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Bibliography on: Biodiversity and Metagenomics

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 04 Mar 2024 at 01:30 Created: 

Biodiversity and Metagenomics

If evolution is the only light in which biology makes sense, and if variation is the raw material upon which selection works, then variety is not merely the spice of life, it is the essence of life — the sine qua non without which life could not exist. To understand biology, one must understand its diversity. Historically, studies of biodiversity were directed primarily at the realm of multicellular eukaryotes, since few tools existed to allow the study of non-eukaryotes. Because metagenomics allows the study of intact microbial communities, without requiring individual cultures, it provides a tool for understanding this huge, hitherto invisible pool of biodiversity, whether it occurs in free-living communities or in commensal microbiomes associated with larger organisms.

Created with PubMed® Query: biodiversity metagenomics NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-02-29
CmpDate: 2024-02-29

Choy WH, Adler A, Morgan-Lang C, et al (2024)

Deficient butyrate metabolism in the intestinal microbiome is a potential risk factor for recurrent kidney stone disease.

Urolithiasis, 52(1):38.

Intestinal microbiome dysbiosis is a known risk factor for recurrent kidney stone disease (KSD) with prior data suggesting a role for dysfunctional metabolic pathways other than those directly utilizing oxalate. To identify alternative mechanisms, the current study analyzed differences in the metabolic potential of intestinal microbiomes of patients (n = 17) and live-in controls (n = 17) and determined their relevance to increased risk for KSD using shotgun metagenomic sequencing. We found no differences in the abundance of genes associated with known oxalate degradation pathways, supporting the notion that dysfunction in other metabolic pathways plays a role in KSD. Further analysis showed decreased abundance of key enzymes involved in butyrate biosynthesis in patient intestinal microbiomes. Furthermore, de novo construction of microbial genomes showed that the majority of genes significantly enriched in non-stone formers are affiliated with Faecalibacterium prausnitzii, a major butyrate producer. Specifically pertaining to butyrate metabolism, the majority of abundant genes mapped back to F. prausnitzii, Alistipes spp., and Akkermansia muciniphila. No differences were observed in ascorbate or glyoxylate metabolic pathways. Collectively, these data suggest that impaired bacterial-associated butyrate metabolism may be an oxalate-independent mechanism that contributes to an increased risk for recurrent KSD. This indicates that the role of the intestinal microbiome in recurrent KSD is multi-factorial, which is representative of the highly intertwined metabolic nature of this complex environment. Future bacteria-based treatments must not be restricted to targeting only oxalate metabolism.

RevDate: 2024-02-28
CmpDate: 2024-02-28

Ding Y, Yanagi K, Yang F, et al (2024)

Oral supplementation of gut microbial metabolite indole-3-acetate alleviates diet-induced steatosis and inflammation in mice.

eLife, 12: pii:87458.

Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease in Western countries. There is growing evidence that dysbiosis of the intestinal microbiota and disruption of microbiota-host interactions contribute to the pathology of NAFLD. We previously demonstrated that gut microbiota-derived tryptophan metabolite indole-3-acetate (I3A) was decreased in both cecum and liver of high-fat diet-fed mice and attenuated the expression of inflammatory cytokines in macrophages and Tnfa and fatty acid-induced inflammatory responses in an aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR)-dependent manner in hepatocytes. In this study, we investigated the effect of orally administered I3A in a mouse model of diet-induced NAFLD. Western diet (WD)-fed mice given sugar water (SW) with I3A showed dramatically decreased serum ALT, hepatic triglycerides (TG), liver steatosis, hepatocyte ballooning, lobular inflammation, and hepatic production of inflammatory cytokines, compared to WD-fed mice given only SW. Metagenomic analysis show that I3A administration did not significantly modify the intestinal microbiome, suggesting that I3A's beneficial effects likely reflect the metabolite's direct actions on the liver. Administration of I3A partially reversed WD-induced alterations of liver metabolome and proteome, notably, decreasing expression of several enzymes in hepatic lipogenesis and β-oxidation. Mechanistically, we also show that AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) mediates the anti-inflammatory effects of I3A in macrophages. The potency of I3A in alleviating liver steatosis and inflammation clearly demonstrates its potential as a therapeutic modality for preventing the progression of steatosis to non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH).

RevDate: 2024-02-27
CmpDate: 2024-02-27

Banar M, Rokaya D, Azizian R, et al (2024)

Oral bacteriophages: metagenomic clues to interpret microbiomes.

PeerJ, 12:e16947.

Bacteriophages are bacterial viruses that are distributed throughout the environment. Lytic phages and prophages in saliva, oral mucosa, and dental plaque interact with the oral microbiota and can change biofilm formation. The interactions between phages and bacteria can be considered a portion of oral metagenomics. The metagenomic profile of the oral microbiome indicates various bacteria. Indeed, there are various phages against these bacteria in the oral cavity. However, some other phages, like phages against Absconditabacteria, Chlamydiae, or Chloroflexi, have not been identified in the oral cavity. This review gives an overview of oral bacteriophage and used for metagenomics. Metagenomics of these phages deals with multi-drug-resistant bacterial plaques (biofilms) in oral cavities and oral infection. Hence, dentists and pharmacologists should know this metagenomic profile to cope with predental and dental infectious diseases.

RevDate: 2024-03-01
CmpDate: 2024-02-27

Conrad MA, Bittinger K, Ren Y, et al (2024)

The intestinal microbiome of inflammatory bowel disease across the pediatric age range.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2317932.

Dysbiosis is associated with pediatric and adult-onset inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), but the role of dysbiosis and the microbiome in very early onset IBD (VEO-IBD) has not yet been described. Here, we aimed to demonstrate the impact of age and inflammation on microbial community structure using shotgun metagenomic sequencing in children with VEO-IBD, pediatric-onset IBD, and age-matched pediatric healthy controls (HC) observed longitudinally over the course of 8 weeks. We found disease-related differences in alpha and beta diversity between HC and children with IBD or VEO-IBD. Using a healthy microbial maturity index modeled from HC across the age range to characterize their gut microbiota, we found that children with pediatric-onset IBD and VEO-IBD had lower maturity than their age-matched HC groups, suggesting a disease effect on the microbial community. In addition, patients with pediatric IBD had significantly lower maturity than those with VEO-IBD, who had more heterogeneity at the youngest ages, highlighting differences in these two cohorts that were not captured in standard comparisons of alpha and beta diversity. These results demonstrate that young age and inflammation independently impact microbial community structure. However, the effect is not additive in the youngest patients, likely because of the heterogeneous and dynamic stool microbiome in this population.

RevDate: 2024-03-01
CmpDate: 2024-03-01

Abe S, Masuda A, Matsumoto T, et al (2024)

Impact of intratumoral microbiome on tumor immunity and prognosis in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Journal of gastroenterology, 59(3):250-262.

BACKGROUND: Recent evidence suggests that the presence of microbiome within human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) tissue potentially influences cancer progression and prognosis. However, the significance of tumor-resident microbiome remains unclear. We aimed to elucidate the impact of intratumoral bacteria on the pathophysiology and prognosis of human PDAC.

METHODS: The presence of intratumoral bacteria was assessed in 162 surgically resected PDACs using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) and in situ hybridization (ISH) targeting 16S rRNA. The intratumoral microbiome was explored by 16S metagenome sequencing using DNA extracted from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues. The profile of intratumoral bacteria was compared with clinical information, pathological findings including tumor-infiltrating T cells, tumor-associated macrophage, fibrosis, and alterations in four main driver genes (KRAS, TP53, CDKN2A/p16, SMAD4) in tumor genomes.

RESULTS: The presence of intratumoral bacteria was confirmed in 52 tumors (32%) using both qPCR and ISH. The 16S metagenome sequencing revealed characteristic bacterial profiles within these tumors, including phyla such as Proteobacteria and Firmicutes. Comparison of bacterial profiles between cases with good and poor prognosis revealed a significant positive correlation between a shorter survival time and the presence of anaerobic bacteria such as Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, and Peptoniphilus. The abundance of these bacteria was correlated with a decrease in the number of tumor-infiltrating T cells positive for CD4, CD8, and CD45RO.

CONCLUSIONS: Intratumoral infection of anaerobic bacteria such as Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, and Peptoniphilus is correlated with the suppressed anti-PDAC immunity and poor prognosis.

RevDate: 2024-03-01
CmpDate: 2024-03-01

Zhu Z, Yu C, Dong Z, et al (2024)

Phylogeny and Fungal Community Structures of Helotiales Associated with Sclerotial Disease of Mulberry Fruits in China.

Plant disease, 108(2):502-512.

Mulberry fruit sclerotiniose is a prevalent disease caused by the fungal species Ciboria shiraiana, C. carunculoides, and Scleromitrula shiraiana of the order Helotiales, and severely affects the production of mulberry. However, these species have only been identified using morphological and rDNA-ITS sequence analyses, and their genetic variation is unclear. To address this, morphological and two-locus (ITS and RPB2) phylogenetic analyses were conducted using culture-dependent and independent methods for 49 samples from 31 orchards across four provinces in China. Illumina MiSeq sequencing was used to assess the fungal communities obtained from fruits varying in disease severity and color from an orchard in Wuhan. Conidial suspensions of C. shiraiana and C. carunculoides isolated from diseased fruits, diseased fruits affected with hypertrophy and pellet sorosis sclerotiniose, and mycelia of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum were determined to be pathogenic to the mulberry cultivar YSD10. However, fruits inoculated with S. sclerotiorum mycelia exhibited nontypical disease symptoms, and mycelia and conidia obtained from C. carunculoides and S. shiraiana strains were not pathogenic. Maximum parsimony and Bayesian analyses using the sequences of the assessed loci indicated species variability with no evidence of geographic specialization. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the diversity of fungal communities was reduced with disease progression. Furthermore, within a single fruit, the presence of two Ciboria spp. was detected. These results provide novel insights into Ciboria spp., revealing the secondary infections caused by conidia in diseased fruits, genetic variations of the pathogens, and the occurrence of coinfection. This improved understanding of fungal pathogens will aid in developing effective disease control strategies.

RevDate: 2024-03-01
CmpDate: 2024-03-01

Hu X, Yu L, Li Y, et al (2024)

Piperine improves levodopa availability in the 6-OHDA-lesioned rat model of Parkinson's disease by suppressing gut bacterial tyrosine decarboxylase.

CNS neuroscience & therapeutics, 30(2):e14383.

AIM: Tyrosine decarboxylase (TDC) presented in the gut-associated strain Enterococcus faecalis can convert levodopa (L-dopa) into dopamine (DA), and its increased abundance would potentially minimize the availability and efficacy of L-dopa. However, the known human decarboxylase inhibitors are ineffective in this bacteria-mediated conversion. This study aims to investigate the inhibition of piperine (PIP) on L-dopa bacterial metabolism and evaluates the synergistic effect of PIP combined with L-dopa on Parkinson's disease (PD).

METHODS: Metagenomics sequencing was adopted to determine the regulation of PIP on rat intestinal microbiota structure, especially on the relative abundance of E. faecalis. Then, the inhibitory effects of PIP on L-dopa conversion and TDC expression of E. faecalis were tested in vitro. We examined the synergetic effect of the combination of L-dopa and PIP on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats and tested the regulations of L-dopa bioavailability and brain DA level by pharmacokinetics study and MALDI-MS imaging. Finally, we evaluated the microbiota-dependent improvement effect of PIP on L-dopa availability using pseudo-germ-free and E. faecalis-transplanted rats.

RESULTS: We found that PIP combined with L-dopa could better ameliorate the move disorders of 6-OHDA-lesioned rats by remarkably improving L-dopa availability and brain DA level than L-dopa alone, which was associated with the effect of PIP on suppressing the bacterial decarboxylation of L-dopa via effectively downregulating the abnormal high abundances of E. faecalis and TDC in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats.

CONCLUSION: Oral administration of L-dopa combined with PIP can improve L-dopa availability and brain DA level in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats by suppressing intestinal bacterial TDC.

RevDate: 2024-02-29
CmpDate: 2024-02-27

Ren Y, Chen L, Guo R, et al (2024)

Altered gut mycobiome in patients with end-stage renal disease and its correlations with serum and fecal metabolomes.

Journal of translational medicine, 22(1):202.

BACKGROUND: The relationship between the gut mycobiome and end-stage renal disease (ESRD) remains largely unexplored.

METHODS: In this study, we compared the gut fungal populations of 223 ESRD patients and 69 healthy controls (HCs) based on shotgun metagenomic sequencing data, and analyzed their associations with host serum and fecal metabolites.

RESULTS: Our findings revealed that ESRD patients had a higher diversity in the gut mycobiome compared to HCs. Dysbiosis of the gut mycobiome in ESRD patients was characterized by a decrease of Saccharomyces cerevisiae and an increase in various opportunistic pathogens, such as Aspergillus fumigatus, Cladophialophora immunda, Exophiala spinifera, Hortaea werneckii, Trichophyton rubrum, and others. Through multi-omics analysis, we observed a substantial contribution of the gut mycobiome to host serum and fecal metabolomes. The opportunistic pathogens enriched in ESRD patients were frequently and positively correlated with the levels of creatinine, homocysteine, and phenylacetylglycine in the serum. The populations of Saccharomyces, including the HC-enriched Saccharomyces cerevisiae, were frequently and negatively correlated with the levels of various toxic metabolites in the feces.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results provided a comprehensive understanding of the associations between the gut mycobiome and the development of ESRD, which had important implications for guiding future therapeutic studies in this field.

RevDate: 2024-02-29
CmpDate: 2024-02-29

Wang J, Zhu YG, Tiedje JM, et al (2024)

Global biogeography and ecological implications of cobamide-producing prokaryotes.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

Cobamides, a class of essential coenzymes synthesized only by a subset of prokaryotes, are model nutrients in microbial interaction studies and play significant roles in global ecosystems. Yet, their spatial patterns and functional roles remain poorly understood. Herein, we present an in-depth examination of cobamide-producing microorganisms, drawn from a comprehensive analysis of 2862 marine and 2979 soil metagenomic samples. A total of 1934 nonredundant metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) potentially capable of producing cobamides de novo were identified. The cobamide-producing MAGs are taxonomically diverse but habitat specific. They constituted only a fraction of all the recovered MAGs, with the majority of MAGs being potential cobamide users. By mapping the distribution of cobamide producers in marine and soil environments, distinct latitudinal gradients were observed: the marine environment showed peak abundance at the equator, whereas soil environments peaked at mid-latitudes. Importantly, significant and positive links between the abundance of cobamide producers and the diversity and functions of microbial communities were observed, as well as their promotional roles in essential biogeochemical cycles. These associations were more pronounced in marine samples than in soil samples, which suggests a heightened propensity for microorganisms to engage in cobamide sharing in fluid environments relative to the more spatially restricted soil environment. These findings shed light on the global patterns and potential ecological roles of cobamide-producing microorganisms in marine and soil ecosystems, enhancing our understanding of large-scale microbial interactions.

RevDate: 2024-02-29
CmpDate: 2024-02-29

Liu L, Wang H, Guo Y, et al (2024)

Human-induced homogenization of microbial taxa and function in a subtropical river and its impacts on community stability.

Water research, 252:121198.

Combination of taxa and function can provide a more comprehensive picture on human-induced microbial homogenization. Here, we obtained 2.58 billion high-throughput sequencing reads and 479 high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of planktonic microbial communities in a subtropical river for 5 years. We found the microbial taxa homogenization and functional homogenization were uncoupled. Although human activities in downstream sites significantly decreased the taxonomic diversity of non-abundant ASV communities (16S rRNA gene amplicon sequence variants), they did not significantly decrease the taxonomic diversity of abundant ASV and total observed MAG communities. However, the total observed MAG communities in downstream sites tended to homogenize into some specific taxa which encode human-activity-related functional genes, such as nutrient cycles, greenhouse gas emission, antibiotic and arsenic resistance. Those specific MAGs with high taxonomic diversity caused the weak heterogenization of total observed MAG communities in downstream sites. Moreover, functional homogenization promoted the synchrony among downstream MAGs, and these MAGs constructed some specific network modules might to synergistically execute or resist the human-activity-related functions. High synchrony also led to the tandem effects among MAGs and thus decreased community stability. Overall, our findings revealed the links of microbial taxa, functions and stability under human activity impacts, and provided a strong evidence to encourage us re-thinking biotic homogenization based on microbial taxa and their functional attributes.

RevDate: 2024-02-29
CmpDate: 2024-02-29

Liberato MV, Paixao DAA, Tomazetto G, et al (2024)

Discovery, structural characterization, and functional insights into a novel apiosidase from the GH140 family, isolated from a lignocellulolytic-enriched mangrove microbial community.

Biotechnology letters, 46(2):201-211.

OBJECTIVES: Apiosidases are enzymes that cleave the glycosidic bond between the monosaccharides linked to apiose, a branched chain furanose found in the cell walls of vascular plants and aquatic monocots. There is biotechnological interest in this enzyme group because apiose is the flavor-active compound of grapes, fruit juice, and wine, and the monosaccharide is found to be a plant secondary metabolite with pharmaceutical properties. However, functional and structural studies of this enzyme family are scarce. Recently, a glycoside hydrolase family member GH140 was isolated from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron and identified as an endo-apiosidase.

RESULTS: The structural characterization and functional identification of a second GH140 family enzyme, termed MmApi, discovered through mangrove soil metagenomic approach, are described. Among the various substrates tested, MmApi exhibited activity on an apiose-containing oligosaccharide derived from the pectic polysaccharide rhamnogalacturonan-II. While the crystallographic model of MmApi was similar to the endo-apiosidase from Bacteroides thetaiotaomicron, differences in the shape of the binding sites indicated that MmApi could cleave apioses within oligosaccharides of different compositions.

CONCLUSION: This enzyme represents a novel tool for researchers interested in studying the physiology and structure of plant cell walls and developing biocatalytic strategies for drug and flavor production.

RevDate: 2024-02-27
CmpDate: 2024-02-27

Román-Camacho JJ, Mauricio JC, Santos-Dueñas IM, et al (2024)

Recent advances in applying omic technologies for studying acetic acid bacteria in industrial vinegar production: A comprehensive review.

Biotechnology journal, 19(2):e2300566.

Vinegar and related bioproducts containing acetic acid as the main component are among the most appreciated fermented foodstuffs in numerous European and Asian countries because of their exceptional organoleptic and bio-healthy properties. Regarding the acetification process and obtaining of final products, there is still a lack of knowledge on fundamental aspects, especially those related to the study of biodiversity and metabolism of the present microbiota. In this context, omic technologies currently allow for the massive analysis of macromolecules and metabolites for the identification and characterization of these microorganisms working in their natural media without the need for isolation. This review approaches comprehensive research on the application of omic tools for the identification of vinegar microbiota, mainly acetic acid bacteria, with subsequent emphasis on the study of the microbial diversity, behavior, and key molecular strategies used by the predominant groups throughout acetification. The current omics tools are enabling both the finding of new vinegar microbiota members and exploring underlying strategies during the elaboration process. The species Komagataeibacter europaeus may be a model organism for present and future research in this industry; moreover, the development of integrated meta-omic analysis may facilitate the achievement of numerous of the proposed milestones. This work might provide useful guidance for the vinegar industry establishing the first steps towards the improvement of the acetification conditions and the development of new products with sensory and bio-healthy profiles adapted to the agri-food market.

RevDate: 2024-02-28
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

Liu X, Fang H, Pan L, et al (2024)

S-amlodipine induces liver inflammation and dysfunction through the alteration of intestinal microbiome in a rat model.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2316923.

S-amlodipine, a commonly prescribed antihypertensive agent, is widely used in clinical settings to treat hypertension. However, the potential adverse effects of long-term S-amlodipine treatment on the liver remain uncertain, given the cautionary recommendations from clinicians regarding its administration in individuals with impaired liver function. To address this, we conducted a study using an eight-week-old male rat model and administered a daily dose of 0.6 ~ 5 mg/kg of S-amlodipine for 7 weeks. Our findings demonstrated that 1.2 ~ 5 mg/kg of S-amlodipine treatment induced liver inflammation and associated dysfunction in rats, further in vitro experiments revealed that the observed liver inflammation and dysfunction were not attributable to direct effects of S-amlodipine on the liver. Metagenome sequencing analysis revealed that S-amlodipine treatment led to alterations in the gut microbiome of rats, with the bloom of E. coli (4.5 ~ 6.6-fold increase) and a decrease in A. muciniphila (1,613.4 ~ 2,000-fold decrease) and B. uniformis (20.6 ~ 202.7-fold decrease), subsequently causing an increase in the gut bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) content (1.4 ~ 1.5-fold increase in feces). S-amlodipine treatment also induced damage to the intestinal barrier and increased intestinal permeability, as confirmed by elevated levels of fecal albumin; furthermore, the flux of gut bacterial LPS into the bloodstream through the portal vein resulted in an increase in serum LPS content (3.3 ~ 4-fold increase). LPS induces liver inflammation and subsequent dysfunction in rats by activating the TLR4 pathway. This study is the first to show that S-amlodipine induces liver inflammation and dysfunction by perturbing the rat gut microbiome. These results indicate the adverse effects of S-amlodipine on the liver and provide a rich understanding of the safety of long-term S-amlodipine administration.

RevDate: 2024-02-28
CmpDate: 2024-02-28

Ge Y, Chen J, Xue Y, et al (2024)

Elimination of inhibitory effects of dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride on microalgae in wastewater by cocultivation with a newly screened microbial consortium.

The Science of the total environment, 919:170676.

As one of the most commonly used biocidal cationic surfactants, benzalkonium chlorides (BACs) have been an increasing concern as emerging contaminants. Wastewater has been claimed the main point for BACs to enter into the environment, but to date, it is still largely unknown how the BACs affect the microbes (especially microalgae) in the practical wastewater and how to cost-effectively remove them. In this study, the inhibitory effects of a typical BACs, dodecyl dimethyl benzyl ammonium chloride (DDBAC), on a green microalga Chlorella sp. in oxidation pond wastewater were investigated. The results showed that though a hermetic effect at the first 2 days was observed with the DDBAC at low concentration (<6 mg/L), the algal growth and photosynthesis were significantly inhibited by the DDBAC at all the tested concentrations (3 to 48 mg/L). Fortunately, a new microbial consortium (MC) capable of degrading DDBAC was screened through a gradient domestication method. The MC mainly composed of Wickerhamomyces sp., Purpureocillium sp., and Achromobacter sp., and its maximum removal efficiency and removal rate of DDBAC (48 mg/L) respectively reached 98.1 % and 46.32 mg/L/d. Interestingly, a microbial-microalgal system (MMS) was constructed using the MC and Chlorella sp., and a synergetic effect between the two kinds of microorganisms was proposed: microalga provided oxygen and extracellular polysaccharides as co-metabolic substrates to help the MC to degrade DDBAC, while the MC helped to eliminate the DDBAC-induced inhibition on the alga. Further, by observing the seven kinds of degradation products (mainly including CH5O3P, C6H5CH2-, and C8H11N), two possible chemical pathways of the DDBAC degradation were proposed. In addition, the metagenomic sequencing results showed that the main functional genes of the MMS included antibiotic-resistant genes, ABC transporter genes, quorum sensing genes, two-component regulatory system genes, etc. This study provided some theoretical and application findings for the cost-effective pollution prevention of BACs in wastewater.

RevDate: 2024-02-28
CmpDate: 2024-02-28

Lin W, Cao S, Wu Q, et al (2024)

Size effects of microplastics on antibiotic resistome and core microbiome in an urban river.

The Science of the total environment, 919:170716.

Microplastics (MPs) in aquatic environments provide a new ecological niche that facilitates the attachment of antibiotic-resistance genes (ARGs) and pathogens. However, the effect of particle size on the colonization of antibiotic resistomes and pathogens remains poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, this study explored the antibiotic resistome and core microbiome on three distinct types of MPs including polyethylene, polypropylene, and polystyrene (PS), with varying sizes of 30, 200, and 3000 μm by metagenomic sequencing. Our finding showed that the ARG abundances of the PS type increased by 4-folds with increasing particle size from 30 to 3000 μm, and significant differences in ARG profiles were found across the three MP types. In addition, the concentrations of ARGs and mobile genetic elements (MGEs) were markedly higher in the MPs than in the surrounding water, indicating their enrichment at these artificial interfaces. Notably, several pathogens such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and Legionella pneumophila were enriched in MP biofilms, and the co-occurrence of ARGs and virulence factor genes (VFGs)/MGEs suggested the presence of pathogenic antibiotic-resistant microbes with potential mobility. Both redundancy analysis (RDA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) demonstrated that physicochemical properties such as zeta potential, MP size, and contact angle were the most significant contributors to the antibiotic resistome. Strikingly, no significant differences were observed in the health risk scores of the ARG profiles among different sizes and types of MPs. This study expands our knowledge on the impact of MP size on microbial risks, thus enhancing our understanding of the potential health hazards they pose.

RevDate: 2024-02-28
CmpDate: 2024-02-28

Li Z, Feng C, Lei J, et al (2024)

Farmland Microhabitat Mediated by a Residual Microplastic Film: Microbial Communities and Function.

Environmental science & technology, 58(8):3654-3664.

How the plastisphere mediated by the residual microplastic film in farmlands affects microhabitat systems is unclear. Here, microbial structure, assembly, and biogeochemical cycling in the plastisphere and soil in 33 typical farmland sites were analyzed by amplicon sequencing of 16S rRNA genes and ITS and metagenome analysis. The results indicated that residual microplastic film was colonized by microbes, forming a unique niche called the plastisphere. Notable differences in the microbial community structure and function were observed between soil and plastisphere. Residual microplastic film altered the microbial symbiosis and assembly processes. Stochastic processes significantly dominated the assembly of the bacterial community in the plastisphere and soil but only in the plastisphere for the fungal community. Deterministic processes significantly dominated the assembly of fungal communities only in soil. Moreover, the plastisphere mediated by the residual microplastic film acted as a preferred vector for pathogens and microorganisms associated with plastic degradation and the nitrogen and sulfur cycle. The abundance of genes associated with denitrification and sulfate reduction activity in the plastisphere was pronouncedly higher than that of soil, which increase the potential risk of nitrogen and sulfur loss. The results will offer a scientific understanding of the harm caused by the residual microplastic film in farmlands.

RevDate: 2024-02-27
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

Zhu P, Liu C, Liu GF, et al (2024)

Unveiling CRESS DNA Virus Diversity in Oysters by Virome.

Viruses, 16(2):.

Oysters that filter feed can accumulate numerous pathogens, including viruses, which can serve as a valuable viral repository. As oyster farming becomes more prevalent, concerns are mounting about diseases that can harm both cultivated and wild oysters. Unfortunately, there is a lack of research on the viruses and other factors that can cause illness in shellfish. This means that it is harder to find ways to prevent these diseases and protect the oysters. This is part of a previously started project, the Dataset of Oyster Virome, in which we further study 30 almost complete genomes of oyster-associated CRESS DNA viruses. The replication-associated proteins and capsid proteins found in CRESS DNA viruses display varying evolutionary rates and frequently undergo recombination. Additionally, some CRESS DNA viruses have the capability for cross-species transmission. A plethora of unclassified CRESS DNA viruses are detectable in transcriptome libraries, exhibiting higher levels of transcriptional activity than those found in metagenome libraries. The study significantly enhances our understanding of the diversity of oyster-associated CRESS DNA viruses, emphasizing the widespread presence of CRESS DNA viruses in the natural environment and the substantial portion of CRESS DNA viruses that remain unidentified. This study's findings provide a basis for further research on the biological and ecological roles of viruses in oysters and their environment.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Ishola OA, Kublik S, Durai Raj AC, et al (2024)

Comparative Metagenomic Analysis of Bacteriophages and Prophages in Gnotobiotic Mouse Models.

Microorganisms, 12(2):.

Gnotobiotic murine models are important to understand microbiota-host interactions. Despite the role of bacteriophages as drivers for microbiome structure and function, there is no information about the structure and function of the gut virome in gnotobiotic models and the link between bacterial and bacteriophage/prophage diversity. We studied the virome of gnotobiotic murine Oligo-MM12 (12 bacterial species) and reduced Altered Schaedler Flora (ASF, three bacterial species). As reference, the virome of Specific Pathogen-Free (SPF) mice was investigated. A metagenomic approach was used to assess prophages and bacteriophages in the guts of 6-week-old female mice. We identified a positive correlation between bacteria diversity, and bacteriophages and prophages. Caudoviricetes (82.4%) were the most prominent class of phages in all samples with differing relative abundance. However, the host specificity of bacteriophages belonging to class Caudoviricetes differed depending on model bacterial diversity. We further studied the role of bacteriophages in horizontal gene transfer and microbial adaptation to the host's environment. Analysis of mobile genetic elements showed the contribution of bacteriophages to the adaptation of bacterial amino acid metabolism. Overall, our results implicate virome "dark matter" and interactions with the host system as factors for microbial community structure and function which determine host health. Taking the importance of the virome in the microbiome diversity and horizontal gene transfer, reductions in the virome might be an important factor driving losses of microbial biodiversity and the subsequent dysbiosis of the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Muter O, Gudrā D, Daumova G, et al (2024)

Impact of Anthropogenic Activities on Microbial Community Structure in Riverbed Sediments of East Kazakhstan.

Microorganisms, 12(2):.

Heavy metal (HMe) pollution in regions with mining and metallurgy activities is known to be a serious environmental problem worldwide. Hydrological processes contribute to the dissemination of HMes (drainage, precipitation, flow rate). The aim of the present study is to investigate the microbial community structure in ten river sediments sampled in different regions of East Kazakhstan, which are contaminated with HMes. The overall degree of sediment contamination with HMes (Cr, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Cd) was assessed using the pollution index Zc, which ranged from 0.43 to 21.6, with the highest in Ridder City (Zc = 21.6) and Ust-Kamenogorsk City, 0.8 km below the dam of the hydroelectric power station (Zc = 19.6). The tested samples considerably differed in organic matter, total carbon, nitrogen, and phosphorus content, as well as in the abundance of HMe-related functional gene families and antibiotic resistance genes. Metagenomic analysis of benthic microorganisms showed the prevalence of Proteobacteria (88.84-97.61%) and Actinobacteria (1.21-5.98%) at the phylum level in all samples. At the class level, Actinobacteria (21.68-57.48%), Betaproteobacteria (19.38-41.17%), and Alphaproteobacteria (10.0-39.78%) were the most common among the classified reads. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study on the metagenomic characteristics of benthic microbial communities exposed to chronic HMe pressure in different regions of East Kazakhstan.

RevDate: 2024-02-27
CmpDate: 2024-02-27

Liu M, Deng N, Hou X, et al (2024)

Characterisation of flavour profiles and microbial communities of fermented peppers with different fermentation years by combining flavouromics and metagenomics.

Food chemistry, 443:138550.

The changes in flavours, volatile aromas and microbial communities of fermented peppers with different fermentation years and their relationships were investigated in this study. Results indicated a gradual increase in organic acids during fermentation, whereas free amino acids and capsaicinoids reached stability after 1 year of fermentation. Overall, the analysis detected 340 volatile compounds in fermented peppers and regarded 69 of them as differential compounds. Peppers fermented for 2 (FY2) and 4 years (FY4) possessed a greater number of differential volatiles with large odour activity values, thus endowing them with more favourable flavours. Hence, metagenomic analysis compared their microbial communities and functional annotations. Results revealed that Lactiplantibacillus plantarum and Zygosaccharomyces rouxii were the dominant bacterium and fungus, and metabolism was the main Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway in FY2. Correlation analysis demonstrated that Hyphopichia, Kazachstania and Clavispora were highly positively correlated with 12 key aroma flavours.

RevDate: 2024-02-27
CmpDate: 2023-08-02

Yang G, Cao JM, Cui HL, et al (2023)

Artificial Sweetener Enhances the Spread of Antibiotic Resistance Genes During Anaerobic Digestion.

Environmental science & technology, 57(30):10919-10928.

Artificial sweeteners have been frequently detected in the feedstocks of anaerobic digestion. As these sweeteners can lead to the shift of anaerobic microbiota in the gut similar to that caused by antibiotics, we hypothesize that they may have an antibiotic-like impact on antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in anaerobic digestion. However, current understanding on this topic is scarce. This investigation aimed to examine the potential impact of acesulfame, a typical artificial sweetener, on ARGs in anaerobic digestion by using metagenomics sequencing and qPCR. It was found that acesulfame increased the number of detected ARG classes and the abundance of ARGs during anaerobic digestion. The abundance of typical mobile genetic elements (MGEs) and the number of potential hosts of ARGs also increased under acesulfame exposure, suggesting the enhanced potential of horizontal gene transfer of ARGs, which was further confirmed by the correlation analysis between absolute abundances of the targeted ARGs and MGEs. The increased horizontal dissemination of ARGs may be associated with the SOS response induced by the increased ROS production, and the increased cellular membrane permeability. These findings indicate that artificial sweeteners may accelerate ARG spread through digestate disposal, thus corresponding strategies should be considered to prevent potential risks in practice.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

da Fonseca RR, Campos PF, Rey-Iglesia A, et al (2024)

Population Genomics Reveals the Underlying Structure of the Small Pelagic European Sardine and Suggests Low Connectivity within Macaronesia.

Genes, 15(2):.

The European sardine (Sardina pilchardus, Walbaum 1792) is indisputably a commercially important species. Previous studies using uneven sampling or a limited number of makers have presented sometimes conflicting evidence of the genetic structure of S. pilchardus populations. Here, we show that whole genome data from 108 individuals from 16 sampling areas across 5000 km of the species' distribution range (from the Eastern Mediterranean to the archipelago of Azores) support at least three genetic clusters. One includes individuals from Azores and Madeira, with evidence of substructure separating these two archipelagos in the Atlantic. Another cluster broadly corresponds to the center of the distribution, including the sampling sites around Iberia, separated by the Almeria-Oran front from the third cluster that includes all of the Mediterranean samples, except those from the Alboran Sea. Individuals from the Canary Islands appear to belong to the Mediterranean cluster. This suggests at least two important geographical barriers to gene flow, even though these do not seem complete, with many individuals from around Iberia and the Mediterranean showing some patterns compatible with admixture with other genetic clusters. Genomic regions corresponding to the top outliers of genetic differentiation are located in areas of low recombination indicative that genetic architecture also has a role in shaping population structure. These regions include genes related to otolith formation, a calcium carbonate structure in the inner ear previously used to distinguish S. pilchardus populations. Our results provide a baseline for further characterization of physical and genetic barriers that divide European sardine populations, and information for transnational stock management of this highly exploited species towards sustainable fisheries.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

Blondeaux A, Valibouze C, Speca S, et al (2024)

Changes in HLA-B27 Transgenic Rat Fecal Microbiota Following Tofacitinib Treatment and Ileocecal Resection Surgery: Implications for Crohn's Disease Management.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(4):.

The therapeutic management of Crohn's disease (CD), a chronic relapsing-remitting inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), is highly challenging. Surgical resection is sometimes a necessary procedure even though it is often associated with postoperative recurrences (PORs). Tofacitinib, an orally active small molecule Janus kinase inhibitor, is an anti-inflammatory drug meant to limit PORs in CD. Whereas bidirectional interactions between the gut microbiota and the relevant IBD drug are crucial, little is known about the impact of tofacitinib on the gut microbiota. The HLA-B27 transgenic rat is a good preclinical model used in IBD research, including for PORs after ileocecal resection (ICR). In the present study, we used shotgun metagenomics to first delineate the baseline composition and determinants of the fecal microbiome of HLA-B27 rats and then to evaluate the distinct impact of either tofacitinib treatment, ileocecal resection or the cumulative effect of both interventions on the gut microbiota in these HLA-B27 rats. The results confirmed that the microbiome of the HLA-B27 rats was fairly different from their wild-type littermates. We demonstrated here that oral treatment with tofacitinib does not affect the gut microbial composition of HLA-B27 rats. Of note, we showed that ICR induced an intense loss of bacterial diversity together with dramatic changes in taxa relative abundances. However, the oral treatment with tofacitinib neither modified the alpha-diversity nor exacerbated significant modifications in bacterial taxa induced by ICR. Collectively, these preclinical data are rather favorable for the use of tofacitinib in combination with ICR to address Crohn's disease management when considering microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

Alves Costa Silva C, Piccinno G, Suissa D, et al (2024)

Influence of microbiota-associated metabolic reprogramming on clinical outcome in patients with melanoma from the randomized adjuvant dendritic cell-based MIND-DC trial.

Nature communications, 15(1):1633.

Tumor immunosurveillance plays a major role in melanoma, prompting the development of immunotherapy strategies. The gut microbiota composition, influencing peripheral and tumoral immune tonus, earned its credentials among predictors of survival in melanoma. The MIND-DC phase III trial (NCT02993315) randomized (2:1 ratio) 148 patients with stage IIIB/C melanoma to adjuvant treatment with autologous natural dendritic cell (nDC) or placebo (PL). Overall, 144 patients collected serum and stool samples before and after 2 bimonthly injections to perform metabolomics (MB) and metagenomics (MG) as prespecified exploratory analysis. Clinical outcomes are reported separately. Here we show that different microbes were associated with prognosis, with the health-related Faecalibacterium prausnitzii standing out as the main beneficial taxon for no recurrence at 2 years (p = 0.008 at baseline, nDC arm). Therapy coincided with major MB perturbations (acylcarnitines, carboxylic and fatty acids). Despite randomization, nDC arm exhibited MG and MB bias at baseline: relative under-representation of F. prausnitzii, and perturbations of primary biliary acids (BA). F. prausnitzii anticorrelated with BA, medium- and long-chain acylcarnitines. Combined, these MG and MB biomarkers markedly determined prognosis. Altogether, the host-microbial interaction may play a role in localized melanoma. We value systematic MG and MB profiling in randomized trials to avoid baseline differences attributed to host-microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

Jin C, Wu S, Liang Z, et al (2024)

Multi-omics reveal mechanisms of high enteral starch diet mediated colonic dysbiosis via microbiome-host interactions in young ruminant.

Microbiome, 12(1):38.

BACKGROUND: Although rumen development is crucial, hindgut undertakes a significant role in young ruminants' physiological development. High-starch diet is usually used to accelerate rumen development for young ruminants, but always leading to the enteral starch overload and hindgut dysbiosis. However, the mechanism behind remains unclear. The combination of colonic transcriptome, colonic luminal metabolome, and metagenome together with histological analysis was conducted using a goat model, with the aim to identify the potential molecular mechanisms behind the disrupted hindgut homeostasis by overload starch in young ruminants.

RESULT: Compared with low enteral starch diet (LES), high enteral starch diet (HES)-fed goats had significantly higher colonic pathology scores, and serum diamine oxidase activity, and meanwhile significantly decreased colonic mucosal Mucin-2 (MUC2) protein expression and fecal scores, evidencing the HES-triggered colonic systemic inflammation. The bacterial taxa Prevotella sp. P4-67, Prevotella sp. PINT, and Bacteroides sp. CAG:927, together with fungal taxa Fusarium vanettenii, Neocallimastix californiae, Fusarium sp. AF-8, Hypoxylon sp. EC38, and Fusarium pseudograminearum, and the involved microbial immune pathways including the "T cell receptor signaling pathway" were higher in the colon of HES goats. The integrated metagenome and host transcriptome analysis revealed that these taxa were associated with enhanced pathogenic ability, antigen processing and presentation, and stimulated T helper 2 cell (TH2)-mediated cytokine secretion functions in the colon of HES goats. Further luminal metabolomics analysis showed increased relative content of chenodeoxycholic acid (CDCA) and deoxycholic acid (DCA), and decreased the relative content of hypoxanthine in colonic digesta of HES goats. These altered metabolites contributed to enhancing the expression of TH2-mediated inflammatory-related cytokine secretion including GATA Binding Protein 3 (GATA3), IL-5, and IL-13. Using the linear mixed effect model, the variation of MUC2 biosynthesis explained by the colonic bacteria, bacterial functions, fungi, fungal functions, and metabolites were 21.92, 20.76, 19.43, 12.08, and 44.22%, respectively. The variation of pathology scores explained by the colonic bacterial functions, fungal functions, and metabolites were 15.35, 17.61, and 57.06%.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings revealed that enteral starch overload can trigger interrupted hindgut host-microbiome homeostasis that led to impaired mucosal, destroyed colonic water absorption, and TH2-mediated inflammatory process. Except for the colonic metabolites mostly contribute to the impaired mucosa, the nonnegligible contribution from fungi deserves more future studies focused on the fungal functions in hindgut dysbiosis of young ruminants. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Patel ZZ, Joshi H, Puvar A, et al (2024)

A study into the diversity of coral-associated bacteria using culture-dependent and culture-independent approaches in coral Dipsastraea favus from the Gulf of Kutch.

Marine pollution bulletin, 201:116172 pii:S0025-326X(24)00149-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Corals harbour ~25 % of the marine diversity referring to biodiversity hotspots in marine ecosystems. Global efforts to find ways to restore the coral reef ecosystem from various threats can be complemented by studying coral-associated bacteria. Coral-associated bacteria are vital components of overall coral wellbeing. We explored the bacterial diversity associated with coral Dipsastraea favus (D. favus) collected from the Gulf of Kutch, India, using both culture-dependent and metagenomic approaches. In both approaches, phylum Proteobacteria, Firmicutes, and Actinobacteria predominated, comprising the genera Vibrio, Bacillus, Shewanella, Pseudoalteromonas, Exiguobacterium and Streptomyces. Moreover, the majority of culturable isolates showed multiple antibiotic resistance index ≥0.2. In this study, specific bacterial diversity associated with coral sp. D. favus and its possible role in managing coral health was established. Almost 43 strains from the samples were successfully cultured, creating a base for exploring these microbes for their potential use in coral conservation methods.

RevDate: 2024-02-25

Zulfiqar M, Crusoe MR, König-Ries B, et al (2024)

Implementation of FAIR Practices in Computational Metabolomics Workflows-A Case Study.

Metabolites, 14(2):.

Scientific workflows facilitate the automation of data analysis tasks by integrating various software and tools executed in a particular order. To enable transparency and reusability in workflows, it is essential to implement the FAIR principles. Here, we describe our experiences implementing the FAIR principles for metabolomics workflows using the Metabolome Annotation Workflow (MAW) as a case study. MAW is specified using the Common Workflow Language (CWL), allowing for the subsequent execution of the workflow on different workflow engines. MAW is registered using a CWL description on WorkflowHub. During the submission process on WorkflowHub, a CWL description is used for packaging MAW using the Workflow RO-Crate profile, which includes metadata in Bioschemas. Researchers can use this narrative discussion as a guideline to commence using FAIR practices for their bioinformatics or cheminformatics workflows while incorporating necessary amendments specific to their research area.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

Maruyama R, Yasumoto K, Mizusawa N, et al (2024)

Metagenomic analysis of the microbial communities and associated network of nitrogen metabolism genes in the Ryukyu limestone aquifer.

Scientific reports, 14(1):4356.

While microbial biogeochemical activities such as those involving denitrification and sulfate reduction have been considered to play important roles in material cycling in various aquatic ecosystems, our current understanding of the microbial community in groundwater ecosystems is remarkably insufficient. To assess the groundwater in the Ryukyu limestone aquifer of Okinawa Island, which is located in the southernmost region of Japan, we performed metagenomic analysis on the microbial communities at the three sites and screened for functional genes associated with nitrogen metabolism. 16S rRNA amplicon analysis showed that bacteria accounted for 94-98% of the microbial communities, which included archaea at all three sites. The bacterial communities associated with nitrogen metabolism shifted by month at each site, indicating that this metabolism was accomplished by the bacterial community as a whole. Interestingly, site 3 contained much higher levels of the denitrification genes such as narG and napA than the other two sites. This site was thought to have undergone denitrification that was driven by high quantities of dissolved organic carbon (DOC). In contrast, site 2 was characterized by a high nitrate-nitrogen (NO3-N) content and a low amount of DOC, and this site yielded a moderate amount of denitrification genes. Site 1 showed markedly low amounts of all nitrogen metabolism genes. Overall, nitrogen metabolism in the Ryukyu limestone aquifer was found to change based on environmental factors.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

Jia L, Jiang Y, Wu L, et al (2024)

Porphyromonas gingivalis aggravates colitis via a gut microbiota-linoleic acid metabolism-Th17/Treg cell balance axis.

Nature communications, 15(1):1617.

Periodontitis is closely related to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). An excessive and non-self-limiting immune response to the dysbiotic microbiome characterizes the two. However, the underlying mechanisms that overlap still need to be clarified. We demonstrate that the critical periodontal pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg) aggravates intestinal inflammation and Th17/Treg cell imbalance in a gut microbiota-dependent manner. Specifically, metagenomic and metabolomic analyses shows that oral administration of Pg increases levels of the Bacteroides phylum but decreases levels of the Firmicutes, Verrucomicrobia, and Actinobacteria phyla. Nevertheless, it suppresses the linoleic acid (LA) pathway in the gut microbiota, which was the target metabolite that determines the degree of inflammation and functions as an aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) ligand to suppress Th17 differentiation while promoting Treg cell differentiation via the phosphorylation of Stat1 at Ser727. Therapeutically restoring LA levels in colitis mice challenged with Pg exerts anti-colitis effects by decreasing the Th17/Treg cell ratio in an AHR-dependent manner. Our study suggests that Pg aggravates colitis via a gut microbiota-LA metabolism-Th17/Treg cell balance axis, providing a potential therapeutically modifiable target for IBD patients with periodontitis.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

Bouzid F, Gtif I, Charfeddine S, et al (2024)

Polyphasic molecular approach to the characterization of methanogens in the saliva of Tunisian adults.

Anaerobe, 85:102820.

OBJECTIVES: Methanogenic archaea are a minor component of human oral microbiota. Due to their relatively low abundance, the detection of these neglected microorganisms is challenging. This study concerns the presence of methanogens in salivary samples collected from Tunisian adults to evaluate their prevalence and burden using a polyphasic molecular approach.

METHODS: A total of 43 saliva samples were included. Metagenomic and standard 16S rRNA sequencing were performed as an initial screening to detect the presence of methanogens in the oral microbiota of Tunisian adults. Further investigations were performed using specific quantitative real-time PCR targeting Methanobrevibacter oralis and Methanobrevibacter smithii.

RESULTS: Methanobrevibacter was detected in 5/43 (11.62 %) saliva samples after metagenomic 16S rRNA data analysis. The presence of M. oralis was confirmed in 6/43 samples by standard 16S rRNA sequencing. Using real-time PCR, methanogens were detected in 35/43 (81.39 %) samples, including 62.79 % positive for M. oralis and 76.74 % positive for M. smithii. These findings reflect the high prevalence of both methanogens, revealed by the high sensitivity of the real-time PCR approach. Interestingly, we also noted a significant statistical association between the detection of M. smithii and poor adherence to a Mediterranean diet, indicating the impact of diet on M. smithii prevalence.

CONCLUSION: Our study showed the presence of methanogens in the oral microbiota of Tunisian adults with an unprecedented relatively high prevalence. Choice of methodology is also central to picturing the real prevalence and diversity of such minor taxa in the oral microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

Xu J, Y Dong (2024)

Analysis of the gut microbiome associated to PVC biodegradation in yellow mealworms.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 272:116046.

The potential of invertebrates in the biodegradation of plastic polymers such as polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is receiving increasing attention. The present study is aimed to identify the gut microbiome involved in this degradation in yellow mealworms, i.e., the larvae of Tenebrio molitor Linnaeus. The egested PVC polymer experienced a dramatic reduction in both number average molecular weight (Mn) and weight average molecular weight (Mw) of 99.3% and 99.6%, respectively, whereas FTIR analysis revealed chemical alterations. Mass spectrometry analysis identified two potential degradation products: phthalic acid, di(2-propylpentyl) ester and 2-Propenoic acid, tridecyl ester. Further, we used metagenomic sequencing to elucidate the response of the gut microbiome when transitioning from bran to PVC as a food source, identifying four microorganisms actively involved in PVC degradation. Additionally, metagenomic functional analysis of the gut microbiome identified 111 key gene modules that were significantly enriched. In summary, our findings suggest that yellow mealworms adapt to PVC degradation by modifying their gut microbiome both structurally and functionally.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

Ammer-Herrmenau C, Antweiler KL, Asendorf T, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota predicts severity and reveals novel metabolic signatures in acute pancreatitis.

Gut, 73(3):485-495 pii:gutjnl-2023-330987.

OBJECTIVE: Early disease prediction is challenging in acute pancreatitis (AP). Here, we prospectively investigate whether the microbiome predicts severity of AP (Pancreatitis-Microbiome As Predictor of Severity; P-MAPS) early at hospital admission.

DESIGN: Buccal and rectal microbial swabs were collected from 424 patients with AP within 72 hours of hospital admission in 15 European centres. All samples were sequenced by full-length 16S rRNA and metagenomic sequencing using Oxford Nanopore Technologies. Primary endpoint was the association of the orointestinal microbiome with the revised Atlanta classification (RAC). Secondary endpoints were mortality, length of hospital stay and severity (organ failure >48 hours and/or occurrence of pancreatic collections requiring intervention) as post hoc analysis. Multivariate analysis was conducted from normalised microbial and corresponding clinical data to build classifiers for predicting severity. For functional profiling, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was performed and normalised enrichment scores calculated.

RESULTS: After data processing, 411 buccal and 391 rectal samples were analysed. The intestinal microbiome significantly differed for the RAC (Bray-Curtis, p value=0.009), mortality (Bray-Curtis, p value 0.006), length of hospital stay (Bray-Curtis, p=0.009) and severity (Bray-Curtis, p value=0.008). A classifier for severity with 16 different species and systemic inflammatory response syndrome achieved an area under the receiving operating characteristic (AUROC) of 85%, a positive predictive value of 67% and a negative predictive value of 94% outperforming established severity scores. GSEA revealed functional pathway units suggesting elevated short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) production in severe AP.

CONCLUSIONS: The orointestinal microbiome predicts clinical hallmark features of AP, and SCFAs may be used for future diagnostic and therapeutic concepts.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: NCT04777812.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

Mouzan ME, Hussaini AA, Sarkhy AA, et al (2024)

Intestinal fungal profile in healthy Saudi children.

Arab journal of gastroenterology : the official publication of the Pan-Arab Association of Gastroenterology, 25(1):18-21.

BACKGROUND AND STUDY AIM: Fungi have a well-established role in medicine. Herein, we describe the fungal profile and abundance in the gut of healthy Saudi children.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: Fecal samples from a random sample of 20 school-age Saudi children were collected, stored at -80 °C, and dispatched to the laboratory in the USA where fungal DNAs were isolated and shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed. Abundance was presented as average percentage of fungal taxa.

RESULTS: The median age of the participants was 12.5 years (range: 7-16 years), and 35 % were male. Ascomycota were the most abundant phyla and Eurotiomycetes, Saccharomycetes, were the most abundant class. The average abundance of fungal genera were Histoplasma (36 %) and Saccharomyces (31 %). The most abundant species were Histoplasma capsulatum (36 %) and Saccharomyces pastorianus (23 %). Other less abundant but may be functionally important genera and species included Candida (2.6 %) and Saccharomycescerevisiae (8 %).

CONCLUSION: The profile and abundance of the gut fungi in healthy Saudi children reveals important differences compared to Western literature. Accordingly, this report represents a more appropriate reference than Western data to use as controls for regional studies aiming to identify fungi associated with disease.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

Rehman A, Pham V, Seifert N, et al (2024)

The Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids Eicosapentaenoic Acid and Docosahexaenoic Acid, and Vitamin K1 Modulate the Gut Microbiome: A Study Using an In Vitro Shime Model.

Journal of dietary supplements, 21(2):135-153.

Omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) and vitamins exert multiple beneficial effects on host health, some of which may be mediated through the gut microbiome. We investigated the prebiotic potential of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and lipid-soluble phylloquinone (vitamin K1), each at 0.2x, 1x and 5x using the simulator of the human intestinal microbial ecosystem (SHIME®) to exclude in vivo systemic effects and host-microbe interactions.Microbial community composition and, diversity [shotgun metagenomic sequencing] and microbial activity [pH, gas pressure, and production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs)] were measured over a period of 48 h. Fermentations supernatants were used to investigate the effect on gut barrier integrity using a Caco-2/goblet cell co-culture model.We found that EPA, DHA and vitamin K1 increased alpha-diversity at 24 h when compared with control. Moreover, there was an effect on beta-diversity with changes in gut microbial composition, such as an increase in the Firmicutes/Bacteroidetes (F/B) ratio and a consistent increase in Veillonella and Dialister abundances with all treatments. DHA, EPA, and vitamin K1 also modulated metabolic activity of the gut microbiome by increasing total SCFAs which was related mainly to an increase in propionate (highest with EPA and vitamin K1 at 0.2x). Finally, we found that EPA and DHA increased gut barrier integrity with DHA at 1x and EPA at 5x (p < 0.05, respectively). In conclusion, our in vitro data further establish a role of PUFAs and vitamin K to modulate the gut microbiome with effects on the production of SCFAs and barrier integrity.

RevDate: 2024-02-22

Cotes-Perdomo AP, Sánchez-Vialas A, Thomas R, et al (2024)

New insights into the systematics of the afrotropical Amblyomma marmoreum complex (Acari: Ixodidae) and the genome of a novel Rickettsia africae strain using morphological and metagenomic approaches.

Ticks and tick-borne diseases, 15(3):102323 pii:S1877-959X(24)00016-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The Amblyomma marmoreum complex includes afrotropical species, such as Amblyomma sparsum, a three-host tick that parasitizes reptiles, birds, and mammals, and is a recognized vector of Ehrlichia ruminantium. However, the lack of morphological, genetic and ecological data on A. sparsum has caused considerable confusion in its identification. In this study, we used microscopy and metagenomic approaches to analyze A. sparsum ticks collected from a puff adder snake (Bitis arietans) in southwest Senegal (an endemic rickettsioses area) in order to supplement previous morphological descriptions, provide novel genomic data for the A. marmoreum complex, and describe the genome of a novel spotted fever group Rickettsia strain. Based on stereoscope and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) morphological evaluations, we provide high-quality images and new insights about punctation and enameling in the adult male of A. sparsum to facilitate identification for future studies. The metagenomic approach allowed us assembly the complete mitochondrial genome of A. sparsum, as well as the nearly entire chromosome and complete plasmid sequences of a novel Rickettsia africae strain. Phylogenomic analyses demonstrated a close relationship between A. sparsum and Amblyomma nuttalli for the first time and confirmed the position of A. sparsum within the A. marmoreum complex. Our results provide new insights into the systematics of A. sparsum and A. marmoreum complex, as well as the genetic diversity of R. africae in the Afrotropical region. Future studies should consider the possibility that A. sparsum may be a vector for R. africae.

RevDate: 2024-02-24
CmpDate: 2024-02-23

Liu X, Li K, Yang Y, et al (2024)

Gut resistome profiling reveals high diversity and fluctuations in pancreatic cancer cohorts.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1354234.

BACKGROUND: Pancreatic cancer is one of the deadliest cancer, with a 5-year overall survival rate of 11%. Unfortunately, most patients are diagnosed with advanced stage by the time they present with symptoms. In the past decade, microbiome studies have explored the association of pancreatic cancer with the human oral and gut microbiomes. However, the gut microbial antibiotic resistance genes profiling of pancreatic cancer patients was never reported compared to that of the healthy cohort.

RESULTS: In this study, we addressed the gut microbial antibiotic resistance genes profile using the metagenomic data from two online public pancreatic cancer cohorts. We found a high degree of data concordance between the two cohorts, which can therefore be used for cross-sectional comparisons. Meanwhile, we used two strategies to predict antibiotic resistance genes and compared the advantages and disadvantages of these two approaches. We also constructed microbe-antibiotic resistance gene networks and found that most of the hub nodes in the networks were antibiotic resistance genes.

CONCLUSIONS: In summary, we describe the panorama of antibiotic resistance genes in the gut microbes of patients with pancreatic cancer. We hope that our study will provide new perspectives on treatment options for the disease.

RevDate: 2024-02-24
CmpDate: 2024-02-23

Ortiz Sanjuán JM, Manzanilla EG, Cabrera-Rubio R, et al (2024)

Fine-tuning of post-weaning pig microbiome structure and functionality by in-feed zinc oxide and antibiotics use.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1354449.

INTRODUCTION: Post-weaning diarrhoea (PWD) is a multifactorial disease that affects piglets after weaning, contributing to productive and economic losses. Its control includes the use of in-feed prophylactic antibiotics and therapeutic zinc oxide (ZnO), treatments that, since 2022, are no longer permitted in the European Union due to spread of antimicrobial resistance genes and pollution of soil with heavy metals. A dysbiosis in the microbiota has been suggested as a potential risk factor of PWD onset. Understanding pig's microbiota development around weaning and its changes in response to ZnO and antibiotics is crucial to develop feasible alternatives to prophylactic and metaphylactic antimicrobial use.

METHODS: This study used shotgun metagenomic sequencing to investigate the environmental and faecal microbiota on 10 farms using (Treated) or not using (ZnO-free) in-feed antibiotics and ZnO during the first 14 days post-weaning (dpw). Environmental samples from clean pens were collected at weaning day (0dpw), and faecal samples at 0, 7 and 14dpw. Diarrhoeic faecal samples were collected at 7dpw when available.

RESULTS: The analysis of data revealed that the faecal microbiota composition and its functionality was impacted by the sampling time point (microbiota maturation after weaning) but not by the farm environment. Treatment with antibiotics and ZnO showed no effects on diversity indices while the analyses of microbiota taxonomic and functional profiles revealed increased abundance of taxa and metabolic functions associated with Phascolarctobacterium succinatutens or different species of Prevotella spp. on the Treated farms, and with Megasphaera elsdenii and Escherichia coli on the ZnO-free farms. The analysis of diarrhoea samples revealed that the treatment favoured the microbiota transition or maturation from 0dpw to 14dpw in Treated farms, resembling the composition of healthy animals, when compared to diarrhoea from ZnO-free farms, which were linked in composition to 0dpw samples.

DISCUSSION: The results provide a comprehensive overview of the beneficial effects of ZnO and antibiotics in PWD in the microbiota transition after weaning, preventing the overgrowth of pathogens such as pathogenic E. coli and revealing the key aspects in microbiota maturation that antibiotics or ZnO alternatives should fulfil.

RevDate: 2024-02-24
CmpDate: 2024-02-23

Haeussermann I, M Hasselmann (2024)

Complex European invasion history of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky): new insights in its population genomic differentiation using genotype-by-sequencing.

Scientific reports, 14(1):4263.

Anthropogenic activities like trade facilitate increasing rates of biological invasions. Asian long-horned beetle (ALB), which is naturally distributed in eastern Asia (China, Korean peninsula), was introduced via wood packing materials (WPM) used in trade to North America (1996) and Europe (2001). We used 7810 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) derived by a genotype-by-sequencing (GBS) approach to decipher the introduction patterns into Europe. This is applied for the first time on European ALB outbreaks from Germany, Switzerland, and Italy, both from still active and already eradicated infestations. The genome-wide SNPs detected signs of small and highly structured populations within Europe, showing clear founder effects. The very high population differentiation is presumably derived from multiple independent introductions to Europe, which are spatially restricted in mating. By admixture and phylogenetic analyses, some cases of secondary dispersal were observed. Furthermore, some populations suggest admixture, which might have been originated by either multiple introductions from different sources into the new sites or recurrent introductions from an admixed source population. Our results confirmed a complex invasion history of the ALB into Europe and the usability of GBS obtained SNPs in invasion science even without source populations.

RevDate: 2024-02-21

Galli BD (2024)

Sustainability implications and relevance of using omics sciences to investigate cheeses with protected designation of origin (PDO).

Journal of the science of food and agriculture [Epub ahead of print].

Cheese, a fundamental component of the human diet and a cornerstone of the global food economy, holds significance beyond its role as a market commodity, playing a crucial part in the cultural identity of various social communities. The intricate natural aging process, known as maturation, involves a series of reactions that induce changes in physical, biochemical, microbiological, and particularly sensory characteristics, making it a complex aspect of cheese production. Recently, the adoption of omics sciences (e.g., metagenomics, metabolomics, proteomics) in PDO cheese studies has emerged as a new trend. This mini-summary aims to outline the relationship between omics studies in these food matrices and all the sustainability facets of the production chain in general, as well as discuss and recognize that the importance of these studies goes beyond comprehending the cheesebiome; it extends to fostering and ensuring the sustainability of the production chain. In this context, numerous studies in recent years have linked the identification of intrinsic characteristics of PDO cheeses through omics sciences to crucial sustainability themes such as territoriality, biodiversity, and the preservation of product authenticity. The trajectory suggests that increasingly multidisciplinary studies, spanning various omics sciences, will not only contribute to characterizing these products but also address sustainability aspects directly related to the production chain (e.g., authenticity, microbial biodiversity, functionality). This expansion underscores the multidisciplinary nature of these studies, broadening their social impact beyond the academic realm. Consequently, these pivotal studies play a crucial role in advancing discussions on PDO products and sustainability. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2024-02-23
CmpDate: 2024-02-22

Li J, Li Y, Zhou L, et al (2024)

Microbiome analysis reveals the inducing effect of Pseudomonas on prostatic hyperplasia via activating NF-κB signalling.

Virulence, 15(1):2313410.

Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is a prevalent disease among middle-aged and elderly males, but its pathogenesis remains unclear. Dysbiosis of the microbiome is increasingly recognized as a significant factor in various human diseases. Prostate tissue also contains a unique microbiome, and its dysbiosis has been proposed to contribute to prostate diseases. Here, we obtained prostate tissues and preoperative catheterized urine from 24 BPH individuals, and 8 normal prostate samples as controls, which followed strict aseptic measures. Using metagenomic next-generation sequencing (mNGS), we found the disparities in the microbiome composition between normal and BPH tissues, with Pseudomonas significantly enriched in BPH tissues, as confirmed by fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Additionally, we showed that the prostate microbiome differed from the urine microbiome. In vitro experiments revealed that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) of Pseudomonas activated NF-κB signalling, leading to inflammation, proliferation, and EMT processes, while inhibiting apoptosis in prostatic cells. Overall, our research determines the presence of microbiome dysbiosis in BPH, and suggests that Pseudomonas, as the dominant microflora, may promote the progression of BPH through LPS activation of NF-κB signalling.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Kitamura N, Kajihara T, Volpiano CG, et al (2024)

Exploring the effects of antimicrobial treatment on the gut and oral microbiomes and resistomes from elderly long-term care facility residents via shotgun DNA sequencing.

Microbial genomics, 10(2):.

Monitoring antibiotic-resistant bacteria (ARB) and understanding the effects of antimicrobial drugs on the human microbiome and resistome are crucial for public health. However, no study has investigated the association between antimicrobial treatment and the microbiome-resistome relationship in long-term care facilities, where residents act as reservoirs of ARB but are not included in the national surveillance for ARB. We conducted shotgun metagenome sequencing of oral and stool samples from long-term care facility residents and explored the effects of antimicrobial treatment on the human microbiome and resistome using two types of comparisons: cross-sectional comparisons based on antimicrobial treatment history in the past 6 months and within-subject comparisons between stool samples before, during and 2-4 weeks after treatment using a single antimicrobial drug. Cross-sectional analysis revealed two characteristics in the group with a history of antimicrobial treatment: the archaeon Methanobrevibacter was the only taxon that significantly increased in abundance, and the total abundance of antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) was also significantly higher. Within-subject comparisons showed that taxonomic diversity did not decrease during treatment, suggesting that the effect of the prescription of a single antimicrobial drug in usual clinical treatment on the gut microbiota is likely to be smaller than previously thought, even among very elderly people. Additional analysis of the detection limit of ARGs revealed that they could not be detected when contig coverage was <2.0. This study is the first to report the effects of usual antimicrobial treatments on the microbiome and resistome of long-term care facility residents.

RevDate: 2024-02-23
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Reuter MA, Tucker M, Marfori Z, et al (2024)

Dietary resistant starch supplementation increases gut luminal deoxycholic acid abundance in mice.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2315632.

Bile acids (BA) are among the most abundant metabolites produced by the gut microbiome. Primary BAs produced in the liver are converted by gut bacterial 7-α-dehydroxylation into secondary BAs, which can differentially regulate host health via signaling based on their varying affinity for BA receptors. Despite the importance of secondary BAs in host health, the regulation of 7-α-dehydroxylation and the role of diet in modulating this process is incompletely defined. Understanding this process could lead to dietary guidelines that beneficially shift BA metabolism. Dietary fiber regulates gut microbial composition and metabolite production. We tested the hypothesis that feeding mice a diet rich in a fermentable dietary fiber, resistant starch (RS), would alter gut bacterial BA metabolism. Male and female wild-type mice were fed a diet supplemented with RS or an isocaloric control diet (IC). Metabolic parameters were similar between groups. RS supplementation increased gut luminal deoxycholic acid (DCA) abundance. However, gut luminal cholic acid (CA) abundance, the substrate for 7-α-dehydroxylation in DCA production, was unaltered by RS. Further, RS supplementation did not change the mRNA expression of hepatic BA producing enzymes or ileal BA transporters. Metagenomic assessment of gut bacterial composition revealed no change in the relative abundance of bacteria known to perform 7-α-dehydroxylation. P. ginsenosidimutans and P. multiformis were positively correlated with gut luminal DCA abundance and increased in response to RS supplementation. These data demonstrate that RS supplementation enriches gut luminal DCA abundance without increasing the relative abundance of bacteria known to perform 7-α-dehydroxylation.

RevDate: 2024-02-23
CmpDate: 2024-02-23

Hu J, Chen J, Ma L, et al (2024)

Characterizing core microbiota and regulatory functions of the pig gut microbiome.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

Domestic pigs (Sus scrofa) are the leading terrestrial animals used for meat production. The gut microbiota significantly affect host nutrition, metabolism, and immunity. Hence, characterization of the gut microbial structure and function will improve our understanding of gut microbial resources and the mechanisms underlying host-microbe interactions. Here, we investigated the gut microbiomes of seven pig breeds using metagenomics and 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. We established an expanded gut microbial reference catalog comprising 17 020 160 genes and identified 4910 metagenome-assembled genomes. We also analyzed the gut resistome to provide an overview of the profiles of the antimicrobial resistance genes in pigs. By analyzing the relative abundances of microbes, we identified three core-predominant gut microbes (Phascolarctobacterium succinatutens, Prevotella copri, and Oscillibacter valericigenes) in pigs used in this study. Oral administration of the three core-predominant gut microbes significantly increased the organ indexes (including the heart, spleen, and thymus), but decreased the gastrointestinal lengths in germ-free mice. The three core microbes significantly enhanced intestinal epithelial barrier function and altered the intestinal mucosal morphology, as was evident from the increase in crypt depths in the duodenum and ileum. Furthermore, the three core microbes significantly affected several metabolic pathways (such as "steroid hormone biosynthesis," "primary bile acid biosynthesis," "phenylalanine, tyrosine and tryptophan biosynthesis," and "phenylalanine metabolism") in germ-free mice. These findings provide a panoramic view of the pig gut microbiome and insights into the functional contributions of the core-predominant gut microbes to the host.

RevDate: 2024-02-23
CmpDate: 2024-02-23

Wan Y, Zhang L, Xu Z, et al (2024)

Alterations in fecal virome and bacteriome virome interplay in children with autism spectrum disorder.

Cell reports. Medicine, 5(2):101409.

Emerging evidence suggests autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is associated with altered gut bacteria. However, less is known about the gut viral community and its role in shaping microbiota in neurodevelopmental disorders. Herein, we perform a metagenomic analysis of gut-DNA viruses in 60 children with ASD and 64 age- and gender-matched typically developing children to investigate the effect of the gut virome on host bacteria in children with ASD. ASD is associated with altered gut virome composition accompanied by the enrichment of Clostridium phage, Bacillus phage, and Enterobacteria phage. These ASD-enriched phages are largely associated with disrupted viral ecology in ASD. Importantly, changes in the interplay between the gut bacteriome and virome seen in ASD may influence the encoding capacity of microbial pathways for neuroactive metabolite biosynthesis. These findings suggest an impaired bacteriome-virome ecology in ASD, which sheds light on the importance of bacteriophages in pathogenesis and the development of microbial therapeutics in ASD.

RevDate: 2024-02-23
CmpDate: 2024-02-23

Phulpoto IA, Qi Z, Qazi MA, et al (2024)

Biosurfactants-based mixed polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon degradation: From microbial community structure toward non-targeted metabolomic profile determination.

Environment international, 184:108448.

Biosurfactants-based bioremediation is considered an efficient technology to eliminate environmental pollutants including polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). However, the precise role of rhamnolipids or lipopeptide-biosurfactants in mixed PAH dissipation, shaping microbial community structure, and influencing metabolomic profile remained unclear. In this study, results showed that the maximum PAH degradation was achieved in lipopeptide-assisted treatment (SPS), where the pyrene and phenanthrene were substantially degraded up to 74.28 % and 63.05 % respectively, as compared to rhamnolipids (SPR) and un-aided biosurfactants (SP). Furthermore, the high throughput sequencing analysis revealed a significant change in the PAH-degrading microbial community, with Proteobacteria being the predominant phylum (>98 %) followed by Bacteroidota and Firmicutes in all the treatments. Moreover, Pseudomonas and Pannonibacter were found as highly potent bacterial genera for mixed PAH degradation in SPR, SPS, and SP treatments, nevertheless, the abundance of the genus Pseudomonas was significantly enhanced (>97 %) in SPR treatment groups. On the other hand, the non-targeted metabolomic profile through UHPLC-MS/MS exhibited a remarkable change in the metabolites of amino acids, carbohydrates, and lipid metabolisms by the input of rhamnolipids or lipopeptide-biosurfactants whereas, the maximum intensities of metabolites (more than two-fold) were observed in SPR treatment. The findings of this study suggested that the aforementioned biosurfactants can play an indispensable role in mixed PAH degradation as well as seek to offer new insights into shifts in PAH-degrading microbial communities and their metabolic function, which can guide the development of more efficient and targeted strategies for complete removal of organic pollutants such as PAH from the contaminated environment.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Liu C, Xu Q, Dong S, et al (2024)

New mechanistic insights of anti-obesity by sleeve gastrectomy-altered gut microbiota and lipid metabolism.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 15:1338147.

BACKGROUND: The obesity epidemic has been on the rise due to changes in living standards and lifestyles. To combat this issue, sleeve gastrectomy (SG) has emerged as a prominent bariatric surgery technique, offering substantial weight reduction. Nevertheless, the mechanisms that underlie SG-related bodyweight loss are not fully understood.

METHODS: In this study, we conducted a collection of preoperative and 3-month postoperative serum and fecal samples from patients who underwent laparoscopic SG at the First Affiliated Hospital of Shandong First Medical University (Jinan, China). Here, we took an unbiased approach of multi-omics to investigate the role of SG-altered gut microbiota in anti-obesity of these patients. Non-target metabolome sequencing was performed using the fecal and serum samples.

RESULTS: Our data show that SG markedly increased microbiota diversity and Rikenellaceae, Alistipes, Parabacteroides, Bactreoidales, and Enterobacteraies robustly increased. These compositional changes were positively correlated with lipid metabolites, including sphingolipids, glycerophospholipids, and unsaturated fatty acids. Increases of Rikenellaceae, Alistipes, and Parabacteroide were reversely correlated with body mass index (BMI).

CONCLUSION: In conclusion, our findings provide evidence that SG induces significant alterations in the abundances of Rikenellaceae, Alistipes, Parabacteroides, and Bacteroidales, as well as changes in lipid metabolism-related metabolites. Importantly, these changes were found to be closely linked to the alleviation of obesity. On the basis of these findings, we have identified a number of microbiotas that could be potential targets for treatment of obesity.

RevDate: 2024-02-22
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Spohr P, Scharf S, Rommerskirchen A, et al (2024)

Insights into gut microbiomes in stem cell transplantation by comprehensive shotgun long-read sequencing.

Scientific reports, 14(1):4068.

The gut microbiome is a diverse ecosystem, dominated by bacteria; however, fungi, phages/viruses, archaea, and protozoa are also important members of the gut microbiota. Exploration of taxonomic compositions beyond bacteria as well as an understanding of the interaction between the bacteriome with the other members is limited using 16S rDNA sequencing. Here, we developed a pipeline enabling the simultaneous interrogation of the gut microbiome (bacteriome, mycobiome, archaeome, eukaryome, DNA virome) and of antibiotic resistance genes based on optimized long-read shotgun metagenomics protocols and custom bioinformatics. Using our pipeline we investigated the longitudinal composition of the gut microbiome in an exploratory clinical study in patients undergoing allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (alloHSCT; n = 31). Pre-transplantation microbiomes exhibited a 3-cluster structure, characterized by Bacteroides spp. /Phocaeicola spp., mixed composition and Enterococcus abundances. We revealed substantial inter-individual and temporal variabilities of microbial domain compositions, human DNA, and antibiotic resistance genes during the course of alloHSCT. Interestingly, viruses and fungi accounted for substantial proportions of microbiome content in individual samples. In the course of HSCT, bacterial strains were stable or newly acquired. Our results demonstrate the disruptive potential of alloHSCTon the gut microbiome and pave the way for future comprehensive microbiome studies based on long-read metagenomics.

RevDate: 2024-02-22
CmpDate: 2024-02-22

Forsmark B, Bizjak T, Nordin A, et al (2024)

Shifts in microbial community composition and metabolism correspond with rapid soil carbon accumulation in response to 20 years of simulated nitrogen deposition.

The Science of the total environment, 918:170741.

Anthropogenic nitrogen (N) deposition and fertilization in boreal forests frequently reduces decomposition and soil respiration and enhances C storage in the topsoil. This enhancement of the C sink can be as strong as the aboveground biomass response to N additions and has implications for the global C cycle, but the mechanisms remain elusive. We hypothesized that this effect would be associated with a shift in the microbial community and its activity, and particularly by fungal taxa reported to be capable of lignin degradation and organic N acquisition. We sampled the organic layer below the intact litter of a Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) forest in northern Sweden after 20 years of annual N additions at low (12.5 kg N ha[-1] yr[-1]) and high (50 kg N ha[-1] yr[-1]) rates. We measured microbial biomass using phospholipid fatty-acid analysis (PLFA) and ergosterol measurements and used ITS metagenomics to profile the fungal community of soil and fine-roots. We probed the metabolic activity of the soil community by measuring the activity of extracellular enzymes and evaluated its relationships with the most N responsive soil fungal species. Nitrogen addition decreased the abundance of fungal PLFA markers and changed the fungal community in humus and fine-roots. Specifically, the humus community changed in part due to a shift from Oidiodendron pilicola, Cenococcum geophilum, and Cortinarius caperatus to Tylospora fibrillosa and Russula griseascens. These microbial community changes were associated with decreased activity of Mn-peroxidase and peptidase, and an increase in the activity of C acquiring enzymes. Our results show that the rapid accumulation of C in the humus layer frequently observed in areas with high N deposition is consistent with a shift in microbial metabolism, where decomposition associated with organic N acquisition is downregulated when inorganic N forms are readily available.

RevDate: 2024-02-22
CmpDate: 2024-02-22

Yu K, Song Y, Wang N, et al (2024)

Exposure of Danio rerio to environmental sulfamethoxazole may contribute to neurobehavioral abnormalities via gut microbiome disturbance.

The Science of the total environment, 918:170546.

The neurotoxic effects and mechanisms of low-dose and long-term sulfamethoxazole (SMZ) exposure remain unknown. This study exposed zebrafish to environmental SMZ concentrations and observed behavioral outcomes. SMZ exposure increased hyperactivity and altered the transcript levels of 17 genes associated with neurological function. It impaired intestinal function by reducing the number of intestinal goblet cells and lipid content. Metabolomic results indicated that the contents of several lipids and amino acids in the gut were altered, which might affect the expression levels of neurological function-related genes. Metagenomic results demonstrated that SMZ exposure substantially altered the composition of the gut microbiome. Zebrafish receiving a transplanted fecal microbiome from the SMZ group were also found to exhibit abnormal behavior, suggesting that the gut microbiome is an important target for SMZ exposure-induced neurobehavioral abnormalities. Multi-omics correlation analysis revealed that gut micrometabolic function was related to differential gut metabolite levels, which may affect neurological function through the gut-brain-axis. Reduced abundance of Lefsonia and Microbacterium was strongly correlated with intestinal metabolic function and may be the key bacterial genera in neurobehavioral changes. This study confirms for the first time that SMZ-induced neurotoxicity in zebrafish is closely mediated by alterations in the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-02-22
CmpDate: 2024-02-22

Ding X, Lan W, Li J, et al (2024)

Metagenomic insight into the pathogenic-related characteristics and resistome profiles within microbiome residing on the Angkor sandstone monuments in Cambodia.

The Science of the total environment, 918:170402.

To reveal the characteristics of indigenous microbiome including the pathogenic-related ones on Angkor monuments in Cambodia and the distribution pattern of resistome at different locations, several sites, namely Angkor Wat, Bayon of Angkor Thom, and Prasat Preah Vihear with different exposure levels to tourists were selected to conduct the metagenomic analysis in this study. The general characteristics of the microbiome on these monuments were revealed, and the association between the environmental geo-ecological feature and the indigenous microbiome was delineated. The most common microbial groups included 6 phyla, namely Acidobacteria, Actinobacteria, Gemmatimonadetes, Nitrospirae, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia on the monuments, but Firmicutes and Chlamydiae were the most dominant phyla found in bats droppings. The taxonomic family of Chitinophagaceae could serve as a signature microbial group for Preah Vihear, the less visited site. More importantly, the pathogenic-related characteristics of the microbiome residing on Angkor monuments were uncovered. A set of specific antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) with cross-niches dispersal capacity (between the environmental microbiome and the microbiome within warm blood fauna) was identified to be high by the source tracking analysis based on ARGs profile varies in this study. Among the 10 ARG-types detected in this study, 6 of them are confined to resistance mechanism of antibiotic efflux-pump. The findings of this study provide new a new direction on public health management and implication globally at archaeological sites for tourism.

RevDate: 2024-02-22
CmpDate: 2024-02-22

Argentini C, Lugli GA, Tarracchini C, et al (2024)

Ecology- and genome-based identification of the Bifidobacterium adolescentis prototype of the healthy human gut microbiota.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 90(2):e0201423.

Bifidobacteria are among the first microbial colonizers of the human gut, being frequently associated with human health-promoting activities. In the current study, an in silico methodology based on an ecological and phylogenomic-driven approach allowed the selection of a Bifidobacterium adolescentis prototype strain, i.e., B. adolescentis PRL2023, which best represents the overall genetic content and functional features of the B. adolescentis taxon. Such features were confirmed by in vitro experiments aimed at evaluating the ability of this strain to survive in the gastrointestinal tract of the host and its ability to interact with human intestinal cells and other microbial gut commensals. In this context, co-cultivation of B. adolescentis PRL2023 and several gut commensals revealed various microbe-microbe interactions and indicated co-metabolism of particular plant-derived glycans, such as xylan.IMPORTANCEThe use of appropriate bacterial strains in experimental research becomes imperative in order to investigate bacterial behavior while mimicking the natural environment. In the current study, through in silico and in vitro methodologies, we were able to identify the most representative strain of the Bifidobacterium adolescentis species. The ability of this strain, B. adolescentis PRL2023, to cope with the environmental challenges imposed by the gastrointestinal tract, together with its ability to switch its carbohydrate metabolism to compete with other gut microorganisms, makes it an ideal choice as a B. adolescentis prototype and a member of the healthy microbiota of adults. This strain possesses a genetic blueprint appropriate for its exploitation as a candidate for next-generation probiotics.

RevDate: 2024-02-22
CmpDate: 2024-02-22

Coleine C, Albanese D, Ray AE, et al (2024)

Metagenomics untangles potential adaptations of Antarctic endolithic bacteria at the fringe of habitability.

The Science of the total environment, 917:170290.

Survival and growth strategies of Antarctic endolithic microbes residing in Earth's driest and coldest desert remain virtually unknown. From 109 endolithic microbiomes, 4539 metagenome-assembled genomes were generated, 49.3 % of which were novel candidate bacterial species. We present evidence that trace gas oxidation and atmospheric chemosynthesis may be the prevalent strategies supporting metabolic activity and persistence of these ecosystems at the fringe of life and the limits of habitability.

RevDate: 2024-02-22
CmpDate: 2024-02-22

Yu Y, Zhang Q, Kang J, et al (2024)

Effects of organic fertilizers on plant growth and the rhizosphere microbiome.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 90(2):e0171923.

Application of organic fertilizers is an important strategy for sustainable agriculture. The biological source of organic fertilizers determines their specific functional characteristics, but few studies have systematically examined these functions or assessed their health risk to soil ecology. To fill this gap, we analyzed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data from 637 soil samples amended with plant- and animal-derived organic fertilizers (hereafter plant fertilizers and animal fertilizers). Results showed that animal fertilizers increased the diversity of soil microbiome, while plant fertilizers maintained the stability of soil microbial community. Microcosm experiments verified that plant fertilizers were beneficial to plant root development and increased carbon cycle pathways, while animal fertilizers enriched nitrogen cycle pathways. Compared with animal fertilizers, plant fertilizers harbored a lower abundance of risk factors such as antibiotic resistance genes and viruses. Consequently, plant fertilizers might be more suitable for long-term application in agriculture. This work provides a guide for organic fertilizer selection from the perspective of soil microecology and promotes sustainable development of organic agriculture.IMPORTANCEThis study provides valuable guidance for use of organic fertilizers in agricultural production from the perspective of the microbiome and ecological risk.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Wang FQ, Bartosik D, Sidhu C, et al (2024)

Particle-attached bacteria act as gatekeepers in the decomposition of complex phytoplankton polysaccharides.

Microbiome, 12(1):32.

BACKGROUND: Marine microalgae (phytoplankton) mediate almost half of the worldwide photosynthetic carbon dioxide fixation and therefore play a pivotal role in global carbon cycling, most prominently during massive phytoplankton blooms. Phytoplankton biomass consists of considerable proportions of polysaccharides, substantial parts of which are rapidly remineralized by heterotrophic bacteria. We analyzed the diversity, activity, and functional potential of such polysaccharide-degrading bacteria in different size fractions during a diverse spring phytoplankton bloom at Helgoland Roads (southern North Sea) at high temporal resolution using microscopic, physicochemical, biodiversity, metagenome, and metaproteome analyses.

RESULTS: Prominent active 0.2-3 µm free-living clades comprised Aurantivirga, "Formosa", Cd. Prosiliicoccus, NS4, NS5, Amylibacter, Planktomarina, SAR11 Ia, SAR92, and SAR86, whereas BD1-7, Stappiaceae, Nitrincolaceae, Methylophagaceae, Sulfitobacter, NS9, Polaribacter, Lentimonas, CL500-3, Algibacter, and Glaciecola dominated 3-10 µm and > 10 µm particles. Particle-attached bacteria were more diverse and exhibited more dynamic adaptive shifts over time in terms of taxonomic composition and repertoires of encoded polysaccharide-targeting enzymes. In total, 305 species-level metagenome-assembled genomes were obtained, including 152 particle-attached bacteria, 100 of which were novel for the sampling site with 76 representing new species. Compared to free-living bacteria, they featured on average larger metagenome-assembled genomes with higher proportions of polysaccharide utilization loci. The latter were predicted to target a broader spectrum of polysaccharide substrates, ranging from readily soluble, simple structured storage polysaccharides (e.g., laminarin, α-glucans) to less soluble, complex structural, or secreted polysaccharides (e.g., xylans, cellulose, pectins). In particular, the potential to target poorly soluble or complex polysaccharides was more widespread among abundant and active particle-attached bacteria.

CONCLUSIONS: Particle-attached bacteria represented only 1% of all bloom-associated bacteria, yet our data suggest that many abundant active clades played a pivotal gatekeeping role in the solubilization and subsequent degradation of numerous important classes of algal glycans. The high diversity of polysaccharide niches among the most active particle-attached clades therefore is a determining factor for the proportion of algal polysaccharides that can be rapidly remineralized during generally short-lived phytoplankton bloom events. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Bazzani D, Heidrich V, Manghi P, et al (2024)

Favorable subgingival plaque microbiome shifts are associated with clinical treatment for peri-implant diseases.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 10(1):12.

We performed a longitudinal shotgun metagenomic investigation of the plaque microbiome associated with peri-implant diseases in a cohort of 91 subjects with 320 quality-controlled metagenomes. Through recently improved taxonomic profiling methods, we identified the most discriminative species between healthy and diseased subjects at baseline, evaluated their change over time, and provided evidence that clinical treatment had a positive effect on plaque microbiome composition in patients affected by mucositis and peri-implantitis.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Nandakumar K, Anto PV, I Antony (2024)

Diversity of soil fungi from sacred groves of Kerala, India revealed by comparative metagenomics analysis using illumina sequencing.

3 Biotech, 14(3):79.

The diversity, composition, and abundance of soil fungi from three sacred groves in Kerala, namely Iringole kavu of Ernakulam District, Kollakal Thapovanam of Alappuzha District, and Poyilkavu of Kozhikode District were analysed using Metagenomics analysis and Illumina sequencing. A total of 30,584, 78,323, and 55,640 reads were obtained from these groves, respectively. Ascomycota constitutes over 96% of the total fungi, making it the most abundant phylum, followed by Mortierellomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Rozellomycota. These phyla were subdivided into 20 classes, 40 orders, 83 families, 119 genera, and 135 species, while 1269 OTUs remained unidentified at the species level. Eurotiomycetes predominates the class, while the genus Talaromyces from the family Trichomaceae dominates the genera. Neocarmospora falciformis, Trichoderma lixii, and Candida ethanolic are the most abundant fungal species. Diversity analysis shows that Kollakal Thapovanam is rich in fungal species, while Poyilkavu is rich in biodiversity, with a high degree of dominance. Several species were found only in a particular grove and were absent in others and vice-versa, indicating high fungal specificity. Therefore, fungi have to be preserved in their original habitat. The Principal Coordinate Analysis revealed that each grove is distinct highlighting the importance of preserving the unique diversity of each sacred grove. In conclusion, this research provides valuable information about the soil fungal genera in their natural habitat. It emphasizes the need for more systematic research to understand the actual diversity and ecological role of fungi in sacred groves. This study is the first of its kind to analyse and compare soil fungal diversity in sacred groves using the metagenomics approach.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Gregorczyk-Maga I, Kania M, Dąbrowska M, et al (2023)

The interplay between gingival crevicular fluid microbiome and metabolomic profile in intensively treated people with type 1 diabetes - a combined metagenomic/metabolomic approach cross-sectional study.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 14:1332406.

AIMS: This study aimed to assess the gingival crevicular fluid (GCF) microbiome and metabolome of adults with type 1 diabetes (T1D) treated with continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII).

METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, the GCF of adults with T1D treated with CSII and non-diabetic controls were sampled, and metagenomic/metabolomic analyses were performed.

RESULTS: In total, 65 participants with T1D and 45 healthy controls with a mean age of 27.05 ± 5.95 years were investigated. There were 22 cases of mild gingivitis (G) in the T1D group. There were no differences considering the Shannon and Chao indices and β-diversity between people with T1D and G, with T1D without G, and healthy controls. Differential taxa were identified, which were mainly enriched in people with T1D and G. Acetic acid concentration was higher in people with T1D, regardless of the presence of G, than in healthy controls. Propionic acid was higher in people with T1D and G than in healthy controls. Isobutyric and isovaleric acid levels were higher in individuals with T1D and G than in the other two subgroups. The concentration of valeric acid was lower and that of caproic acid was higher in people with T1D (regardless of gingival status) than in healthy controls.

CONCLUSIONS: The identification of early changes in periodontal tissues by targeting the microbiome and metabolome could potentially enable effective prevention and initial treatment of periodontal disease in people with T1D.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Marlida Y, Susalam MK, Harnentis H, et al (2023)

Metagenomic analysis and biodiversity of bacteria in traditional fermented fish or Budu from West Sumatera, Indonesia.

Journal of advanced veterinary and animal research, 10(4):801-808.

OBJECTIVE: This research aims to investigate the microbial diversity of Budu prepared from fresh and frozen fish from the Pariaman and Pasaman districts in West Sumatra Province, Indonesia, as well as provide basic information about Budu quality.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: To obtain the bacterial microbial composition, deoxyribonucleic acid extraction was carried out using amplicon-sequencing of the 16S-rRNA gene in the V3-V4 region from two types of Budu and carried out in duplicate.

RESULTS: Budu prepared with fresh (Pariaman) or frozen (Pasaman) fish was dominated by Firmicutes (78.455%-92.37%) and Proteobacteria (6.477%-7.23%) phyla. The total microbial species in Budu from Pariaman were higher (227 species) than in Pasaman (153 species). The bacterial species found are Lentibacillus kimchi (1.878%-2.21%), Staphylococcus cohnii (0.597%-0.70%), Peptostreptococcus russeli (0.00%-0.002%), Clostridium disporicum (0.073%-0.09%), Clostridium novyi (0.00%-0.01%), Nioella sediminis (0.00%-0.001%), and Shewanella baltica (0.00%-0.003%). Lentibacillus kimchi, S. cohnii, and C. disporicum are found in both Budu. Nioella sediminis and S. baltica are found in Budu Pariaman. Peptostreptococcus russeli and C. novyi were found in Budu Pasaman.

CONCLUSION: Metagenomic analysis of Budu from different fish, Pariaman (fresh fish) and Pasaman (frozen fish) showed that the biodiversity of bacteria was barely different. Both Budu found lactic acid bacteria from the Enterococcaceae family, genus Vagococcus, and pathogenic bacteria, such as S. cohnii, P. russeli, C. disporicum, and S. baltica. The discovery of various species of pathogenic bacteria indicates that development is still needed in the Budu production process to improve Budu quality.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Chang X, Zhang Y, Chen X, et al (2024)

Gut microbiome and serum amino acid metabolome alterations in autism spectrum disorder.

Scientific reports, 14(1):4037.

Gut microbiota and their metabolic products might play important roles in regulating the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). The purpose of this study was to characterize gut microbiota and serum amino acid metabolome profiles in children with ASD. A non-randomized controlled study was carried out to analyze the alterations in the intestinal microbiota and their metabolites in patients with ASD (n = 30) compared with neurotypical controls (NC) (n = 30) by metagenomic sequencing to define the gut microbiota community and liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) analysis to characterize the metabolite profiles. Compared with children in the NC group, those in the ASD group showed lower richness, higher evenness, and an altered microbial community structure. At the class level, Deinococci and Holophagae were significantly lower in children with ASD compared with TD. At the phylum level, Deinococcus-Thermus was significantly lower in children with ASD compared with TD. In addition, the functional properties (such as galactose metabolism) displayed significant differences between the ASD and NC groups. Five dominant altered species were identified and analyzed (LDA score > 2.0, P < 0.05), including Subdoligranulum, Faecalibacterium_praushitzii, Faecalibacterium, Veillonellaceae, and Rumminococcaceae. The peptides/nickel transport system was the main metabolic pathway involved in the differential species in the ASD group. Decreased ornithine levels and elevated valine levels may increase the risk of ASD through a metabolic pathway known as the nickel transport system. The microbial metabolism in diverse environments was negatively correlated with phascolarctobacterium succinatutens. Our study provides novel insights into compositional and functional alterations in the gut microbiome and metabolite profiles in ASD and the underlying mechanisms between metabolite and ASD.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Brealey JC, Kodama M, Rasmussen JA, et al (2024)

Host-gut microbiota interactions shape parasite infections in farmed Atlantic salmon.

mSystems, 9(2):e0104323.

Animals and their associated microbiota share long evolutionary histories. However, it is not always clear how host genotype and microbiota interact to affect phenotype. We applied a hologenomic approach to explore how host-microbiota interactions shape lifetime growth and parasite infection in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar). Multi-omics data sets were generated from the guts of 460 salmon, 82% of which were naturally infected with an intestinal cestode. A single Mycoplasma bacterial strain, MAG01, dominated the gut metagenome of large, non-parasitized fish, consistent with previous studies showing high levels of Mycoplasma in the gut microbiota of healthy salmon. While small and/or parasitized salmon also had high abundance of MAG01, we observed increased alpha diversity in these individuals, driven by increased frequency of low-abundance Vibrionaceae and other Mycoplasma species that carried known virulence genes. Colonization by one of these cestode-associated Mycoplasma strains was associated with host individual genomic variation in long non-coding RNAs. Integrating the multi-omic data sets revealed coordinated changes in the salmon gut mRNA transcriptome and metabolome that correlated with shifts in the microbiota of smaller, parasitized fish. Our results suggest that the gut microbiota of small and/or parasitized fish is in a state of dysbiosis that partly depends on the host genotype, highlighting the value of using a hologenomic approach to incorporate the microbiota into the study of host-parasite dynamics.IMPORTANCEStudying host-microbiota interactions through the perspective of the hologenome is gaining interest across all life sciences. Intestinal parasite infections are a huge burden on human and animal health; however, there are few studies investigating the role of the hologenome during parasite infections. We address this gap in the largest multi-omics fish microbiota study to date using natural cestode infection of farmed Atlantic salmon. We find a clear association between cestode infection, salmon lifetime growth, and perturbation of the salmon gut microbiota. Furthermore, we provide the first evidence that the genetic background of the host may partly determine how the gut microbiota changes during parasite-associated dysbiosis. Our study therefore highlights the value of a hologenomic approach for gaining a more in-depth understanding of parasitism.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Omondi VO, Bosire GO, Onyari JM, et al (2024)

Multi-omics analyses reveal rumen microbes and secondary metabolites that are unique to livestock species.

mSystems, 9(2):e0122823.

Ruminant livestock, including cattle, sheep, goats, and camels, possess a distinctive digestive system with complex microbiota communities critical for feed conversion and secondary metabolite production, including greenhouse gases. Yet, there is limited knowledge regarding the diversity of rumen microbes and metabolites benefiting livestock physiology, productivity, climate impact, and defense mechanisms across ruminant species. In this study, we utilized metataxonomics and metabolomics data from four evolutionarily distinct livestock species, which had fed on diverse plant materials like grass, shrubs, and acacia trees, to uncover the unique signature microbes and secondary metabolites. We established the presence of a distinctive anaerobic fungus called Oontomyces in camels, while cattle exhibited a higher prevalence of unique microbes like Psychrobacter, Anaeromyces, Cyllamyces, and Orpinomyces. Goats hosted Cleistothelebolus, and Liebetanzomyces was unique to sheep. Furthermore, we identified a set of conserved core microbes, including Prevotella, Rickenellaceae, Cladosporium, and Pecoramyces, present in all the ruminants, irrespective of host genetics and dietary composition. This underscores their indispensable role in maintaining crucial physiological functions. Regarding secondary metabolites, camel's rumen is rich in organic acids, goat's rumen is rich in alcohols and hydrocarbons, sheep's rumen is rich in indoles, and cattle's rumen is rich in sesquiterpenes. Additionally, linalool propionate and terpinolene were uniquely found in sheep rumen, while valencene was exclusive to cattle. This may suggest the existence of species-specific microbes and metabolites that require host rumen-microbes' environment balance. These results have implications for manipulating the rumen environment to target specific microbes and secondary metabolite networks, thereby enhancing livestock productivity, resilience, reducing susceptibility to vectors, and environmentally preferred livestock husbandry.IMPORTANCERumen fermentation, which depends on feed components and rumen microbes, plays a crucial role in feed conversion and the production of various metabolites important for the physiological functions, health, and environmental smartness of ruminant livestock, in addition to providing food for humans. However, given the complexity and variation of the rumen ecosystem and feed of these various livestock species, combined with inter-individual differences between gut microbial communities, how they influence the rumen secondary metabolites remains elusive. Using metagenomics and metabolomics approaches, we show that each livestock species has a signature microbe(s) and secondary metabolites. These findings may contribute toward understanding the rumen ecosystem, microbiome and metabolite networks, which may provide a gateway to manipulating rumen ecosystem pathways toward making livestock production efficient, sustainable, and environmentally friendly.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Wei W, Li J, Tang B, et al (2024)

Metabolomics and metagenomics reveal the impact of γδ T inhibition on gut microbiota and metabolism in periodontitis-promoting OSCC.

mSystems, 9(2):e0077723.

During the process of periodontitis-promoting oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the periodontitis microbiota can facilitate OSCC development by activating γδ T cells. Inhibiting γδ T cells through immunotherapy has been shown to significantly alleviate various types of cancer. However, the underlying mechanism by which inhibiting γδ T cells influenced cancer treatment has not been fully elucidated. In this study, a mouse model of OSCC with periodontitis was established, and γδ T cells were inhibited by antibodies. Gut samples from the mice were collected and analyzed by metabolomics, metagenomics, and 16S rRNA. Integrative analysis of the gut metabolome and microbiome revealed that targeting γδ T resulted in changes in the levels of metabolites associated with cancer in the gut. Although there was no difference in the α diversity of microbiota, β diversity was significantly different, with a more heterogeneous community structure in the mice receiving targeted γδ T immunotherapy. Statistical analysis of the gut microbiota at the species level revealed a significant enrichment of Lactobacillus murinus, which was significantly correlated with γδ T abundance. The functional analysis revealed that inhibiting γδ T could impact the functional gene. A comprehensive analysis revealed that L. murinus is especially associated with changes in adenine, which also had connection with the concentration of IL-17 and the abundance of γδ T.IMPORTANCEThis study revealed the effect of γδ T cells on gut microbial dysbiosis and identify potential links between gut microbiota and metabolism, providing new insights into the role of γδ T during the process of periodontitis-induced OSCC, and identifying relevant biomarkers for future research and clinical monitoring protocol development.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Fadeev E, Hennenfeind JH, Amano C, et al (2024)

Bacterial degradation of ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi organic matter.

mSystems, 9(2):e0126423.

Blooms of gelatinous zooplankton, an important source of protein-rich biomass in coastal waters, often collapse rapidly, releasing large amounts of labile detrital organic matter (OM) into the surrounding water. Although these blooms have the potential to cause major perturbations in the marine ecosystem, their effects on the microbial community and hence on the biogeochemical cycles have yet to be elucidated. We conducted microcosm experiments simulating the scenario experienced by coastal bacterial communities after the decay of a ctenophore (Mnemiopsis leidyi) bloom in the northern Adriatic Sea. Within 24 h, a rapid response of bacterial communities to the M. leidyi OM was observed, characterized by elevated bacterial biomass production and respiration rates. However, compared to our previous microcosm study of jellyfish (Aurelia aurita s.l.), M. leidyi OM degradation was characterized by significantly lower bacterial growth efficiency, meaning that the carbon stored in the OM was mostly respired. Combined metagenomic and metaproteomic analysis indicated that the degradation activity was mainly performed by Pseudoalteromonas, producing a large amount of proteolytic extracellular enzymes and exhibiting high metabolic activity. Interestingly, the reconstructed metagenome-assembled genome (MAG) of Pseudoalteromonas phenolica was almost identical (average nucleotide identity >99%) to the MAG previously reconstructed in our A. aurita microcosm study, despite the fundamental genetic and biochemical differences of the two gelatinous zooplankton species. Taken together, our data suggest that blooms of different gelatinous zooplankton are likely triggering a consistent response from natural bacterial communities, with specific bacterial lineages driving the remineralization of the gelatinous OM.IMPORTANCEJellyfish blooms are increasingly becoming a recurring seasonal event in marine ecosystems, characterized by a rapid build-up of gelatinous biomass that collapses rapidly. Although these blooms have the potential to cause major perturbations, their impact on marine microbial communities is largely unknown. We conducted an incubation experiment simulating a bloom of the ctenophore Mnemiopsis leidyi in the Northern Adriatic, where we investigated the bacterial response to the gelatinous biomass. We found that the bacterial communities actively degraded the gelatinous organic matter, and overall showed a striking similarity to the dynamics previously observed after a simulated bloom of the jellyfish Aurelia aurita s.l. In both cases, we found that a single bacterial species, Pseudoalteromonas phenolica, was responsible for most of the degradation activity. This suggests that blooms of different jellyfish are likely to trigger a consistent response from natural bacterial communities, with specific bacterial species driving the remineralization of gelatinous biomass.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Caesar L, Rice DW, McAfee A, et al (2024)

Metagenomic analysis of the honey bee queen microbiome reveals low bacterial diversity and Caudoviricetes phages.

mSystems, 9(2):e0118223.

In eusocial insects, the health of the queens-the colony founders and sole reproductive females-is a primary determinant for colony success. Queen failure in the honey bee Apis mellifera, for example, is a major concern of beekeepers who annually suffer colony losses, necessitating a greater knowledge of queen health. Several studies on the microbiome of honey bees have characterized its diversity and shown its importance for the health of worker bees, the female non-reproductive caste. However, the microbiome of workers differs from that of queens, which, in comparison, is still poorly studied. Thus, direct investigations of the queen microbiome are required to understand colony-level microbiome assembly, functional roles, and evolution. Here, we used metagenomics to comprehensively characterize the honey bee queen microbiome. Comparing samples from different geographic locations and breeder sources, we show that the microbiome of queens is mostly shaped by the environment experienced since early life and is predicted to play roles in the breakdown of the diet and protection from pathogens and xenobiotics. We also reveal that the microbiome of queens comprises only four candidate core bacterial species, Apilactobacillus kunkeei, Lactobacillus apis, Bombella apis, and Commensalibacter sp. Interestingly, in addition to bacteria, we show that bacteriophages infect the queen microbiome, for which Lactobacillaceae are predicted to be the main reservoirs. Together, our results provide the basis to understand the honey bee colony microbiome assemblage, can guide improvements in queen-rearing processes, and highlight the importance of considering bacteriophages for queen microbiome health and microbiome homeostasis in eusocial insects.IMPORTANCEThe queen caste plays a central role in colony success in eusocial insects, as queens lay eggs and regulate colony behavior and development. Queen failure can cause colonies to collapse, which is one of the major concerns of beekeepers. Thus, understanding the biology behind the queen's health is a pressing issue. Previous studies have shown that the bee microbiome plays an important role in worker bee health, but little is known about the queen microbiome and its function in vivo. Here, we characterized the queen microbiome, identifying for the first time the present species and their putative functions. We show that the queen microbiome has predicted nutritional and protective roles in queen association and comprises only four consistently present bacterial species. Additionally, we bring to attention the spread of phages in the queen microbiome, which increased in abundance in failing queens and may impact the fate of the colony.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Bian G, Yu S, Cheng C, et al (2024)

Ruminal microbiota-host crosstalks promote ruminal epithelial development in neonatal lambs with alfalfa hay introduction.

mSystems, 9(2):e0103423.

Ruminal microbiota is gradually established after birth, while microbiota maturation could be highly diverse because of varied solid dietary accessibility. However, how the ruminal microbiota accreted from postnatal hay diets alters rumen epithelial development, and how this affects animal health remains largely unknown. Here, neonatal lambs were introduced to starchy corn-soybean starter or corn-soybean starter + alfalfa hay (AH) to investigate the influences of early life ruminal microbiome on rumen epithelial development using integrated 16s rRNA sequencing-metagenome-transcriptome approaches. The results showed that AH introduction elevated average daily weight gain, rumen weight and volume, rumen epithelial papillae length, and rumen muscle layer thickness. Meanwhile, the relative abundance of fibrolytic bacteria (Christensenellaceae R-7 group, Prevotellaceae UCG-001, and Succinivibrio), acetate producer (Acetitomaculum and Mitsuokella), and propionate producer Succiniclasticum was increased in the rumen content by AH supplementation (P < 0.05). Moreover, AH introduction decreased the relative abundance of total CAZymes, CBM, and GH and increased the abundance of KO genes related to volatile fatty acid (VFA) generation in the rumen content. AH lambs had a higher relative abundance of Succiniclasticum, Megasphaera, Succinivibrio, and Suttonella (P < 0.05), while a lower relative abundance of Cloacibacillus, Desulfovibrio, Dialister, Intestinimonas, Parabacteroides, and Pseudoscardovia (P < 0.05) in the rumen epithelial samples. Furthermore, these alterations in ruminal microbial structure and function resulted in ruminal epithelial cell proliferation and development pathways activation. In summary, AH introduction benefited ruminal fiber degradation and VFA generation bacteria colonization and promoted ruminal epithelial development. These findings provide new insights into ruminal microbial-host interactions in the early life.IMPORTANCEWhile it is established that a fiber-rich diet promotes rumen development in lambs, further research is needed to investigate the precise response of rumen microbiota and epithelium to high-quality alfalfa hay. Here, we observed that the inclusion of alfalfa hay led to a discernible alteration in the developmental trajectory of the rumen. Notably, there was a favorable shift in the rumen's volume, morphology, and the development of rumen papillae. Furthermore, ruminal microbial structure and function resulted in ruminal epithelial cell proliferation and development pathways activation, collectively provide compelling evidence supporting the capacity of alfalfa hay to enhance rumen development and health through ruminal micrbiota-host crosstalks. Our findings elucidate the functional response of the rumen to alfalfa hay introduction, providing new insights into strategies for promoting healthy development of the rumen in young ruminants.

RevDate: 2024-02-21
CmpDate: 2024-02-21

Salam LB (2024)

Diverse hydrocarbon degradation genes, heavy metal resistome, and microbiome of a fluorene-enriched animal-charcoal polluted soil.

Folia microbiologica, 69(1):59-80.

Environmental compartments polluted with animal charcoal from the skin and hide cottage industries are rich in toxic heavy metals and diverse hydrocarbon classes, some of which are carcinogenic, mutagenic, and genotoxic, and thus require a bio-based eco-benign decommission strategies. A shotgun metagenomic approach was used to decipher the microbiome, hydrocarbon degradation genes, and heavy metal resistome of a microbial consortium (FN8) from an animal-charcoal polluted site enriched with fluorene. Structurally, the FN8 microbial consortium consists of 26 phyla, 53 classes, 119 orders, 245 families, 620 genera, and 1021 species. The dominant phylum, class, order, family, genus, and species in the consortium are Proteobacteria (51.37%), Gammaproteobacteria (39.01%), Bacillales (18.09%), Microbulbiferaceae (11.65%), Microbulbifer (12.21%), and Microbulbifer sp. A4B17 (19.65%), respectively. The microbial consortium degraded 57.56% (28.78 mg/L) and 87.14% (43.57 mg/L) of the initial fluorene concentration in 14 and 21 days. Functional annotation of the protein sequences (ORFs) of the FN8 metagenome using the KEGG GhostKOALA, KofamKOALA, NCBI's conserved domain database, and BacMet revealed the detection of hydrocarbon degradation genes for benzoate, aminobenzoate, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), chlorocyclohexane/chlorobenzene, chloroalkane/chloroalkene, toluene, xylene, styrene, naphthalene, nitrotoluene, and several others. The annotation also revealed putative genes for the transport, uptake, efflux, and regulation of heavy metals such as arsenic, cadmium, chromium, mercury, nickel, copper, zinc, and several others. Findings from this study have established that members of the FN8 consortium are well-adapted and imbued with requisite gene sets and could be a potential bioresource for on-site depuration of animal charcoal polluted sites.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Zou S, Yang C, Zhang J, et al (2024)

Multi-omic profiling reveals associations between the gut microbiome, host genome and transcriptome in patients with colorectal cancer.

Journal of translational medicine, 22(1):175.

BACKGROUND: Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the leading cancer worldwide. Microbial agents have been considered to contribute to the pathogenesis of different disease. But the underlying relevance between CRC and microbiota remain unclear.

METHODS: We dissected the fecal microbiome structure and genomic and transcriptomic profiles of matched tumor and normal mucosa tissues from 41 CRC patients. Of which, the relationship between CRC-associated bacterial taxa and their significantly correlated somatic mutated gene was investigated by exome sequencing technology. Differentially expressed functional genes in CRC were clustered according to their correlation with differentially abundant species, following by annotation with DAVID. The composition of immune and stromal cell types was identified by XCELL.

RESULTS: We identified a set of 22 microbial gut species associated with CRC and estimate the relative abundance of KEGG ontology categories. Next, the interactions between CRC-related gut microbes and clinical phenotypes were evaluated. 4 significantly mutated gene: TP53, APC, KRAS, SMAD4 were pointed out and the associations with cancer related microbes were identified. Among them, Fusobacterium nucleatum positively corelated with different host metabolic pathways. Finally, we revealed that Fusobacterium nucleatum modified the tumor immune environment by TNFSF9 gene expression.

CONCLUSION: Collectively, our multi-omics data could help identify novel biomarkers to inform clinical decision-making in the detection and diagnosis of CRC.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Laczkó L, Jordán S, Póliska S, et al (2024)

The draft genome of Spiraea crenata L. (Rosaceae) - the first complete genome in tribe Spiraeeae.

Scientific data, 11(1):219.

Spiraea crenata L. is a deciduous shrub distributed across the Eurasian steppe zone. The species is of cultural and horticultural importance and occurs in scattered populations throughout its westernmost range. Currently, there is no genomic information on the tribe of Spiraeeae. Therefore we sequenced and assembled the whole genome of S. crenata using second- and third-generation sequencing and a hybrid assembly approach to expand genomic resources for conservation and support research on this horticulturally important lineage. In addition to the organellar genomes (the plastome and the mitochondrion), we present the first draft genome of the species with an estimated size of 220 Mbp, an N50 value of 7.7 Mbp, and a BUSCO score of 96.0%. Being the first complete genome in tribe Spiraeeae, this may not only be the first step in the genomic study of a rare plant but also a contribution to genomic resources supporting the study of biodiversity and evolutionary history of Rosaceae.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Fernández-Pato A, Sinha T, Gacesa R, et al (2024)

Choice of DNA extraction method affects stool microbiome recovery and subsequent phenotypic association analyses.

Scientific reports, 14(1):3911.

The lack of standardization in the methods of DNA extraction from fecal samples represents the major source of experimental variation in the microbiome research field. In this study, we aimed to compare the metagenomic profiles and microbiome-phenotype associations obtained by applying two commercially available DNA extraction kits: the AllPrep DNA/RNA Mini Kit (APK) and the QIAamp Fast DNA Stool Mini Kit (FSK). Using metagenomic sequencing data available from 745 paired fecal samples from two independent population cohorts, Lifelines-DEEP (LLD, n = 292) and the 500 Functional Genomics project (500FG, n = 453), we confirmed significant differences in DNA yield and the recovered microbial communities between protocols, with the APK method resulting in a higher DNA concentration and microbial diversity. Further, we observed a massive difference in bacterial relative abundances at species-level between the APK and the FSK protocols, with > 75% of species differentially abundant between protocols in both cohorts. Specifically, comparison with a standard mock community revealed that the APK method provided higher accuracy in the recovery of microbial relative abundances, with the absence of a bead-beating step in the FSK protocol causing an underrepresentation of gram-positive bacteria. This heterogeneity in the recovered microbial composition led to remarkable differences in the association with anthropometric and lifestyle phenotypes. The results of this study further reinforce that the choice of DNA extraction method impacts the metagenomic profile of human gut microbiota and highlight the importance of harmonizing protocols in microbiome studies.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Bosch ME, Dodiya HB, Michalkiewicz J, et al (2024)

Sodium oligomannate alters gut microbiota, reduces cerebral amyloidosis and reactive microglia in a sex-specific manner.

Molecular neurodegeneration, 19(1):18.

It has recently become well-established that there is a connection between Alzheimer's disease pathology and gut microbiome dysbiosis. We have previously demonstrated that antibiotic-mediated gut microbiota perturbations lead to attenuation of Aβ deposition, phosphorylated tau accumulation, and disease-associated glial cell phenotypes in a sex-dependent manner. In this regard, we were intrigued by the finding that a marine-derived oligosaccharide, GV-971, was reported to alter gut microbiota and reduce Aβ amyloidosis in the 5XFAD mouse model that were treated at a point when Aβ burden was near plateau levels. Utilizing comparable methodologies, but with distinct technical and temporal features, we now report on the impact of GV-971 on gut microbiota, Aβ amyloidosis and microglial phenotypes in the APPPS1-21 model, studies performed at the University of Chicago, and independently in the 5X FAD model, studies performed at Washington University, St. Louis.Methods To comprehensively characterize the effects of GV-971 on the microbiota-microglia-amyloid axis, we conducted two separate investigations at independent institutions. There was no coordination of the experimental design or execution between the two laboratories. Indeed, the two laboratories were not aware of each other's experiments until the studies were completed. Male and female APPPS1-21 mice were treated daily with 40, 80, or 160 mg/kg of GV-971 from 8, when Aβ burden was detectable upto 12 weeks of age when Aβ burden was near maximal levels. In parallel, and to corroborate existing published studies and further investigate sex-related differences, male and female 5XFAD mice were treated daily with 100 mg/kg of GV-971 from 7 to 9 months of age when Aβ burden was near peak levels. Subsequently, the two laboratories independently assessed amyloid-β deposition, metagenomic, and neuroinflammatory profiles. Finally, studies were initiated at the University of Chicago to evaluate the metabolites in cecal tissue from vehicle and GV-971-treated 5XFAD mice.Results These studies showed that independent of the procedural differences (dosage, timing and duration of treatment) between the two laboratories, cerebral amyloidosis was reduced primarily in male mice, independent of strain. We also observed sex-specific microbiota differences following GV-971 treatment. Interestingly, GV-971 significantly altered multiple overlapping bacterial species at both institutions. Moreover, we discovered that GV-971 significantly impacted microbiome metabolism, particularly by elevating amino acid production and influencing the tryptophan pathway. The metagenomics and metabolomics changes correspond with notable reductions in peripheral pro-inflammatory cytokine and chemokine profiles. Furthermore, GV-971 treatment dampened astrocyte and microglia activation, significantly decreasing plaque-associated reactive microglia while concurrently increasing homeostatic microglia only in male mice. Bulk RNAseq analysis unveiled sex-specific changes in cerebral cortex transcriptome profiles, but most importantly, the transcriptome changes in the GV-971-treated male group revealed the involvement of microglia and inflammatory responses.Conclusions In conclusion, these studies demonstrate the connection between the gut microbiome, neuroinflammation, and Alzheimer's disease pathology while highlighting the potential therapeutic effect of GV-971. GV-971 targets the microbiota-microglia-amyloid axis, leading to the lowering of plaque pathology and neuroinflammatory signatures in a sex-dependent manner when given at the onset of Aβ deposition or when given after Aβ deposition is already at higher levels.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Mukhia S, Kumar A, R Kumar (2024)

Bacterial community distribution and functional potentials provide key insights into their role in the ecosystem functioning of a retreating Eastern Himalayan glacier.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 100(3):.

Himalayan glaciers are receding at an exceptional rate, perturbing the local biome and ecosystem processes. Understanding the microbial ecology of an exclusively microbe-driven biome provides insights into their contributions to the ecosystem functioning through biogeochemical fluxes. Here, we investigated the bacterial communities and their functional potential in the retreating East Rathong Glacier (ERG) of Sikkim Himalaya. Amplicon-based taxonomic classification revealed the dominance of the phyla Proteobacteria, Bacteroidota, and candidate Patescibacteria in the glacial sites. Further, eight good-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of Proteobacteria, Patescibacteria, Acidobacteriota, and Choloflexota retrieved from the metagenomes elucidated the microbial contributions to nutrient cycling. The ERG MAGs showed aerobic respiration as a primary metabolic feature, accompanied by carbon fixation and complex carbon degradation potentials. Pathways for nitrogen metabolism, chiefly dissimilatory nitrate reduction and denitrification, and a complete sulphur oxidation enzyme complex for sulphur metabolism were identified in the MAGs. We observed that DNA repair and oxidative stress response genes complemented with osmotic and periplasmic stress and protein chaperones were vital for adaptation against the intense radiation and stress conditions of the extreme Himalayan niche. Current findings elucidate the microbiome and associated functional potentials of a vulnerable glacier, emphasizing their significant ecological roles in a changing glacial ecosystem.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Cheng M, Luo S, Zhang P, et al (2024)

A genome and gene catalog of the aquatic microbiomes of the Tibetan Plateau.

Nature communications, 15(1):1438.

The Tibetan Plateau supplies water to nearly 2 billion people in Asia, but climate change poses threats to its aquatic microbial resources. Here, we construct the Tibetan Plateau Microbial Catalog by sequencing 498 metagenomes from six water ecosystems (saline lakes, freshwater lakes, rivers, hot springs, wetlands and glaciers). Our catalog expands knowledge of regional genomic diversity by presenting 32,355 metagenome-assembled genomes that de-replicated into 10,723 representative genome-based species, of which 88% were unannotated. The catalog contains nearly 300 million non-redundant gene clusters, of which 15% novel, and 73,864 biosynthetic gene clusters, of which 50% novel, thus expanding known functional diversity. Using these data, we investigate the Tibetan Plateau aquatic microbiome's biogeography along a distance of 2,500 km and >5 km in altitude. Microbial compositional similarity and the shared gene count with the Tibetan Plateau microbiome decline along with distance and altitude difference, suggesting a dispersal pattern. The Tibetan Plateau Microbial Catalog stands as a substantial repository for high-altitude aquatic microbiome resources, providing potential for discovering novel lineages and functions, and bridging knowledge gaps in microbiome biogeography.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Jiao J, Wu J, Zhou C, et al (2024)

Ecological niches and assembly dynamics of diverse microbial consortia in the gastrointestine of goat kids.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

Goats are globally invaluable ruminants that balance food security and environmental impacts, and their commensal microbiome residing in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) is associated with animal health and productivity. However, the reference genomes and functional repertoires of GIT microbes in goat kids have not been fully elucidated. Herein, we performed a comprehensive landscape survey of the GIT microbiome of goat kids using metagenomic sequencing and binning, spanning a dense sampling regime covering three gastrointestinal compartments spatially and five developmental ages temporally. We recovered 1002 high-quality metagenome-assembled genomes (termed the goat kid GIT microbial catalog [GKGMC]), 618 of which were novel. They encode more than 2.3 million nonredundant proteins, and represent a variety of carbohydrate-degrading enzymes and metabolic gene clusters. The GKGMC-enriched microbial taxa, particularly Sodaliphilus, expanded the microbial tree of life in goat kids. Using this GKGMC, we first deciphered the prevalence of fiber-degrading bacteria for carbohydrate decomposition in the rumen and colon, while the ileal microbiota specialized in the uptake and conversion of simple sugars. Moreover, GIT microorganisms were rapidly assembled after birth, and their carbohydrate metabolic adaptation occurred in three phases of progression. Finally, phytobiotics modified the metabolic cascades of the ileal microbiome, underpinned by the enrichment of Sharpea azabuensis and Olsenella spp. implicated in lactate formation and utilization. This GKGMC reference provides novel insights into the early-life microbial developmental dynamics in distinct compartments, and offers expanded resources for GIT microbiota-related research in goat kids.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Dong Q, Hua D, Wang X, et al (2024)

Temporal colonization and metabolic regulation of the gut microbiome in neonatal oxen at single nucleotide resolution.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

The colonization of microbes in the gut is key to establishing a healthy host-microbiome symbiosis for newborns. We longitudinally profiled the gut microbiome in a model consisting of 36 neonatal oxen from birth up to 2 months postpartum and carried out microbial transplantation to reshape their gut microbiome. Genomic reconstruction of deeply sequenced fecal samples resulted in a total of 3931 metagenomic-assembled genomes from 472 representative species, of which 184 were identified as new species when compared with existing databases of oxen. Single nucleotide level metagenomic profiling shows a rapid influx of microbes after birth, followed by dynamic shifts during the first few weeks of life. Microbial transplantation was found to reshape the genetic makeup of 33 metagenomic-assembled genomes (FDR < 0.05), mainly from Prevotella and Bacteroides species. We further linked over 20 million microbial single nucleotide variations to 736 plasma metabolites, which enabled us to characterize 24 study-wide significant associations (P < 4.4 × 10-9) that identify the potential microbial genetic regulation of host immune and neuro-related metabolites, including glutathione and L-dopa. Our integration analyses further revealed that microbial genetic variations may influence the health status and growth performance by modulating metabolites via structural regulation of their encoded proteins. For instance, we found that the albumin levels and total antioxidant capacity were correlated with L-dopa, which was determined by single nucleotide variations via structural regulations of metabolic enzymes. The current results indicate that temporal colonization and transplantation-driven strain replacement are crucial for newborn gut development, offering insights for enhancing newborn health and growth.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Luo ZH, Li Q, Xie YG, et al (2024)

Temperature, pH, and oxygen availability contributed to the functional differentiation of ancient Nitrososphaeria.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

Ammonia-oxidizing Nitrososphaeria are among the most abundant archaea on Earth and have profound impacts on the biogeochemical cycles of carbon and nitrogen. In contrast to these well-studied ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA), deep-branching non-AOA within this class remain poorly characterized because of a low number of genome representatives. Here, we reconstructed 128 Nitrososphaeria metagenome-assembled genomes from acid mine drainage and hot spring sediment metagenomes. Comparative genomics revealed that extant non-AOA are functionally diverse, with capacity for carbon fixation, carbon monoxide oxidation, methanogenesis, and respiratory pathways including oxygen, nitrate, sulfur, or sulfate, as potential terminal electron acceptors. Despite their diverse anaerobic pathways, evolutionary history inference suggested that the common ancestor of Nitrososphaeria was likely an aerobic thermophile. We further surmise that the functional differentiation of Nitrososphaeria was primarily shaped by oxygen, pH, and temperature, with the acquisition of pathways for carbon, nitrogen, and sulfur metabolism. Our study provides a more holistic and less biased understanding of the diversity, ecology, and deep evolution of the globally abundant Nitrososphaeria.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Zhu W, Chang L, Shi S, et al (2024)

Gut microbiota reflect adaptation of cave-dwelling tadpoles to resource scarcity.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

Gut microbiota are significant to the host's nutrition and provide a flexible way for the host to adapt to extreme environments. However, whether gut microbiota help the host to colonize caves, a resource-limited environment, remains unknown. The nonobligate cave frog Oreolalax rhodostigmatus completes its metamorphosis within caves for 3-5 years before foraging outside. Their tadpoles are occasionally removed from the caves by floods and utilize outside resources, providing a contrast to the cave-dwelling population. For both cave and outside tadpoles, the development-related reduction in their growth rate and gut length during prometamorphosis coincided with a shift in their gut microbiota, which was characterized by decreased Lactobacillus and Cellulosilyticum and Proteocatella in the cave and outside individuals, respectively. The proportion of these three genera was significantly higher in the gut microbiota of cave-dwelling individuals compared with those outside. The cave-dwellers' gut microbiota harbored more abundant fibrolytic, glycolytic, and fermentative enzymes and yielded more short-chain fatty acids, potentially benefitting the host's nutrition. Experimentally depriving the animals of food resulted in gut atrophy for the individuals collected outside the cave, but not for those from inside the cave. Imitating food scarcity reproduced some major microbial features (e.g. abundant Proteocatella and fermentative genes) of the field-collected cave individuals, indicating an association between the cave-associated gut microbiota and resource scarcity. Overall, the gut microbiota may reflect the adaptation of O. rhodostigmatus tadpoles to resource-limited environments. This extends our understanding of the role of gut microbiota in the adaptation of animals to extreme environments.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Stephens BM, Durkin CA, Sharpe G, et al (2024)

Direct observations of microbial community succession on sinking marine particles.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

Microbial community dynamics on sinking particles control the amount of carbon that reaches the deep ocean and the length of time that carbon is stored, with potentially profound impacts on Earth's climate. A mechanistic understanding of the controls on sinking particle distributions has been hindered by limited depth- and time-resolved sampling and methods that cannot distinguish individual particles. Here, we analyze microbial communities on nearly 400 individual sinking particles in conjunction with more conventional composite particle samples to determine how particle colonization and community assembly might control carbon sequestration in the deep ocean. We observed community succession with corresponding changes in microbial metabolic potential on the larger sinking particles transporting a significant fraction of carbon to the deep sea. Microbial community richness decreased as particles aged and sank; however, richness increased with particle size and the attenuation of carbon export. This suggests that the theory of island biogeography applies to sinking marine particles. Changes in POC flux attenuation with time and microbial community composition with depth were reproduced in a mechanistic ecosystem model that reflected a range of POC labilities and microbial growth rates. Our results highlight microbial community dynamics and processes on individual sinking particles, the isolation of which is necessary to improve mechanistic models of ocean carbon uptake.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Miksch S, Orellana LH, Oggerin de Orube M, et al (2024)

Taxonomic and functional stability overrules seasonality in polar benthic microbiomes.

The ISME journal, 18(1):.

Coastal shelf sediments are hot spots of organic matter mineralization. They receive up to 50% of primary production, which, in higher latitudes, is strongly seasonal. Polar and temperate benthic bacterial communities, however, show a stable composition based on comparative 16S rRNA gene sequencing despite different microbial activity levels. Here, we aimed to resolve this contradiction by identifying seasonal changes at the functional level, in particular with respect to algal polysaccharide degradation genes, by combining metagenomics, metatranscriptomics, and glycan analysis in sandy surface sediments from Isfjorden, Svalbard. Gene expressions of diverse carbohydrate-active enzymes changed between winter and spring. For example, β-1,3-glucosidases (e.g. GH30, GH17, GH16) degrading laminarin, an energy storage molecule of algae, were elevated in spring, while enzymes related to α-glucan degradation were expressed in both seasons with maxima in winter (e.g. GH63, GH13_18, and GH15). Also, the expression of GH23 involved in peptidoglycan degradation was prevalent, which is in line with recycling of bacterial biomass. Sugar extractions from bulk sediments were low in concentrations during winter but higher in spring samples, with glucose constituting the largest fraction of measured monosaccharides (84% ± 14%). In porewater, glycan concentrations were ~18-fold higher than in overlying seawater (1107 ± 484 vs. 62 ± 101 μg C l-1) and were depleted in glucose. Our data indicate that microbial communities in sandy sediments digest and transform labile parts of photosynthesis-derived particulate organic matter and likely release more stable, glucose-depleted residual glycans of unknown structures, quantities, and residence times into the ocean, thus modulating the glycan composition of marine coastal waters.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Yang W, Cui H, Liu Q, et al (2024)

Effect of nitrogen reduction by chemical fertilization with green manure (Vicia sativa L.) on soil microbial community, nitrogen metabolism and and yield of Uncaria rhynchophylla by metagenomics.

Archives of microbiology, 206(3):106.

Uncaria rhynchophylla is an important herbal medicine, and the predominant issues affecting its cultivation include a single method of fertilizer application and inappropriate chemical fertilizer application. To reduce the use of inorganic nitrogen fertilization and increase the yield of Uncaria rhynchophylla, field experiments in 2020-2021 were conducted. The experimental treatments included the following categories: S1, no fertilization; S2, application of chemical NPK fertilizer; and S3-S6, application of chemical fertilizers and green manures, featuring nitrogen fertilizers reductions of 0%, 15%, 30%, and 45%, respectively. The results showed that a moderate application of nitrogen fertilizer when combined with green manure, can help alleviate soil acidification and increase urease activity. Specifically, the treatment with green manure provided in a 14.71-66.67% increase in urease activity compared to S2. Metagenomics sequencing results showed a decrease in diversity in S3, S4, S5, and S6 compared to S2, but the application of chemical fertilizer with green manure promoted an increase in the relative abundance of Acidobacteria and Chloroflexi. In addition, the nitrification pathway displayed a progressive augmentation in tandem with the reduction in nitrogen fertilizer and application of green manure, reaching its zenith at S5. Conversely, other nitrogen metabolism pathways showed a decline in correlation with diminishing nitrogen fertilizer dosages. The rest of the treatments showed an increase in yield in comparison to S1, S5 showing significant differences (p < 0.05). In summary, although S2 demonstrate the ability to enhance soil microbial diversity, it is important to consider the long-term ecological impacts, and S5 may be a better choice.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Nguyen SM, Tran HTT, Long J, et al (2024)

Gut Microbiome of Patients With Breast Cancer in Vietnam.

JCO global oncology, 10:e2300234.

PURPOSE: Gut microbiota play an important role in human health, including cancer. Cancer and its treatment, in turn, may alter the gut microbiome. To understand this complex relationship, we profiled the gut microbiome of 356 Vietnamese patients with breast cancer.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Stool samples were collected before chemotherapy, with 162 pre- and 194 postsurgery. The gut microbiome was measured by shotgun metagenomic sequencing. Associations of gut microbial diversity, taxa abundance, and gut microbiome health index (GMHI) with sociodemographic, clinical factors, and tumor characteristics were evaluated.

RESULTS: Postsurgery samples were associated with significantly lower α- and β-diversities (P < .001) and showed significant differences in the abundance of 15% of 2,864 investigated taxa (false discovery rate [FDR] <0.1) compared with presurgery samples. An unhealthy gut microbiome was prevalent among patients with breast cancer, with a mean GMHI of -0.79 and -2.81 in pre- and postsurgery stool samples, respectively. In an analysis of 162 presurgery stool samples, diagnosis delay was significantly associated with lower α-diversity, variation in β-diversity, an increased abundance of species Enorma massiliensis, and a decreased abundance of Faecalicoccus pleomorphus. High intake of fiber was significantly associated with lower α-diversity and a higher abundance of species belonging to Bifidobacterium, Prevotella, and Bacteroides gena (FDR < 0.1). We did not find that cancer stage and subtype, menopausal status, comorbidity, antibiotic use during 3 months before stool collection, or physical activity was significantly associated with α- and β-diversities or GMHI although a few significant differences were observed in taxa abundance.

CONCLUSION: Our study revealed that diagnosis delay, high fiber intake, and breast cancer surgery, which is always followed by antibiotic prophylaxis in Vietnam, led to a less diverse and unhealthy gut microbiome among patients with breast cancer.

RevDate: 2024-02-17
CmpDate: 2024-02-16

Virendra A, Gulavane SU, Ahmed ZA, et al (2024)

Metagenomic analysis unravels novel taxonomic differences in the uterine microbiome between healthy mares and mares with endometritis.

Veterinary medicine and science, 10(2):e1369.

BACKGROUND: The application of high throughput technologies has enabled unravelling of unique differences between healthy mares and mares with endometritis at transcriptomic and proteomic levels. However, differences in the uterine microbiome are yet to be investigated.

OBJECTIVES: The present study was aimed at evaluating the differences in uterine microbiome between healthy mares and mares with endometritis.

METHODS: Low-volume lavage (LVL) samples were collected from the uterus of 30 mares classified into healthy (n = 15) and endometritis (n = 15) based on their reproductive history, intrauterine fluid accumulation, gross appearance of LVL samples, endometrial cytology and bacterial culture. The samples were subjected to 16S rRNA sequencing.

RESULTS: Notable differences in the uterine microbiome were observed between healthy mares and mares with endometritis at various taxonomic levels. In healthy mares, the most abundant phylum, class, order and family were Firmicutes, Bacilli, Bacillales and Paenibacillaceae, respectively. In contrast, the most abundant corresponding taxonomic levels in mares with endometritis were Proteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, Enterobacterales and Enterobacteriaceae, respectively. At the genus level, Brevibacillus and Paenibacillus were more abundant in healthy mares, whereas Escherichia, Salmonella and Klebsiella were more abundant in mares with endometritis. In healthy mares, Brevibacillus brevis was the most abundant species, followed by Brevibacillus choshinensis and Paenibacillus sp JDR-2. However, in mares with endometritis, Escherichia coli was the most abundant species, followed by Salmonella enterica and Klebsiella pneumoniae.

CONCLUSIONS: These results confirmed the previously reported presence of a uterine microbiome in healthy mares and helped unravel some alterations that occur in mares with endometritis. The findings can potentially help formulate new approaches to prevent or treat equine endometritis.

RevDate: 2024-02-16

Antunes A, de la Haba RR, Jebbar M, et al (2024)

Editorial: Community series-extremophiles: microbial genomics and taxogenomics, volume II.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1371210.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Baldanzi G, Sayols-Baixeras S, Ekblom-Bak E, et al (2024)

Accelerometer-based physical activity is associated with the gut microbiota in 8416 individuals in SCAPIS.

EBioMedicine, 100:104989.

BACKGROUND: Previous population-based studies investigating the relationship between physical activity and the gut microbiota have relied on self-reported activity, prone to reporting bias. Here, we investigated the associations of accelerometer-based sedentary (SED), moderate-intensity (MPA), and vigorous-intensity (VPA) physical activity with the gut microbiota using cross-sectional data from the Swedish CArdioPulmonary bioImage Study.

METHODS: In 8416 participants aged 50-65, time in SED, MPA, and VPA were estimated with hip-worn accelerometer. Gut microbiota was profiled using shotgun metagenomics of faecal samples. We applied multivariable regression models, adjusting for sociodemographic, lifestyle, and technical covariates, and accounted for multiple testing.

FINDINGS: Overall, associations between time in SED and microbiota species abundance were in opposite direction to those for MPA or VPA. For example, MPA was associated with lower, while SED with higher abundance of Escherichia coli. MPA and VPA were associated with higher abundance of the butyrate-producers Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and Roseburia spp. We observed discrepancies between specific VPA and MPA associations, such as a positive association between MPA and Prevotella copri, while no association was detected for VPA. Additionally, SED, MPA and VPA were associated with the functional potential of the microbiome. For instance, MPA was associated with higher capacity for acetate synthesis and SED with lower carbohydrate degradation capacity.

INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that sedentary and physical activity are associated with a similar set of gut microbiota species but in opposite directions. Furthermore, the intensity of physical activity may have specific effects on certain gut microbiota species.

FUNDING: European Research Council, Swedish Heart-Lung Foundation, Swedish Research Council, Knut and Alice Wallenberg Foundation.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Jiang Q, Feng L, Luo J, et al (2024)

Simultaneous volatile fatty acids promotion and antibiotic resistance genes reduction in fluoranthene-induced sludge alkaline fermentation: Regulation of microbial consortia and cell functions.

Bioresource technology, 395:130367.

The impact and mechanism of fluoranthene (Flr), a typical polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon highly detected in sludge, on alkaline fermentation for volatile fatty acids (VFAs) recovery and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) transfer were studied. The results demonstrated that VFAs production increased from 2189 to 4272 mg COD/L with a simultaneous reduction of ARGs with Flr. The hydrolytic enzymes and genes related to glucose and amino acid metabolism were provoked. Also, Flr benefited for the enrichment of hydrolytic-acidifying consortia (i.e., Parabacteroides and Alkalibaculum) while reduced VFAs consumers (i.e., Rubrivivax) and ARGs potential hosts (i.e., Rubrivivax and Pseudomonas). Metagenomic analysis indicated that the genes related to cell wall synthesis, biofilm formation and substrate transporters to maintain high VFAs-producer activities were upregulated. Moreover, cell functions of efflux pump and Type IV secretion system were suppressed to inhibit ARGs proliferation. This study provided intrinsic mechanisms of Flr-induced VFAs promotion and ARGs reduction during alkaline fermentation.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Schirmer M, Stražar M, Avila-Pacheco J, et al (2024)

Linking microbial genes to plasma and stool metabolites uncovers host-microbial interactions underlying ulcerative colitis disease course.

Cell host & microbe, 32(2):209-226.e7.

Understanding the role of the microbiome in inflammatory diseases requires the identification of microbial effector molecules. We established an approach to link disease-associated microbes to microbial metabolites by integrating paired metagenomics, stool and plasma metabolomics, and culturomics. We identified host-microbial interactions correlated with disease activity, inflammation, and the clinical course of ulcerative colitis (UC) in the Predicting Response to Standardized Colitis Therapy (PROTECT) pediatric inception cohort. In severe disease, metabolite changes included increased dipeptides and tauro-conjugated bile acids (BAs) and decreased amino-acid-conjugated BAs in stool, whereas in plasma polyamines (N-acetylputrescine and N1-acetylspermidine) increased. Using patient samples and Veillonella parvula as a model, we uncovered nitrate- and lactate-dependent metabolic pathways, experimentally linking V. parvula expansion to immunomodulatory tryptophan metabolite production. Additionally, V. parvula metabolizes immunosuppressive thiopurine drugs through xdhA xanthine dehydrogenase, potentially impairing the therapeutic response. Our findings demonstrate that the microbiome contributes to disease-associated metabolite changes, underscoring the importance of these interactions in disease pathology and treatment.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Guo C, Lin S, Lyu T, et al (2024)

Effect of reactor operation modes on mitigating antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) and methane production from hydrothermally-pretreated pig manure.

Environmental research, 244:117894.

Numerous efforts have been made to enhance the performance of anaerobic digestion (AD) for accelerating renewable energy generation, however, it remains unclear whether the intensified measures could enhance the proliferation and transmissions of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) in the system. This study assessed the impact of an innovative pig manure AD process, which includes hydrothermal pretreatment (HTP) and a two-stage configuration with separated acidogenic and methanogenic phases, on biomethane (CH4) production and ARGs dynamics. Results showed that HTP significantly increase CH4 production from 0.65 to 0.75 L/L/d in conventional single-stage AD to 0.82 and 0.91 L/L/d in two-stage AD. This improvement correlated with a rise in the relative abundance of Methanosarcina, a key methanogenesis microorganism. In the two-stage AD, the methanogenic stage offered an ideal environment for methanogens growth, resulting in substantially faster and higher CH4 production by about 10% compared to single-stage AD. Overall, the combined use of HTP and the two-stage AD configuration enhanced CH4 production by 40% compared to traditional single-stage AD. The abundance and diversity of ARGs were significantly reduced in the acidogenic reactors after HTP. However, the ARGs levels increased by about two times in the following methanogenesis stage and reached similar or higher levels than in single stage AD. The erm(F), erm(G), ant(6)-Ia, tet(W), mef(A) and erm(B) were the six main ARGs with significant differences in relative abundances in various treatments. The two-stage AD mode could better remove sul2, but it also had a rebound which elevated the risk of ARGs to the environment and human health. Network analysis identified pH and TVFAs as critical factors driving microbial communities and ARG proliferation in the new AD process. With the results, this study offers valuable insights into the trade-offs between AD performance enhancement and ARG-related risks, pinpointing essential areas for future research and practical improvements.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Prinz E, Schlupp L, Dyson G, et al (2024)

OA susceptibility in mice is partially mediated by the gut microbiome, is transferrable via microbiome transplantation and is associated with immunophenotype changes.

Annals of the rheumatic diseases, 83(3):382-393 pii:ard-2023-224907.

OBJECTIVES: The Murphy Roths Large (MRL)/MpJ 'superhealer' mouse strain is protected from post-traumatic osteoarthritis (OA), although no studies have evaluated the microbiome in the context of this protection. This study characterised microbiome differences between MRL and wild-type mice, evaluated microbiome transplantation and OA and investigated microbiome-associated immunophenotypes.

METHODS: Cecal material from mixed sex C57BL6/J (B6) or female MRL/MpJ (MRL) was transplanted into B6 and MRL mice, then OA was induced by disruption of the medial meniscus surgery (DMM). In other experiments, transplantation was performed after DMM and transplantation was performed into germ-free mice. Transplanted mice were bred through F2. OARSI, synovitis and osteophyte scores were determined blindly 8 weeks after DMM. 16S microbiome sequencing was performed and metagenomic function was imputed. Immunophenotypes were determined using mass cytometry.

RESULTS: MRL-into-B6 transplant prior to DMM showed reduced OA histopathology (OARSI score 70% lower transplant vs B6 control), synovitis (60% reduction) and osteophyte scores (30% reduction) 8 weeks after DMM. When performed 48 hours after DMM, MRL-into-B6 transplant improved OA outcomes but not when performed 1-2 weeks after DMM. Protection was seen in F1 (60% reduction) and F2 progeny (30% reduction). Several cecal microbiome clades were correlated with either better (eg, Lactobacillus, R=-0.32, p=0.02) or worse (eg, Rikenellaceae, R=0.43, p=0.001) OA outcomes. Baseline immunophenotypes associated with MRL-into-B6 transplants and MRL included reduced double-negative T cells and increased CD25+CD4+ T cells.

CONCLUSION: The gut microbiome is responsible in part for OA protection in MRL mice and is transferrable by microbiome transplantation. Transplantation induces resting systemic immunophenotyping changes that correlate with OA protection.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Dike CR, Ollberding NJ, Thompson T, et al (2024)

Acute pancreatitis is associated with gut dysbiosis in children.

Digestive and liver disease : official journal of the Italian Society of Gastroenterology and the Italian Association for the Study of the Liver, 56(3):444-450.

BACKGROUND: Pediatric acute pancreatitis (AP) is associated with significant morbidity. Therefore, improved understanding of children who will develop severe AP is critical. Adult studies have reported AP associated gut dysbiosis, but pediatric studies are lacking.

AIMS: Assess stool microbial taxonomic and functional profiles of children with first attack of AP compared to those of healthy controls (HC), and between mild and severe AP METHODS: Children under 21 years hospitalized at a tertiary center (n = 30) with first AP attack were recruited including HC (n = 34) from same region. Shotgun metagenomic sequencing was performed on extracted DNA.

RESULTS: Demographics were similar between AP and HC. Alpha diversity (-0.68 ± 0.13, p-value < 0.001), and beta-diversity (R[2]=0.13, p-value < 0.001) differed, in children with AP compared to HC. Species including R.gnavus, V.parvula, E.faecalis, C.innocuum were enriched in AP. MetaCyc pathways involved in amino acid metabolism and fatty acid beta-oxidation were enriched in AP. Beta-diversity (R[2]=0.06, p-value = 0.02) differed for severe AP compared to mild AP with enrichment in E.faecalis and C.citroniae.

CONCLUSIONS: Gut dysbiosis occurs in pediatric AP and is associated with AP severity. A multicenter study confirming these findings could pave way for interventional trials manipulating the gut microbiome to mitigate AP severity.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Gwak HJ, Lee HA, Jeong JY, et al (2024)

Antibiotic Sensitivity and Nasal Microbiome in Patients with Acute Bacterial Rhinosinusitis.

The Laryngoscope, 134(3):1081-1088.

OBJECTIVES: Acute rhinosinusitis (ARS) is a common upper respiratory tract infection that is mostly of viral origin. However, little is known about the nasal microbiome profile at presentation and the changes caused by antibiotics in acute bacterial rhinosinusitis (ABRS).

METHODS: This was a prospective single-center study. Overall, 43 ARS patients were screened and were assessed with the symptom questionnaires, nasal endoscopy, and Water's view. Five healthy subjects were recruited as controls. Middle meatal mucus samples were obtained using a cotton swab (for bacterial culture and antimicrobial susceptibility testing) and the suction technique (for 16S rRNA sequencing). After 1 week of antibiotic use (amoxicillin with clavulanic acid), we enrolled 13 patients with ABRS with positive isolates and middle meatal samples for 16S rRNA sequencing were obtained again.

RESULTS: Overall, we demonstrated a significantly lower abundance of the Lactobacillaceae family in ABRS patients than in healthy controls. Resistant ABRS had different characteristics of middle meatal microbiomes when compared to sensitive ABRS as follows: (1) lower proportion of lactic acid bacteria, (2) increased pathogens such as Rhodococcus sp., Massila sp., Acinetobacter sp., and H. influenza, and (3) increased beta diversity. However, no remarkable changes were observed in the middle meatal microbiome after antibiotic use.

CONCLUSION: We showed the roles of Lactobacillaceae in ABRS, and Acinetobacter and Massilia in case of amoxicillin resistance.

LEVEL OF EVIDENCE: 3 Laryngoscope, 134:1081-1088, 2024.

RevDate: 2024-02-19
CmpDate: 2024-02-19

Maghini DG, Dvorak M, Dahlen A, et al (2024)

Quantifying bias introduced by sample collection in relative and absolute microbiome measurements.

Nature biotechnology, 42(2):328-338.

To gain insight into the accuracy of microbial measurements, it is important to evaluate sources of bias related to sample condition, preservative method and bioinformatic analyses. There is increasing evidence that measurement of the total count and concentration of microbes in the gut, or 'absolute abundance', provides a richer source of information than relative abundance and can correct some conclusions drawn from relative abundance data. However, little is known about how preservative choice can affect these measurements. In this study, we investigated how two common preservatives and short-term storage conditions impact relative and absolute microbial measurements. OMNIgene GUT OMR-200 yields lower metagenomic taxonomic variation between different storage temperatures, whereas Zymo DNA/RNA Shield yields lower metatranscriptomic taxonomic variation. Absolute abundance quantification reveals two different causes of variable Bacteroidetes:Firmicutes ratios across preservatives. Based on these results, we recommend OMNIgene GUT OMR-200 preservative for field studies and Zymo DNA/RNA Shield for metatranscriptomics studies, and we strongly encourage absolute quantification for microbial measurements.

RevDate: 2024-02-16
CmpDate: 2024-02-16

Nweze JE, Schweichhart JS, R Angel (2024)

Viral communities in millipede guts: Insights into the diversity and potential role in modulating the microbiome.

Environmental microbiology, 26(2):e16586.

Millipedes are important detritivores harbouring a diverse microbiome. Previous research focused on bacterial and archaeal diversity, while the virome remained neglected. We elucidated the DNA and RNA viral diversity in the hindguts of two model millipede species with distinct microbiomes: the tropical Epibolus pulchripes (methanogenic, dominated by Bacillota) and the temperate Glomeris connexa (non-methanogenic, dominated by Pseudomonadota). Based on metagenomic and metatranscriptomic assembled viral genomes, the viral communities differed markedly and preferentially infected the most abundant prokaryotic taxa. The majority of DNA viruses were Caudoviricetes (dsDNA), Cirlivirales (ssDNA) and Microviridae (ssDNA), while RNA viruses consisted of Leviviricetes (ssRNA), Potyviridae (ssRNA) and Eukaryotic viruses. A high abundance of subtypes I-C, I-B and II-C CRISPR-Cas systems was found, primarily from Pseudomonadota, Bacteroidota and Bacillota. In addition, auxiliary metabolic genes that modulate chitin degradation, vitamins and amino acid biosynthesis and sulphur metabolism were also detected. Lastly, we found low virus-to-microbe-ratios and a prevalence of lysogenic viruses, supporting a Piggyback-the-Winner dynamic in both hosts.

RevDate: 2024-02-17
CmpDate: 2024-02-15

Xu S, Huang H, Chen S, et al (2024)

Recovery of 1887 metagenome-assembled genomes from the South China Sea.

Scientific data, 11(1):197.

The South China Sea (SCS) is a marginal sea characterized by strong land-sea biogeochemical interactions. SCS has a distinctive landscape with a multitude of seamounts in its basin. Seamounts create "seamount effects" that influence the diversity and distribution of planktonic microorganisms in the surrounding oligotrophic waters. Although the vertical distribution and community structure of marine microorganisms have been explored in certain regions of the global ocean, there is a lack of comprehensive microbial genomic surveys for uncultured microorganisms in SCS, particularly in the seamount regions. Here, we employed a metagenomic approach to study the uncultured microbial communities sampled from the Xianbei seamount region to the North Coast waters of SCS. A total of 1887 non-redundant prokaryotic metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) were reconstructed, of which, 153 MAGs were classified as high-quality MAGs based on the MIMAG standards. The community structure and genomic information provided by this dataset could be used to analyze microbial distribution and metabolism in the SCS.

RevDate: 2024-02-17
CmpDate: 2024-02-15

Hui TKL, Lo ICN, Wong KKW, et al (2024)

Metagenomic analysis of gut microbiome illuminates the mechanisms and evolution of lignocellulose degradation in mangrove herbivorous crabs.

BMC microbiology, 24(1):57.

BACKGROUND: Sesarmid crabs dominate mangrove habitats as the major primary consumers, which facilitates the trophic link and nutrient recycling in the ecosystem. Therefore, the adaptations and mechanisms of sesarmid crabs to herbivory are not only crucial to terrestrialization and its evolutionary success, but also to the healthy functioning of mangrove ecosystems. Although endogenous cellulase expressions were reported in crabs, it remains unknown if endogenous enzymes alone can complete the whole lignocellulolytic pathway, or if they also depend on the contribution from the intestinal microbiome. We attempt to investigate the role of gut symbiotic microbes of mangrove-feeding sesarmid crabs in plant digestion using a comparative metagenomic approach.

RESULTS: Metagenomics analyses on 43 crab gut samples from 23 species of mangrove crabs with different dietary preferences revealed a wide coverage of 127 CAZy families and nine KOs targeting lignocellulose and their derivatives in all species analyzed, including predominantly carnivorous species, suggesting the crab gut microbiomes have lignocellulolytic capacity regardless of dietary preference. Microbial cellulase, hemicellulase and pectinase genes in herbivorous and detritivorous crabs were differentially more abundant when compared to omnivorous and carnivorous crabs, indicating the importance of gut symbionts in lignocellulose degradation and the enrichment of lignocellulolytic microbes in response to diet with higher lignocellulose content. Herbivorous and detritivorous crabs showed highly similar CAZyme composition despite dissimilarities in taxonomic profiles observed in both groups, suggesting a stronger selection force on gut microbiota by functional capacity than by taxonomy. The gut microbiota in herbivorous sesarmid crabs were also enriched with nitrogen reduction and fixation genes, implying possible roles of gut microbiota in supplementing nitrogen that is deficient in plant diet.

CONCLUSIONS: Endosymbiotic microbes play an important role in lignocellulose degradation in most crab species. Their abundance is strongly correlated with dietary preference, and they are highly enriched in herbivorous sesarmids, thus enhancing their capacity in digesting mangrove leaves. Dietary preference is a stronger driver in determining the microbial CAZyme composition and taxonomic profile in the crab microbiome, resulting in functional redundancy of endosymbiotic microbes. Our results showed that crabs implement a mixed mode of digestion utilizing both endogenous and microbial enzymes in lignocellulose degradation, as observed in most of the more advanced herbivorous invertebrates.

RevDate: 2024-02-15
CmpDate: 2024-02-15

Nguyen TT, Bui ATP, Le NTH, et al (2023)

Heat-stable spores of carotenoid-producing Bacillus marisflavi and non-pigmented Bacillus subtilis cooperatively promote growth, quality, and gut microbiota of white-leg shrimp.

Beneficial microbes, 14(6):623-640.

We evaluated the benefits of heat-stable carotenoid-producing Bacillus marisflavi SH8 spores individually and in combination with non-pigmented Bacillus subtilis SH23 spores on growth, colour change, nutritional content, innate immunity, and gut microbiota of white-leg shrimp. White-leg shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei; n = 30 per tank; 2 tanks per group) were provided feed without (control group) or with SH8, SH23, or mixed spores (total, 1 × 106 cfu/g pellet) for 28 d. The SH8 and SH8-23 combination groups had significantly higher specific growth rates (9.6 and 11.0%), improved red-colour score (4 scores), astaxanthin concentration (1.8- and 2.3-fold), lipid contents (30 and 50%), and superoxidase dismutase activity (8.5 and 12.3%) than that of the control group. Analysis of shrimp's gut microbiome using 16S rRNA metagenome sequencing revealed increased abundance of four useful species and reduced abundance of four harmful species in the combination group than in the control group. Heat-stable Bacillus spore combination improved growth parameters, nutrient content, red-colour score, live counts, and abundance of useful bacteria in the gut of L. vannamei. This is the first study to show the benefits of combining highly heat-stable pigmented and non-pigmented Bacillus spores and their possible mechanisms in a shrimp model.

RevDate: 2024-02-16
CmpDate: 2024-02-14

López-Sánchez R, Rebollar EA, Gutiérrez-Ríos RM, et al (2024)

Metagenomic analysis of carbohydrate-active enzymes and their contribution to marine sediment biodiversity.

World journal of microbiology & biotechnology, 40(3):95.

Marine sediments constitute the world's most substantial long-term carbon repository. The microorganisms dwelling in these sediments mediate the transformation of fixed oceanic carbon, but their contribution to the carbon cycle is not fully understood. Previous culture-independent investigations into sedimentary microorganisms have underscored the significance of carbohydrates in the carbon cycle. In this study, we employ a metagenomic methodology to investigate the distribution and abundance of carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) in 37 marine sediments sites. These sediments exhibit varying oxygen availability and were isolated in diverse regions worldwide. Our comparative analysis is based on the metabolic potential for oxygen utilisation, derived from genes present in both oxic and anoxic environments. We found that extracellular CAZyme modules targeting the degradation of plant and algal detritus, necromass, and host glycans were abundant across all metagenomic samples. The analysis of these results indicates that the oxic/anoxic conditions not only influence the taxonomic composition of the microbial communities, but also affect the occurrence of CAZyme modules involved in the transformation of necromass, algae and plant detritus. To gain insight into the sediment microbial taxa, we reconstructed metagenome assembled genomes (MAG) and examined the presence of primary extracellular carbohydrate active enzyme (CAZyme) modules. Our findings reveal that the primary CAZyme modules and the CAZyme gene clusters discovered in our metagenomes were prevalent in the Bacteroidia, Gammaproteobacteria, and Alphaproteobacteria classes. We compared those MAGs to organisms from the same taxonomic classes found in soil, and we found that they were similar in its CAZyme repertoire, but the soil MAG contained a more abundant and diverse CAZyme content. Furthermore, the data indicate that abundant classes in our metagenomic samples, namely Alphaproteobacteria, Bacteroidia and Gammaproteobacteria, play a pivotal role in carbohydrate transformation within the initial few metres of the sediments.

RevDate: 2024-02-16
CmpDate: 2024-02-16

Li X, Wang H, Abdelrahman H, et al (2024)

Profiling and source tracking of the microbial populations and resistome present in fish products.

International journal of food microbiology, 413:110591.

Microorganisms in processing environments significantly impact the quality and safety of food products and can serve as potential reservoirs for antibiotic-resistant genes, contributing to public health concerns about antimicrobial resistance (AMR). Fish processing plants represent an understudied environment for microbiome mapping. This study investigated the microbial composition, prevalence of Listeria spp., and resistome structures in three catfish processing facilities in the southeastern United States. The 16S rRNA gene sequencing revealed that the observed richness and Shannon diversity index increased significantly from fish to fillet. Beta diversity analysis showed distinct clustering of microbial communities between fish, environment, and fillet samples. Fast expectation-maximization microbial source tracking (FEAST) algorithm demonstrated that the microbiota presents in the processing environment contributed 48.2 %, 62.4 %, and 53.7 % to the microbiota present on fillet in Facility 1 (F1), F2, and F3, respectively. Food contact surfaces made larger contributions compared to the non-food contact surfaces. The linear discriminant analysis of effect size (LEfSe) identified specific microbial genera (e.g., Plesiomohas, Brochothrix, Chryseobacterium and Cetobacterium) that significantly varied between Listeria spp. positive and negative samples in all three processing plants. The metagenomic sequencing results identified 212 antimicrobial resistance genes (ARGs) belonging to 72 groups from the raw fish and fish fillet samples collected from three processing plants. Although there was a significant decrease in the overall diversity of ARGs from fish to fillet samples, the total abundance of ARGs did not change significantly (P > 0.05). ARGs associated with resistance to macrolide-lincosamide-streptogramin (MLS), cationic antimicrobial peptides, aminoglycosides, and beta-lactams were found to be enriched in the fillet samples when compared to fish samples. Results of this study highlight the profound impact of processing environment on shaping the microbial populations present on the final fish product and the need for additional strategies to mitigate AMR in fish products.

RevDate: 2024-02-14
CmpDate: 2024-02-14

Behling AH, Wilson BC, Ho D, et al (2024)

Horizontal gene transfer after faecal microbiota transplantation in adolescents with obesity.

Microbiome, 12(1):26.

BACKGROUND: Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) describes the transmission of DNA outside of direct ancestral lineages. The process is best characterised within the bacterial kingdom and can enable the acquisition of genetic traits that support bacterial adaptation to novel niches. The adaptation of bacteria to novel niches has particular relevance for faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), a therapeutic procedure which aims to resolve gut-related health conditions of individuals, through transplanted gut microbiota from healthy donors.

RESULTS: Three hundred eighty-one stool metagenomic samples from a placebo-controlled FMT trial for obese adolescents (the Gut Bugs Trial) were analysed for HGT, using two complementary methodologies. First, all putative HGT events, including historical HGT signatures, were quantified using the bioinformatics application WAAFLE. Second, metagenomic assembly and gene clustering were used to assess and quantify donor-specific genes transferred to recipients following the intervention. Both methodologies found no difference between the level of putative HGT events in the gut microbiomes of FMT and placebo recipients, post-intervention. HGT events facilitated by engrafted donor species in the FMT recipient gut at 6 weeks post-intervention were identified and characterised. Bacterial strains contributing to this subset of HGT events predominantly belonged to the phylum Bacteroidetes. Engraftment-dependent horizontally transferred genes were retained within recipient microbiomes at 12 and 26 weeks post-intervention.

CONCLUSION: Our study suggests that novel microorganisms introduced into the recipient gut following FMT have no impact on the basal rate of HGT within the human gut microbiome. Analyses of further FMT studies are required to assess the generalisability of this conclusion across different FMT study designs and for the treatment of different gut-related conditions. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-02-14
CmpDate: 2024-02-14

Shen H, Wang T, Dong W, et al (2024)

Metagenome-assembled genome reveals species and functional composition of Jianghan chicken gut microbiota and isolation of Pediococcus acidilactic with probiotic properties.

Microbiome, 12(1):25.

BACKGROUND: Chickens are one of the most widely farmed animals worldwide and play a crucial role in meat and egg production. Gut microbiota is essential for chickens' health, disease, growth, and egg production. However, native chickens such as Jianghan chickens have better meat and egg production quality than centralized chickens, their intestinal microbial diversity is richer, and the potential gut microbial resources may bring health benefits to the host.

RESULTS: The bacterial species composition in the gut microbiota of Jianghan chickens is similar to that of other chicken breeds, with Phocaeicola and Bacteroides being the most abundant bacterial genera. The LEfSe analysis revealed significant differences in species composition and functional profiles between samples from Jingzhou and the other three groups. Functional annotation indicated that the gut microbiota of Jianghan chickens were dominated by metabolic genes, with the highest number of genes related to carbohydrate metabolism. Several antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) were found, and the composition of ARGs was similar to that of factory-farmed chickens, suggesting that antibiotics were widely present in the gut microbiota of Jianghan chickens. The resistance genes of Jianghan chickens are mainly carried by microorganisms of the Bacteroidota and Bacillota phylum. In addition, more than 829 isolates were selected from the microbiota of Jianghan chickens. Following three rounds of acid and bile tolerance experiments performed on all the isolated strains, it was determined that six strains of Pediococcus acidilactici exhibited consistent tolerance. Further experiments confirmed that three of these strains (A4, B9, and C2) held substantial probiotic potential, with P. acidilactici B9 displaying the highest probiotic potential.

CONCLUSIONS: This study elucidates the composition of the intestinal microbiota and functional gene repertoire in Jianghan chickens. Despite the absence of antibiotic supplementation, the intestinal microbial community of Jianghan chickens still demonstrates a profile of antibiotic resistance genes similar to that of intensively reared chickens, suggesting resistance genes are prevalent in free-ranging poultry. Moreover, Jianghan and intensively reared chickens host major resistance genes differently, an aspect seldom explored between free-range and pastured chickens. Furthermore, among the 829 isolates, three strains of P. acidilatici exhibited strong probiotic potential. These findings provide insights into the unique gut microbiota of Jianghan chickens and highlight potential probiotic strains offering benefits to the host. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2024-02-14
CmpDate: 2024-02-14

Miao Y, Sun Z, Ma C, et al (2024)

VirGrapher: a graph-based viral identifier for long sequences from metagenomes.

Briefings in bioinformatics, 25(2):.

Viruses are the most abundant biological entities on earth and are important components of microbial communities. A metagenome contains all microorganisms from an environmental sample. Correctly identifying viruses from these mixed sequences is critical in viral analyses. It is common to identify long viral sequences, which has already been passed thought pipelines of assembly and binning. Existing deep learning-based methods divide these long sequences into short subsequences and identify them separately. This makes the relationships between them be omitted, leading to poor performance on identifying long viral sequences. In this paper, VirGrapher is proposed to improve the identification performance of long viral sequences by constructing relationships among short subsequences from long ones. VirGrapher see a long sequence as a graph and uses a Graph Convolutional Network (GCN) model to learn multilayer connections between nodes from sequences after a GCN-based node embedding model. VirGrapher achieves a better AUC value and accuracy on validation set, which is better than three benchmark methods.

RevDate: 2024-02-14
CmpDate: 2024-02-14

Gao SM, Fei HL, Li Q, et al (2024)

Eco-evolutionary dynamics of gut phageome in wild gibbons (Hoolock tianxing) with seasonal diet variations.

Nature communications, 15(1):1254.

It has been extensively studied that the gut microbiome provides animals flexibility to adapt to food variability. Yet, how gut phageome responds to diet variation of wild animals remains unexplored. Here, we analyze the eco-evolutionary dynamics of gut phageome in six wild gibbons (Hoolock tianxing) by collecting individually-resolved fresh fecal samples and parallel feeding behavior data for 15 consecutive months. Application of complementary viral and microbial metagenomics recovers 39,198 virulent and temperate phage genomes from the feces. Hierarchical cluster analyses show remarkable seasonal diet variations in gibbons. From high-fruit to high-leaf feeding period, the abundances of phage populations are seasonally fluctuated, especially driven by the increased abundance of virulent phages that kill the Lachnospiraceae hosts, and a decreased abundance of temperate phages that piggyback the Bacteroidaceae hosts. Functional profiling reveals an enrichment through horizontal gene transfers of toxin-antitoxin genes on temperate phage genomes in high-leaf season, potentially conferring benefits to their prokaryotic hosts. The phage-host ecological dynamics are driven by the coevolutionary processes which select for tail fiber and DNA primase genes on virulent and temperate phage genomes, respectively. Our results highlight complex phageome-microbiome interactions as a key feature of the gibbon gut microbial ecosystem responding to the seasonal diet.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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