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Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 24 Feb 2021 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2021-02-23
CmpDate: 2021-02-23

Mobegi FM, Leong LE, Thompson F, et al (2020)

Intestinal microbiology shapes population health impacts of diet and lifestyle risk exposures in Torres Strait Islander communities.

eLife, 9:.

Poor diet and lifestyle exposures are implicated in substantial global increases in non-communicable disease burden in low-income, remote, and Indigenous communities. This observational study investigated the contribution of the fecal microbiome to influence host physiology in two Indigenous communities in the Torres Strait Islands: Mer, a remote island where a traditional diet predominates, and Waiben a more accessible island with greater access to takeaway food and alcohol. Counterintuitively, disease markers were more pronounced in Mer residents. However, island-specific differences in disease risk were explained, in part, by microbiome traits. The absence of Alistipes onderdonkii, for example, significantly (p=0.014) moderated island-specific patterns of systolic blood pressure in multivariate-adjusted models. We also report mediatory relationships between traits of the fecal metagenome, disease markers, and risk exposures. Understanding how intestinal microbiome traits influence response to disease risk exposures is critical for the development of strategies that mitigate the growing burden of cardiometabolic disease in these communities.

RevDate: 2021-02-23
CmpDate: 2021-02-23

Zhou Y, Coventry DR, Gupta VVSR, et al (2020)

The preceding root system drives the composition and function of the rhizosphere microbiome.

Genome biology, 21(1):89.

BACKGROUND: The soil environment is responsible for sustaining most terrestrial plant life, yet we know surprisingly little about the important functions carried out by diverse microbial communities in soil. Soil microbes that inhabit the channels of decaying root systems, the detritusphere, are likely to be essential for plant growth and health, as these channels are the preferred locations of new root growth. Understanding the microbial metagenome of the detritusphere, and how it responds to agricultural management such as crop rotations and soil tillage, is vital for improving global food production.

RESULTS: This study establishes an in-depth soil microbial gene catalogue based on the living-decaying rhizosphere niches in a cropping soil. The detritusphere microbiome regulates the composition and function of the rhizosphere microbiome to a greater extent than plant type: rhizosphere microbiomes of wheat and chickpea were homogenous (65-87% similarity) in the presence of decaying root (DR) systems but were heterogeneous (3-24% similarity) where DR was disrupted by tillage. When the microbiomes of the rhizosphere and the detritusphere interact in the presence of DR, there is significant degradation of plant root exudates by the rhizosphere microbiome, and genes associated with membrane transporters, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism are enriched.

CONCLUSIONS: The study describes the diversity and functional capacity of a high-quality soil microbial metagenome. The results demonstrate the contribution of the detritusphere microbiome in determining the metagenome of developing root systems. Modifications in root microbial function through soil management can ultimately govern plant health, productivity and food security.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Misery B, Legendre P, Rue O, et al (2021)

Diversity and dynamics of bacterial and fungal communities in cider for distillation.

International journal of food microbiology, 339:108987.

Bacterial and fungal population dynamics in cider for distillation have so far been explored by culture-dependant methods. Cider for distillation can be produced by the spontaneous fermentation of apples that do not undergo any intervention during the process. In this study, cider microbiomes extracted from six tanks containing ciders for distillation from four producers in Normandy were characterized at three main stages of the fermentation process: fermentation Initiation (I), end of the alcoholic Fermentation (F) and end of the Maturation period (M). Cider samples were subjected to Illumina MiSeq sequencing (rRNA 16S V1-V3 and ITS1 region targeting) to determine bacterial and fungal communities. Yeasts (YGC), Zymomonas (mZPP) and lactic acid bacteria selective media (mMRS, mMLO, mPSM) were also used to collect 807 isolates. Alcoholic levels, glycerol, sugar content (glucose, fructose and sucrose), pH, total and volatile acidity, nitrogen, malic and lactic acid contents were determined at all sampling points. Alpha diversity indexes show significant differences (p < 0.05) in microbial populations between I, F and M. Fungal communities were characterized by microorganisms from the environment and phytopathogens at I followed by the association of yearsts with alcoholic fermentation like Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces yeasts (Hanseniaspora, Candida). A maturation period for cider leads to an increase of the Dekkera/Brettanomyces population, which is responsible for off-flavors in cider for all producers. Among bacterial communities, the genera community associated to malolactic fermentation (Lactobacillus sp., Leuconostoc sp., Oenococcus sp.) was the most abundant at F and M. Acetic acid bacteria such as Acetobacter sp., Komagataeibacter sp. and Gluconobacter sp. were also detected during the process. Significant differences (p < 0.05) were found in fungal and bacterial populations between the four producers and during the fermentation process. The development of microorganisms associated with cider spoilage such as Zymomonas mobilis, Lactobacillus collinoides or Brettanomyces/Dekkera sp. was anticipated by a metagenomic approach. The monitoring of microbial diversity via high throughput sequencing combined with physical-chemical analysis is an interesting approach to improve the fermentation performance of cider for distillation and therefore, the quality of Calvados.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Liu C, Ponsero AJ, Armstrong DG, et al (2020)

The dynamic wound microbiome.

BMC medicine, 18(1):358.

BACKGROUND: Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) account for the majority of all limb amputations and hospitalizations due to diabetes complications. With 30 million cases of diabetes in the USA and 500,000 new diagnoses each year, DFUs are a growing health problem. Diabetes patients with limb amputations have high postoperative mortality, a high rate of secondary amputation, prolonged inpatient hospital stays, and a high incidence of re-hospitalization. DFU-associated amputations constitute a significant burden on healthcare resources that cost more than 10 billion dollars per year. Currently, there is no way to identify wounds that will heal versus those that will become severely infected and require amputation.

MAIN BODY: Accurate identification of causative pathogens in diabetic foot ulcers is a critical component of effective treatment. Compared to traditional culture-based methods, advanced sequencing technologies provide more comprehensive and unbiased profiling on wound microbiome with a higher taxonomic resolution, as well as functional annotation such as virulence and antibiotic resistance. In this review, we summarize the latest developments in defining the microbiology of diabetic foot ulcers that have been unveiled by sequencing technologies and discuss both the future promises and current limitations of these approaches. In particular, we highlight the temporal patterns and system dynamics in the diabetic foot microbiome monitored and measured during wound progression and medical intervention, and explore the feasibility of molecular diagnostics in clinics.

CONCLUSION: Molecular tests conducted during weekly office visits to clean and examine DFUs would allow clinicians to offer personalized treatment and antibiotic therapy. Personalized wound management could reduce healthcare costs, improve quality of life for patients, and recoup lost productivity that is important not only to the patient, but also to healthcare payers and providers. These efforts could also improve antibiotic stewardship and control the rise of "superbugs" vital to global health.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Dalal N, Jalandra R, Sharma M, et al (2020)

Omics technologies for improved diagnosis and treatment of colorectal cancer: Technical advancement and major perspectives.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 131:110648.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) ranks third among the most commonly occurring cancers worldwide, and it causes half a million deaths annually. Alongside mechanistic study for CRC detection and treatment by conventional techniques, new technologies have been developed to study CRC. These technologies include genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, and metabolomics which elucidate DNA markers, RNA transcripts, protein and, metabolites produced inside the colon and rectum part of the gut. All these approaches form the omics arena, which presents a remarkable opportunity for the discovery of novel prognostic, diagnostic and therapeutic biomarkers and also delineate the underlying mechanism of CRC causation, which may further help in devising treatment strategies. This review also mentions the latest developments in metagenomics and culturomics as emerging evidence suggests that metagenomics of gut microbiota has profound implications in the causation, prognosis, and treatment of CRC. A majority of bacteria cannot be studied as they remain unculturable, so culturomics has also been strengthened to develop culture conditions suitable for the growth of unculturable bacteria and identify unknown bacteria. The overall purpose of this review is to succinctly evaluate the application of omics technologies in colorectal cancer research for improving the diagnosis and treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Meijnikman AS, Aydin O, Prodan A, et al (2020)

Distinct differences in gut microbial composition and functional potential from lean to morbidly obese subjects.

Journal of internal medicine, 288(6):699-710.

INTRODUCTION: The gut microbiome may contribute to the development of obesity. So far, the extent of microbiome variation in people with obesity has not been determined in large cohorts and for a wide range of body mass index (BMI). Here, we aimed to investigate whether the faecal microbial metagenome can explain the variance in several clinical phenotypes associated with morbid obesity.

METHODS: Caucasian subjects were recruited at our hospital. Blood pressure and anthropometric measurements were taken. Dietary intake was determined using questionnaires. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed on faecal samples from 177 subjects.

RESULTS: Subjects without obesity (n = 82, BMI 24.7 ± 2.9 kg m-2) and subjects with obesity (n = 95, BMI 38.6 ± 5.1 kg m-2) could be clearly distinguished based on microbial composition and microbial metabolic pathways. A total number of 52 bacterial species differed significantly in people with and without obesity. Independent of dietary intake, we found that microbial pathways involved in biosynthesis of amino acids were enriched in subjects with obesity, whereas pathways involved in the degradation of amino acids were depleted. Machine learning models showed that more than half of the variance in body fat composition followed by BMI could be explained by the gut microbiome, composition and microbial metabolic pathways, compared with 6% of variation explained in triglycerides and 9% in HDL.

CONCLUSION: Based on the faecal microbiota composition, we were able to separate subjects with and without obesity. In addition, we found strong associations between gut microbial amino acid metabolism and specific microbial species in relation to clinical features of obesity.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Haudum C, Lindheim L, Ascani A, et al (2020)

Impact of Short-Term Isoflavone Intervention in Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS) Patients on Microbiota Composition and Metagenomics.

Nutrients, 12(6):.

BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) affects 5-20% of women of reproductive age worldwide and is associated with disorders of glucose metabolism. Hormone and metabolic signaling may be influenced by phytoestrogens, such as isoflavones. Their endocrine effects may modify symptom penetrance in PCOS. Equol is one of the most active isoflavone metabolites, produced by intestinal bacteria, and acts as a selective estrogen receptor modulator.

METHOD: In this interventional study of clinical and biochemical characterization, urine isoflavone levels were measured in PCOS and control women before and three days after a defined isoflavone intervention via soy milk. In this interventional study, bacterial equol production was evaluated using the log(equol: daidzein ratio) and microbiome, metabolic, and predicted metagenome analyses were performed.

RESULTS: After isoflavone intervention, predicted stool metagenomic pathways, microbial alpha diversity, and glucose homeostasis in PCOS improved resembling the profile of the control group at baseline. In the whole cohort, larger equol production was associated with lower androgen as well as fertility markers.

CONCLUSION: The dynamics in our metabolic, microbiome, and predicted metagenomic profiles underline the importance of external phytohormones on PCOS characteristics and a potential therapeutic approach or prebiotic in the future.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Li Y, Gordon E, Idle A, et al (2020)

Virome of a Feline Outbreak of Diarrhea and Vomiting Includes Bocaviruses and a Novel Chapparvovirus.

Viruses, 12(5):.

An unexplained outbreak of feline diarrhea and vomiting, negative for common enteric viral and bacterial pathogens, was subjected to viral metagenomics and PCR. We characterized from fecal samples the genome of a novel chapparvovirus we named fechavirus that was shed by 8/17 affected cats and identified three different feline bocaviruses shed by 9/17 cats. Also detected were nucleic acids from attenuated vaccine viruses, members of the normal feline virome, viruses found in only one or two cases, and viruses likely derived from ingested food products. Epidemiological investigation of disease signs, time of onset, and transfers of affected cats between three facilities support a possible role for this new chapparvovirus in a highly contagious feline diarrhea and vomiting disease.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Bolatti EM, Zorec TM, Montani ME, et al (2020)

A Preliminary Study of the Virome of the South American Free-Tailed Bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) and Identification of Two Novel Mammalian Viruses.

Viruses, 12(4):.

Bats provide important ecosystem services as pollinators, seed dispersers, and/or insect controllers, but they have also been found harboring different viruses with zoonotic potential. Virome studies in bats distributed in Asia, Africa, Europe, and North America have increased dramatically over the past decade, whereas information on viruses infecting South American species is scarce. We explored the virome of Tadarida brasiliensis, an insectivorous New World bat species inhabiting a maternity colony in Rosario (Argentina), by a metagenomic approach. The analysis of five pooled oral/anal swab samples indicated the presence of 43 different taxonomic viral families infecting a wide range of hosts. By conventional nucleic acid detection techniques and/or bioinformatics approaches, the genomes of two novel viruses were completely covered clustering into the Papillomaviridae (Tadarida brasiliensis papillomavirus type 1, TbraPV1) and Genomoviridae (Tadarida brasiliensis gemykibivirus 1, TbGkyV1) families. TbraPV1 is the first papillomavirus type identified in this host and the prototype of a novel genus. TbGkyV1 is the first genomovirus reported in New World bats and constitutes a new species within the genus Gemykibivirus. Our findings extend the knowledge about oral/anal viromes of a South American bat species and contribute to understand the evolution and genetic diversity of the novel characterized viruses.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Li Y, Altan E, Pilcher C, et al (2020)

Semen virome of men with HIV on or off antiretroviral treatment.

AIDS (London, England), 34(6):827-832.

OBJECTIVES: Improving immune status of people living with HIV through antiretroviral therapy (ART) may also reduce shedding of other viruses in semen. We characterized the seminal fluid virome of men with HIV and tested potential associations between viruses present and CD4 T-cell count, HIV viremia, and antiretroviral therapy (ART) status.

DESIGN AND METHODS: Metagenomics was used to enrich and sequence viral nucleic acids from the seminal fluid of 55 semen samples from 42 men living with HIV from San Francisco with a median age of 33 (IQR, 28.7-45) and median CD4 T-cell counts of 837 cells/μl (IQR, 258-1571 cells/μl). All samples were collected between 2005 and 2015, and ART status was ascertained from medical records.

RESULTS: Anelloviruses, cytomegalovirus (CMV), and multiple genotypes of human papillomaviruses were detected. Participants shed from 0 to 4 distinct human viruses. Longitudinally collected seminal fluid samples showed changes in the viruses shed. Viruses were more frequently shed by individuals with detectable HIV viremia (43.7 vs. 15.4%, P = 0.042). A trend was seen for increased shedding by individuals who were not on ART (42.8 vs. 17.8%, P = 0.082) or with CD4 T-cell count less than 350 cells/μl (35.3 vs. 20%, P = 0.27).

CONCLUSION: Seminal fluid from men with HIV from San Francisco contains nucleic acids from three different DNA viral families. A greater number of viruses, particularly CMV, were shed by participants with detectable HIV viremia (18.9 vs. 0%, P = 0.022). Control of viremia through ART may lower shedding of other viruses in semen in addition to HIV.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Faizah AN, Kobayashi D, Isawa H, et al (2020)

Deciphering the Virome of Culex vishnui Subgroup Mosquitoes, the Major Vectors of Japanese Encephalitis, in Japan.

Viruses, 12(3):.

Japanese encephalitis (JE) remains a public health concern in several countries, and the Culex mosquito plays a central role in its transmission cycle. Culex mosquitoes harbor a wide range of viruses, including insect-specific viruses (ISVs), and can transmit a variety of arthropod-borne viruses (arboviruses) that cause human and animal diseases. The current trend of studies displays enhanced efforts to characterize the mosquito virome through bulk RNA sequencing due to possible arbovirus-ISV interactions; however, the extent of viral diversity in the mosquito taxon is still poorly understood, particularly in some disease vectors. In this study, arboviral screening and RNA virome analysis of Culex tritaeniorhynchus and C. pseudovishnui, which are part of the Culex vishnui subgroup mosquitoes, were performed. Results from these two mosquito species, known as the major vectors of JE virus (JEV) in Asia, collected in three prefectures in Japan were also compared with the sympatric species C. inatomii. A total of 27 viruses, including JEV, were detected from these Culex mosquitoes. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses of the detected viruses classified 15 of the 27 viruses as novel species, notably belonging to the Flaviviridae, Rhabdoviridae, Totiviridae, and Iflaviridae families. The successful isolation of JEV genotype I confirmed its continuous presence in Japan, suggesting the need for periodic surveillance. Aside from JEV, this study has also reported the diversity of the RNA virome of disease vectors and broadened the knowledge on mosquito virome profiles containing both arbovirus and ISV. Mosquito taxon seemed to contribute largely to the virome structure (e.g., virome composition, diversity, and abundance) as opposed to the geographical location of the mosquito species. This study therefore offers notable insights into the ecology and evolution of each identified virus and viral family. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first study to characterize the viromes of the major JE vectors in Japan.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Chang DH, Shin J, Rhee MS, et al (2020)

Vaginal Microbiota Profiles of Native Korean Women and Associations with High-Risk Pregnancy.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology, 30(2):248-258.

The vaginal microbiota may be important for pregnancy prognosis because vaginal dysbiosis during pregnancy appears to be related to preterm birth (PTB) or pregnancy loss. Previous reports have indicated that a Lactobacillus-poor microbial flora in the vagina and intrauterine infection by diverse anaerobes ascending from the vagina are associated with undesirable delivery outcomes. However, no research has involved the use of pyrosequencing analysis to examine vaginal microbiota profiles or their potential associations with high-risk pregnancy in Korean women. Vaginal swabs were collected from 500 Korean women for the identification of community state types (CSTs). Of these, 137 samples were further analyzed using a Roche/454 GS Junior pyrosequencer. Three distinct CSTs were identified based on the dominant vaginal microbes: CST I (Lactobacillus crispatus dominated), CST III (Lactobacillus iners dominated), and CST IV (with diverse species of anaerobes). Twelve of the 67 pregnant women had undesirable pregnancy outcomes (four miscarriages and eight PTBs). The dominant microbe in the vaginal microbiota of women who gave birth at full-term was L. crispatus. In contrast, L. iners was the dominant vaginal microbe in women who miscarried. Most (n = 6/8) vaginal microbiota profiles of women who experienced PTB could be classified as CST IV, with diverse bacteria, including anaerobic vaginal species. The present study provides valuable information regarding the characteristics of the vaginal microbiota of Korean women related to high-risk pregnancy. Investigation of the vaginal microbiotic structure in pregnant Korean women is necessary to enable better prediction of adverse pregnancy outcomes.

RevDate: 2021-02-22
CmpDate: 2021-02-22

Wu M, Li P, Li J, et al (2020)

The Differences between Luminal Microbiota and Mucosal Microbiota in Mice.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology, 30(2):287-295.

The differences between luminal microbiota (LM) and mucosal microbiota (MAM) were little known, especially in duodenum. In this study, LM and MAM in colon and duodenum of mice were investigated through 16S rRNA high-throughput sequencing. The lowest bacterial diversity and evenness were observed in duodenal LM (D_LM), followed by duodenal MAM (D_MAM). Meanwhile, the bacterial diversity and evenness were obviously increased in D_MAM than these in D_LM, while no significant difference was observed between colonic MAM (C_MAM) and colonic LM (C_LM). PCoA analysis also showed that bacterial communities of LM and MAM in duodenum were completely separated, while these in colon overlapped partly. The ratio of Firmicutes to Bacteroidetes (F/B) in D_MAM was significantly higher than that in D_LM. Lactobacillus was largely enriched and was the characteristic bacteria in D_LM. The characteristic bacteria in D_MAM were Turicibacter, Parasutterella, Marvinbryantia and Bifidobacterium, while in C_LM they were Ruminiclostridium_6, Ruminiclostridium_9, Ruminococcaceae_UCG_007 and Lachnospiraceae_UCG_010, and in C_MAM they were Lachnospiraceae_NK4A136, Mucispirillum, Alistipes, Ruminiclostridium and Odoribacter. The networks showed that more interactions existed in colonic microbiota (24 nodes and 74 edges) than in duodenal microbiota (17 nodes and 29 edges). The 16S rDNA function prediction results indicated that bigger differences of function exist between LM and MAM in duodenum than these in colon. In conclusion, microbiota from intestinal luminal content and mucosa were different both in colon and in duodenum, and bacteria in colon interacted with each other much more closely than those in duodenum.

RevDate: 2021-02-20

Neal AL, McLaren T, Campolino ML, et al (2021)

Crop type exerts greater influence upon rhizosphere phosphohydrolase gene abundance and phylogenetic diversity than phosphorus fertilization.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:6145522 [Epub ahead of print].

Rock phosphate is an alternative form of phosphorus (P) fertilizer, however there is no information regarding the influence of P fertilizer sources in Brazilian Cerrado soils upon microbial genes coding for phosphohydrolase enzymes in crop rhizospheres. Here, we analyse a field experiment comparing maize and sorghum grown under different P fertilization (rock phosphate and triple superphosphate) upon crop performance, phosphatase activity and rhizosphere microbiomes at three levels of diversity: small subunit rRNA marker genes of bacteria, archaea and fungi; a suite of alkaline and acid phosphatase and phytase genes; and ecotypes of individual genes. We showed no significant difference in crop performance between the fertilizer sources, but the accumulation of fertilizer P into pools of organic soil P differed. Phosphatase activity was the only biological parameter influenced by P fertilization. Differences in rhizosphere microbiomes were observed at all levels of biodiversity due to crop type, but not fertilization. Inspection of phosphohydrolase gene ecotypes responsible for differences between the crops suggests a role for lateral genetic transfer in establishing ecotype distributions. Moreover, they were not reflected in microbial community composition, suggesting that they confer competitive advantage to individual cells rather than species in the sorghum rhizosphere.

RevDate: 2021-02-18

de Nies L, Lopes S, Busi SB, et al (2021)

PathoFact: a pipeline for the prediction of virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic data.

Microbiome, 9(1):49.

BACKGROUND: Pathogenic microorganisms cause disease by invading, colonizing, and damaging their host. Virulence factors including bacterial toxins contribute to pathogenicity. Additionally, antimicrobial resistance genes allow pathogens to evade otherwise curative treatments. To understand causal relationships between microbiome compositions, functioning, and disease, it is essential to identify virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance genes in situ. At present, there is a clear lack of computational approaches to simultaneously identify these factors in metagenomic datasets.

RESULTS: Here, we present PathoFact, a tool for the contextualized prediction of virulence factors, bacterial toxins, and antimicrobial resistance genes with high accuracy (0.921, 0.832 and 0.979, respectively) and specificity (0.957, 0.989 and 0.994). We evaluate the performance of PathoFact on simulated metagenomic datasets and perform a comparison to two other general workflows for the analysis of metagenomic data. PathoFact outperforms all existing workflows in predicting virulence factors and toxin genes. It performs comparably to one pipeline regarding the prediction of antimicrobial resistance while outperforming the others. We further demonstrate the performance of PathoFact on three publicly available case-control metagenomic datasets representing an actual infection as well as chronic diseases in which either pathogenic potential or bacterial toxins are hypothesized to play a role. In each case, we identify virulence factors and AMR genes which differentiated between the case and control groups, thereby revealing novel gene associations with the studied diseases.

CONCLUSION: PathoFact is an easy-to-use, modular, and reproducible pipeline for the identification of virulence factors, bacterial toxins, and antimicrobial resistance genes in metagenomic data. Additionally, our tool combines the prediction of these pathogenicity factors with the identification of mobile genetic elements. This provides further depth to the analysis by considering the genomic context of the pertinent genes. Furthermore, PathoFact's modules for virulence factors, toxins, and antimicrobial resistance genes can be applied independently, thereby making it a flexible and versatile tool. PathoFact, its models, and databases are freely available at https://pathofact.lcsb.uni.lu . Video abstract.

RevDate: 2021-02-19
CmpDate: 2021-02-19

Reysenbach AL, St John E, Meneghin J, et al (2020)

Complex subsurface hydrothermal fluid mixing at a submarine arc volcano supports distinct and highly diverse microbial communities.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(51):32627-32638.

Hydrothermally active submarine volcanoes are mineral-rich biological oases contributing significantly to chemical fluxes in the deep sea, yet little is known about the microbial communities inhabiting these systems. Here we investigate the diversity of microbial life in hydrothermal deposits and their metagenomics-inferred physiology in light of the geological history and resulting hydrothermal fluid paths in the subsurface of Brothers submarine volcano north of New Zealand on the southern Kermadec arc. From metagenome-assembled genomes we identified over 90 putative bacterial and archaeal genomic families and nearly 300 previously unknown genera, many potentially endemic to this submarine volcanic environment. While magmatically influenced hydrothermal systems on the volcanic resurgent cones of Brothers volcano harbor communities of thermoacidophiles and diverse members of the superphylum "DPANN," two distinct communities are associated with the caldera wall, likely shaped by two different types of hydrothermal circulation. The communities whose phylogenetic diversity primarily aligns with that of the cone sites and magmatically influenced hydrothermal systems elsewhere are characterized predominately by anaerobic metabolisms. These populations are probably maintained by fluids with greater magmatic inputs that have interacted with different (deeper) previously altered mineral assemblages. However, proximal (a few meters distant) communities with gene-inferred aerobic, microaerophilic, and anaerobic metabolisms are likely supported by shallower seawater-dominated circulation. Furthermore, mixing of fluids from these two distinct hydrothermal circulation systems may have an underlying imprint on the high microbial phylogenomic diversity. Collectively our results highlight the importance of considering geologic evolution and history of subsurface processes in studying microbial colonization and community dynamics in volcanic environments.

RevDate: 2021-02-18
CmpDate: 2021-02-18

Kubacki J, Flacio E, Qi W, et al (2020)

Viral Metagenomic Analysis of Aedes albopictus Mosquitos from Southern Switzerland.

Viruses, 12(9):.

A metagenomic study was performed on 498 female and 40 male Aedes albopictus mosquitos collected in August and September 2019 in Ticino, a region in southern Switzerland, to address the question regarding the risk of the local transmission of zoonotic viruses. A total of 13 viruses from seven different virus families and several unclassified viral taxa were identified. Reads of insect-specific flaviviruses were present in all pools, and a complete genome of aedes flavivirus was assembled and phylogenetically analysed. The most abundant virus was Wenzhou sobemo-like virus, assembled from 1.3 × 105 to 3.6 × 106 reads in each pool. In a pool of male mosquitos, a complete genome of aedes Iflavi-like virus was detected and phylogenetically analysed. Most importantly, genomes of human pathogenic viruses were not found. This is the first study to determine the virome of Ae. albopictus from Switzerland and forms a baseline for future longitudinal investigations concerning the potential role of Ae. albopictus as a vector of clinically relevant viruses.

RevDate: 2021-02-18
CmpDate: 2021-02-18

Piñar G, Tafer H, Schreiner M, et al (2020)

Decoding the biological information contained in two ancient Slavonic parchment codices: an added historical value.

Environmental microbiology, 22(8):3218-3233.

This study provides an example in the emerging field of biocodicology showing how metagenomics can help answer relevant questions that may contribute to a better understanding of the history of ancient manuscripts. To this end, two Slavonic codices dating from the 11th century were investigated through shotgun metagenomics. Endogenous DNA enabled to infer the animal origin of the skins used in the manufacture of the two codices, while nucleic sequences recovered from viruses were investigated for the first time in this material, opening up new possibilities in the field of biocodicology. In addition, the microbiomes colonizing the surface of the parchments served to determine their conservation status and their latent risk of deterioration. The saline environment provided by the parchments selected halophilic and halotolerant microorganisms, which are known to be responsible for the biodegradation of parchment. Species of Nocardiopsis, Gracilibacillus and Saccharopolyspora, but also members of the Aspergillaceae family were detected in this study, all possessing enzymatic capabilities for the biodeterioration of this material. Finally, a relative abundance of microorganisms originating from the human skin microbiome were identified, most probably related to the intensive manipulation of the manuscripts throughout the centuries, which should be taken with caution as they can be potential pathogens.

RevDate: 2021-02-18
CmpDate: 2021-02-18

Ottati S, Chiapello M, Galetto L, et al (2020)

New Viral Sequences Identified in the Flavescence Dorée Phytoplasma Vector Scaphoideus titanus.

Viruses, 12(3):.

The leafhopper Scaphoideus titanus is the primary vector of Flavescence dorée phytoplasma (FDp) in European vineyards. Flavescence dorée is one of the most severely damaging diseases of Vitis vinifera and, consequently, a major threat to grape and wine production in several European countries. Control measures are compulsory, but they mainly involve large-scale insecticide treatments, with detrimental impacts on the environment. One possible solution is to exploit the largely unexplored genetic diversity of viruses infecting S. titanus as highly specific and environmentally benign tools for biological control. (2)Methods: A metatranscriptomic approach was adopted to identify viruses that may infect individuals caught in the wild in both its native (United States) and invasive (Europe) areas. Reverse transcription PCR was used to confirm their presence in RNA pools and explore their prevalence. (3)Results: We described nine new RNA viruses, including members of "Picorna-Calici", "Permutotetra", "Bunya-Arena", "Reo", "Partiti-Picobirna", "Luteo-Sobemo" and "Toti-Chryso" clades. A marked difference in the diversity and abundance of the viral species was observed between the US population and the European ones. (4)Conclusions: This work represents the first survey to assess the viral community of a phytoplasma insect vector. The possibility to exploit these naturally occurring viruses as specific and targeted biocontrol agents of S. titanus could be the answer to increasing demand for a more sustainable viticulture.

RevDate: 2021-02-18
CmpDate: 2021-02-18

Birnberg L, Temmam S, Aranda C, et al (2020)

Viromics on Honey-Baited FTA Cards as a New Tool for the Detection of Circulating Viruses in Mosquitoes.

Viruses, 12(3):.

Worldwide, emerging and re-emerging infectious diseases (EIDs) are a major burden on public and animal health. Arthropod vectors, with mosquitoes being the main contributors of global disease, transmit more than 70% of the recognized EIDs. To assess new alternatives for arthropod-borne viral diseases surveillance, and for the detection of new viruses, honey-baited Flinders Technology Associates (FTA) cards were used as sugar bait in mosquito traps during entomological surveys at the Llobregat River Delta (Catalonia, Spain). Next generation sequencing (NGS) metagenomics analysis was applied on honey-baited FTA cards, which had been exposed to field-captured mosquitoes to characterize their associated virome. Arthropod- and plant-infecting viruses governed the virome profile on FTA cards. Twelve near-complete viral genomes were successfully obtained, suggesting good quality preservation of viral RNAs. Mosquito pools linked to the FTA cards were screened for the detection of mosquito-associated viruses by specific RT-PCRs to confirm the presence of these viruses. The circulation of viruses related to Alphamesonivirus, Quaranjavirus and unclassified Bunyavirales was detected in mosquitoes, and phylogenetic analyses revealed their similarities to viruses previously reported in other continents. To the best our knowledge, our findings constitute the first distribution record of these viruses in European mosquitoes and the first hint of insect-specific viruses in mosquitoes' saliva in field conditions, demonstrating the feasibility of this approach to monitor the transmissible fraction of the mosquitoes' virome. In conclusion, this pilot viromics study on honey-baited FTA cards was shown to be a valid approach for the detection of viruses circulating in mosquitoes, thereby setting up an alternative tool for arbovirus surveillance and control programs.

RevDate: 2021-02-16
CmpDate: 2021-02-16

Forouzan S, Hoffman KL, TA Kosten (2021)

Methamphetamine exposure and its cessation alter gut microbiota and induce depressive-like behavioral effects on rats.

Psychopharmacology, 238(1):281-292.

RATIONALE: Methamphetamine is a highly abused psychostimulant drug and its use remains a major public health concern worldwide with limited effective treatment options. Accumulative evidence reveals the influence of gut microbiota on the brain, behavior, and health as a part of the gut-brain axis but its involvement in modulating this substance use disorder remains poorly understood.

OBJECTIVE: We sought to determine whether methamphetamine exposure and cessation or withdrawal alter the intestinal gut microbiota as well as characterize cessation-induced behavioral changes.

METHODS: Male, Sprague-Dawley rats were administered methamphetamine (2 mg/kg; s.c.) or vehicle (n = 8 per group) twice per day for 14 consecutive days. On various days before, during, and after administration, fecal samples were collected and tests of anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors were conducted.

RESULTS: Methamphetamine administration and cessation did not alter the relative abundance of bacteria but significantly changed the composition of gut bacteria through 16S rRNA sequencing. These changes were normalized after 7 days of methamphetamine cessation. Moreover, acute methamphetamine cessation induced depressive-like behavior, with an increase in immobility in the forced swim test but did not alter anxiety-like behaviors in tests of open field test or elevated plus maze.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide direct evidence that methamphetamine and its cessation cause gut dysbiosis and that the latter associates with depressive-like behavior in rodents. Our observation will contribute to a better understanding of the function of gut microbiota in the process of substance use disorders and guide the choice of target therapeutics.

RevDate: 2021-02-16
CmpDate: 2021-02-16

Chu W, Han Q, Xu J, et al (2020)

Metagenomic analysis identified microbiome alterations and pathological association between intestinal microbiota and polycystic ovary syndrome.

Fertility and sterility, 113(6):1286-1298.e4.

OBJECTIVE: To identify different microbial species in women with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) and reveal a possible relationship between gut dysbiosis and pathological changes.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study.

SETTING: Academic institution.

PATIENT(S): Reproductive-aged women with PCOS (n = 14) and controls (n = 14) from the Centre for Reproductive Medicine.

INTERVENTION(S): Shotgun metagenomic sequencing on fecal samples from patients, and clinical parameters (including body mass index, endocrine hormone levels, and glycemia level) gathered for correlation analysis.

MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE(S): Identification of different gut microbial strains and relativity between microbiota and clinical parameters.

RESULT(S): We found several microbial strains were statistically significantly more abundant in the PCOS group, including Parabacteroides merdae, Bacteroides fragilis, and strains of Escherichia and Shigella, whereas Faecalibacterium prausnitzii was enriched in the control group. Metagenomic species (MGS) analysis revealed that the microbes of the PCOS group were negatively correlated with those of the control group. Of note, we observed a positive correlation between MGS relevant to PCOS and endocrine disorders, including body mass index and elevated levels of serum testosterone, luteinizing hormone, and antimüllerian hormone. Functional alterations, reflected by Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes orthologues, could imply potential mechanisms of microbial involvement in the developmental progress of PCOS.

CONCLUSION(S): Our findings suggest an intimate association and potential mechanisms linking microbial dysbiosis and the pathophysiologic changes of PCOS. We address the importance of monitoring and modulating microbial composition and functional shifts in future clinical practice.

RevDate: 2021-02-16
CmpDate: 2021-02-16

Meslier V, Laiola M, Roager HM, et al (2020)

Mediterranean diet intervention in overweight and obese subjects lowers plasma cholesterol and causes changes in the gut microbiome and metabolome independently of energy intake.

Gut, 69(7):1258-1268.

OBJECTIVES: This study aimed to explore the effects of an isocaloric Mediterranean diet (MD) intervention on metabolic health, gut microbiome and systemic metabolome in subjects with lifestyle risk factors for metabolic disease.

DESIGN: Eighty-two healthy overweight and obese subjects with a habitually low intake of fruit and vegetables and a sedentary lifestyle participated in a parallel 8-week randomised controlled trial. Forty-three participants consumed an MD tailored to their habitual energy intakes (MedD), and 39 maintained their regular diets (ConD). Dietary adherence, metabolic parameters, gut microbiome and systemic metabolome were monitored over the study period.

RESULTS: Increased MD adherence in the MedD group successfully reprogrammed subjects' intake of fibre and animal proteins. Compliance was confirmed by lowered levels of carnitine in plasma and urine. Significant reductions in plasma cholesterol (primary outcome) and faecal bile acids occurred in the MedD compared with the ConD group. Shotgun metagenomics showed gut microbiome changes that reflected individual MD adherence and increase in gene richness in participants who reduced systemic inflammation over the intervention. The MD intervention led to increased levels of the fibre-degrading Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and of genes for microbial carbohydrate degradation linked to butyrate metabolism. The dietary changes in the MedD group led to increased urinary urolithins, faecal bile acid degradation and insulin sensitivity that co-varied with specific microbial taxa.

CONCLUSION: Switching subjects to an MD while maintaining their energy intake reduced their blood cholesterol and caused multiple changes in their microbiome and metabolome that are relevant in future strategies for the improvement of metabolic health.

RevDate: 2020-08-20

Volery M, Scherz V, Jakob W, et al (2020)

Study protocol for the ABERRANT study: antibiotic-induced disruption of the maternal and infant microbiome and adverse health outcomes - a prospective cohort study among children born at term.

BMJ open, 10(6):e036275.

INTRODUCTION: There is compositional overlap between the maternal intestinal microbiome, the breast milk microbiome and the infant oral and intestinal microbiome. Antibiotics cause profound changes in the microbiome. However, the effect of intrapartum and early-life antibiotics on the maternal intestinal and breast milk microbiome, and the infant oral and intestinal microbiome, and whether effects are only short term or persist long term remain uncertain.

METHODS AND ANALYSES: In this prospective cohort study, we will use metagenomic sequencing to determine: (1) the effect of intrapartum antibiotics on the composition of the breast milk, and the infant oral and intestinal microbiome, including the development and persistence of antibiotic resistance; (2) the effect of antibiotic exposure in the first year of life on the composition of the infant oral and intestinal microbiome, including the development and persistence of antibiotic resistance; (3) the effect of disruption of the infant oral and intestinal microbiome on health outcomes and (4) the compositional overlap between the maternal intestinal microbiome, the breast milk microbiome and the infant oral and intestinal microbiome.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: The ABERRANT study has been approved by the commission cantonale d'éthique de la recherche sur l'être humain (CER-VD) du Canton de Vaud (#2019-01567). Outcomes will be disseminated through publication and will be presented at scientific conferences.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04091282.

RevDate: 2020-06-30

Tilocca B, Pieroni L, Soggiu A, et al (2020)

Gut-Brain Axis and Neurodegeneration: State-of-the-Art of Meta-Omics Sciences for Microbiota Characterization.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(11):.

Recent advances in the field of meta-omics sciences and related bioinformatics tools have allowed a comprehensive investigation of human-associated microbiota and its contribution to achieving and maintaining the homeostatic balance. Bioactive compounds from the microbial community harboring the human gut are involved in a finely tuned network of interconnections with the host, orchestrating a wide variety of physiological processes. These includes the bi-directional crosstalk between the central nervous system, the enteric nervous system, and the gastrointestinal tract (i.e., gut-brain axis). The increasing accumulation of evidence suggest a pivotal role of the composition and activity of the gut microbiota in neurodegeneration. In the present review we aim to provide an overview of the state-of-the-art of meta-omics sciences including metagenomics for the study of microbial genomes and taxa strains, metatranscriptomics for gene expression, metaproteomics and metabolomics to identify and/or quantify microbial proteins and metabolites, respectively. The potential and limitations of each discipline were highlighted, as well as the advantages of an integrated approach (multi-omics) to predict microbial functions and molecular mechanisms related to human diseases. Particular emphasis is given to the latest results obtained with these approaches in an attempt to elucidate the link between the gut microbiota and the most common neurodegenerative diseases, such as multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

RevDate: 2020-06-16

Reider SJ, Moosmang S, Tragust J, et al (2020)

Prebiotic Effects of Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum on the Composition and Function of the Human Microbiota-Results from the PAGODA Trial.

Nutrients, 12(5):.

(1) Background: Alterations in the structural composition of the human gut microbiota have been identified in various disease entities along with exciting mechanistic clues by reductionist gnotobiotic modeling. Improving health by beneficially modulating an altered microbiota is a promising treatment approach. Prebiotics, substrates selectively used by host microorganisms conferring a health benefit, are broadly used for dietary and clinical interventions. Herein, we sought to investigate the microbiota-modelling effects of the soluble fiber, partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG). (2) Methods: We performed a 9 week clinical trial in 20 healthy volunteers that included three weeks of a lead-in period, followed by three weeks of an intervention phase, wherein study subjects received 5 g PHGG up to three times per day, and concluding with a three-week washout period. A stool diary was kept on a daily basis, and clinical data along with serum/plasma and stool samples were collected on a weekly basis. PHGG-induced alterations of the gut microbiota were studied by 16S metagenomics of the V1-V3 and V3-V4 regions. To gain functional insight, we further studied stool metabolites using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. (3) Results: In healthy subjects, PHGG had significant effects on stool frequency and consistency. These effects were paralleled by changes in α- (species evenness) and β-diversity (Bray-Curtis distances), along with increasing abundances of metabolites including butyrate, acetate and various amino acids. On a taxonomic level, PHGG intake was associated with a bloom in Ruminococcus, Fusicatenibacter, Faecalibacterium and Bacteroides and a reduction in Roseburia, Lachnospiracea and Blautia. The majority of effects disappeared after stopping the prebiotic and most effects tended to be more pronounced in male participants. (4) Conclusions: Herein, we describe novel aspects of the prebiotic PHGG on compositional and functional properties of the healthy human microbiota.

RevDate: 2020-11-24

Madan A, Thompson D, Fowler JC, et al (2020)

The gut microbiota is associated with psychiatric symptom severity and treatment outcome among individuals with serious mental illness.

Journal of affective disorders, 264:98-106.

BACKGROUND: Emerging evidence implicates the gut microbiota in central nervous system functioning via its effects on inflammation, the hypothalamic-pituitary axis, and/or neurotransmission. Our understanding of the cellular underpinnings of the brain-gut relationship is based almost exclusively on animal models with some small-scale human studies. This study examined the relationship between the gut microbiota and psychiatric symptom severity and treatment response among inpatients with serious mental illness.

METHOD: We collected data from adult inpatients (N = 111). Measures of diagnoses, suicide severity, trauma, depression, and anxiety were collected shortly after admission, while self-collected fecal swabs were collected early in the course of hospitalization and processed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and whole genome shotgun sequencing methods.

RESULTS: Results indicate that depression and anxiety severity shortly after admission were negatively associated with bacterial richness and alpha diversity. Additional analyses revealed a number of bacterial taxa associated with depression and anxiety severity. Gut microbiota richness and alpha diversity early in the course of hospitalization was a significant predictor of depression remission at discharge.

CONCLUSIONS: This study is among the first to demonstrate a gut microbiota relationship with symptom severity among psychiatric inpatients as well as a relationship to remission of depression post-treatment. These findings are consistent with animal models and limited human studies as well as with the broader literature implicating inflammation in the pathophysiology of depression. These findings offer the foundation for further studies of novel therapeutic approaches to the treatment, prevention of, or recurrence of serious mental illness.

RevDate: 2021-02-12
CmpDate: 2021-02-12

Ku HJ, Kim YT, JH Lee (2020)

Microbiome Study of Initial Gut Microbiota from Newborn Infants to Children Reveals that Diet Determines Its Compositional Development.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology, 30(7):1067-1071.

To understand the formation of initial gut microbiota, three initial fecal samples were collected from two groups of two breast milk-fed (BM1) and seven formula milk-fed (FM1) infants, and the compositional changes in gut microbiota were determined using metagenomics. Compositional change analysis during week one showed that Bifidobacterium increased from the first to the third fecal samples in the BM1 group (1.3% to 35.1%), while Klebsiella and Serratia were detected in the third fecal sample of the FM1 group (4.4% and 34.2%, respectively), suggesting the beneficial effect of breast milk intake. To further understand the compositional changes during progression from infancy to childhood (i.e., from three weeks to five years of age), additional fecal samples were collected from four groups of two breast milk-fed infants (BM2), one formula milk-fed toddler (FM2), three weaning food-fed toddlers (WF), and three solid food-fed children (SF). Subsequent compositional change analysis and principal coordinates analysis (PCoA) revealed that the composition of the gut microbiota changed from an infant-like composition to an adult-like one in conjunction with dietary changes. Interestingly, overall gut microbiota composition analyses during the period of progression from infancy to childhood suggested increasing complexity of gut microbiota as well as emergence of a new species of bacteria capable of digesting complex carbohydrates in WF and SF groups, substantiating that diet type is a key factor in determining the composition of gut microbiota. Consequently, this study may be useful as a guide to understanding the development of initial gut microbiota based on diet.

RevDate: 2021-02-12
CmpDate: 2021-02-12

Mohammad HA, Madi NM, W Al-Nakib (2020)

Analysis of viral diversity in stool samples from infants and children with acute gastroenteritis in Kuwait using Metagenomics approach.

Virology journal, 17(1):10.

BACKGROUND: Current molecular target-dependent methods are used to detect only known viruses. However, metagenomics based on next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique is a target-independent assay that enables simultaneous detection and genomic characterisation of all microorganisms present in a sample. In this study, we aimed to develop a metagenomics approach using NGS to identify and characterise viruses in stool samples from infants and children with Acute Gastroenteritis (AGE) in Kuwait.

METHODS: We have investigated 84 stool samples from infants and children aged one month to ten years old with signs and symptoms of gastroenteritis who attended Mubarak Al-Kabeer and Al-Amiri hospitals in Kuwait from January to December 2017. A metagenomics approach using NGS to characterise viruses in clinical samples was used. Also, the commercial Real-Time PCR assay was used to detect viruses causing gastroenteritis.

RESULTS: Metagenomics analysis revealed an average of 280,768 reads in which 5% of the reads were derived from viruses. The analysis of viral sequences verified that single infection of human adenovirus was the leading cause of gastroenteritis among infants and children, which was detected in 23.2% of the patients, followed by a mixed infection of human adenovirus and other viruses, which was detected in 20.9% of patients. Also, the newly discovered viruses known to cause gastroenteritis were detected, such as astrovirus MLB2, primate bocaparvovirus-1, Aichivirus A, cardiovirus, parechovirus A, astrovirus VA4, cosavirus-F, and bufavirus-3. Our results showed 71% agreement (k = 0.445, P = 0.000) between multiplex Real-Time PCR, which is used as a routine diagnostic test and metagenomics approach in the detection of viruses causing gastroenteritis in clinical samples.

CONCLUSION: Despite the difficulties in sample preparation and analysis process, we showed that metagenomics approach is a powerful and promising tool for the detection and characterisation of different viruses in clinical samples.

RevDate: 2021-02-11
CmpDate: 2021-02-11

Skarżyńska M, Leekitcharoenphon P, Hendriksen RS, et al (2020)

A metagenomic glimpse into the gut of wild and domestic animals: Quantification of antimicrobial resistance and more.

PloS one, 15(12):e0242987.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) in bacteria is a complex subject, why one need to look at this phenomenon from a wider and holistic perspective. The extensive use of the same antimicrobial classes in human and veterinary medicine as well as horticulture is one of the main drivers for the AMR selection. Here, we applied shotgun metagenomics to investigate the AMR epidemiology in several animal species including farm animals, which are often exposed to antimicrobial treatment opposed to an unique set of wild animals that seems not to be subjected to antimicrobial pressure. The comparison of the domestic and wild animals allowed to investigate the possible anthropogenic impact on AMR spread. Inclusion of animals with different feeding behaviors (carnivores, omnivores) enabled to further assess which AMR genes that thrives within the food chain. We tested fecal samples not only of intensively produced chickens, turkeys, and pigs, but also of wild animals such as wild boars, red foxes, and rodents. A multi-directional approach mapping obtained sequences to several databases provided insight into the occurrence of the different AMR genes. The method applied enabled also analysis of other factors that may influence AMR of intestinal microbiome such as diet. Our findings confirmed higher levels of AMR in farm animals than in wildlife. The results also revealed the potential of wildlife in the AMR dissemination. Particularly in red foxes, we found evidence of several AMR genes conferring resistance to critically important antimicrobials like quinolones and cephalosporins. In contrast, the lowest abundance of AMR was observed in rodents originating from natural environment with presumed limited exposure to antimicrobials. Shotgun metagenomics enabled us to demonstrate that discrepancies between AMR profiles found in the intestinal microbiome of various animals probably resulted from the different antimicrobial exposure, habitats, and behavior of the tested animal species.

RevDate: 2021-02-11
CmpDate: 2021-02-11

Coutinho FH, von Meijenfeldt FAB, Walter JM, et al (2021)

Ecogenomics and metabolic potential of the South Atlantic Ocean microbiome.

The Science of the total environment, 765:142758.

The unique combination of depth, salinity, and water masses make the South Atlantic Ocean an ecosystem of special relevance within the global ocean. Yet, the microbiome of this ecosystem has received less attention than other regions of the global Ocean. This has hampered our understanding of the diversity and metabolic potential of the microorganisms that dwell in this habitat. To fill this knowledge gap, we analyzed a collection of 31 metagenomes from the Atlantic Ocean that spanned the epipelagic, mesopelagic and bathypelagic zones (surface to 4000 m). Read-centric and gene-centric analysis revealed the unique taxonomic and functional composition of metagenomes from each depth zone, which was driven by differences in physical and chemical parameters. In parallel, a total of 40 metagenome-assembled genomes were obtained, which recovered one third of the total community. Phylogenomic reconstruction revealed that many of these genomes are derived from poorly characterized taxa of Bacteria and Archaea. Genomes derived from heterotrophic bacteria of the aphotic zone displayed a large apparatus of genes suited for the utilization of recalcitrant organic compounds such as cellulose, chitin and alkanes. In addition, we found genomic evidence suggesting that mixotrophic bacteria from the bathypelagic zone could perform carbon fixation through the Calvin-Benson-Bassham cycle, fueled by sulfur oxidation. Finally, we found that the viral communities shifted throughout the water column regarding their targeted hosts and virus-to-microbe ratio, in response to shifts in the composition and functioning their microbial counterparts. Our findings shed light on the microbial and viral drivers of important biogeochemical processes that take place in the South Atlantic Ocean.

RevDate: 2021-02-11
CmpDate: 2021-02-11

Almeida A, Nayfach S, Boland M, et al (2021)

A unified catalog of 204,938 reference genomes from the human gut microbiome.

Nature biotechnology, 39(1):105-114.

Comprehensive, high-quality reference genomes are required for functional characterization and taxonomic assignment of the human gut microbiota. We present the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Genome (UHGG) collection, comprising 204,938 nonredundant genomes from 4,644 gut prokaryotes. These genomes encode >170 million protein sequences, which we collated in the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Protein (UHGP) catalog. The UHGP more than doubles the number of gut proteins in comparison to those present in the Integrated Gene Catalog. More than 70% of the UHGG species lack cultured representatives, and 40% of the UHGP lack functional annotations. Intraspecies genomic variation analyses revealed a large reservoir of accessory genes and single-nucleotide variants, many of which are specific to individual human populations. The UHGG and UHGP collections will enable studies linking genotypes to phenotypes in the human gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-02-11
CmpDate: 2021-02-11

Kibegwa FM, Bett RC, Gachuiri CK, et al (2020)

A Comparison of Two DNA Metagenomic Bioinformatic Pipelines While Evaluating the Microbial Diversity in Feces of Tanzanian Small Holder Dairy Cattle.

BioMed research international, 2020:2348560.

Analysis of shotgun metagenomic data generated from next generation sequencing platforms can be done through a variety of bioinformatic pipelines. These pipelines employ different sets of sophisticated bioinformatics algorithms which may affect the results of this analysis. In this study, we compared two commonly used pipelines for shotgun metagenomic analysis: MG-RAST and Kraken 2, in terms of taxonomic classification, diversity analysis, and usability using their primarily default parameters. Overall, the two pipelines detected similar abundance distributions in the three most abundant taxa Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Bacteroidetes. Within bacterial domain, 497 genera were identified by both pipelines, while an additional 694 and 98 genera were solely identified by Kraken 2 and MG-RAST, respectively. 933 species were detected by the two algorithms. Kraken 2 solely detected 3550 species, while MG-RAST identified 557 species uniquely. For archaea, Kraken 2 generated 105 and 236 genera and species, respectively, while MG-RAST detected 60 genera and 88 species. 54 genera and 72 species were commonly detected by the two methods. Kraken 2 had a quicker analysis time (~4 hours) while MG-RAST took approximately 2 days per sample. This study revealed that Kraken 2 and MG-RAST generate comparable results and that a reliable high-level overview of sample is generated irrespective of the pipeline selected. However, Kraken 2 generated a more accurate taxonomic identification given the higher number of "Unclassified" reads in MG-RAST. The observed variations at the genus level show that a main restriction is using different databases for classification of the metagenomic data. The results of this research indicate that a more inclusive and representative classification of microbiomes may be achieved through creation of the combined pipelines.

RevDate: 2021-02-10

Tran PQ, Bachand SC, McIntyre PB, et al (2021)

Depth-discrete metagenomics reveals the roles of microbes in biogeochemical cycling in the tropical freshwater Lake Tanganyika.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Lake Tanganyika (LT) is the largest tropical freshwater lake, and the largest body of anoxic freshwater on Earth's surface. LT's mixed oxygenated surface waters float atop a permanently anoxic layer and host rich animal biodiversity. However, little is known about microorganisms inhabiting LT's 1470 meter deep water column and their contributions to nutrient cycling, which affect ecosystem-level function and productivity. Here, we applied genome-resolved metagenomics and environmental analyses to link specific taxa to key biogeochemical processes across a vertical depth gradient in LT. We reconstructed 523 unique metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) from 34 bacterial and archaeal phyla, including many rarely observed in freshwater lakes. We identified sharp contrasts in community composition and metabolic potential with an abundance of typical freshwater taxa in oxygenated mixed upper layers, and Archaea and uncultured Candidate Phyla in deep anoxic waters. Genomic capacity for nitrogen and sulfur cycling was abundant in MAGs recovered from anoxic waters, highlighting microbial contributions to the productive surface layers via recycling of upwelled nutrients, and greenhouse gases such as nitrous oxide. Overall, our study provides a blueprint for incorporation of aquatic microbial genomics in the representation of tropical freshwater lakes, especially in the context of ongoing climate change, which is predicted to bring increased stratification and anoxia to freshwater lakes.

RevDate: 2021-02-10
CmpDate: 2021-02-10

Neugent ML, Hulyalkar NV, Nguyen VH, et al (2020)

Advances in Understanding the Human Urinary Microbiome and Its Potential Role in Urinary Tract Infection.

mBio, 11(2):.

Recent advances in the analysis of microbial communities colonizing the human body have identified a resident microbial community in the human urinary tract (UT). Compared to many other microbial niches, the human UT harbors a relatively low biomass. Studies have identified many genera and species that may constitute a core urinary microbiome. However, the contribution of the UT microbiome to urinary tract infection (UTI) and recurrent UTI (rUTI) pathobiology is not yet clearly understood. Evidence suggests that commensal species within the UT and urogenital tract (UGT) microbiomes, such as Lactobacillus crispatus, may act to protect against colonization with uropathogens. However, the mechanisms and fundamental biology of the urinary microbiome-host relationship are not understood. The ability to measure and characterize the urinary microbiome has been enabled through the development of next-generation sequencing and bioinformatic platforms that allow for the unbiased detection of resident microbial DNA. Translating technological advances into clinical insight will require further study of the microbial and genomic ecology of the urinary microbiome in both health and disease. Future diagnostic, prognostic, and therapeutic options for the management of UTI may soon incorporate efforts to measure, restore, and/or preserve the native, healthy ecology of the urinary microbiomes.

RevDate: 2021-02-10
CmpDate: 2021-02-10

Maleki M, Shahraki MF, Kavousi K, et al (2020)

A novel thermostable cellulase cocktail enhances lignocellulosic bioconversion and biorefining in a broad range of pH.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 154:349-360.

Lignocellulose is the most abundant biomass in nature, and the effective biorefining of them is dependent upon enzymes with high catalytic activity and stability in extreme pH and high temperatures. Due to the molecular constraints for a single enzyme, obtaining a more excellent active pH range can be more easily achievable through the simultaneous activity of two or more enzymes in a cocktail. To address this, we attempted to develop a cocktail of novel thermostable cellulases with high hydrolytic ability and stability. Two cellulases were mined, identified, cloned, and expressed from the camel rumen microbiota. The PersiCel1 demonstrated its maximum relative activity at the pH of 8, and the temperature of 60 °C and the PersiCel2 was optimally active at the pH of 5 and the temperature of 50 °C. Furthermore, utilization of the enzyme cocktail implies the synergistic relationship and significantly increased the saccharification yield of lignocellulosic substrates up to 71.7% for sugar-beet pulp (active pH range of 4-9) and 138.7% for rice-straw (active pH range of 5-8), compared to maximum hydrolysis of Persicel1 or PersiCel2 separately at 55 °C. Our results indicate the probable applicability of PersiCel1, PersiCel2, and their cocktail in numerous industries, specifically biorefineries and lignocellulose bioconversion based technologies.

RevDate: 2021-02-09
CmpDate: 2021-02-09

Lu H, Wang J, Huang L, et al (2021)

Effect of immobilized anthraquinone-2-sulfonate on antibiotic resistance genes and microbial community in biofilms of anaerobic reactors.

Journal of environmental management, 282:111967.

Quinone compounds could significantly accelerate anaerobic biotransformation of refractory pollutants. However, the effect of quinone compounds application on the propagation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the bio-treatment of these pollutants-containing wastewater is not available. In this study, the catalytic performance of anthraquinone-2-sulfonate immobilized on polyurethane foam (AQS-PUF), changes of ARGs, mobile gene elements (MGEs) and microbial community structure attached on AQS-PUF and PUF in the up-flow anaerobic bioreactors were investigated. The results showed that AQS-PUF could significantly accelerate the decolorization of azo dye RR X-3B. Meanwhile, metagenomics analysis showed that the total absolute abundance of ARGs increased in the presence of the immobilized AQS. Among ARGs, the number of the efflux pump-encoding ARGs in the biofilm of AQS-PUF accounted for 35.7% of the total ARGs, which was slightly higher than that of PUF (32.1%) due to the presence of the immobilized AQS. The relative abundances of ARGs conferring resistance to MLS (macrolide, lincosamide and streptogramin), tetracycline and sulfonamide, which were deeply concerned, reduced 10%, 21.7% and 7.3% in the presence of the immobilized AQS, respectively. Moreover, the immobilized AQS resulted in the decreased relative abundance of plasmids, transposons and class I integrons. Among the detected 31 ARG subtypes located in MGEs, the relative abundances of only lnuF, msrE and mphD in the biofilm of AQS-PUF were over 2-fold higher compared with those in the biofilm of PUF. However, the three ARGs and their host Gammaproteobacteria was not dominant in microbial community. The relative abundances of more ARGs including MLS (lnuB and EreA), tetracycline (tetH) resistance genes located in MGEs decreased, which was attributed to the decreased relative abundance of their hosts. These studies showed that the addition of the immobilized AQS (around 0.25 mM) had a beneficial effect on reducing the spread of ARGs during dyeing wastewater bio-treatment.

RevDate: 2021-02-09
CmpDate: 2021-02-09

Liu Q, Wang H, Ling Y, et al (2020)

Viral metagenomics revealed diverse CRESS-DNA virus genomes in faeces of forest musk deer.

Virology journal, 17(1):61.

BACKGROUND: Musk deer can produce musk which has high medicinal value and is closely related to human health. Viruses in forest musk deer both threaten the health of forest musk deer and human beings.

METHODS: Using viral metagenomics we investigated the virome in 85 faeces samples collected from forest musk deer.

RESULTS: In this article, eight novel CRESS-DNA viruses were characterized, whole genomes were 2148 nt-3852 nt in length. Phylogenetic analysis indicated that some viral genomes were part of four different groups of CRESS-DNA virus belonging in the unclassified CRESS-DNA virus, Smacoviridae, pCPa-like virus and pPAPh2-like virus. UJSL001 (MN621482), UJSL003 (MN621469) and UJSL017 (MN621476) fall into the branch of unclassified CRESS-DNA virus (CRESSV1-2), UJSL002 (MN621468), UJSL004 (MN621481) and UJSL007 (MN621470) belong to the cluster of Smacoviridae, UJSL005 (MN604398) showing close relationship with pCPa-like (pCRESS4-8) clusters and UJSL006 (MN621480) clustered into the branch of pPAPh2-like (pCRESS9) virus, respectively.

CONCLUSION: The virome in faeces samples of forest musk deer from Chengdu, Sichuan province, China was revealed, which further characterized the diversity of viruses in forest musk deer intestinal tract.

RevDate: 2021-02-09
CmpDate: 2021-02-09

Alneberg J, Bennke C, Beier S, et al (2020)

Ecosystem-wide metagenomic binning enables prediction of ecological niches from genomes.

Communications biology, 3(1):119.

The genome encodes the metabolic and functional capabilities of an organism and should be a major determinant of its ecological niche. Yet, it is unknown if the niche can be predicted directly from the genome. Here, we conduct metagenomic binning on 123 water samples spanning major environmental gradients of the Baltic Sea. The resulting 1961 metagenome-assembled genomes represent 352 species-level clusters that correspond to 1/3 of the metagenome sequences of the prokaryotic size-fraction. By using machine-learning, the placement of a genome cluster along various niche gradients (salinity level, depth, size-fraction) could be predicted based solely on its functional genes. The same approach predicted the genomes' placement in a virtual niche-space that captures the highest variation in distribution patterns. The predictions generally outperformed those inferred from phylogenetic information. Our study demonstrates a strong link between genome and ecological niche and provides a conceptual framework for predictive ecology based on genomic data.

RevDate: 2021-02-08
CmpDate: 2021-02-08

Albaugh VL (2020)

Comment on: Fecal metagenomics and metabolomics reveal gut microbial changes after bariatric surgery.

Surgery for obesity and related diseases : official journal of the American Society for Bariatric Surgery, 16(11):1782-1783.

RevDate: 2021-02-08
CmpDate: 2021-02-08

Punyapwar S, S Mutnuri (2020)

Diversity and functional annotation of microorganisms in French vertical flow constructed wetland treating greywater.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 36(10):148 pii:10.1007/s11274-020-02923-1.

Constructed wetlands form a unique ecosystem having plants, soil, microbes in which microorganisms play a vital role in the transformation and degradation of pollutants from wastewater. In the present study, French type two-stage vertical flow constructed wetland (VFCW) was used for the treatment of single household greywater (GW). Pilot-scale VFCW having sand and gravel as the filter substrate was constructed with Canna indica plantation for treating GW. To understand the pollutant removal mechanism in VFCW, microbial diversity and functional annotation was carried out by metagenomics analysis of sequences obtained from illumina platform. Efficiency of VFCW was measured with respect to water quality parameters like COD, BOD5, Total Nitrogen, Nitrate, Nitrite, Ammoniacal-N, ortho-phosphate and TOC from inlet and outlet of system. The removal efficiency was 90%, 93%, 34%, 26%, 89%, 68%, 80%, and 80% for COD, BOD5, Total Nitrogen, Nitrate, Nitrite, Ammoniacal-N, ortho-phosphate and TOC respectively. Microbial diversity was much more diversified and unique in VFCW compared to GW. Metagenomes exhibited Proteobacteria and Bacteroidetes as major phyla in GW whereas Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Nitrospirae abundance in VFCW layers. Total of 809 and 695 genus were found in VFCW and GW respectively with minimum abundance of 10 hits. From functional annotation of sequences, VFCW microbes have the potential to transform various aromatic and xenobiotic compounds along with the removal of pollutants present in the form of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Phosphorus. These data reveal French type VFCW can efficiently treat GW and with its own unique, variable habitat VFCW harbours diverse community of microorganisms that transform and degrade the pollutants in GW.

RevDate: 2021-02-08
CmpDate: 2021-02-08

Rodriguez-R LM, Tsementzi D, Luo C, et al (2020)

Iterative subtractive binning of freshwater chronoseries metagenomes identifies over 400 novel species and their ecologic preferences.

Environmental microbiology, 22(8):3394-3412.

Recent advances in sequencing technology and bioinformatic pipelines have allowed unprecedented access to the genomes of yet-uncultivated microorganisms from diverse environments. However, the catalogue of freshwater genomes remains limited, and most genome recovery attempts in freshwater ecosystems have only targeted specific taxa. Here, we present a genome recovery pipeline incorporating iterative subtractive binning, and apply it to a time series of 100 metagenomic datasets from seven connected lakes and estuaries along the Chattahoochee River (Southeastern USA). Our set of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) represents >400 yet-unnamed genomospecies, substantially increasing the number of high-quality MAGs from freshwater lakes. We propose names for two novel species: 'Candidatus Elulimicrobium humile' ('Ca. Elulimicrobiota', 'Patescibacteria') and 'Candidatus Aquidulcis frankliniae' ('Chloroflexi'). Collectively, our MAGs represented about half of the total microbial community at any sampling point. To evaluate the prevalence of these genomospecies in the chronoseries, we introduce methodologies to estimate relative abundance and habitat preference that control for uneven genome quality and sample representation. We demonstrate high degrees of habitat-specialization and endemicity for most genomospecies in the Chattahoochee lakes. Wider ecological ranges characterized smaller genomes with higher coding densities, indicating an overall advantage of smaller, more compact genomes for cosmopolitan distributions.

RevDate: 2021-02-08
CmpDate: 2021-02-08

Goller CC, LE Ott (2020)

Evolution of an 8-week upper-division metagenomics course: Diagramming a learning path from observational to quantitative microbiome analysis.

Biochemistry and molecular biology education : a bimonthly publication of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 48(4):391-403.

Metagenomics is a tool that enables researchers to study genetic material recovered directly from microbial communities or microbiomes. Fueled by advances in sequencing technologies, bioinformatics tools, and sample processing, metagenomics studies promise to expand our understanding of human health and the use of microorganisms for agriculture and industry. Therefore, teaching students about metagenomics is crucial to prepare them for modern careers in the life sciences. However, the increasing number of different approaches makes teaching metagenomics to students a challenge. This 8-week metagenomics laboratory course has the objective of introducing upper-level undergraduate and graduate students to strategies for designing, executing, and analyzing microbiome investigations. The laboratory component begins with sample processing, library preparation, and submission for high-throughput sequencing before transitioning to computer-based activities, which include an introduction to several fundamental computational metagenomics tools. Students analyze their sequencing results and deposit findings in sequence databases. The laboratory component is complemented by a weekly lecture, where active learning sessions promote retrieval practice and allow students to reflect on and diagram processes performed in the laboratory. Attainment of student learning outcomes was assessed through the completion of various course assignments: laboratory reports, presentations, and a cumulative final exam. Further, students' perceptions of their gains relevant to the learning outcomes were evaluated using pre- and postcourse surveys. Collectively, these data demonstrate that this course results in the attainment of the learning outcomes and that this approach provides an adaptable way to expose students to the cutting-edge field of metagenomics.

RevDate: 2021-02-08
CmpDate: 2021-02-08

Bartolomaeus H, Avery EG, Bartolomaeus TUP, et al (2020)

Blood pressure changes correlate with short-chain fatty acid production potential shifts under a synbiotic intervention.

Cardiovascular research, 116(7):1252-1253.

RevDate: 2021-02-05

Conti A, Corte L, Casagrande Pierantoni D, et al (2021)

What Is the Best Lens? Comparing the Resolution Power of Genome-Derived Markers and Standard Barcodes.

Microorganisms, 9(2): pii:microorganisms9020299.

Fungal species delimitation was traditionally carried out with multicopy ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, principally for their ease of amplification. Since the efficacy of these markers has been questioned, single-copy protein-encoding genes have been proposed alone or in combination for Multi-Locus Sequence Typing (MLST). In this context, the role of the many sequences obtained with Next-Generation Sequencing (NGS) techniques, in both genomics and metagenomics, further pushes toward an analysis of the efficacy of NGS-derived markers and of the metrics to evaluate the marker efficacy in discriminating fungal species. This paper aims at proposing MeTRe (Mean Taxonomic Resolution), a novel index that could be used both for measuring marker efficacy and for assessing the actual resolution (i.e., the level of separation) between species obtained with different markers or their combinations. In this paper, we described and then employed this index to compare the efficacy of two rRNAs and four single-copy markers obtained from public databases as both an amplicon-based approach and genome-derived sequences. Two different groups of species were used, one with a pathogenic species of Candida that was characterized by relatively well-separated taxa, whereas the other, comprising some relevant species of the sensu stricto group of the genus Saccharomyces, included close species and interspecific hybrids. The results showed the ability of MeTRe to evaluate marker efficacy in general and genome-derived markers specifically.

RevDate: 2021-02-05
CmpDate: 2021-02-05

Li Z, Tian J, Lai Y, et al (2020)

Puffer Fish Gut Microbiota Studies Revealed Unique Bacterial Co-Occurrence Patterns and New Insights on Tetrodotoxin Producers.

Marine drugs, 18(5):.

Tetrodotoxin (TTX) is a potent neurotoxin isolated mainly from toxic puffer fish. To date, the TTX biosynthetic mechanism inside its hosts remains unresolved. Here, we hypothesize the TTX synthesis relies on the host gut microbiota, including the neglected non-culturable bacteria. In these studies, we collected the gut contents from 5 puffer fish species of the genus Takifugu including one suspected hybrid species for gut microbiota study by 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomics approach. Their gut samples were divided into toxic and non-toxic groups based on the TTX concentrations in the livers detected by LC-MS/MS. Bacterial diversity studies showed that gut microbiota structures were significantly different between toxic and non-toxic species. Vibrio and Cyanobacteria centered at the gut bacterial co-occurrence network, suggesting their importance in TTX biosynthesis. The results of PICRUSt2 metagenomic prediction and gene set enrichment analysis provided new support of arginine-precursor required in TTX biosynthesis. This is the first study to profile the gut microbiota in toxic and non-toxic puffer fish species by 16S rRNA amplicon metagenomic approach, defining significant microbial co-occurrence patterns in their gut environment. Our data supported the proposed biosynthesis of TTX inside the hosts by their gut bacterial symbionts using arginine as a precursor.

RevDate: 2021-02-04

Zhu XY, Liu J, Xue CX, et al (2020)

Shift and Metabolic Potentials of Microbial Eukaryotic Communities Across the Full Depths of the Mariana Trench.

Frontiers in microbiology, 11:603692.

Microbial eukaryotes are widespread and play important roles in marine ecosystems. However, their ecological characteristics in the deep sea (>1,000 m), especially hadal trenches, were largely unknown. Here, we investigated the diversity and metabolic potentials of microbial eukaryotes along the whole water column of the Mariana Trench by metagenomics. Our results showed clear depth-related distribution of microbial eukaryotic community and associated metabolic potentials. Surface seawater was dominated by phototrophic/mixotrophic groups (e.g., Dinoflagellata) and genes involved in biosynthesis (photosynthesis and fatty acid biosynthesis), while deep (bathypelagic and/or hadal) seawaters were enriched with heterotrophic groups (e.g., Bicoecea) and genes related to digestion (lysosomal enzymes and V-type ATPase) and carbohydrate metabolism. Co-occurrence analysis revealed high intra-domain connectivity, indicating that microbial eukaryotic composition was more influenced by microbial eukaryotes themselves than bacteria. Increased abundance of genes associated with unsaturated fatty acid biosynthesis likely plays a role in resisting high hydrostatic pressure. Top1 and hupB genes, responsible for the formation and stabilization of DNA structure, were unique and abundant in the hadal zone and thus may be helpful to stabilize DNA structure in the deep sea. Overall, our results provide insights into the distribution and potential adaptability of microbial eukaryotes in the hadal zone.

RevDate: 2021-02-04
CmpDate: 2021-02-04

Van Rossum T, Ferretti P, Maistrenko OM, et al (2020)

Diversity within species: interpreting strains in microbiomes.

Nature reviews. Microbiology, 18(9):491-506.

Studying within-species variation has traditionally been limited to culturable bacterial isolates and low-resolution microbial community fingerprinting. Metagenomic sequencing and technical advances have enabled culture-free, high-resolution strain and subspecies analyses at high throughput and in complex environments. This holds great scientific promise but has also led to an overwhelming number of methods and terms to describe infraspecific variation. This Review aims to clarify these advances by focusing on the diversity within bacterial and archaeal species in the context of microbiomics. We cover foundational microevolutionary concepts relevant to population genetics and summarize how within-species variation can be studied and stratified directly within microbial communities with a focus on metagenomics. Finally, we describe how common applications of within-species variation can be achieved using metagenomic data. We aim to guide the selection of appropriate terms and analytical approaches to facilitate researchers in benefiting from the increasing availability of large, high-resolution microbiome genetic sequencing data.

RevDate: 2021-02-04
CmpDate: 2021-02-04

Xue MY, Sun HZ, Wu XH, et al (2020)

Multi-omics reveals that the rumen microbiome and its metabolome together with the host metabolome contribute to individualized dairy cow performance.

Microbiome, 8(1):64.

BACKGROUND: Recently, we reported that some dairy cows could produce high amounts of milk with high amounts of protein (defined as milk protein yield [MPY]) when a population was raised under the same nutritional and management condition, a potential new trait that can be used to increase high-quality milk production. It is unknown to what extent the rumen microbiome and its metabolites, as well as the host metabolism, contribute to MPY. Here, analysis of rumen metagenomics and metabolomics, together with serum metabolomics was performed to identify potential regulatory mechanisms of MPY at both the rumen microbiome and host levels.

RESULTS: Metagenomics analysis revealed that several Prevotella species were significantly more abundant in the rumen of high-MPY cows, contributing to improved functions related to branched-chain amino acid biosynthesis. In addition, the rumen microbiome of high-MPY cows had lower relative abundances of organisms with methanogen and methanogenesis functions, suggesting that these cows may produce less methane. Metabolomics analysis revealed that the relative concentrations of rumen microbial metabolites (mainly amino acids, carboxylic acids, and fatty acids) and the absolute concentrations of volatile fatty acids were higher in the high-MPY cows. By associating the rumen microbiome with the rumen metabolome, we found that specific microbial taxa (mainly Prevotella species) were positively correlated with ruminal microbial metabolites, including the amino acids and carbohydrates involved in glutathione, phenylalanine, starch, sucrose, and galactose metabolism. To detect the interactions between the rumen microbiome and host metabolism, we associated the rumen microbiome with the host serum metabolome and found that Prevotella species may affect the host's metabolism of amino acids (including glycine, serine, threonine, alanine, aspartate, glutamate, cysteine, and methionine). Further analysis using the linear mixed effect model estimated contributions to the variation in MPY based on different omics and revealed that the rumen microbial composition, functions, and metabolites, and the serum metabolites contributed 17.81, 21.56, 29.76, and 26.78%, respectively, to the host MPY.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings provide a fundamental understanding of how the microbiome-dependent and host-dependent mechanisms contribute to varied individualized performance in the milk production quality of dairy cows under the same management condition. This fundamental information is vital for the development of potential manipulation strategies to improve milk quality and production through precision feeding. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2021-02-04
CmpDate: 2021-02-04

Rifkin RF, Vikram S, Ramond JB, et al (2020)

Multi-proxy analyses of a mid-15th century Middle Iron Age Bantu-speaker palaeo-faecal specimen elucidates the configuration of the 'ancestral' sub-Saharan African intestinal microbiome.

Microbiome, 8(1):62.

BACKGROUND: The archaeological incidence of ancient human faecal material provides a rare opportunity to explore the taxonomic composition and metabolic capacity of the ancestral human intestinal microbiome (IM). Here, we report the results of the shotgun metagenomic analyses of an ancient South African palaeo-faecal specimen.

METHODS: Following the recovery of a single desiccated palaeo-faecal specimen from Bushman Rock Shelter in Limpopo Province, South Africa, we applied a multi-proxy analytical protocol to the sample. The extraction of ancient DNA from the specimen and its subsequent shotgun metagenomic sequencing facilitated the taxonomic and metabolic characterisation of this ancient human IM.

RESULTS: Our results indicate that the distal IM of the Neolithic 'Middle Iron Age' (c. AD 1460) Bantu-speaking individual exhibits features indicative of a largely mixed forager-agro-pastoralist diet. Subsequent comparison with the IMs of the Tyrolean Iceman (Ötzi) and contemporary Hadza hunter-gatherers, Malawian agro-pastoralists and Italians reveals that this IM precedes recent adaptation to 'Western' diets, including the consumption of coffee, tea, chocolate, citrus and soy, and the use of antibiotics, analgesics and also exposure to various toxic environmental pollutants.

CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses reveal some of the causes and means by which current human IMs are likely to have responded to recent dietary changes, prescription medications and environmental pollutants, providing rare insight into human IM evolution following the advent of the Neolithic c. 12,000 years ago. Video Abtract.

RevDate: 2021-02-04
CmpDate: 2021-02-04

Guibert I, Lecellier G, Torda G, et al (2020)

Metabarcoding reveals distinct microbiotypes in the giant clam Tridacna maxima.

Microbiome, 8(1):57.

BACKGROUND: Giant clams and scleractinian (reef-building) corals are keystone species of coral reef ecosystems. The basis of their ecological success is a complex and fine-tuned symbiotic relationship with microbes. While the effect of environmental change on the composition of the coral microbiome has been heavily studied, we know very little about the composition and sensitivity of the microbiome associated with clams. Here, we explore the influence of increasing temperature on the microbial community (bacteria and dinoflagellates from the family Symbiodiniaceae) harbored by giant clams, maintained either in isolation or exposed to other reef species. We created artificial benthic assemblages using two coral species (Pocillopora damicornis and Acropora cytherea) and one giant clam species (Tridacna maxima) and studied the microbial community in the latter using metagenomics.

RESULTS: Our results led to three major conclusions. First, the health status of giant clams depended on the composition of the benthic species assemblages. Second, we discovered distinct microbiotypes in the studied T. maxima population, one of which was disproportionately dominated by Vibrionaceae and directly linked to clam mortality. Third, neither the increase in water temperature nor the composition of the benthic assemblage had a significant effect on the composition of the Symbiodiniaceae and bacterial communities of T. maxima.

CONCLUSIONS: Altogether, our results suggest that at least three microbiotypes naturally exist in the studied clam populations, regardless of water temperature. These microbiotypes plausibly provide similar functions to the clam host via alternate molecular pathways as well as microbiotype-specific functions. This redundancy in functions among microbiotypes together with their specificities provides hope that giant clam populations can tolerate some levels of environmental variation such as increased temperature. Importantly, the composition of the benthic assemblage could make clams susceptible to infections by Vibrionaceae, especially when water temperature increases. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2021-02-04
CmpDate: 2021-02-04

Lei S, Li X, Liu L, et al (2020)

Effect of lotus seed resistant starch on tolerance of mice fecal microbiota to bile salt.

International journal of biological macromolecules, 151:384-393.

We investigated the effect of lotus seed resistant starch (LRS) on mice fecal microbiota tolerance to bile salt by culturing organisms compared to inulin (INU) glucose (GLU) and waxy corn starch (WAX). Operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and diversity indices in LRS and INU groups were increased in the presence of 0.03% to 0.3% bile salt, while they were decreased in GLU, and OTUs were decreased in WAX. Specifically, LRS promoted proliferation of Lactobacillus, which potentially used bile acid, and inhibited growth of the potentially harmful bacteria Enterococcus and Staphylococcus. Moreover, Lactobacillus was negatively correlated with Salinicoccus and Granulicatella in GLU, LRS and INU groups at 1.5% bile salt. With LRS, amino acid metabolic pathways were increased while pathogens causing certain diseases were decreased. LRS increased the tolerance of mice fecal microbiota to bile salt by promoting the proliferation of bacteria utilizing bile acid and inhibiting the growth of harmful bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-02-03

Liem M, Regensburg-Tuïnk T, Henkel C, et al (2021)

Microbial diversity characterization of seawater in a pilot study using Oxford Nanopore Technologies long-read sequencing.

BMC research notes, 14(1):42.

OBJECTIVE: Currently the majority of non-culturable microbes in sea water are yet to be discovered, Nanopore offers a solution to overcome the challenging tasks to identify the genomes and complex composition of oceanic microbiomes. In this study we evaluate the utility of Oxford Nanopore Technologies (ONT) sequencing to characterize microbial diversity in seawater from multiple locations. We compared the microbial species diversity of retrieved environmental samples from two different locations and time points.

RESULTS: With only three ONT flow cells we were able to identify thousands of organisms, including bacteriophages, from which a large part at species level. It was possible to assemble genomes from environmental samples with Flye. In several cases this resulted in > 1 Mbp contigs and in the particular case of a Thioglobus singularis species it even produced a near complete genome. k-mer analysis reveals that a large part of the data represents species of which close relatives have not yet been deposited to the database. These results show that our approach is suitable for scalable genomic investigations such as monitoring oceanic biodiversity and provides a new platform for education in biodiversity.

RevDate: 2021-02-02
CmpDate: 2021-02-02

Xiao D, Yang G, Wang Z, et al (2020)

Efficacy of Bacillus methylotrophicus SY200 strain as feed additive against experimental Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice.

Microbial pathogenesis, 141:103978.

To investigate the effects of Bacillus methylotrophicus SY200 on Salmonella typhimurium (STM) infection in mice, a total of 36 three-week-old male mice were selected and randomly divided into 3 equal groups (N = 12). Group A and group B were fed with basal diet while group C was fed the basal diet supplemented with 0.1% (w/w) B. methylotrophicus SY200 during the 21 days experimental period. On the 14th day of the experiment, mice of group A were intragastrically administered with 0.5 ml of normal saline, group B and C were orally administered with 0.5 ml of STM suspension. On the first day and seventh day after STM challenge, the number of total white blood cells (WBCs) and neutrophils, relative weight of visceral organs, the number of Salmonella spp., Escherichia coli, Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. in ileum and cecum, and diversity of cecal microflora were measured. The results showed that: on the first day and seventh day after STM challenge, the number of WBCs and neutrophils in the blood of the mice was the highest in group B, then followed by group C, and group A. On the first day after STM challenge, the relative weight of spleen in group C was significantly higher than that in group B (p < 0.05), moreover, compared with group B, B. methylotrophicus SY200 significantly reduced the number of Salmonella spp. and E. coli (p < 0.05), and increased the number of Lactobacillus spp. and Bifidobacterium spp. (p < 0.05) in the intestines of mice, and improved the Shannon-Wiener diversity (H), Simpson (E) and richness (S) indices of cecal flora of mice (p < 0.05). The results indicated that B. methylotrophicus SY200 could alleviate the inflammatory reaction after STM infection and resist the adverse effects of STM infection on mice intestinal flora.

RevDate: 2021-02-02
CmpDate: 2021-02-02

Alma L, Kram KE, Holtgrieve GW, et al (2020)

Ocean acidification and warming effects on the physiology, skeletal properties, and microbiome of the purple-hinge rock scallop.

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology, 240:110579.

Ocean acidification and increased ocean temperature from elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide can significantly influence the physiology, growth and survival of marine organisms. Despite increasing research efforts, there are still many gaps in our knowledge of how these stressors interact to affect economically and ecologically important species. This project is the first to explore the physiological effects of high pCO2 and temperature on the acclimation potential of the purple-hinge rock scallop (Crassadoma gigantea), a widely distributed marine bivalve, important reef builder, and potential aquaculture product. Scallops were exposed to two pCO2 (365 and 1050 μatm) and temperature (14 and 21.5 °C) conditions in a two-factor experimental design. Simultaneous exposure to high temperature and high pCO2 reduced shell strength, decreased outer shell density and increased total lipid content. Despite identical diets, scallops exposed to high pCO2 had higher content of saturated fatty acids, and lower content of polyunsaturated fatty acids suggesting reorganization of fatty acid chains to sustain basic metabolic functions under high pCO2. Metagenomic sequencing of prokaryotes in scallop tissue revealed treatment differences in community composition between treatments and in the presence of genes associated with microbial cell regulation, signaling, and pigmentation. Results from this research highlight the complexity of physiological responses for calcifying species under global change related stress and provide the first insights for understanding the response of a bivalve's microbiome under multiple stressors.

RevDate: 2021-02-01
CmpDate: 2021-02-01

Urban L, Holzer A, Baronas JJ, et al (2021)

Freshwater monitoring by nanopore sequencing.

eLife, 10:.

While traditional microbiological freshwater tests focus on the detection of specific bacterial indicator species, including pathogens, direct tracing of all aquatic DNA through metagenomics poses a profound alternative. Yet, in situ metagenomic water surveys face substantial challenges in cost and logistics. Here, we present a simple, fast, cost-effective and remotely accessible freshwater diagnostics workflow centred around the portable nanopore sequencing technology. Using defined compositions and spatiotemporal microbiota from surface water of an example river in Cambridge (UK), we provide optimised experimental and bioinformatics guidelines, including a benchmark with twelve taxonomic classification tools for nanopore sequences. We find that nanopore metagenomics can depict the hydrological core microbiome and fine temporal gradients in line with complementary physicochemical measurements. In a public health context, these data feature relevant sewage signals and pathogen maps at species level resolution. We anticipate that this framework will gather momentum for new environmental monitoring initiatives using portable devices.

RevDate: 2021-02-01
CmpDate: 2021-02-01

Li Z, Wei J, Zhang Y, et al (2020)

Risk factors for Keshan disease: a prospective cohort study protocol of gut flora.

BMC cardiovascular disorders, 20(1):481.

BACKGROUND: Keshan disease is an endemic cardiomyopathy of undefined causes. Being involved in the unclear pathogenesis of Keshan disease, a clear diagnosis, and effective treatment cannot be initiated. However, the rapid development of gut flora in cardiovascular disease combined with omics and big data platforms may promote the discovery of new diagnostic markers and provide new therapeutic options. This study aims to identify biomarkers for the early diagnosis and further explore new therapeutic targets for Keshan disease.

METHODS: This cohort study consists of two parts. Though the first part includes 300 participants, however, recruiting will be continued for the eligible participants. After rigorous screening, the blood samples, stools, electrocardiograms, and ultrasonic cardiogram data would be collected from participants to elucidate the relationship between gut flora and host. The second part includes a prospective follow-up study for every 6 months within 2 years. Finally, deep mining of big data and rapid machine learning will be employed to analyze the baseline data, experimental data, and clinical data to seek out the new biomarkers to predict the pathogenesis of Keshan disease.

DISCUSSION: Our study will clarify the distribution of gut flora in patients with Keshan disease and the abundance and population changes of gut flora in different stages of the disease. Through the big data platform analyze the relationship between environmental factors, clinical factors, and gut flora, the main factors affecting the occurrence of Keshan disease were identified, and the changed molecular pathways of gut flora were predicted. Finally, the specific gut flora and molecular pathways affecting Keshan disease were identified by metagenomics combined with metabonomic analysis.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ChiCTR1900026639. Registered on 16 October 2019.

RevDate: 2021-02-01
CmpDate: 2021-02-01

Asad F, Anwar H, Yassine HM, et al (2020)

White Button Mushroom, Agaricus bisporus (Agaricomycetes), and a Probiotics Mixture Supplementation Correct Dyslipidemia without Influencing the Colon Microbiome Profile in Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

International journal of medicinal mushrooms, 22(3):235-244.

Consumption of foods rich in dietary fiber has attracted considerable attention for lowering blood cholesterol and triglycerides through attenuation of gut microbiome. Diets rich in fiber may provide substrates for microbes to digest and proliferate. In response, products of microbial digestion enter systemic circulation and support host energy homeostasis. In the present study, rats with hypercholesterolemia (HC) were supplemented with probiotics (PB) and Agaricus bisporus mushroom to examine the antidyslipidemia effects. Forty adult rats were divided into five treatment groups. The rats in the control group were fed only a chow maintenance diet (CON; n = 8), whereas an atherogenic diet (chow diet supplemented with 1.5% cholesterol and 0.5% cholic acid) was offered to the remaining rats to induce hypercholesterolemia (HC group; n = 32). Rats developed HC following a 24-day continuous supplementation with the atherogenic diet. From day 25 onward, the HC group was further divided into HC-CON, HC-PB (supplemented with PB at 1 mg/rat/day), HC-AB (supplemented with A. bisporus at 5% of diet), and HC-AB.PB (supplemented with both A. bisporus and PB). After 6 weeks of supplementation, rats were killed to collect blood to determine serum lipid profile, oxidative stress, and for metagenomics analysis of colon contents. Results showed that all supplementations corrected HC-induced oxidative stress. Furthermore, A. bisporus supplementation corrected HC-induced dyslipidemia (P ≤ .05). Blautia and Bifidobacterium were the most dominant bacterial genera in HC-AB and HC-PB groups, respectively. Phylum Firmicutes and class Clostridia predominantly occupied the gut microbiome in all groups. However, no significant differences were observed in microbiome diversity and clustering patterns among study groups. In conclusion, supplementation of A. bisporus mushroom and probiotics can lower oxidative stress and dyslipidemia with partial effects on the phylogenetic makeup in the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-02-01
CmpDate: 2021-02-01

Mancini N, Peri F, Rescigno M, et al (2020)

Microbiome studies in the medical sciences and the need for closer multidisciplinary interplay.

Science signaling, 13(617): pii:13/617/eaba9911.

Next-generation sequencing techniques have enabled identification of the microorganisms colonizing mucosal tissues. The International Congress "MicrobiotaMi 2020" (Milan, February 2020) will focus on the mechanisms of microbiota-related functions in health and disease and their clinical application.

RevDate: 2021-01-29
CmpDate: 2021-01-29

Moskowitz JE, Doran AG, Lei Z, et al (2020)

Integration of genomics, metagenomics, and metabolomics to identify interplay between susceptibility alleles and microbiota in adenoma initiation.

BMC cancer, 20(1):600.

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is a multifactorial disease resulting from both genetic predisposition and environmental factors including the gut microbiota (GM), but deciphering the influence of genetic variants, environmental variables, and interactions with the GM is exceedingly difficult. We previously observed significant differences in intestinal adenoma multiplicity between C57BL/6 J-ApcMin (B6-Min/J) from The Jackson Laboratory (JAX), and original founder strain C57BL/6JD-ApcMin (B6-Min/D) from the University of Wisconsin.

METHODS: To resolve genetic and environmental interactions and determine their contributions we utilized two genetically inbred, independently isolated ApcMin mouse colonies that have been separated for over 20 generations. Whole genome sequencing was used to identify genetic variants unique to the two substrains. To determine the influence of genetic variants and the impact of differences in the GM on phenotypic variability, we used complex microbiota targeted rederivation to generate two Apc mutant mouse colonies harboring complex GMs from two different sources (GMJAX originally from JAX or GMHSD originally from Envigo), creating four ApcMin groups. Untargeted metabolomics were used to characterize shifts in the fecal metabolite profile based on genetic variation and differences in the GM.

RESULTS: WGS revealed several thousand high quality variants unique to the two substrains. No homozygous variants were present in coding regions, with the vast majority of variants residing in noncoding regions. Host genetic divergence between Min/J and Min/D and the complex GM additively determined differential adenoma susceptibility. Untargeted metabolomics revealed that both genetic lineage and the GM collectively determined the fecal metabolite profile, and that each differentially regulates bile acid (BA) metabolism. Metabolomics pathway analysis facilitated identification of a functionally relevant private noncoding variant associated with the bile acid transporter Fatty acid binding protein 6 (Fabp6). Expression studies demonstrated differential expression of Fabp6 between Min/J and Min/D, and the variant correlates with adenoma multiplicity in backcrossed mice.

CONCLUSIONS: We found that both genetic variation and differences in microbiota influences the quantitiative adenoma phenotype in ApcMin mice. These findings demonstrate how the use of metabolomics datasets can aid as a functional genomic tool, and furthermore illustrate the power of a multi-omics approach to dissect complex disease susceptibility of noncoding variants.

RevDate: 2021-01-29
CmpDate: 2021-01-29

Weiß CL, Gansauge MT, Aximu-Petri A, et al (2020)

Mining ancient microbiomes using selective enrichment of damaged DNA molecules.

BMC genomics, 21(1):432.

BACKGROUND: The identification of bona fide microbial taxa in microbiomes derived from ancient and historical samples is complicated by the unavoidable mixture between DNA from ante- and post-mortem microbial colonizers. One possibility to distinguish between these sources of microbial DNA is querying for the presence of age-associated degradation patterns typical of ancient DNA (aDNA). The presence of uracils, resulting from cytosine deamination, has been detected ubiquitously in aDNA retrieved from diverse sources, and used as an authentication criterion. Here, we employ a library preparation method that separates molecules that carry uracils from those that do not for a set of samples that includes Neandertal remains, herbarium specimens and archaeological plant remains.

RESULTS: We show that sequencing DNA libraries enriched in molecules carrying uracils effectively amplifies age associated degradation patterns in microbial mixtures of ancient and historical origin. This facilitates the discovery of authentic ancient microbial taxa in cases where degradation patterns are difficult to detect due to large sequence divergence in microbial mixtures. Additionally, the relative enrichment of taxa in the uracil enriched fraction can help to identify bona fide ancient microbial taxa that could be missed using a more targeted approach.

CONCLUSIONS: Our experiments show, that in addition to its use in enriching authentic endogenous DNA of organisms of interest, the selective enrichment of damaged DNA molecules can be a valuable tool in the discovery of ancient microbial taxa.

RevDate: 2021-01-28
CmpDate: 2021-01-28

Behary J, Amorim N, Jiang XT, et al (2021)

Gut microbiota impact on the peripheral immune response in non-alcoholic fatty liver disease related hepatocellular carcinoma.

Nature communications, 12(1):187.

The gut microbiota is reported to modulate the immune response in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here, we employ metagenomic and metabolomic studies to characterise gut microbiota in patients with non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) related cirrhosis, with or without HCC, and evaluate its effect on the peripheral immune response in an ex vivo model. We find that dysbiosis characterises the microbiota of patients with NAFLD-cirrhosis, with compositional and functional shifts occurring with HCC development. Gene function of the microbiota in NAFLD-HCC supports short chain fatty acid production, and this is confirmed by metabolomic studies. Ex vivo studies show that bacterial extracts from the NAFLD-HCC microbiota, but not from the control groups, elicit a T cell immunosuppressive phenotype, characterised by expansion of regulatory T cells and attenuation of CD8 + T cells. Our study suggest that the gut microbiota in NAFLD-HCC is characterised by a distinctive microbiome/metabolomic profile, and can modulate the peripheral immune response.

RevDate: 2021-01-28
CmpDate: 2021-01-28

Chen H, Wang Z, Liu H, et al (2021)

Variable sediment methane production in response to different source-associated sewer sediment types and hydrological patterns: Role of the sediment microbiome.

Water research, 190:116670.

Production of methane (CH4), an essential anthropogenic greenhouse gas, from municipal sewer sediment is a problem deserving intensive attention. Based on long-term laboratory batch tests in conjunction with 16 s rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomics, this study provides the first detailed assessment of the variable sediment CH4 production in response to different pollution source-associated sewer sediment types and hydrological patterns, while addressing the role of the sediment microbiome. The high CH4-production capability of sanitary sewer sediment is shaped by enriched biologically active substrate and dominated by acetoclastic methanogenesis (genus Methanosaeta). Moreover, it involves syntrophic interactions among fermentation bacteria, hydrogen-producing acetogens and methanogens. Distinct source-associated microbial species, denitrifying bacteria and sulfate-reducing bacteria occur in storm sewer and illicit discharge-associated (IDA) storm sewer sediments. This reveals their insufficient microbial function capabilities to support efficient methanogenesis. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis (genus Methanobacterium) prevails in both these sediments. In this context, storm sewer sediment has an extremely low CH4-production capability, while IDA storm sewer sediment still shows significant carbon emission through a possibly unique mechanism. Hydrological connections promote the sewer sediment biodegradability and CH4-production capability. In contrast, hydrological disconnection facilitates the prevalence of acetoclastic methanogenesis, sulfate-reducing enzymes, denitrification enzymes and the sulfur-utilizing chemolithoautotrophic denitrifier, which drastically decreases CH4 production. Turbulent suspension of sediments results in relative stagnation of methanogenesis. This work bridges the knowledge gap and will help to stimulate and guide the resolution of 'bottom-up' system-scale carbon budgets and GHG sources, as well as the target CH4 abatement interventions.

RevDate: 2021-01-28
CmpDate: 2021-01-28

Wu F, You Y, Werner D, et al (2020)

Carbon nanomaterials affect carbon cycle-related functions of the soil microbial community and the coupling of nutrient cycles.

Journal of hazardous materials, 390:122144.

Many studies have examined changes in soil microbial community structure and composition by carbon nanomaterials (CNMs). Few, however, have investigated their impact on microbial community functions. This study explored how fullerene (C60) and multi-walled carbon nanotubes (M50) altered functionality of an agricultural soil microbial community (Archaea, Bacteria and Eukarya), using microcosm experiments combined with GeoChip microarray. M50 had a stronger effect than C60 on alpha diversity of microbial functional genes; both CNMs increased beta diversity, resulting in functional profiles distinct from the control. M50 exerted a broader, severer impact on microbially mediated nutrient cycles. Together, these two CNMs affected CO2 fixation pathways, microbial degradation of diverse carbohydrates, secondary plant metabolites, lipids and phospholipids, proteins, as well as methanogenesis and methane oxidation. They also suppressed nitrogen fixation, nitrification, dissimilatory nitrogen reduction, eukaryotic assimilatory nitrogen reduction, and anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox). Phosphorus and sulfur cycles were less vulnerable; only phytic acid hydrolysis and sulfite reduction were inhibited by M50 but not C60. Network analysis suggested decoupling of nutrient cycles by CNMs, manifesting closer and more hierarchical gene networks. This work reinforces profound impact of CNMs on soil microbial community functions and ecosystem services, laying a path for future investigation in this direction.

RevDate: 2021-01-28
CmpDate: 2021-01-28

Dougas G, Tsakris A, Beleri S, et al (2020)

Evidence of Brucella melitensis DNA in the Microbiome of Ctenocephalides felis from Pet Cats in Greece.

Vector borne and zoonotic diseases (Larchmont, N.Y.), 20(5):390-392.

Cat fleas (Ctenocephalides felis) are the most prevalent ectoparasites of pet animals with cosmopolitan distribution, obligatory hematophagous, and may prey on humans to receive bloodmeals. We studied the microbiota of 100 flea-pools, containing C. felis, and collected from equal number of cats and dogs in the region of Attica, Greece, including Athens. The 16S metagenomics technique detected Brucella spp. nucleotide sequence that was identified as Brucella melitensis DNA by a real-time PCR, in five flea-pools, corresponding to five cats, one owned and the remaining four stray, residing in semiurban and urban areas, respectively. No definite conclusions can be drawn as to the pathway that led to the presence of B. melitensis in common fleas parasitizing cats. We suspect flea or cat contact with wild rodents, ubiquitous in various environments, which participate in the B. melitensis biology. The proximity of the cats and their fleas with humans and previous observations of flea potential to transmit B. melitensis in laboratory animals warrant a more elaborate research as to the vectorial dynamics, the ecological pathways resulting in pathogen carriage, and the risk for public health.

RevDate: 2021-01-27

Wei J, Gao H, Yang Y, et al (2020)

Seasonal dynamics and starvation impact on the gut microbiome of urochordate ascidian Halocynthia roretzi.

Animal microbiome, 2(1):30.

BACKGROUND: Gut microbiota plays important roles in host animal metabolism, homeostasis and environmental adaptation. However, the interplay between the gut microbiome and urochordate ascidian, the most closet relative of vertebrate, remains less explored. In this study, we characterized the gut microbial communities of urochordate ascidian (Halocynthia roretzi) across the changes of season and starvation stress using a comprehensive set of omic approaches including 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, shotgun metagenomics, metabolomic profiling, and transcriptome sequencing.

RESULTS: The 16S rRNA gene amplicon profiling revealed that ascidians harbor indigenous gut microbiota distinctly different to the marine microbial community and significant variations in composition and abundance of gut bacteria, with predominant bacterial orders representing each season. Depressed alpha-diversities of gut microbiota were observed across starvation stress when compared to the communities in aquafarm condition. Synechococcales involving photosynthesis and its related biosynthesis was reduced in abundance while the enrichments of Xanthomonadales and Legionellales may facilitate bile acid biosynthesis during starvation. Metabolomics analysis found that long chain fatty acids, linolenic acid, cyanoamino acid, and pigments derived from gut bacteria were upregulated, suggesting a beneficial contribution of the gut microbiome to the ascidian under starvation stress.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed seasonal variation of ascidian gut microbiota. Defense and energy-associated metabolites derived from gut microbiome may provide an adaptive interplay between gut microbiome and ascidian host that maintains a beneficial metabolic system across season and starvation stress. The diversity-generating metabolisms from both microbiota and host might lead to the co-evolution and environmental adaptation.

RevDate: 2021-01-27
CmpDate: 2021-01-27

Yimagou EK, Baudoin JP, Abdallah RA, et al (2020)

Full-repertoire comparison of the microscopic objects composing the human gut microbiome with sequenced and cultured communities.

Journal of microbiology (Seoul, Korea), 58(5):377-386.

The study of the human gut microbiome is essential in microbiology and infectious diseases as specific alterations in the gut microbiome might be associated with various pathologies, such as chronic inflammatory disease, intestinal infection and colorectal cancer. To identify such dysregulations, several strategies are being used to create a repertoire of the microorganisms composing the human gut microbiome. In this study, we used the "microscomics" approach, which consists of creating an ultrastructural repertoire of all the cell-like objects composing stool samples from healthy donors using transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We used TEM to screen ultrathin sections of 8 resin-embedded stool samples. After exploring hundreds of micrographs, we managed to elaborate ultrastructural categories based on morphological criteria or features. This approach explained many inconsistencies observed with other techniques, such as metagenomics and culturomics. We highlighted the value of our culture-independent approach by comparing our microscopic images to those of cultured bacteria and those reported in the literature. This study helped to detect "minimicrobes" Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) for the first time in human stool samples. This "microscomics" approach is non-exhaustive but complements already existing approaches and adds important data to the puzzle of the microbiota.

RevDate: 2021-01-27
CmpDate: 2021-01-27

Zafeiropoulos H, Viet HQ, Vasileiadou K, et al (2020)

PEMA: a flexible Pipeline for Environmental DNA Metabarcoding Analysis of the 16S/18S ribosomal RNA, ITS, and COI marker genes.

GigaScience, 9(3):.

BACKGROUND: Environmental DNA and metabarcoding allow the identification of a mixture of species and launch a new era in bio- and eco-assessment. Many steps are required to obtain taxonomically assigned matrices from raw data. For most of these, a plethora of tools are available; each tool's execution parameters need to be tailored to reflect each experiment's idiosyncrasy. Adding to this complexity, the computation capacity of high-performance computing systems is frequently required for such analyses. To address the difficulties, bioinformatic pipelines need to combine state-of-the art technologies and algorithms with an easy to get-set-use framework, allowing researchers to tune each study. Software containerization technologies ease the sharing and running of software packages across operating systems; thus, they strongly facilitate pipeline development and usage. Likewise programming languages specialized for big data pipelines incorporate features like roll-back checkpoints and on-demand partial pipeline execution.

FINDINGS: PEMA is a containerized assembly of key metabarcoding analysis tools that requires low effort in setting up, running, and customizing to researchers' needs. Based on third-party tools, PEMA performs read pre-processing, (molecular) operational taxonomic unit clustering, amplicon sequence variant inference, and taxonomy assignment for 16S and 18S ribosomal RNA, as well as ITS and COI marker gene data. Owing to its simplified parameterization and checkpoint support, PEMA allows users to explore alternative algorithms for specific steps of the pipeline without the need of a complete re-execution. PEMA was evaluated against both mock communities and previously published datasets and achieved results of comparable quality.

CONCLUSIONS: A high-performance computing-based approach was used to develop PEMA; however, it can be used in personal computers as well. PEMA's time-efficient performance and good results will allow it to be used for accurate environmental DNA metabarcoding analysis, thus enhancing the applicability of next-generation biodiversity assessment studies.

RevDate: 2021-01-27
CmpDate: 2021-01-27

Prifti E, Chevaleyre Y, Hanczar B, et al (2020)

Interpretable and accurate prediction models for metagenomics data.

GigaScience, 9(3):.

BACKGROUND: Microbiome biomarker discovery for patient diagnosis, prognosis, and risk evaluation is attracting broad interest. Selected groups of microbial features provide signatures that characterize host disease states such as cancer or cardio-metabolic diseases. Yet, the current predictive models stemming from machine learning still behave as black boxes and seldom generalize well. Their interpretation is challenging for physicians and biologists, which makes them difficult to trust and use routinely in the physician-patient decision-making process. Novel methods that provide interpretability and biological insight are needed. Here, we introduce "predomics", an original machine learning approach inspired by microbial ecosystem interactions that is tailored for metagenomics data. It discovers accurate predictive signatures and provides unprecedented interpretability. The decision provided by the predictive model is based on a simple, yet powerful score computed by adding, subtracting, or dividing cumulative abundance of microbiome measurements.

RESULTS: Tested on >100 datasets, we demonstrate that predomics models are simple and highly interpretable. Even with such simplicity, they are at least as accurate as state-of-the-art methods. The family of best models, discovered during the learning process, offers the ability to distil biological information and to decipher the predictability signatures of the studied condition. In a proof-of-concept experiment, we successfully predicted body corpulence and metabolic improvement after bariatric surgery using pre-surgery microbiome data.

CONCLUSIONS: Predomics is a new algorithm that helps in providing reliable and trustworthy diagnostic decisions in the microbiome field. Predomics is in accord with societal and legal requirements that plead for an explainable artificial intelligence approach in the medical field.

RevDate: 2021-01-26
CmpDate: 2021-01-26

Wang G, Wang Y, Man H, et al (2020)

Metabolomics-guided analysis reveals a two-step epimerization of deoxynivalenol catalyzed by the bacterial consortium IFSN-C1.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 104(13):6045-6056.

Deoxynivalenol (DON) is commonly found in wheat and wheat-derived foods, posing a threat to human health. Biodegradation is an efficient and eco-friendly measure for mycotoxin detoxification. Understanding the mechanism of DON biodegradation is hence of great importance. Herein, we report the application of metabolomics methods for the analysis of DON degradation by a bacterial consortium isolated from wheat leaves collected in Jiangsu Province. Metabolomics analysis combined with a nuclear magnetic resonance analysis revealed the main degradation product, 3-keto-DON, and a minor degradation product, 3-epi-DON. Further study illustrated that DON underwent a two-step epimerization through the intermediate 3-keto-DON. Sequencing analysis of the 16S rRNA metagenome of the microorganismal community suggested that the abundance of three bacterial genera, Achromobacter, Sphingopyxis, and Sphingomonas, substantially increased during the coculture of bacterial consortium and DON. Further investigation revealed that Devosia sp. might be responsible for the epimerization of 3-keto-DON. These findings shed light on the catabolic pathways of DON during biodegradation and illustrate the potential of using metabolomics approaches in biodegradation studies.Key Points• A bacterial consortium was isolated with good deoxynivalenol-degrading potential. • Metabolomics approaches were successfully used to interpret the degradation pathway. • A trace-amount degradation product was determined by metabolomics and NMR analysis. Graphical Abstract .

RevDate: 2021-01-25
CmpDate: 2021-01-25

Kolmogorov M, Bickhart DM, Behsaz B, et al (2020)

metaFlye: scalable long-read metagenome assembly using repeat graphs.

Nature methods, 17(11):1103-1110.

Long-read sequencing technologies have substantially improved the assemblies of many isolate bacterial genomes as compared to fragmented short-read assemblies. However, assembling complex metagenomic datasets remains difficult even for state-of-the-art long-read assemblers. Here we present metaFlye, which addresses important long-read metagenomic assembly challenges, such as uneven bacterial composition and intra-species heterogeneity. First, we benchmarked metaFlye using simulated and mock bacterial communities and show that it consistently produces assemblies with better completeness and contiguity than state-of-the-art long-read assemblers. Second, we performed long-read sequencing of the sheep microbiome and applied metaFlye to reconstruct 63 complete or nearly complete bacterial genomes within single contigs. Finally, we show that long-read assembly of human microbiomes enables the discovery of full-length biosynthetic gene clusters that encode biomedically important natural products.

RevDate: 2021-01-25
CmpDate: 2021-01-25

Zou M, Cai Y, Hu P, et al (2020)

Analysis of the Composition and Functions of the Microbiome in Diabetic Foot Osteomyelitis Based on 16S rRNA and Metagenome Sequencing Technology.

Diabetes, 69(11):2423-2439.

Metagenome sequencing has not been used in infected bone specimens. This prospective observational study explored the microbiome and its function in patients with diabetic foot osteomyelitis (DFO) and posttraumatic foot osteomyelitis (PFO) based on 16S rRNA sequencing and metagenome sequencing technologies. Spearman analysis was used to explore the correlation between dominant species and clinical indicators of patients with DFO. High-throughput sequencing showed that all the specimens were polymicrobial. The microbial diversity was significantly higher in the DFO group than in the PFO group. Firmicutes, Prevotellaceae, and Prevotella were the most abundant microbes in the DFO group. The most abundant microbes in the PFO group were Proteobacteria, Halomonadaceae, and HalomonasPrevotella denticola, Prevotella jejuni, and Prevotella fusca had positive correlation with the duration of diabetic foot infection (DFI_d). Proteus vulgaris was positively correlated with the infection index, while Bacteroides fragilis was negatively correlated. The microbial functional genes were more abundant in the DFO group than in the PFO group. Metagenome sequencing is feasible for the analysis of the microbiome in infected bone specimens. Gram-negative bacteria and anaerobes are dominant in DFO.

RevDate: 2021-01-25
CmpDate: 2021-01-25

Borrego C, Sabater S, L Proia (2020)

Lifestyle preferences drive the structure and diversity of bacterial and archaeal communities in a small riverine reservoir.

Scientific reports, 10(1):11288.

Spatial heterogeneity along river networks is interrupted by dams, affecting the transport, processing, and storage of organic matter, as well as the distribution of biota. We here investigated the structure of planktonic (free-living, FL), particle-attached (PA) and sediment-associated (SD) bacterial and archaeal communities within a small reservoir. We combined targeted-amplicon sequencing of bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA genes in the DNA and RNA community fractions from FL, PA and SD, followed by imputed functional metagenomics, in order to unveil differences in their potential metabolic capabilities within the reservoir (tail, mid, and dam sections) and lifestyles (FL, PA, SD). Both bacterial and archaeal communities were structured according to their life-style preferences rather than to their location in the reservoir. Bacterial communities were richer and more diverse when attached to particles or inhabiting the sediment, while Archaea showed an opposing trend. Differences between PA and FL bacterial communities were consistent at functional level, the PA community showing higher potential capacity to degrade complex carbohydrates, aromatic compounds, and proteinaceous materials. Our results stressed that particle-attached prokaryotes were phylogenetically and metabolically distinct from their free-living counterparts, and that performed as hotspots for organic matter processing within the small reservoir.

RevDate: 2021-01-25
CmpDate: 2021-01-25

Newberry E, Bhandari R, Kemble J, et al (2020)

Genome-resolved metagenomics to study co-occurrence patterns and intraspecific heterogeneity among plant pathogen metapopulations.

Environmental microbiology, 22(7):2693-2708.

Assessment of pathogen diversity in agricultural fields is essential for informing management decisions and the development of resistant plant varieties. However, many population genomic studies have relied on culture-based approaches that do not provide quantitative assessment of pathogen populations at the field-level or the associated host microbiome. Here, we applied whole-genome shotgun sequencing of microbial DNA extracted directly from the washings of pooled leaf samples, collected from individual tomato and pepper fields in Alabama that displayed the classical symptoms of bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas spp. Our results revealed that while the occurrence of both X. perforans and X. euvesicatoria within fields was limited, evidence of co-occurrence of up to three distinct X. perforans genotypes was obtained in 7 of 10 tomato fields sampled. These population dynamics were accompanied by the corresponding type 3 secreted effector repertoires associated with the co-occurring X. perforans genotypes, indicating that metapopulation structure within fields should be considered when assessing the adaptive potential of X. perforans. Finally, analysis of microbial community composition revealed that co-occurrence of the bacterial spot pathogens Pseudomonas cichorii and Xanthomonas spp. is common in Alabama fields and provided evidence for the non-random association of several other human and plant opportunists.

RevDate: 2021-01-25
CmpDate: 2021-01-25

Wang Y, Xu J, Kong L, et al (2020)

Raman-activated sorting of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in human gut microbiota.

Environmental microbiology, 22(7):2613-2624.

The antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and antibiotic-resistant genes (ARGs) in human gut microbiota have significant impact on human health. While high throughput metagenomic sequencing reveals genotypes of microbial communities, the functionality, phenotype and heterogeneity of human gut microbiota are still elusive. In this study, we applied Raman microscopy and deuterium isotope probing (Raman-DIP) to detect metabolic active ARB (MA-ARB) in situ at the single-cell level in human gut microbiota from two healthy adults. We analysed the relative abundances of MA-ARB under different concentrations of amoxicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, florfenicol and vancomycin. To establish the link between phenotypes and genotypes of the MA-ARB, Raman-activated cell sorting (RACS) was used to sort MA-ARB from human gut microbiota, and mini-metagenomic DNA of the sorted bacteria was amplified, sequenced and analysed. The sorted MA-ARB and their associated ARGs were identified. Our results suggest a strong relation between ARB in human gut microbiota and personal medical history. This study demonstrates that the toolkit of Raman-DIP, RACS and DNA sequencing can be useful to unravel both phenotypes and genotypes of ARB in human gut microbiota at the single-cell level.

RevDate: 2021-01-25
CmpDate: 2021-01-25

Irinyi L, Hu Y, Hoang MTV, et al (2020)

Long-read sequencing based clinical metagenomics for the detection and confirmation of Pneumocystis jirovecii directly from clinical specimens: A paradigm shift in mycological diagnostics.

Medical mycology, 58(5):650-660.

The advent of next generation sequencing technologies has enabled the characterization of the genetic content of entire communities of organisms, including those in clinical specimens, without prior culturing. The MinION from Oxford Nanopore Technologies offers real-time, direct sequencing of long DNA fragments directly from clinical samples. The aim of this study was to assess the ability of unbiased, genome-wide, long-read, shotgun sequencing using MinION to identify Pneumocystis jirovecii directly from respiratory tract specimens and to characterize the associated mycobiome. Pneumocystis pneumonia (PCP) is a life-threatening fungal disease caused by P. jirovecii. Currently, the diagnosis of PCP relies on direct microscopic or real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR) examination of respiratory tract specimens, as P. jirovecii cannot be cultured readily in vitro. P. jirovecii DNA was detected in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and induced sputum (IS) samples from three patients with confirmed PCP. Other fungi present in the associated mycobiome included known human pathogens (Aspergillus, Cryptococcus, Pichia) as well as commensal species (Candida, Malassezia, Bipolaris). We have established optimized sample preparation conditions for the generation of high-quality data, curated databases, and data analysis tools, which are key to the application of long-read MinION sequencing leading to a fundamental new approach in fungal diagnostics.

RevDate: 2021-01-25
CmpDate: 2021-01-25

Mayneris-Perxachs J, JM Fernández-Real (2020)

Exploration of the microbiota and metabolites within body fluids could pinpoint novel disease mechanisms.

The FEBS journal, 287(5):856-865.

Thanks to the emergence and recent advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies, it is becoming more evident every day that changes in the microbiome composition are linked to a myriad of health conditions. Despite this, the mechanisms of host-microbiota signalling remain largely unknown. The microbiome has an extensive metabolic activity that leads to the generation of a large number of compounds that are likely to influence host health. Therefore, the microbiome-host cross-talk is in part mediated by microbial-derived metabolites. Unlike metagenomics, which only provides information about microbial genes and thus the microbiome functional potential, metabolic phenotyping is well suited to capture their actual metabolic activity. Here, we provide an overview of these approaches and propose an integration of metagenomics, as a microbiome compositional readout, with faecal and plasma/urine metabolomics, as a functional readout, to unravel novel mechanisms linking the microbiome to host health and disease.

RevDate: 2021-01-23

Bergner LM, Becker DJ, Tello C, et al (2021)

Detection of Trypanosoma cruzi in the saliva of diverse neotropical bats.

Zoonoses and public health [Epub ahead of print].

Trypanosoma cruzi is widely reported in bats, yet transmission routes remain unclear. We present evidence from metagenomic sequence data that T. cruzi occurs in the saliva of diverse Neotropical bats. Phylogenetic analyses demonstrated that the bat-associated T. cruzi sequences described here formed part of a bat-specific clade, suggesting an independent transmission cycle. Our results highlight the value in repurposing metagenomic data generated for viral discovery to reveal insights into the biology of other parasites. Evaluating whether the presence of T. cruzi in the saliva of two hematophagous bat species represents an ecological route for zoonotic transmission of Chagas disease is an interesting avenue for future research.

RevDate: 2021-01-22
CmpDate: 2021-01-22

Bas-Bellver C, Andrés C, Seguí L, et al (2020)

Valorization of Persimmon and Blueberry Byproducts to Obtain Functional Powders: In Vitro Digestion and Fermentation by Gut Microbiota.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry, 68(30):8080-8090.

Globalization of fruit and vegetable markets generates overproduction, surpluses, and potentially valuable residues. The valorization of these byproducts constitutes a challenge, to ensure sustainability and reintroduce them into the food chain. This work focuses on blueberry and persimmon residues, rich in polyphenols and carotenoids, to obtain powders with high added value to be used as ingredients in food formulation. These powders have been characterized, and the changes in the bioactive compounds in in vitro gastrointestinal digestion have been evaluated. The results indicated that the type of residue, the drying process, as well as the content and type of fiber determine the release of antioxidants during digestion. In vitro colonic fermentations were also performed, and it was observed that the characteristics of digested powders had an effect on the composition of the growing microbial community. Thus, carotenoids and anthocyanins maintain an interplay with microbiota that could be beneficial for human health.

RevDate: 2021-01-22
CmpDate: 2021-01-22

Boutin S, AH Dalpke (2020)

The Microbiome: A Reservoir to Discover New Antimicrobials Agents.

Current topics in medicinal chemistry, 20(14):1291-1299.

Nature offered mankind the first golden era of discovery of novel antimicrobials based on the ability of eukaryotes or micro-organisms to produce such compounds. The microbial world proved to be a huge reservoir of such antimicrobial compounds which play important functional roles in every environment. However, most of those organisms are still uncultivable in a classical way, and therefore, the use of extended culture or DNA based methods (metagenomics) to discover novel compounds promises usefulness. In the past decades, the advances in next-generation sequencing and bioinformatics revealed the enormous diversity of the microbial worlds and the functional repertoire available for studies. Thus, data-mining becomes of particular interest in the context of the increased need for new antibiotics due to antimicrobial resistance and the rush in antimicrobial discovery. In this review, an overview of principles will be presented to discover new natural compounds from the microbiome. We describe culture-based and culture-independent (metagenomic) approaches that have been developed to identify new antimicrobials and the input of those methods in the field as well as their limitations.

RevDate: 2021-01-21
CmpDate: 2021-01-21

Schwabl P, Maiguashca Sánchez J, Costales JA, et al (2020)

Culture-free genome-wide locus sequence typing (GLST) provides new perspectives on Trypanosoma cruzi dispersal and infection complexity.

PLoS genetics, 16(12):e1009170.

Analysis of genetic polymorphism is a powerful tool for epidemiological surveillance and research. Powerful inference from pathogen genetic variation, however, is often restrained by limited access to representative target DNA, especially in the study of obligate parasitic species for which ex vivo culture is resource-intensive or bias-prone. Modern sequence capture methods enable pathogen genetic variation to be analyzed directly from host/vector material but are often too complex and expensive for resource-poor settings where infectious diseases prevail. This study proposes a simple, cost-effective 'genome-wide locus sequence typing' (GLST) tool based on massive parallel amplification of information hotspots throughout the target pathogen genome. The multiplexed polymerase chain reaction amplifies hundreds of different, user-defined genetic targets in a single reaction tube, and subsequent agarose gel-based clean-up and barcoding completes library preparation at under 4 USD per sample. Our study generates a flexible GLST primer panel design workflow for Trypanosoma cruzi, the parasitic agent of Chagas disease. We successfully apply our 203-target GLST panel to direct, culture-free metagenomic extracts from triatomine vectors containing a minimum of 3.69 pg/μl T. cruzi DNA and further elaborate on method performance by sequencing GLST libraries from T. cruzi reference clones representing discrete typing units (DTUs) TcI, TcIII, TcIV, TcV and TcVI. The 780 SNP sites we identify in the sample set repeatably distinguish parasites infecting sympatric vectors and detect correlations between genetic and geographic distances at regional (< 150 km) as well as continental scales. The markers also clearly separate TcI, TcIII, TcIV and TcV + TcVI and appear to distinguish multiclonal infections within TcI. We discuss the advantages, limitations and prospects of our method across a spectrum of epidemiological research.

RevDate: 2021-01-21
CmpDate: 2021-01-21

Javdan B, Lopez JG, Chankhamjon P, et al (2020)

Personalized Mapping of Drug Metabolism by the Human Gut Microbiome.

Cell, 181(7):1661-1679.e22.

The human gut microbiome harbors hundreds of bacterial species with diverse biochemical capabilities. Dozens of drugs have been shown to be metabolized by single isolates from the gut microbiome, but the extent of this phenomenon is rarely explored in the context of microbial communities. Here, we develop a quantitative experimental framework for mapping the ability of the human gut microbiome to metabolize small molecule drugs: Microbiome-Derived Metabolism (MDM)-Screen. Included are a batch culturing system for sustained growth of subject-specific gut microbial communities, an ex vivo drug metabolism screen, and targeted and untargeted functional metagenomic screens to identify microbiome-encoded genes responsible for specific metabolic events. Our framework identifies novel drug-microbiome interactions that vary between individuals and demonstrates how the gut microbiome might be used in drug development and personalized medicine.

RevDate: 2021-01-20
CmpDate: 2021-01-20

Furey PC, Lee SS, DL Clemans (2020)

Substratum-associated microbiota.

Water environment research : a research publication of the Water Environment Federation, 92(10):1629-1648.

Highlights of new, interesting, and emerging research findings on substratum-associated microbiota covered from a survey of 2019 literature from primarily freshwaters provide insight into research trends of interest to the Water Environment Federation and others interested in benthic, aquatic environments. Coverage of topics on bottom-associated or attached algae and cyanobacteria, though not comprehensive, includes new methods, taxa new-to-science, nutrient dynamics, auto- and heterotrophic interactions, grazers, bioassessment, herbicides and other pollutants, metal contaminants, and nuisance, and bloom-forming and harmful algae. Coverage of bacteria, also not comprehensive, focuses on the ecology of benthic biofilms and microbial communities, along with the ecology of microbes like Caulobacter crescentus, Rhodobacter, and other freshwater microbial species. Bacterial topics covered also include metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, toxins and pollutants, bacterial pathogens and bacteriophages, and bacterial physiology. Readers may use this literature review to learn about or renew their interest in the recent advances and discoveries regarding substratum-associated microbiota. PRACTITIONER POINTS: This review of literature from 2019 on substratum-associated microbiota presents highlights of findings on algae, cyanobacteria, and bacteria from primarily freshwaters. Coverage of algae and cyanobacteria includes findings on new methods, taxa new to science, nutrient dynamics, auto- and heterotrophic interactions, grazers, bioassessment, herbicides and other pollutants, metal contaminants, and nuisance, bloom-forming and harmful algae. Coverage of bacteria includes findings on ecology of benthic biofilms and microbial communities, the ecology of microbes, metagenomics and metatranscriptomics, toxins and pollutants, bacterial pathogens and bacteriophages, and bacterial physiology. Highlights of new, noteworthy and emerging topics build on those from 2018 and will be of relevance to the Water Environment Federation and others interested in benthic, aquatic environments.

RevDate: 2021-01-20
CmpDate: 2021-01-20

Gureev AP, Syromyatnikov MY, Ignatyeva DA, et al (2020)

Effect of long-term methylene blue treatment on the composition of mouse gut microbiome and its relationship with the cognitive abilities of mice.

PloS one, 15(11):e0241784.

In recent years, methylene blue (MB) has attracted considerable interest as a potential drug for the treatment of methemoglobinemia and neurodegenerative diseases. MB is active against microorganisms from various taxonomic groups. However, no studies have yet been conducted on the effect of MB on the intestinal microbiome of model animals. The aim of this work was to study the effect of different concentrations of MB on the mouse gut microbiome and its relationship with the cognitive abilities of mice. We showed that a low MB concentration (15 mg/kg/day) did not cause significant changes in the microbiome composition. The Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes ratio decreased relative to the control on the 2nd and 3rd weeks. A slight decrease in the levels Actinobacteria was detected on the 3rd week of the experiment. Changes in the content of Delta, Gamma, and Epsilonproteobacteria have been also observed. We did not find significant alterations in the composition of intestinal microbiome, which could be an indication of the development of dysbiosis or other gut dysfunction. At the same time, a high concentration of MB (50 mg/kg/day) led to pronounced changes, primarily an increase in the levels of Delta, Gamma and Epsilonproteobacteria. Over 4 weeks of therapy, the treatment with high MB concentration has led to an increase in the median content of Proteobacteria to 7.49% vs. 1.61% in the control group. Finally, we found that MB at a concentration of 15 mg/kg/day improved the cognitive abilities of mice, while negative correlation between the content of Deferribacteres and cognitive parameters was revealed. Our data expand the understanding of the relationship between MB, cognitive abilities, and gut microbiome in respect to the antibacterial properties of MB.

RevDate: 2021-01-20
CmpDate: 2021-01-20

Hu Y, Cheng M, Liu B, et al (2020)

Metagenomic analysis of the lung microbiome in pulmonary tuberculosis - a pilot study.

Emerging microbes & infections, 9(1):1444-1452.

The lung microbiome plays an important role in the pathophysiological processes associated with pulmonary tuberculosis (PTB). However, only a few studies using 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing have been reported, and the interactions between Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB) and the lung microbiome remain poorly understood. Patients with respiratory symptoms and imaging abnormalities compatible with tuberculosis (TB) were enrolled. We analyzed the lung microbiome in bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) samples from 30 MTB-positive (MTB+) subjects and 30 MTB negative (MTB-) subjects by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Alpha diversity tended to be lower in the MTB+ group than in the MTB- group. There was a significant difference in beta diversity between the MTB+ and MTB- subjects. MTB+ lung samples were dominated by MTB, while MTB- samples were enriched with Streptococcus, Prevotella, Nesseria, Selenomonas and Bifidobacterium, which more closely resemble the microbial composition of a healthy lung. Network analysis suggested that MTB could greatly impact the microbial community structure. MTB+ and MTB- communities showed distinct functional signatures. Fungal communities were also found to be associated with the presence or absence of MTB. Furthermore, it was confirmed that 16S rDNA amplicon sequencing underrepresents Mycobacterium. This pilot study is the first to explore the interplay between MTB and the host microbiome by using metagenomic sequencing. MTB dominates the lung microbiome of MTB+ subjects, while MTB- subjects have a Streptococcus-enriched microbiome. The 16S approach underrepresents Mycobacterium and is not the best way to study the TB-associated microbiome.

RevDate: 2021-01-20
CmpDate: 2021-01-20

Ahlgren NA, Belisle BS, MD Lee (2020)

Genomic mosaicism underlies the adaptation of marine Synechococcus ecotypes to distinct oceanic iron niches.

Environmental microbiology, 22(5):1801-1815.

Phytoplankton are limited by iron (Fe) in ~40% of the world's oceans including high-nutrient low-chlorophyll (HNLC) regions. While low-Fe adaptation has been well-studied in large eukaryotic diatoms, less is known for small, prokaryotic marine picocyanobacteria. This study reveals key physiological and genomic differences underlying Fe adaptation in marine picocyanobacteria. HNLC ecotype CRD1 strains have greater physiological tolerance to low Fe congruent with their expanded repertoire of Fe transporter, storage and regulatory genes compared to other ecotypes. From metagenomic analysis, genes encoding ferritin, flavodoxin, Fe transporters and siderophore uptake genes were more abundant in low-Fe waters, mirroring paradigms of low-Fe adaptation in diatoms. Distinct Fe-related gene repertories of HNLC ecotypes CRD1 and CRD2 also highlight how coexisting ecotypes have evolved independent approaches to life in low-Fe habitats. Synechococcus and Prochlorococcus HNLC ecotypes likewise exhibit independent, genome-wide reductions of predicted Fe-requiring genes. HNLC ecotype CRD1 interestingly was most similar to coastal ecotype I in Fe physiology and Fe-related gene content, suggesting populations from these different biomes experience similar Fe-selective conditions. This work supports an improved perspective that phytoplankton are shaped by more nuanced Fe niches in the oceans than previously implied from mostly binary comparisons of low- versus high-Fe habitats and populations.

RevDate: 2021-01-20
CmpDate: 2021-01-20

Zhang Q, Geng Z, Li D, et al (2020)

Characterization and discrimination of microbial community and co-occurrence patterns in fresh and strong flavor style flue-cured tobacco leaves.

MicrobiologyOpen, 9(2):e965.

Fermentation, also known as aging, is vital for enhancing the quality of flue-cured tobacco leaves (FTLs). Aged FTLs demonstrate high-quality sensory characteristics, while unaged FTLs do not. Microbes play important roles in the FTL fermentation process. However, the eukaryotic microbial community diversity is poorly understood, as are microbial associations within FTLs. We aimed to characterize and compare the microbiota associated with two important categories, fresh and strong flavor style FTLs, and to reveal correlations between the microbial taxa within them. Based on 16S and 18S rRNA Illumina MiSeq sequencing, the community richness and diversity of prokaryotes were almost as high as that of eukaryotes. The dominant microbes of FTLs belonged to seven genera, including Pseudomonas, Bacillus, Methylobacterium, Acinetobacter, Sphingomonas, Neophaeosphaeria, and Cladosporium, of the Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Ascomycota phyla. According to partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA), Xanthomonas, Franconibacter, Massilia, Quadrisphaera, Staphylococcus, Cladosporium, Lodderomyces, Symmetrospora, Golovinomyces, and Dioszegia were significantly positively correlated with fresh flavor style FTLs, while Xenophilus, Fusarium, unclassified Ustilaginaceae, Tilletiopsis, Cryphonectria, Colletotrichum, and Cyanodermella were significantly positively correlated with strong flavor style FTLs. Network analysis identified seven hubs, Aureimonas, Kocuria, Massilia, Brachybacterium, Clostridium, Dietzia, and Vishniacozyma, that may play important roles in FTL ecosystem stability, which may be destroyed by Myrmecridium. FTL microbiota was found to be correlated with flavor style. Species present in lower numbers than the dominant microbes might be used as microbial markers to discriminate different flavor style samples and to stabilize FTL microbial communities. This research advances our understanding of FTL microbiota and describes a means of discriminating between fresh and strong flavor FTLs based on their respective stable microbiota.

RevDate: 2021-01-20
CmpDate: 2021-01-20

Rambo IM, Dombrowski N, Constant L, et al (2020)

Metabolic relationships of uncultured bacteria associated with the microalgae Gambierdiscus.

Environmental microbiology, 22(5):1764-1783.

Microbial communities inhabit algae cell surfaces and produce a variety of compounds that can impact the fitness of the host. These interactions have been studied via culturing, single-gene diversity and metagenomic read survey methods that are limited by culturing biases and fragmented genetic characterizations. Higher-resolution frameworks are needed to resolve the physiological interactions within these algal-bacterial communities. Here, we infer the encoded metabolic capabilities of four uncultured bacterial genomes (reconstructed using metagenomic assembly and binning) associated with the marine dinoflagellates Gambierdiscus carolinianus and G. caribaeus. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that two of the genomes belong to the commonly algae-associated families Rhodobacteraceae and Flavobacteriaceae. The other two genomes belong to the Phycisphaeraceae and include the first algae-associated representative within the uncultured SM1A02 group. Analyses of all four genomes suggest these bacteria are facultative aerobes, with some capable of metabolizing phytoplanktonic organosulfur compounds including dimethylsulfoniopropionate and sulfated polysaccharides. These communities may biosynthesize compounds beneficial to both the algal host and other bacteria, including iron chelators, B vitamins, methionine, lycopene, squalene and polyketides. These findings have implications for marine carbon and nutrient cycling and provide a greater depth of understanding regarding the genetic potential for complex physiological interactions between microalgae and their associated bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-01-20
CmpDate: 2021-01-20

Ren Q, Si H, Yan X, et al (2020)

Bacterial communities in the solid, liquid, dorsal, and ventral epithelium fractions of yak (Bos grunniens) rumen.

MicrobiologyOpen, 9(2):e963.

Yak (Bos grunniens) is an important and dominant livestock species in the challenging environment of the Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau. Rumen microbiota of the solid, liquid, and epithelium fractions play key roles in nutrient metabolism and contribute to host adaptation in ruminants. However, there is a little knowledge of the microbiota in these rumen fractions of yak. Therefore, we collected samples of solid, liquid, dorsal, and ventral epithelium fractions from five female yaks, then amplified bacterial 16S rRNA gene V4 regions and sequenced them using an Illumina MiSeq platform. Principal coordinates analysis detected significant differences in bacterial communities between the liquid, solid, and epithelium fractions, and between dorsal and ventral epithelium fractions. Rikenellaceae RC9, the families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae, and Fibrobacter spp. were the abundant and enriched bacteria in solid fraction, while the genera Prevotella and Prevotellaceae UCG 003 were higher in the liquid fraction. Campylobacter spp., Comamonas spp., Desulfovibrio spp., and Solobacterium spp. were significantly higher in dorsal epithelium, while Howardella spp., Prevotellaceae UCG 001, Ruminococcaceae UCG 005, and Treponema 2 were enriched in the ventral epithelium. Comparison of predictive functional profiles among the solid, liquid, and dorsal, and ventral epithelium fractions also revealed significant differences. Microbiota in the ventral fraction of yak rumen also significantly differ from reported microbiota of cattle. In conclusion, our results improve our knowledge of the taxonomic composition and roles of yak rumen microbiota.

RevDate: 2021-01-20
CmpDate: 2021-01-20

Quigley KM, Alvarez Roa C, Torda G, et al (2020)

Co-dynamics of Symbiodiniaceae and bacterial populations during the first year of symbiosis with Acropora tenuis juveniles.

MicrobiologyOpen, 9(2):e959.

Interactions between corals and their associated microbial communities (Symbiodiniaceae and prokaryotes) are key to understanding corals' potential for and rate of acclimatory and adaptive responses. However, the establishment of microalgal and bacterial communities is poorly understood during coral ontogeny in the wild. We examined the establishment and co-occurrence between multiple microbial communities using 16S rRNA (bacterial) and ITS2 rDNA (Symbiodiniaceae) gene amplicon sequencing in juveniles of the common coral, Acropora tenuis, across the first year of development. Symbiodiniaceae communities in juveniles were dominated by Durusdinium trenchii and glynnii (D1 and D1a), with lower abundances of Cladocopium (C1, C1d, C50, and Cspc). Bacterial communities were more diverse and dominated by taxa within Proteobacteria, Cyanobacteria, and Planctomycetes. Both communities were characterized by significant changes in relative abundance and diversity of taxa throughout the year. D1, D1a, and C1 were significantly correlated with multiple bacterial taxa, including Alpha-, Deltra-, and Gammaproteobacteria, Planctomycetacia, Oxyphotobacteria, Phycisphaerae, and Rhizobiales. Specifically, D1a tended to associate with Oxyphotobacteria and D1 with Alphaproteobacteria, although these associations may represent correlational and not causal relationships. Bioenergetic modeling combined with physiological measurements of coral juveniles (surface area and Symbiodiniaceae cell densities) identified key periods of carbon limitation and nitrogen assimilation, potentially coinciding with shifts in microbial community composition. These results demonstrate that Symbiodiniaceae and bacterial communities are dynamic throughout the first year of ontology and may vary in tandem, with important fitness effects on host juveniles.

RevDate: 2021-01-19
CmpDate: 2021-01-19

Calegario G, Freitas L, Appolinario LR, et al (2021)

Conserved rhodolith microbiomes across environmental gradients of the Great Amazon Reef.

The Science of the total environment, 760:143411.

The Great Amazon Reef System (GARS) covers an estimated area of 56,000 km2 off the mouth of the Amazon River. Living rhodolith holobionts are major benthic components of the GARS. However, it is unclear whether environmental conditions modulate the rhodolith microbiomes. Previous studies suggest that environmental parameters such as light, temperature, depth, and nutrients are drivers of rhodolith health. However, it is unclear whether rhodoliths from different sectors (northern, central, and southern) from the GARS have different microbiomes. We analysed metagenomes of rhodoliths (n = 10) and seawater (n = 6), obtained from the three sectors, by illumina shotgun sequencing (total read counts: 25.73 million). Suspended particulate material and isotopic composition of dissolved organic carbon (δ13C) indicated a strong influence of the Amazon river plume over the entire study area. However, photosynthetically active radiation at the bottom (PARb) was higher in the southern sector reefs, ranging from 10.1 to 14.3 E.m-2 day-1. The coralline calcareous red algae (CCA) Corallina caespitosa, Corallina officinalis, Lithophyllum cabiochiae, and Hapalidiales were present in the three sectors and in most rhodolith samples. Rhodolith microbiomes were very homogeneous across the studied area and differed significantly from seawater microbiomes. However, some subtle differences were found when comparing the rhodolith microbiomes from the northern and central sectors to the ones from the southern. Consistent with the higher light availability, two phyla were more abundant in rhodolith microbiomes from southern sites (Bacteroidetes, and Cyanobacteria). In addition, two functional categories were enhanced in southern rhodolith microbiomes (iron acquisition and metabolism, and photosynthesis). Phycobiliprotein-coding genes were also more abundant in southern locations, while the functional categories of respiration and sulfur metabolism were enhanced in northern and central rhodolith microbiomes, consistent with higher nutrient loads. The results confirm the conserved nature of rhodolith microbiomes even under pronounced environmental gradients. Subtle taxonomic and functional differences observed in rhodolith microbiomes may enable rhodoliths to thrive in changing environmental conditions.

RevDate: 2021-01-19
CmpDate: 2021-01-19

Bisanz JE, Soto-Perez P, Noecker C, et al (2020)

A Genomic Toolkit for the Mechanistic Dissection of Intractable Human Gut Bacteria.

Cell host & microbe, 27(6):1001-1013.e9.

Despite the remarkable microbial diversity found within humans, our ability to link genes to phenotypes is based upon a handful of model microorganisms. We report a comparative genomics platform for Eggerthella lenta and other Coriobacteriia, a neglected taxon broadly relevant to human health and disease. We uncover extensive genetic and metabolic diversity and validate a tool for mapping phenotypes to genes and sequence variants. We also present a tool for the quantification of strains from metagenomic sequencing data, enabling the identification of genes that predict bacterial fitness. Competitive growth is reproducible under laboratory conditions and attributable to intrinsic growth rates and resource utilization. Unique signatures of in vivo competition in gnotobiotic mice include an adhesin enriched in poor colonizers. Together, these computational and experimental resources represent a strong foundation for the continued mechanistic dissection of the Coriobacteriia and a template that can be applied to study other genetically intractable taxa.

RevDate: 2021-01-18
CmpDate: 2021-01-18

Agnihotry S, Sarangi AN, R Aggarwal (2020)

Construction & assessment of a unified curated reference database for improving the taxonomic classification of bacteria using 16S rRNA sequence data.

The Indian journal of medical research, 151(1):93-103.

Background & objectives: For bacterial community analysis, 16S rRNA sequences are subjected to taxonomic classification through comparison with one of the three commonly used databases [Greengenes, SILVA and Ribosomal Database Project (RDP)]. It was hypothesized that a unified database containing fully annotated, non-redundant sequences from all the three databases, might provide better taxonomic classification during analysis of 16S rRNA sequence data. Hence, a unified 16S rRNA database was constructed and its performance was assessed by using it with four different taxonomic assignment methods, and for data from various hypervariable regions (HVRs) of 16S rRNA gene.

Methods: We constructed a unified 16S rRNA database (16S-UDb) by merging non-ambiguous, fully annotated, full-length 16S rRNA sequences from the three databases and compared its performance in taxonomy assignment with that of three original databases. This was done using four different taxonomy assignment methods [mothur Naïve Bayesian Classifier (mothur-nbc), RDP Naïve Bayesian Classifier (rdp-nbc), UCLUST, SortMeRNA] and data from 13 regions of 16S rRNA [seven hypervariable regions (HVR) (V2-V8) and six pairs of adjacent HVRs].

Results: Our unified 16S rRNA database contained 13,078 full-length, fully annotated 16S rRNA sequences. It could assign genus and species to larger proportions (90.05 and 46.82%, respectively, when used with mothur-nbc classifier and the V2+V3 region) of sequences in the test database than the three original 16S rRNA databases (70.88-87.20% and 10.23-24.28%, respectively, with the same classifier and region).

Our results indicate that for analysis of bacterial mixtures, sequencing of V2-V3 region of 16S rRNA followed by analysis of the data using the mothur-nbc classifier and our 16S-UDb database may be preferred.

RevDate: 2021-01-19
CmpDate: 2021-01-19

Zemb O, Achard CS, Hamelin J, et al (2020)

Absolute quantitation of microbes using 16S rRNA gene metabarcoding: A rapid normalization of relative abundances by quantitative PCR targeting a 16S rRNA gene spike-in standard.

MicrobiologyOpen, 9(3):e977.

Metabarcoding of the 16S rRNA gene is commonly used to characterize microbial communities, by estimating the relative abundance of microbes. Here, we present a method to retrieve the concentrations of the 16S rRNA gene per gram of any environmental sample using a synthetic standard in minuscule amounts (100 ppm to 1% of the 16S rRNA sequences) that is added to the sample before DNA extraction and quantified by two quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) reactions. This allows normalizing by the initial microbial density, taking into account the DNA recovery yield. We quantified the internal standard and the total load of 16S rRNA genes by qPCR. The qPCR for the latter uses the exact same primers as those used for Illumina sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable regions of the 16S rRNA gene to increase accuracy. We are able to calculate the absolute concentration of the species per gram of sample, taking into account the DNA recovery yield. This is crucial for an accurate estimate as the yield varied between 40% and 84%. This method avoids sacrificing a high proportion of the sequencing effort to quantify the internal standard. If sacrificing a part of the sequencing effort to the internal standard is acceptable, we however recommend that the internal standard accounts for 30% of the environmental 16S rRNA genes to avoid the PCR bias associated with rare phylotypes. The method proposed here was tested on a feces sample but can be applied more broadly on any environmental sample. This method offers a real improvement of metabarcoding of microbial communities since it makes the method quantitative with limited efforts.

RevDate: 2021-01-19
CmpDate: 2021-01-19

Niu KM, Lee BJ, Kothari D, et al (2020)

Dietary effect of low fish meal aquafeed on gut microbiota in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) at different growth stages.

MicrobiologyOpen, 9(3):e992.

This study was conducted to investigate the long-term effect of a low fish meal (FM) diet comprising plant-based protein sources (PPS) on changes of gut microbial diversity in olive flounder (Paralichthys olivaceus) over the course of life. Two experimental diets were prepared to contain 74% FM (control) or 52% FM with 22% PPS (30% FM replacement, FM30). Fish were fed one of the two experimental diets for 8 months, and we collected the midgut contents to analyze the gut bacterial community by Illumina MiSeq based on the metagenomic sequences in the V3-V4 regions of 16S rRNA. We found that there were nine dominant phyla, which in turn presented Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria as the three major phyla in the gut microbiota of the flounder. At genus level, the dominant genera were Delftia, Prevotella, and Chthoniobacter at the juvenile stage (below 100 g/fish); Chthoniobacter, Bacillus, and Bradyrhizobium at the grower stage (400 g/fish); Chthoniobacter, Bacillus, and Delftia at the subadult stage (800 g/fish); and Lactobacillus and Prevotella at the adult stage (over 1,000 g/fish). The microbial diversity in olive flounders arched from the juvenile and subadult stage and reached a plateau thereafter. The fish fed the FM30 diet significantly had an increased abundance of Lactobacillus and Photobacterium and had less abundance of Prevotella and Paraprevotella than the control. However, the effect of dietary PPS was not significant on total microbial richness, indicating no negative effect as feed sources on the intestinal microbiota in olive flounder. These results indicate that the life stage of olive flounder is more important in modulating intestinal microbiota than is the diet. It could also be concluded that dietary PPS might be used as a potential fish meal alternative without any compromising effects on microbial diversity of olive flounder for long-term feeding.

RevDate: 2021-01-19
CmpDate: 2021-01-19

Sausset R, Petit MA, Gaboriau-Routhiau V, et al (2020)

New insights into intestinal phages.

Mucosal immunology, 13(2):205-215.

The intestinal microbiota plays important roles in human health. This last decade, the viral fraction of the intestinal microbiota, composed essentially of phages that infect bacteria, received increasing attention. Numerous novel phage families have been discovered in parallel with the development of viral metagenomics. However, since the discovery of intestinal phages by d'Hérelle in 1917, our understanding of the impact of phages on gut microbiota structure remains scarce. Changes in viral community composition have been observed in several diseases. However, whether these changes reflect a direct involvement of phages in diseases etiology or simply result from modifications in bacterial composition is currently unknown. Here we present an overview of the current knowledge in intestinal phages, their identity, lifestyles, and their possible effects on the gut microbiota. We also gather the main data on phage interactions with the immune system, with a particular emphasis on recent findings.

RevDate: 2021-01-19
CmpDate: 2021-01-19

Yu H, Xue D, Wang Y, et al (2020)

Molecular ecological network analysis of the response of soil microbial communities to depth gradients in farmland soils.

MicrobiologyOpen, 9(3):e983.

Soil microorganisms are considered to be important indicators of soil fertility and soil quality. Most previous studies have focused solely on surface soil, but there were numerous active cells in deeper soil layers. However, studies regarding microbial communities in deeper soil layers were not comprehensive and sufficient. In this study, phylogenetic molecular ecological networks (pMENs) based on the 16S rRNA Miseq sequencing technique were applied to study the response of soil microbial communities to depth gradients and the changes of key genera along 3 meter depth gradients (0-0.2 m, 0.2-0.4 m 0.4-0.6 m, 0.6-0.8 m, 0.8-1.0 m, 1.0-1.3 m, 1.3-1.6 m, 1.6-2.0 m, 2.0-2.5 m, and 2.5-3.0 m). The results showed that the modularity of microbial communities was consistently high in all soil layers and each layer was similar, which indicated that microbial communities were more resistant to depth changes. The pMENs further demonstrated that microbial community interactions were stable as the depth increased and they cooperated well to adapt to changes in different soil gradients. This was evidenced by similar positive links, average degree, and average clustering coefficient. In addition, key genera were obtained by analyzing module hubs in the pMENs. There may be at least one dominant genus in each layer that adapted to and resisted changes in the soil environment. It seems microbial communities demonstrate a stable and strong adaptability to depth gradients in farmland soils.

RevDate: 2021-01-19
CmpDate: 2021-01-19

Zhou J, Yu L, Zhang J, et al (2020)

Characterization of the core microbiome in tobacco leaves during aging.

MicrobiologyOpen, 9(3):e984.

Microbiome plays an important role during the tobacco aging process which was an indispensable link in the production and processing of cigarettes. However, the structure and functions of microbiome have not been clarified during the tobacco aging process. In this study, 16S rDNA and ITS amplicon sequencing techniques were used to analyze the core microbiome of 15 tobacco samples from five different aging stages. The whole bacterial microbiome was classified into 29 microbial phyla and 132 orders. Enterobacteriales (63%), Pseudomonadales (16%), Sphingomonadales (8%), Xanthomonadales (4%), Burkholderiales (4%), Rhizobiales (3%), and Bacillales (2%) comprised the core bacterial microbiome. The whole fungal microbiome was classified into five microbial phyla and 52 orders. Incertae_sedis_Eurotiomycetes (27%), Wallemiales (25%), Sporidiobolales (17%), Capnodiales (5%), Eurotiales (2%), an unclassified Ascomycota (12%), and an unidentified Eurotiomycetes (4%) comprised the core fungal microbiome. FAPROTAX function prediction suggested that the core microbiome has a substantial potential for the carbon cycle, nitrate metabolism, aromatic compound degradation, chitinolysis, cellulolysis, and xylanolysis, but simultaneously, the core microbiome is also a source of human pathogens. The dynamics of the bacterial community were primarily determined by the total nitrogen in tobacco leaves during the aging process, while those of the fungal microbiome were primarily determined by total organic carbon. This study indicated that the core microbiome activities may play an important role in regulating the loss of carbon organic compounds and enhancing the secondary metabolites during tobacco leaves aging process.

RevDate: 2021-01-19
CmpDate: 2021-01-19

Song Y, P Gyarmati (2020)

Microbiota changes in a pediatric acute lymphocytic leukemia mouse model.

MicrobiologyOpen, 9(3):e982.

Hematological malignancies are the most common type of pediatric cancers, and acute lymphocytic leukemia (ALL) is the most frequently occurring hematological malignancy during childhood. A major cause of mortality in leukemia is bloodstream infection (BSI). The aim of the current study was to explore the gut microbiota in ALL and its potential functional alterations. High-throughput sequencing was used to characterize the bacterial and fungal microbiota in feces and their predicted functional characteristics in a xenotransplant pediatric ALL mouse model. Our work shows that gut microbiota significantly changes in leukemia, which may result in functional alterations. This study may provide potential therapeutic or preventive strategies of BSI in ALL.

RevDate: 2021-01-19
CmpDate: 2021-01-19

Chen T, Li Y, Liang J, et al (2020)

Gut microbiota of provisioned and wild rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) living in a limestone forest in southwest Guangxi, China.

MicrobiologyOpen, 9(3):e981.

The gut microbiota plays an important role in animal health and is strongly affected by the environment. Captivity and human source food have been shown to influence drastically the gut microbiota composition and function of wild animals. Therefore, in the present study, the gut microbiota of provisioned and wild populations of limestone-living rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) were compared using high-throughput 16S rRNA sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. The results indicated that provisioned macaques had a higher microbial richness than wild macaques, but there was no significant difference in the evenness of the gut microbiota between the two populations. Provisioned macaques also showed a higher abundance of Firmicutes and a lower abundance of Bacteroidetes than wild macaques. Functional analysis revealed that wild macaques had enriched microbial pathways involved in glycan biosynthesis and metabolism, transport and catabolism, and the digestive and endocrine systems, while provisioned macaques were richer in pathways associated with signaling molecules and interaction, neurodegenerative diseases. These differences were likely due to modification of the gut microbiota of the provisioned macaques to enable the digestion of new foods.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

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