion of dual oxidase maturation factor 1/2 (DA IEC-KO), and wild-type littermates were fed a standard diet and killed at 24 weeks. Metabolic alterations were determined by glucose tolerance, lipid tests, and body and organ weight measurements. DUOX2 activity was determined by Amplex Red. Intestinal permeability was determined by fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran, microbial translocation assessments, and portal vein lipopolysaccharide measurements. Metagenomic analysis of the stool microbiome was performed. The role of the microbiome was assessed in antibiotic-treated mice.

RESULTS: DA IEC-KO males showed increased body and organ weights accompanied by glucose intolerance and increased plasma lipid and liver enzyme levels, and increased adiposity in the liver and adipose tissue. Expression of F4/80, CD68, uncoupling protein 1, carbohydrate response element binding protein, leptin, and adiponectin was altered in the liver and adipose tissue of DA IEC-KO males. DA IEC-KO males produced less epithelial H2O2, had altered relative abundance of Akkermansiaceae and Lachnospiraceae in stool, and showed increased portal vein lipopolysaccharides and intestinal permeability. Females were protected from barrier defects and MetS, despite producing less H2O2. Antibiotic depletion abrogated all MetS phenotypes observed.

CONCLUSIONS: Intestinal epithelial inactivity of DUOX2 promotes MetS in a microbiome-dependent manner.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Hansen ZA, Vasco K, Rudrik JT, et al (2023)

Recovery of the gut microbiome following enteric infection and persistence of antimicrobial resistance genes in specific microbial hosts.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15524.

Enteric pathogens cause widespread foodborne illness and are increasingly resistant to important antibiotics yet their ecological impact on the gut microbiome and resistome is not fully understood. Herein, shotgun metagenome sequencing was applied to stool DNA from 60 patients (cases) during an enteric bacterial infection and after recovery (follow-ups). Overall, the case samples harbored more antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) with greater resistome diversity than the follow-up samples (p < 0.001), while follow-ups had more diverse gut microbiota (p < 0.001). Although cases were primarily defined by genera Escherichia, Salmonella, and Shigella along with ARGs for multi-compound and multidrug resistance, follow-ups had a greater abundance of Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phyla and resistance genes for tetracyclines, macrolides, lincosamides, and streptogramins, and aminoglycosides. A host-tracking analysis revealed that Escherichia was the primary bacterial host of ARGs in both cases and follow-ups, with a greater abundance occurring during infection. Eleven distinct extended spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL) genes were identified during infection, with some detectable upon recovery, highlighting the potential for gene transfer within the community. Because of the increasing incidence of disease caused by foodborne pathogens and their role in harboring and transferring resistance determinants, this study enhances our understanding of how enteric infections impact human gut ecology.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Warner BB, Rosa BA, Ndao IM, et al (2023)

Social and psychological adversity are associated with distinct mother and infant gut microbiome variations.

Nature communications, 14(1):5824.

Health disparities are driven by underlying social disadvantage and psychosocial stressors. However, how social disadvantage and psychosocial stressors lead to adverse health outcomes is unclear, particularly when exposure begins prenatally. Variations in the gut microbiome and circulating proinflammatory cytokines offer potential mechanistic pathways. Here, we interrogate the gut microbiome of mother-child dyads to compare high-versus-low prenatal social disadvantage, psychosocial stressors and maternal circulating cytokine cohorts (prospective case-control study design using gut microbiomes from 121 dyads profiled with 16 S rRNA sequencing and 89 dyads with shotgun metagenomic sequencing). Gut microbiome characteristics significantly predictive of social disadvantage and psychosocial stressors in the mothers and children indicate that different discriminatory taxa and related pathways are involved, including many species of Bifidobacterium and related pathways across several comparisons. The lowest inter-individual gut microbiome similarity was observed among high-social disadvantage/high-psychosocial stressors mothers, suggesting distinct environmental exposures driving a diverging gut microbiome assembly compared to low-social disadvantage/low-psychosocial stressors controls (P = 3.5 × 10[-5] for social disadvantage, P = 2.7 × 10[-15] for psychosocial stressors). Children's gut metagenome profiles at 4 months also significantly predicted high/low maternal prenatal IL-6 (P = 0.029), with many bacterial species overlapping those identified by social disadvantage and psychosocial stressors. These differences, based on maternal social and psychological status during a critical developmental window early in life, offer potentially modifiable targets to mitigate health inequities.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-21

Yan Z, Wang Y, Zeng W, et al (2023)

Microbiota of long-term indwelling hemodialysis catheters during renal transplantation perioperative period: a cross-sectional metagenomic microbial community analysis.

Renal failure, 45(2):2256421.

Background: Catheter-related infection (CRI) is a major complication in patients undergoing hemodialysis. The lack of high-throughput research on catheter-related microbiota makes it difficult to predict the occurrence of CRI. Thus, this study aimed to delineate the microbial structure and diversity landscape of hemodialysis catheter tips among patients during the perioperative period of kidney transplantation (KTx) and provide insights into predicting the occurrence of CRI.Methods: Forty patients at the Department of Transplantation undergoing hemodialysis catheter removal were prospectively included. Samples, including catheter tip, catheter outlet skin swab, catheter blood, peripheral blood, oropharynx swab, and midstream urine, from the separate pre- and post-KTx groups were collected and analyzed using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS). All the catheter tips and blood samples were cultured conventionally.Results: The positive detection rates for bacteria using mNGS and traditional culture were 97.09% (200/206) and 2.65% (3/113), respectively. Low antibiotic-sensitivity biofilms with colonized bacteria were detected at the catheter tip. In asymptomatic patients, no statistically significant difference was observed in the catheter tip microbial composition and diversity between the pre- and post-KTx group. The catheter tip microbial composition and diversity were associated with fasting blood glucose levels. Microorganisms at the catheter tip most likely originated from catheter outlet skin and peripheral blood.Conclusions: The long-term colonization microbiota at the catheter tip is in a relatively stable state and is not readily influenced by KTx. It does not act as the source of infection in all CRIs, but could reflect hematogenous infection to some extent.

RevDate: 2023-09-21
CmpDate: 2023-09-20

Hess MK, Hodgkinson HE, Hess AS, et al (2023)

Large-scale analysis of sheep rumen metagenome profiles captured by reduced representation sequencing reveals individual profiles are influenced by the environment and genetics of the host.

BMC genomics, 24(1):551.

BACKGROUND: Producing animal protein while reducing the animal's impact on the environment, e.g., through improved feed efficiency and lowered methane emissions, has gained interest in recent years. Genetic selection is one possible path to reduce the environmental impact of livestock production, but these traits are difficult and expensive to measure on many animals. The rumen microbiome may serve as a proxy for these traits due to its role in feed digestion. Restriction enzyme-reduced representation sequencing (RE-RRS) is a high-throughput and cost-effective approach to rumen metagenome profiling, but the systematic (e.g., sequencing) and biological factors influencing the resulting reference based (RB) and reference free (RF) profiles need to be explored before widespread industry adoption is possible.

RESULTS: Metagenome profiles were generated by RE-RRS of 4,479 rumen samples collected from 1,708 sheep, and assigned to eight groups based on diet, age, time off feed, and country (New Zealand or Australia) at the time of sample collection. Systematic effects were found to have minimal influence on metagenome profiles. Diet was a major driver of differences between samples, followed by time off feed, then age of the sheep. The RF approach resulted in more reads being assigned per sample and afforded greater resolution when distinguishing between groups than the RB approach. Normalizing relative abundances within the sampling Cohort abolished structures related to age, diet, and time off feed, allowing a clear signal based on methane emissions to be elucidated. Genus-level abundances of rumen microbes showed low-to-moderate heritability and repeatability and were consistent between diets.

CONCLUSIONS: Variation in rumen metagenomic profiles was influenced by diet, age, time off feed and genetics. Not accounting for environmental factors may limit the ability to associate the profile with traits of interest. However, these differences can be accounted for by adjusting for Cohort effects, revealing robust biological signals. The abundances of some genera were consistently heritable and repeatable across different environments, suggesting that metagenomic profiles could be used to predict an individual's future performance, or performance of its offspring, in a range of environments. These results highlight the potential of using rumen metagenomic profiles for selection purposes in a practical, agricultural setting.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-15

De Filippis F, Bonelli M, Bruno D, et al (2023)

Plastics shape the black soldier fly larvae gut microbiome and select for biodegrading functions.

Microbiome, 11(1):205.

BACKGROUND: In the last few years, considerable attention has been focused on the plastic-degrading capability of insects and their gut microbiota in order to develop novel, effective, and green strategies for plastic waste management. Although many analyses based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing are available, an in-depth analysis of the insect gut microbiome to identify genes with plastic-degrading potential is still lacking.

RESULTS: In the present work, we aim to fill this gap using Black Soldier Fly (BSF) as insect model. BSF larvae have proven capability to efficiently bioconvert a wide variety of organic wastes but, surprisingly, have never been considered for plastic degradation. BSF larvae were reared on two widely used plastic polymers and shotgun metagenomics was exploited to evaluate if and how plastic-containing diets affect composition and functions of the gut microbial community. The high-definition picture of the BSF gut microbiome gave access for the first time to the genomes of culturable and unculturable microorganisms in the gut of insects reared on plastics and revealed that (i) plastics significantly shaped bacterial composition at species and strain level, and (ii) functions that trigger the degradation of the polymer chains, i.e., DyP-type peroxidases, multicopper oxidases, and alkane monooxygenases, were highly enriched in the metagenomes upon exposure to plastics, consistently with the evidences obtained by scanning electron microscopy and [1]H nuclear magnetic resonance analyses on plastics.

CONCLUSIONS: In addition to highlighting that the astonishing plasticity of the microbiota composition of BSF larvae is associated with functional shifts in the insect microbiome, the present work sets the stage for exploiting BSF larvae as "bioincubators" to isolate microbial strains and enzymes for the development of innovative plastic biodegradation strategies. However, most importantly, the larvae constitute a source of enzymes to be evolved and valorized by pioneering synthetic biology approaches. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-15

Chang YH, Yanckello LM, Chlipala GE, et al (2023)

Prebiotic inulin enhances gut microbial metabolism and anti-inflammation in apolipoprotein E4 mice with sex-specific implications.

Scientific reports, 13(1):15116.

Gut dysbiosis has been identified as a crucial factor of Alzheimer's disease (AD) development for apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4) carriers. Inulin has shown the potential to mitigate dysbiosis. However, it remains unclear whether the dietary response varies depending on sex. In the study, we fed 4-month-old APOE4 mice with inulin for 16 weeks and performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing to determine changes in microbiome diversity, taxonomy, and functional gene pathways. We also formed the same experiments with APOE3 mice to identify whether there are APOE-genotype dependent responses to inulin. We found that APOE4 female mice fed with inulin had restored alpha diversity, significantly reduced Escherichia coli and inflammation-associated pathway responses. However, compared with APOE4 male mice, they had less metabolic responses, including the levels of short-chain fatty acids-producing bacteria and the associated kinases, especially those related to acetate and Erysipelotrichaceae. These diet- and sex- effects were less pronounced in the APOE3 mice, indicating that different APOE variants also play a significant role. The findings provide insights into the higher susceptibility of APOE4 females to AD, potentially due to inefficient energy production, and imply the importance of considering precision nutrition for mitigating dysbiosis and AD risk in the future.

RevDate: 2023-09-19
CmpDate: 2023-09-14

Hussan H, Clinton SK, Grainger EM, et al (2023)

Distinctive patterns of sulfide- and butyrate-metabolizing bacteria after bariatric surgery: potential implications for colorectal cancer risk.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2255345.

Despite improved cardiometabolic outcomes following bariatric surgery, its long-term impact on colorectal cancer (CRC) risk remains uncertain. In parallel, the influence of bariatric surgery on the host microbiome and relationships with disease outcomes is beginning to be appreciated. Therefore, we investigated the impact of Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) and vertical sleeve gastrectomy (VSG) on the patterns of sulfide-reducing and butyrate-producing bacteria, which are hypothesized to modulate CRC risk after bariatric surgery. In this single-center, cross-sectional study, we included 15 pre-surgery subjects with severe obesity and patients who are at a median (range) of 25.6 (9.9-46.5) months after RYGB (n = 16) or VSG (n = 10). The DNA abundance of fecal bacteria and enzymes involved in butyrate and sulfide metabolism were identified using metagenomic sequencing. Differences between pre-surgery and post-RYGB or post-VSG cohorts were quantified using the linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size (LEfSe) method. Our sample was predominantly female (87%) with a median (range) age of 46 (23-71) years. Post-RYGB and post-VSG patients had a higher DNA abundance of fecal sulfide-reducing bacteria than pre-surgery controls (LDA = 1.3-4.4, p < .05). The most significant enrichments were for fecal E. coli, Acidaminococcus and A. finegoldii after RYGB, and for A. finegoldii, S. vestibularis, V. parvula after VSG. As for butyrate-producing bacteria, R. faecis was more abundant, whereas B. dentium and A. hardus were lower post-RYGB vs. pre-surgery. B. dentium was also lower in post-VSG vs. pre-surgery. Consistent with these findings, our analysis showed a greater enrichment of sulfide-reducing enzymes after bariatric surgery, especially RYGB, vs. pre-surgery. The DNA abundance of butyrate-producing enzymes was lower post-RYGB. In conclusion, the two most used bariatric surgeries, RYGB and VSG, are associated with microbiome patterns that are potentially implicated in CRC risk. Future studies are needed to validate and understand the impact of these microbiome changes on CRC risk after bariatric surgery.

RevDate: 2023-09-15
CmpDate: 2023-09-14

Bulygin I, Shatov V, Rykachevskiy A, et al (2023)

Absence of enterotypes in the human gut microbiomes reanalyzed with non-linear dimensionality reduction methods.

PeerJ, 11:e15838.

Enterotypes of the human gut microbiome have been proposed to be a powerful prognostic tool to evaluate the correlation between lifestyle, nutrition, and disease. However, the number of enterotypes suggested in the literature ranged from two to four. The growth of available metagenome data and the use of exact, non-linear methods of data analysis challenges the very concept of clusters in the multidimensional space of bacterial microbiomes. Using several published human gut microbiome datasets of variable 16S rRNA regions, we demonstrate the presence of a lower-dimensional structure in the microbiome space, with high-dimensional data concentrated near a low-dimensional non-linear submanifold, but the absence of distinct and stable clusters that could represent enterotypes. This observation is robust with regard to diverse combinations of dimensionality reduction techniques and clustering algorithms.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-20

Liu D, Wang S, Liu Y, et al (2023)

Fuzhuan brick tea ameliorates hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis through gut microbiota-derived aryl hydrocarbon receptor ligands in high-fat diet-induced obese mice.

Food & function, 14(18):8351-8368.

High-fat diet (HFD) induced obesity and its associated conditions, such as hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis, are major health concerns worldwide. Previous studies have reported the excellent efficiency of Fuzhuan brick tea (FBT) in attenuating HFD-induced obesity and metabolic disorders. In this study, we investigated the effects of FBT on hepatic steatosis and simple steatohepatitis in HFD-induced obese mice, as well as the metabolic function of the gut microbiome using metagenomics and metabolomics. The results showed that FBT ameliorated dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis in HFD-induced obese mice by normalizing the gut microbiota structure and tryptophan metabolism. FBT increased the cecal abundance of aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-ligand producing bacteria such as Lactobacillus_reuteri and Lactobacillus_johnsonii, at the expense of AhR-ligand consuming bacteria, such as Faecalibaculum_rodentium and Escherichia_coli, and elevated the cecal contents of AhR-ligands such as IAA, IPA, and KYNA. Furthermore, FBT regulated the expressions of AhR and its targeted lipometabolic genes such as Pemt, Fasn, and SREBP-1c, as well as other inflammatory genes including TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β in the liver of mice. Overall, these findings highlight the beneficial effects of FBT on obesity-related hepatic steatosis and steatohepatitis via microbiota-derived AhR signaling.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-20

Jin L, Wu H, Li G, et al (2023)

Gastrointestinal microbiome, resistance genes, and risk assessment of heavy metals in wild giant pandas.

The Science of the total environment, 899:165671.

The gastrointestinal microbiome (GM) of giant panda (GP) plays an important role in food utilization and health and is also an essential reservoir of resistance genes. Currently, little knowledge is available on the GM, acid resistance genes (AcRGs), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), metal resistance genes (MRGs), and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) in wild GPs. We sampled the gastrointestinal tract of a dead GP and explored the composition and function of GM and resistance genes through cryo-scanning electron microscopy, metagenomic sequencing, and genome-resolved metagenomics. The concentration of metals in the gastrointestinal lumen, feces, bamboo, and soil was measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Results showed that the composition of the microbiota varied in different gastrointestinal regions. Fecal microbiota was highly associated with small intestinal and colonic microbes. The lignocellulosic cross-linked structure of bamboo was destroyed in the stomach initially and destroying degree increased from stomach to anus. Reconstruction of metagenome-assembled-genomes confirmed that core GM, e.g., Streptococcus, Clostridium, Lactococcus, Leuconostoc, and Enterococcus, carried genes encoding the lignocellulose degradation enzyme. There were no significant differences of resistance genes between gastrointestinal and fecal samples, except MGEs. Multidrug and multi-metal resistance genes were predominant in all samples, while the transposase gene tnpA was the major type of MGE. Significant correlations were observed among the abundance of GM, resistance genes, and MGEs. Gastrointestinal and fecal mercury and chromium were the main metals influencing GM and resistance genes. The content of gastrointestinal and fecal metals was significantly associated with the presence of the same metals in bamboo, which could pose a threat to the health of wild GPs. This study characterized the gastrointestinal microbiome of wild GPs, providing new evidence for the role of the gastrointestinal microbiome in degrading lignocellulose from bamboo and highlighting the urgent need to monitor metal levels in soil and bamboo.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-20

Yan Q, Xu Y, Zhong Z, et al (2023)

Insights into antibiotic resistance-related changes in microbial communities, resistome and mobilome in paddy irrigated with reclaimed wastewater.

The Science of the total environment, 900:165672.

Reclaimed wastewater (reclaimed wastewater, RWW) from municipal wastewater treatment plants for paddy irrigation is a well-established practice to alleviate water scarcity. However, the reuse may result in the persistent exposure of the paddy to residual antibiotics in RWW. Continuous presence of even low-level antibiotics can exert selective pressure on microbiota, resulting in the proliferation and dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in paddy. In this study, metagenomic analysis was applied to firstly deciphered the effects of residual antibiotics on microbiome and resistome in constructed mesocosm-scale paddy soils. The diversity and abundance of ARG have remarkably risen with the increasing antibiotic concentration in RWW. Network analysis revealed that 28 genera belonging to six phyla were considered as the potential ARG hosts, and their abundances were enhanced with increasing antibiotic concentrations. A partial least-squares path model indicated that the microbial community was the principal direct driver of the ARG abundance and the resistome alteration in paddy soil under long-term RWW irrigation. Microbes may acquire ARGs via horizontal gene transfer. IntI1 could play an essential role in the propagation and spread of ARGs. Functional analysis suggested that enhanced SOS response and T4SSs (Type IV secretion systems) modules could stimulate horizontal transfer potential and promote the ARG abundance. The obtained results provide a scientific decision for assessing the ecological risk of RWW application.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-20

Liu M, Wei Y, Lian L, et al (2023)

Macrofungi promote SOC decomposition and weaken sequestration by modulating soil microbial function in temperate steppe.

The Science of the total environment, 899:165556.

Soil organic carbon (SOC) sequestration is a key grassland ecosystem function, and the magnitude of SOC reservoirs depends on microbial involvement, especially that of fungi. Mycelia developed by macrofungi potentially influence carbon (C) fixation and decomposition; however, the mechanisms underlying their effects on SOC storage in grassland ecosystems remain poorly understood. The fairy rings formed by macrofungi in grasslands are natural platform for exploring macrofungal effects on SOC. In this study, we collected topsoil (0-10 cm) from four different fairy ring zones in a temperate steppe to reveal the macrofungal effects on SOC fractions, including particulate organic carbon (POC) and mineral-associated organic carbon (MAOC), and the SOC storage microbial mechanism using metagenomic sequencing technology. Both POC and MAOC decreased after macrofungal passage, resulting in a 7.37 % reduction in SOC. Macrofungal presence reduced microbial biomass carbon (MBC), but significantly enhanced the β-1,4-glucosidase (BG) activity, which increased dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In addition, the abundance of copiotrophs (Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes) with lower C metabolic rates increased, and that of oligotrophs (Actinobacteria, Acidobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Verrucomicrobia) with higher substrate utilization efficiency decreased in the presence of macrofungi. This may further promote SOC decomposition. Correspondingly, there was a lower abundance of C-fixation genes but more C-degradation genes (especially hemicellulosic degradation genes) during macrofungal passage. Our results indicate that the presence of macrofungi can modulate the soil microbial community and functional genes to reduce SOC storage by inhibiting microbial C sequestration while promoting C decomposition in grassland ecosystems. These findings refine our mechanistic understanding of SOC persistence through the interactions between macrofungi and other microbes.

RevDate: 2023-09-20
CmpDate: 2023-09-20

Li ZT, Yang SY, HP Zhao (2023)

The effects of arsenic on dechlorination of trichloroethene by consortium DH: Microbial response and resistance.

The Science of the total environment, 896:165219.

Inorganic arsenic and organochlorines are frequently co-occurring contaminants in anoxic groundwater environments, and the bioremediation of their composite pollution has long been a rigorous predicament. Currently, the dechlorination behaviors and stress responses of microbial dechlorination consortia to arsenic are not yet fully understood. This study assessed the reductive dechlorination performance of a Dehalococcoides-bearing microcosm DH under gradient concentrations of arsenate [As(V)] or arsenite [As(III)] and investigated the response patterns of different functional microorganisms. Our results demonstrated that although the dechlorination rates declined with increasing arsenic concentrations in both As(III/V) scenarios, the inhibitory impact was more pronounced in As(III)-amended groups compared to As(V)-amended groups. Moreover, the vinyl chloride (VC)-to-ethene step was more susceptible to arsenic exposure compared to the trichloroethene (TCE)-to-dichloroethane (DCE) step, while high levels of arsenic exposure [e.g. As(III) > 75 μM] can induce significant accumulation of VC. Functional gene variations and microbial community analyses revealed that As(III/V) affected reductive dechlorination by directly inhibiting organohalide-respiring bacteria (OHRB) and indirectly inhibiting synergistic populations such as acetogens. Metagenomic results indicated that arsenic metabolic and efflux mechanisms were identical among different Dhc strains, and variations in arsenic uptake pathways were possibly responsible for their differential responses to arsenic exposures. By comparison, fermentative bacteria showed high potential for arsenic resistance due to their inherent advantages in arsenic detoxification and efflux mechanisms. Collectively, our findings expanded the understanding of the response patterns of different functional populations to arsenic stress in the dechlorinating consortium and provided insights into modifying bioremediation strategies at co-contaminated sites for furtherance.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Baker JL (2023)

Illuminating the oral microbiome and its host interactions: recent advancements in omics and bioinformatics technologies in the context of oral microbiome research.

FEMS microbiology reviews, 47(5):.

The oral microbiota has an enormous impact on human health, with oral dysbiosis now linked to many oral and systemic diseases. Recent advancements in sequencing, mass spectrometry, bioinformatics, computational biology, and machine learning are revolutionizing oral microbiome research, enabling analysis at an unprecedented scale and level of resolution using omics approaches. This review contains a comprehensive perspective of the current state-of-the-art tools available to perform genomics, metagenomics, phylogenomics, pangenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, metabolomics, lipidomics, and multi-omics analysis on (all) microbiomes, and then provides examples of how the techniques have been applied to research of the oral microbiome, specifically. Key findings of these studies and remaining challenges for the field are highlighted. Although the methods discussed here are placed in the context of their contributions to oral microbiome research specifically, they are pertinent to the study of any microbiome, and the intended audience of this includes researchers would simply like to get an introduction to microbial omics and/or an update on the latest omics methods. Continued research of the oral microbiota using omics approaches is crucial and will lead to dramatic improvements in human health, longevity, and quality of life.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Young GR, Nelson A, Stewart CJ, et al (2023)

Bacteriophage communities are a reservoir of unexplored microbial diversity in neonatal health and disease.

Current opinion in microbiology, 75:102379.

Acquisition and development of the gut microbiome are vital for immune education in neonates, especially those born preterm. As such, microbial communities have been extensively studied in the context of postnatal health and disease. Bacterial communities have been the focus of research in this area due to the relative ease of targeted bacterial sequencing and the availability of databases to align and validate sequencing data. Recent increases in high-throughput metagenomic sequencing accessibility have facilitated research to investigate bacteriophages within the context of neonatal gut microbial communities. Focusing on unexplored viral diversity, has identified novel bacteriophage species and previously uncharacterised viral diversity. In doing so, studies have highlighted links between bacteriophages and bacterial community structure in the context of health and disease. However, much remains unknown about the complex relationships between bacteriophages, the bacteria they infect and their human host. With a particular focus on preterm infants, this review highlights opportunities to explore the influence of bacteriophages on developing microbial communities and the tripartite relationships between bacteriophages, bacteria and the neonatal human host. We suggest a focus on expanding collections of isolated bacteriophages that will further our understanding of the growing numbers of bacteriophages identified in metagenomes.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Jian J, Yuan Y, Vilatersana R, et al (2023)

Phylogenomic and population genomic analyses reveal the spatial-temporal dynamics of diversification of the Nigella arvensis complex (Ranunculaceae) in the Aegean archipelago.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 188:107908.

The continental-shelf islands of the Aegean Sea provide an ideal geographical setting for evolutionary-biogeographical studies but disentangling the relationships between palaeogeographical history and the times, orders of modes of taxon divergence is not straightforward. Here, we used phylogenomic and population genomic approaches, based on orthologous gene sequences and transcriptome-derived SNP data, to reconstruct the spatial-temporal evolution of the Aegean Nigella arvensis complex (Ranunculaceae; 11 out of 12 taxa). The group's early diversification in the Early/Mid-Pliocene (c. 3.77 Mya) resulted in three main lineages (Greek mainland vs. central Aegean + Turkish mainland/eastern Aegean islands), while all extant taxa are of Late Plio-/Early Pleistocene origin (c. 3.30-1.59 Mya). Demographic modelling of the outcrossing taxa uncovered disparate modes of (sub)speciation, including divergence with gene flow on the Greek mainland, para- or peripatric diversification across eastern Aegean islands, and a 'mixing-isolation-mixing (MIM)' mode of subspeciation in the Cyclades. The two selfing species (N. stricta, N. doerfleri) evolved independently from the outcrossers. Present-day island configurations are clearly insufficient to explain the spatial-temporal history of lineage diversification and modes of (sub)speciation in Aegean Nigella. Moreover, our identification of positively selected genes in almost all taxa calls into question that this plant group represents a case of 'non-adaptive' radiation. Our study revealed an episodic diversification history of the N. arvensis complex, giving new insight into the modes and drivers of island speciation and adaption across multiple spatiotemporal scales.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Deng Z, Ouyang Z, Mei S, et al (2024)

Enhancing NKT cell-mediated immunity against hepatocellular carcinoma: Role of XYXD in promoting primary bile acid synthesis and improving gut microbiota.

Journal of ethnopharmacology, 318(Pt B):116945.

'Xiayuxue decoction' (XYXD) is a traditional Chinese medicine compound, composing of three natural medicines: Rheum officinale Baill., Prunus persica (L.) Batsch and Eupolyphaga sinensis Walker. It is derived from the famous traditional Chinese medical classics 'Jingui Yaolue' and has been used for thousands of years. In the Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Treatment of Primary liver Cancer issued by China's Health Commission, XYXD was applied in the treatment of primary liver cancer.

AIM OF THE STUDY: To clarify the pharmacodynamic material basis and mechanism of XYXD in the treatment of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Firstly, the active components of XYXD and its distribution in vivo were identified by Ultraperformance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS). Then, the effective components and mechanism of XYXD against HCC were explored by network pharmacology combined with cell experiments in vitro. Furthermore, the anti-HCC effect of XYXD was determined by animal experiments in vivo. Metagenomic sequencing was used to detect its effect in gut microbiota, and targeted metabolism was used to detect the changes of bile acids in the liver. Finally, the related targets of NKT cell immune function activation were detected by RT-qPCR and Elisa.

RESULTS: A total of 113 active ingredients in XYXD were identified, and the distribution of active ingredients in blood, liver, tumor, cecum, intestinal contents and feces was clarified. The circulation process and active ingredient group of XYXD were preliminarily clarified. In addition, we found five anti-HCC active ingredients in XYXD through network pharmacology combined with cell experiments in vitro, among which aloe emodin had the most significant effect, and predicted the potential mechanism of XYXD against HCC through NKT cell pathway. Moreover, the inhibitory effect of XYXD on liver tumor growth was clarified by animal experiments in vivo. The mechanism was mainly to promote the production of bile salt hydrolase (BSH) by increasing the abundance of Bacteroides and Lactobacillus, BSH converts conjugated bile acids into primary bile acids, and reduces the conversion of primary bile acids to secondary bile acids by reducing the abundance of Eubacterium, thereby increasing the content of primary bile acids. Primary bile acids trigger NKT cells in the liver to produce interferon-γ to exert anti-HCC immune effects.

CONCLUSION: This study found that the traditional Chinese herbal formula XYXD can trigger the immune effect of NKT cells against HCC by regulating the interaction between gut microbiota and bile acids.

RevDate: 2023-09-18
CmpDate: 2023-09-18

Ustick LJ, Larkin AA, AC Martiny (2023)

Global scale phylogeography of functional traits and microdiversity in Prochlorococcus.

The ISME journal, 17(10):1671-1679.

Prochlorococcus is the most numerically abundant photosynthetic organism in the surface ocean. The Prochlorococcus high-light and warm-water adapted ecotype (HLII) is comprised of extensive microdiversity, but specific functional differences between microdiverse sub-clades remain elusive. Here we characterized both functional and phylogenetic diversity within the HLII ecotype using Bio-GO-SHIP metagenomes. We found widespread variation in gene frequency connected to local environmental conditions. Metagenome-assembled marker genes and genomes revealed a globally distributed novel HLII haplotype defined by adaptation to chronically low P conditions (HLII-P). Environmental correlation analysis revealed different factors were driving gene abundances verses phylogenetic differences. An analysis of cultured HLII genomes and metagenome-assembled genomes revealed a subclade within HLII, which corresponded to the novel HLII-P haplotype. This work represents the first global assessment of the HLII ecotype's phylogeography and corresponding functional differences. These findings together expand our understanding of how microdiversity structures functional differences and reveals the importance of nutrients as drivers of microdiversity in Prochlorococcus.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Bender SF, Schulz S, Martínez-Cuesta R, et al (2023)

Simplification of soil biota communities impairs nutrient recycling and enhances above- and belowground nitrogen losses.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Agriculture is a major source of nutrient pollution, posing a threat to the earth system functioning. Factors determining the nutrient use efficiency of plant-soil systems need to be identified to develop strategies to reduce nutrient losses while ensuring crop productivity. The potential of soil biota to tighten nutrient cycles by improving plant nutrition and reducing soil nutrient losses is still poorly understood. We manipulated soil biota communities in outdoor lysimeters, planted maize, continuously collected leachates, and measured N2 O- and N2 -gas emissions after a fertilization pulse to test whether differences in soil biota communities affected nutrient recycling and N losses. Lysimeters with strongly simplified soil biota communities showed reduced crop N (-20%) and P (-58%) uptake, strongly increased N leaching losses (+65%), and gaseous emissions (+97%) of N2 O and N2 . Soil metagenomic analyses revealed differences in the abundance of genes responsible for nutrient uptake, nitrate reduction, and denitrification that helped explain the observed nutrient losses. Soil biota are major drivers of nutrient cycling and reductions in the diversity or abundance of certain groups (e.g. through land-use intensification) can disrupt nutrient cycling, reduce agricultural productivity and nutrient use efficiency, and exacerbate environmental pollution and global warming.

RevDate: 2023-09-15
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Danhof HA, Lee J, Thapa A, et al (2023)

Microbial stimulation of oxytocin release from the intestinal epithelium via secretin signaling.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2256043.

Intestinal microbes impact the health of the intestine and organs distal to the gut. Limosilactobacillus reuteri is a human intestinal microbe that promotes normal gut transit, the anti-inflammatory immune system, wound healing, normal social behavior in mice, and prevents bone reabsorption. Oxytocin impacts these functions and oxytocin signaling is required for L. reuteri-mediated wound healing and social behavior; however, the events in the gut leading to oxytocin stimulation and beneficial effects are unknown. Here we report evolutionarily conserved oxytocin production in the intestinal epithelium through analysis of single-cell RNA-Seq datasets and imaging of human and mouse intestinal tissues. Moreover, human intestinal organoids produce oxytocin, demonstrating that the intestinal epithelium is sufficient to produce oxytocin. We find that L. reuteri facilitates oxytocin secretion from human intestinal tissue and human intestinal organoids. Finally, we demonstrate that stimulation of oxytocin secretion by L. reuteri is dependent on the gut hormone secretin, which is produced in enteroendocrine cells, while oxytocin itself is produced in enterocytes. Altogether, this work demonstrates that oxytocin is produced and secreted from enterocytes in the intestinal epithelium in response to secretin stimulated by L. reuteri. This work thereby identifies oxytocin as an intestinal hormone and provides mechanistic insight into avenues by which gut microbes promote host health.

RevDate: 2023-09-15
CmpDate: 2023-09-15

Li R, Hu M, Jiang X, et al (2023)

Metagenomic insights into the microbiota involved in lactate and butyrate production and manipulating their synthesis in alfalfa silage.

Journal of applied microbiology, 134(9):.

AIMS: Lactate and butyrate are important indicators of silage quality. However, the microorganisms and mechanisms responsible for lactate and butyrate production in silage are not well documented.

METHODS AND RESULTS: whole-metagenomic sequencing was used to analyse metabolic pathways, microbiota composition, functional genes, and their contributions to lactate and butyrate production in alfalfa silage with (SA) and without (CK) sucrose addition. Carbon metabolism was the most abundant metabolic pathway. We identified 11 and 2 functional genes associated with lactate and butyrate metabolism, respectively. Among them, D-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhA) and L-lactate dehydrogenase (ldhB) were most important for the transition between D/L-lactate and pyruvate and were primarily related to Lactobacillus in the SA group. The genes encoding L-lactate dehydrogenase (lldD), which decomposes lactate, were the most abundant and primarily associated with Enterobacter cloacae. Butyrate-related genes, mainly encoding butyryl-CoA: acetate CoA-transferase (but), were predominantly associated with Klebsiella oxytoca and Escherichia coli in the CK group.

CONCLUSIONS: Enterobacteriaceae and Lactobacillaceae were mainly responsible for butyrate and lactate formation, respectively.

RevDate: 2023-09-15
CmpDate: 2023-09-15

Takeuchi T, Kubota T, Nakanishi Y, et al (2023)

Gut microbial carbohydrate metabolism contributes to insulin resistance.

Nature, 621(7978):389-395.

Insulin resistance is the primary pathophysiology underlying metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes[1,2]. Previous metagenomic studies have described the characteristics of gut microbiota and their roles in metabolizing major nutrients in insulin resistance[3-9]. In particular, carbohydrate metabolism of commensals has been proposed to contribute up to 10% of the host's overall energy extraction[10], thereby playing a role in the pathogenesis of obesity and prediabetes[3,4,6]. Nevertheless, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here we investigate this relationship using a comprehensive multi-omics strategy in humans. We combine unbiased faecal metabolomics with metagenomics, host metabolomics and transcriptomics data to profile the involvement of the microbiome in insulin resistance. These data reveal that faecal carbohydrates, particularly host-accessible monosaccharides, are increased in individuals with insulin resistance and are associated with microbial carbohydrate metabolisms and host inflammatory cytokines. We identify gut bacteria associated with insulin resistance and insulin sensitivity that show a distinct pattern of carbohydrate metabolism, and demonstrate that insulin-sensitivity-associated bacteria ameliorate host phenotypes of insulin resistance in a mouse model. Our study, which provides a comprehensive view of the host-microorganism relationships in insulin resistance, reveals the impact of carbohydrate metabolism by microbiota, suggesting a potential therapeutic target for ameliorating insulin resistance.

RevDate: 2023-09-15
CmpDate: 2023-09-15

Gundogdu A, OU Nalbantoglu (2023)

The role of the Mediterranean diet in modulating the gut microbiome: A review of current evidence.

Nutrition (Burbank, Los Angeles County, Calif.), 114:112118.

The Mediterranean diet (MedDiet) is recognized as one of the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization Intangible Cultural Heritage assets associated with lower rates of cardiometabolic diseases; lower prevalence of cancer, Alzheimer's disease, depression, and onset of inflammatory bowel disease; and more generally low-grade inflammation and mortality risks. Beyond being an input source of beneficial micronutrients, it recently has been discovered that the MedDiet plays a role in a more complex human microbiome-mediated mechanism. An interesting hypothesis suggests a bidirectional relationship between the MedDiet and the gut microbiome, where gut microbiota assembly and biosynthetic capacity are responsive to the diet; in return, the microbiome-reachable nutrients shape and modulate the microbiome toward a characteristic probiotic state. It can be speculated that that primary health benefits of the MedDiet exerted via the gut microbiome are mediated by the bioactive compounds transformed by the microbiome. Furthermore, it is possible that additional probiotic properties of the organisms promoted by diet adherence have secondary benefits. As more detailed omic-based studies take place, more evidence on the MedDiet as a core generic probiotic microbiome modulation strategy surface. However, individual-specific microbiome compositions might impose personal variations on the diet outcome. Therefore, a prospective strategy of a fine-tuned precision nutrition approach might deliver optimized benefits of the MedDiet.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Magnuson E, Altshuler I, Freyria NJ, et al (2023)

Sulfur-cycling chemolithoautotrophic microbial community dominates a cold, anoxic, hypersaline Arctic spring.

Microbiome, 11(1):203.

BACKGROUND: Gypsum Hill Spring, located in Nunavut in the Canadian High Arctic, is a rare example of a cold saline spring arising through thick permafrost. It perennially discharges cold (~ 7 °C), hypersaline (7-8% salinity), anoxic (~ 0.04 ppm O2), and highly reducing (~ - 430 mV) brines rich in sulfate (2.2 g.L[-1]) and sulfide (9.5 ppm), making Gypsum Hill an analog to putative sulfate-rich briny habitats on extraterrestrial bodies such as Mars.

RESULTS: Genome-resolved metagenomics and metatranscriptomics were utilized to describe an active microbial community containing novel metagenome-assembled genomes and dominated by sulfur-cycling Desulfobacterota and Gammaproteobacteria. Sulfate reduction was dominated by hydrogen-oxidizing chemolithoautotrophic Desulfovibrionaceae sp. and was identified in phyla not typically associated with sulfate reduction in novel lineages of Spirochaetota and Bacteroidota. Highly abundant and active sulfur-reducing Desulfuromusa sp. highly transcribed non-coding RNAs associated with transcriptional regulation, showing potential evidence of putative metabolic flexibility in response to substrate availability. Despite low oxygen availability, sulfide oxidation was primarily attributed to aerobic chemolithoautotrophic Halothiobacillaceae. Low abundance and transcription of photoautotrophs indicated sulfur-based chemolithoautotrophy drives primary productivity even during periods of constant illumination.

CONCLUSIONS: We identified a rare surficial chemolithoautotrophic, sulfur-cycling microbial community active in a unique anoxic, cold, hypersaline Arctic spring. We detected Mars-relevant metabolisms including hydrogenotrophic sulfate reduction, sulfur reduction, and sulfide oxidation, which indicate the potential for microbial life in analogous S-rich brines on past and present Mars. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-09-11

Cerri A, Bolatti EM, Zorec TM, et al (2023)

Identification and characterization of novel alphacoronaviruses in Tadarida brasiliensis (Chiroptera, Molossidae) from Argentina: insights into recombination as a mechanism favoring bat coronavirus cross-species transmission.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Bats are reservoirs of various coronaviruses that can jump between bat species or other mammalian hosts, including humans. This article explores coronavirus infection in three bat species (Tadarida brasiliensis, Eumops bonariensis, and Molossus molossus) of the family Molossidae from Argentina using whole viral metagenome analysis. Fecal samples of 47 bats from three semiurban or highly urbanized areas of the province of Santa Fe were investigated. After viral particle enrichment, total RNA was sequenced using the Illumina NextSeq 550 instrument; the reads were assembled into contigs and taxonomically and phylogenetically analyzed. Three novel complete Alphacoronavirus (AlphaCoV) genomes (Tb1-3) and two partial sequences were identified in T. brasiliensis (Tb4-5), and an additional four partial sequences were identified in M. molossus (Mm1-4). Phylogenomic analysis showed that the novel AlphaCoV clustered in two different lineages distinct from the 15 officially recognized AlphaCoV subgenera. Tb2 and Tb3 isolates appeared to be variants of the same virus, probably involved in a persistent infectious cycle within the T. brasiliensis colony. Using recombination analysis, we detected a statistically significant event in Spike gene, which was reinforced by phylogenetic tree incongruence analysis, involving novel Tb1 and AlphaCoVs identified in Eptesicus fuscus (family Vespertilionidae) from the U.S. The putative recombinant region is in the S1 subdomain of the Spike gene, encompassing the potential receptor-binding domain of AlphaCoVs. This study reports the first AlphaCoV genomes in molossids from the Americas and provides new insights into recombination as an important mode of evolution of coronaviruses involved in cross-species transmission. IMPORTANCE This study generated three novel complete AlphaCoV genomes (Tb1, Tb2, and Tb3 isolates) identified in individuals of Tadarida brasiliensis from Argentina, which showed two different evolutionary patterns and are the first to be reported in the family Molossidae in the Americas. The novel Tb1 isolate was found to be involved in a putative recombination event with alphacoronaviruses identified in bats of the genus Eptesicus from the U.S., whereas isolates Tb2 and Tb3 were found in different collection seasons and might be involved in persistent viral infections in the bat colony. These findings contribute to our knowledge of the global diversity of bat coronaviruses in poorly studied species and highlight the different evolutionary aspects of AlphaCoVs circulating in bat populations in Argentina.

RevDate: 2023-09-13

Nemchinov LG, Irish BM, Uschapovsky IV, et al (2023)

Composition of the alfalfa pathobiome in commercial fields.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1225781.

Through the recent advances of modern high-throughput sequencing technologies, the "one microbe, one disease" dogma is being gradually replaced with the principle of the "pathobiome". Pathobiome is a comprehensive biotic environment that not only includes a diverse community of all disease-causing organisms within the plant but also defines their mutual interactions and resultant effect on plant health. To date, the concept of pathobiome as a major component in plant health and sustainable production of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.), the most extensively cultivated forage legume in the world, is non-existent. Here, we approached this subject by characterizing the biodiversity of the alfalfa pathobiome using high-throughput sequencing technology. Our metagenomic study revealed a remarkable abundance of different pathogenic communities associated with alfalfa in the natural ecosystem. Profiling the alfalfa pathobiome is a starting point to assess known and identify new and emerging stress challenges in the context of plant disease management. In addition, it allows us to address the complexity of microbial interactions within the plant host and their impact on the development and evolution of pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

Zhu C, Cheng Y, Shi Q, et al (2023)

Metagenomic analyses reveal microbial communities and functional differences between Daqu from seven provinces.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 172:113076.

Microbial communities perform the brewing function in Daqu. Macrogenomics and PICRUST II analyses revealed the differences in microbes and metabolic functions among Daqu from the seven Baijiu-producing provinces. Jiang-flavored Daqu (Guizhou, Shandong, and Hubei provinces) generally forms an aroma-producing functional microbiota with Kroppenstedtia, Bacillus, Thermoascus, Virgibacillus, and Thermomyces as the core, which promotes the metabolism of various amino acids and aroma compounds. Light-flavored Daqu (Shanxi Province) enriched the Saccharomycopsis, Saccharomyces, and lactic acid bacteria (LAB) microbiota through low-temperature fermentation. These microbes can synthesize alcohol and lactic acid but inhibit amino acid metabolism within the Light-flavored Daqu. Bifidobacterium and Saccharomycopsis were dominant in the Tao-flavored Daqu (Henan province). This unique microbial structure is beneficial for pyruvate fermentation to lactate. Research also found that Strong-flavored Daqu from Jiangsu and Sichuan provinces differed significantly. The microbial communities and metabolic pathways within Jiangsu Daqu were similar to those within Jiang-flavored Daqu, but Sichuan Daqu was dominated by Thermoascus, LAB, and Thermoactinomyces. In addition, Spearman correlation analysis indicated that Kroppenstedtia, Bacillus, and Thermomyces were not only positively related to flavor metabolism but also negatively correlated with Saccharomycopsis. This research will help establish a systematic understanding of the microbial community and functional characteristics in Daqu.

RevDate: 2023-09-09

Wang L, Lian C, Wan W, et al (2023)

Salinity-triggered homogeneous selection constrains the microbial function and stability in lakes.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Climate change and anthropogenic exploitation have led to the gradual salinization of inland waters worldwide. However, the impacts of this process on the prokaryotic plankton communities and their role in biogeochemical cycles in the inland lake are poorly known. Here, we take a space-for-time substitution approach, using 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and metagenomic sequencing. We analyzed the prokaryotic plankton communities of 11 lakes in northwest China, with average water salinities ranging from 0.002 to 14.370%. The results demonstrated that, among the various environmental parameters, salinity was the most important driver of prokaryotic plankton β-diversity (Mantel test, r = 0.53, P < 0.001). (1) Under low salinity, prokaryotic planktons were assembled by stochastic processes and employed diverse halotolerant strategies, including the synthesis and uptake of compatible solutes and extrusion of Na[+] or Li[+] in exchange for H[+]. Under elevated salinity pressure, strong homogeneous selection meant that only planktonic prokaryotes showing an energetically favorable halotolerant strategy employing an Mnh-type Na[+]/H[+] antiporter remained. (2) The decreasing taxonomic diversity caused by intense environmental filtering in high-salinity lakes impaired functional diversity related to substance metabolism. The prokaryotes enhanced the TCA cycle, carbon fixation, and low-energy-consumption amino acid biosynthesis in high-salinity lakes. (3) Elevated salinity pressure decreased the negative:positive cohesion and the modularity of the molecular ecology networks for the planktonic prokaryotes, indicating a precarious microbial network. Our findings provide new insights into plankton ecology and are helpful for the protecting of the biodiversity and function of inland lakes against the background of salinization. KEY POINTS: • Increased salinity enhances homogeneous selection in the microbial assembly. • Elevated salinity decreases the microbial co-occurrence networks stability. • High salinity damages the microbial function diversity.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Song Y, Finkelstein R, Rhoads W, et al (2023)

Shotgun Metagenomics Reveals Impacts of Copper and Water Heater Anodes on Pathogens and Microbiomes in Hot Water Plumbing Systems.

Environmental science & technology, 57(36):13612-13624.

Hot water building plumbing systems are vulnerable to the proliferation of opportunistic pathogens (OPs), including Legionella pneumophila and Mycobacterium avium. Implementation of copper as a disinfectant could help reduce OPs, but a mechanistic understanding of the effects on the microbial community under real-world plumbing conditions is lacking. Here, we carried out a controlled pilot-scale study of hot water systems and applied shotgun metagenomic sequencing to examine the effects of copper dose (0-2 mg/L), orthophosphate corrosion control agent, and water heater anode materials (aluminum vs magnesium vs powered anode) on the bulk water and biofilm microbiome composition. Metagenomic analysis revealed that, even though a copper dose of 1.2 mg/L was required to reduce Legionella and Mycobacterium numbers, lower doses (e.g., ≤0.6 mg/L) measurably impacted the broader microbial community, indicating that the OP strains colonizing these systems were highly copper tolerant. Orthophosphate addition reduced bioavailability of copper, both to OPs and to the broader microbiome. Functional gene analysis indicated that both membrane damage and interruption of nucleic acid replication are likely at play in copper inactivation mechanisms. This study identifies key factors (e.g., orthophosphate, copper resistance, and anode materials) that can confound the efficacy of copper for controlling OPs in hot water plumbing.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Wuyts S, Alves R, Zimmermann-Kogadeeva M, et al (2023)

Consistency across multi-omics layers in a drug-perturbed gut microbial community.

Molecular systems biology, 19(9):e11525.

Multi-omics analyses are used in microbiome studies to understand molecular changes in microbial communities exposed to different conditions. However, it is not always clear how much each omics data type contributes to our understanding and whether they are concordant with each other. Here, we map the molecular response of a synthetic community of 32 human gut bacteria to three non-antibiotic drugs by using five omics layers (16S rRNA gene profiling, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, metaproteomics and metabolomics). We find that all the omics methods with species resolution are highly consistent in estimating relative species abundances. Furthermore, different omics methods complement each other for capturing functional changes. For example, while nearly all the omics data types captured that the antipsychotic drug chlorpromazine selectively inhibits Bacteroidota representatives in the community, the metatranscriptome and metaproteome suggested that the drug induces stress responses related to protein quality control. Metabolomics revealed a decrease in oligosaccharide uptake, likely caused by Bacteroidota depletion. Our study highlights how multi-omics datasets can be utilized to reveal complex molecular responses to external perturbations in microbial communities.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Saikrishna K, Talukdar D, Das S, et al (2023)

Study on Effects of Probiotics on Gut Microbiome and Clinical Course in Patients with Critical Care Illnesses.

Microbial ecology, 86(3):1814-1828.

Ventilator-associated pneumonia (VAP) is a nosocomial infection contracted by ventilator patients in which bacteria colonize the upper digestive tract and contaminated secretions are released into the lower airway. This nosocomial infection increases the morbidity and mortality of the patients as well as the cost of treatment. Probiotic formulations have recently been proposed to prevent the colonization of these pathogenic bacteria. In this prospective observational study, we aimed to investigate the effects of probiotics on gut microbiota and their relation to clinical outcomes in mechanically ventilated patients. For this study, 35 patients were recruited (22 probiotic-treated and 13 without probiotic treatment) from a cohort of 169 patients. Patients in the probiotic group were given a dose of 6 capsules of a commercially available probiotic (VSL#3®:112.5 billion CFU/cap) in three divided doses for 10 days. Sampling was carried out after each dose to monitor the temporal change in the gut microbiota composition. To profile the microbiota, we used a 16S rRNA metagenomic approach, and differences among the groups were computed using multivariate statistical analyses. Differences in gut microbial diversity (Bray Curtis and Jaccard distance, p-value > 0.05) between the probiotic-treated group and the control group were not observed. Furthermore, treatment with probiotics resulted in the enrichment of Lactobacillus and Streptococcus in the gut microbiota of the probiotic-treated groups. Our results demonstrated that probiotics might lead to favorable alterations in gut microbiome characteristics. Future studies should focus on the appropriate dosages and frequency of probiotics, which can lead to improved clinical outcomes.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Wang B, Qi M, Ma Y, et al (2023)

Microbiome Diversity and Cellulose Decomposition Processes by Microorganisms on the Ancient Wooden Seawall of Qiantang River of Hangzhou, China.

Microbial ecology, 86(3):2109-2119.

Archaeological wood, also known as wooden cultural relics, refers to ancient wood that has been worked by humans. Further insights into the decomposition mechanism of archaeological wood are needed for its preventive conservation. In this study, we assessed the microbiome diversity and cellulose decomposition processes on a 200-year-old ancient wooden seawall - the Qiantang River of Hangzhou, China. We used high-throughput sequencing (HTS) to deduce the metagenomic functions, particularly the cellulose-decomposing pathway of the microbial communities, through bioinformatical approaches. The predominant cellulose-decomposing microorganisms were then verified with traditional isolation, culture, and identification method. The results showed that the excavation of archaeological wood significantly altered the environment, accelerating the deterioration process of the archaeological wood through the carbohydrate metabolism and the xenobiotic biodegradation and metabolism pathways, under the comprehensive metabolism of complex ecosystem formed by bacteria, archaea, fungi, microfauna, plants, and algae. Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria were found to be the predominant source of bacterial cellulose-decomposing enzymes. Accordingly, we suggest relocating the wooden seawall to an indoor environment with controllable conditions to better preserve it. In addition, these results provide further evidence for our viewpoints that HTS techniques, combined with rational bioinformatical data interpretation approaches, can serve as powerful tools for the preventive protection of cultural heritage.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Ichige R, J Urabe (2023)

Divergence of the Host-Associated Microbiota with the Genetic Distance of Host Individuals Within a Parthenogenetic Daphnia Species.

Microbial ecology, 86(3):2097-2108.

The taxonomic composition of the microbiota in the gut and epidermis of animals is known to vary among genetically and physiologically different host individuals within the same species. However, it is not clear whether the taxonomic composition diverges with increasing genetic distance of the host individuals. To unveil this uncertainty, we compared the host-associated microbiota among the genotypes within and between genetically distant lineages of parthenogenetic Daphnia cf. pulex across different physiological states, namely, well-fed, starved, and dead. Metagenomic analysis with 16S rRNA showed that, regardless of the host genotypes, diversity of the host-associated microbiota was high when the host individuals were fed food and gradually decreased when they were starved until they died. However, the difference in the host-associated microbiota, that is, β-diversity, was significant among the genotypes within and between the host lineages when they were fed. Although some bacteria in the microbiota, such as Limnohabitans, Rhodococcus, and Aeromicrobium, were found abundantly and commonly in all host genotypes; others, such as those of Holosoporacea, were found only in the genotypes of a specific lineage. Accordingly, the β-diversity tended to increase with increasing genetic distance of the host individuals. These results support an idea that the host-associated microbiota diverged with genetic divergence in the host species and that at least some bacteria are highly dependent on the genetically specific metabolites produced by the host individuals.

RevDate: 2023-09-13
CmpDate: 2023-09-13

Thompson CC, Tschoeke D, Coutinho FH, et al (2023)

Diversity of Microbiomes Across a 13,000-Year-Old Amazon Sediment.

Microbial ecology, 86(3):2202-2209.

The microbiome is fundamental for understanding bacterial activities in sediments. However, only a limited number of studies have addressed the microbial diversity of Amazonian sediments. Here, we studied the microbiome of sediments from a 13,000-year BP core retrieved in a floodplain lake in Amazonia using metagenomics and biogeochemistry. Our aim was to evaluate the possible environmental influence over a river to a lake transition using a core sample. To this end, we sampled a core in the Airo Lake, a floodplain lake in the Negro River basin. The Negro River is the largest tributary of the Amazon River. The obtained core was divided into three strata: (i) surface, almost complete separation of the Airo Lake from the Negro River when the environment becomes more lentic with greater deposition of organic matter (black-colored sediment); (ii) transitional environment (reddish brown); and (iii) deep, environment with a tendency for greater past influence of the Negro River (brown color). The deepest sample possibly had the greatest influence of the Negro River as it represented the bottom of this river in the past, while the surface sample is the current Airo Lake bottom. In total, six metagenomes were obtained from the three different depth strata (total number of reads: 10.560.701; sequence length: 538 ± 24, mean ± standard deviation). The older (deeper) sediment strata contained a higher abundance of Burkholderia, Chitinophaga, Mucilaginibacter, and Geobacter, which represented ~ 25% of the metagenomic sequences. On the other hand, the more recent sediment strata had mainly Thermococcus, Termophilum, Sulfolobus, Archaeoglobus, and Methanosarcina (in total 11% of the metagenomic sequences). The sequence data were binned into metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). The majority of the obtained MAGs (n = 16) corresponded to unknown taxa, suggesting they may belong to new species. The older strata sediment microbiome was enriched with sulfur cycle genes, TCA cycle, YgfZ, and ATP-dependent proteolysis in bacteria. Meanwhile, serine-glyoxylate cycle, stress response genes, bacterial cell division, cell division-ribosomal stress protein cluster, and oxidative stress increased in the younger strata. Metal resistance and antimicrobial resistance genes were found across the entire core, including genes coding for fluoroquinolones, polymyxin, vancomycin, and multidrug resistance transporters. These findings depict the possible microbial diversity during the depositional past events and provided clues of the past microbial metabolism throughout time.

RevDate: 2023-09-12
CmpDate: 2023-09-12

Durand M, Touchette D, Chen YJ, et al (2023)

Effects of marine diesel on microbial diversity and activity in high Arctic beach sediments.

Marine pollution bulletin, 194(Pt A):115226.

Global warming induced sea ice loss increases Arctic maritime traffic, enhancing the risk of ecosystem contamination from fuel spills and nutrient loading. The impact of marine diesel on bacterial metabolic activity and diversity, assessed by colorimetric assay, 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing, of Northwest Passage (Arctic Ocean) beach sediments was assessed with nutrient amendment at environmentally relevant temperatures (5 and 15 °C). Higher temperature and nutrients stimulated microbial activity, while diesel reduced it, with metabolism inhibited at and above 0.01 % (without nutrients) and at 1 % (with nutrients) diesel inclusions. Diesel exposure significantly decreased microbial diversity and selected for Psychrobacter genus. Microbial hydrocarbon degradation, organic compound metabolism, and exopolysaccharide production gene abundances increased under higher diesel concentrations. Metagenomic binning recovered nine MAGs/bins with hydrocarbon degradation genes. We demonstrate a nutrients' rescue-type effect in diesel contaminated microbial communities via enrichment of microorganisms with stress response, aromatic compound, and ammonia assimilation metabolisms.

RevDate: 2023-09-12
CmpDate: 2023-09-12

Magnuson JT, Monticelli G, Schlenk D, et al (2023)

Connecting gut microbiome changes with fish health conditions in juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) exposed to dispersed crude oil.

Environmental research, 234:116516.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons found in crude oil can impair fish health following sublethal exposure. However, the dysbiosis of microbial communities within the fish host and influence it has on the toxic response of fish following exposure has been less characterized, particularly in marine species. To better understand the effect of dispersed crude oil (DCO) on juvenile Atlantic cod (Gadus morhua) microbiota composition and potential targets of exposure within the gut, fish were exposed to 0.05 ppm DCO for 1, 3, 7, or 28 days and 16 S metagenomic and metatranscriptomic sequencing on the gut and RNA sequencing on intestinal content were conducted. In addition to assessing species composition, richness, and diversity from microbial gut community analysis and transcriptomic profiling, the functional capacity of the microbiome was determined. Mycoplasma and Aliivibrio were the two most abundant genera after DCO exposure and Photobacterium the most abundant genus in controls, after 28 days. Metagenomic profiles were only significantly different between treatments after a 28-day exposure. The top identified pathways were involved in energy and the biosynthesis of carbohydrates, fatty acids, amino acids, and cellular structure. Biological processes following fish transcriptomic profiling shared common pathways with microbial functional annotations such as energy, translation, amide biosynthetic process, and proteolysis. There were 58 differently expressed genes determined from metatranscriptomic profiling after 7 days of exposure. Predicted pathways that were altered included those involved in translation, signal transduction, and Wnt signaling. EIF2 signaling was consistently dysregulated following exposure to DCO, regardless of exposure duration, with impairments in IL-22 signaling and spermine and spermidine biosynthesis in fish after 28 days. Data were consistent with predictions of a potentially reduced immune response related to gastrointestinal disease. Herein, transcriptomic-level responses helped explain the relevance of differences in gut microbial communities in fish following DCO exposure.

RevDate: 2023-09-12
CmpDate: 2023-09-12

Zhang M, Tang H, Chen Y, et al (2023)

Impact of environmental characteristics on children's gut microbiota - A pilot study in assessing the role of indoor microbiome and metabolites.

Environmental research, 234:116114.

BACKGROUND: A diverse and balanced human gut microbiota is crucial for maintaining normal human physiological functions. However, the impact of indoor microbiome and metabolites on gut microbiota is not well understood.

METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire was used to collect information on more than 40 personal and environmental characteristics and dietary habits from 56 children in Shanghai, China. Shotgun metagenomics and untargeted liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS) were used to characterize the indoor microbiome and metabolomic/chemical exposure in children's living rooms. PacBio full-length 16 S rRNA sequencing was used to characterize children's gut microbiota. Associations between environmental characteristics and gut microbiota diversity/composition were assessed using PERMANOVA and regression.

RESULTS: In total, 6247 and 318 indoor and gut microbial species and 1442 indoor metabolites were characterized. Age of children (R[2] = 0.033, p = 0.008), age start kindergarten (R[2] = 0.029, p = 0.03), living adjacent to heavy traffic (R[2] = 0.031, p = 0.01) and drinking soft drinks (R[2] = 0.028, p = 0.04) significantly impacted overall gut microbial composition, consistent with previous studies. Having pets/plants and frequent vegetable intake were positively associated with gut microbiota diversity and the Gut Microbiome Health Index (GMHI), while frequent juice and fries intake decreased gut microbiota diversity (p < 0.05). The abundance of indoor Clostridia and Bacilli was positively associated with gut microbial diversity and GMHI (p < 0.01). Total indoor indole derivatives and 6 indole metabolites (L-tryptophan, indole, 3-methylindole, indole-3-acetate, 5-hydroxy-L-tryptophan and indolelactic acid, p < 0.05) were positively associated with the abundance of total protective gut bacteria, suggesting a potential role in promoting gut health. Neural network analysis revealed that these indole derivatives were derived from indoor microorganisms.

CONCLUSIONS: The study is the first to report associations between indoor microbiome/metabolites and gut microbiota, highlighting the potential role of indoor microbiome in shaping human gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-09-12
CmpDate: 2023-09-12

Sasaki T, Matsumoto Y, Murakami K, et al (2023)

Gut microbiome can predict chemoradiotherapy efficacy in patients with esophageal squamous cell carcinoma.

Esophagus : official journal of the Japan Esophageal Society, 20(4):691-703.

PURPOSE: The gut microbiome plays an important role in cancer pathogenesis and therapy. Some studies have reported that specific bacteria in tumor tissues may contribute to the prognosis and treatment of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma (ESCC). However, there is limited evidence that the gut microbiome is associated with ESCC. This study assessed the utility of the gut microbiome as a predictive marker of the therapeutic effect in patients with ESCC undergoing chemo-radiotherapy (CRT).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fecal samples were collected from 51 patients with ESCC who had never undergone treatment between April 2021 and May 2022 in the Department of Frontier Surgery, Chiba University. The gut microbiome was analyzed using 16S metagenomics sequencing. The association between the gut microbiome composition and stage according to the TNM classification (American Joint Committee on Cancer 7.0) and CRT response according to the RECIST criteria was evaluated.

RESULTS: The relative abundance of Fusobacteriaceae was enriched in cStage III-IVb group. Among the 27 patients who received CRT, the relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae was enriched in those with a partial and complete response. Lactobacillaceae also did not correlate with any clinical data, but the high Lactobacillales group had a higher LMR (P = 0.032) and lower PLR (P = 0.045) than in the low Lactobacillales group.

CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, we found that the relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae was enriched in patients with a partial or complete response among CRT those with ESCC, thus suggesting that the relative abundance of Lactobacillaceae can predict the effect of CRT.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

Liu S, Men X, Guo Y, et al (2023)

Gut microbes exacerbate systemic inflammation and behavior disorders in neurologic disease CADASIL.

Microbiome, 11(1):202.

BACKGROUND: Cerebral autosomal dominant arteriopathy with subcortical infarcts and leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a cerebral small vessel disease that carries mutations in NOTCH3. The clinical manifestations are influenced by genetic and environmental factors that may include gut microbiome.

RESULTS: We investigated the fecal metagenome, fecal metabolome, serum metabolome, neurotransmitters, and cytokines in a cohort of 24 CADASIL patients with 28 healthy household controls. The integrated-omics study showed CADASIL patients harbored an altered microbiota composition and functions. The abundance of bacterial coenzyme A, thiamin, and flavin-synthesizing pathways was depleted in patients. Neurotransmitter balance, represented by the glutamate/GABA (4-aminobutanoate) ratio, was disrupted in patients, which was consistent with the increased abundance of two major GABA-consuming bacteria, Megasphaera elsdenii and Eubacterium siraeum. Essential inflammatory cytokines were significantly elevated in patients, accompanied by an increased abundance of bacterial virulence gene homologs. The abundance of patient-enriched Fusobacterium varium positively correlated with the levels of IL-1β and IL-6. Random forest classification based on gut microbial species, serum cytokines, and neurotransmitters showed high predictivity for CADASIL with AUC = 0.89. Targeted culturomics and mechanisms study further showed that patient-derived F. varium infection caused systemic inflammation and behavior disorder in Notch3[R170C/+] mice potentially via induction of caspase-8-dependent noncanonical inflammasome activation in macrophages.

CONCLUSION: These findings suggested the potential linkage among the brain-gut-microbe axis in CADASIL. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

de la Cuesta-Zuluaga J, Huus KE, Youngblut ND, et al (2023)

Obesity is the main driver of altered gut microbiome functions in the metabolically unhealthy.

Gut microbes, 15(2):2246634.

Obesity (OB) and cardiometabolic disease are major public health issues linked to changes in the gut microbiome. OB and poor cardiometabolic health status (CHS) are often comorbid, which hinders efforts to identify components of the microbiome uniquely linked to either one. Here, we used a deeply phenotyped cohort of 408 adults from Colombia, including subjects with OB, unhealthy CHS, or both, to validate previously reported features of gut microbiome function and diversity independently correlated with OB or CHS using fecal metagenomes. OB was defined by body mass index, waist circumference, and body fat; CHS as healthy or unhealthy according to blood biochemistry and anthropometric data. We found that OB, more so than metabolic status, drove associations with gut microbiome structure and functions. The microbiome of obese individuals with and without co-existing unhealthy CHS was characterized by reduced metagenomic diversity, reduced fermentative potential and elevated capacity to respond to oxidative stress and produce bacterial antigens. Disease-linked features were correlated with increased host blood pressure and inflammatory markers, and were mainly contributed by members of the family Enterobacteriaceae. Our results link OB with a microbiome able to tolerate an inflammatory and oxygenated gut state, and suggest that OB is the main driver of microbiome functional differences when poor CHS is a comorbidity.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

Ni Y, Qian L, Siliceo SL, et al (2023)

Resistant starch decreases intrahepatic triglycerides in patients with NAFLD via gut microbiome alterations.

Cell metabolism, 35(9):1530-1547.e8.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a hepatic manifestation of metabolic dysfunction for which effective interventions are lacking. To investigate the effects of resistant starch (RS) as a microbiota-directed dietary supplement for NAFLD treatment, we coupled a 4-month randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial in individuals with NAFLD (ChiCTR-IOR-15007519) with metagenomics and metabolomics analysis. Relative to the control (n = 97), the RS intervention (n = 99) resulted in a 9.08% absolute reduction of intrahepatic triglyceride content (IHTC), which was 5.89% after adjusting for weight loss. Serum branched-chain amino acids (BCAAs) and gut microbial species, in particular Bacteroides stercoris, significantly correlated with IHTC and liver enzymes and were reduced by RS. Multi-omics integrative analyses revealed the interplay among gut microbiota changes, BCAA availability, and hepatic steatosis, with causality supported by fecal microbiota transplantation and monocolonization in mice. Thus, RS dietary supplementation might be a strategy for managing NAFLD by altering gut microbiota composition and functionality.

RevDate: 2023-09-08
CmpDate: 2023-09-08

Prado T, Magalhães MGP, Moreira DA, et al (2023)

Microbiome and virome on indoor surfaces of an Antarctic research ship.

Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz, 118:e230084.

BACKGROUND: Few studies have focused on microbial diversity in indoor environments of ships, as well as the role of the microbiome and its ecological interconnections. In this study, we investigated the microbiome and virome present on the internal surfaces of a polar ship in different stages (beginning, during, and at the end) of the Brazilian Antarctic expedition in order to evaluate abundance of microorganisms in different periods.

OBJECTIVES AND METHODS: We used shotgun metagenomic analysis on pooled samples from sampling surfaces in the ship's interior to track the microbial diversity.

FINDINGS: Considering the total fraction of the microbiome, the relative abundance of bacteria, eukaryotes, viruses, and archaea was 83.7%, 16.2%, 0.04%, and 0.002%, respectively. Proteobacteria was the most abundant bacterial phyla, followed by Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes. Concerning the virome, the greatest richness of viral species was identified during the middle of the trip, including ten viral families after de novo assembly: Autographiviridae, Chrysoviridae, Genomoviridae, Herelleviridae, Myoviridae, Partitiviridae, Podoviridae, Potyviridae, Siphoviridae, and Virgaviridae.

MAIN CONCLUSIONS: This study contributed to the knowledge of microbial diversity in naval transportation facilities, and variations in the abundance of microorganisms probably occurred due to factors such as the number of passengers and activities on the ship.

RevDate: 2023-09-08
CmpDate: 2023-09-07

Guo R, Zhang W, Shen W, et al (2023)

Analysis of gut microbiota in chinese donkey in different regions using metagenomic sequencing.

BMC genomics, 24(1):524.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota plays a significant role in host survival, health, and diseases; however, compared to other livestock, research on the gut microbiome of donkeys is limited.

RESULTS: In this study, a total of 30 donkey samples of rectal contents from six regions, including Shigatse, Changdu, Yunnan, Xinjiang, Qinghai, and Dezhou, were collected for metagenomic sequencing. The results of the species annotation revealed that the dominant phyla were Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes, and the dominant genera were Bacteroides, unclassified_o_Clostridiales (short for Clostridiales) and unclassified_f_Lachnospiraceae (short for Lachnospiraceae). The dominant phyla, genera and key discriminators were Bacteroidetes, Clostridiales and Bacteroidetes in Tibet donkeys (Shigatse); Firmicutes, Clostridiales and Clostridiales in Tibet donkeys (Changdu); Firmicutes, Fibrobacter and Tenericutes in Qinghai donkeys; Firmicutes, Clostridiales and Negativicutes in Yunnan donkeys; Firmicutes, Fibrobacter and Fibrobacteres in Xinjiang donkeys; Firmicutes, Clostridiales and Firmicutes in Dezhou donkeys. In the functional annotation, it was mainly enriched in the glycolysis and gluconeogenesis of carbohydrate metabolism, and the abundance was the highest in Dezhou donkeys. These results combined with altitude correlation analysis demonstrated that donkeys in the Dezhou region exhibited strong glucose-conversion ability, those in the Shigatse region exhibited strong glucose metabolism and utilization ability, those in the Changdu region exhibited a strong microbial metabolic function, and those in the Xinjiang region exhibited the strongest ability to decompose cellulose and hemicellulose.

CONCLUSION: According to published literature, this is the first study to construct a dataset with multi-regional donkey breeds. Our study revealed the differences in the composition and function of gut microbes in donkeys from different geographic regions and environmental settings and is valuable for donkey gut microbiome research.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

Rangel-Pineros G, Almeida A, Beracochea M, et al (2023)

VIRify: An integrated detection, annotation and taxonomic classification pipeline using virus-specific protein profile hidden Markov models.

PLoS computational biology, 19(8):e1011422.

The study of viral communities has revealed the enormous diversity and impact these biological entities have on various ecosystems. These observations have sparked widespread interest in developing computational strategies that support the comprehensive characterisation of viral communities based on sequencing data. Here we introduce VIRify, a new computational pipeline designed to provide a user-friendly and accurate functional and taxonomic characterisation of viral communities. VIRify identifies viral contigs and prophages from metagenomic assemblies and annotates them using a collection of viral profile hidden Markov models (HMMs). These include our manually-curated profile HMMs, which serve as specific taxonomic markers for a wide range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic viral taxa and are thus used to reliably classify viral contigs. We tested VIRify on assemblies from two microbial mock communities, a large metagenomics study, and a collection of publicly available viral genomic sequences from the human gut. The results showed that VIRify could identify sequences from both prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses, and provided taxonomic classifications from the genus to the family rank with an average accuracy of 86.6%. In addition, VIRify allowed the detection and taxonomic classification of a range of prokaryotic and eukaryotic viruses present in 243 marine metagenomic assemblies. Finally, the use of VIRify led to a large expansion in the number of taxonomically classified human gut viral sequences and the improvement of outdated and shallow taxonomic classifications. Overall, we demonstrate that VIRify is a novel and powerful resource that offers an enhanced capability to detect a broad range of viral contigs and taxonomically classify them.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

Joslin GR, Barber DG, Aston L, et al (2023)

Metagenomic analysis of ethylene glycol contamination in anaerobic digestion.

Bioresource technology, 387:129683.

Anaerobic digestion is an established method for the biological conversion of waste feedstocks to biogas and biomethane. While anaerobic digestion is an excellent waste management technique, it can be susceptible to toxins and pollutants from contaminated feedstocks, which may have a detrimental impact on a digester's efficiency and productivity. Ethylene glycol (EG) is readily used in the heat-transfer loops of anaerobic digestion facilities to maintain reactor temperature. Failure of the structural integrity of these heat transfer loops can cause EG to leak into the digester, potentially causing a decrease in the resultant gas yields. Batch fermentations were incubated with 0, 10, 100 and 500 ppm (parts per million) of EG, and analysis showed that the EG was completely metabolised by the digester microbiome. The concentrations of EG tested showed significant increases in gas yields, however there were no significant changes to the digester microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

Li L, Guan W, Fan Y, et al (2023)

Zinc/carbon nanomaterials inhibit antibiotic resistance genes by affecting quorum sensing and microbial community in cattle manure production.

Bioresource technology, 387:129648.

This study used metagenomic sequencing to examine the effects of carbon-based zinc oxide nanoparticles (CZnONPs) and graphene-based zinc oxide nanoparticles (GZnONPs) on quorum sensing (QS), antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and microbial community changes during cattle manure production. The manure zinc content was significantly reduced in GZnONPs group. In the QS pathway, the autoinducer gene increases significantly in Control group, while the transporter and repressor genes experience a substantial increase in CZnONPs group. These results contributed to the significantly decreased the abundance of ARGs in GZnONPs group. The co-occurrence network analysis revealed a correlation between core ARGs and QS-related KEGG Orthology or ARGs' hosts, indicating that the selective pressure of zinc influences microbial QS, forming a unique ARG pattern in in vivo anaerobic fermentation. These findings suggest that implementing nutritional regulation in farming practices can serve as a preventive measure to mitigate the potential transmission of ARGs resulting from livestock waste.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

Pfisterer N, Ammer-Herrmenau C, Antweiler K, et al (2023)

Dynamics of intestinal and intratumoral microbiome signatures in genetically engineered mice and human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Pancreatology : official journal of the International Association of Pancreatology (IAP) ... [et al.], 23(6):663-673.

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence has recently revealed a prominent role of the microbiome in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). However, while most observations were made in patients, mouse models still require a precise characterization of their disease-related microbiome to employ them for mechanistic and interventional preclinical studies.

METHODS: To investigate the fecal and tumoral microbiome of LSL-Kras[G12D/+];LSL-Trp53[R172H/+];Pdx-1-Cre (KPC) and control (CTRL) mice, Oxford Nanopore sequencing was applied. Feces were collected from 10 KPC mice and 10 CTRLs at 3 timepoints (6 weeks, 12 weeks, and when tumor-bearing (KPC) or 6 months (CTRL), respectively). Metagenomic sequencing was performed on feces DNA. KPC tumor and healthy pancreas DNA samples were subjected to 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Bacterial marker components were detected in KPC tumor tissue over time by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) and immunohistochemistry (IHC).

RESULTS: Murine fecal samples showed a significantly different microbiome compared to age-matched healthy CTRLs regarding beta diversity (p = 0.001, R2 = 0.2-0.25 for Bray-Curtis). Adjusted human PDAC classifiers predicted disease status from feces of KPC mice achieving area under the receiver operating characteristic (AUROC) values of 80%. Furthermore, KPC tumors harbored significantly more bacterial components than healthy pancreas. Also the microbial composition differs significantly between KPC tumors and healthy pancreas tissue (p = 0.042 for Bray-Curtis). Microbiota found highly abundant in human PDAC samples were considerably more abundant in KPC tumors as compared to healthy pancreas samples (p-value <0.001).

CONCLUSION: KPC fecal samples show similarities with the microbial composition of stool samples from human PDAC patients.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

Liu J, Yu J, Tan Y, et al (2023)

Biomethane is produced by acetate cleavage, not direct interspecies electron transfer: genome-centric view and carbon isotope.

Bioresource technology, 387:129589.

Understanding the source of methane (CH4) is of great significance for improving the anaerobic fermentation efficiency in bioengineering, and for mitigating the emission potential of natural ecosystems. Microbes involved in the process named direct interspecies electron transfer coupling with CO2 reduction, i.e., electrons released from electroactive bacteria to reduce CO2 into CH4, have attracted considerable attention for wastewater treatment in the past decade. However, how the synergistic effect of microbiota contributes to this anaerobic carbon metabolism accompanied by CH4 production still remains poorly understood, especial for wastewater with antibiotic exposure. Results show that enhancing lower-abundant acetoclastic methanogens and acetogenic bacteria, rather than electroactive bacteria, contributed to CH4 production, based on a metagenome-assembled genomes network analysis. Natural and artificial isotope tracing of CH4 further confirmed that CH4 mainly originated from acetoclastic methanogenesis. These findings reveal the contribution of direct acetate cleavage (acetoclastic methanogenesis) and provide insightsfor further regulation of methanogenic strategies.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

Yan J, Duan W, Gao Q, et al (2023)

ENPP2 inhibitor improves proliferation in AOM/DSS-induced colorectal cancer mice via remodeling the gut barrier function and gut microbiota composition.

Pharmacological research, 195:106877.

In our previous multicenter study, we delineated the inherent metabolic features of colorectal cancer (CRC). Therein, we identified a member of the ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/ phosphodiesterase family (ENPP2) as a significant differential metabolite of CRC. In this study, the role of ENPP2 in CRC has been demonstrated using established in vitro and in vivo models including ENPP2 gene knockdown, and use of the ENPP2 inhibitor, GLPG1690. We found that CRC proliferation was decreased after either ENPP2 gene knockdown or use of ENPP2 inhibitors. We further evaluated the role of GLPG1690 in AOM/DSS-induced CRC mice via intestinal barrier function, macrophage polarization, inflammatory response and microbial homeostasis. Results of immunofluorescence staining and Western blotting showed that GLPG1690 can restore gut-barrier function by increasing the expression of tight junction proteins, claudin-1, occludin and ZO-1. M2 tumor-associated macrophage polarization and colonic inflammation were attenuated after treatment with GLPG1690 using the Azoxymethane/Dextran Sodium Sulfate (AOM/DSS) model. Moreover, 16 S rDNA pyrosequencing and metagenomic analysis showed that GLPG1690 could alleviate gut dysbiosis in mice. Furthermore, administration of GLPG1690 with antibiotics as well as fecal microbiota transplantation assays demonstrated a close link between the efficacy of GLPG1690 and the gut microbiota composition. Finally, results of metabolomic analysis implicated mainly the gut microbiota-derived metabolites of aromatic amino acids in CRC progression. These findings may provide novel insights into the development of small-molecule ENPP2 inhibitors for the treatment of CRC.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

White MG, Damania A, Alshenaifi J, et al (2023)

Young-onset Rectal Cancer: Unique Tumoral Microbiome and Correlation With Response to Neoadjuvant Therapy.

Annals of surgery, 278(4):538-548.

OBJECTIVE: External exposures, the host, and the microbiome interact in oncology. We aimed to investigate tumoral microbiomes in young-onset rectal cancers (YORCs) for profiles potentially correlative with disease etiology and biology.

BACKGROUND: YORC is rapidly increasing, with 1 in 4 new rectal cancer cases occurring under the age of 50 years. Its etiology is unknown.

METHODS: YORC (<50 y old) or later-onset rectal cancer (LORC, ≥50 y old) patients underwent pretreatment biopsied of tumor and tumor-adjacent normal (TAN) tissue. After whole genome sequencing, metagenomic analysis quantified microbial communities comparing tumors versus TANs and YORCs versus LORCs, controlling for multiple testing. Response to neoadjuvant therapy (NT) was categorized as major pathological response (MPR, ≤10% residual viable tumor) versus non-MPR.

RESULTS: Our 107 tumors, 75 TANs from 37 (35%) YORCs, and 70 (65%) LORCs recapitulated bacterial species were previously associated with colorectal cancers (all P <0.0001). YORC and LORC tumoral microbiome signatures were distinct. After NT, 13 patients (12.4%) achieved complete pathologic response, whereas MPR occurred in 47 patients (44%). Among YORCs, MPR was associated with Fusobacterium nucleaum , Bacteroides dorei, and Ruminococcus bromii (all P <0.001), but MPR in LORC was associated with R. bromii (P <0.001). Network analysis of non-MPR tumors demonstrated a preponderance of oral bacteria not observed in MPR tumors.

CONCLUSIONS: Microbial signatures were distinct between YORC and LORC. Failure to achieve an MPR was associated with oral bacteria in tumors. These findings urge further studies to decipher correlative versus mechanistic associations but suggest a potential for microbial modulation to augment current treatments.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

Lee H, Yoon S, Park YH, et al (2023)

Microbiota dysbiosis associated with type 2 diabetes-like effects caused by chronic exposure to a mixture of chlorinated persistent organic pollutants in zebrafish.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 334:122108.

Mixtures of chlorinated persistent organic pollutants (C-POPs-Mix) are chemically related risk factors for type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM); however, the effects of chronic exposure to C-POPs-Mix on microbial dysbiosis remain poorly understood. Herein, male and female zebrafish were exposed to C-POPs-Mix at a 1:1 ratio of five organochlorine pesticides and Aroclor 1254 at concentrations of 0.02, 0.1, and 0.5 μg/L for 12 weeks. We measured T2DM indicators in blood and profiled microbial abundance and richness in the gut as well as transcriptomic and metabolomic alterations in the liver. Exposure to C-POPs-Mix significantly increased blood glucose levels while decreasing the abundance and alpha diversity of microbial communities only in females at concentrations of 0.02 and 0.1 μg/L. The majorly identified microbial contributors to microbial dysbiosis were Bosea minatitlanensis, Rhizobium tibeticum, Bifidobacterium catenulatum, Bifidobacterium adolescentis, and Collinsella aerofaciens. PICRUSt results suggested that altered pathways were associated with glucose and lipid production and inflammation, which are linked to changes in the transcriptome and metabolome of the zebrafish liver. Metagenomics outcomes revealed close relationships between intestinal and liver disruptions to T2DM-related molecular pathways. Thus, microbial dysbiosis in T2DM-triggered zebrafish occurred as a result of chronic exposure to C-POPs-Mix, indicating strong host-microbiome interactions.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

Zhou W, Fleming E, Legendre G, et al (2023)

Skin microbiome attributes associate with biophysical skin ageing.

Experimental dermatology, 32(9):1546-1556.

Two major arms of skin ageing are changes in the skin's biophysical conditions and alterations in the skin microbiome. This work partitioned both arms to study their interaction in detail. Leveraging the resolution provided by shotgun metagenomics, we explored how skin microbial species, strains and gene content interact with the biophysical traits of the skin during ageing. With a dataset well-controlled for confounding factors, we found that skin biophysical traits, especially the collagen diffusion coefficient, are associated with the composition and the functional potential of the skin microbiome, including the abundance of bacterial strains found in nosocomial infections and the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes. Our findings reveal important associations between skin biophysical features and ageing-related changes in the skin microbiome and generate testable hypotheses for the mechanisms of such associations.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

Zhao W, Chen Z, Yang X, et al (2023)

Metagenomics reveal arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi altering functional gene expression of rhizosphere microbial community to enhance Iris tectorum's resistance to Cr stress.

The Science of the total environment, 895:164970.

Chromium (Cr) can disrupt a plant's normal physiological and metabolic functions and severely impact the microenvironment. However, limited studies have investigated the impact of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) inoculation on the rhizosphere microorganisms of Iris tectorum under Cr stress, and the mechanisms of how rhizosphere microorganisms interact with hosts and contaminants. In this study, we investigated the effects of AMF inoculation on the growth, absorption of nutrients and heavy metals, and functional genes of the rhizosphere microbial community of I. tectorum under Cr stress in a greenhouse pot experiment. The results showed that AMF significantly increased the biomass and nutrient levels of I. tectorum, while decreasing the content of Cr in soil. Furthermore, metagenome analysis demonstrated significant changes in the structure and composition of the rhizosphere microbial community after AMF formed a mycorrhizal symbiosis system with the I. tectorum. Specifically, the abundance of functional genes related to nutrient cycling (N, P) and heavy metal resistance (chrA and arsB), as well as the abundance of heavy metal transporter family (P-atPase, MIT, CDF, and ABC) in the rhizosphere microbial community were up-regulated and their expression. Additionally, the synergies between rhizosphere microbial communities were regulated, and the complexity and stability of the rhizosphere microbial ecological network were enhanced. This study provides evidence that AMF can regulate rhizosphere microbial communities to improve plant growth and heavy metal stress tolerance, and helps us to understand the potential mechanism of wetland plant remediation of Cr-contaminated soil under AMF symbiosis.

RevDate: 2023-09-11
CmpDate: 2023-09-11

Di Ciaula A, Bonfrate L, Khalil M, et al (2023)

Contribution of the microbiome for better phenotyping of people living with obesity.

Reviews in endocrine & metabolic disorders, 24(5):839-870.

Obesity has reached epidemic proportion worldwide and in all ages. Available evidence points to a multifactorial pathogenesis involving gene predisposition and environmental factors. Gut microbiota plays a critical role as a major interface between external factors, i.e., diet, lifestyle, toxic chemicals, and internal mechanisms regulating energy and metabolic homeostasis, fat production and storage. A shift in microbiota composition is linked with overweight and obesity, with pathogenic mechanisms involving bacterial products and metabolites (mainly endocannabinoid-related mediators, short-chain fatty acids, bile acids, catabolites of tryptophan, lipopolysaccharides) and subsequent alterations in gut barrier, altered metabolic homeostasis, insulin resistance and chronic, low-grade inflammation. Although animal studies point to the links between an "obesogenic" microbiota and the development of different obesity phenotypes, the translational value of these results in humans is still limited by the heterogeneity among studies, the high variation of gut microbiota over time and the lack of robust longitudinal studies adequately considering inter-individual confounders. Nevertheless, available evidence underscores the existence of several genera predisposing to obesity or, conversely, to lean and metabolically health phenotype (e.g., Akkermansia muciniphila, species from genera Faecalibacterium, Alistipes, Roseburia). Further longitudinal studies using metagenomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics with exact characterization of confounders are needed in this field. Results must confirm that distinct genera and specific microbial-derived metabolites represent effective and precision interventions against overweight and obesity in the long-term.

RevDate: 2023-09-07
CmpDate: 2023-09-07

Sireci M, Muñoz MA, J Grilli (2023)

Environmental fluctuations explain the universal decay of species-abundance correlations with phylogenetic distance.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(37):e2217144120.

Multiple ecological forces act together to shape the composition of microbial communities. Phyloecology approaches-which combine phylogenetic relationships between species with community ecology-have the potential to disentangle such forces but are often hard to connect with quantitative predictions from theoretical models. On the other hand, macroecology, which focuses on statistical patterns of abundance and diversity, provides natural connections with theoretical models but often neglects interspecific correlations and interactions. Here, we propose a unified framework combining both such approaches to analyze microbial communities. In particular, by using both cross-sectional and longitudinal metagenomic data for species abundances, we reveal the existence of an empirical macroecological law establishing that correlations in species-abundance fluctuations across communities decay from positive to null values as a function of phylogenetic dissimilarity in a consistent manner across ecologically distinct microbiomes. We formulate three variants of a mechanistic model-each relying on alternative ecological forces-that lead to radically different predictions. From these analyses, we conclude that the empirically observed macroecological pattern can be quantitatively explained as a result of shared population-independent fluctuating resources, i.e., environmental filtering and not as a consequence of, e.g., species competition. Finally, we show that the macroecological law is also valid for temporal data of a single community and that the properties of delayed temporal correlations can be reproduced as well by the model with environmental filtering.

RevDate: 2023-09-07
CmpDate: 2023-09-06

Kieft B, Finke N, McLaughlin RJ, et al (2023)

Genome-resolved correlation mapping links microbial community structure to metabolic interactions driving methane production from wastewater.

Nature communications, 14(1):5380.

Anaerobic digestion of municipal mixed sludge produces methane that can be converted into renewable natural gas. To improve economics of this microbial mediated process, metabolic interactions catalyzing biomass conversion to energy need to be identified. Here, we present a two-year time series associating microbial metabolism and physicochemistry in a full-scale wastewater treatment plant. By creating a co-occurrence network with thousands of time-resolved microbial populations from over 100 samples spanning four operating configurations, known and novel microbial consortia with potential to drive methane production were identified. Interactions between these populations were further resolved in relation to specific process configurations by mapping metagenome assembled genomes and cognate gene expression data onto the network. Prominent interactions included transcriptionally active Methanolinea methanogens and syntrophic benzoate oxidizing Syntrophorhabdus, as well as a Methanoregulaceae population and putative syntrophic acetate oxidizing bacteria affiliated with Bateroidetes (Tenuifilaceae) expressing the glycine cleavage bypass of the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway.

RevDate: 2023-09-05

Mao C, Li Q, Komijani M, et al (2023)

Metagenomic analysis reveals the dissemination mechanisms and risks of resistance genes in plateau lakes.

iScience, 26(9):107508.

Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) are emerging as environmental pollutants that can persist and disseminate in aquatic environments. Lakes, as important sources of freshwater, also serve as potential natural reservoirs of ARGs. In this study, we analyzed the distribution and potential risks of resistance genes in five typical freshwater lakes on the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Our findings revealed that multidrug and MLS ARGs dominated in the studied lakes. Notably, while Lugu Lake exhibited higher abundance of ARGs, mobile genetic elements (MGEs), and metal resistance genes (MRGs), a greater resistome risk was observed in the eutrophic Xingyun Lake. The dissemination processes of ARGs and MRGs are primarily driven by microbial communities and the horizontal gene transfer via MGEs. Limnohabitans, Flavobacterium, and Acinetobacter were identified as key players in the dissemination of ARGs. Our study highlights the persistence of ARGs and provides valuable baseline data and risk assessment of ARGs in plateau freshwater lakes.

RevDate: 2023-09-08
CmpDate: 2023-09-08

Mahiddine FY, You I, Park H, et al (2023)

Management of dog sperm parameters and gut microbiota composition with Lactobacillus rhamnosus supplementation.

Veterinary research communications, 47(3):1629-1640.

The effects of probiotics supplementation on the reproductive function have been evaluated in many species, but no study has evaluated the changes in the gut microbiome along with the sperm quality changes simultaneously. This study evaluated the effects of dietary supplementation with probiotics on the gut microbiome, sperm quality and gene expression, along with possible correlations between these parameters in dogs. The dogs were supplemented with Lactobacillus rhamnosus for six weeks, and fecal and semen samples were collected at 0, 3, and 6 weeks. Fecal samples were assessed using 16S Metagenomic Sequencing for gut microbiome analysis; and semen samples were analyzed using computer-assisted sperm analysis, DNA and acrosome integrity assessment, viability and morphology assessment, and real-time PCR. The analyses suggested that probiotic supplementation improved kinematic parameters, viability, DNA and acrosome integrity, and morphology of sperms. The mRNA levels of genes associated with fertility, DNA repair and integrity, and antioxidation were also upregulated. The sperm parameters were positively correlated with the relative abundance of Actinobacteria, Allobaculum, Phascolarctobacterium and Catenibacterium, and negatively correlated with Faecalibacterium and Streptococcus. Taken together, the sperm quality enhancement through the gut-testis axis may be due to a change in the gut microorganisms populations.

RevDate: 2023-09-04
CmpDate: 2023-09-04

Li Z, Wen Q, Pi J, et al (2023)

An inulin-type fructan isolated from Serratula chinensis alleviated the dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in mice through regulation of intestinal barrier and gut microbiota.

Carbohydrate polymers, 320:121206.

Herein, we aimed to explore the polysaccharide material basis of Serratula chinensis and establish its beneficial effects against colitis. A neutral polysaccharide (SCP) was extracted from S. chinensis in high yield using hot water. The molecular weights were calculated by HPSEC as Mw = 2928 Da, Mn = 2634 Da, and Mw/Mn = 1.11. FT-IR and 1D/2D-NMR spectroscopic analyses confirmed that SCP was an inulin-type fructan with α-D-Glcp-(1 → [1)-β-D-Fruf-(2]17) linkages. Treatment with SCP (200 or 400 mg/kg) alleviated dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse colitis symptoms, including the loss of body weight, increase of disease activity index score, and shortening of colon length. Histopathological and immunofluorescence assessments revealed that SCP could reduce pathological damage to the colon, restore the number of goblet cells, increase the content of glycoproteins in goblet cells and mucins in crypts, and enhance the expression of tight junction proteins ZO-1 and occludin. In addition, metagenomic sequencing revealed that SCP could improve the dysbiosis of gut microbiomes and act on multiple microbial functions. Moreover, SCP treatment increased the content of colonic acetic acid and butanoic acid. Collectively, these results indicated that SCP could alleviate the DSS-induced colitis in mice through regulation of intestinal barrier and gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-09-04
CmpDate: 2023-09-04

Paulo AC, Lança J, Almeida ST, et al (2023)

The upper respiratory tract microbiota of healthy adults is affected by Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage, smoking habits, and contact with children.

Microbiome, 11(1):199.

BACKGROUND: The microbiota of the upper respiratory tract is increasingly recognized as a gatekeeper of respiratory health. Despite this, the microbiota of healthy adults remains understudied. To address this gap, we investigated the composition of the nasopharyngeal and oropharyngeal microbiota of healthy adults, focusing on the effect of Streptococcus pneumoniae carriage, smoking habits, and contact with children.

RESULTS: Differential abundance analysis indicated that the microbiota of the oropharynx was significantly different from that of the nasopharynx (P < 0.001) and highly discriminated by a balance between the classes Negativicutes and Bacilli (AUC of 0.979). Moreover, the oropharynx was associated with a more homogeneous microbiota across individuals, with just two vs. five clusters identified in the nasopharynx. We observed a shift in the nasopharyngeal microbiota of carriers vs. noncarriers with an increased relative abundance of Streptococcus, which summed up to 30% vs. 10% in noncarriers and was not mirrored in the oropharynx. The oropharyngeal microbiota of smokers had a lower diversity than the microbiota of nonsmokers, while no differences were observed in the nasopharyngeal microbiota. In particular, the microbiota of smokers, compared with nonsmokers, was enriched (on average 16-fold) in potential pathogenic taxa involved in periodontal diseases of the genera Bacillus and Burkholderia previously identified in metagenomic studies of cigarettes. The microbiota of adults with contact with children resembled the microbiota of children. Specifically, the nasopharyngeal microbiota of these adults had, on average, an eightfold increase in relative abundance in Streptococcus sp., Moraxella catarrhalis, and Haemophilus influenzae, pathobionts known to colonize the children's upper respiratory tract, and a fourfold decrease in Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus lugdunensis.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study showed that, in adults, the presence of S. pneumoniae in the nasopharynx is associated with a shift in the microbiota and dominance of the Streptococcus genus. Furthermore, we observed that smoking habits are associated with an increase in bacterial genera commonly linked to periodontal diseases. Interestingly, our research also revealed that adults who have regular contact with children have a microbiota enriched in pathobionts frequently carried by children. These findings collectively contribute to a deeper understanding of how various factors influence the upper respiratory tract microbiota in adults. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-09-07
CmpDate: 2023-08-31

Juge N (2023)

Microbe Profile: Ruminococcus gnavus: the yin and yang of human gut symbionts.

Microbiology (Reading, England), 169(8):.

Ruminococcus gnavus is a human gut symbiont, part of the infant and adult gut microbiota and associated with intestinal and extra-intestinal disorders. R. gnavus mechanisms of adaptation to the gut are strain-specific and underpinned by the capacity of R. gnavus strains to utilize mucin and dietary glycans and produce bacteriocins and adhesins. Several potential mediators underpinning the association between R. gnavus strains and diseases have been identified, including the capacity to elicit a pro- or anti-inflammatory host response and modulate host metabolism, secondary bile acids and tryptophan metabolic pathways. Based on increasing evidence from metagenomics studies in humans and functional investigations in vitro and in mouse models, R. gnavus is emerging as a main player in influencing health and disease outcomes from infants to the elderly.

RevDate: 2023-09-07
CmpDate: 2023-09-07

Wang Y, Guo Z, Li J, et al (2023)

Unraveling the differential perturbations of species-level functional profiling of gut microbiota among phases of methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference.

Progress in neuro-psychopharmacology & biological psychiatry, 127:110828.

The gut microbiome plays a significant role in methamphetamine addiction. Previous studies using short-read amplicon sequencing have described alterations in microbiota at the genus level and predicted function, in which taxonomic resolution is insufficient for accurate functional measurements. To address this limitation, we employed metagenome sequencing to intuitively associate species to functions of gut microbiota in methamphetamine-induced conditioned place preference. We observed differential perturbations of species-level functional profiling of the gut microbiota across phases of METH-induced CPP, with alterations in SCFA metabolism and bacterial motility at the acquisition phase and substance dependence-alcoholism pathway and amino acid metabolism at the extinction phase. Our findings suggest that reduced beneficial bacteria, i.e., Lactobacillus reuteri, contributed to the alteration of SCFA metabolism, while the increased abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila during the extinction phase may be associated with altered phenylalanine, tyrosine, and tryptophan metabolism and substance dependence pathway. Our study further supports the association between specific microbial taxa and METH-induced rewarding.

RevDate: 2023-09-06
CmpDate: 2023-09-04

Mao Q, Liu Y, Zhang J, et al (2023)

Blood virome of patients with traumatic sepsis.

Virology journal, 20(1):198.

Sepsis is one of the possible outcomes of severe trauma, and it poses a dire threat to human life, particularly in immunocompromised people. The most prevalent pathogens are bacteria and fungi, but viruses should not be overlooked. For viral metagenomic analysis, we collected blood samples from eight patients with post-traumatic sepsis before and seven days after treatment. The results demonstrated that Anellovirus predominated the viral community, followed by Siphoviridae and Myoviridae, and that the variations in viral community and viral load before and after treatment were not statistically significant. This study allows us to investigate methods for establishing NGS-based viral diagnostic instruments for detecting viral infections in the blood of sepsis patients so that antiviral therapy can be administered quickly.

RevDate: 2023-09-05
CmpDate: 2023-09-05

Thorburn DJ, Sagonas K, Binzer-Panchal M, et al (2023)

Origin matters: Using a local reference genome improves measures in population genomics.

Molecular ecology resources, 23(7):1706-1723.

Genome sequencing enables answering fundamental questions about the genetic basis of adaptation, population structure and epigenetic mechanisms. Yet, we usually need a suitable reference genome for mapping population-level resequencing data. In some model systems, multiple reference genomes are available, giving the challenging task of determining which reference genome best suits the data. Here, we compared the use of two different reference genomes for the three-spined stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus), one novel genome derived from a European gynogenetic individual and the published reference genome of a North American individual. Specifically, we investigated the impact of using a local reference versus one generated from a distinct lineage on several common population genomics analyses. Through mapping genome resequencing data of 60 sticklebacks from across Europe and North America, we demonstrate that genetic distance among samples and the reference genomes impacts downstream analyses. Using a local reference genome increased mapping efficiency and genotyping accuracy, effectively retaining more and better data. Despite comparable distributions of the metrics generated across the genome using SNP data (i.e. π, Tajima's D and FST), window-based statistics using different references resulted in different outlier genes and enriched gene functions. A marker-based analysis of DNA methylation distributions had a comparably high overlap in outlier genes and functions, yet with distinct differences depending on the reference genome. Overall, our results highlight how using a local reference genome decreases reference bias to increase confidence in downstream analyses of the data. Such results have significant implications in all reference-genome-based population genomic analyses.

RevDate: 2023-09-05
CmpDate: 2023-09-05

Kyaw TS, Upadhyay V, Tolstykh I, et al (2023)

Variety of Fruit and Vegetables and Alcohol Intake are Associated with Gut Microbial Species and Gene Abundance in Colorectal Cancer Survivors.

The American journal of clinical nutrition, 118(3):518-529.

BACKGROUND: Adherence to the American Cancer Society (ACS) guidelines of avoiding obesity, maintaining physical activity, and consuming a diet rich in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains is associated with longer survival in colorectal cancer (CRC) survivors. Dietary components of the ACS guidelines may act in part by changing the microbiome, which is implicated in CRC outcomes.

OBJECTIVES: We conducted a pilot cross-sectional study to explore associations between ACS guidelines and the gut microbiome.

METHODS: Stool samples and questionnaires were collected from 28 CRC survivors at the University of California, San Francisco from 2019 to 2020. ACS scores were calculated based on validated questionnaires. Gut microbial community structure from 16S amplicons and gene/pathway abundances from metagenomics were tested for associations with the ACS score and its components using ANOVA and general linear models.

RESULTS: The overall ACS score was not significantly associated with variations in the fecal microbiota. However, fruit and vegetable intake and alcohol intake accounted for 19% (P = 0.005) and 13% (P = 0.01) of variation in the microbiota, respectively. Fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with increased microbial diversity, increased Firmicutes, decreased Bacteroidota, and changes to multiple genes and metabolic pathways, including enriched pathways for amino acid and short-chain fatty acid biosynthesis and plant-associated sugar degradation. In contrast, alcohol consumption was positively associated with overall microbial diversity, negatively associated with Bacteroidota abundance, and associated with changes to multiple genes and metabolic pathways. The other components of the ACS score were not statistically significantly associated with the fecal microbiota in our sample.

CONCLUSIONS: These results guide future studies examining the impact of changes in the intake of fruits, vegetables, and alcoholic drinks on the gut microbiome of CRC survivors.

RevDate: 2023-09-05
CmpDate: 2023-09-05

Puente-Sánchez F, Hoetzinger M, Buck M, et al (2023)

Exploring environmental intra-species diversity through non-redundant pangenome assemblies.

Molecular ecology resources, 23(7):1724-1736.

At the genome level, microorganisms are highly adaptable both in terms of allele and gene composition. Such heritable traits emerge in response to different environmental niches and can have a profound influence on microbial community dynamics. As a consequence, any individual genome or population will contain merely a fraction of the total genetic diversity of any operationally defined "species", whose ecological potential can thus be only fully understood by studying all of their genomes and the genes therein. This concept, known as the pangenome, is valuable for studying microbial ecology and evolution, as it partitions genomes into core (present in all the genomes from a species, and responsible for housekeeping and species-level niche adaptation among others) and accessory regions (present only in some, and responsible for intra-species differentiation). Here we present SuperPang, an algorithm producing pangenome assemblies from a set of input genomes of varying quality, including metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). SuperPang runs in linear time and its results are complete, non-redundant, preserve gene ordering and contain both coding and non-coding regions. Our approach provides a modular view of the pangenome, identifying operons and genomic islands, and allowing to track their prevalence in different populations. We illustrate this by analysing intra-species diversity in Polynucleobacter, a bacterial genus ubiquitous in freshwater ecosystems, characterized by their streamlined genomes and their ecological versatility. We show how SuperPang facilitates the simultaneous analysis of allelic and gene content variation under different environmental pressures, allowing us to study the drivers of microbial diversification at unprecedented resolution.

RevDate: 2023-09-05
CmpDate: 2023-09-05

Palacios N, Wilkinson J, Bjornevik K, et al (2023)

Metagenomics of the Gut Microbiome in Parkinson's Disease: Prodromal Changes.

Annals of neurology, 94(3):486-501.

OBJECTIVE: Prior studies on the gut microbiome in Parkinson's disease (PD) have yielded conflicting results, and few studies have focused on prodromal (premotor) PD or used shotgun metagenomic profiling to assess microbial functional potential. We conducted a nested case-control study within 2 large epidemiological cohorts to examine the role of the gut microbiome in PD.

METHODS: We profiled the fecal metagenomes of 420 participants in the Nurses' Health Study and the Health Professionals Follow-up Study with recent onset PD (N = 75), with features of prodromal PD (N = 101), controls with constipation (N = 113), and healthy controls (N = 131) to identify microbial taxonomic and functional features associated with PD and features suggestive of prodromal PD. Omnibus and feature-wise analyses identified bacterial species and pathways associated with prodromal and recently onset PD.

RESULTS: We observed depletion of several strict anaerobes associated with reduced inflammation among participants with PD or features of prodromal PD. A microbiome-based classifier had moderate accuracy (area under the curve [AUC] = 0.76 for species and 0.74 for pathways) to discriminate between recently onset PD cases and controls. These taxonomic shifts corresponded with functional shifts indicative of carbohydrate source preference. Similar, but less marked, changes were observed in participants with features of prodromal PD, in both microbial features and functions.

INTERPRETATION: PD and features of prodromal PD were associated with similar changes in the gut microbiome. These findings suggest that changes in the microbiome could represent novel biomarkers for the earliest phases of PD. ANN NEUROL 2023;94:486-501.

RevDate: 2023-09-04
CmpDate: 2023-09-04

Shen H, Liu T, Shen M, et al (2023)

Utilizing metagenomic next-generation sequencing for diagnosis and lung microbiome probing of pediatric pneumonia through bronchoalveolar lavage fluid in pediatric intensive care unit: results from a large real-world cohort.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1200806.

BACKGROUND: Metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) is a powerful method for pathogen detection in various infections. In this study, we assessed the value of mNGS in the pathogen diagnosis and microbiome analysis of pneumonia in pediatric intensive care units (PICU) using bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) samples.

METHODS: A total of 104 pediatric patients with pneumonia who were admitted into PICU between June 2018 and February 2020 were retrospectively enrolled. Among them, 101 subjects who had intact clinical information were subject to parallel comparison of mNGS and conventional microbiological tests (CMTs) for pathogen detection. The performance was also evaluated and compared between BALF-mNGS and BALF-culture methods. Moreover, the diversity and structure of all 104 patients' lung BALF microbiomes were explored using the mNGS data.

RESULTS: Combining the findings of mNGS and CMTs, 94.06% (95/101) pneumonia cases showed evidence of causative pathogenic infections, including 79.21% (80/101) mixed and 14.85% (15/101) single infections. Regarding the pathogenesis of pneumonia in the PICU, the fungal detection rates were significantly higher in patients with immunodeficiency (55.56% vs. 25.30%, P =0.025) and comorbidities (40.30% vs. 11.76%, P=0.007). There were no significant differences in the α-diversity either between patients with CAP and HAP or between patients with and without immunodeficiency. Regarding the diagnostic performance, the detection rate of DNA-based BALF-mNGS was slightly higher than that of the BALF-culture although statistically insignificant (81.82% vs.77.92%, P=0.677) and was comparable to CMTs (81.82% vs. 89.61%, P=0.211). The overall sensitivity of DNA-based mNGS was 85.14% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 74.96%-92.34%). The detection rate of RNA-based BALF-mNGS was the same with CMTs (80.00% vs 80.00%, P>0.999) and higher than BALF-culture (80.00% vs 52.00%, P=0.045), with a sensitivity of 90.91% (95%CI: 70.84%-98.88%).

CONCLUSIONS: mNGS is valuable in the etiological diagnosis of pneumonia, especially in fungal infections, and can reveal pulmonary microecological characteristics. For pneumonia patients in PICU, the mNGS should be implemented early and complementary to CMTs.

RevDate: 2023-09-04
CmpDate: 2023-09-04

Wu J, Li C, Gao P, et al (2023)

Intestinal microbiota links to allograft stability after lung transplantation: a prospective cohort study.

Signal transduction and targeted therapy, 8(1):326.

Whether the alternated microbiota in the gut contribute to the risk of allograft rejection (AR) and pulmonary infection (PI) in the setting of lung transplant recipients (LTRs) remains unexplored. A prospective multicenter cohort of LTRs was identified in the four lung transplant centers. Paired fecal and serum specimens were collected and divided into AR, PI, and event-free (EF) groups according to the diagnosis at sampling. Fecal samples were determined by metagenomic sequencing. And metabolites and cytokines were detected in the paired serum to analyze the potential effect of the altered microbiota community. In total, we analyzed 146 paired samples (AR = 25, PI = 43, and EF = 78). Notably, we found that the gut microbiome of AR followed a major depletion pattern with decreased 487 species and compositional diversity. Further multi-omics analysis showed depleted serum metabolites and increased inflammatory cytokines in AR and PI. Bacteroides uniformis, which declined in AR (2.4% vs 0.6%) and was negatively associated with serum IL-1β and IL-12, was identified as a driven specie in the network of gut microbiome of EF. Functionally, the EF specimens were abundant in probiotics related to mannose and cationic antimicrobial peptide metabolism. Furthermore, a support-vector machine classifier based on microbiome, metabolome, and clinical parameters highly predicted AR (AUPRC = 0.801) and PI (AUPRC = 0.855), whereby the microbiome dataset showed a particularly high diagnostic power. In conclusion, a disruptive gut microbiota showed a significant association with allograft rejection and infection and with systemic cytokines and metabolites in LTRs.

RevDate: 2023-09-04
CmpDate: 2023-09-04

Jacobs JP, Lee ML, Rechtman DJ, et al (2023)

Human milk oligosaccharides modulate the intestinal microbiome of healthy adults.

Scientific reports, 13(1):14308.

Human milk contains over 200 distinct oligosaccharides, which are critical to shaping the developing neonatal gut microbiome. To investigate whether a complex mixture of human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) would similarly modulate the adult gut microbiome, HMO-Concentrate derived from pooled donor breast milk was administered orally to 32 healthy adults for 7 days followed by 21 days of monitoring. Fecal samples were collected for 16S rRNA gene sequencing, shotgun metagenomics, and metabolomics analyses. HMO-Concentrate induced dose-dependent Bifidobacterium expansion, reduced microbial diversity, and altered microbial gene content. Following HMO cessation, a microbial succession occurred with diverse taxonomic changes-including Bacteroides expansion-that persisted through day 28. This was associated with altered microbial gene content, shifts in serum metabolite levels, and increased circulating TGFβ and IL-10. Incubation of cultured adult microbiota with HMO-Concentrate induced dose-dependent compositional shifts that were not recapitulated by individual HMOs or defined mixtures of the 10 most abundant HMOs in HMO-Concentrate at their measured concentrations. These findings support that pooled donor HMOs can exert direct effects on adult gut microbiota and that complex mixtures including low abundance HMOs present in donor milk may be required for maximum effect.Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT05516225.

RevDate: 2023-08-31

Huang G, Qi D, Yang Z, et al (2023)

Gut microbiome as a key monitoring indicator for reintroductions of captive animals.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Reintroduction programs seek to restore degraded populations and reverse biodiversity loss. To examine the hypothesis that gut symbionts could be used as an indicator of reintroduction success, we performed intensive metagenomic monitoring over 10 years to characterize the ecological succession and adaptive evolution of the gut symbionts of captive giant pandas reintroduced to the wild. We collected 63 fecal samples from 3 reintroduced individuals and 22 from 9 wild individuals and used 96 publicly available samples from another 3 captive individuals. By microbial composition analysis, we identified 3 community clusters of the gut microbiome (here termed enterotypes) with interenterotype succession that was closely related to the reintroduction process. Each of the 3 enterotypes was identified based on significant variation in the levels of 1 of 3 genera: Clostridium, Pseudomonas, and Escherichia. The enterotype of captive pandas was Escherichia. This enterotype was gradually replaced by the Clostridium enterotype during the wild-training process, which in turn was replaced by the Pseudomonas enterotype that resembled the enterotype of wild pandas, an indicator of conversion to wildness and a successful reintroduction. We also isolated 1 strain of Pseudomonas protegens from the wild enterotype, a previously reported free-living microbe, and found that its within-host evolution contributed to host dietary adaptation in the wild. Monitoring gut microbial structure provides a novel, noninvasive tool that can be used as an indicator of successful reintroduction of a captive individual to the wild. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-09-01
CmpDate: 2023-09-01

Diba F, Hoque MN, Rahman MS, et al (2023)

Metagenomic and culture-dependent approaches unveil active microbial community and novel functional genes involved in arsenic mobilization and detoxification in groundwater.

BMC microbiology, 23(1):241.

BACKGROUND: Arsenic (As) and its species are major pollutants in ecological bodied including groundwater in Bangladesh rendering serious public health concern. Bacteria with arsenotrophic genes have been found in the aquifer, converting toxic arsenite [As (III)] to less toxic arsenate [As (V)] that is easily removed using chemical and biological trappers. In this study, genomic and metagenomic approaches parallel to culture-based assay (Graphical abstract) have made it possible to decipher phylogenetic diversity of groundwater arsenotrophic microbiomes along with elucidation of their genetic determinants.

RESULTS: Seventy-two isolates were retrieved from six As-contaminated (average As concentration of 0.23 mg/L) groundwater samples from Munshiganj and Chandpur districts of Bangladesh. Twenty-three isolates harbored arsenite efflux pump (arsB) gene with high abundance, and ten isolates possessing arsenite oxidase (aioA) gene, with a wide range of minimum inhibitory concentration, MICAs (2 to 32 mM), confirming their role in arsenite metabolism. There was considerable heterogeneity in species richness and microbial community structure. Microbial taxa from Proteobacteria, Firmicutes and Acidobacteria dominated these diversities. Through these combinatorial approaches, we have identified potential candidates such as, Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter, Stenotrophomonas, Achromobacter, Paraburkholderia, Comamonas and Klebsiella and associated functional genes (arsB, acr3, arsD, arsH, arsR) that could significantly contribute to arsenite detoxification, accumulation, and immobilization.

CONCLUSIONS: Culture-dependent and -independent shotgun metagenomic investigation elucidated arsenotrophic microbiomes and their functions in As biogeochemical transformation. These findings laid a foundation for further large-scale researches on the arsenotrophic microbiomes and their concurrent functions in As biogeochemical transformation in As-contaminated areas of Bangladesh and beyond.

RevDate: 2023-08-30

Robinson JM, Hodgson R, Krauss SL, et al (2023)

Opportunities and challenges for microbiomics in ecosystem restoration.

Trends in ecology & evolution pii:S0169-5347(23)00211-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiomics is the science of characterizing microbial community structure, function, and dynamics. It has great potential to advance our understanding of plant-soil-microbe processes and interaction networks which can be applied to improve ecosystem restoration. However, microbiomics may be perceived as complex and the technology is not accessible to all. The opportunities of microbiomics in restoration ecology are considerable, but so are the practical challenges. Applying microbiomics in restoration must move beyond compositional assessments to incorporate tools to study the complexity of ecosystem recovery. Advances in metaomic tools provide unprecedented possibilities to aid restoration interventions. Moreover, complementary non-omic applications, such as microbial inoculants and biopriming, have the potential to improve restoration objectives by enhancing the establishment and health of vegetation communities.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )