About | BLOGS | Portfolio | Misc | Recommended | What's New | What's Hot

About | BLOGS | Portfolio | Misc | Recommended | What's New | What's Hot


Bibliography Options Menu

30 Mar 2023 at 01:30
Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics


Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 30 Mar 2023 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-03-28

Zhang W, Liu Y, Zheng K, et al (2023)

Discovery of an Abundant Viral Genus in Polar Regions through the Isolation and Genomic Characterization of a New Virus against Oceanospirillaceae.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The marine bacterial family Oceanospirillaceae, is well-known for its ability to degrade hydrocarbons and for its close association with algal blooms. However, only a few Oceanospirillaceae-infecting phages have been reported thus far. Here, we report on a novel Oceanospirillum phage, namely, vB_OsaM_PD0307, which has a 44,421 bp linear dsDNA genome and is the first myovirus infecting Oceanospirillaceae. A genomic analysis demonstrated that vB_OsaM_PD0307 is a variant of current phage isolates from the NCBI data set but that it has similar genomic features to two high-quality, uncultured viral genomes identified from marine metagenomes. Hence, we propose that vB_OsaM_PD0307 can be classified as the type phage of a new genus, designated Oceanospimyovirus. Additionally, metagenomic read mapping results have further shown that Oceanospimyovirus species are widespread in the global ocean, display distinct biogeographic distributions, and are abundant in polar regions. In summary, our findings expand the current understanding of the genomic characteristics, phylogenetic diversity, and distribution of Oceanospimyovirus phages. IMPORTANCE Oceanospirillum phage vB_OsaM_PD0307 is the first myovirus found to infect Oceanospirillaceae, and it represents a novel abundant viral genus in polar regions. This study provides insights into the genomic, phylogenetic, and ecological characteristics of the new viral genus, namely Oceanospimyovirus.

RevDate: 2023-03-29
CmpDate: 2023-03-29

Rivarez MPS, Pecman A, Bačnik K, et al (2023)

In-depth study of tomato and weed viromes reveals undiscovered plant virus diversity in an agroecosystem.

Microbiome, 11(1):60.

BACKGROUND: In agroecosystems, viruses are well known to influence crop health and some cause phytosanitary and economic problems, but their diversity in non-crop plants and role outside the disease perspective is less known. Extensive virome explorations that include both crop and diverse weed plants are therefore needed to better understand roles of viruses in agroecosystems. Such unbiased exploration is available through viromics, which could generate biological and ecological insights from immense high-throughput sequencing (HTS) data.

RESULTS: Here, we implemented HTS-based viromics to explore viral diversity in tomatoes and weeds in farming areas at a nation-wide scale. We detected 125 viruses, including 79 novel species, wherein 65 were found exclusively in weeds. This spanned 21 higher-level plant virus taxa dominated by Potyviridae, Rhabdoviridae, and Tombusviridae, and four non-plant virus families. We detected viruses of non-plant hosts and viroid-like sequences and demonstrated infectivity of a novel tobamovirus in plants of Solanaceae family. Diversities of predominant tomato viruses were variable, in some cases, comparable to that of global isolates of the same species. We phylogenetically classified novel viruses and showed links between a subgroup of phylogenetically related rhabdoviruses to their taxonomically related host plants. Ten classified viruses detected in tomatoes were also detected in weeds, which might indicate possible role of weeds as their reservoirs and that these viruses could be exchanged between the two compartments.

CONCLUSIONS: We showed that even in relatively well studied agroecosystems, such as tomato farms, a large part of very diverse plant viromes can still be unknown and is mostly present in understudied non-crop plants. The overlapping presence of viruses in tomatoes and weeds implicate possible presence of virus reservoir and possible exchange between the weed and crop compartments, which may influence weed management decisions. The observed variability and widespread presence of predominant tomato viruses and the infectivity of a novel tobamovirus in solanaceous plants, provided foundation for further investigation of virus disease dynamics and their effect on tomato health. The extensive insights we generated from such in-depth agroecosystem virome exploration will be valuable in anticipating possible emergences of plant virus diseases and would serve as baseline for further post-discovery characterization studies. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-03-29
CmpDate: 2023-03-29

Li H, Wang H, Ju H, et al (2023)

Comparison of gut viral communities in children under 5 years old and newborns.

Virology journal, 20(1):52.

OBJECTIVES: The gut virome of humans is mainly composed of bacteriophages and their role in shaping the gut microbiome and influencing human health is increasingly recognized. However, little is known about the dynamic changes of the gut virome in children and its role in growth and development. In this study, we collected fecal samples from newborns and children under 5 years old from the same area during the same time period to investigate the gut viral community using viral metagenomic technique.

METHODS: We used viral metagenomics to compare the gut bacteriophage composition between newborns and children under 5 years of age. We collected fecal samples from 45 newborns who were born at the Affiliated Hospital of Jiangsu University and 45 healthy children who were examined at the same hospital. The two groups were classified as the newborn group and the children group.

RESULTS: Our sequencing analysis showed that the number of seqeunce reads of the children group were more than that of the newborn group. The results of alpha diversity and beta diversity both indicated that the diversity of the children group was significantly higher than that of the newborn group and the children group is different from the newborn group. The abundance of gut virome in the children group was also higher than that in the newborn group. The analysis of the genetic characteristics of the viruses showed that the phage genome was scattered and clustered with specificity.

CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the gut bacteriophage communities undergo changes over time, presenting diversity and dynamic characteristics. We characterized the composition of gut virome in children and newborns in this region. However, further research is needed to investigate the function of bacteriophages in the ecology of the gastrointestinal tract.

RevDate: 2023-03-29
CmpDate: 2023-03-29

Muzny CA, Van Gerwen OT, Schroeder JA, et al (2023)

Impact of testosterone use on the vaginal microbiota of transgender men, including susceptibility to bacterial vaginosis: study protocol for a prospective, observational study.

BMJ open, 13(3):e073068 pii:bmjopen-2023-073068.

INTRODUCTION: The effect of testosterone (T) therapy on the vaginal microbiota of transgender men (TGM) is not well characterised, although one cross-sectional study comparing the vaginal microbiota of cisgender women to TGM on T≥1 year found that, in 71% of the TGM, the vaginal microbiota was less likely to be Lactobacillus-dominated and more likely to be enriched with >30 other bacterial species, many associated with bacterial vaginosis (BV). This prospective study aims to investigate changes in the composition of the vaginal microbiota over time in TGM who retain their natal genitalia (ie, vagina) and initiate T. In addition, we will identify changes in the vaginal microbiota preceding incident BV (iBV) in this cohort while investigating behavioural factors, along with hormonal shifts, which may be associated with iBV.

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: T-naïve TGM who have not undergone gender-affirming genital surgery with normal baseline vaginal microbiota (ie, no Amsel criteria, normal Nugent Score with no Gardnerella vaginalis morphotypes) will self-collect daily vaginal specimens for 7 days prior to initiating T and for 90 days thereafter. These specimens will be used for vaginal Gram stain, 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomic sequencing to characterise shifts in the vaginal microbiota over time, including development of iBV. Participants will complete daily diaries on douching, menses and behavioural factors including sexual activity during the study.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: This protocol is approved through the single Institutional Review Board mechanism by the University of Alabama at Birmingham. External relying sites are the Louisiana State University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans Human Research Protection Program and the Indiana University Human Research Protection Program. Study findings will be presented at scientific conferences and peer-reviewed journals as well as shared with community advisory boards at participating gender health clinics and community-based organisations servicing transgender people.

REGISTRATION DETAILS: Protocol # IRB-300008073.

RevDate: 2023-03-29
CmpDate: 2023-03-29

Shi C, Tong M, Cai Q, et al (2023)

Electrokinetic-Enhanced Bioremediation of Trichloroethylene-Contaminated Low-Permeability Soils: Mechanistic Insight from Spatio-Temporal Variations of Indigenous Microbial Community and Biodehalogenation Activity.

Environmental science & technology, 57(12):5046-5055.

Electrokinetic-enhanced bioremediation (EK-Bio), particularly bioaugmentation with injection of biodehalogenation functional microbes such as Dehalococcoides, has been documented to be effective in treating a low-permeability subsurface matrix contaminated with chlorinated ethenes. However, the spatio-temporal variations of indigenous microbial community and biodehalogenation activity of the background matrix, a fundamental aspect for understanding EK-Bio, remain unclear. To fill this gap, we investigated the variation of trichloroethylene (TCE) biodehalogenation activity in response to indigenous microbial community succession in EK-Bio by both column and batch experiments. For a 195 day EK-Bio column (∼1 V/cm, electrolyte circulation, lactate addition), biodehalogenation activity occurred first near the cathode (<60 days) and then spread to the anode (>90 days), which was controlled by electron acceptor (i.e., Fe(III)) competition and microbe succession. Amplicon sequencing and metagenome analysis revealed that iron-reducing bacteria (Geobacter, Anaeromyxobacter, Geothrix) were enriched within initial 60 d and were gradually replaced by organohalide-respiring bacteria (versatile Geobacter and obligate Dehalobacter) afterward. Iron-reducing bacteria required an initial long time to consume the competitive electron acceptors so that an appropriate reductive condition could be developed for the enrichment of organohalide-respiring bacteria and the enhancement of TCE biodehalogenation activity.

RevDate: 2023-03-29
CmpDate: 2023-03-29

Zhang L, Guo H, Gu J, et al (2023)

Metagenomic insights into dietary remodeling of gut microbiota and antibiotic resistome in meat rabbits.

The Science of the total environment, 874:162006.

The gut microbiota is a repository of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), which may affect the health of humans and animals. The intestinal flora is affected by many factors but it is unclear how the intestinal microflora and antibiotic resistome in rabbits might change under dietary intervention. Feeding with lettuce led to the amplification and transfer of exogenous ARGs in the intestinal flora, but there were no significant differences when fed lettuces grown with different manure types. For example, the lsaC of lettuce fed with bovine, chicken and pig manure without adding organic fertilizer increased by 0.143, 0.151, 0.179 and 0.169 logs respectively after 4 weeks, and the efrB also increased by 0.074, 0.068, 0.079 and 0.106 logs respectively. Network analysis showed that Clostridium_ sensu_ stricto_ 18 was a potential host of type 6 virulence factor genes (VFGs). Mantel analysis showed that ARGs were directly influenced by mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and VFGs. Thus, feeding rabbits lettuce grown with different manure types contribute to the transmission of ARGs by remodeling the intestinal microenvironment. In addition, diet may affect exogenous ARGs to change the intestinal antibiotic resistome and possibly threaten health.

RevDate: 2023-03-29
CmpDate: 2023-03-29

Jiang W, Hu C, Chen Y, et al (2023)

Dysregulation of the microbiota-brain axis during long-term exposure to polystyrene nanoplastics in rats and the protective role of dihydrocaffeic acid.

The Science of the total environment, 874:162101.

Polystyrene nano-plastics (PS-NPs) can be accumulated in the food chain and can penetrate biological barriers to affect multiple physiological functions. However, the adverse effects of nano-plastics on mammals and the underlying mechanism still remain unknown. To fill the gaps, our study administrated low-dose PS-NPs (50 and 100 μg/L) for 24 consecutive weeks in rats. Behavioral and morphological evaluations were performed to assess the neurobehavoirs. A combined analysis of multiple omics was used to evaluate the dysfunctions of the gut-microbe-brain axis. After dihydrochalcone(NHDC) treatment in the PS-NPs rat model, the inflammation response and apoptosis process were assessed and proteomics was used to explore the underlying mechanism. Our results indicated that long-term exposure to low-dose PS-NPs could induce abnormal neurobehaviors and amygdaloid nucleus impairment, and stimulate inflammatory responses and apoptosis. Metagenomics results revealed that four microbial phyla including Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, Defferibacteres, and Bacteroidetes changed significantly compared to the control. Targeted metabolomics analysis in the feces showed alteration of 122 metabolites induced by the PS-NPs exposure, among which the content of dihydrocaffeic acid was significantly associated with the different microbial genera and pivotal differential metabolites in the amygdaloid nucleus. And NHDC treatment significantly alleviated PS-NP-induced neuroinflammation and apoptosis and the cyclic adenosine monophosphate(cAMP)/protein kinase A(PKA)/phosphorylated cAMP-response element binding protein(p-CREB)/plasma membrane calcium-transporting ATPase 2(Atp2b2) signaling pathway was identified in the proteomics. In conclusion, long-term exposure to low-dose PS-NPs has adverse effects on emotion through the dysregulation of the gut-brain axis, and dihydrocaffeic acid can alleviate these effects via the cAMP/PKA/p-CREB/Atp2b2 signaling pathway.

RevDate: 2023-03-28
CmpDate: 2023-03-28

Feng R, Zhu Q, Li Q, et al (2023)

Microbiota-ear-brain interaction is associated with generalized anxiety disorder through activation of inflammatory cytokine responses.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1117726.

INTRODUCTION: Generalized anxiety disorder (GAD) is one of the most enduring anxiety disorders, being associated with increased systemic inflammation. However, the trigger and mechanisms underlying the activation of inflammatory cytokine responses in GAD remain poorly understood.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: We characterized the ear canal microbiome in GAD patients through 16S rRNA gene sequencing and metagenomic sequencing and identified the serum inflammatory markers in GAD patients. Spearman correlations were applied to test the relationship between the microbiota changes and systemic inflammation.

RESULTS: Our findings showed the higher microbial diversity, accompanied with the significantly increased abundance of Proteobacteria, and decreased abundance of Firmicutes in the ear canal of GAD participants compared to that of the age- and sex-matched healthy controls (HC). Metagenomic sequencing showed that Pseudomonas aeruginosa were significantly increased at species-level in GAD patients. Furthermore, we observed the relative abundance of Pseudomonas aeruginosa was positively associated with elevated systemic inflammatory markers and the severity of disease, suggesting that these ear canal microbiota alterations might be correlated with GAD by activating the inflammatory response.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings indicate that microbiota-ear-brain interaction via upregulating inflammatory reaction involve in the development of GAD, as well as suggest that ear canal bacterial communities may be a target for therapeutic intervention.

RevDate: 2023-03-28
CmpDate: 2023-03-28

Zhao Y, Yi J, Xiang J, et al (2023)

Exploration of lung mycobiome in the patients with non-small-cell lung cancer.

BMC microbiology, 23(1):81.

As the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) progresses, the relationship between microbes and human health has been receiving increasing attention. A growing number of reports support the correlation between cancer and microbes. However, most studies have focused on bacteria, rather than fungal communities. In this study, we studied the alteration in lung mycobiome in patients with non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) using metagenomic sequencing and qPCR. The higher fungal diversity and more complex network were observed in the patients with NSCLC. In addition, Alternaria arborescens was found as the most relevant fungus to NSCLC, and the enrichment of it in cancerous tissue was also detected. This study proposes that the changes in fungal communities may be closely related to lung cancer, and provides insights into further exploration the relationship between lung cancer and fungi.

RevDate: 2023-03-28
CmpDate: 2023-03-28

Lin X, Hu T, Chen J, et al (2023)

The genomic landscape of reference genomes of cultivated human gut bacteria.

Nature communications, 14(1):1663.

Culture-independent metagenomic studies have revolutionized our understanding of the gut microbiota. However, the lack of full genomes from cultured species is still a limitation for in-depth studies of the gut microbiota. Here we present a substantially expanded version of our Cultivated Genome Reference (CGR), termed CGR2, providing 3324 high-quality draft genomes from isolates selected from a large-scale cultivation of bacterial isolates from fecal samples of healthy Chinese individuals. The CGR2 classifies 527 species (179 previously unidentified species) from 8 phyla, and uncovers a genomic and functional diversity of Collinsella aerofaciens. The CGR2 genomes match 126 metagenome-assembled genomes without cultured representatives in the Unified Human Gastrointestinal Genome (UHGG) collection and harbor 3767 unidentified secondary metabolite biosynthetic gene clusters, providing a source of natural compounds with pharmaceutical potentials. We uncover accurate phage-bacterium linkages providing information on the evolutionary characteristics of interaction between bacteriophages and bacteria at the strain level.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Viver T, Conrad RE, Lucio M, et al (2023)

Description of two cultivated and two uncultivated new Salinibacter species, one named following the rules of the bacteriological code: Salinibacter grassmerensis sp. nov.; and three named following the rules of the SeqCode: Salinibacter pepae sp. nov., Salinibacter abyssi sp. nov., and Salinibacter pampae sp. nov.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 46(3):126416 pii:S0723-2020(23)00025-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Current -omics methods allow the collection of a large amount of information that helps in describing the microbial diversity in nature. Here, and as a result of a culturomic approach that rendered the collection of thousands of isolates from 5 different hypersaline sites (in Spain, USA and New Zealand), we obtained 21 strains that represent two new Salinibacter species. For these species we propose the names Salinibacter pepae sp. nov. and Salinibacter grassmerensis sp. nov. (showing average nucleotide identity (ANI) values < 95.09% and 87.08% with Sal. ruber M31[T], respectively). Metabolomics revealed species-specific discriminative profiles. Sal. ruber strains were distinguished by a higher percentage of polyunsaturated fatty acids and specific N-functionalized fatty acids; and Sal. altiplanensis was distinguished by an increased number of glycosylated molecules. Based on sequence characteristics and inferred phenotype of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), we describe two new members of the genus Salinibacter. These species dominated in different sites and always coexisted with Sal. ruber and Sal. pepae. Based on the MAGs from three Argentinian lakes in the Pampa region of Argentina and the MAG of the Romanian lake Fără Fund, we describe the species Salinibacter pampae sp. nov. and Salinibacter abyssi sp. nov. respectively (showing ANI values 90.94% and 91.48% with Sal. ruber M31[T], respectively). Sal. grassmerensis sp. nov. name was formed according to the rules of the International Code for Nomenclature of Prokaryotes (ICNP), and Sal. pepae, Sal. pampae sp. nov. and Sal. abyssi sp. nov. are proposed following the rules of the newly published Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes Described from Sequence Data (SeqCode). This work constitutes an example on how classification under ICNP and SeqCode can coexist, and how the official naming a cultivated organism for which the deposit in public repositories is difficult finds an intermediate solution.

RevDate: 2023-03-27
CmpDate: 2023-03-27

Lin T (2023)

Editorial: New techniques in microbiome research.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1158392.

RevDate: 2023-03-28
CmpDate: 2023-03-28

Jia Y, Liu ML, López-Pujol J, et al (2023)

The hybridization origin of the Chinese endemic herb genus Notopterygium (Apiaceae): Evidence from population genomics and ecological niche analysis.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution, 182:107736.

Hybridization is recognized as a major force in species evolution and biodiversity formation, generally leading to the origin and differentiation of new species. Multiple hybridization events cannot easily be reconstructed, yet they offer the potential to study a number of evolutionary processes. Here, we used nuclear expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat and large-scale single nucleotide polymorphism variation data, combined with niche analysis, to investigate the putative independent hybridization events in Notopterygium, a group of perennial herb plants endemic to China. Population genomic analysis indicated that the four studied species are genetically well-delimited and that N. forrestii and N. oviforme have originated by hybridization. According to Approximate Bayesian Computation, the best-fit model involved the formation of N. forrestii from the crossing of N. franchetii and N. incisum, with N. forrestii further backcrossing to N. franchetii to form N. oviforme. The niche analyses indicated that niche divergence [likely triggered by the regional climate changes, particularly the intensification of East Asian winter monsoon, and tectonic movements (affecting both Qinghai-Tibetan Plateau and Qinling Mountains)] may have promoted and maintained the reproductive isolation among hybrid species. N. forrestii shows ecological specialization with respect to their parental species, whereas N. oviforme has completely shifted its niche. These results suggested that the climate and environmental factors together triggered the two-step hybridization of the East Asia herb plants. Our study also emphasizes the power of genome-wide SNPs for investigating suspected cases of hybridization, particularly unravelling old hybridization events.

RevDate: 2023-03-28
CmpDate: 2023-03-28

Sun H, Wang P, Y Li (2023)

An integrated microbiome project for charactering microbial diversity in classroom based on virtual simulation experiments.

Biochemistry and molecular biology education : a bimonthly publication of the International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, 51(2):171-179.

Microbiome study requires both molecular techniques and bioinformatics skills, which are challenging for biologists to participate in this growing field. To introduce microbiome concepts and skills to students, a 6-week wet-lab and bioinformatics course for undergraduates was implemented through the project-based learning (PBL) approach. In the saliva microbiome project, students collected their saliva samples, performed DNA extraction and PCR amplification, followed by metagenomic analysis to compare the diversity and abundances of microbes among samples. First, students are required to practice molecular techniques and bioinformatics analysis skills in a virtual simulation lab. To our knowledge, our study is the first one to incorporate a virtual lab into microbiome experience. Then, students applied their recently acquired skills to produce and analyze their own 16S amplicon sequencing data and reported their results via a scientific report. The student learning outcomes show that the Virtual lab can improve students' laboratory techniques and research capabilities. Moreover, a simple pipeline to analyze 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data is introduced in a step-by-step manner that helps students to develop analysis skills. This project can be modified as either a virtual course or a module within another course such as microbiology, molecular biology, and bioinformatics. Our study provides evidence on the positive impact of virtual labs on learning outcomes in undergraduate science education.

RevDate: 2023-03-26

Baltoumas FA, Karatzas E, Paez-Espino D, et al (2023)

Exploring microbial functional biodiversity at the protein family level-From metagenomic sequence reads to annotated protein clusters.

Frontiers in bioinformatics, 3:1157956.

Metagenomics has enabled accessing the genetic repertoire of natural microbial communities. Metagenome shotgun sequencing has become the method of choice for studying and classifying microorganisms from various environments. To this end, several methods have been developed to process and analyze the sequence data from raw reads to end-products such as predicted protein sequences or families. In this article, we provide a thorough review to simplify such processes and discuss the alternative methodologies that can be followed in order to explore biodiversity at the protein family level. We provide details for analysis tools and we comment on their scalability as well as their advantages and disadvantages. Finally, we report the available data repositories and recommend various approaches for protein family annotation related to phylogenetic distribution, structure prediction and metadata enrichment.

RevDate: 2023-03-27
CmpDate: 2023-03-27

Saibu S, Adebusoye SA, GO Oyetibo (2023)

Soil microbiome response to 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin during bioremediation of contaminated tropical soil in a microcosm-based study.

Journal of hazardous materials, 451:131105.

A pristine soil was artificially contaminated with 2-chlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2-CDD) and separated into three portions. Microcosms SSOC and SSCC were seeded with Bacillus sp. SS2 and a three-member bacterial consortium respectively; SSC was untreated, while heat-sterilized contaminated soil served as overall control. Significant degradation of 2-CDD occurred in all microcosms except for the control where the concentration remained unchanged. Degradation of 2-CDD was highest in SSCC (94.9%) compared to SSOC (91.66%) and SCC (85.9%). There was also a notable reduction in the microbial composition complexity both in species richness and evenness following dioxin contamination, a trend that nearly lasted the study period; particularly in setups SSC and SSOC. Irrespective of the bioremediation strategies, the soil microflora was practically dominated by the Firmicutes and at the genus level, the phylotype Bacillus was the most dominant. Other dominant taxa though negatively impacted were Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi, and Acidobacteria. Overall, this study demonstrated the feasibility of microbial seeding as an effective strategy to cleanup tropical soil contaminated with dioxins and the importance of metagenomics in elucidating the microbial diversities of contaminated soils. Meanwhile, the seeded organisms, owed their success not only to metabolic competence, but survivability, adaptability and ability to compete favourably with autochthonous microflora.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Hagh-Doust N, Mikryukov V, Anslan S, et al (2023)

Effects of nitrogen deposition on carbon and nutrient cycling along a natural soil acidity gradient as revealed by metagenomics.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Nitrogen (N) deposition and soil acidification are environmental challenges affecting ecosystem functioning, health, and biodiversity, but their effects on functional genes are poorly understood. Here, we utilized metabarcoding and metagenomics to investigate the responses of soil functional genes to N deposition along a natural soil pH gradient. Soil N content was uncorrelated with pH, enabling us to investigate their effects separately. Soil acidity strongly and negatively affected the relative abundances of most cluster of orthologous gene (COG) categories of the metabolism supercategory. Similarly, soil acidity negatively affected the diversity of functional genes related to carbon and N but not phosphorus cycling. Multivariate analyses showed that soil pH was the most important factor affecting microbial and functional gene composition, while the effects of N deposition were less important. Relative abundance of KEGG functional modules related to different parts of the studied cycles showed variable responses to soil acidity and N deposition. Furthermore, our results suggested that the diversity-function relationship reported for other organisms also applies to soil microbiomes. Since N deposition and soil pH affected microbial taxonomic and functional composition to a different extent, we conclude that N deposition effects might be primarily mediated through soil acidification in forest ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-03-24
CmpDate: 2023-03-24

Graham EH, Tom WA, Neujahr AC, et al (2023)

The persistence and stabilization of auxiliary genes in the human skin virome.

Virology journal, 20(1):49.

BACKGROUND: The human skin contains a diverse microbiome that provides protective functions against environmental pathogens. Studies have demonstrated that bacteriophages modulate bacterial community composition and facilitate the transfer of host-specific genes, potentially influencing host cellular functions. However, little is known about the human skin virome and its role in human health. Especially, how viral-host relationships influence skin microbiome structure and function is poorly understood.

RESULTS: Population dynamics and genetic diversity of bacteriophage communities in viral metagenomic data collected from three anatomical skin locations from 60 subjects at five different time points revealed that cutaneous bacteriophage populations are mainly composed of tailed Caudovirales phages that carry auxiliary genes to help improve metabolic remodeling to increase bacterial host fitness through antimicrobial resistance. Sequence variation in the MRSA associated antimicrobial resistance gene, erm(C) was evaluated using targeted sequencing to further confirm the presence of antimicrobial resistance genes in the human virome and to demonstrate how functionality of such genes may influence persistence and in turn stabilization of bacterial host and their functions.

CONCLUSIONS: This large temporal study of human skin associated viruses indicates that the human skin virome is associated with auxiliary metabolic genes and antimicrobial resistance genes to help increase bacterial host fitness.

RevDate: 2023-03-24
CmpDate: 2023-03-24

Volmer JG, Soo RM, Evans PN, et al (2023)

Isolation and characterisation of novel Methanocorpusculum species indicates the genus is ancestrally host-associated.

BMC biology, 21(1):59.

BACKGROUND: With an increasing interest in the manipulation of methane produced from livestock cultivation, the microbiome of Australian marsupials provides a unique ecological and evolutionary comparison with 'low-methane' emitters. Previously, marsupial species were shown to be enriched for novel lineages of Methanocorpusculum, as well as Methanobrevibacter, Methanosphaera, and Methanomassiliicoccales. Despite sporadic reports of Methanocorpusculum from stool samples of various animal species, there remains little information on the impacts of these methanogens on their hosts.

RESULTS: Here, we characterise novel host-associated species of Methanocorpusculum, to explore unique host-specific genetic factors and their associated metabolic potential. We performed comparative analyses on 176 Methanocorpusculum genomes comprising 130 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) recovered from 20 public animal metagenome datasets and 35 other publicly available Methanocorpusculum MAGs and isolate genomes of host-associated and environmental origin. Nine MAGs were also produced from faecal metagenomes of the common wombat (Vombatus ursinus) and mahogany glider (Petaurus gracilis), along with the cultivation of one axenic isolate from each respective animal; M. vombati (sp. nov.) and M. petauri (sp. nov.).

CONCLUSIONS: Through our analyses, we substantially expand the available genetic information for this genus by describing the phenotypic and genetic characteristics of 23 host-associated species of Methanocorpusculum. These lineages display differential enrichment of genes associated with methanogenesis, amino acid biosynthesis, transport system proteins, phosphonate metabolism, and carbohydrate-active enzymes. These results provide insights into the differential genetic and functional adaptations of these novel host-associated species of Methanocorpusculum and suggest that this genus is ancestrally host-associated.

RevDate: 2023-03-24
CmpDate: 2023-03-24

Nosalova L, Kiskova J, Fecskeova LK, et al (2023)

Bacterial Community Structure of Two Cold Sulfur Springs in Slovakia (Central Europe).

Current microbiology, 80(5):145.

Sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, especially those from hot springs, have attracted the attention of microbiologists for more than 150 years. In contrast, the microbial diversity of cold sulfur springs remains largely unrecognized. Culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches were used to study the diversity of sulfur-oxidizing bacterial communities in two cold sulfur springs in Slovakia. Geological conditions and resulting spring water chemistry appear to be major factors influencing the composition of the sulfur-oxidizing bacterial community. Bacterial communities in both springs were found to be dominated by Proteobacteria with Epsilonproteobacteria being prevalent in the high-salinity Stankovany spring and Alpha- and Gammaproteobacteria in the low-salinity Jovsa spring. Limited overlap was found between culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches with multiple taxa of cultivated sulfur-oxidizing bacteria not being detected by the culture-independent metagenomics approach. Moreover, four cultivated bacterial isolates could represent novel taxa based on the low similarity of their 16S rRNA gene sequence (similarity lower than 98%) to sequences of known bacteria. Our study supports the current view that multiple approaches are required to assess the bacterial diversity in natural habitats and indicates that sulfur springs in Slovakia harbor unique, yet-undescribed microorganisms.

RevDate: 2023-03-24
CmpDate: 2023-03-24

Toh E, Xing Y, Gao X, et al (2023)

Sexual behavior shapes male genitourinary microbiome composition.

Cell reports. Medicine, 4(3):100981.

The origin, composition, and significance of the distal male urethral microbiome are unclear, but vaginal microbiome dysbiosis is linked to new sex partners and several urogynecological syndromes. We characterized 110 urethral specimens from men without urethral symptoms, infections, or inflammation using shotgun metagenomics. Most urethral specimens contain characteristic lactic acid bacteria and Corynebacterium spp. In contrast, several bacteria associated with vaginal dysbiosis were present only in specimens from men who reported vaginal intercourse. Sexual behavior, but not other evaluated behavioral, demographic, or clinical variables, strongly associated with inter-specimen variance in urethral microbiome composition. Thus, the male urethra supports a simple core microbiome that is established independent of sexual exposures but can be re-shaped by vaginal sex. Overall, the results suggest that urogenital microbiology and sexual behavior are inexorably intertwined, and show that the male urethra harbors female urogenital pathobionts.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Durán-Viseras A, Sánchez-Porro C, Viver T, et al (2023)

Discovery of the Streamlined Haloarchaeon Halorutilus salinus, Comprising a New Order Widespread in Hypersaline Environments across the World.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The class Halobacteria is one of the most diverse groups within the Euryarchaeota phylum, whose members are ubiquitously distributed in hypersaline environments, where they often constitute the major population. Here, we report the discovery and isolation of a new halophilic archaeon, strain F3-133[T] exhibiting ≤86.3% 16S rRNA gene identity to any previously cultivated archaeon, and, thus, representing a new order. Analysis of available 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic data sets showed that the new isolate represents an abundant group in intermediate-to-high salinity ecosystems and is widely distributed across the world. The isolate presents a streamlined genome, which probably accounts for its ecological success in nature and its fastidious growth in culture. The predominant osmoprotection mechanism appears to be the typical salt-in strategy used by other haloarchaea. Furthermore, the genome contains the complete gene set for nucleotide monophosphate degradation pathway through archaeal RuBisCO, being within the first halophilic archaea representatives reported to code this enzyme. Genomic comparisons with previously described representatives of the phylum Euryarchaeota were consistent with the 16S rRNA gene data in supporting that our isolate represents a novel order within the class Halobacteria for which we propose the names Halorutilales ord. nov., Halorutilaceae fam. nov., Halorutilus gen. nov. and Halorutilus salinus sp. nov. IMPORTANCE The discovery of the new halophilic archaeon, Halorutilus salinus, representing a novel order, family, genus, and species within the class Halobacteria and phylum Euryarchaeota clearly enables insights into the microbial dark matter, expanding the current taxonomical knowledge of this group of archaea. The in-depth comparative genomic analysis performed on this new taxon revealed one of the first known examples of an Halobacteria representative coding the archaeal RuBisCO gene and with a streamlined genome, being ecologically successful in nature and explaining its previous non-isolation. Altogether, this research brings light into the understanding of the physiology of the Halobacteria class members, their ecological distribution, and capacity to thrive in hypersaline environments.

RevDate: 2023-03-24
CmpDate: 2023-03-24

Sharma P, Singh S, Das K, et al (2023)

Dysbiosis of gut microbiota due to diet, alcohol intake, body mass index, and gastrointestinal diseases in India.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 107(7-8):2547-2560.

The human gut is composed of diverse microflora which is influenced by dietary intake. Body mass index (BMI) and lifestyle patterns also play a vital role in human health to alter gut microbial composition. Our study aims to determine the impact of alcohol intake, BMI, and diet on gut microbiota and its relationship with gastrointestinal disorders. Thirty-nine gastric biopsies were taken from patients with various gastrointestinal (GI) diseases, and all the patient's lifestyle behavior were recorded in a written proforma. 16S rRNA metagenome analysis for V3-V4 regions was used to examine microbial compositions. The richness and diversity of gut microbiota were analyzed by PERMANOVA using the Bray-Curtis dissimilarity index and principal component analysis. The difference in relative abundance was calculated by ANOVA (p < 0.05). Alpha diversity indexes between vegetarians and non-vegetarians showed no significant difference based on BMI, alcohol status, and GI diseases. We found that in overweight vegetarian individuals Faecalibacterium and Rumicococcus might play a role in the control of Helicobacter pylori. Similarly, the increased abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila in non-vegetarian individuals with normal BMI might play a role to decrease the level of harmful bacteria like H. pylori, and Corynebacterium sp. Also, the relative abundance of Corynebacterium sp. among the vegetarians and Streptococcus sp. in the non-vegetarians was increased in alcoholics while H. pylori was increased in non-alcoholics irrespective of diet. There is an increased abundance of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii in vegetarians among all categories; however, we did not find any correlation between disease outcomes. Our study shows that alcohol intake and dietary habits have independent effects on gut microbial composition. The relative abundance of F. prausnitzii was high among vegetarians in all categories. KEY POINTS: • The presence of H. pylori is less among alcoholics. • Good bacteria help to maintain a normal body mass index. • Gut microbiota richness is high in vegetarians and diversity in non-vegetarians.

RevDate: 2023-03-24
CmpDate: 2023-03-24

Mehta RS, Mayers JR, Zhang Y, et al (2023)

Gut microbial metabolism of 5-ASA diminishes its clinical efficacy in inflammatory bowel disease.

Nature medicine, 29(3):700-709.

For decades, variability in clinical efficacy of the widely used inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) drug 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) has been attributed, in part, to its acetylation and inactivation by gut microbes. Identification of the responsible microbes and enzyme(s), however, has proved elusive. To uncover the source of this metabolism, we developed a multi-omics workflow combining gut microbiome metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metabolomics from the longitudinal IBDMDB cohort of 132 controls and patients with IBD. This associated 12 previously uncharacterized microbial acetyltransferases with 5-ASA inactivation, belonging to two protein superfamilies: thiolases and acyl-CoA N-acyltransferases. In vitro characterization of representatives from both families confirmed the ability of these enzymes to acetylate 5-ASA. A cross-sectional analysis within the discovery cohort and subsequent prospective validation within the independent SPARC IBD cohort (n = 208) found three of these microbial thiolases and one acyl-CoA N-acyltransferase to be epidemiologically associated with an increased risk of treatment failure among 5-ASA users. Together, these data address a longstanding challenge in IBD management, outline a method for the discovery of previously uncharacterized gut microbial activities and advance the possibility of microbiome-based personalized medicine.

RevDate: 2023-03-22
CmpDate: 2023-03-22

Zhao X, Guo Y, Kang L, et al (2023)

Population genomics unravels the Holocene history of bread wheat and its relatives.

Nature plants, 9(3):403-419.

Deep knowledge of crop biodiversity is essential to improving global food security. Despite bread wheat serving as a keystone crop worldwide, the population history of bread wheat and its relatives, both cultivated and wild, remains elusive. By analysing whole-genome sequences of 795 wheat accessions, we found that bread wheat originated from the southwest coast of the Caspian Sea and underwent a slow speciation process, lasting ~3,300 yr owing to persistent gene flow from its relatives. Soon after, bread wheat spread across Eurasia and reached Europe, South Asia and East Asia ~7,000 to ~5,000 yr ago, shaping a diversified but occasionally convergent adaptive landscape in novel environments. By contrast, the cultivated relatives of bread wheat experienced a population decline by ~82% over the past ~2,000 yr due to the food choice shift of humans. Further biogeographical modelling predicted a continued population shrinking of many bread wheat relatives in the coming decades because of their vulnerability to the changing climate. These findings will guide future efforts in protecting and utilizing wheat biodiversity to enhance global wheat production.

RevDate: 2023-03-23
CmpDate: 2023-03-23

Mazza Rodrigues JL, M Melotto (2023)

Naturally engineered plant microbiomes in resource-limited ecosystems.

Trends in microbiology, 31(4):329-331.

Nature-designed plant microbiomes may offer solutions to improve crop production and ecosystem restoration in less than optimum environments. Through a full exploration of metagenomic data, Camargo et al. showed that a previously unknown microbial diversity enhances nutrient mobilization in stress-adapted plants.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Obregon Alvarez D, Fonseca de Souza L, Mendes LW, et al (2023)

Shifts in functional traits and interactions patterns of soil methane-cycling communities following forest-to-pasture conversion in the Amazon Basin.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Deforestation threatens the integrity of the Amazon biome and the ecosystem services it provides, including greenhouse gas mitigation. Forest-to-pasture conversion has been shown to alter the flux of methane gas (CH4) in Amazonian soils, driving a switch from acting as a sink to a source of atmospheric CH4 . This study aimed to better understand this phenomenon by investigating soil microbial metagenomes, focusing on the taxonomic and functional structure of methane-cycling communities. Metagenomic data from forest and pasture soils were combined with measurements of in situ CH4 fluxes and soil edaphic factors and analysed using multivariate statistical approaches. We found a significantly higher abundance and diversity of methanogens in pasture soils. As inferred by co-occurrence networks, these microorganisms seem to be less interconnected within the soil microbiota in pasture soils. Metabolic traits were also different between land uses, with increased hydrogenotrophic and methylotrophic pathways of methanogenesis in pasture soils. Land-use change also induced shifts in taxonomic and functional traits of methanotrophs, with bacteria harbouring genes encoding the soluble form of methane monooxygenase enzyme (sMMO) depleted in pasture soils. Redundancy analysis and multimodel inference revealed that the shift in methane-cycling communities was associated with high pH, organic matter, soil porosity and micronutrients in pasture soils. These results comprehensively characterize the effect of forest-to-pasture conversion on the microbial communities driving the methane-cycling microorganisms in the Amazon rainforest, which will contribute to the efforts to preserve this important biome.

RevDate: 2023-03-22
CmpDate: 2023-03-22

Boktor JC, Sharon G, Verhagen Metman LA, et al (2023)

Integrated Multi-Cohort Analysis of the Parkinson's Disease Gut Metagenome.

Movement disorders : official journal of the Movement Disorder Society, 38(3):399-409.

BACKGROUND: The gut microbiome is altered in several neurologic disorders, including Parkinson's disease (PD).

OBJECTIVES: The aim is to profile the fecal gut metagenome in PD for alterations in microbial composition, taxon abundance, metabolic pathways, and microbial gene products, and their relationship with disease progression.

METHODS: Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was conducted on 244 stool donors from two independent cohorts in the United States, including individuals with PD (n = 48, n = 47, respectively), environmental household controls (HC, n = 29, n = 30), and community population controls (PC, n = 41, n = 49). Microbial features consistently altered in PD compared to HC and PC subjects were identified. Data were cross-referenced to public metagenomic data sets from two previous studies in Germany and China to determine generalizable microbiome features.

RESULTS: We find several significantly altered taxa between PD and controls within the two cohorts sequenced in this study. Analysis across global cohorts returns consistent changes only in Intestinimonas butyriciproducens. Pathway enrichment analysis reveals disruptions in microbial carbohydrate and lipid metabolism and increased amino acid and nucleotide metabolism in PD. Global gene-level signatures indicate an increased response to oxidative stress, decreased cellular growth and microbial motility, and disrupted intercommunity signaling.

CONCLUSIONS: A metagenomic meta-analysis of PD shows consistent and novel alterations in functional metabolic potential and microbial gene abundance across four independent studies from three continents. These data reveal that stereotypic changes in the functional potential of the gut microbiome are a consistent feature of PD, highlighting potential diagnostic and therapeutic avenues for future research. © 2023 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals LLC on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

RevDate: 2023-03-19

Runde J, Veseli I, Fogarty EC, et al (2023)

Transient Suppression of Bacterial Populations Associated with Gut Health is Critical in Success of Exclusive Enteral Nutrition for Children with Crohn's Disease.

Journal of Crohn's & colitis pii:7080705 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exclusive enteral nutrition [EEN] is a dietary intervention to induce clinical remission in children with active luminal Crohn's disease [CD]. While changes in the gut microbial communities have been implicated in achieving this remission, a precise understanding of the role of microbial ecology in the restoration of gut homeostasis is lacking.

METHODS: Here we reconstructed genomes from the gut metagenomes of 12 paediatric subjects who were sampled before, during and after EEN. We then classified each microbial population into distinct 'phenotypes' or patterns of response based on changes in their relative abundances throughout the therapy on a per-individual basis.

RESULTS: Our data show that children achieving clinical remission during therapy were enriched with microbial populations that were either suppressed or that demonstrated a transient bloom as a function of EEN. In contrast, this ecosystem-level response was not observed in cases of EEN failure. Further analysis revealed that populations that were suppressed during EEN were significantly more prevalent in healthy children and adults across the globe compared with those that bloomed ephemerally during the therapy.

CONCLUSIONS: These observations taken together suggest that successful outcomes of EEN are marked by a temporary emergence of microbial populations that are rare in healthy individuals, and a concomitant reduction in microbes that are commonly associated with gut homeostasis. Our work is a first attempt to highlight individual-specific, complex environmental factors that influence microbial response in EEN. This model offers a novel, alternative viewpoint to traditional taxonomic strategies used to characterize associations with health and disease states.

RevDate: 2023-03-21
CmpDate: 2023-03-21

Ma S, H Li (2023)

Statistical and Computational Methods for Microbial Strain Analysis.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2629:231-245.

Microbial strains are interpreted as a lineage derived from a recent ancestor that have not experienced "too many" recombination events and can be successfully retrieved with culture-independent techniques using metagenomic sequencing. Such a strain variability has been increasingly shown to display additional phenotypic heterogeneities that affect host health, such as virulence, transmissibility, and antibiotics resistance. New statistical and computational methods have recently been developed to track the strains in samples based on shotgun metagenomics data either based on reference genome sequences or Metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). In this paper, we review some recent statistical methods for strain identifications based on frequency counts at a set of single nucleotide variants (SNVs) within a set of single-copy marker genes. These methods differ in terms of whether reference genome sequences are needed, how SNVs are called, what methods of deconvolution are used and whether the methods can be applied to multiple samples. We conclude our review with areas that require further research.

RevDate: 2023-03-21
CmpDate: 2023-03-21

Zhang Z, Yang C, Veldsman WP, et al (2023)

Benchmarking genome assembly methods on metagenomic sequencing data.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 24(2):.

Metagenome assembly is an efficient approach to reconstruct microbial genomes from metagenomic sequencing data. Although short-read sequencing has been widely used for metagenome assembly, linked- and long-read sequencing have shown their advancements in assembly by providing long-range DNA connectedness. Many metagenome assembly tools were developed to simplify the assembly graphs and resolve the repeats in microbial genomes. However, there remains no comprehensive evaluation of metagenomic sequencing technologies, and there is a lack of practical guidance on selecting the appropriate metagenome assembly tools. This paper presents a comprehensive benchmark of 19 commonly used assembly tools applied to metagenomic sequencing datasets obtained from simulation, mock communities or human gut microbiomes. These datasets were generated using mainstream sequencing platforms, such as Illumina and BGISEQ short-read sequencing, 10x Genomics linked-read sequencing, and PacBio and Oxford Nanopore long-read sequencing. The assembly tools were extensively evaluated against many criteria, which revealed that long-read assemblers generated high contig contiguity but failed to reveal some medium- and high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs). Linked-read assemblers obtained the highest number of overall near-complete MAGs from the human gut microbiomes. Hybrid assemblers using both short- and long-read sequencing were promising methods to improve both total assembly length and the number of near-complete MAGs. This paper also discussed the running time and peak memory consumption of these assembly tools and provided practical guidance on selecting them.

RevDate: 2023-03-21
CmpDate: 2023-03-21

Wang X, Wang T, Xie Z, et al (2023)

GPMeta: a GPU-accelerated method for ultrarapid pathogen identification from metagenomic sequences.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 24(2):.

Metagenomic sequencing (mNGS) is a powerful diagnostic tool to detect causative pathogens in clinical microbiological testing owing to its unbiasedness and substantially reduced costs. Rapid and accurate classification of metagenomic sequences is a critical procedure for pathogen identification in dry-lab step of mNGS test. However, clinical practices of the testing technology are hampered by the challenge of classifying sequences within a clinically relevant timeframe. Here, we present GPMeta, a novel GPU-accelerated approach to ultrarapid pathogen identification from complex mNGS data, allowing users to bypass this limitation. Using mock microbial community datasets and public real metagenomic sequencing datasets from clinical samples, we show that GPMeta has not only higher accuracy but also significantly higher speed than existing state-of-the-art tools such as Bowtie2, Bwa, Kraken2 and Centrifuge. Furthermore, GPMeta offers GPMetaC clustering algorithm, a statistical model for clustering and rescoring ambiguous alignments to improve the discrimination of highly homologous sequences from microbial genomes with average nucleotide identity >95%. GPMetaC exhibits higher precision and recall rate than others. GPMeta underlines its key role in the development of the mNGS test in infectious diseases that require rapid turnaround times. Further study will discern how to best and easily integrate GPMeta into routine clinical practices. GPMeta is freely accessible to non-commercial users at https://github.com/Bgi-LUSH/GPMeta.

RevDate: 2023-03-21
CmpDate: 2023-03-21

Yorki S, Shea T, Cuomo CA, et al (2023)

Comparison of long- and short-read metagenomic assembly for low-abundance species and resistance genes.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 24(2):.

Recent technological and computational advances have made metagenomic assembly a viable approach to achieving high-resolution views of complex microbial communities. In previous benchmarking, short-read (SR) metagenomic assemblers had the highest accuracy, long-read (LR) assemblers generated the most contiguous sequences and hybrid (HY) assemblers balanced length and accuracy. However, no assessments have specifically compared the performance of these assemblers on low-abundance species, which include clinically relevant organisms in the gut. We generated semi-synthetic LR and SR datasets by spiking small and increasing amounts of Escherichia coli isolate reads into fecal metagenomes and, using different assemblers, examined E. coli contigs and the presence of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). For ARG assembly, although SR assemblers recovered more ARGs with high accuracy, even at low coverages, LR assemblies allowed for the placement of ARGs within longer, E. coli-specific contigs, thus pinpointing their taxonomic origin. HY assemblies identified resistance genes with high accuracy and had lower contiguity than LR assemblies. Each assembler type's strengths were maintained even when our isolate was spiked in with a competing strain, which fragmented and reduced the accuracy of all assemblies. For strain characterization and determining gene context, LR assembly is optimal, while for base-accurate gene identification, SR assemblers outperform other options. HY assembly offers contiguity and base accuracy, but requires generating data on multiple platforms, and may suffer high misassembly rates when strain diversity exists. Our results highlight the trade-offs associated with each approach for recovering low-abundance taxa, and that the optimal approach is goal-dependent.

RevDate: 2023-03-21
CmpDate: 2023-03-21

Li ZM, Kong CY, Mao YQ, et al (2023)

Ampicillin exacerbates acetaminophen-induced acute liver injury by inducing intestinal microbiota imbalance and butyrate reduction.

Liver international : official journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver, 43(4):865-877.

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Antibiotics (ATBx) and acetaminophen (APAP) are widely used worldwide. APAP is the most common cause of acute liver injury (ALI) and might be used in combination with ATBx in clinics. However, the impact of ATBx on APAP-induced ALI has rarely been studied.

METHODS: First, we compared the effects of seven ATBx on APAP-induced ALI. Then, we analysed faecal, serum and liver samples to investigate the impact of the gut microbiota on this process. Finally, we assessed the role of short-chain fatty acids in this process.

RESULTS: In this work, we found that the ALI was significantly aggravated in the mice treated with ampicillin (Amp) instead of other ATBx. Amp exposure reduced the diversity and altered the composition of gut microbiota. The altered gut microbiota aggravated APAP-induced ALF, which was proven by faecal microbiota transplantation from ATBx-treated mice. Metagenomic analysis showed a significantly decreased Lactobacillus abundance in Amp-treated mice. Gavage with Lactobacillus, especially Lactobacillus rhamnosus, significantly reversed the severer ALF induced by APAP and Amp. Moreover, Lactobacillus supplementation increased butyrate-producing clostridia and lowered butyrate levels in Amp-treated mice. In accordance, butyrate supplementation could also alleviate Amp-aggravated ALI. In addition, inhibition of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 counteracted the protective effect of butyrate on aggravated ALI induced by Amp and APAP.

CONCLUSION: Together, this study revealed a potential health impact of Amp that may exacerbate liver damage when co-exposed to excess APAP.

RevDate: 2023-03-20
CmpDate: 2023-03-20

Yi X, Huang C, Huang C, et al (2023)

Fecal microbiota from MRL/lpr mice exacerbates pristane-induced lupus.

Arthritis research & therapy, 25(1):42.

BACKGROUND: The roles of gut microbiota in the pathogenesis of SLE have been receiving much attention during recent years. However, it remains unknown how fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) and microbial metabolites affect immune responses and lupus progression.

METHODS: We transferred fecal microbiota from MRL/lpr (Lpr) mice and MRL/Mpj (Mpj) mice or PBS to pristane-induced lupus mice and observed disease development. We also screened gut microbiota and metabolite spectrums of pristane-induced lupus mice with FMT via 16S rRNA sequencing, metagenomic sequencing, and metabolomics, followed by correlation analysis.

RESULTS: FMT from MRL/lpr mice promoted the pathogenesis of pristane-induced lupus and affected immune cell profiles in the intestine, particularly the plasma cells. The structure and composition of microbial communities in the gut of the FMT-Lpr mice were different from those of the FMT-Mpj mice and FMT-PBS mice. The abundances of specific microbes such as prevotella taxa were predominantly elevated in the gut microbiome of the FMT-Lpr mice, which were positively associated with functional pathways such as cyanoamino acid metabolism. Differential metabolites such as valine and L-isoleucine were identified with varied abundances among the three groups. The abundance alterations of the prevotella taxa may affect the phenotypic changes such as proteinuria levels in the pristane-induced lupus mice.

CONCLUSION: These findings further confirm that gut microbiota play an important role in the pathogenesis of lupus. Thus, altering the gut microbiome may provide a novel way to treat lupus.

RevDate: 2023-03-20
CmpDate: 2023-03-20

Thorn CS, Maness RW, Hulke JM, et al (2023)

Population genomics of helminth parasites.

Journal of helminthology, 97:e29 pii:S0022149X23000123.

Next generation sequencing technologies have facilitated a shift from a few targeted loci in population genetic studies to whole genome approaches. Here, we review the types of questions and inferences regarding the population biology and evolution of parasitic helminths being addressed within the field of population genomics. Topics include parabiome, hybridization, population structure, loci under selection and linkage mapping. We highlight various advances, and note the current trends in the field, particularly a focus on human-related parasites despite the inherent biodiversity of helminth species. We conclude by advocating for a broader application of population genomics to reflect the taxonomic and life history breadth displayed by helminth parasites. As such, our basic knowledge about helminth population biology and evolution would be enhanced while the diversity of helminths in itself would facilitate population genomic comparative studies to address broader ecological and evolutionary concepts.

RevDate: 2023-03-20
CmpDate: 2023-03-20

Omori M, Kato-Kogoe N, Sakaguchi S, et al (2023)

Characterization of Oral Microbiota Following Chemotherapy in Patients With Hematopoietic Malignancies.

Integrative cancer therapies, 22:15347354231159309.

Oral microbiota may be associated with serious local or systemic medical conditions resulting from chemotherapy. This study was conducted to evaluate the changes in the oral microbiota following the initiation of chemotherapy in patients with hematopoietic malignancies and to identify the characteristics of the oral microbiota associated with oral mucositis. Oral samples were collected from 57 patients with hematopoietic malignancies at 2 time points: before the start of chemotherapy and 8 to 20 days after the start of chemotherapy, when chemotherapy-induced oral mucositis often occurs, and 16S rRNA metagenomic analyses were performed. Comparative and linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) analyses were used to determine the characteristic bacterial groups before and after the initiation of chemotherapy and in those who developed oral mucositis. The alpha and beta diversities of oral microbiota before and after the initiation of chemotherapy differed significantly (operational taxonomic unit index, P < .001; Shannon's index, P < .001; unweighted UniFrac distances, P = .001; and weighted UniFrac distances, P = .001). The LEfSe analysis revealed a group of bacteria whose abundance differed significantly before and after the initiation of chemotherapy. In the group of patients who developed oral mucositis, a characteristic group of bacteria was identified before the start of chemotherapy. In conclusion, we characterized the oral microbiota associated with the initiation of chemotherapy in patients with hematopoietic malignancies. In addition, our findings suggest that oral microbiota composition before the start of chemotherapy may be associated with oral mucositis. The results of this study emphasize the importance of oral management focusing on the oral microbiota during chemotherapy in patients with hematologic malignancies.

RevDate: 2023-03-20
CmpDate: 2023-03-20

Michishita R, Shimoda M, Furukawa S, et al (2023)

Inoculation with black soldier fly larvae alters the microbiome and volatile organic compound profile of decomposing food waste.

Scientific reports, 13(1):4297.

The black soldier fly (BSF; Hermetia illucens) is used in sustainable processing of many types of organic waste. However, organic waste being decomposed by BSF produces strong odors, hindering more widespread application. The odor components and how they are produced have yet to be characterized. We found that digestion of food waste by BSF significantly alters the microbial flora, based on metagenomic analyses, and the odor components generated, as shown by thermal desorption gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis. Inoculation with BSF significantly decreased production of volatile organic sulfur compounds (dimethyl disulfide and dimethyl trisulfide), which are known to be released during methionine and cysteine metabolism by Lactobacillus and Enterococcus bacteria. BSF inoculation significantly changed the abundance of Lactobacillus and Enterococcus and decreased microbial diversity overall. These findings may help in optimizing use of BSF for deodorization of composting food waste.

RevDate: 2023-03-20
CmpDate: 2023-03-20

Yang S, Fan Z, Li J, et al (2023)

Assembly of novel microbial genomes from gut metagenomes of rhesus macaque (Macaca mulatta).

Gut microbes, 15(1):2188848.

Rhesus macaque (RM, Macaca mulatta), as an important model animal, commonly suffers from chronic diarrheal disease, challenging the breeding of RMs. Gut microbiomes play key roles in maintaining intestinal health of RMs. However, it is still unclear about more features of gut microbiome as responsible for intestinal health of RMs. In this study, we performed de novo assembly of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) based on fecal metagenomes from chronic diarrheal RMs and asymptomatic individuals. In total of 731 non-redundant MAGs with at least 80% completeness were reconstructed in this study. More than 97% MAGs were novel genomes compared with more than 250,000 reference genomes. MAGs of Campylobacter and Helicobacteraceae from RM guts mainly carried flagella-associated virulence genes and chemotaxis-associated virulence genes, which might mediate motility and adhesion of bacteria. Comparing to MAGs of Campylobacter from humans, distributions and functions of these MAGs of Campylobacter from RMs exhibited significant differences. Most members of Bacteroidota, Spirochaetota, Helicobacteraceae, Lactobacillaceae and Anaerovibrio significantly decreased in guts of chronic diarrhea RMs. More than 92% MAGs in this study were not contained in 2,985 MAGs previously reported from other 22 non-human primates (NHPs), expanding the microbial diversity in guts of NHPs. The distributions and functions of gut microbiome were prominently influenced by host phylogeny of NHPs. Our results could help to more clearly understand about the diversity and function of RMs gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-03-20
CmpDate: 2023-03-20

Kazarina A, Kuzmicka J, Bortkevica S, et al (2023)

Oral microbiome variations related to ageing: possible implications beyond oral health.

Archives of microbiology, 205(4):116.

The global population is getting older due to a combination of longer life expectancy and declining birth rates. Growing evidence suggests that the oral microbiota composition and distribution may have a profound effect on how well we age. The purpose of this study was to investigate age-related oral microbiome variations of supragingival plaque and buccal mucosa samples in the general population in Latvia. Our results indicated significant difference between supragingival plaque bacterial profiles of three age groups (20-40; 40-60; 60 + years). Within supragingival plaque samples, age group 20-40 showed the highest bacterial diversity with a decline during the 40-60 age period and uprise again after the age of 60. Among other differences, the important oral commensal Neisseria had declined after the age of 40. Additionally, prevalence of two well-documented opportunistic pathogens Streptococcus anginosus and Gemella sanguinis gradually rose with age within our samples. Furthermore, supragingival plaque and buccal mucosa samples significantly differed in overall bacterial composition.

RevDate: 2023-03-20
CmpDate: 2023-03-20

Kallner A, Debelius J, Schuppe-Koistinen I, et al (2023)

Effects of Consuming Fermented Fish (Surströmming) on the Fecal Microflora in Healthy Individuals.

Journal of medicinal food, 26(3):185-192.

Surströmming, a Swedish fermented fish, loved by some and avoided by others, occurs in many reports on improved or cured gastrointestinal problems even by a single meal. We tested the hypothesis that the microbes of the fermented food might have a potency to modify the gut microbiome. Two groups of voluntary participants (11 male, 8 female; aged 20-80 years) were exposed to a single meal containing the fish. A 7-day dietary intervention was carried out comprising the fish as the main source of protein in a single adult. The microbiome was characterized using 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing. Individual community-level changes in the microbiome were compared, as well as the presence of bacteria associated with the fermented fish. We focused on Shannon alpha and UniFrac beta diversity. We did not detect any global changes in the gut microbiome in response to Surströmming, nor were we able to recover and identify any members of Halanaerobium, which were associated with and abundant in the ingested fish, in the stool samples of the participants. Our results suggest that Surströmming consumption does not alter the microbiome of healthy individuals. However, beneficial effects on a diseased gut, impaired gut microbiome, or other effects in disease remain to be studied.

RevDate: 2023-03-20
CmpDate: 2023-03-20

Zhao M, Zhao Q, Guan Z, et al (2023)

Effect of Panax ginseng and Fructus Mume on Intestinal Barrier and Gut Microbiota in Rats with Diarrhea.

Journal of medicinal food, 26(3):165-175.

Panax ginseng and Fructus mume (Renshen Wumei in Chinese, RW) are natural medicines with high nutritional and pharmacological value. They have been widely used together in China to treat gastrointestinal diseases, especially persistent diarrhea, but the potential mechanisms remain elusive. In this study, a diarrhea model was established in rats using a 30% aqueous extract of senna. The therapeutic effects of RW were evaluated by recording the prevalence of loose stools, the diarrhea index, and histopathological changes in colon tissue. The levels of mucins, tight junction (TJ) proteins, inflammatory cytokines, and phosphoinositide 3-kinase/Akt/nuclear factor-κB (PI3K/Akt/NF-κB) signaling pathway proteins were measured. Metagenomic sequencing was used to analyze the gut microbiota. Treatment with RW alleviated injury to the intestinal barrier in rats with diarrhea and also upregulated levels of Muc2 and TJ proteins, such as occludin, zonula occludens-1, and claudin-1. Administration of RW regulated the structure of the gut microbiota in diarrheal rats. Furthermore, RW suppressed levels of interleukin (IL), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, IL-1, PI3K, Akt, and p-NF-κB p65 and also increased IL-4 levels. Our study indicates that P. ginseng and Fructus mume help improve the symptoms of diarrhea, possibly by alleviating the intestinal barrier injury, regulating intestinal flora composition, and inhibiting the PI3K/Akt/NF-κB signaling pathway.

RevDate: 2023-03-20
CmpDate: 2023-03-20

Moutsoglou DM, Tatah J, Prisco SZ, et al (2023)

Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension Patients Have a Proinflammatory Gut Microbiome and Altered Circulating Microbial Metabolites.

American journal of respiratory and critical care medicine, 207(6):740-756.

Rationale: Inflammation drives pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). Gut dysbiosis causes immune dysregulation and systemic inflammation by altering circulating microbial metabolites; however, little is known about gut dysbiosis and microbial metabolites in PAH. Objectives: To characterize the gut microbiome and microbial metabolites in patients with PAH. Methods: We performed 16S ribosomal RNA gene and shotgun metagenomics sequencing on stool from patients with PAH, family control subjects, and healthy control subjects. We measured markers of inflammation, gut permeability, and microbial metabolites in plasma from patients with PAH, family control subjects, and healthy control subjects. Measurements and Main Results: The gut microbiome was less diverse in patients with PAH. Shannon diversity index correlated with measures of pulmonary vascular disease but not with right ventricular function. Patients with PAH had a distinct gut microbial signature at the phylogenetic level, with fewer copies of gut microbial genes that produce antiinflammatory short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) and secondary bile acids and lower relative abundances of species encoding these genes. Consistent with the gut microbial changes, patients with PAH had relatively lower plasma concentrations of SCFAs and secondary bile acids. Patients with PAH also had enrichment of species with the microbial genes that encoded the proinflammatory microbial metabolite trimethylamine. The changes in the gut microbiome and circulating microbial metabolites between patients with PAH and family control subjects were not as substantial as the differences between patients with PAH and healthy control subjects. Conclusions: Patients with PAH have proinflammatory gut dysbiosis, in which lower circulating SCFAs and secondary bile acids may facilitate pulmonary vascular disease. These findings support investigating modulation of the gut microbiome as a potential treatment for PAH.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Thakur N, Nigam M, Awasthi G, et al (2023)

Synergistic soil-less medium for enhanced yield of crops: a step towards incorporating genomic tools for attaining net zero hunger.

Functional & integrative genomics, 23(2):86.

Globally, industrial farming endangers crucial ecological mechanisms upon which food production relies, while 815 million people are undernourished and a significant number are malnourished. Zero Hunger aims to concurrently solve global ecological sustainability and food security concerns. Recent breakthroughs in molecular tools and approaches have allowed scientists to detect and comprehend the nature and structure of agro-biodiversity at the molecular and genetic levels, providing us an advantage over traditional methods of crop breeding. These bioinformatics techniques let us optimize our target plants for our soil-less medium and vice versa. Most of the soil-borne and seed-borne diseases are the outcomes of non-treated seed and growth media, which are important factors in low productivity. The farmers do not consider these issues, thereby facing problems growing healthy crops and suffering economic losses. This study is going to help the farmers increase their eco-friendly, chemical residue-free, quality yield of crops and their economic returns. The present invention discloses a synergistic soil-less medium that consists of only four ingredients mixed in optimal ratios by weight: vermicompost (70-80%), vermiculite (10-15%), coco peat (10-15%), and Rhizobium (0-1%). The medium exhibits better physical and chemical characteristics than existing conventional media. The vermiculite to coco peat ratio is reduced, while the vermicompost ratio is increased, with the goals of lowering toxicity, increasing plant and water holding capacity, avoiding drying of the media, and conserving water. The medium provides balanced nutrition and proper ventilation for seed germination and the growth of seedlings. Rhizobium is also used to treat the plastic bags and seeds. The results clearly show that the current synergistic soil-less environment is best for complete plant growth. Securing genetic advantages via sexual recombination, induced random mutations, and transgenic techniques have been essential for the development of improved agricultural varieties. The recent availability of targeted genome-editing technology provides a new path for integrating beneficial genetic modifications into the most significant agricultural species on the planet. Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats and associated protein 9 (CRISPR/Cas9) has evolved into a potent genome-editing tool for imparting genetic modifications to crop species. In addition, the integration of analytical methods like population genomics, phylogenomics, and metagenomics addresses conservation problems, while whole genome sequencing has opened up a new dimension for explaining the genome architecture and its interactions with other species. The in silico genomic and proteomic investigation was also conducted to forecast future investigations for the growth of French beans on a synergistic soil-less medium with the purpose of studying how a blend of vermicompost, vermiculite, cocopeat, and Rhizobium secrete metal ions, and other chemical compounds into the soil-less medium and affect the development of our target plant as well as several other plants. This interaction was studied using functional and conserved region analysis, phylogenetic analysis, and docking tools.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Kim Y (2023)

Bioinformatic and Statistical Analysis of Microbiome Data.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2629:183-229.

Since advances in next-generation sequencing (NGS) technique enabled to investigate uncultured microbiota and their genomes in unbiased manner, many microbiome researches have been reporting strong evidences for close links of microbiome to human health and disease. Bioinformatic and statistical analysis of NGS-based microbiome data are essential components in those microbiome researches to explore the complex composition of microbial community and understand the functions of community members in relation to host and environment. This chapter introduces bioinformatic analysis methods that generate taxonomy and functional feature count table along with phylogenetic tree from raw NGS microbiome data and then introduce statistical methods and machine learning approaches for analyzing the outputs of the bioinformatic analysis to infer the biodiversity of a microbial community and unravel host-microbiome association. Understanding the advantages and limitations of the analysis methods will help readers use the methods correctly in microbiome data analysis and may give a new opportunity to develop new analytic techniques for microbiome research.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Tsz Long Wong D, Norman H, Creedy TJ, et al (2023)

The phylogeny and evolutionary ecology of hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) inferred from mitochondrial genomes.

Molecular phylogenetics and evolution pii:S1055-7903(23)00059-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Hoverflies (Diptera: Syrphidae) are a diverse group of pollinators and a major research focus in ecology, but their phylogenetic relationships remain incompletely known. Using a genome skimming approach we generated mitochondrial genomes for 91 species, capturing a wide taxonomic diversity of the family. To reduce the required amount of input DNA and overall cost of the library construction, sequencing and assembly was conducted on mixtures of specimens, which raises the problem of chimera formation of mitogenomes. We present a novel chimera detection test based on gene tree incongruence, but identified only a single mitogenome of chimeric origin. Together with existing data for a final set of 127 taxa, phylogenetic analysis on nucleotide and amino acid sequences using Maximum Likelihood and Bayesian Inference revealed a basal split of Microdontinae from all other syrphids. The remainder consists of several deep clades assigned to the subfamily Eristalinae in the current classification, including a clade comprising the subfamily Syrphinae (plus Pipizinae). These findings call for a re-definition of subfamilies, but basal nodes had insufficient support to allow such action. Molecular-clock dating placed the origin of the Syrphidae crown group in the mid-Cretaceous while the Eristalinae-Syrphinae clade likely originated near the K/Pg boundary. Transformation of larval life history characters on the tree suggests that Syrphidae initially had sap feeding larvae, which diversified greatly in diet and habitat association during the Eocene and Oligocene, coinciding with the diversification of angiosperms and the evolution of various insect groups used as larval host, prey, or mimicry models. Mitogenomes proved to be a powerful phylogenetic marker for studies of Syrphidae at subfamily and tribe levels, allowing dense taxon sampling that provided insight into the great ecological diversity and rapid evolution of larval life history traits of the hoverflies.

RevDate: 2023-03-16
CmpDate: 2023-03-16

Samson R, Rajput V, Yadav R, et al (2023)

Spatio-temporal variation of the microbiome and resistome repertoire along an anthropogenically dynamic segment of the Ganges River, India.

The Science of the total environment, 872:162125.

Aquatic ecosystems are regarded as a hub of antibiotic and metal resistance genes. River Ganges is a unique riverine system in India with socio-cultural and economic significance. However, it remains underexplored for its microbiome and associated resistomes along its anthropogenically impacted course. The present study utilized a nanopore sequencing approach to depict the microbial community structure in the sediments of the river Ganges harboring antibiotic and metal resistance genes (A/MRGs) in lower stretches known for anthropogenic impact. Comprehensive microbiome analyses revealed resistance genes against 23 different types of metals and 28 classes of antibiotics. The most dominant ARG category was multidrug resistance, while the most prevalent MRGs conferred resistance against copper and zinc. Seasonal differences dismally affected the microbiota of the Ganges. However, resistance genes for fosmidomycin and tetracycline varied with season ANOVA, p < 0.05. Interestingly, 333 and 334 ARG subtypes were observed at all the locations in pre-monsoon and post-monsoon, respectively. The taxa associated with the dominant ARGs and MRGs were Pseudomonas and Burkholderia, which are important nosocomial pathogens. A substantial phage diversity for pathogenic and putrefying bacteria at all locations attracts attention for its use to tackle the dissemination of antibiotic and metal-resistant bacteria. This study suggests the accumulation of antibiotics and metals as the driving force for the emergence of resistance genes and the affiliated bacteria trafficking them. The present metagenomic assessment highlights the need for comprehensive, long-term biological and physicochemical monitoring and mitigation strategies toward the contaminants associated with ARGs and MRGs in this nationally important river.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Roslund MI, Parajuli A, Hui N, et al (2023)

Skin, gut, and sand metagenomic data on placebo-controlled sandbox biodiversity intervention study.

Data in brief, 47:109003.

The metagenomic data presented in this article are related to the published research of "A Placebo-controlled double-blinded test of the biodiversity hypothesis of immune-mediated diseases: Environmental microbial diversity elicits changes in cytokines and increase in T regulatory cells in young children" This database contains 16S ribosomal RNA (rRNA) metagenomics of sandbox sand and skin and gut microbiota of children in the intervention and placebo daycares. In intervention daycares, children aged 3-5 years were exposed to playground sand enriched with microbially diverse soil. In placebo daycares, children were exposed to visually similar as in intervention daycares, but microbially poor sand colored with peat. Sand, skin and gut metagenomics were analyzed at baseline and after 14 and 28 days of intervention by high throughput sequencing of bacterial 16S rRNA gene on the Illumina MiSeq platform. This dataset shows how skin bacterial community composition, including classes Gammaproteobacteria and Bacilli, changed, and how the relative abundance of over 30 bacterial genera shifted on the skin of children in the intervention treatment, while no shifts occurred in the placebo group.

RevDate: 2023-03-15
CmpDate: 2023-03-15

Ngugi DK, Acinas SG, Sánchez P, et al (2023)

Abiotic selection of microbial genome size in the global ocean.

Nature communications, 14(1):1384.

Strong purifying selection is considered a major evolutionary force behind small microbial genomes in the resource-poor photic ocean. However, very little is currently known about how the size of prokaryotic genomes evolves in the global ocean and whether patterns reflect shifts in resource availability in the epipelagic and relatively stable deep-sea environmental conditions. Using 364 marine microbial metagenomes, we investigate how the average genome size of uncultured planktonic prokaryotes varies across the tropical and polar oceans to the hadal realm. We find that genome size is highest in the perennially cold polar ocean, reflecting elongation of coding genes and gene dosage effects due to duplications in the interior ocean microbiome. Moreover, the rate of change in genome size due to temperature is 16-fold higher than with depth up to 200 m. Our results demonstrate how environmental factors can influence marine microbial genome size selection and ecological strategies of the microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-03-15
CmpDate: 2023-03-15

Strobel KM, Del Vecchio G, Devaskar SU, et al (2023)

Gut Microbes and Circulating Cytokines in Preterm Infants with Growth Failure.

The Journal of nutrition, 153(1):120-130.

BACKGROUND: Growth failure (GF) is a multifactorial problem in preterm infants. The intestinal microbiome and inflammation may contribute to GF.

OBJECTIVES: This study's objective was to compare the gut microbiome and plasma cytokines in preterm infants with and without GF.

METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of infants with birth weights of <1750 g. Infants with a weight or length z-score change from birth to discharge or death that was less than or equal to -0.8 (GF group) were compared with infants without GF [control (CON) group]. The primary outcome was the gut microbiome (at weeks 1-4 of age), assessed by 16S rRNA gene sequencing using Deseq2. Secondary outcomes included inferred metagenomic function and plasma cytokines. Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States determined metagenomic function, which was compared using ANOVA. Cytokines were measured by 2-multiplexed immunometric assays and compared using Wilcoxon tests and linear mixed models.

RESULTS: GF (n = 14) and CON group (n = 13) had similar median (IQR) birth weight (1380 [780-1578] g vs. 1275 [1013-1580] g) and gestational age (29 [25-31] weeks vs. 30 [29-32] weeks). Compared with the CON group, the GF group had a greater abundance of Escherichia/Shigella in weeks 2 and 3, Staphylococcus in week 4, and Veillonella in weeks 3 and 4 (P-adjusted < 0.001 for all). Plasma cytokine concentrations did not differ significantly between the cohorts. When all time points are combined, fewer microbes were involved in TCA cycle activity in the GF group compared with the CON group (P = 0.023).

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, when compared with CON infants, GF infants had a distinct microbial signature with increased Escherichia/Shigella and Firmicutes and fewer microbes associated with energy production at later weeks of hospitalization. These findings may suggest a mechanism for aberrant growth.

RevDate: 2023-03-15
CmpDate: 2023-03-15

Larke JA, Bacalzo N, Castillo JJ, et al (2023)

Dietary Intake of Monosaccharides from Foods is Associated with Characteristics of the Gut Microbiota and Gastrointestinal Inflammation in Healthy US Adults.

The Journal of nutrition, 153(1):106-119.

BACKGROUND: Current assessment of dietary carbohydrates does not adequately reflect the nutritional properties and effects on gut microbial structure and function. Deeper characterization of food carbohydrate composition can serve to strengthen the link between diet and gastrointestinal health outcomes.

OBJECTIVES: The present study aims to characterize the monosaccharide composition of diets in a healthy US adult cohort and use these features to assess the relationship between monosaccharide intake, diet quality, characteristics of the gut microbiota, and gastrointestinal inflammation.

METHODS: This observational, cross-sectional study enrolled males and females across age (18-33 y, 34-49 y, and 50-65 y) and body mass index (normal, 18.5-24.99 kg/m[2]; overweight, 25-29.99 kg/m[2]; and obese, 30-44 kg/m[2]) categories. Recent dietary intake was assessed by the automated self-administered 24-h dietary recall system, and gut microbiota were assessed with shotgun metagenome sequencing. Dietary recalls were mapped to the Davis Food Glycopedia to estimate monosaccharide intake. Participants with >75% of carbohydrate intake mappable to the glycopedia were included (N = 180).

RESULTS: Diversity of monosaccharide intake was positively associated with the total Healthy Eating Index score (Pearson's r = 0.520, P = 1.2 × 10[-13]) and negatively associated with fecal neopterin (Pearson's r = -0.247, P = 3.0 × 10[-3]). Comparing high with low intake of specific monosaccharides revealed differentially abundant taxa (Wald test, P < 0.05), which was associated with the functional capacity to break down these monomers (Wilcoxon rank-sum test, P < 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Monosaccharide intake was associated with diet quality, gut microbial diversity, microbial metabolism, and gastrointestinal inflammation in healthy adults. As specific food sources were rich in particular monosaccharides, it may be possible in the future to tailor diets to fine-tune the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal function. This trial is registered at www.

CLINICALTRIALS: gov as NCT02367287.

RevDate: 2023-03-15
CmpDate: 2023-03-15

Wang F, Zhang Q, Cui J, et al (2023)

Polystyrene microplastics induce endoplasmic reticulum stress, apoptosis and inflammation by disrupting the gut microbiota in carp intestines.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 323:121233.

Microplastics have been recognized as a widespread new pollutant in nature and have induced an increase in the occurrence of a variety of diseases in carp. An animal model of microplastic ingestion was successfully established in an aqueous environment. The gut microbiota was analysed using a metagenomic approach. The results showed a significant reduction in the relative abundances of Lactococcus garvieae, Bacteroides_paurosaccharolyticus, and Romboutsia_ilealis after PS-MPs treatment. The 16S Silva database was used to predict and analyse the known genes. Intestinal flora disorders related to infectious diseases, cancers, neurodegenerative diseases, endocrine and metabolic diseases, cardiovascular diseases, and other diseases were found. The intake of PS-MPs resulted in damage to carp intestinal tissue and apoptosis of intestinal epithelial cells. The levels of the inflammatory cytokines IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were significantly increased with the intake of PS-MPs. The gene and protein levels of GRP78, Caspase-3, Caspase-7, Caspase-9, Caspase-12, PERK, IRE1, and ATF6 were further examined in PS group. The occurrence of ERS and apoptosis in carp intestines was confirmed. These results suggest that the accumulation of PS-MPs in the aquatic environment can disturb the carp gut microbiota and induce ERS, apoptosis, and inflammation in the intestinal tissue.

RevDate: 2023-03-15
CmpDate: 2023-03-15

Prosenkov A, Cagnon C, Gallego JLR, et al (2023)

The microbiome of a brownfield highly polluted with mercury and arsenic.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 323:121305.

Abandoned brownfields represent a challenge for their recovery. To apply sustainable remediation technologies, such as bioremediation or phytoremediation, indigenous microorganisms are essential agents since they are adapted to the ecology of the soil. Better understanding of microbial communities inhabiting those soils, identification of microorganisms that drive detoxification process and recognising their needs and interactions will significantly improve the outcome of the remediation. With this in mind we have carried out a detailed metagenomic analysis to explore the taxonomic and functional diversity of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities in soils, several mineralogically distinct types of pyrometallurgic waste, and groundwater sediments of a former mercury mining and metallurgy site which harbour very high levels of arsenic and mercury pollution. Prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities were identified, which turned out to be more diverse in the surrounding contaminated soils compared to the pyrometallurgic waste. The highest diversity loss was observed in two environments most contaminated with mercury and arsenic (stupp, a solid mercury condenser residue and arsenic-rich soot from arsenic condensers). Interestingly, microbial communities in the stupp were dominated by an overwhelming majority of archaea of the phylum Crenarchaeota, while Ascomycota and Basidiomycota fungi comprised the fungal communities of both stump and soot, results that show the impressive ability of these previously unreported microorganisms to colonize these extreme brownfield environments. Functional predictions for mercury and arsenic resistance/detoxification genes show their increase in environments with higher levels of pollution. Our work establishes the bases to design sustainable remediation methods and, equally important, to study in depth the genetic and functional mechanisms that enable the subsistence of microbial populations in these extremely selective environments.

RevDate: 2023-03-15
CmpDate: 2023-03-15

Nakamura A, M Komatsu (2023)

Performance evaluation of whole genome metagenomics sequencing with the MinION nanopore sequencer: Microbial community analysis and antimicrobial resistance gene detection.

Journal of microbiological methods, 206:106688.

Recently, the human gut microbiota has been implicated in various diseases such as immunological and neuropsychiatric disorders, and comprehensive gut microbiota analysis by metagenomic analysis using next-generation sequencers has been attracting attention. In this study, we compared microbial communities of 16S rDNA metagenome sequencing (16S-meta) and whole genome metagenome sequencing (WG-meta) using the nanopore sequencer MinION and 16S-meta using the Illumina Miseq sequencer with simulated and fecal samples, and evaluated the ability of WG-meta to detect antimicrobial resistance genes. We used the commercial Microbial Community DNA Standard as the DNA standard and a simulated sample comprising 17 strains of 15 bacterial species. In the detection of antimicrobial resistance genes, we used a simulated sample and spiked fecal samples containing Escherichia coli carrying blaCTX-M-27, Klebsiella pneumoniae carrying blaOXA-48, and Staphylococcus aureus carrying mecA. WG-meta using MinION was superior to 16S-meta and could accurately analyze the microbial communities at the species level, but it underestimated or misidentified the Bacillus subtilis group, Cryptococcus neoformans, Shigella sonnei, and Campylobacter jejuni. WG-meta using MinION could analyze the microbial communities in 5 min, and antimicrobial resistance gene detection using WG-meta could be performed in >30 min in the simulated sample with fewer bacterial counts.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Thippabhotla S, Liu B, Podgorny A, et al (2023)

Integrated de novo gene prediction and peptide assembly of metagenomic sequencing data.

NAR genomics and bioinformatics, 5(1):lqad023.

Metagenomics is the study of all genomic content contained in given microbial communities. Metagenomic functional analysis aims to quantify protein families and reconstruct metabolic pathways from the metagenome. It plays a central role in understanding the interaction between the microbial community and its host or environment. De novo functional analysis, which allows the discovery of novel protein families, remains challenging for high-complexity communities. There are currently three main approaches for recovering novel genes or proteins: de novo nucleotide assembly, gene calling and peptide assembly. Unfortunately, their information dependency has been overlooked, and each has been formulated as an independent problem. In this work, we develop a sophisticated workflow called integrated Metagenomic Protein Predictor (iMPP), which leverages the information dependencies for better de novo functional analysis. iMPP contains three novel modules: a hybrid assembly graph generation module, a graph-based gene calling module, and a peptide assembly-based refinement module. iMPP significantly improved the existing gene calling sensitivity on unassembled metagenomic reads, achieving a 92-97% recall rate at a high precision level (>85%). iMPP further allowed for more sensitive and accurate peptide assembly, recovering more reference proteins and delivering more hypothetical protein sequences. The high performance of iMPP can provide a more comprehensive and unbiased view of the microbial communities under investigation. iMPP is freely available from https://github.com/Sirisha-t/iMPP.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Jiang C, Wang G, Zhang J, et al (2023)

iGDP: an integrated Genome Decontamination Pipeline for wild ciliated microeukaryotes.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Ciliates are a large group of ubiquitous and highly diverse single-celled eukaryotes that play an essential role in the functioning of microbial food webs. However, their genomic diversity is far from clear due to the need to develop cultivation methods for most species, so most research is based on wild organisms that almost invariably contain contaminants. Here we establish an integrated Genome Decontamination Pipeline (iGDP) that combines homology search, telomere reads-assisted and clustering approaches to filter contaminated ciliate genome assemblies from wild specimens. We benchmarked the performance of iGDP using genomic data from a contaminated ciliate culture and the results showed that iGDP could recall 91.9% of the target sequences with 96.9% precision. We also used a synthetic dataset to offer guidelines for the application of iGDP in the removal of various groups of contaminants. Compared with several popular metagenome binning tools, iGDP could show better performance. To further validate the effectiveness of iGDP on real-world data, we applied it to decontaminate genome assemblies of three wild ciliate specimens and obtained their genomes with high quality comparable to that of previously well-studied model ciliate genomes. It is anticipated that the newly generated genomes and the established iGDP method will be valuable community resources for detailed studies on ciliate biodiversity, phylogeny, ecology and evolution. The pipeline (https://github.com/GWang2022/iGDP) can be implemented automatically to reduce manual filtering and classification and may be further developed to apply to other microeukaryotes.

RevDate: 2023-03-14
CmpDate: 2023-03-14

Chang L, Qiu L, Lei N, et al (2023)

Characterization of fecal microbiota in cervical cancer patients associated with tumor stage and prognosis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1145950.

Cervical cancer (CC) is the fourth most frequent malignancy among women worldwide, and its prevention and treatment are evolving rapidly. The gut microbiota has been reported to play a crucial role both in the preservation of homeostasis and the development of cervical cancer. In this study, we collected fecal samples to investigate the microbial signatures in cervical cancer patients compared with healthy controls using 16S rRNA sequencing analysis and metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS) testing. Our findings demonstrated a substantial difference in the gut microbiota composition of cervical cancer patients and healthy controls. The disease and stage were most significantly negatively correlated with Ruminococcus 2, which might be considered a potential clinically relevant biomarker. Functions of differential microbiomes were also analyzed, indicating significant differences in metabolisms and biosynthesis between the two groups. These findings demonstrate that patients with cervical cancer have certain species of gut microbiota that are exclusive to them and particular species have the potential to be used in the prognosis of cervical cancer.

RevDate: 2023-03-14
CmpDate: 2023-03-14

Mannion A, Sheh A, Shen Z, et al (2023)

Shotgun Metagenomics of Gastric Biopsies Reveals Compositional and Functional Microbiome Shifts in High- and Low-Gastric-Cancer-Risk Populations from Colombia, South America.

Gut microbes, 15(1):2186677.

Along with Helicobacter pylori infection, the gastric microbiota is hypothesized to modulate stomach cancer risk in susceptible individuals. Whole metagenomic shotgun sequencing (WMS) is a sequencing approach to characterize the microbiome with advantages over traditional culture and 16S rRNA sequencing including identification of bacterial and non-bacterial taxa, species/strain resolution, and functional characterization of the microbiota. In this study, we used WMS to survey the microbiome in extracted DNA from antral gastric biopsy samples from Colombian patients residing in the high-risk gastric cancer town Túquerres (n = 10, H. pylori-positive = 7) and low-risk town of Tumaco (n = 10, H. pylori-positive = 6). Kraken2/Bracken was used for taxonomic classification and abundance. Functional gene profiles were inferred by InterProScan and KEGG analysis of assembled contigs and gene annotation. The most abundant taxa represented bacteria, non-human eukaryota, and viral genera found in skin, oral, food, and plant/soil environments including Staphylococus, Streptococcus, Bacillus, Aspergillus, and Siphoviridae. H. pylori was the predominant taxa present in H. pylori-positive samples. Beta diversity was significantly different based on H. pylori-status, risk group, and sex. WMS detected more bacterial taxa than 16S rRNA sequencing and aerobic, anaerobic, and microaerobic culture performed on the same gastric biopsy samples. WMS identified significant differences in functional profiles found between H. pylori-status, but not risk or sex groups. H. pylori-positive samples were significantly enriched for H. pylori-specific genes including virulence factors such as vacA, cagA, and urease, while carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism genes were enriched in H. pylori-negative samples. This study shows WMS has the potential to characterize the taxonomy and function of the gastric microbiome as risk factors for H. pylori-associated gastric disease. Future studies will be needed to compare and validate WMS versus traditional culture and 16S rRNA sequencing approaches for characterization of the gastric microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-03-14
CmpDate: 2023-03-14

Neumann CJ, Mahnert A, Kumpitsch C, et al (2023)

Clinical NEC prevention practices drive different microbiome profiles and functional responses in the preterm intestine.

Nature communications, 14(1):1349.

Preterm infants with very low birthweight are at serious risk for necrotizing enterocolitis. To functionally analyse the principles of three successful preventive NEC regimens, we characterize fecal samples of 55 infants (<1500 g, n = 383, female = 22) longitudinally (two weeks) with respect to gut microbiome profiles (bacteria, archaea, fungi, viruses; targeted 16S rRNA gene sequencing and shotgun metagenomics), microbial function, virulence factors, antibiotic resistances and metabolic profiles, including human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) and short-chain fatty acids (German Registry of Clinical Trials, No.: DRKS00009290). Regimens including probiotic Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis NCDO 2203 supplementation affect microbiome development globally, pointing toward the genomic potential to convert HMOs. Engraftment of NCDO 2203 is associated with a substantial reduction of microbiome-associated antibiotic resistance as compared to regimens using probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus LCR 35 or no supplementation. Crucially, the beneficial effects of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis NCDO 2203 supplementation depends on simultaneous feeding with HMOs. We demonstrate that preventive regimens have the highest impact on development and maturation of the gastrointestinal microbiome, enabling the establishment of a resilient microbial ecosystem that reduces pathogenic threats in at-risk preterm infants.

RevDate: 2023-03-14
CmpDate: 2023-03-14

Wang Z, Xu X, Deji Y, et al (2023)

Bifidobacterium as a Potential Biomarker of Sarcopenia in Elderly Women.

Nutrients, 15(5):.

Gut microbial dysbiosis influences the development of sarcopenia. This case-control study explored the gut microbiota composition in elderly Chinese women with sarcopenia. The information from 50 cases and 50 controls was collected. Grip strength, body weight, body mass index, skeletal muscle mass, energy intake, and total and high-quality protein intake were lower in cases than in controls (p < 0.05). Gut microbiota metagenomic sequencing showed that phylum Bacteroides was significantly reduced in the case group, whereas genus Prevotella was more abundant (p < 0.05). Linear discriminant analysis (LDA) effect size showed that 9 and 13 distinct microbial taxa were enriched in the case and control groups, respectively (LDA > 2, p < 0.05), among which Prevotella copri and Bifidobacterium longum were significantly different (LDA > 4, p < 0.05). The AUC of Bifidobacterium longum was 0.674 (95% CI: 0.539-0.756). Elderly women with sarcopenia exhibited significantly different gut microbiota compositions than healthy controls.

RevDate: 2023-03-14
CmpDate: 2023-03-14

Melo NCO, Cuevas-Sierra A, Fernández-Cruz E, et al (2023)

Fecal Microbiota Composition as a Metagenomic Biomarker of Dietary Intake.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(5):.

Gut microbiota encompasses the set of microorganisms that colonize the gastrointestinal tract with mutual relationships that are key for host homeostasis. Increasing evidence supports cross intercommunication between the intestinal microbiome and the eubiosis-dysbiosis binomial, indicating a networking role of gut bacteria as potential metabolic health surrogate markers. The abundance and diversity of the fecal microbial community are already recognized to be associated with several disorders, such as obesity, cardiometabolic events, gastrointestinal alterations, and mental diseases, which suggests that intestinal microbes may be a valuable tool as causal or as consequence biomarkers. In this context, the fecal microbiota could also be used as an adequate and informative proxy of the nutritional composition of the food intake and about the adherence to dietary patterns, such as the Mediterranean or Western diets, by displaying specific fecal microbiome signatures. The aim of this review was to discuss the potential use of gut microbial composition as a putative biomarker of food intake and to screen the sensitivity value of fecal microbiota in the evaluation of dietary interventions as a reliable and precise alternative to subjective questionnaires.

RevDate: 2023-03-14
CmpDate: 2023-03-14

Nguyen VH, Wemheuer B, Song W, et al (2023)

Functional characterization and taxonomic classification of novel gammaproteobacterial diversity in sponges.

Systematic and applied microbiology, 46(2):126401.

Sponges harbour exceptionally diverse microbial communities, whose members are largely uncultured. The class Gammaproteobacteria often dominates the microbial communities of various sponge species, but most of its diversity remains functional and taxonomically uncharacterised. Here we reconstructed and characterised 32 metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) derived from three sponge species. These MAGs represent ten novel species and belong to seven orders, of which one is new. We propose nomenclature for all these taxa. These new species comprise sponge-specific bacteria with varying levels of host specificity. Functional gene profiling highlights significant differences in metabolic capabilities across the ten species, though each also often exhibited a large degree of metabolic diversity involving various nitrogen- and sulfur-based compounds. The genomic features of the ten species suggest they have evolved to form symbiotic interaction with their hosts or are well-adapted to survive within the sponge environment. These Gammaproteobacteria are proposed to scavenge substrates from the host environment, including metabolites or cellular components of the sponge. Their diverse metabolic capabilities may allow for efficient cycling of organic matter in the sponge environment, potentially to the benefit of the host and other symbionts.

RevDate: 2023-03-14
CmpDate: 2023-03-14

Walsh AM, Leech J, Huttenhower C, et al (2023)

Integrated molecular approaches for fermented food microbiome research.

FEMS microbiology reviews, 47(2):.

Molecular technologies, including high-throughput sequencing, have expanded our perception of the microbial world. Unprecedented insights into the composition and function of microbial communities have generated large interest, with numerous landmark studies published in recent years relating the important roles of microbiomes and the environment-especially diet and nutrition-in human, animal, and global health. As such, food microbiomes represent an important cross-over between the environment and host. This is especially true of fermented food microbiomes, which actively introduce microbial metabolites and, to a lesser extent, live microbes into the human gut. Here, we discuss the history of fermented foods, and examine how molecular approaches have advanced research of these fermented foods over the past decade. We highlight how various molecular approaches have helped us to understand the ways in which microbes shape the qualities of these products, and we summarize the impacts of consuming fermented foods on the gut. Finally, we explore how advances in bioinformatics could be leveraged to enhance our understanding of fermented foods. This review highlights how integrated molecular approaches are changing our understanding of the microbial communities associated with food fermentation, the creation of unique food products, and their influences on the human microbiome and health.

RevDate: 2023-03-14
CmpDate: 2023-03-14

Engelberts JP, Robbins SJ, Herbold CW, et al (2023)

Metabolic reconstruction of the near complete microbiome of the model sponge Ianthella basta.

Environmental microbiology, 25(3):646-660.

Many marine sponges host highly diverse microbiomes that contribute to various aspects of host health. Although the putative function of individual groups of sponge symbionts has been increasingly described, the extreme diversity has generally precluded in-depth characterization of entire microbiomes, including identification of syntrophic partnerships. The Indo-Pacific sponge Ianthella basta is emerging as a model organism for symbiosis research, hosting only three dominant symbionts: a Thaumarchaeotum, a Gammaproteobacterium, and an Alphaproteobacterium and a range of other low abundance or transitory taxa. Here, we retrieved metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) representing >90% of I. basta's microbial community, facilitating the metabolic reconstruction of the sponge's near complete microbiome. Through this analysis, we identified metabolic complementarity between microbes, including vitamin sharing, described the importance of low abundance symbionts, and characterized a novel microbe-host attachment mechanism in the Alphaproteobacterium. We further identified putative viral sequences, highlighting the role viruses can play in maintaining symbioses in I. basta through the horizontal transfer of eukaryotic-like proteins, and complemented this data with metaproteomics to identify active metabolic pathways in bacteria, archaea, and viruses. This data provide the framework to adopt I. basta as a model organism for studying host-microbe interactions and provide a basis for in-depth physiological experiments.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Xi M, Deyett E, Stajich JE, et al (2023)

Microbiome diversity, composition and assembly in a California citrus orchard.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1100590.

The citrus root and rhizosphere microbiomes have been relatively well described in the literature, especially in the context of Huanglonbing disease. Yet questions addressing the assembly of root microbial endophytes have remained unanswered. In the above ground tree tissues, leaves and stems have been the research focus point, while flush and flower microbiomes, two important tissues in the vegetative and reproductive cycles of the tree, are not well described. In this study, the fungal and bacterial taxa in five biocompartments (bulk soil, rhizosphere, root endosphere, flower and flush) of citrus trees grown in a single California orchard were profiled using an amplicon-based metagenomic Illumina sequencing approach. Trees with no observable signs of abiotic or biotic stresses were sampled for two consecutive years during the floral development phase. The rhizosphere was the most biodiverse compartment compared to bulk soil, root endosphere, flower and flush microbiomes. In addition, the belowground bacteriome was more diverse than the mycobiome. Microbial richness decreased significantly from the root exosphere to the endosphere and was overall low in the above ground tissues. Root endophytic microbial community composition shared strong similarities to the rhizosphere but also contained few taxa from above ground tissues. Our data indicated compartmentalization of the microbiome with distinct profiles between above and below ground microbial communities. However, several taxa were present across all compartments suggesting the existence of a core citrus microbiota. These findings highlight key microbial taxa that could be engineered as biopesticides and biofertilizers for citriculture.

RevDate: 2023-03-13
CmpDate: 2023-03-13

de Nies L, Galata V, Martin-Gallausiaux C, et al (2023)

Altered infective competence of the human gut microbiome in COVID-19.

Microbiome, 11(1):46.

BACKGROUND: Infections with SARS-CoV-2 have a pronounced impact on the gastrointestinal tract and its resident microbiome. Clear differences between severe cases of infection and healthy individuals have been reported, including the loss of commensal taxa. We aimed to understand if microbiome alterations including functional shifts are unique to severe cases or a common effect of COVID-19. We used high-resolution systematic multi-omic analyses to profile the gut microbiome in asymptomatic-to-moderate COVID-19 individuals compared to a control group.

RESULTS: We found a striking increase in the overall abundance and expression of both virulence factors and antimicrobial resistance genes in COVID-19. Importantly, these genes are encoded and expressed by commensal taxa from families such as Acidaminococcaceae and Erysipelatoclostridiaceae, which we found to be enriched in COVID-19-positive individuals. We also found an enrichment in the expression of a betaherpesvirus and rotavirus C genes in COVID-19-positive individuals compared to healthy controls.

CONCLUSIONS: Our analyses identified an altered and increased infective competence of the gut microbiome in COVID-19 patients. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-03-13
CmpDate: 2023-03-13

Sajid M, Srivastava S, Yadav RK, et al (2023)

Fungal Community Composition and Function Associated with Loose Smokeless Tobacco Products.

Current microbiology, 80(4):131.

Smokeless tobacco products (STPs) contain several microbial communities which are responsible for the formation of carcinogens, like tobacco-specific nitrosamine (TSNAs). A majority of STPs are sold in loose/unpackaged form which can be loaded with a diverse microbial population. Here, the fungal population and mycotoxins level of three popular Indian loose STPs, Dohra, Mainpuri Kapoori (MK), and loose leaf-chewing tobacco (LCT) was examined using metagenomic sequencing of ITS1 DNA segment of the fungal genome and LC-MS/MS, respectively. We observed that Ascomycota was the most abundant phylum and Sterigmatomyces and Pichia were the predominant fungal genera in loose STPs. MK displayed the highest α-diversity being enriched with pathogenic fungi Apiotrichum, Aspergillus, Candida, Fusarium, Trichosporon, and Wallemia. Further, FUNGuild analysis revealed an abundance of saprotrophs in MK, while pathogen-saprotroph-symbiotroph were abundant in Dohra and LCT. The level of a fungal toxin (ochratoxins A) was high in the MK product. This study caution that loose STPs harbor various harmful fungi that can infect their users and deliver fungal toxins or disrupt the oral microbiome of SLT users which can contribute to several oral pathologies.

RevDate: 2023-03-13
CmpDate: 2023-03-13

Sukumar S, Wang F, Simpson CA, et al (2023)

Development of the oral resistome during the first decade of life.

Nature communications, 14(1):1291.

Antibiotic overuse has promoted the spread of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) with significant health and economic consequences. Genome sequencing reveals the widespread presence of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) in diverse microbial environments. Hence, surveillance of resistance reservoirs, like the rarely explored oral microbiome, is necessary to combat AMR. Here, we characterise the development of the paediatric oral resistome and investigate its role in dental caries in 221 twin children (124 females and 97 males) sampled at three time points over the first decade of life. From 530 oral metagenomes, we identify 309 ARGs, which significantly cluster by age, with host genetic effects detected from infancy onwards. Our results suggest potential mobilisation of ARGs increases with age as the AMR associated mobile genetic element, Tn916 transposase was co-located with more species and ARGs in older children. We find a depletion of ARGs and species in dental caries compared to health. This trend reverses in restored teeth. Here we show the paediatric oral resistome is an inherent and dynamic component of the oral microbiome, with a potential role in transmission of AMR and dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Li B, Tao Y, Mao Z, et al (2023)

Iron oxides act as an alternative electron acceptor for aerobic methanotrophs in anoxic lake sediments.

Water research, 234:119833.

Conventional aerobic CH4-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) are frequently detected in anoxic environments, but their survival strategy and ecological contribution are still enigmatic. Here we explore the role of MOB in enrichment cultures under O2 gradients and an iron-rich lake sediment in situ by combining microbiological and geochemical techniques. We found that enriched MOB consortium used ferric oxides as alternative electron acceptors for oxidizing CH4 with the help of riboflavin when O2 was unavailable. Within the MOB consortium, MOB transformed CH4 to low molecular weight organic matter such as acetate for consortium bacteria as a carbon source, while the latter secrete riboflavin to facilitate extracellular electron transfer (EET). Iron reduction coupled to CH4 oxidation mediated by the MOB consortium was also demonstrated in situ, reducing 40.3% of the CH4 emission in the studied lake sediment. Our study indicates how MOBs survive under anoxia and expands the knowledge of this previously overlooked CH4 sink in iron-rich sediments.

RevDate: 2023-03-10
CmpDate: 2023-03-10

Leonard MM, Kenyon V, Valitutti F, et al (2023)

Cohort profile: Celiac disease genomic, environmental, microbiome and metabolome study; a prospective longitudinal birth cohort study of children at-risk for celiac disease.

PloS one, 18(3):e0282739.

The Celiac Disease Genomic, Environmental, Microbiome and Metabolomic (CDGEMM) study is an international prospective birth cohort in children at-risk of developing celiac disease (CD). The CDGEMM study has been designed to take a multi-omic approach to predicting CD onset in at-risk individuals. Participants are required to have a first-degree family member with biopsy diagnosed CD and must be enrolled prior to the introduction of solid food. Participation involves providing blood and stool samples longitudinally over a period of five years as well as answering questionnaires related to the participant, their family, and environment. Recruitment and data collection have been ongoing since 2014. As of 2022 we have a total of 554 participants and the average age of the cohort is 56.4 months. A total of 54 participants have developed positive antibodies for CD and 31 have confirmed CD. Approximately 80% of the 54 participants with CD have developed it by 3 years of age. To date we have identified several microbial strains, pathways, and metabolites occurring in increased abundance and detected before CD onset, which have previously been linked to autoimmune and inflammatory conditions while others occurred in decreased abundance before CD onset and are known to have anti-inflammatory effects. Our ongoing analysis includes expanding our metagenomic and metabolomic analyses, evaluating environmental risk factors linked to CD onset, and mechanistic studies investigating how alterations in the microbiome and metabolites may protect against or contribute to CD development.

RevDate: 2023-03-09
CmpDate: 2023-03-09

Inda-Díaz JS, Lund D, Parras-Moltó M, et al (2023)

Latent antibiotic resistance genes are abundant, diverse, and mobile in human, animal, and environmental microbiomes.

Microbiome, 11(1):44.

BACKGROUND: Bacterial communities in humans, animals, and the external environment maintain a large collection of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, few of these ARGs are well-characterized and thus established in existing resistance gene databases. In contrast, the remaining latent ARGs are typically unknown and overlooked in most sequencing-based studies. Our view of the resistome and its diversity is therefore incomplete, which hampers our ability to assess risk for promotion and spread of yet undiscovered resistance determinants.

RESULTS: A reference database consisting of both established and latent ARGs (ARGs not present in current resistance gene repositories) was created. By analyzing more than 10,000 metagenomic samples, we showed that latent ARGs were more abundant and diverse than established ARGs in all studied environments, including the human- and animal-associated microbiomes. The pan-resistomes, i.e., all ARGs present in an environment, were heavily dominated by latent ARGs. In comparison, the core-resistome, i.e., ARGs that were commonly encountered, comprised both latent and established ARGs. We identified several latent ARGs shared between environments and/or present in human pathogens. Context analysis of these genes showed that they were located on mobile genetic elements, including conjugative elements. We, furthermore, identified that wastewater microbiomes had a surprisingly large pan- and core-resistome, which makes it a potentially high-risk environment for the mobilization and promotion of latent ARGs.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results show that latent ARGs are ubiquitously present in all environments and constitute a diverse reservoir from which new resistance determinants can be recruited to pathogens. Several latent ARGs already had high mobile potential and were present in human pathogens, suggesting that they may constitute emerging threats to human health. We conclude that the full resistome-including both latent and established ARGs-needs to be considered to properly assess the risks associated with antibiotic selection pressures. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-03-08
CmpDate: 2023-03-08

Lousada MB, Edelkamp J, Lachnit T, et al (2023)

Laser capture microdissection as a method for investigating the human hair follicle microbiome reveals region-specific differences in the bacteriome profile.

BMC research notes, 16(1):29.

OBJECTIVE: Human hair follicles (HFs) are populated by a rich and diverse microbiome, traditionally evaluated by methods that inadvertently sample the skin microbiome and/or miss microbiota located in deeper HF regions. Thereby, these methods capture the human HF microbiome in a skewed and incomplete manner. This pilot study aimed to use laser-capture microdissection of human scalp HFs, coupled with 16S rRNA gene sequencing to sample the HF microbiome and overcome these methodological limitations.

RESULTS: HFs were laser-capture microdissected (LCM) into three anatomically distinct regions. All main known core HF bacterial colonisers, including Cutibacterium, Corynebacterium and Staphylococcus, were identified, in all three HF regions. Interestingly, region-specific variations in α-diversity and microbial abundance of the core microbiome genera and Reyranella were identified, suggestive of variations in microbiologically relevant microenvironment characteristics. This pilot study therefore shows that LCM-coupled with metagenomics is a powerful tool for analysing the microbiome of defined biological niches. Refining and complementing this method with broader metagenomic techniques will facilitate the mapping of dysbiotic events associated with HF diseases and targeted therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Xu XJ, Lang JD, Yang J, et al (2023)

Differences of gut microbiota and behavioral symptoms between two subgroups of autistic children based on γδT cells-derived IFN-γ Levels: A preliminary study.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1100816.

BACKGROUND: Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) are defined as a group of pervasive neurodevelopmental disorders, and the heterogeneity in the symptomology and etiology of ASD has long been recognized. Altered immune function and gut microbiota have been found in ASD populations. Immune dysfunction has been hypothesized to involve in the pathophysiology of a subtype of ASD.

METHODS: A cohort of 105 ASD children were recruited and grouped based on IFN-γ levels derived from ex vivo stimulated γδT cells. Fecal samples were collected and analyzed with a metagenomic approach. Comparison of autistic symptoms and gut microbiota composition was made between subgroups. Enriched KEGG orthologues markers and pathogen-host interactions based on metagenome were also analyzed to reveal the differences in functional features.

RESULTS: The autistic behavioral symptoms were more severe for children in the IFN-γ-high group, especially in the body and object use, social and self-help, and expressive language performance domains. LEfSe analysis of gut microbiota revealed an overrepresentation of Selenomonadales, Negatiyicutes, Veillonellaceae and Verrucomicrobiaceae and underrepresentation of Bacteroides xylanisolvens and Bifidobacterium longum in children with higher IFN-γ level. Decreased metabolism function of carbohydrate, amino acid and lipid in gut microbiota were found in the IFN-γ-high group. Additional functional profiles analyses revealed significant differences in the abundances of genes encoding carbohydrate-active enzymes between the two groups. And enriched phenotypes related to infection and gastroenteritis and underrepresentation of one gut-brain module associated with histamine degradation were also found in the IFN-γ-High group. Results of multivariate analyses revealed relatively good separation between the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Levels of IFN-γ derived from γδT cell could serve as one of the potential candidate biomarkers to subtype ASD individuals to reduce the heterogeneity associated with ASD and produce subgroups which are more likely to share a more similar phenotype and etiology. A better understanding of the associations among immune function, gut microbiota composition and metabolism abnormalities in ASD would facilitate the development of individualized biomedical treatment for this complex neurodevelopmental disorder.

RevDate: 2023-03-08
CmpDate: 2023-03-08

Banerjee P, Sarkar A, Ghosh K, et al (2023)

A Metagenomic Based Approach on Abundance and Diversity of Bacterial Communities Across the Life Stages of Culicoides peregrinus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) a Vector of Bluetongue Virus.

Journal of medical entomology, 60(2):373-383.

During larval rearing of Culicoides peregrinus Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) it was obligatory to add a small quantity of mud from larval habitat to nutrient broth in culture plates. This initiated microbial growth in rearing plates which facilitated growth and development of immature. The primary aim was to enumerate gut microbial communities across the different life stages of C. peregrinus. Amplicon sequencing of the V3-V4 hypervariable region (16S rDNA) was done on Illumina Miseq platform to detect gut bacterial communities at different life stages, while ITS regions (18S rRNA) were targeted for fungal communities of the 4th instar larvae. The major findings were: 1) Phylum Proteobacteria and Firmicutes were the most abundant throughout the life stages, along with the highest bacterial alpha diversity in the egg, 2) bacterial compositions were similar to laboratory reared and field collected adults, and 3) abundant fungal phyla associated with the larval gut were Ascomycota and Basidiomycota. Furthermore, analyses of the gut microbiome with METAGENassist might be indicative of their likely function in the natural habitat. Abundant gut-associated bacteria and/or fungal genera detected in the present study could be used as dietary supplements to establish laboratory colonies for further vectorial research. While, individual roles of the bacteria or fungi in paratransgenesis are warned for their possible utilization to frame the management strategy in upcoming works.

RevDate: 2023-03-08
CmpDate: 2023-03-08

Wang J, Lou Y, Ma D, et al (2023)

Co-treatment with free nitrous acid and calcium peroxide regulates microbiome and metabolic functions of acidogenesis and methanogenesis in sludge anaerobic digestion.

The Science of the total environment, 870:161924.

Wasted activated sludge (WAS) is a promising feedstock for carbon management because of its abundance and carbon-neutral features. Currently, the goal is to maximize the energy in WAS and avoid secondary toxic effects or accumulation of harmful substances in the environment. Chemical pretreatment is an effective strategy for enhancing WAS disintegration and production of short chain fatty acids (SCFAs). However, the role of pretreatment in shaping the core microbiome and functional metabolism of anaerobic microorganisms remains obscure. Here, the mechanisms of SCFA synthesis and microbiome response to free nitrous acid (FNA) and calcium peroxide (CaO2) co-treatment during sludge anaerobic digestion (AD) were investigated. The combination of FNA and CaO2 enriched acidogenic Macellibacteroides, Petrimonas, and Sedimentibacter to a relative abundance of 15.0%, 10.3%, and 7.3%, respectively, resulting in an apparent increase in SCFA production. Metagenome analysis indicated that FNA + CaO2 co-treatment facilitated glycolysis, phosphate acetyltransferase-acetate kinase pathway, amino acid metabolism, and acetate transport, but inhibited CO2 reduction and common pathway of methanogenesis compared with the untreated control. This work provides theoretical insights into the functional activity and interaction of microorganisms with ecological factors.

RevDate: 2023-03-08
CmpDate: 2023-03-08

Shimomura Y, Zha L, Komukai S, et al (2023)

Mediation effect of intestinal microbiota on the relationship between fiber intake and colorectal cancer.

International journal of cancer, 152(9):1752-1762.

Higher fiber intake has been associated with a lower risk of colorectal cancer (CRC) and has been shown to protect against CRC based on probable evidence. Recent studies revealed a possible mechanism whereby the interaction between intestinal microbiota and fiber intake mediates CRC risk. However, the specific intestinal bacteria and the amount of these bacteria involved in this mechanism are not fully known. Therefore, this single-center study aimed to determine whether specific intestinal bacteria mediated the relationship between fiber intake and CRC risk. We enrolled patients who received colonoscopy at National Cancer Center Hospital. This cross-sectional study included 180 patients with clinically diagnosed CRC and 242 controls. We conducted a causal mediation analysis to assess the natural indirect effect and natural direct effect of specific intestinal bacteria on association between fiber intake and CRC risk. The median age was 64 (interquartile range, 54-70) years, and 58% of the participants were males. We used metagenomics for profiling gut microbiomes. The relative abundance of each species in each sample was calculated. Among the candidate, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Gemella morbillorum had a significant natural indirect effect based on their highest fiber intake compared to the lowest fiber intake, with a risk difference (95% confidence interval, proportion of mediation effect) of -0.06 [-0.09 to -0.03, 23%] and -0.03 [-0.06 to -0.01, 10.5%], respectively. Other bacteria did not display natural indirect effects. In conclusion, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Gemella morbillorum were found to mediate the relationship between fiber intake and CRC risk.

RevDate: 2023-03-08
CmpDate: 2023-03-08

Moroishi Y, Gui J, Nadeau KC, et al (2023)

A prospective study of the infant gut microbiome in relation to vaccine response.

Pediatric research, 93(3):725-731.

BACKGROUND: The establishment of the gut microbiome plays a key symbiotic role in the developing immune system; however, its influence on vaccine response is yet uncertain. We prospectively investigated the composition and diversity of the early-life gut microbiome in relation to infant antibody response to two routinely administered vaccines.

METHODS: Eighty-three infants enrolled in the New Hampshire Birth Cohort Study were included in the analysis. We collected blood samples at 12 months of age and assayed the isolated serum to quantify total IgG and measured antibody to pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide and tetanus toxoid. Stool samples were collected from infants at 6 weeks of age and sequenced using 16S rRNA, and a subset of 61 samples were sequenced using shotgun metagenomics sequencing.

RESULTS: We observed differences in beta diversity for 16S 6-week stool microbiota and pneumococcal and tetanus IgG antibody responses. Metagenomics analyses identified species and metabolic pathways in 6-week stool associated with tetanus antibody response, in particular, negative associations with the relative abundance of Aeriscardovia aeriphila species and positive associations with the relative abundance of species associated with CDP-diacylglycerol biosynthesis pathways.

CONCLUSIONS: The early gut microbiome composition may influence an infant's vaccine response.

IMPACT: Early intestinal microbiome acquisition plays a critical role in immune maturation and in both adaptive and innate immune response in infancy. We identified associations between early life microbiome composition and response to two routinely administered vaccines-pneumococcal capsular polysaccharide and tetanus toxoid-measured at approximately 1 year of age. Our findings highlight the potential impact of the gut microbiome on infant immune response that may open up opportunities for future interventions.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Fuchsman CA, Garcia Prieto D, Hays MD, et al (2023)

Associations between picocyanobacterial ecotypes and cyanophage host genes across ocean basins and depth.

PeerJ, 11:e14924.

BACKGROUND: Cyanophages, viruses that infect cyanobacteria, are globally abundant in the ocean's euphotic zone and are a potentially important cause of mortality for marine picocyanobacteria. Viral host genes are thought to increase viral fitness by either increasing numbers of genes for synthesizing nucleotides for virus replication, or by mitigating direct stresses imposed by the environment. The encoding of host genes in viral genomes through horizontal gene transfer is a form of evolution that links viruses, hosts, and the environment. We previously examined depth profiles of the proportion of cyanophage containing various host genes in the Eastern Tropical North Pacific Oxygen Deficient Zone (ODZ) and at the subtropical North Atlantic (BATS). However, cyanophage host genes have not been previously examined in environmental depth profiles across the oceans.

METHODOLOGY: We examined geographical and depth distributions of picocyanobacterial ecotypes, cyanophage, and their viral-host genes across ocean basins including the North Atlantic, Mediterranean Sea, North Pacific, South Pacific, and Eastern Tropical North and South Pacific ODZs using phylogenetic metagenomic read placement. We determined the proportion of myo and podo-cyanophage containing a range of host genes by comparing to cyanophage single copy core gene terminase (terL). With this large dataset (22 stations), network analysis identified statistical links between 12 of the 14 cyanophage host genes examined here with their picocyanobacteria host ecotypes.

RESULTS: Picyanobacterial ecotypes, and the composition and proportion of cyanophage host genes, shifted dramatically and predictably with depth. For most of the cyanophage host genes examined here, we found that the composition of host ecotypes predicted the proportion of viral host genes harbored by the cyanophage community. Terminase is too conserved to illuminate the myo-cyanophage community structure. Cyanophage cobS was present in almost all myo-cyanophage and did not vary in proportion with depth. We used the composition of cobS phylotypes to track changes in myo-cyanophage composition.

CONCLUSIONS: Picocyanobacteria ecotypes shift with changes in light, temperature, and oxygen and many common cyanophage host genes shift concomitantly. However, cyanophage phosphate transporter gene pstS appeared to instead vary with ocean basin and was most abundant in low phosphate regions. Abundances of cyanophage host genes related to nutrient acquisition may diverge from host ecotype constraints as the same host can live in varying nutrient concentrations. Myo-cyanophage community in the anoxic ODZ had reduced diversity. By comparison to the oxic ocean, we can see which cyanophage host genes are especially abundant (nirA, nirC, and purS) or not abundant (myo psbA) in ODZs, highlighting both the stability of conditions in the ODZ and the importance of nitrite as an N source to ODZ endemic LLV Prochlorococcus.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Wu TT, Sohn M, Manning S, et al (2023)

Metagenomic analysis examines oral microbiome changes and interplay with immune response following prenatal total oral rehabilitation.

Journal of translational medicine, 21(1):172.

BACKGROUND: Suboptimal maternal oral health during pregnancy is potentially associated with adverse birth outcomes and increased dental caries risks in children. This study aimed to assess the oral microbiome and immune response following an innovative clinical regimen, Prenatal Total Oral Rehabilitation (PTOR), that fully restores women's oral health to a "disease-free status" before delivery.

METHODS: This prospective cohort study assessed 15 pregnant women at baseline and 3 follow-up visits (1 week, 2 weeks, and 2 months) after receiving PTOR. The salivary and supragingival plaque microbiomes were analyzed using metagenomic sequencing. Multiplexed Luminex cytokine assays were performed to examine immune response following PTOR. The association between salivary immune markers and oral microbiome was further examined.

RESULTS: PTOR was associated with a reduction of periodontal pathogens in plaque, for instance, a lower relative abundance of Tannerella forsythia and Treponema denticola at 2 weeks compared to the baseline (p < 0.05). The alpha diversity of plaque microbial community was significantly reduced at the 1-week follow-up (p < 0.05). Furthermore, we observed significant changes in the Actinomyces defective-associated carbohydrate degradation pathway and Streptococcus Gordonii-associated fatty acid biosynthesis pathway. Two immune markers related to adverse birth outcomes significantly differed between baseline and follow-up. ITAC, negatively correlated with preeclampsia severity, significantly increased at 1-week follow-up; MCP-1, positively correlated with gestational age, was elevated at 1-week follow-up. Association modeling between immune markers and microbiome further revealed specific oral microorganisms that are potentially correlated with the host immune response.

CONCLUSIONS: PTOR is associated with alteration of the oral microbiome and immune response among a cohort of underserved US pregnant women. Future randomized clinical trials are warranted to comprehensively assess the impact of PTOR on maternal oral flora, birth outcomes, and their offspring's oral health.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Gu F, Zhu S, Tang Y, et al (2023)

Gut microbiome is linked to functions of peripheral immune cells in transition cows during excessive lipolysis.

Microbiome, 11(1):40.

BACKGROUND: Postpartum dairy cows experiencing excessive lipolysis are prone to severe immunosuppression. Despite the extensive understanding of the gut microbial regulation of host immunity and metabolism, its role during excessive lipolysis in cows is largely unknown. Herein, we investigated the potential links between the gut microbiome and postpartum immunosuppression in periparturient dairy cows with excessive lipolysis using single immune cell transcriptome, 16S amplicon sequencing, metagenomics, and targeted metabolomics.

RESULTS: The use of single-cell RNA sequencing identified 26 clusters that were annotated to 10 different immune cell types. Enrichment of functions of these clusters revealed a downregulation of functions in immune cells isolated from a cow with excessive lipolysis compared to a cow with low/normal lipolysis. The results of metagenomic sequencing and targeted metabolome analysis together revealed that secondary bile acid (SBA) biosynthesis was significantly activated in the cows with excessive lipolysis. Moreover, the relative abundance of gut Bacteroides sp. OF04 - 15BH, Paraprevotella clara, Paraprevotella xylaniphila, and Treponema sp. JC4 was mainly associated with SBA synthesis. The use of an integrated analysis showed that the reduction of plasma glycolithocholic acid and taurolithocholic acid could contribute to the immunosuppression of monocytes (CD14[+]MON) during excessive lipolysis by decreasing the expression of GPBAR1.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results suggest that alterations in the gut microbiota and their functions related to SBA synthesis suppressed the functions of monocytes during excessive lipolysis in transition dairy cows. Therefore, we concluded that altered microbial SBA synthesis during excessive lipolysis could lead to postpartum immunosuppression in transition cows. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Wright RJ, Comeau AM, MGI Langille (2023)

From defaults to databases: parameter and database choice dramatically impact the performance of metagenomic taxonomic classification tools.

Microbial genomics, 9(3):.

In metagenomic analyses of microbiomes, one of the first steps is usually the taxonomic classification of reads by comparison to a database of previously taxonomically classified genomes. While different studies comparing metagenomic taxonomic classification methods have determined that different tools are 'best', there are two tools that have been used the most to-date: Kraken (k-mer-based classification against a user-constructed database) and MetaPhlAn (classification by alignment to clade-specific marker genes), the latest versions of which are Kraken2 and MetaPhlAn 3, respectively. We found large discrepancies in both the proportion of reads that were classified as well as the number of species that were identified when we used both Kraken2 and MetaPhlAn 3 to classify reads within metagenomes from human-associated or environmental datasets. We then investigated which of these tools would give classifications closest to the real composition of metagenomic samples using a range of simulated and mock samples and examined the combined impact of tool-parameter-database choice on the taxonomic classifications given. This revealed that there may not be a one-size-fits-all 'best' choice. While Kraken2 can achieve better overall performance, with higher precision, recall and F1 scores, as well as alpha- and beta-diversity measures closer to the known composition than MetaPhlAn 3, the computational resources required for this may be prohibitive for many researchers, and the default database and parameters should not be used. We therefore conclude that the best tool-parameter-database choice for a particular application depends on the scientific question of interest, which performance metric is most important for this question and the limit of available computational resources.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Wang M, Yan LY, Qiao CY, et al (2023)

Ecological shifts of salivary microbiota associated with metabolic-associated fatty liver disease.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 13:1131255.

INTRODUCTION: Metabolic-associated fatty liver disease (MAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease related to metabolic syndrome. However, ecological shifts in the saliva microbiome in patients with MAFLD remain unknown. This study aimed to investigate the changes to the salivary microbial community in patients with MAFLD and explore the potential function of microbiota.

METHODS: Salivary microbiomes from ten MAFLD patients and ten healthy participants were analyzed by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing and bioinformatics analysis. Body composition, plasma enzymes, hormones, and blood lipid profiles were assessed with physical examinations and laboratory tests.

RESULTS: The salivary microbiome of MAFLD patients was characterized by increased α-diversity and distinct β-diversity clustering compared with control subjects. Linear discriminant analysis effect size analysis showed a total of 44 taxa significantly differed between the two groups. Genera Neisseria, Filifactor, and Capnocytophaga were identified as differentially enriched genera for comparison of the two groups. Co-occurrence networks suggested that the salivary microbiota from MAFLD patients exhibited more intricate and robust interrelationships. The diagnostic model based on the salivary microbiome achieved a good diagnostic power with an area under the curve of 0.82(95% CI: 0.61-1). Redundancy analysis and spearman correlation analysis revealed that clinical variables related to insulin resistance and obesity were strongly associated with the microbial community. Metagenomic predictions based on Phylogenetic Investigation of Communities by Reconstruction of Unobserved States revealed that pathways related to metabolism were more prevalent in the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS: Patients with MAFLD manifested ecological shifts in the salivary microbiome, and the saliva microbiome-based diagnostic model provides a promising approach for auxiliary MAFLD diagnosis.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Yan M, Tian H, Song S, et al (2023)

Effects of digestate-encapsulated biochar on plant growth, soil microbiome and nitrogen leaching.

Journal of environmental management, 334:117481.

The increasing amount of food waste and the excessive use of mineral fertilizers have caused detrimental impacts on soil, water, and air quality. Though digestate derived from food waste has been reported to partially replace fertilizer, its efficiency requires further improvement. In this study, the effects of digestate-encapsulated biochar were comprehensively investigated based on growth of an ornamental plant, soil characteristics, nutrient leaching and soil microbiome. Results showed that except for biochar, the tested fertilizers and soil additives, i.e., digestate, compost, commercial fertilizer, digestate-encapsulated biochar had positive effects on plants. Especially, the digestate-encapsulated biochar had the best effectiveness as evidenced by 9-25% increase in chlorophyll content index, fresh weight, leaf area and blossom frequency. For the effects of fertilizers or soil additives on soil characteristics and nutrient retention, the digestate-encapsulated biochar leached least N-nutrients (<8%), while the compost, digestate and mineral fertilizer leached up to 25% N-nutrients. All the treatments had minimal effects on the soil properties of pH and electrical conductivity. According to the microbial analysis, the digestate-encapsulated biochar has the comparable role with compost in improving the soil immune system against pathogen infection. The metagenomics coupling with qPCR analysis suggested that digestate-encapsulated biochar boosted the nitrification process and inhibited the denitrification process. This study provides an extensive understanding into the impacts of the digestate-encapsulated biochar on an ornamental plant and offers practical implications for the choice of sustainable fertilizers or soil additives and food-waste digestate management.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Liu J, Ding H, Yan C, et al (2023)

Effect of tea catechins on gut microbiota in high fat diet-induced obese mice.

Journal of the science of food and agriculture, 103(5):2436-2445.

BACKGROUND: Tea catechins have been shown to have beneficial effects on the alleviation of obesity, the prevention of diabetes, and the amelioration of metabolic syndrome. The purpose of the present work is to explore the underlying mechanisms linking the intestinal microbiota and anti-obesity benefits of green tea, oolong tea, and black tea catechins in C57BL/6J mice fed with a high-fat diet (HFD).

RESULTS: The results indicated that, after the dietary intake of three tea catechins, obesity and low-grade inflammation were significantly alleviated. Hepatic steatosis was prevented, and this was accompanied by the upregulation of the mRNA and protein expressions of hepatic peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor α (PPARα). Metagenomic analysis of fecal samples suggested that the three tea catechins similarly changed the microbiota in terms of overall structure, composition, and protein functions by regulating the metabolites, facilitating the generation of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), and repressing lipopolysaccharides.

CONCLUSION: The anti-obese properties of three tea catechins were partially mediated by their positive effect on gut microbiota, hepatic steatosis alleviation, and anti-inflammatory activity. © 2023 Society of Chemical Industry.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Yuan X, Zhang Y, Lin X, et al (2023)

Association of gut microbiota and glucose metabolism in children with disparate degrees of adiposity.

Pediatric obesity, 18(4):e13009.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the characteristics of gut microbiota in children with disparate degrees of adiposity, and analyze the association between gut microbiota, glucose metabolism indicators, and inflammatory factors.

METHODS: Clinical data were examined in 89 Chinese children. Children with a body fat percentage ≥ 30% were diagnosed as obese, and ≥ 35% in males and ≥ 40% in females were further defined as severe obesity. The composition of gut microbiota was determined by 16S rDNA-based metagenomics.

RESULTS: The study population (9.75 ± 1.92-year-old) was characterized as normal weight (n = 29), mild obesity (n = 27) and severe obesity (n = 33) groups. Linear discriminant analysis Effect Size (LEfSe) analysis found that compared to the severe obesity group, subjects with mild obesity had more prevalent members of the phylum Fusobacteria, the genus Alistipes, and fewer members of genus Granulicatella and Clostridium (p < 0.05). For subjects with mild obesity, Spearman's correlation analysis revealed that fasting plasma glucose positively correlated with species A. indistinctus, A. putredinis, and negatively correlated with species Ruminococcus gnavus; LBP negatively correlated with species Clostridium hathewayi, and Blautia producta. For subjects with severe obesity, oral glucose tolerance test 2 h plasma glucose (OGTT2HPG) negatively correlated with the phylum Synergistetes, genus Pyramidobacter, species Veillonella parvula, P. piscolens, and positively correlated with species B. producta, INS and HOMA-IR negatively correlated with the genus Haemophilus, species H. parainfluenzae, lipopolysaccharide-binding protein (LBP) negatively correlated with the phylum Actinobacteria, genus Bifidobacterium, Lactobacillus, and species B. longum (all p < 0.05). Phylogenetic investigation of communities by reconstruction of unobserved states 2 (PICRUSt2) analysis discerned that the glucose metabolism pathway, gluconeogenesis I was curtailed in the severe obesity group.

CONCLUSION: The gut microbiota could favourably compensate for glucose metabolism in children with obesity. Genus Haemophilus and Bifidobacterium longum may influence glucose tolerance and insulin resistance in children with severe obesity.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Ferrocino I, Rantsiou K, McClure R, et al (2023)

The need for an integrated multi-OMICs approach in microbiome science in the food system.

Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety, 22(2):1082-1103.

Microbiome science as an interdisciplinary research field has evolved rapidly over the past two decades, becoming a popular topic not only in the scientific community and among the general public, but also in the food industry due to the growing demand for microbiome-based technologies that provide added-value solutions. Microbiome research has expanded in the context of food systems, strongly driven by methodological advances in different -omics fields that leverage our understanding of microbial diversity and function. However, managing and integrating different complex -omics layers are still challenging. Within the Coordinated Support Action MicrobiomeSupport (https://www.microbiomesupport.eu/), a project supported by the European Commission, the workshop "Metagenomics, Metaproteomics and Metabolomics: the need for data integration in microbiome research" gathered 70 participants from different microbiome research fields relevant to food systems, to discuss challenges in microbiome research and to promote a switch from microbiome-based descriptive studies to functional studies, elucidating the biology and interactive roles of microbiomes in food systems. A combination of technologies is proposed. This will reduce the biases resulting from each individual technology and result in a more comprehensive view of the biological system as a whole. Although combinations of different datasets are still rare, advanced bioinformatics tools and artificial intelligence approaches can contribute to understanding, prediction, and management of the microbiome, thereby providing the basis for the improvement of food quality and safety.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Perez-Garcia J, González-Carracedo M, Espuela-Ortiz A, et al (2023)

The upper-airway microbiome as a biomarker of asthma exacerbations despite inhaled corticosteroid treatment.

The Journal of allergy and clinical immunology, 151(3):706-715.

BACKGROUND: The response to inhaled corticosteroids (ICS) in asthma is affected by the interplay of several factors. Among these, the role of the upper-airway microbiome has been scarcely investigated. We aimed to evaluate the association between the salivary, pharyngeal, and nasal microbiome with asthma exacerbations despite receipt of ICS.

METHODS: Samples from 250 asthma patients from the Genomics and Metagenomics of Asthma Severity (GEMAS) study treated with ICS were analyzed. Control/case subjects were defined by the absence/presence of asthma exacerbations in the past 6 months despite being treated with ICS. The bacterial microbiota was profiled by sequencing the V3-V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. Differences between groups were assessed by PERMANOVA and regression models adjusted for potential confounders. A false discovery rate (FDR) of 5% was used to correct for multiple comparisons. Classification models of asthma exacerbations despite ICS treatment were built with machine learning approaches based on clinical, genetic, and microbiome data.

RESULTS: In nasal and saliva samples, case subjects had lower bacterial diversity (Richness, Shannon, and Faith indices) than control subjects (.007 ≤ P ≤ .037). Asthma exacerbations accounted for 8% to 9% of the interindividual variation of the salivary and nasal microbiomes (.003 ≤ P ≤ .046). Three, 4, and 11 bacterial genera from the salivary, pharyngeal, and nasal microbiomes were differentially abundant between groups (4.09 × 10[-12] ≤ FDR ≤ 0.047). Integrating clinical, genetic, and microbiome data showed good discrimination for the development of asthma exacerbations despite receipt of ICS (AUCtraining: 0.82 and AUCvalidation: 0.77).

CONCLUSION: The diversity and composition of the upper-airway microbiome are associated with asthma exacerbations despite ICS treatment. The salivary microbiome has a potential application as a biomarker of asthma exacerbations despite receipt of ICS.

RevDate: 2023-03-07
CmpDate: 2023-03-07

Stothart MR, McLoughlin PD, J Poissant (2023)

Shallow shotgun sequencing of the microbiome recapitulates 16S amplicon results and provides functional insights.

Molecular ecology resources, 23(3):549-564.

Prevailing 16S rRNA gene-amplicon methods for characterizing the bacterial microbiome of wildlife are economical, but result in coarse taxonomic classifications, are subject to primer and 16S copy number biases, and do not allow for direct estimation of microbiome functional potential. While deep shotgun metagenomic sequencing can overcome many of these limitations, it is prohibitively expensive for large sample sets. Here we evaluated the ability of shallow shotgun metagenomic sequencing to characterize taxonomic and functional patterns in the faecal microbiome of a model population of feral horses (Sable Island, Canada). Since 2007, this unmanaged population has been the subject of an individual-based, long-term ecological study. Using deep shotgun metagenomic sequencing, we determined the sequencing depth required to accurately characterize the horse microbiome. In comparing conventional vs. high-throughput shotgun metagenomic library preparation techniques, we validate the use of more cost-effective laboratory methods. Finally, we characterize similarities between 16S amplicon and shallow shotgun characterization of the microbiome, and demonstrate that the latter recapitulates biological patterns first described in a published amplicon data set. Unlike for amplicon data, we further demonstrate how shallow shotgun metagenomic data provide useful insights regarding microbiome functional potential which support previously hypothesized diet effects in this study system.

RevDate: 2023-03-06
CmpDate: 2023-03-06

Lou YC, Hoff J, Olm MR, et al (2023)

Using strain-resolved analysis to identify contamination in metagenomics data.

Microbiome, 11(1):36.

BACKGROUND: Metagenomics analyses can be negatively impacted by DNA contamination. While external sources of contamination such as DNA extraction kits have been widely reported and investigated, contamination originating within the study itself remains underreported.

RESULTS: Here, we applied high-resolution strain-resolved analyses to identify contamination in two large-scale clinical metagenomics datasets. By mapping strain sharing to DNA extraction plates, we identified well-to-well contamination in both negative controls and biological samples in one dataset. Such contamination is more likely to occur among samples that are on the same or adjacent columns or rows of the extraction plate than samples that are far apart. Our strain-resolved workflow also reveals the presence of externally derived contamination, primarily in the other dataset. Overall, in both datasets, contamination is more significant in samples with lower biomass.

CONCLUSION: Our work demonstrates that genome-resolved strain tracking, with its essentially genome-wide nucleotide-level resolution, can be used to detect contamination in sequencing-based microbiome studies. Our results underscore the value of strain-specific methods to detect contamination and the critical importance of looking for contamination beyond negative and positive controls. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-03-06
CmpDate: 2023-03-06

Lee K, Raguideau S, Sirén K, et al (2023)

Population-level impacts of antibiotic usage on the human gut microbiome.

Nature communications, 14(1):1191.

The widespread usage of antimicrobials has driven the evolution of resistance in pathogenic microbes, both increased prevalence of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) and their spread across species by horizontal gene transfer (HGT). However, the impact on the wider community of commensal microbes associated with the human body, the microbiome, is less well understood. Small-scale studies have determined the transient impacts of antibiotic consumption but we conduct an extensive survey of ARGs in 8972 metagenomes to determine the population-level impacts. Focusing on 3096 gut microbiomes from healthy individuals not taking antibiotics we demonstrate highly significant correlations between both the total ARG abundance and diversity and per capita antibiotic usage rates across ten countries spanning three continents. Samples from China were notable outliers. We use a collection of 154,723 human-associated metagenome assembled genomes (MAGs) to link these ARGs to taxa and detect HGT. This reveals that the correlations in ARG abundance are driven by multi-species mobile ARGs shared between pathogens and commensals, within a highly connected central component of the network of MAGs and ARGs. We also observe that individual human gut ARG profiles cluster into two types or resistotypes. The less frequent resistotype has higher overall ARG abundance, is associated with certain classes of resistance, and is linked to species-specific genes in the Proteobacteria on the periphery of the ARG network.

RevDate: 2023-03-03
CmpDate: 2023-03-03

Chen X, Ke Y, Zhu Y, et al (2023)

Enrichment of tetracycline-degrading bacterial consortia: Microbial community succession and degradation characteristics and mechanism.

Journal of hazardous materials, 448:130984.

Tetracycline (TC) is an antibiotic that is recently found as an emerging pollutant with low biodegradability. Biodegradation shows great potential for TC dissipation. In this study, two TC-degrading microbial consortia (named SL and SI) were respectively enriched from activated sludge and soil. Bacterial diversity decreased in these finally enriched consortia compared with the original microbiota. Moreover, most ARGs quantified during the acclimation process became less abundant in the finally enriched microbial consortia. Microbial compositions of the two consortia as revealed by 16 S rRNA sequencing were similar to some extent, and the dominant genera Pseudomonas, Sphingobacterium, and Achromobacter were identified as the potential TC degraders. In addition, consortia SL and SI were capable of biodegrading TC (initial 50 mg/L) by 82.92% and 86.83% within 7 days, respectively. They could retain high degradation capabilities under a wide pH range (4-10) and at moderate/high temperatures (25-40 °C). Peptone with concentrations of 4-10 g/L could serve as a desirable primary growth substrate for consortia to remove TC through co-metabolism. A total of 16 possible intermediates including a novel biodegradation product TP245 were detected during TC degradation. Peroxidase genes, tetX-like genes and the enriched genes related to aromatic compound degradation as revealed by metagenomic sequencing were likely responsible for TC biodegradation.

RevDate: 2023-03-06
CmpDate: 2023-03-06

Zhang Q, Linke V, Overmyer KA, et al (2023)

Genetic mapping of microbial and host traits reveals production of immunomodulatory lipids by Akkermansia muciniphila in the murine gut.

Nature microbiology, 8(3):424-440.

The molecular bases of how host genetic variation impacts the gut microbiome remain largely unknown. Here we used a genetically diverse mouse population and applied systems genetics strategies to identify interactions between host and microbe phenotypes including microbial functions, using faecal metagenomics, small intestinal transcripts and caecal lipids that influence microbe-host dynamics. Quantitative trait locus (QTL) mapping identified murine genomic regions associated with variations in bacterial taxa; bacterial functions including motility, sporulation and lipopolysaccharide production and levels of bacterial- and host-derived lipids. We found overlapping QTL for the abundance of Akkermansia muciniphila and caecal levels of ornithine lipids. Follow-up in vitro and in vivo studies revealed that A. muciniphila is a major source of these lipids in the gut, provided evidence that ornithine lipids have immunomodulatory effects and identified intestinal transcripts co-regulated with these traits including Atf3, which encodes for a transcription factor that plays vital roles in modulating metabolism and immunity. Collectively, these results suggest that ornithine lipids are potentially important for A. muciniphila-host interactions and support the role of host genetics as a determinant of responses to gut microbes.

RevDate: 2023-03-03
CmpDate: 2023-03-03

Ge L, Song L, Wang L, et al (2023)

Evaluating response mechanisms of soil microbiomes and metabolomes to Bt toxin additions.

Journal of hazardous materials, 448:130904.

The accumulation and persistence of Bt toxins in soils from Bt plants and Bt biopesticides may result in environmental hazards such as adverse impacts on soil microorganisms. However, the dynamic relationships among exogenous Bt toxins, soil characteristics, and soil microorganisms are not well understood. Cry1Ab is one of the most commonly used Bt toxins and was added to soils in this study to evaluate subsequent changes in soil physiochemical properties, microbial taxa, microbial functional genes, and metabolites profiles via 16S rRNA gene pyrosequencing, high-throughput qPCR, metagenomic shotgun sequencing, and untargeted metabolomics. Higher additions of Bt toxins led to higher concentrations of soil organic matter (SOM), ammonium (NH[+]4-N), and nitrite (NO2[-]-N) compared against controls without addition after 100 days of soil incubation. High-throughput qPCR analysis and shotgun metagenomic sequencing analysis revealed that the 500 ng/g Bt toxin addition significantly affected profiles of soil microbial functional genes involved in soil carbon (C), nitrogen (N), and phosphorus (P) cycling after 100 days of incubation. Furthermore, combined metagenomic and metabolomic analyses indicated that the 500 ng/g Bt toxin addition significantly altered low molecular weight metabolite profiles of soils. Importantly, some of these altered metabolites are involved in soil nutrient cycling, and robust associations were identified among differentially abundant metabolites and microorganisms due to Bt toxin addition treatments. Taken together, these results suggest that higher levels of Bt toxin addition can alter soil nutrients, probably by affecting the activities of Bt toxin-degrading microorganisms. These dynamics would then activate other microorganisms involved in nutrient cycling, finally leading to broad changes in metabolite profiles. Notably, the addition of Bt toxins did not cause the accumulation of potential microbial pathogens in soils, nor did it adversely affect the diversity and stability of microbial communities. This study provides new insights into the putative mechanistic associations among Bt toxins, soil characteristics, and microorganisms, providing new understanding into the ecological impacts of Bt toxins on soil ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-03-01
CmpDate: 2023-03-01

Ambrose RK, Blakebrough-Hall C, Gravel JL, et al (2023)

Characterisation of the Upper Respiratory Tract Virome of Feedlot Cattle and Its Association with Bovine Respiratory Disease.

Viruses, 15(2):.

Bovine respiratory disease (BRD) is a major health problem within the global cattle industry. This disease has a complex aetiology, with viruses playing an integral role. In this study, metagenomics was used to sequence viral nucleic acids in the nasal swabs of BRD-affected cattle. The viruses detected included those that are well known for their association with BRD in Australia (bovine viral diarrhoea virus 1), as well as viruses known to be present but not fully characterised (bovine coronavirus) and viruses that have not been reported in BRD-affected cattle in Australia (bovine rhinitis, bovine influenza D, and bovine nidovirus). The nasal swabs from a case-control study were subsequently tested for 10 viruses, and the presence of at least one virus was found to be significantly associated with BRD. Some of the more recently detected viruses had inconsistent associations with BRD. Full genome sequences for bovine coronavirus, a virus increasingly associated with BRD, and bovine nidovirus were completed. Both viruses belong to the Coronaviridae family, which are frequently associated with disease in mammals. This study has provided greater insights into the viral pathogens associated with BRD and highlighted the need for further studies to more precisely elucidate the roles viruses play in BRD.

RevDate: 2023-03-03
CmpDate: 2023-03-03

Tintelnot J, Xu Y, Lesker TR, et al (2023)

Microbiota-derived 3-IAA influences chemotherapy efficacy in pancreatic cancer.

Nature, 615(7950):168-174.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is expected to be the second most deadly cancer by 2040, owing to the high incidence of metastatic disease and limited responses to treatment[1,2]. Less than half of all patients respond to the primary treatment for PDAC, chemotherapy[3,4], and genetic alterations alone cannot explain this[5]. Diet is an environmental factor that can influence the response to therapies, but its role in PDAC is unclear. Here, using shotgun metagenomic sequencing and metabolomic screening, we show that the microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolite indole-3-acetic acid (3-IAA) is enriched in patients who respond to treatment. Faecal microbiota transplantation, short-term dietary manipulation of tryptophan and oral 3-IAA administration increase the efficacy of chemotherapy in humanized gnotobiotic mouse models of PDAC. Using a combination of loss- and gain-of-function experiments, we show that the efficacy of 3-IAA and chemotherapy is licensed by neutrophil-derived myeloperoxidase. Myeloperoxidase oxidizes 3-IAA, which in combination with chemotherapy induces a downregulation of the reactive oxygen species (ROS)-degrading enzymes glutathione peroxidase 3 and glutathione peroxidase 7. All of this results in the accumulation of ROS and the downregulation of autophagy in cancer cells, which compromises their metabolic fitness and, ultimately, their proliferation. In humans, we observed a significant correlation between the levels of 3-IAA and the efficacy of therapy in two independent PDAC cohorts. In summary, we identify a microbiota-derived metabolite that has clinical implications in the treatment of PDAC, and provide a motivation for considering nutritional interventions during the treatment of patients with cancer.

RevDate: 2023-03-03
CmpDate: 2023-03-03

Shinde PB, Mohite SV, Yadav A, et al (2023)

Functional analysis of metalloenzymes from human gut microbiota and their role in ulcerative colitis.

Journal of applied microbiology, 134(3):.

AIM: Metalloenzymes produced by gut microbiota play an essential role in various physiological processes, and maintains homeostasis of gastrointestinal tract. Our study includes functional analysis of microbial metalloenzymes using metagenomics and metatranscriptomics data from Inflammatory Bowel Disease Multiomics Database.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The distance matrix calculated by using metalloenzymes data produced significant results for bacterial taxonomy, with higher variance compared to HMP analysis in both Western and Indian population. Differential gene expression analysis revealed altered expression of ulcerative colitis (UC)-associated enzymes, increased folds changes in Prevotella and Megamonas transcripts; whereas, low transcripts of Alistipes genera. Further, docking and simulation studies performed on screened UC-associated enzymes revealed changes in catalytic efficiency and ligand interacting residues.

CONCLUSION: The β-diversity using microbes containing metalloenzymes suggests considering small group of specific genes or enzymes for understanding the diversity between UC and healthy individuals. The docking and differential gene expression analysis collectively indicate the probable role of metalloenzymes and few UC-associated enzymes in the severity of UC.

RevDate: 2023-03-03
CmpDate: 2023-03-03

Wang T, Gao H, He C, et al (2023)

Adult hypertensive rats are more prone to gut microflora perturbation and fibrosis in response to moderate restraint stress.

Translational research : the journal of laboratory and clinical medicine, 254:92-114.

Hypertension (HTN) is a common endpoint for numerous cardiovascular diseases, the prevalence of which has been quickly increasing due to a wide range of reasons. Previous research has found that following stress, ELISA and 16S rDNA sequencing indicated substantial changes in plasma cytokines or hormones, as well as alterations in gut microbiota in juvenile hypertensive rats. However, it remains still unclear how such interaction modifications affect microbial populations and organismal function. Stress-related hormones show a significant drop. Similar to earlier research, the stress group had dramatically increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as IL-17. Importantly, a unified collection of tools that allows for deep and comprehensive colonic structural investigation has been developed. Stress may limit the transition of macrophages (Mφs) to M1Mφs while increasing the transfer to M2Mφs. Evidence highlighted that tight junction proteins were decreased along with enhancement in intestinal permeability. Morphological analysis revealed that the SHR-S group exhibited considerably higher levels of morphological alterations and fibrosis in colon, heart, and thoracic aorta tissues.Significant improvements in bacteria linked with short-chain fatty acid synthesis, such as Prevotella and Ruminococcus, were discovered by metagenomic analysis. Adult hypertensive rats are more susceptible to gut microbiota disruption and fibrosis as a result of mild restraint stress. This might contribute to some innovative ideas for HTN both treatment and prevention.

RevDate: 2023-03-03
CmpDate: 2023-03-03

Lee W, Kim MH, Park J, et al (2023)

Seasonal Changes in the Microbial Communities on Lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in Chungcheong-do, South Korea.

Journal of microbiology and biotechnology, 33(2):219-227.

Lettuce is one of the most consumed vegetables worldwide. However, it has potential risks associated with pathogenic bacterial contamination because it is usually consumed raw. In this study, we investigated the changes in the bacterial community on lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) in Chungcheong-do, South Korea, and the prevalence of foodborne pathogens on lettuce in different seasons using 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing. Our data revealed that the Shannon diversity index showed the same tendency in term of the number of OTUs, with the index being greatest for summer samples in comparison to other seasons. Moreover, the microbial communities were significantly different between the four seasons. The relative abundance of Actinobacteriota varied according to the season. Family Micrococcaceae was most dominant in all samples except summer, and Rhizobiaceae was predominant in the microbiome of the summer sample. At the genus level, the relative abundance of Bacillus was greatest in spring samples, whereas Pseudomonas was greatest in winter samples. Potential pathogens, such as Staphylococcus and Clostridium, were detected with low relative abundance in all lettuce samples. We also performed metagenome shotgun sequencing analysis on the selected summer and winter samples, which were expected to be contaminated with foodborne pathogens, to support 16S rRNA gene-based sequencing dataset. Moreover, we could detect seasonal biomarkers and microbial association networks of microbiota on lettuce samples. Our results suggest that seasonal characteristics of lettuce microbial communities, which include diverse potential pathogens, can be used as basic data for food safety management to predict and prevent future outbreaks.

RevDate: 2023-03-03
CmpDate: 2023-03-03

Zhao L, Luo JL, Ali MK, et al (2023)

The Human Respiratory Microbiome: Current Understandings and Future Directions.

American journal of respiratory cell and molecular biology, 68(3):245-255.

Microorganisms colonize the human body. The lungs and respiratory tract, previously believed to be sterile, harbor diverse microbial communities and the genomes of bacteria (bacteriome), viruses (virome), and fungi (mycobiome). Recent advances in amplicon and shotgun metagenomic sequencing technologies and data-analyzing methods have greatly aided the identification and characterization of microbial populations from airways. The respiratory microbiome has been shown to play roles in human health and disease and is an area of rapidly emerging interest in pulmonary medicine. In this review, we provide updated information in the field by focusing on four lung conditions, including asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, cystic fibrosis, and idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. We evaluate gut, oral, and upper airway microbiomes and how they contribute to lower airway flora. The discussion is followed by a systematic review of the lower airway microbiome in health and disease. We conclude with promising research avenues and implications for evolving therapeutics.

RevDate: 2023-03-02
CmpDate: 2023-03-02

Kunasegaran T, Balasubramaniam VRMT, Arasoo VJT, et al (2023)

Diet Gut Microbiota Axis in Pregnancy: A Systematic Review of Recent Evidence.

Current nutrition reports, 12(1):203-214.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Although gut microbiota have been associated with the etiology of some diseases, the influence of foods on gut microbiota, especially among pregnant women, remains unclear. Hence, a systematic review was performed to investigate the association between diet and gut microbiota and their influence on metabolic health in pregnant women.

RECENT FINDINGS: We performed the systematic review using the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 protocol to investigate the association between diet and gut microbiota and their influence on metabolic role in pregnant women. Five databases were searched for relevant peer-reviewed articles published in English since 2011. Two-staged screening of 659 retrieved records resulted in the inclusion of 10 studies. The collated findings suggested associations between nutrient intakes and four key microbes: Collinsella, Lachnospira, Sutterella, Faecalibacterium, and the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes ratio in pregnant women. Dietary intakes in pregnancy were found to modify the gut microbiota and positively influence the cell metabolism in pregnant women. This review, however, emphasizes the importance of conducting well-designed prospective cohorts to investigate the role of changes in dietary intakes within the pregnancy and the influence of such changes on gut microbiota.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

963 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226


E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )