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Bibliography on: Archaea

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 26 Jan 2022 at 01:30 Created: 

Archaea

In 1977, Carl Woese and George Fox applied molecular techniques to biodiversity and discovered that life on Earth consisted of three, not two (prokaryotes and eukaryotes), major lineages, tracing back nearly to the very origin of life on Earth. The third lineage has come to be known as the Archaea. Organisms now considered Archaea were originally thought to be a kind of prokaryote, but Woese and Fox showed that they were as different from prokaryotes as they were from eukaryotes. To understand life on Earth one must also understand the Archaea .

Created with PubMed® Query: archaea[TITLE] OR archaebacteria[TITLE] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-01-20

McMahon FT, Lonergan CM, Gilmore BF, et al (2022)

Draft Genome Sequences of Halobacterium sp. Strains KA-4 and KA-6, Two Extremely Halophilic Archaea Isolated from a Triassic Salt Deposit in Northern Ireland.

Microbiology resource announcements, 11(1):e0116521.

Here, we report the draft genome sequences of Halobacterium sp. strains KA-4 and KA-6. These extremely halophilic archaea were isolated from a Triassic halite deposit in Northern Ireland. Based on 16S sequence identity, they were deemed to be closely related strains of Halobacterium noricense but with some notable phenotypic differences.

RevDate: 2022-01-18

Papenfort K, Woodson SA, Schmitz RA, et al (2022)

Special Issue: Regulating with RNA in Microbes: In conjunction with the 6th Meeting on Regulating with RNA in Bacteria and Archaea.

Molecular microbiology, 117(1):1-3.

RevDate: 2022-01-14

Wu F, Speth DR, Philosof A, et al (2022)

Unique mobile elements and scalable gene flow at the prokaryote-eukaryote boundary revealed by circularized Asgard archaea genomes.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Eukaryotic genomes are known to have garnered innovations from both archaeal and bacterial domains but the sequence of events that led to the complex gene repertoire of eukaryotes is largely unresolved. Here, through the enrichment of hydrothermal vent microorganisms, we recovered two circularized genomes of Heimdallarchaeum species that belong to an Asgard archaea clade phylogenetically closest to eukaryotes. These genomes reveal diverse mobile elements, including an integrative viral genome that bidirectionally replicates in a circular form and aloposons, transposons that encode the 5,000 amino acid-sized proteins Otus and Ephialtes. Heimdallaechaeal mobile elements have garnered various genes from bacteria and bacteriophages, likely playing a role in shuffling functions across domains. The number of archaea- and bacteria-related genes follow strikingly different scaling laws in Asgard archaea, exhibiting a genome size-dependent ratio and a functional division resembling the bacteria- and archaea-derived gene repertoire across eukaryotes. Bacterial gene import has thus likely been a continuous process unaltered by eukaryogenesis and scaled up through genome expansion. Our data further highlight the importance of viewing eukaryogenesis in a pan-Asgard context, which led to the proposal of a conceptual framework, that is, the Heimdall nucleation-decentralized innovation-hierarchical import model that accounts for the emergence of eukaryotic complexity.

RevDate: 2022-01-13

Sakai HD, Nur N, Kato S, et al (2022)

Insight into the symbiotic lifestyle of DPANN archaea revealed by cultivation and genome analyses.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(3):.

Decades of culture-independent analyses have resulted in proposals of many tentative archaeal phyla with no cultivable representative. Members of DPANN (an acronym of the names of the first included phyla Diapherotrites, Parvarchaeota, Aenigmarchaeota, Nanohaloarchaeota, and Nanoarchaeota), an archaeal superphylum composed of at least 10 of these tentative phyla, are generally considered obligate symbionts dependent on other microorganisms. While many draft/complete genome sequences of DPANN archaea are available and their biological functions have been considerably predicted, only a few examples of their successful laboratory cultivation have been reported, limiting our knowledge of their symbiotic lifestyles. Here, we investigated physiology, morphology, and host specificity of an archaeon of the phylum "Candidatus Micrarchaeota" (ARM-1) belonging to the DPANN superphylum by cultivation. We constructed a stable coculture system composed of ARM-1 and its original host Metallosphaera sp. AS-7 belonging to the order Sulfolobales Further host-switching experiments confirmed that ARM-1 grew on five different archaeal species from three genera-Metallosphaera, Acidianus, and Saccharolobus-originating from geologically distinct hot, acidic environments. The results suggested the existence of DPANN archaea that can grow by relying on a range of hosts. Genomic analyses showed inferred metabolic capabilities, common/unique genetic contents of ARM-1 among cultivated micrarchaeal representatives, and the possibility of horizontal gene transfer between ARM-1 and members of the order Sulfolobales Our report sheds light on the symbiotic lifestyles of DPANN archaea and will contribute to the elucidation of their biological/ecological functions.

RevDate: 2022-01-13

Salter TL, Magee BA, Waite JH, et al (2022)

Mass Spectrometric Fingerprints of Bacteria and Archaea for Life Detection on Icy Moons.

Astrobiology [Epub ahead of print].

The icy moons of the outer solar system display evidence of subsurface liquid water and, therefore, potential habitability for life. Flybys of Saturn's moon Enceladus by the Cassini spacecraft have provided measurements of material from plumes that suggest hydrothermal activity and the presence of organic matter. Jupiter's moon Europa may have similar plumes and is the target for the forthcoming Europa Clipper mission that carries a high mass resolution and high sensitivity mass spectrometer, called the MAss Spectrometer for Planetary EXploration (MASPEX), with the capability for providing detailed characterization of any organic materials encountered. We have performed a series of experiments using pyrolysis-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry to characterize the mass spectrometric fingerprints of microbial life. A range of extremophile Archaea and Bacteria have been analyzed and the laboratory data converted to MASPEX-type signals. Molecular characteristics of protein, carbohydrate, and lipid structures were detected and the characteristic fragmentation patterns corresponding to these different biological structures were identified. Protein pyrolysis fragments included phenols, nitrogen heterocycles, and cyclic dipeptides. Oxygen heterocycles, such as furans, were detected from carbohydrates. Our data reveal how mass spectrometry on Europa Clipper can aid in the identification of the presence of life, by looking for characteristic bacterial fingerprints that are similar to those from simple Earthly organisms.

RevDate: 2022-01-06

Diamond S, Lavy A, Crits-Christoph A, et al (2022)

Soils and sediments host Thermoplasmata archaea encoding novel copper membrane monooxygenases (CuMMOs).

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Copper membrane monooxygenases (CuMMOs) play critical roles in the global carbon and nitrogen cycles. Organisms harboring these enzymes perform the first, and rate limiting, step in aerobic oxidation of ammonia, methane, or other simple hydrocarbons. Within archaea, only organisms in the order Nitrososphaerales (Thaumarchaeota) encode CuMMOs, which function exclusively as ammonia monooxygenases. From grassland and hillslope soils and aquifer sediments, we identified 20 genomes from distinct archaeal species encoding divergent CuMMO sequences. These archaea are phylogenetically clustered in a previously unnamed Thermoplasmatota order, herein named the Ca. Angelarchaeales. The CuMMO proteins in Ca. Angelarchaeales are more similar in structure to those in Nitrososphaerales than those of bacteria, and contain all functional residues required for general monooxygenase activity. Ca. Angelarchaeales genomes are significantly enriched in blue copper proteins (BCPs) relative to sibling lineages, including plastocyanin-like electron carriers and divergent nitrite reductase-like (nirK) 2-domain cupredoxin proteins co-located with electron transport machinery. Ca. Angelarchaeales also encode significant capacity for peptide/amino acid uptake and degradation and share numerous electron transport mechanisms with the Nitrososphaerales. Ca. Angelarchaeales are detected at high relative abundance in some of the environments where their genomes originated from. While the exact substrate specificities of the novel CuMMOs identified here have yet to be determined, activity on ammonia is possible given their metabolic and ecological context. The identification of an archaeal CuMMO outside of the Nitrososphaerales significantly expands the known diversity of CuMMO enzymes in archaea and suggests previously unaccounted organisms contribute to critical global nitrogen and/or carbon cycling functions.

RevDate: 2022-01-06

Aouad M, Flandrois JP, Jauffrit F, et al (2022)

A divide-and-conquer phylogenomic approach based on character supermatrices resolves early steps in the evolution of the Archaea.

BMC ecology and evolution, 22(1):1.

BACKGROUND: The recent rise in cultivation-independent genome sequencing has provided key material to explore uncharted branches of the Tree of Life. This has been particularly spectacular concerning the Archaea, projecting them at the center stage as prominently relevant to understand early stages in evolution and the emergence of fundamental metabolisms as well as the origin of eukaryotes. Yet, resolving deep divergences remains a challenging task due to well-known tree-reconstruction artefacts and biases in extracting robust ancient phylogenetic signal, notably when analyzing data sets including the three Domains of Life. Among the various strategies aimed at mitigating these problems, divide-and-conquer approaches remain poorly explored, and have been primarily based on reconciliation among single gene trees which however notoriously lack ancient phylogenetic signal.

RESULTS: We analyzed sub-sets of full supermatrices covering the whole Tree of Life with specific taxonomic sampling to robustly resolve different parts of the archaeal phylogeny in light of their current diversity. Our results strongly support the existence and early emergence of two main clades, Cluster I and Cluster II, which we name Ouranosarchaea and Gaiarchaea, and we clarify the placement of important novel archaeal lineages within these two clades. However, the monophyly and branching of the fast evolving nanosized DPANN members remains unclear and worth of further study.

CONCLUSIONS: We inferred a well resolved rooted phylogeny of the Archaea that includes all recently described phyla of high taxonomic rank. This phylogeny represents a valuable reference to study the evolutionary events associated to the early steps of the diversification of the archaeal domain. Beyond the specifics of archaeal phylogeny, our results demonstrate the power of divide-and-conquer approaches to resolve deep phylogenetic relationships, which should be applied to progressively resolve the entire Tree of Life.

RevDate: 2022-01-05

Chadwick GL, Skennerton CT, Laso-Pérez R, et al (2022)

Comparative genomics reveals electron transfer and syntrophic mechanisms differentiating methanotrophic and methanogenic archaea.

PLoS biology, 20(1):e3001508 pii:PBIOLOGY-D-21-02296 [Epub ahead of print].

The anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled to sulfate reduction is a microbially mediated process requiring a syntrophic partnership between anaerobic methanotrophic (ANME) archaea and sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB). Based on genome taxonomy, ANME lineages are polyphyletic within the phylum Halobacterota, none of which have been isolated in pure culture. Here, we reconstruct 28 ANME genomes from environmental metagenomes and flow sorted syntrophic consortia. Together with a reanalysis of previously published datasets, these genomes enable a comparative analysis of all marine ANME clades. We review the genomic features that separate ANME from their methanogenic relatives and identify what differentiates ANME clades. Large multiheme cytochromes and bioenergetic complexes predicted to be involved in novel electron bifurcation reactions are well distributed and conserved in the ANME archaea, while significant variations in the anabolic C1 pathways exists between clades. Our analysis raises the possibility that methylotrophic methanogenesis may have evolved from a methanotrophic ancestor.

RevDate: 2022-01-05

Chazan A, Rozenberg A, Mannen K, et al (2022)

Diverse heliorhodopsins detected via functional metagenomics in freshwater Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi and Archaea.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The recently discovered rhodopsin family of heliorhodopsins (HeRs) is abundant in diverse microbial environments. So far, the functional and biological roles of HeRs remain unknown. To tackle this issue, we combined experimental and computational screens to gain some novel insights. Here, 10 readily expressed HeR genes were found using functional metagenomics on samples from two freshwater environments. These HeRs originated from diverse prokaryotic groups: Actinobacteria, Chloroflexi and Archaea. Heterologously expressed HeRs absorbed light in the green and yellow wavelengths (543-562 nm) and their photocycles exhibited diverse kinetic characteristics. To approach the physiological function of the HeRs, we used our environmental clones along with thousands of microbial genomes to analyze genes neighbouring HeRs. The strongest association was found with the DegV family involved in activation of fatty acids, which allowed us to hypothesize that HeRs might be involved in light-induced membrane lipid modifications.

RevDate: 2021-12-28

Li SY, Xin YJ, Bao CX, et al (2021)

Haloprofundus salilacus sp. nov., Haloprofundus halobius sp. nov. and Haloprofundus salinisoli sp. nov.: three extremely halophilic archaea isolated from salt lake and saline soil.

Extremophiles : life under extreme conditions, 26(1):6.

Three halophilic archaeal strains, Gai1-5T, SEDH52T and SQT7-1T were isolated from Gaize salt lake and Xiadi salt lake in Tibet, and saline soil from Xinjiang, respectively. Phylogenetic analysis based on 16S rRNA gene and rpoB' gene sequences showed that these three strains formed different branches separating them from Haloprofundus halophilus NK23T (97.7-98.3% similarities for 16S rRNA gene and 94.7-94.8% similarities for rpoB' gene, respectively) and Haloprofundus marisrubri SB9T (94.7-96.4% similarities for 16S rRNA gene and 92.3-93.2% similarities for rpoB' gene, respectively). Several phenotypic characteristics distinguish the strains Gai1-5 T, SEDH52T and SQT7-1T from Haloprofundus halophilus NK23T and Haloprofundus marisrubri SB9T. The average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) values among the three strains and current Haloprofundus members were in the range of 83.3-88.3% and 27.2-35.7%, respectively, far below the species boundary threshold values. The major polar lipids of three strains were phosphatidic acid (PA), phosphatidylglycerol (PG), phosphatidylglycerol sulphate (PGS), phosphatidylglycerol phosphate methyl ester (PGP-Me), sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether (S-DGD-1), mannosyl glucosyl diether-phosphatidic acid (DGD-PA) and sulfated mannosyl glucosyl diether-phosphatidic acid (S-DGD-PA). These results showed that strains Gai1-5T (= CGMCC 1.16079T = JCM 33561T), SQT7-1T (= CGMCC 1.16063T = JCM 33553 T) and SEDH52T (= CGMCC 1.17434T) represented three novel species in the genus Haloprofundus, for which the names Haloprofundus salilacus sp. nov., Haloprofundus salinisoli sp. nov., and Haloprofundus halobius sp. nov. are proposed.

RevDate: 2021-12-24

De Falco M, M De Felice (2021)

Take a Break to Repair: A Dip in the World of Double-Strand Break Repair Mechanisms Pointing the Gaze on Archaea.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(24): pii:ijms222413296.

All organisms have evolved many DNA repair pathways to counteract the different types of DNA damages. The detection of DNA damage leads to distinct cellular responses that bring about cell cycle arrest and the induction of DNA repair mechanisms. In particular, DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) are extremely toxic for cell survival, that is why cells use specific mechanisms of DNA repair in order to maintain genome stability. The choice among the repair pathways is mainly linked to the cell cycle phases. Indeed, if it occurs in an inappropriate cellular context, it may cause genome rearrangements, giving rise to many types of human diseases, from developmental disorders to cancer. Here, we analyze the most recent remarks about the main pathways of DSB repair with the focus on homologous recombination. A thorough knowledge in DNA repair mechanisms is pivotal for identifying the most accurate treatments in human diseases.

RevDate: 2021-12-20

Otzen DE, Dueholm MS, Najarzadeh Z, et al (2021)

In situ Sub-Cellular Identification of Functional Amyloids in Bacteria and Archaea by Infrared Nanospectroscopy.

Small methods, 5(6):e2001002.

Formation of amyloid structures is originally linked to human disease. However, amyloid materials are found extensively in the animal and bacterial world where they stabilize intra- and extra-cellular environments like biofilms or cell envelopes. To date, functional amyloids have largely been studied using optical microscopy techniques in vivo, or after removal from their biological context for higher-resolution studies in vitro. Furthermore, conventional microscopies only indirectly identify amyloids based on morphology or unspecific amyloid dyes. Here, the high chemical and spatial (≈20 nm) resolution of Infrared Nanospectroscopy (AFM-IR) to investigate functional amyloid from Escherichia coli (curli), Pseudomonas (Fap), and the Archaea Methanosaeta (MspA) in situ is exploited. It is demonstrated that AFM-IR identifies amyloid protein within single intact cells through their cross β-sheet secondary structure, which has a unique spectroscopic signature in the amide I band of protein. Using this approach, nanoscale-resolved chemical images and spectra of purified curli and Methanosaeta cell wall sheaths are provided. The results highlight significant differences in secondary structure between E. coli cells with and without curli. Taken together, these results suggest that AFM-IR is a new and powerful label-free tool for in situ investigations of the biophysical state of functional amyloid and biomolecules in general.

RevDate: 2021-12-18

Lu S, Liu X, Liu C, et al (2021)

A Review of Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Anaerobic Ammonia-Oxidizing Bacteria in the Aquaculture Pond Environment in China.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:775794.

The excessive ammonia produced in pond aquaculture processes cannot be ignored. In this review, we present the distribution and diversity of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and anaerobic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AnAOB) in the pond environment. Combined with environmental conditions, we analyze the advantages of AOA and AnAOB in aquaculture water treatment and discuss the current situation of pond water treatment engineering involving these microbes. AOA and AnAOB play an important role in the nitrogen removal process of aquaculture pond water, especially in seasonal low temperatures and anoxic sediment layers. Finally, we prospect the application of bioreactors to purify pond aquaculture water using AOA and AnAOB, in autotrophic nitrogen removal, which can reduce the production of greenhouse gases (such as nitrous oxide) and is conducive to the development of environmentally sustainable pond aquaculture.

RevDate: 2021-12-15

Wang Y, Xu J, Cui D, et al (2021)

Classification and Identification of Archaea Using Single-Cell Raman Ejection and Artificial Intelligence: Implications for Investigating Uncultivated Microorganisms.

Analytical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Archaea can produce special cellular components such as polyhydroxyalkanoates, carotenoids, rhodopsin, and ether lipids, which have valuable applications in medicine and green energy production. Most of the archaeal species are uncultivated, posing challenges to investigating their biomarker components and biochemical properties. In this study, we applied Raman spectroscopy to examine the biological characteristics of nine archaeal isolates, including halophilic archaea (Haloferax larsenii, Haloarcula argentinensis, Haloferax mediterranei, Halomicrobium mukohataei, Halomicrobium salinus, Halorussus sp., Natrinema gari), thermophilic archaea (Sulfolobus acidocaldarius), and marine group I (MGI) archaea (Nitrosopumilus maritimus). Linear discriminant analysis of the Raman spectra allowed visualization of significant separations among the nine archaeal isolates. Machine-learning classification models based on support vector machine achieved accuracies of 88-100% when classifying the nine archaeal species. The predicted results were validated by DNA sequencing analysis of cells isolated from the mixture by Raman-activated cell sorting. Raman spectra of uncultured archaea (MGII) were also obtained based on Raman spectroscopy and fluorescence in situ hybridization. The results combining multiple Raman-based techniques indicated that MGII may have the ability to produce lipids distinct from other archaeal species. Our study provides a valuable approach for investigating and classifying archaea, especially uncultured species, at the single-cell level.

RevDate: 2021-12-11

Stevens KM, Hocher A, T Warnecke (2021)

Deep conservation of histone variants in Thermococcales archaea.

Genome biology and evolution pii:6459647 [Epub ahead of print].

Histones are ubiquitous in eukaryotes where they assemble into nucleosomes, binding and wrapping DNA to form chromatin. One process to modify chromatin and regulate DNA accessibility is the replacement of histones in the nucleosome with paralogous variants. Histones are also present in archaea but whether and how histone variants contribute to the generation of different physiologically relevant chromatin states in these organisms remains largely unknown. Conservation of paralogs with distinct properties can provide prima facie evidence for defined functional roles. We recently revealed deep conservation of histone paralogs with different properties in the Methanobacteriales, but little is known experimentally about these histones. In contrast, the two histones of the model archaeon Thermococcus kodakarensis, HTkA and HTkB, have been examined in some depth, both in vitro and in vivo. HTkA and HTkB exhibit distinct DNA-binding behaviours and elicit unique transcriptional responses when deleted. Here, we consider the evolution of HTkA/B and their orthologs across the order Thermococcales. We find histones with signature HTkA- and HTkB-like properties to be present in almost all Thermococcales genomes. Phylogenetic analysis indicates the presence of one HTkA- and one HTkB-like histone in the ancestor of Thermococcales and long-term maintenance of these two paralogs throughout Thermococcales diversification. Our results support the notion that archaea and eukaryotes have convergently evolved histone variants that carry out distinct adaptive functions. Intriguingly, we also detect more highly diverged histone-fold proteins, related to those found in some bacteria, in several Thermococcales genomes. The functions of these bacteria-type histones remain unknown, but structural modelling suggests that they can form heterodimers with HTkA/B-like histones.

RevDate: 2021-12-11

Liu Y, Wang Q, Pan Q, et al (2021)

Ventilation induced evolution pattern of archaea, fungi, bacteria and their potential roles during co-bioevaporation treatment of concentrated landfill leachate and food waste.

Chemosphere, 289:133122 pii:S0045-6535(21)03594-3 [Epub ahead of print].

To obtain a favorable aeration type in co-bioevaporation treatment of concentrated landfill leachate and food waste, and to deeply understand the co-bioevaporation mechanisms, the temporal evolution differences of archaea, fungi and bacteria as well as the related microbial metabolism genes and functional enzymes under intermittent ventilation (IV) and continuous ventilation (CV) were investigated. Results through metagenomics analysis showed that the less sufficient oxygen and longer thermophilic phase in IV stimulated the vigorous growth of archaea, while CV was beneficial for fungal growth. Even genes of carbohydrates and lipids metabolism and ATP-associated enzymes (enzyme 2.7.13.3 and 3.6.4.12), as well as peptidoglycan biosynthesis enzyme (enzyme 3.4.16.4), were more abundant in CV, IV hold better DNA repair ability, higher microbial viability, and less dehydrogenase sensitivity to temperatures due to the critical contribution of Pseudomonas (3.1-45.9%). Furthermore, IV consumed a similar amount of heat for water evaporation with nearly half of the ventilation of CV and was a favorable aeration type in the practical application of co-bioevaporation.

RevDate: 2021-12-01

Yen CY, Lin MG, Chen BW, et al (2021)

Chromosome segregation in Archaea: SegA- and SegB-DNA complex structures provide insights into segrosome assembly.

Nucleic acids research pii:6445965 [Epub ahead of print].

Genome segregation is a vital process in all organisms. Chromosome partitioning remains obscure in Archaea, the third domain of life. Here, we investigated the SegAB system from Sulfolobus solfataricus. SegA is a ParA Walker-type ATPase and SegB is a site-specific DNA-binding protein. We determined the structures of both proteins and those of SegA-DNA and SegB-DNA complexes. The SegA structure revealed an atypical, novel non-sandwich dimer that binds DNA either in the presence or in the absence of ATP. The SegB structure disclosed a ribbon-helix-helix motif through which the protein binds DNA site specifically. The association of multiple interacting SegB dimers with the DNA results in a higher order chromatin-like structure. The unstructured SegB N-terminus plays an essential catalytic role in stimulating SegA ATPase activity and an architectural regulatory role in segrosome (SegA-SegB-DNA) formation. Electron microscopy results also provide a compact ring-like segrosome structure related to chromosome organization. These findings contribute a novel mechanistic perspective on archaeal chromosome segregation.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Vavilin VA, Lokshina LY, SV Rytov (2021)

Anaerobic oxidation of methane coupled with sulphate reduction: high concentration of methanotrophic archaea might be responsible for low stable isotope fractionation factors in methane.

Isotopes in environmental and health studies [Epub ahead of print].

The changes in δ13CH4 and δ12C1H32H during sulphate-dependent anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) were described using dynamic modelling. The batch sulphate-dependent AOM at the nearly linear dynamics of methane oxidation with different enriched cultures originating from three marine sediments was simulated. The traditional Rayleigh equation for carbon and hydrogen stable isotopes in methane was derived from the basic dynamic isotope equation. The general and reduced models, taking into account the reaction stoichiometry and based on balances of chemical elements and their isotopes, describes a redistribution of stable isotope values in the sulphate-dependent AOM process. It was shown that AOM is the first and rate-limiting step in the whole AOM + SR (sulphate reduction) process. The different fractionation factors of carbon and hydrogen isotopes in methane were obtained for three marine sediments. It was concluded that during incubation the highest concentration of methanotrophic archaea might be responsible for the lowest fractionation factors of stable isotopes of carbon and hydrogen in methane. The interpretation of this phenomenon was suggested. Different concentrations of methanotrophic archaea can lead to variations of isotope fractionation factors.

RevDate: 2021-11-30

Tan RSG, Zhou M, Li F, et al (2021)

Identifying active rumen epithelial associated bacteria and archaea in beef cattle divergent in feed efficiency using total RNA-seq.

Current research in microbial sciences, 2:100064.

To date, the role of ruminal epithelial attached microbiota in cattle feed efficiency is undefined. In this study, we aimed to characterize transcriptionally active bacteria and archaea attached to the rumen epithelial wall and to determine whether they differ in cattle with varied feed efficiency. RNA-sequencing was performed to obtain the rumen epithelial transcriptomes from 9 of the most efficient (low RFI) and 9 of the most inefficient (high RFI) animals. The bacteria and archaea 16S rRNA transcripts were identified using an in-house developed pipeline, enriched from filtered reads that did not map to the bovine genome. Archaea from unclassified genera belonging to the Euryarchaeota phylum showed the most activity on the rumen epithelium of low RFI (81.3 ± 1.9%) and high RFI (76.4 ± 3.0%) steers. Bacteria from the Succinivibrionaceae family showed the greatest activity of bacteria on the low RFI (28.7 ± 9.0%) and high RFI (33.9± 8.8%) epithelium. Of the bacterial families, Campylobacteraceae and Neisseriaceae had significantly greater activity on the low RFI epithelium (p < 0.05) and are known to play a role in oxygen scavenging. Greater activity of rumen epithelial attached oxygen scavenging bacteria may provide more optimal feed fermentation conditions, which contributes to high fermentation efficiency in the rumen.

RevDate: 2021-12-12

Amin K, Tranchimand S, Benvegnu T, et al (2021)

Glycoside Hydrolases and Glycosyltransferases from Hyperthermophilic Archaea: Insights on Their Characteristics and Applications in Biotechnology.

Biomolecules, 11(11):.

Hyperthermophilic Archaea colonizing unnatural habitats of extremes conditions such as volcanoes and deep-sea hydrothermal vents represent an unmeasurable bioresource for enzymes used in various industrial applications. Their enzymes show distinct structural and functional properties and are resistant to extreme conditions of temperature and pressure where their mesophilic homologs fail. In this review, we will outline carbohydrate-active enzymes (CAZymes) from hyperthermophilic Archaea with specific focus on the two largest families, glycoside hydrolases (GHs) and glycosyltransferases (GTs). We will present the latest advances on these enzymes particularly in the light of novel accumulating data from genomics and metagenomics sequencing technologies. We will discuss the contribution of these enzymes from hyperthermophilic Archaea to industrial applications and put the emphasis on newly identifed enzymes. We will highlight their common biochemical and distinct features. Finally, we will overview the areas that remain to be explored to identify novel promising hyperthermozymes.

RevDate: 2021-12-07

Coker OO (2021)

Non-bacteria microbiome (virus, fungi, and archaea) in gastrointestinal cancer.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

The gastrointestinal tract houses millions of microbes collectively referred to as the gut microbiome. The gut microbes comprise of bacteria, viruses, fungi, archaea, and microscopic eukaryotes, which co-evolved or colonize the gut forming complex symbiotic and mutualistic relationships. A state of homeostasis is required between host and gut microbiome relationship to maintain several host beneficial processes. Alterations in the taxonomic and functional composition of the gut microbes are associated with several human diseases including gastrointestinal cancers. Owed to their overwhelming abundance and ease of characterization, several studies focus on the role of bacteria in gastrointestinal cancers. There is however growing evidence that non-bacteria gut microbes are associated with the pathogenesis of gastrointestinal cancers. This review details the association of non-bacteria gut microbes including fungi, viruses, and archaea and their potential manipulation in the prevention and treatment of human gastrointestinal cancers.

RevDate: 2021-11-28

Fan Q, Fan X, Fu P, et al (2021)

Anaerobic digestion of wood vinegar wastewater using domesticated sludge: Focusing on the relationship between organic degradation and microbial communities (archaea, bacteria, and fungi).

Bioresource technology pii:S0960-8524(21)01726-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Thermochemical process of biomass is one of the promising renewable energy technologies; however, the by-product (wood vinegar wastewater) is rich in refractory organics, which is harmful to the environment and inhibits the conversion efficiency of microorganisms. Consequently, the dominant functional microbial communities corresponding to the various substrate were obtained through the continuous domestication, and the relationship between the dominant functional communities and the degradation of organic compounds was comprehensively analyzed. The bacterial community was absolutely dominant (approximately 85%), while archaea and fungi had similar relative abundance. The diversity showed that glucose was not conducive to the development of microbial diversity, while the substrate containing wood vinegar wastewater showed the opposite trend. The functional analysis revealed that the enrichment of bacteria associated with the hydrolysis and acidification of organics increased in the domestication process. Glucose facilitated hydrogen-trophic methanogenesis as the main methanogenic pathway in the methanogenic stage.

RevDate: 2021-11-23

Durán-Viseras A, Sánchez-Porro C, A Ventosa (2021)

Genomic Insights Into New Species of the Genus Halomicroarcula Reveals Potential for New Osmoadaptative Strategies in Halophilic Archaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:751746.

Metagenomic studies on prokaryotic diversity of hypersaline soils from the Odiel saltmarshes, South-west Spain, revealed a high proportion of genomic sequences not related to previously cultivated taxa, that might be related to haloarchaea with a high environmental and nutritional flexibility. In this study, we used a culturomics approach in order to isolate new haloarchaeal microorganisms from these hypersaline soils. Four haloarchaeal strains, designated strains F24AT, F28, F27T, and F13T, phylogenetically related to the genus Halomicroarcula, were isolated and characterized in detail. The phylogenomic tree based on the 100 orthologous single-copy genes present in the genomes of these four strains as well as those of the type strains of the species Halomicroarcula pellucida CECT 7537T, Halomicroarcula salina JCM 18369T and Halomicroarcula limicola JCM 18640T, that were determined in this study, revealed that these four new isolates clustered on three groups, with strains F24AT and F28 within a single cluster, and altogether with the species of Halomicroarcula. Additionally, Orthologous Average Nucleotide Identity (OrthoANI), digital DNA-DNA hybridization (dDDH) and Average Amino-acid Identity (AAI) values, likewise phenotypic characteristics, including their polar lipids profiles, permitted to determine that they represent three new species, for which we propose the names Halomicroarcula rubra sp. nov. (type strain F13T), Halomicroarcula nitratireducens sp. nov. (type strain F27T) and Halomicroarcula salinisoli sp. nov. (type strain F24AT). An in deep comparative genomic analysis of species of the genus Halomicroarcula, including their metabolism, their capability to biosynthesize secondary metabolites and their osmoregulatory adaptation mechanisms was carried out. Although they use a salt-in strategy, the identification of the complete pathways for the biosynthesis of the compatible solutes trehalose and glycine betaine, not identified before in any other haloarchaea, might suggest alternative osmoadaptation strategies for this group. This alternative osmoregulatory mechanism would allow this group of haloarchaea to be versatile and eco-physiologically successful in hypersaline environments and would justify the capability of the species of this genus to grow not only on environments with high salt concentrations [up to 30% (w/v) salts], but also under intermediate to low salinities.

RevDate: 2021-11-19

Saghaï A, Banjeree S, Degrune F, et al (2021)

Diversity of archaea and niche preferences among putative ammonia-oxidizing Nitrososphaeria dominating across European arable soils.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Archaeal communities in arable soils are dominated by Nitrososphaeria, a class within Thaumarchaeota comprising all known ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA). AOA are key players in the nitrogen cycle and defining their niche specialization can help predicting effects of environmental change on these communities. However, hierarchical effects of environmental filters on AOA and the delineation of niche preferences of nitrososphaerial lineages remain poorly understood. We used phylogenetic information at fine scale and machine learning approaches to identify climatic, edaphic and geomorphological drivers of Nitrososphaeria and other archaea along a 3000 km European gradient. Only limited insights into the ecology of the low-abundant archaeal classes could be inferred, but our analyses underlined the multifactorial nature of niche differentiation within Nitrososphaeria. Mean annual temperature, C:N ratio and pH were the best predictors of their diversity, evenness and distribution. Thresholds in the predictions could be defined for C:N ratio and cation exchange capacity. Furthermore, multiple, independent and recent specializations to soil pH were detected in the Nitrososphaeria phylogeny. The coexistence of widespread ecophysiological differences between closely related soil Nitrososphaeria highlights that their ecology is best studied at fine phylogenetic scale.

RevDate: 2021-11-19

Trouche B, Brandt MI, Belser C, et al (2021)

Diversity and Biogeography of Bathyal and Abyssal Seafloor Bacteria and Archaea Along a Mediterranean-Atlantic Gradient.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:702016.

Seafloor sediments cover the majority of planet Earth and microorganisms inhabiting these environments play a central role in marine biogeochemical cycles. Yet, description of the biogeography and distribution of sedimentary microbial life is still too sparse to evaluate the relative contribution of processes driving this distribution, such as the levels of drift, connectivity, and specialization. To address this question, we analyzed 210 archaeal and bacterial metabarcoding libraries from a standardized and horizon-resolved collection of sediment samples from 18 stations along a longitudinal gradient from the eastern Mediterranean to the western Atlantic. Overall, we found that biogeographic patterns depended on the scale considered: while at local scale the selective influence of contemporary environmental conditions appeared strongest, the heritage of historic processes through dispersal limitation and drift became more apparent at regional scale, and ended up superseding contemporary influences at inter-regional scale. When looking at environmental factors, the structure of microbial communities was correlated primarily with water depth, with a clear transition between 800 and 1,200 meters below sea level. Oceanic basin, water temperature, and sediment depth were other important explanatory parameters of community structure. Finally, we propose increasing dispersal limitation and ecological drift with sediment depth as a probable factor for the enhanced divergence of deeper horizons communities.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Satari L, Guillén A, Latorre-Pérez A, et al (2021)

Beyond Archaea: The Table Salt Bacteriome.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:714110.

Commercial table salt is a condiment with food preservative properties by decreasing water activity and increasing osmotic pressure. Salt is also a source of halophilic bacteria and archaea. In the present research, the diversity of halotolerant and halophilic microorganisms was studied in six commercial table salts by culture-dependent and culture-independent techniques. Three table salts were obtained from marine origins: Atlantic Ocean, Mediterranean (Ibiza Island), and Odiel marshes (supermarket marine salt). Other salts supplemented with mineral and nutritional ingredients were also used: Himalayan pink, Hawaiian black, and one with dried vegetables known as Viking salt. The results of 16S rRNA gene sequencing reveal that the salts from marine origins display a similar archaeal taxonomy, but with significant variations among genera. Archaeal taxa Halorubrum, Halobacterium, Hallobellus, Natronomonas, Haloplanus, Halonotius, Halomarina, and Haloarcula were prevalent in those three marine salts. Furthermore, the most abundant archaeal genera present in all salts were Natronomonas, Halolamina, Halonotius, Halapricum, Halobacterium, Haloarcula, and uncultured Halobacterales. Sulfitobacter sp. was the most frequent bacteria, represented almost in all salts. Other genera such as Bacillus, Enterococcus, and Flavobacterium were the most frequent taxa in the Viking, Himalayan pink, and black salts, respectively. Interestingly, the genus Salinibacter was detected only in marine-originated salts. A collection of 76 halotolerant and halophilic bacterial and haloarchaeal species was set by culturing on different media with a broad range of salinity and nutrient composition. Comparing the results of 16S rRNA gene metataxonomic and culturomics revealed that culturable bacteria Acinetobacter, Aquibacillus, Bacillus, Brevundimonas, Fictibacillus, Gracilibacillus, Halobacillus, Micrococcus, Oceanobacillus, Salibacterium, Salinibacter, Terribacillus, Thalassobacillus, and also Archaea Haloarcula, Halobacterium, and Halorubrum were identified at least in one sample by both methods. Our results show that salts from marine origins are dominated by Archaea, whereas salts from other sources or salt supplemented with ingredients are dominated by bacteria.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Zou W, Lang M, Zhang L, et al (2021)

Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria rather than ammonia-oxidizing archaea dominate nitrification in a nitrogen-fertilized calcareous soil.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(21)06480-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbe-driven nitrification is a key process that affects nitrogen (N) utilization by plants and N loss to the environment in agro-ecosystems. Ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are important microorganisms that dominate the ammonia oxidation process (the first and rate-limiting step of nitrification). Calcareous soils are widely distributed, accounting for more than 30% of the Earth's land. However, the effects of long-term N fertilization on the potential nitrification rate (PNR) and on AOA and AOB in calcareous soils are poorly understood. In this study, we comprehensively assessed the effects of N application (applied at five rates as urea with 0, 73.5, 105, 136.5 and 250 kg N ha-1 for 12 years) on soil chemical characteristics, PNR, N use efficiency (NUE) and the community characteristics of AOB and AOA in a calcareous soil. N application rate affected AOB beta diversity more than that of AOA. Compared to no N control, N application significantly decreased the relative abundance of Group I.1b clade A of AOA and Nitrosospira cluster 3a.2 of AOB, but increased Nitrosomonas cluster 7 of AOB. The relative abundance of Nitrosospira cluster 3a.2 of AOB was negatively correlated with PNR. A structural equation model showed a direct effect of N application rate on the content of soil organic matter and nitrate, the alpha and beta diversity of AOA and AOB. Nitrate and AOB beta diversity were the key factors affecting PNR. Overall, the alpha, beta diversity and community composition of AOB contribute more to PNR than AOA in calcareous soils with high organic matter content. Understanding the relationship between the characteristics of AOA and AOB in calcareous soils and PNR will help to improve NUE.

RevDate: 2021-11-06

Vázquez-Campos X, Kinsela AS, Bligh MW, et al (2021)

Genomic Insights Into the Archaea Inhabiting an Australian Radioactive Legacy Site.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:732575.

During the 1960s, small quantities of radioactive materials were co-disposed with chemical waste at the Little Forest Legacy Site (LFLS, Sydney, Australia). The microbial function and population dynamics in a waste trench during a rainfall event have been previously investigated revealing a broad abundance of candidate and potentially undescribed taxa in this iron-rich, radionuclide-contaminated environment. Applying genome-based metagenomic methods, we recovered 37 refined archaeal MAGs, mainly from undescribed DPANN Archaea lineages without standing in nomenclature and 'Candidatus Methanoperedenaceae' (ANME-2D). Within the undescribed DPANN, the newly proposed orders 'Ca. Gugararchaeales', 'Ca. Burarchaeales' and 'Ca. Anstonellales', constitute distinct lineages with a more comprehensive central metabolism and anabolic capabilities within the 'Ca. Micrarchaeota' phylum compared to most other DPANN. The analysis of new and extant 'Ca. Methanoperedens spp.' MAGs suggests metal ions as the ancestral electron acceptors during the anaerobic oxidation of methane while the respiration of nitrate/nitrite via molybdopterin oxidoreductases would have been a secondary acquisition. The presence of genes for the biosynthesis of polyhydroxyalkanoates in most 'Ca. Methanoperedens' also appears to be a widespread characteristic of the genus for carbon accumulation. This work expands our knowledge about the roles of the Archaea at the LFLS, especially, DPANN Archaea and 'Ca. Methanoperedens', while exploring their diversity, uniqueness, potential role in elemental cycling, and evolutionary history.

RevDate: 2021-11-17

Sutter JM, Johnsen U, Reinhardt A, et al (2021)

Correction to: Pentose degradation in archaea: Halorhabdus species degrade D-xylose, L-arabinose and D-ribose via bacterial-type pathways.

Extremophiles : life under extreme conditions, 25(5-6):527.

RevDate: 2021-11-02

Liu LJ, Jiang Z, Wang P, et al (2021)

Physiology, Taxonomy, and Sulfur Metabolism of the Sulfolobales, an Order of Thermoacidophilic Archaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:768283.

The order Sulfolobales (phylum Crenarchaeota) is a group of thermoacidophilic archaea. The first member of the Sulfolobales was discovered in 1972, and current 23 species are validly named under the International Code of Nomenclature of Prokaryotes. The majority of members of the Sulfolobales is obligately or facultatively chemolithoautotrophic. When they grow autotrophically, elemental sulfur or reduced inorganic sulfur compounds are their energy sources. Therefore, sulfur metabolism is the most important physiological characteristic of the Sulfolobales. The functions of some enzymes and proteins involved in sulfur reduction, sulfur oxidation, sulfide oxidation, thiosulfate oxidation, sulfite oxidation, tetrathionate hydrolysis, and sulfur trafficking have been determined. In this review, we describe current knowledge about the physiology, taxonomy, and sulfur metabolism of the Sulfolobales, and note future challenges in this field.

RevDate: 2021-10-26

Anchal , Kaushik V, M Goel (2021)

Distribution of Peptidyl-Prolyl Isomerase (PPIase) in the Archaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:751049.

Cis-trans isomerization of the peptide bond prior to proline is an intrinsically slow process but plays an essential role in protein folding. In vivo cis-trans isomerization reaction is catalyzed by Peptidyl-prolyl isomerase (PPIases), a category of proteins widely distributed among all the three domains of life. The present study is majorly focused on the distribution of different types of PPIases in the archaeal domain. All the three hitherto known families of PPIases (namely FKBP, Cyclophilin and parvulin) were studied to identify the evolutionary conservation across the phylum archaea. The basic function of cyclophilin, FKBP and parvulin has been conserved whereas the sequence alignment suggested variations in each clade. The conserved residues within the predicted motif of each family are unique. The available protein structures of different PPIase across various domains were aligned to ascertain the structural variation in the catalytic site. The structural alignment of native PPIase proteins among various groups suggested that the apo-protein may have variable conformations but when bound to their specific inhibitors, they attain similar active site configuration. This is the first study of its kind which explores the distribution of archaeal PPIases, along with detailed structural and functional analysis of each type of PPIase found in archaea.

RevDate: 2021-10-29

Wunderer M, Markt R, Lackner N, et al (2021)

The glutamyl tail length of the cofactor F420 in the methanogenic Archaea Methanosarcina thermophila and Methanoculleus thermophilus.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(21)06190-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The cofactor F420 is synthesized by many different organisms and as a redox cofactor, it plays a crucial role in the redox reactions of catabolic and biosynthetic metabolic pathways. It consists of a deazaflavin structure, which is linked via lactate to an oligoglutamate chain, that can vary in length. In the present study, the methanogenic Archaea Methanosarcina thermophila and Methanoculleus thermophilus were cultivated on different carbon sources and their coenzyme F420 composition has been assayed by reversed-phase ion-pair high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorometric detection regarding both, overall cofactor F420 production and distribution of F420 glutamyl tail length. In Methanosarcina thermophila cultivated on methanol, acetate, and a mixture of acetate and methanol, the most abundant cofactors were F420-5 and F420-4, whereby the last digit refers to the number of expressed glutamyl rests. By contrast, in the obligate CO2 reducing Methanoculleus thermophilus the most abundant cofactors were F420-3 and F420-4. In Methanosarcina thermophila, the relative proportions of the expressed F420 tail length changed during batch growth on all three carbon sources. Over time F420-3 and F420-4 decreased while F420-5 and F420-6 increased in their relative proportion in comparison to total F420 content. In contrast, in Methanoculleus thermophilus the relative abundance of the different F420 cofactors remained stable. It was also possible to differentiate the two methanogenic Archaea based on the glutamyl tail length of the cofactor F420. The cofactor F420-5 in concentrations >2% could only be assigned to Methanosarcina thermophila. In all four variants a trend for a positive correlation between the DNA concentration and the total concentration of the cofactor could be shown. Except for the variant Methanosarcinathermophila with acetate as sole carbon source the same could be shown between the concentration of the mcrA gene copy number and the total concentration of the cofactor.

RevDate: 2021-10-26

Wang B, Liu N, Yang M, et al (2021)

Co-occurrence of planktonic bacteria and archaea affects their biogeographic patterns in China's coastal wetlands.

Environmental microbiome, 16(1):19.

Planktonic bacteria and archaea play a key role in maintaining ecological functions in aquatic ecosystems; however, their biogeographic patterns and underlying mechanisms have not been well known in coastal wetlands including multiple types and at a large space scale. Therefore, planktonic bacteria and archaea and related environmental factors were investigated in twenty-one wetlands along China's coast to understand the above concerns. The results indicated that planktonic bacteria had different biogeographic pattern from planktonic archaea, and both patterns were not dependent on the wetland's types. Deterministic selection shapes the former's community structure, whereas stochastic processes regulate the latter's, being consistent with the fact that planktonic archaea have a larger niche breadth than planktonic bacteria. Planktonic bacteria and archaea co-occur, and their co-occurrence rather than salinity is more important in shaping their community structure although salinity is found to be a main environmental deterministic factor in the coastal wetland waters. This study highlights the role of planktonic bacteria-archaea co-occurrence on their biogeographic patterns, and thus provides a new insight into studying underlying mechanisms of microbial biogeography in coastal wetlands.

RevDate: 2021-11-22
CmpDate: 2021-11-22

Westoby M, Nielsen DA, Gillings MR, et al (2021)

Strategic traits of bacteria and archaea vary widely within substrate-use groups.

FEMS microbiology ecology, 97(11):.

Quantitative traits such as maximum growth rate and cell radial diameter are one facet of ecological strategy variation across bacteria and archaea. Another facet is substrate-use pathways, such as iron reduction or methylotrophy. Here, we ask how these two facets intersect, using a large compilation of data for culturable species and examining seven quantitative traits (genome size, signal transduction protein count, histidine kinase count, growth temperature, temperature-adjusted maximum growth rate, cell radial diameter and 16S rRNA operon copy number). Overall, quantitative trait variation within groups of organisms possessing a particular substrate-use pathway was very broad, outweighing differences between substrate-use groups. Although some substrate-use groups had significantly different means for some quantitative traits, standard deviation of quantitative trait values within each substrate-use pathway mostly averaged between 1.6 and 1.8 times larger than standard deviation across group means. Most likely, this wide variation reflects ecological strategy: for example, fast maximum growth rate is likely to express an early successional or copiotrophic strategy, and maximum growth varies widely within most substrate-use pathways. In general, it appears that these quantitative traits express different and complementary information about ecological strategy, compared with substrate use.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Ye H, Tang C, Cao Y, et al (2021)

Contribution of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria to nitrification under different biogeochemical factors in acidic soils.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Nitrification in soils is an essential process that involves archaeal and bacterial ammonia-oxidizers. Despite its importance, the relative contributions of soil factors to the abundance of ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) and their nitrification performances are seldom discussed. The aim of this study was to determine the effects of AOA and AOB abundance and different environmental conditions (pH, TC, TN, moisture, and temperature) on nitrification performance. The soils of the long-term fertilized tea orchards and forests were sampled in the field, and nitrification experiments were conducted in the laboratory. The acid soils were collected from the field and used in laboratory incubation experiments to calculate the nitrification rate, including the net nitrification rate (NN rate), nitrification potential (NP), and nitrification kinetics. The basic parameters, different forms of nitrogen content, and AOA and AOB amoA gene copies were also analyzed. Compared with the forest soil, the tea orchard soil had a lower pH and higher nitrogen content (p < 0.05). The AOA and AOB abundance in the soils of the forests and tea orchards were pH-dependent. The NN rate and NP had good relationships with AOA or AOB in the forest soil; however, poor relationships were observed in the tea orchard soil. When pH < 4, the performances of AOA and AOB were restricted by pH and the environment, especially in long-term fertilized farmlands. Long-term fertilization can cause soil acidification, which regulates the abundance of AOA and AOB and their nitrifying ability. The soil environment rather than AOA or AOB could control nitrification in long-term fertilized farmlands with a pH below 4. These findings could improve fertilization efficiency and control nutrient runoff in hilly agricultural ecosystems.

RevDate: 2021-11-05

Chouhan BPS, Gade M, Martinez D, et al (2021)

Implications of divergence of methionine adenosyltransferase in archaea.

FEBS open bio [Epub ahead of print].

Methionine adenosyltransferase (MAT) catalyzes the biosynthesis of S-adenosyl methionine from l-methionine and ATP. MAT enzymes are ancient, believed to share a common ancestor, and are highly conserved in all three domains of life. However, the sequences of archaeal MATs show considerable divergence compared with their bacterial and eukaryotic counterparts. Furthermore, the structural significance and functional significance of this sequence divergence are not well understood. In the present study, we employed structural analysis and ancestral sequence reconstruction to investigate archaeal MAT divergence. We observed that the dimer interface containing the active site (which is usually well conserved) diverged considerably between the bacterial/eukaryotic MATs and archaeal MAT. A detailed investigation of the available structures supports the sequence analysis outcome: The protein domains and subdomains of bacterial and eukaryotic MAT are more similar than those of archaea. Finally, we resurrected archaeal MAT ancestors. Interestingly, archaeal MAT ancestors show substrate specificity, which is lost during evolution. This observation supports the hypothesis of a common MAT ancestor for the three domains of life. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that archaeal MAT is an ideal system for studying an enzyme family that evolved differently in one domain compared with others while maintaining the same catalytic activity.

RevDate: 2021-10-16

Bhattarai B, Bhattacharjee AS, Coutinho FH, et al (2021)

Viruses and Their Interactions With Bacteria and Archaea of Hypersaline Great Salt Lake.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:701414.

Viruses play vital biogeochemical and ecological roles by (a) expressing auxiliary metabolic genes during infection, (b) enhancing the lateral transfer of host genes, and (c) inducing host mortality. Even in harsh and extreme environments, viruses are major players in carbon and nutrient recycling from organic matter. However, there is much that we do not yet understand about viruses and the processes mediated by them in the extreme environments such as hypersaline habitats. The Great Salt Lake (GSL) in Utah, United States is a hypersaline ecosystem where the biogeochemical role of viruses is poorly understood. This study elucidates the diversity of viruses and describes virus-host interactions in GSL sediments along a salinity gradient. The GSL sediment virosphere consisted of Haloviruses (32.07 ± 19.33%) and members of families Siphoviridae (39.12 ± 19.8%), Myoviridae (13.7 ± 6.6%), and Podoviridae (5.43 ± 0.64%). Our results demonstrate that salinity alongside the concentration of organic carbon and inorganic nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) governs the viral, bacteria, and archaeal diversity in this habitat. Computational host predictions for the GSL viruses revealed a wide host range with a dominance of viruses that infect Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Firmicutes. Identification of auxiliary metabolic genes for photosynthesis (psbA), carbon fixation (rbcL, cbbL), formaldehyde assimilation (SHMT), and nitric oxide reduction (NorQ) shed light on the roles played by GSL viruses in biogeochemical cycles of global relevance.

RevDate: 2021-10-29

Castro I, Costa H, Turgeman-Grott I, et al (2021)

The lanthipeptide biosynthetic clusters of the domain Archaea.

Microbiological research, 253:126884.

Research on Archaea's secondary metabolites is still lagging behind that of Bacteria and Eukarya. Our goal was to contribute to this knowledge gap by analyzing the lanthipeptide's clusters in Archaea. As previously proposed, Archaea encodes only class II synthetases (LanMs), which we found to be confined to the class Halobacteria (also known as haloarchaea). In total, we analyzed the phylogeny and the domains of 42 LanMs. Four types were identified, and the majority of them belong to the CCG group due to their cyclization domain, which includes LanMs of Cyanobacteria. Putative cognate peptides were predicted for most of LanMs and are a very diverse group of molecules that share a Kx(Y/F)(D/E)xx(F/Y) motif in their leader peptides. According to their homology, some of them were categorized into subfamilies, including Halolancins, Haladacins, Haloferaxcins and Halobiforcins. Many LanM genes were associated with mobile genetic elements, and their vicinities mainly encode ABC and MFS transporters, tailoring enzymes and uncharacterized proteins. Our results suggest that the biosynthesis of lanthipeptides in haloarchaea can entail distinct enzymology that must lead to the production of peptides with novel structures and unpredicted biological and ecological roles. Finally, an Haloferax mediterranei knockout, lacking its three lanM genes, was generated, and it was concluded that its antimicrobial activity is not primarily related to the production of lanthipeptides.

RevDate: 2021-11-05

Payne LJ, Todeschini TC, Wu Y, et al (2021)

Identification and classification of antiviral defence systems in bacteria and archaea with PADLOC reveals new system types.

Nucleic acids research, 49(19):10868-10878.

To provide protection against viral infection and limit the uptake of mobile genetic elements, bacteria and archaea have evolved many diverse defence systems. The discovery and application of CRISPR-Cas adaptive immune systems has spurred recent interest in the identification and classification of new types of defence systems. Many new defence systems have recently been reported but there is a lack of accessible tools available to identify homologs of these systems in different genomes. Here, we report the Prokaryotic Antiviral Defence LOCator (PADLOC), a flexible and scalable open-source tool for defence system identification. With PADLOC, defence system genes are identified using HMM-based homologue searches, followed by validation of system completeness using gene presence/absence and synteny criteria specified by customisable system classifications. We show that PADLOC identifies defence systems with high accuracy and sensitivity. Our modular approach to organising the HMMs and system classifications allows additional defence systems to be easily integrated into the PADLOC database. To demonstrate application of PADLOC to biological questions, we used PADLOC to identify six new subtypes of known defence systems and a putative novel defence system comprised of a helicase, methylase and ATPase. PADLOC is available as a standalone package (https://github.com/padlocbio/padloc) and as a webserver (https://padloc.otago.ac.nz).

RevDate: 2021-10-01

Krawczyk A, Salamon D, Kowalska-Duplaga K, et al (2021)

Association of Fungi and Archaea of the Gut Microbiota with Crohn's Disease in Pediatric Patients-Pilot Study.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 10(9):.

The composition of bacteria is often altered in Crohn's disease (CD), but its connection to the disease is not fully understood. Gut archaea and fungi have recently been suggested to play a role as well. In our study, the presence and number of selected species of fungi and archaea in pediatric patients with CD and healthy controls were evaluated. Stool samples were collected from children with active CD (n = 54), non-active CD (n = 37) and control subjects (n = 33). The prevalence and the number of selected microorganisms were assessed by real-time PCR. The prevalence of Candida tropicalis was significantly increased in active CD compared to non-active CD and the control group (p = 0.011 and p = 0.036, respectively). The number of Malassezia spp. cells was significantly lower in patients with active CD compared to the control group, but in non-active CD, a significant increase was observed (p = 0.005 and p = 0.020, respectively). There were no statistically significant differences in the colonization by archaea. The obtained results indicate possible correlations with the course of the CD; however, further studies of the entire archeobiome and the mycobiome are necessary in order to receive a complete picture.

RevDate: 2021-10-01

Merkel AY, Chernyh NA, Pimenov NV, et al (2021)

Diversity and Metabolic Potential of the Terrestrial Mud Volcano Microbial Community with a High Abundance of Archaea Mediating the Anaerobic Oxidation of Methane.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 11(9):.

Terrestrial mud volcanoes (TMVs) are important natural sources of methane emission. The microorganisms inhabiting these environments remain largely unknown. We studied the phylogenetic composition and metabolic potential of the prokaryotic communities of TMVs located in the Taman Peninsula, Russia, using a metagenomic approach. One of the examined sites harbored a unique community with a high abundance of anaerobic methane-oxidizing archaea belonging to ANME-3 group (39% of all 16S rRNA gene reads). The high number of ANME-3 archaea was confirmed by qPCR, while the process of anaerobic methane oxidation was demonstrated by radioisotopic experiments. We recovered metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of archaeal and bacterial community members and analyzed their metabolic capabilities. The ANME-3 MAG contained a complete set of genes for methanogenesis as well as of ribosomal RNA and did not encode proteins involved in dissimilatory nitrate or sulfate reduction. The presence of multiheme c-type cytochromes suggests that ANME-3 can couple methane oxidation with the reduction of metal oxides or with the interspecies electron transfer to a bacterial partner. The bacterial members of the community were mainly represented by autotrophic, nitrate-reducing, sulfur-oxidizing bacteria, as well as by fermentative microorganisms. This study extends the current knowledge of the phylogenetic and metabolic diversity of prokaryotes in TMVs and provides a first insight into the genomic features of ANME-3 archaea.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Weidenbach K, Gutt M, Cassidy L, et al (2021)

Small proteins in Archaea, a mainly unexplored world.

Journal of bacteriology [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years, increasing numbers of small proteins have moved into the focus of science. Small proteins have been identified and characterized in all three domains of life, but the majority remains functionally uncharacterized, lack secondary structure, and exhibit limited evolutionary conservation. While quite a few have already been described for bacteria and eukaryotic organisms, the amount of known and functionally analyzed archaeal small proteins is still very limited. In this review we compile the current state of research, show strategies for systematic approaches for global identification of small archaeal proteins and address selected functionally characterized examples. Besides, we document exemplarily for one archaeon the tool development and optimization to identify small proteins using genome wide approaches.

RevDate: 2021-10-12
CmpDate: 2021-10-12

Blombach F, Fouqueau T, Matelska D, et al (2021)

Promoter-proximal elongation regulates transcription in archaea.

Nature communications, 12(1):5524.

Recruitment of RNA polymerase and initiation factors to the promoter is the only known target for transcription activation and repression in archaea. Whether any of the subsequent steps towards productive transcription elongation are involved in regulation is not known. We characterised how the basal transcription machinery is distributed along genes in the archaeon Saccharolobus solfataricus. We discovered a distinct early elongation phase where RNA polymerases sequentially recruit the elongation factors Spt4/5 and Elf1 to form the transcription elongation complex (TEC) before the TEC escapes into productive transcription. TEC escape is rate-limiting for transcription output during exponential growth. Oxidative stress causes changes in TEC escape that correlate with changes in the transcriptome. Our results thus establish that TEC escape contributes to the basal promoter strength and facilitates transcription regulation. Impaired TEC escape coincides with the accumulation of initiation factors at the promoter and recruitment of termination factor aCPSF1 to the early TEC. This suggests two possible mechanisms for how TEC escape limits transcription, physically blocking upstream RNA polymerases during transcription initiation and premature termination of early TECs.

RevDate: 2021-09-18

Lin T, Zhang L, Wu M, et al (2021)

Repair of Hypoxanthine in DNA Revealed by DNA Glycosylases and Endonucleases From Hyperthermophilic Archaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:736915.

Since hyperthermophilic Archaea (HA) thrive in high-temperature environments, which accelerate the rates of deamination of base in DNA, their genomic stability is facing a severe challenge. Hypoxanthine (Hx) is one of the common deaminated bases in DNA. Generally, replication of Hx in DNA before repaired causes AT → GC mutation. Biochemical data have demonstrated that 3-methyladenine DNA glycosylase II (AlkA) and Family V uracil DNA glycosylase (UDG) from HA could excise Hx from DNA, thus triggering a base excision repair (BER) process for Hx repair. Besides, three endonucleases have been reported from HA: Endonuclease V (EndoV), Endonuclease Q (EndoQ), and Endonuclease NucS (EndoNucS), capable of cleaving Hx-containing DNA, thereby providing alternative pathways for Hx repair. Both EndoV and EndoQ could cleave one DNA strand with Hx, thus forming a nick and further initiating an alternative excision repair (AER) process for the follow-up repair. By comparison, EndoNucS cleaves both strands of Hx-containing DNA in a restriction endonuclease manner, thus producing a double-stranded break (DSB). This created DSB might be repaired by homologous recombination (HR) or by a combination activity of DNA polymerase (DNA pol), flap endonuclease 1 (FEN1), and DNA ligase (DNA lig). Herein, we reviewed the most recent advances in repair of Hx in DNA triggered by DNA glycosylases and endonucleases from HA, and proposed future research directions.

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Franke JD, Fuerst JA, AM Poole (2021)

Editorial: Structure, Function and Evolution of Complex Cellular Organization in Bacteria and Archaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:751416.

RevDate: 2021-10-29
CmpDate: 2021-09-15

Pallen MJ (2021)

The status Candidatus for uncultured taxa of Bacteria and Archaea: SWOT analysis.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 71(9):.

The status Candidatus was introduced to bacterial taxonomy in the 1990s to accommodate uncultured taxa defined by analyses of DNA sequences. Here I review the strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats (SWOT) associated with the status Candidatus in the light of a quarter century of use, twinned with recent developments in bacterial taxonomy and sequence-based taxonomic discovery. Despite ambiguities as to its scope, philosophical objections to its use and practical problems in implementation, the status Candidatus has now been applied to over 1000 taxa and has been widely adopted by journals and databases. Although lacking priority under the International Code for Nomenclature of Prokaryotes, many Candidatus names have already achieved de facto standing in the academic literature and in databases via description of a taxon in a peer-reviewed publication, alongside deposition of a genome sequence and there is a clear path to valid publication of such names on culture. Continued and increased use of Candidatus names provides an alternative to the potential upheaval that might accompany creation of a new additional code of nomenclature and provides a ready solution to the urgent challenge of naming many thousands of newly discovered but uncultured species.

RevDate: 2021-12-12

Kumar V, Singh B, van Belkum MJ, et al (2021)

Halocins, natural antimicrobials of Archaea: Exotic or special or both?.

Biotechnology advances, 53:107834.

Haloarchaea are adapted to survive under extreme saline conditions by accumulating osmolytes and salts to counteract the high osmotic pressure in their habitats. As a consequence, their proteins have evolved to remain active, or even most active, at very high ionic strength. Halocins are proteinaceous antimicrobial substances that are ribosomally-synthesized by haloarchaea and they provide the producers an advantage in the competition for nutrients and ecological niches. These antimicrobials are stable at high temperature, elevated salt concentrations, and alkaline pH conditions. These properties have endowed them with great potential in diverse biotechnological applications, which involve extreme processing conditions (such as high salt concentrations, high pressure, or high temperatures). They kill target cells by inhibition of Na+/H+ antiporter in the membrane or modification/disruption of the cell membrane leading to cell lysis. In general, the taxonomy of haloarchaea and their typical phenotypic and genotypic characteristics are well studied; however, information regarding their halocins, especially aspects related to genetics, biosynthetic pathways, mechanism of action, and structure-function relationship is very limited. A few studies have demonstrated the potential applications of halocins in the preservation of salted food products and brine-cured hides in leather industries, protecting the myocardium from ischemia and reperfusion injury, as well as from life-threatening diseases such as cardiac arrest and cancers. In recent years, genome mining has been an essential tool to decipher the genetic basis of halocin biosynthesis. Nevertheless, this is likely the tip of the iceberg as genome analyses have revealed many putative halocins in databases waiting for further investigation. Identification and characterization of this source of halocins may lead to antimicrobials for future therapeutics and/or food preservation. Hence, the present review analyzes different aspects of halocins such as biosynthesis, mechanism of action against target cells, and potential biotechnological applications.

RevDate: 2021-10-28

Li L, Zhang W, Zhang S, et al (2021)

Bacteria and Archaea Synergistically Convert Glycine Betaine to Biogenic Methane in the Formosa Cold Seep of the South China Sea.

mSystems, 6(5):e0070321.

Cold seeps are globally widespread seafloor ecosystems that feature abundant methane production and flourishing chemotrophic benthic communities. Chemical evidence indicates that cold seep methane is largely biogenic; however, the primary methane-producing organisms and associated pathways involved in methanogenesis remain elusive. This work detected methane production when glycine betaine (GBT) or trimethylamine (TMA) was added to the sediment microcosms of the Formosa cold seep, South China Sea. The methane production was suppressed by antibiotic inhibition of bacteria, while GBT was accumulated. This suggests that the widely used osmoprotectant GBT could be converted to cold seep biogenic methane via the synergistic activity of bacteria and methanogenic archaea because archaea are not sensitive to antibiotics and no bacteria are known to produce ample methane (mM). 16S rRNA gene diversity analyses revealed that the predominant bacterial and archaeal genera in the GBT-amended methanogenic microcosms included Oceanirhabdus and Methanococcoides. Moreover, metagenomic analyses detected the presence of grdH and mtgB genes that are involved in GBT reduction and demethylation, respectively. Two novel species were obtained, including bacterium Oceanirhabdus seepicola, which reduces GBT to TMA, and a methanogenic archaeon, Methanococcoides seepicolus, which produces methane from TMA and GBT. The two strains reconstituted coculture efficiently converted GBT to methane at 18°C; however, at 4°C addition of dimethylglycine (DMG), the GBT demethylation product, was necessary. Therefore, this work demonstrated that GBT is the precursor not only of the biogenic methane but also of the cryoprotectant DMG to the microorganisms at the Formosa cold seep. IMPORTANCE Numerous cold seeps have been found in global continental margins where methane is enriched in pore waters that are forced upward from sediments. Therefore, high concerns have been focused on the methane-producing organisms and the metabolic pathways in these environments because methane is a potent greenhouse gas. In this study, GBT was identified as the main precursor for methane in the Formosa cold seep of the South China Sea. Further, synergism of bacteria and methanogenic archaea was identified in GBT conversion to methane via the GBT reduction pathway, while methanogen-mediated GBT demethylation to methane was also observed. In addition, GBT-demethylated product dimethyl glycine acted as a cryoprotectant that promoted the cold seep microorganisms at cold temperatures. GBT is an osmoprotectant that is widely used by marine organisms, and therefore, the GBT-derived methanogenic pathway reported here could be widely distributed among global cold seep environments.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Hu D, Yang J, Qi Y, et al (2021)

Metagenomic Analysis of Fecal Archaea, Bacteria, Eukaryota, and Virus in Przewalski's Horses Following Anthelmintic Treatment.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 8:708512.

Intestinal microbiota is involved in immune response and metabolism of the host. The frequent use of anthelmintic compounds for parasite expulsion causes disturbance to the equine intestinal microbiota. However, most studies were on the effects of such treatment on the intestinal bacterial microbes; none is on the entire microbial community including archaea and eukaryotic and viral community in equine animals. This study is the first to explore the differences of the microbial community composition and structure in Przewalski's horses prior to and following anthelmintic treatment, and to determine the corresponding changes of their functional attributes based on metagenomic sequencing. Results showed that in archaea, the methanogen of Euryarchaeota was the dominant phylum. Under this phylum, anthelmintic treatment increased the Methanobrevibacter genus and decreased the Methanocorpusculum genus and two other dominant archaea species, Methanocorpusculum labreanum and Methanocorpusculum bavaricum. In bacteria, Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes were the dominant phyla. Anthelmintic treatment increased the genera of Clostridium and Eubacterium and decreased those of Bacteroides and Prevotella and dominant bacteria species. These altered genera were associated with immunity and digestion. In eukaryota, anthelmintic treatment also changed the genera related to digestion and substantially decreased the relative abundances of identified species. In virus, anthelmintic treatment increased the genus of unclassified_d__Viruses and decreased those of unclassified_f__Siphoviridae and unclassified_f__Myoviridae. Most of the identified viral species were classified into phage, which were more sensitive to anthelmintic treatment than other viruses. Furthermore, anthelmintic treatment was found to increase the number of pathogens related to some clinical diseases in horses. The COG and KEGG function analysis showed that the intestinal microbiota of Przewalski's horse mainly participated in the carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism. The anthelmintic treatment did not change their overall function; however, it displaced the population of the functional microbes involved in each function or pathway. These results provide a complete view on the changes caused by anthelmintic treatment in the intestinal microbiota of the Przewalski's horses.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Makarova KS, Wolf YI, Karamycheva S, et al (2021)

A Unique Gene Module in Thermococcales Archaea Centered on a Hypervariable Protein Containing Immunoglobulin Domains.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:721392.

Molecular mechanisms involved in biological conflicts and self vs nonself recognition in archaea remain poorly characterized. We apply phylogenomic analysis to identify a hypervariable gene module that is widespread among Thermococcales. These loci consist of an upstream gene coding for a large protein containing several immunoglobulin (Ig) domains and unique combinations of downstream genes, some of which also contain Ig domains. In the large Ig domain containing protein, the C-terminal Ig domain sequence is hypervariable, apparently, as a result of recombination between genes from different Thermococcales. To reflect the hypervariability, we denote this gene module VARTIG (VARiable Thermococcales IG). The overall organization of the VARTIG modules is similar to the organization of Polymorphic Toxin Systems (PTS). Archaeal genomes outside Thermococcales encode a variety of Ig domain proteins, but no counterparts to VARTIG and no Ig domains with comparable levels of variability. The specific functions of VARTIG remain unknown but the identified features of this system imply three testable hypotheses: (i) involvement in inter-microbial conflicts analogous to PTS, (ii) role in innate immunity analogous to the vertebrate complement system, and (iii) function in self vs nonself discrimination analogous to the vertebrate Major Histocompatibility Complex. The latter two hypotheses seem to be of particular interest given the apparent analogy to the vertebrate immunity.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Haiming T, Chao L, Kaikai C, et al (2021)

Effects of short-term soil tillage practice on activity and community structure of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria and archaea under the double-cropping rice field.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: The potential nitrification activity (PNA), population size and community composition of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) and ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in paddy soil from a short-term (5 years) tillage field experiment conducted at tillering stage of late rice were investigated using the shaken slurry method and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction.

METHODS AND RESULTS: The experiment included four tillage treatments: conventional tillage with crop residue incorporation (CT), rotary tillage with crop residue incorporation (RT), no-tillage with crop residue returning (NT) and rotary tillage with all crop residues removed as a control (RTO). The results showed that PNA in paddy soil of CT, RT and NT treatments was higher than that of RTO treatment, and the abundance of AOA and AOB was much higher in paddy soil of CT, RT and NT treatments than RTO treatment. Meanwhile, PNA and the abundance of AOB and AOA in paddy soil were greatly enhanced by combined application of tillage and crop residue, whereas PNA and the abundance of AOB and AOA in paddy soil were decreased by combined application of no-tillage and crop residue. Moreover, PNA was closely correlated with the abundance and community structure of AOB rather than AOA. The results also showed that PNA and the population sizes of AOB and AOA in crop incorporation treatments were higher than that of crop residue removed treatment. Cluster and redundancy analyses indicated that crop residue effect played a more important role in shaping AOA community structure compared to short-term tillage management.

CONCLUSIONS: The results indicated that AOB rather than AOA functionally dominated ammonia oxidation in the double-cropping rice paddy soil, the activities of AOB and AOA were increased and the community structure was also changed under the combination of conventional tillage, rotary tillage and crop residue condition.

The activity and community structure of AOB and AOA, which were affected by the combination of tillage and crop residue managements, play an important role in cycling of nitrogen.

RevDate: 2021-11-12
CmpDate: 2021-11-12

Cai M, Yin X, Tang X, et al (2022)

Metatranscriptomics reveals different features of methanogenic archaea among global vegetated coastal ecosystems.

The Science of the total environment, 802:149848.

Vegetated coastal ecosystems (VCEs; i.e., mangroves, saltmarshes, and seagrasses) represent important sources of natural methane emission. Despite recent advances in the understanding of novel taxa and pathways associated with methanogenesis in these ecosystems, the key methanogenic players and the contribution of different substrates to methane formation remain elusive. Here, we systematically investigate the community and activity of methanogens using publicly available metatranscriptomes at a global scale together with our in-house metatranscriptomic dataset. Taxonomic profiling reveals that 13 groups of methanogenic archaea were transcribed in the investigated VCEs, and they were predominated by Methanosarcinales. Among these VCEs, methanogens exhibited all the three known methanogenic pathways in some mangrove sediments, where methylotrophic methanogens Methanosarcinales/Methanomassiliicoccales grew on diverse methyl compounds and coexisted with hydrogenotrophic (mainly Methanomicrobiales) and acetoclastic (mainly Methanothrix) methanogens. Contrastingly, the predominant methanogenic pathway in saltmarshes and seagrasses was constrained to methylotrophic methanogenesis. These findings reveal different archaeal methanogens in VCEs and suggest the potentially distinct methanogenesis contributions in these VCEs to the global warming.

RevDate: 2021-08-31

Koirala A, VS Brözel (2021)

Phylogeny of Nitrogenase Structural and Assembly Components Reveals New Insights into the Origin and Distribution of Nitrogen Fixation across Bacteria and Archaea.

Microorganisms, 9(8):.

The phylogeny of nitrogenase has only been analyzed using the structural proteins NifHDK. As nifHDKENB has been established as the minimum number of genes necessary for in silico prediction of diazotrophy, we present an updated phylogeny of diazotrophs using both structural (NifHDK) and cofactor assembly proteins (NifENB). Annotated Nif sequences were obtained from InterPro from 963 culture-derived genomes. Nif sequences were aligned individually and concatenated to form one NifHDKENB sequence. Phylogenies obtained using PhyML, FastTree, RapidNJ, and ASTRAL from individuals and concatenated protein sequences were compared and analyzed. All six genes were found across the Actinobacteria, Aquificae, Bacteroidetes, Chlorobi, Chloroflexi, Cyanobacteria, Deferribacteres, Firmicutes, Fusobacteria, Nitrospira, Proteobacteria, PVC group, and Spirochaetes, as well as the Euryarchaeota. The phylogenies of individual Nif proteins were very similar to the overall NifHDKENB phylogeny, indicating the assembly proteins have evolved together. Our higher resolution database upheld the three cluster phylogeny, but revealed undocumented horizontal gene transfers across phyla. Only 48% of the 325 genera containing all six nif genes are currently supported by biochemical evidence of diazotrophy. In addition, this work provides reference for any inter-phyla comparison of Nif sequences and a quality database of Nif proteins that can be used for identifying new Nif sequences.

RevDate: 2021-12-11

Martinez-Gutierrez CA, FO Aylward (2021)

Phylogenetic Signal, Congruence, and Uncertainty across Bacteria and Archaea.

Molecular biology and evolution, 38(12):5514-5527.

Reconstruction of the Tree of Life is a central goal in biology. Although numerous novel phyla of bacteria and archaea have recently been discovered, inconsistent phylogenetic relationships are routinely reported, and many inter-phylum and inter-domain evolutionary relationships remain unclear. Here, we benchmark different marker genes often used in constructing multidomain phylogenetic trees of bacteria and archaea and present a set of marker genes that perform best for multidomain trees constructed from concatenated alignments. We use recently-developed Tree Certainty metrics to assess the confidence of our results and to obviate the complications of traditional bootstrap-based metrics. Given the vastly disparate number of genomes available for different phyla of bacteria and archaea, we also assessed the impact of taxon sampling on multidomain tree construction. Our results demonstrate that biases between the representation of different taxonomic groups can dramatically impact the topology of resulting trees. Inspection of our highest-quality tree supports the division of most bacteria into Terrabacteria and Gracilicutes, with Thermatogota and Synergistota branching earlier from these superphyla. This tree also supports the inclusion of the Patescibacteria within the Terrabacteria as a sister group to the Chloroflexota instead of as a basal-branching lineage. For the Archaea, our tree supports three monophyletic lineages (DPANN, Euryarchaeota, and TACK/Asgard), although we note the basal placement of the DPANN may still represent an artifact caused by biased sequence composition. Our findings provide a robust and standardized framework for multidomain phylogenetic reconstruction that can be used to evaluate inter-phylum relationships and assess uncertainty in conflicting topologies of the Tree of Life.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Kostygov AY, Alves JMP, V Yurchenko (2021)

Editorial: Symbioses Between Protists and Bacteria/Archaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:709184.

RevDate: 2021-11-19
CmpDate: 2021-11-19

Moghimipour E, Abedishirehjin S, Baghbadorani MA, et al (2021)

Bacteria and Archaea: A new era of cancer therapy.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society, 338:1-7.

Cancer is one of the most important mortality in the world. The major drawbacks of chemotherapy are the poor absorption of drugs into tumor tissues and development of resistance against anti-cancer agents. To overcome these limitations, the use of microorganisms has been extensively considered in the treatment of cancer. Microorganisms (bacteria/Archaea) secrete different bioactive compounds that can efficiently inhibit cancer cells growth. Biological nanocarriers derived from microorganisms including outer membrane vesicles (OMVs), bacterial ghosts (BGs) and archaeosomes have also been considered as drug delivery systems. Conjugation of drug loaded nanocarriers to bacteria strongly kills the cancer cells after internalization through the bacteria. Merging of microbiology and nanotechnology may provide versatile microbial nano-hybrids for promising treatment of cancer. This strategy causes more amount of drug to enter into cancer cells. In this review, we present evidence that microorganism, their derivatives as well as their intervention with nanotechnology can be a powerful vehicle for eradication cancer.

RevDate: 2021-11-23
CmpDate: 2021-11-23

Acharya S, Dahal A, HK Bhattarai (2021)

Evolution and origin of sliding clamp in bacteria, archaea and eukarya.

PloS one, 16(8):e0241093.

The replication of DNA is an essential process in all domains of life. A protein often involved in replication is the sliding clamp. The sliding clamp encircles the DNA and helps replicative polymerase stay attached to the replication machinery increasing the processivity of the polymerase. In eukaryotes and archaea, the sliding clamp is called the Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen (PCNA) and consists of two domains. This PCNA forms a trimer encircling the DNA as a hexamer. In bacteria, the structure of the sliding clamp is highly conserved, but the protein itself, called beta clamp, contains three domains, which dimerize to form a hexamer. The bulk of literature touts a conservation of the structure of the sliding clamp, but fails to recognize the conservation of protein sequence among sliding clamps. In this paper, we have used PSI blast to the second iteration in NCBI to show a statistically significant sequence homology between Pyrococcus furiosus PCNA and Kallipyga gabonensis beta clamp. The last two domains of beta clamp align with the two domains of PCNA. This homology data demonstrates that PCNA and beta clamp arose from a common ancestor. In this paper, we have further used beta clamp and PCNA sequences from diverse bacteria, archaea and eukarya to build maximum likelihood phylogenetic tree. Most, but not all, species in different domains of life harbor one sliding clamp from vertical inheritance. Some of these species that have two or more sliding clamps have acquired them from gene duplication or horizontal gene transfer events.

RevDate: 2021-08-11

Xie R, Wang Y, Huang D, et al (2021)

Expanding Asgard members in the domain of Archaea sheds new light on the origin of eukaryotes.

Science China. Life sciences [Epub ahead of print].

The hypothesis that eukaryotes originated from within the domain Archaea has been strongly supported by recent phylogenomic analyses placing Heimdallarchaeota-Wukongarchaeota branch from the Asgard superphylum as the closest known archaeal sister-group to eukaryotes. However, our understanding is still limited in terms of the relationship between eukaryotes and archaea, as well as the evolution and ecological functions of the Asgard archaea. Here, we describe three previously unknown phylum-level Asgard archaeal lineages, tentatively named Sigyn-, Freyr- and Njordarchaeota. Additional members in Wukongarchaeota and Baldrarchaeota from distinct environments are also reported here, further expanding their ecological roles and metabolic capacities. Comprehensive phylogenomic analyses further supported the origin of eukaryotes within Asgard archaea and a new lineage Njordarchaeota was supposed as the known closest branch with the eukaryotic nuclear host lineage. Metabolic reconstruction suggests that Njordarchaeota may have a heterotrophic lifestyle with capability of peptides and amino acids utilization, while Sigynarchaeota and Freyrarchaeota also have the potentials to fix inorganic carbon via the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway and degrade organic matters. Additionally, the Ack/Pta pathway for homoacetogenesis and de novo anaerobic cobalamin biosynthesis pathway were found in Freyrarchaeota and Wukongrarchaeota, respectively. Some previously unidentified eukaryotic signature proteins for intracellular membrane trafficking system, and the homologue of mu/sigma subunit of adaptor protein complex, were identified in Freyrarchaeota. This study expands the Asgard superphylum, sheds new light on the evolution of eukaryotes and improves our understanding of ecological functions of the Asgard archaea.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Wu D, Zhao C, Bai H, et al (2021)

Characteristics and metabolic patterns of soil methanogenic archaea communities in the high-latitude natural forested wetlands of China.

Ecology and evolution, 11(15):10396-10408.

Soil methanogenic microorganisms are one of the primary methane-producing microbes in wetlands. However, we still poorly understand the community characteristic and metabolic patterns of these microorganisms according to vegetation type and seasonal changes. Therefore, to better elucidate the effects of the vegetation type and seasonal factors on the methanogenic community structure and metabolic patterns, we detected the characteristics of the soil methanogenic mcrA gene from three types of natural wetlands in different seasons in the Xiaoxing'an Mountain region, China. The results indicated that the distribution of Methanobacteriaceae (hydrogenotrophic methanogens) was higher in winter, while Methanosarcinaceae and Methanosaetaceae accounted for a higher proportion in summer. Hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis was the dominant trophic pattern in each wetland. The results of principal coordinate analysis and cluster analysis showed that the vegetation type considerably influenced the methanogenic community composition. The methanogenic community structure in the Betula platyphylla-Larix gmelinii wetland was relatively different from the structure of the other two wetland types. Indicator species analysis further demonstrated that the corresponding species of indicator operational taxonomic units from the Alnus sibirica wetland and the Betula ovalifolia wetland were similar. Network analysis showed that cooperative and competitive relationships exist both within and between the same or different trophic methanogens. The core methanogens with higher abundance in each wetland were conducive to the adaptation to environmental disturbances. This information is crucial for the assessment of metabolic patterns of soil methanogenic archaea and future fluxes in the wetlands of the Xiaoxing'an Mountain region given their vulnerability.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Londei P, S Ferreira-Cerca (2021)

Ribosome Biogenesis in Archaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:686977.

Making ribosomes is a major cellular process essential for the maintenance of functional ribosome homeostasis and to ensure appropriate gene expression. Strikingly, although ribosomes are universally conserved ribonucleoprotein complexes decoding the genetic information contained in messenger RNAs into proteins, their biogenesis shows an intriguing degree of variability across the tree of life. In this review, we summarize our knowledge on the least understood ribosome biogenesis pathway: the archaeal one. Furthermore, we highlight some evolutionary conserved and divergent molecular features of making ribosomes across the tree of life.

RevDate: 2021-11-17
CmpDate: 2021-11-17

Xiao L, Liu G, Gong F, et al (2021)

The reductive carboxylation activity of heterotetrameric pyruvate synthases from hyperthermophilic archaea.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 572:151-156.

Pyruvate synthase (pyruvate:ferredoxin oxidoreductase, PFOR) catalyzes the interconversion of acetyl-CoA and pyruvate, but the reductive carboxylation activities of heterotetrameric PFORs remain largely unknown. In this study, we cloned, expressed, and purified selected six heterotetrameric PFORs from hyperthermophilic archaea. The reductive carboxylation activities of these heterotetrameric PFORs were measured at 70 °C and the ratio of reductive carboxylation activity to oxidative decarboxylation activity (red/ox ratio) were calculated. Four out of six showed reductive decarboxylation activities. Among them, the PFORpfm from Pyrolobus fumarii showed the highest reductive carboxylation activities and the highest red/ox ratio, which were 54.32 mU/mg and 0.51, respectively. The divergence of the reductive carboxylation activities and the red/ox ratios of heterotetrameric PFORs in hyperthermophilic archaea indicate the diversity of the functions of PFOR over long-term evolution. This can help us better understand the autotrophic CO2 fixation process in thermal vent, or in other CO2-rich high temperature habitat.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Deng F, Li Y, Peng Y, et al (2021)

The Diversity, Composition, and Metabolic Pathways of Archaea in Pigs.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 11(7):.

Archaea are an essential class of gut microorganisms in humans and animals. Despite the substantial progress in gut microbiome research in the last decade, most studies have focused on bacteria, and little is known about archaea in mammals. In this study, we investigated the composition, diversity, and functional potential of gut archaeal communities in pigs by re-analyzing a published metagenomic dataset including a total of 276 fecal samples from three countries: China (n = 76), Denmark (n = 100), and France (n = 100). For alpha diversity (Shannon Index) of the archaeal communities, Chinese pigs were less diverse than Danish and French pigs (p < 0.001). Consistently, Chinese pigs also possessed different archaeal community structures from the other two groups based on the Bray-Curtis distance matrix. Methanobrevibacter was the most dominant archaeal genus in Chinese pigs (44.94%) and French pigs (15.41%), while Candidatus methanomethylophilus was the most predominant in Danish pigs (15.71%). At the species level, the relative abundance of Candidatus methanomethylophilus alvus, Natrialbaceae archaeon XQ INN 246, and Methanobrevibacter gottschalkii were greatest in Danish, French, and Chinese pigs with a relative abundance of 14.32, 11.67, and 16.28%, respectively. In terms of metabolic potential, the top three pathways in the archaeal communities included the MetaCyc pathway related to the biosynthesis of L-valine, L-isoleucine, and isobutanol. Interestingly, the pathway related to hydrogen consumption (METHANOGENESIS-PWY) was only observed in archaeal reads, while the pathways participating in hydrogen production (FERMENTATION-PWY and PWY4LZ-257) were only detected in bacterial reads. Archaeal communities also possessed CAZyme gene families, with the top five being AA3, GH43, GT2, AA6, and CE9. In terms of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs), the class of multidrug resistance was the most abundant ARG, accounting for 87.41% of archaeal ARG hits. Our study reveals the diverse composition and metabolic functions of archaea in pigs, suggesting that archaea might play important roles in swine nutrition and metabolism.

RevDate: 2021-11-08
CmpDate: 2021-11-08

Clark IM, Hughes DJ, Fu Q, et al (2021)

Metagenomic approaches reveal differences in genetic diversity and relative abundance of nitrifying bacteria and archaea in contrasting soils.

Scientific reports, 11(1):15905.

The abundance and phylogenetic diversity of functional genes involved in nitrification were assessed in Rothamsted field plots under contrasting management regimes-permanent bare fallow, grassland, and arable (wheat) cultivation maintained for more than 50 years. Metagenome and metatranscriptome analysis indicated nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were more abundant than ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) and bacteria (AOB) in all soils. The most abundant AOA and AOB in the metagenomes were, respectively, Nitrososphaera and Ca. Nitrososcosmicus (family Nitrososphaeraceae) and Nitrosospira and Nitrosomonas (family Nitrosomonadaceae). The most abundant NOB were Nitrospira including the comammox species Nitrospira inopinata, Ca. N. nitrificans and Ca. N. nitrosa. Anammox bacteria were also detected. Nitrospira and the AOA Nitrososphaeraceae showed most transcriptional activity in arable soil. Similar numbers of sequences were assigned to the amoA genes of AOA and AOB, highest in the arable soil metagenome and metatranscriptome; AOB amoA reads included those from comammox Nitrospira clades A and B, in addition to Nitrosomonadaceae. Nitrification potential assessed in soil from the experimental sites (microcosms amended or not with DCD at concentrations inhibitory to AOB but not AOA), was highest in arable samples and lower in all assays containing DCD, indicating AOB were responsible for oxidizing ammonium fertilizer added to these soils.

RevDate: 2021-08-05

Wakai M, Hayashi S, Chiba Y, et al (2021)

Growth and morphologic response of rumen methanogenic archaea and bacteria to cashew nut shell liquid and its alkylphenol components.

Animal science journal = Nihon chikusan Gakkaiho, 92(1):e13598.

The growth and morphology of rumen methanogenic archaea (15 strains of 10 species in 5 genera, including 7 strains newly isolated in the present study) and bacteria (14 species in 12 genera) were investigated using unsupplemented in vitro pure cultures and cultures supplemented with cashew nut shell liquid (CNSL) and its phenolic compound components, anti-methanogenic agents for ruminant animals. Growth of most of the methanogens tested was inhibited by CNSL and alkylphenols at different concentrations ranging from 1.56 to 12.5 μg/ml. Of the alkylphenols tested, anacardic acid exhibited the most potent growth inhibition. Three gram-negative bacterial species involved in propionate production were resistant to CNSL and alkylphenols (>50 μg/ml). All the methanogens and bacteria that were sensitive to CNSL and alkylphenols exhibited altered morphology; disruption of the cell surface was notable, possibly due to surfactant activity of the tested materials. Cells division was inhibited in some organisms, with cell elongation and unclear septum formation observed. These results indicate that CNSL and alkylphenols, particularly anacardic acid, inhibit both rumen bacteria and methanogens in a selective manner, which could help mitigate rumen methane generation.

RevDate: 2021-11-01
CmpDate: 2021-11-01

French E, Kozlowski JA, A Bollmann (2021)

Competition between Ammonia-Oxidizing Archaea and Bacteria from Freshwater Environments.

Applied and environmental microbiology, 87(20):e0103821.

In the environment, nutrients are rarely available in a constant supply. Therefore, microorganisms require strategies to compete for limiting nutrients. In freshwater systems, ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB) compete with heterotrophic bacteria, photosynthetic microorganisms, and each other for ammonium, which AOA and AOB utilize as their sole source of energy and nitrogen. We investigated the competition between highly enriched cultures of AOA (AOA-AC1) and AOB (AOB-G5-7) for ammonium. Based on the amoA gene, the newly enriched archaeal ammonia oxidizer in AOA-AC1 was closely related to Nitrosotenuis spp., and the bacterial ammonia oxidizer in AOB-G5-7, Nitrosomonas sp. strain Is79, belonged to the Nitrosomonas oligotropha group (Nitrosomonas cluster 6a). Growth experiments in batch cultures showed that AOB-G5-7 had higher growth rates than AOA-AC1 at higher ammonium concentrations. During chemostat competition experiments under ammonium-limiting conditions, AOA-AC1 dominated the cultures, while AOB-G5-7 decreased in abundance. In batch cultures, the outcome of the competition between AOA and AOB was determined by the initial ammonium concentrations. AOA-AC1 was the dominant ammonia oxidizer at an initial ammonium concentration of 50 μM, and AOB-G5-7 was dominant at 500 μM. These findings indicate that during direct competition, AOA-AC1 was able to use ammonium that was unavailable to AOB-G5-7, while AOB-G5-7 dominated at higher ammonium concentrations. The results are in strong accordance with environmental survey data suggesting that AOA are mainly responsible for ammonia oxidation under more oligotrophic conditions, whereas AOB dominate under eutrophic conditions. IMPORTANCE Nitrification is an important process in the global nitrogen cycle. The first step, ammonia oxidation to nitrite, can be carried out by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In many natural environments, these ammonia oxidizers coexist. Therefore, it is important to understand the population dynamics in response to increasing ammonium concentrations. Here, we study the competition between AOA and AOB enriched from freshwater systems. The results demonstrate that AOA are more abundant in systems with low ammonium availabilities and that AOB are more abundant when the ammonium availability increases. These results will help to predict potential shifts in the community composition of ammonia oxidizers in the environment due to changes in ammonium availability.

RevDate: 2021-08-04

Santos MVD, Goes RHTB, Takiya CS, et al (2021)

Effect of increasing doses of chitosan to grazing beef steers on the relative population and transcript abundance of Archaea and cellulolytic and amylolytic bacterias.

Animal biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

This paper aims to investigate the influence of increasing chitosan doses on the relative proportion and abundance of cellulotytic, amylolytic bacteria, and Archaea transcripts for grazing cattle. Five rumen cannulated crossbread steers [3.6 months and 300 ± 25 kg body LW (live weight), mean ± standard deviation] were used in a 5 × 5 latin square design, randomly assigned to treatment sequence containing chitosan added to 0, 400, 800, 1200, or 1600 mg/kg concentrate. There was the effect of chitosan on the population of Fibrobacter succinogenes, Ruminococcus albus, and Archaea. The lowest population of these bacteria of 576.60 mg/kg DM (dry matter), 1010.40 mg/kg DM, and 634.80 mg/kg DM were noted when chitosan was added at levels of 3.87, 4.16, and 3.52. Except for Ruminococcus albus, which was not affected by increasing chitosan doses, supplementation of this additive in the concentrate quadratically increased the relative abundance of Fibrobacter succinogenes and Archaea Supplemental 740 mg CHI/kg concentrate for grazing steers receiving concentrate at 150 grams/100 kg LW is recommended to promote minimal effect on the relative population and abundance of cellulolytics and amylomatics and to restrict Archaea growth.

RevDate: 2021-12-06

Zhu J, Yan X, Zhou L, et al (2022)

Insight of bacteria and archaea in Feammox community enriched from different soils.

Environmental research, 203:111802.

Anaerobic ammonium oxidation coupled to Fe(III) reduction, known as Feammox, is a newly discovered nitrogen-cycling process, which serves an important role in the pathways of nitrogen loss in the environment. However, the specific types of microorganisms involved in Feammox currently remain unclear. In this study, we selected two groups of soil samples (paddy and mine), from considerably different habitats in South China, to acclimate Feammox colonies. The Paddy Group had a shorter lag period than the Mine Group, while the ammonium transformation rate was nearly equal in both groups in the mature period. The emergence of the Feammox activity was found to be associated with the increased abundance of iron-reducing bacteria, especially Clostridium_sensu_stricto_12, Desulfitobacterium, Thermoanaerobaculum, Anaeromyxobacter and Geobacter. Ammonium oxidizing archaea and methanogens were dominant among the known archaea. These findings extend our knowledge of the microbial community composition of the potential Feammox microbes from soils under different environmental conditions, which broadens our understanding of this important Fe/N transformation process.

RevDate: 2021-11-26

Li C, Hambright KD, Bowen HG, et al (2021)

Global co-occurrence of methanogenic archaea and methanotrophic bacteria in Microcystis aggregates.

Environmental microbiology, 23(11):6503-6519.

Global warming and eutrophication contribute to the worldwide increase in cyanobacterial blooms, and the level of cyanobacterial biomass is strongly associated with rises in methane emissions from surface lake waters. Hence, methane-metabolizing microorganisms may be important for modulating carbon flow in cyanobacterial blooms. Here, we surveyed methanogenic and methanotrophic communities associated with floating Microcystis aggregates in 10 lakes spanning four continents, through sequencing of 16S rRNA and functional marker genes. Methanogenic archaea (mainly Methanoregula and Methanosaeta) were detectable in 5 of the 10 lakes and constituted the majority (~50%-90%) of the archaeal community in these lakes. Three of the 10 lakes contained relatively more abundant methanotrophs than the other seven lakes, with the methanotrophic genera Methyloparacoccus, Crenothrix, and an uncultured species related to Methylobacter dominating and nearly exclusively found in each of those three lakes. These three are among the five lakes in which methanogens were observed. Operational taxonomic unit (OTU) richness and abundance of methanotrophs were strongly positively correlated with those of methanogens, suggesting that their activities may be coupled. These Microcystis-aggregate-associated methanotrophs may be responsible for a hitherto overlooked sink for methane in surface freshwaters, and their co-occurrence with methanogens sheds light on the methane cycle in cyanobacterial aggregates.

RevDate: 2021-07-28

Jung MY, Sedlacek CJ, Kits KD, et al (2021)

Ammonia-oxidizing archaea possess a wide range of cellular ammonia affinities.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Nitrification, the oxidation of ammonia to nitrate, is an essential process in the biogeochemical nitrogen cycle. The first step of nitrification, ammonia oxidation, is performed by three, often co-occurring guilds of chemolithoautotrophs: ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), archaea (AOA), and complete ammonia oxidizers (comammox). Substrate kinetics are considered to be a major niche-differentiating factor between these guilds, but few AOA strains have been kinetically characterized. Here, the ammonia oxidation kinetic properties of 12 AOA representing all major cultivated phylogenetic lineages were determined using microrespirometry. Members of the genus Nitrosocosmicus have the lowest affinity for both ammonia and total ammonium of any characterized AOA, and these values are similar to previously determined ammonia and total ammonium affinities of AOB. This contrasts previous assumptions that all AOA possess much higher substrate affinities than their comammox or AOB counterparts. The substrate affinity of ammonia oxidizers correlated with their cell surface area to volume ratios. In addition, kinetic measurements across a range of pH values supports the hypothesis that-like for AOB-ammonia and not ammonium is the substrate for the ammonia monooxygenase enzyme of AOA and comammox. Together, these data will facilitate predictions and interpretation of ammonia oxidizer community structures and provide a robust basis for establishing testable hypotheses on competition between AOB, AOA, and comammox.

RevDate: 2021-07-22

Coutinho FH, Zaragoza-Solas A, López-Pérez M, et al (2021)

RaFAH: Host prediction for viruses of Bacteria and Archaea based on protein content.

Patterns (New York, N.Y.), 2(7):100274.

Culture-independent approaches have recently shed light on the genomic diversity of viruses of prokaryotes. One fundamental question when trying to understand their ecological roles is: which host do they infect? To tackle this issue we developed a machine-learning approach named Random Forest Assignment of Hosts (RaFAH), that uses scores to 43,644 protein clusters to assign hosts to complete or fragmented genomes of viruses of Archaea and Bacteria. RaFAH displayed performance comparable with that of other methods for virus-host prediction in three different benchmarks encompassing viruses from RefSeq, single amplified genomes, and metagenomes. RaFAH was applied to assembled metagenomic datasets of uncultured viruses from eight different biomes of medical, biotechnological, and environmental relevance. Our analyses led to the identification of 537 sequences of archaeal viruses representing unknown lineages, whose genomes encode novel auxiliary metabolic genes, shedding light on how these viruses interfere with the host molecular machinery. RaFAH is available at https://sourceforge.net/projects/rafah/.

RevDate: 2021-11-11

Yu H, Skennerton CT, Chadwick GL, et al (2021)

Sulfate differentially stimulates but is not respired by diverse anaerobic methanotrophic archaea.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Sulfate-coupled anaerobic oxidation of methane (AOM) is a major methane sink in marine sediments. Multiple lineages of anaerobic methanotrophic archaea (ANME) often coexist in sediments and catalyze this process syntrophically with sulfate-reducing bacteria (SRB), but the potential differences in ANME ecophysiology and mechanisms of syntrophy remain unresolved. A humic acid analog, anthraquinone 2,6-disulfonate (AQDS), could decouple archaeal methanotrophy from bacterial sulfate reduction and serve as the terminal electron acceptor for AOM (AQDS-coupled AOM). Here in sediment microcosm experiments, we examined variations in physiological response between two co-occurring ANME-2 families (ANME-2a and ANME-2c) and tested the hypothesis of sulfate respiration by ANME-2. Sulfate concentrations as low as 100 µM increased AQDS-coupled AOM nearly 2-fold matching the rates of sulfate-coupled AOM. However, the SRB partners remained inactive in microcosms with sulfate and AQDS and neither ANME-2 families respired sulfate, as shown by their cellular sulfur contents and anabolic activities measured using nanoscale secondary ion mass spectrometry. ANME-2a anabolic activity was significantly higher than ANME-2c, suggesting that ANME-2a was primarily responsible for the observed sulfate stimulation of AQDS-coupled AOM. Comparative transcriptomics showed significant upregulation of ANME-2a transcripts linked to multiple ABC transporters and downregulation of central carbon metabolism during AQDS-coupled AOM compared to sulfate-coupled AOM. Surprisingly, genes involved in sulfur anabolism were not differentially expressed during AQDS-coupled AOM with and without sulfate amendment. Collectively, this data indicates that ANME-2 archaea are incapable of respiring sulfate, but sulfate availability differentially stimulates the growth and AOM activity of different ANME lineages.

RevDate: 2021-09-10

Umbach AK, Stegelmeier AA, JD Neufeld (2021)

Archaea Are Rare and Uncommon Members of the Mammalian Skin Microbiome.

mSystems, 6(4):e0064221.

Although previous research demonstrates that skin-associated archaea are rarely detected within human skin microbiome data, exist at relatively low abundance, and are primarily affiliated with the Methanobacteriota and Halobacteriota phyla, other studies suggest that archaea are consistently detected and relatively abundant on human skin, with skin "archaeomes" dominated by putative ammonia oxidizers of the Nitrososphaeria class (Thermoproteota phylum, formerly Thaumarchaeota). Here, we evaluated new and existing 16S rRNA gene sequence data sourced from mammalian skin and skin-associated surfaces and generated with two commonly used universal prokaryotic primer sets to assess archaeal prevalence, relative abundance, and taxonomic distribution. Archaeal 16S rRNA gene sequences were detected in only 17.5% of 1,688 samples by high-throughput sequence data, with most of the archaeon-positive samples associated with nonhuman mammalian skin. Only 5.9% of human-associated skin sample data sets contained sequences affiliated with archaeal 16S rRNA genes. When detected, the relative abundance of sequences affiliated with archaeal amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) was less than 1% for most mammalian skin samples and did not exceed 2% for any samples. Although several computer keyboard microbial profiles were dominated by Nitrososphaeria sequences, all other skin microbiome data sets tested were primarily composed of sequences affiliated with Methanobacteriota and Halobacteriota phyla. Our findings revise downward recent estimates of human skin archaeal distributions and relative abundances, especially those affiliated with the Nitrososphaeria, reflecting a limited and infrequent archaeal presence within the mammalian skin microbiome. IMPORTANCE The current state of research on mammalian skin-associated archaea is limited, with the few papers focusing on potential skin archaeal communities often in disagreement with each other. As such, there is no consensus on the prevalence or taxonomic composition of archaea on mammalian skin. Mammalian skin health is in part influenced by its complex microbiota and consortium of bacteria and potential archaea. Without a clear foundational analysis and characterization of the mammalian skin archaeome, it will be difficult for future research to explore the potential impact of skin-associated archaea on skin health and function. The current work provides a much-needed analysis of the mammalian skin archaeome and contributes to building a foundation from which further discussion and exploration of the skin archaeome might continue.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Dong Y, Shan Y, Xia K, et al (2021)

The Proposed Molecular Mechanisms Used by Archaea for Fe(III) Reduction and Fe(II) Oxidation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:690918.

Iron (Fe) is the fourth most abundant element in the Earth's crust where ferrous Fe [Fe(II)] and ferric Fe [Fe(III)] can be used by archaea for energy conservation. In these archaea-Fe interactions, Fe(III) serves as terminal electron acceptor for anaerobic respiration by a variety of archaea, while Fe(II) serves as electron donor and/or energy sources for archaeal growth. As no Fe is incorporated into the archaeal cells, these redox reactions are referred to as dissimilatory Fe(III) reduction and Fe(II) oxidation, respectively. Dissimilatory Fe(III)-reducing archaea (FeRA) and Fe(II)-oxidizing archaea (FeOA) are widespread on Earth where they play crucial roles in biogeochemical cycling of not only Fe, but also carbon and sulfur. To reduce extracellular Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides, some FeRA transfer electrons directly to the Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides most likely via multiheme c-type cytochromes (c-Cyts). These multiheme c-Cyts may form the pathways similar to those found in bacteria for transferring electrons from the quinone/quinol pool in the cytoplasmic membrane to the Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides external to the archaeal cells. Use of multiheme c-Cyts for extracellular Fe(III) reduction by both Domains of Archaea and Bacteria emphasizes an ancient mechanism of extracellular electron transfer, which is well conserved. Other FeRA, however, reduce Fe(III) (oxyhydr)oxides indirectly via electron shuttles. Similarly, it is proposed that FeOA use pathways to oxidize Fe(II) on the surface of the cytoplasmic membrane and then to transfer the released electrons across the cytoplasmic membrane inward to the O2 and NAD+ in the cytoplasm. In this review, we focus on the latest understandings of the molecular mechanisms used by FeRA and FeOA for Fe(III) reduction and Fe(II) oxidation, respectively.

RevDate: 2021-11-12
CmpDate: 2021-11-12

Wang L, D Huang (2021)

Soil ammonia-oxidizing archaea in a paddy field with different irrigation and fertilization managements.

Scientific reports, 11(1):14563.

Because ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) are ubiquitous and highly abundant in almost all terrestrial soils, they play an important role in soil nitrification. However, the changes in the structure and function of AOA communities and their edaphic drivers in paddy soils under different fertilization and irrigation regimes remain unclear. In this study, we investigated AOA abundance, diversity and activity in acid paddy soils by a field experiment. Results indicated that the highest potential ammonia oxidation (PAO) (0.011 μg NO 2 - -N g-1 d.w.day-1) was found in T2 (optimal irrigation and fertilization)-treated soils, whereas the lowest PAO (0.004 μg NO 2 - -N g-1 d.w.day-1) in T0 (traditional irrigation)- treated soils. Compared with the T0-treated soil, the T2 treatment significantly (P < 0.05) increased AOA abundances. Furthermore, the abundance of AOA was significantly (P < 0.01) positively correlated with pH, soil organic carbon (SOC), and PAO. Meanwhile, pH and SOC content were significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the T2-treated soil than those in the T1 (traditional irrigation and fertilization)- treated soil. In addition, these two edaphic factors further influenced the AOA community composition. The AOA phylum Crenarchaeota was mainly found in the T2-treated soils. Phylogenetic analysis revealed that most of the identified OTUs of AOA were mainly affiliated with Crenarchaeota. Furthermore, the T2 treatment had higher rice yield than the T0 and T1 treatments. Together, our findings confirm that T2 might ameliorate soil chemical properties, regulate the AOA community structure, increase the AOA abundance, enhance PAO and consequently maintain rice yields in the present study.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Jørgensen BB (2021)

Do methanogenic archaea cause reductive pyrite dissolution in subsurface sediments?.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Christakis CA, Barkay T, ES Boyd (2021)

Expanded Diversity and Phylogeny of mer Genes Broadens Mercury Resistance Paradigms and Reveals an Origin for MerA Among Thermophilic Archaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:682605.

Mercury (Hg) is a highly toxic element due to its high affinity for protein sulfhydryl groups, which upon binding, can destabilize protein structure and decrease enzyme activity. Prokaryotes have evolved enzymatic mechanisms to detoxify inorganic Hg and organic Hg (e.g., MeHg) through the activities of mercuric reductase (MerA) and organomercury lyase (MerB), respectively. Here, the taxonomic distribution and evolution of MerAB was examined in 84,032 archaeal and bacterial genomes, metagenome assembled genomes, and single-cell genomes. Homologs of MerA and MerB were identified in 7.8 and 2.1% percent of genomes, respectively. MerA was identified in the genomes of 10 archaeal and 28 bacterial phyla previously unknown to code for this functionality. Likewise, MerB was identified in 2 archaeal and 11 bacterial phyla previously unknown to encode this functionality. Surprisingly, homologs of MerB were identified in a number of genomes (∼50% of all MerB-encoding genomes) that did not encode MerA, suggesting alternative mechanisms to detoxify Hg(II) once it is generated in the cytoplasm. Phylogenetic reconstruction of MerA place its origin in thermophilic Thermoprotei (Crenarchaeota), consistent with high levels of Hg(II) in geothermal environments, the natural habitat of this archaeal class. MerB appears to have been recruited to the mer operon relatively recently and likely among a mesophilic ancestor of Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota. This is consistent with the functional dependence of MerB on MerA and the widespread distribution of mesophilic microorganisms that methylate Hg(II) at lower temperature. Collectively, these results expand the taxonomic and ecological distribution of mer-encoded functionalities, and suggest that selection for Hg(II) and MeHg detoxification is dependent not only on the availability and type of mercury compounds in the environment but also the physiological potential of the microbes who inhabit these environments. The expanded diversity and environmental distribution of MerAB identify new targets to prioritize for future research.

RevDate: 2021-08-01

Wang S, Narsing Rao MP, Wei D, et al (2021)

Complete genome sequencing and comparative genome analysis of the extremely halophilic archaea, Haloterrigena daqingensis.

Biotechnology and applied biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

In the present study, we report the complete genome sequencing of Haloterrigena daqingensis species. The genome of H. daqingensis JX313T consisted of a circular chromosome with three plasmids. The genome size and G+C content were estimated to be 3835796 bp and 61.7%, respectively. A total of 4158 genes were predicted with six rRNAs and 45 tRNAs. Metabolic pathway analysis suggests that H. daqingensis JX313T codes for all the necessary genes responsible to sustain its life at saline environment. The pan-genome analysis suggests that the number of singleton-gene between H. daqingensis and other Haloterrigena species varied. The study not only helps us understand H. daqingensis strategy for dealing with high stress, but it also provides an overview of its genomic makeup.

RevDate: 2021-10-29
CmpDate: 2021-10-29

Kakuk B, Wirth R, Maróti G, et al (2021)

Early response of methanogenic archaea to H2 as evaluated by metagenomics and metatranscriptomics.

Microbial cell factories, 20(1):127.

BACKGROUND: The molecular machinery of the complex microbiological cell factory of biomethane production is not fully understood. One of the process control elements is the regulatory role of hydrogen (H2). Reduction of carbon dioxide (CO2) by H2 is rate limiting factor in methanogenesis, but the community intends to keep H2 concentration low in order to maintain the redox balance of the overall system. H2 metabolism in methanogens becomes increasingly important in the Power-to-Gas renewable energy conversion and storage technologies.

RESULTS: The early response of the mixed mesophilic microbial community to H2 gas injection was investigated with the goal of uncovering the first responses of the microbial community in the CH4 formation and CO2 mitigation Power-to-Gas process. The overall microbial composition changes, following a 10 min excessive bubbling of H2 through the reactor, was investigated via metagenome and metatranscriptome sequencing. The overall composition and taxonomic abundance of the biogas producing anaerobic community did not change appreciably 2 hours after the H2 treatment, indicating that this time period was too short to display differences in the proliferation of the members of the microbial community. There was, however, a substantial increase in the expression of genes related to hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis of certain groups of Archaea. As an early response to H2 exposure the activity of the hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis in the genus Methanoculleus was upregulated but the hydrogenotrophic pathway in genus Methanosarcina was downregulated. The RT-qPCR data corroborated the metatranscriptomic RESULTS: H2 injection also altered the metabolism of a number of microbes belonging in the kingdom Bacteria. Many Bacteria possess the enzyme sets for the Wood-Ljungdahl pathway. These and the homoacetogens are partners for syntrophic community interactions between the distinct kingdoms of Archaea and Bacteria.

CONCLUSIONS: External H2 regulates the functional activity of certain Bacteria and Archaea. The syntrophic cross-kingdom interactions in H2 metabolism are important for the efficient operation of the Power-to-Gas process. Therefore, mixed communities are recommended for the large scale Power-to-Gas process rather than single hydrogenotrophic methanogen strains. Fast and reproducible response from the microbial community can be exploited in turn-off and turn-on of the Power-to-Gas microbial cell factories.

RevDate: 2021-07-26
CmpDate: 2021-07-26

Wang X, He Z, Li X, et al (2020)

[Comparison of pretreatment methods in lipid analysis and ultra-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of archaea].

Se pu = Chinese journal of chromatography, 38(8):914-922.

Archaea are single-cell microorganisms, structurally and biochemically similar to bacteria and fungi. Most of them live in extreme environments, such as high salt, extremely acidic, extremely hot, and anaerobicenvironments. The membrane structure and related metabolic pathways of archaea are different from those of other microorganisms. Therefore, studying the lipid metabolism of archaea is of great significance for exploring the life activities in extreme environments. As the first step in lipidomic analysis, lipid extraction and pretreatment methods play an important role, as they influence the accuracy and reliability of the final results. We harnessed ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution mass spectrometry (UPLC-HRMS) to detect the total normal lipids. The hyperthermophilic archaeon Pyrococcus yayanosii was selected as the model. The Bligh-Dyer acidic method, Folch method, methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) method, and solid-phase extraction (SPE) method were compared by multi-component analysis in terms of extraction efficiency, reproducibility, and extraction discrimination. Comprehensive analysis revealed that the SPE and MTBE methods showed the best extraction repeatability and extraction efficiency, and were suitable for high-throughput microbial lipid extraction. Finally, normal lipid components of P. yayanosii were comprehensively analyzed by SPE coupled with UPLC-HRMS. A total of 1402 lipid components were identified. This article aims to provide a reference for non-targeted lipidomic analysis of archaea and other microorganisms towards understanding their lipid metabolism.

RevDate: 2021-07-14

Abellan-Schneyder I, Siebert A, Hofmann K, et al (2021)

Full-Length SSU rRNA Gene Sequencing Allows Species-Level Detection of Bacteria, Archaea, and Yeasts Present in Milk.

Microorganisms, 9(6):.

Full-length SSU rRNA gene sequencing allows species-level identification of the microorganisms present in milk samples. Here, we used bulk-tank raw milk samples of two German dairies and detected, using this method, a great diversity of bacteria, archaea, and yeasts within the samples. Moreover, the species-level classification was improved in comparison to short amplicon sequencing. Therefore, we anticipate that this approach might be useful for the detection of possible mastitis-causing species, as well as for the control of spoilage-associated microorganisms. In a proof of concept, we showed that we were able to identify several putative mastitis-causing or mastitis-associated species such as Streptococcusuberis, Streptococcusagalactiae, Streptococcusdysgalactiae, Escherichiacoli and Staphylococcusaureus, as well as several Candida species. Overall, the presented full-length approach for the sequencing of SSU rRNA is easy to conduct, able to be standardized, and allows the screening of microorganisms in labs with Illumina sequencing machines.

RevDate: 2021-10-18

Pfeiffer F, M Dyall-Smith (2021)

Open Issues for Protein Function Assignment in Haloferax volcanii and Other Halophilic Archaea.

Genes, 12(7):.

BACKGROUND: Annotation ambiguities and annotation errors are a general challenge in genomics. While a reliable protein function assignment can be obtained by experimental characterization, this is expensive and time-consuming, and the number of such Gold Standard Proteins (GSP) with experimental support remains very low compared to proteins annotated by sequence homology, usually through automated pipelines. Even a GSP may give a misleading assignment when used as a reference: the homolog may be close enough to support isofunctionality, but the substrate of the GSP is absent from the species being annotated. In such cases, the enzymes cannot be isofunctional. Here, we examined a variety of such issues in halophilic archaea (class Halobacteria), with a strong focus on the model haloarchaeon Haloferax volcanii.

RESULTS: Annotated proteins of Hfx. volcanii were identified for which public databases tend to assign a function that is probably incorrect. In some cases, an alternative, probably correct, function can be predicted or inferred from the available evidence, but this has not been adopted by public databases because experimental validation is lacking. In other cases, a probably invalid specific function is predicted by homology, and while there is evidence that this assigned function is unlikely, the true function remains elusive. We listed 50 of those cases, each with detailed background information, so that a conclusion about the most likely biological function can be drawn. For reasons of brevity and comprehension, only the key aspects are listed in the main text, with detailed information being provided in a corresponding section of the Supplementary Materials.

CONCLUSIONS: Compiling, describing and summarizing these open annotation issues and functional predictions will benefit the scientific community in the general effort to improve the evaluation of protein function assignments and more thoroughly detail them. By highlighting the gaps and likely annotation errors currently in the databases, we hope this study will provide a framework for experimentalists to systematically confirm (or disprove) our function predictions or to uncover yet more unexpected functions.

RevDate: 2021-07-14

Tamisier M, Schmidt M, Vogt C, et al (2021)

Iron corrosion by methanogenic archaea characterized by stable isotope effects and crust mineralogy.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Carbon and hydrogen stable isotope effects associated with methane formation by the corrosive archaeon Methanobacterium strain IM1 were determined during growth with hydrogen and iron. Isotope analyses were complemented by structural, elemental and molecular composition analyses of corrosion crusts. During growth with H2 , strain IM1 formed methane with average δ13 C of -43.5‰ and δ2 H of -370‰. Corrosive growth led to methane more depleted in 13 C, with average δ13 C ranging from -56‰ to -64‰ during the early and the late growth phase respectively. The corresponding δ2 H were less impacted by the growth phase, with average values ranging from -316 to -329‰. The stable isotope fractionation factors, α 13 C CO 2 / CH 4 , were 1.026 and 1.042 for hydrogenotrophic and corrosive growth respectively. Corrosion crusts formed by strain IM1 have a domed structure, appeared electrically conductive and were composed of siderite, calcite and iron sulfide, the latter formed by precipitation of sulfide (from culture medium) with ferrous iron generated during corrosion. Strain IM1 cells were found attached to crust surfaces and encrusted deep inside crust domes. Our results may assist to diagnose methanogens-induced corrosion in the field and suggest that intrusion of sulfide in anoxic settings may stimulate corrosion by methanogenic archaea via formation of semiconductive crusts.

RevDate: 2021-12-10

Zhao R, Mogollón JM, Roerdink DL, et al (2021)

Ammonia-oxidizing archaea have similar power requirements in diverse marine oxic sediments.

The ISME journal, 15(12):3657-3667.

Energy/power availability is regarded as one of the ultimate controlling factors of microbial abundance in the deep biosphere, where fewer cells are found in habitats of lower energy availability. A critical assumption driving the proportional relationship between total cell abundance and power availability is that the cell-specific power requirement keeps constant or varies over smaller ranges than other variables, which has yet to be validated. Here we present a quantitative framework to determine the cell-specific power requirement of the omnipresent ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) in eight sediment cores with 3-4 orders of magnitude variations of organic matter flux and oxygen penetration depth. Our results show that despite the six orders of magnitude variations in the rates and power supply of nitrification and AOA abundances across these eight cores, the cell-specific power requirement of AOA from different cores and depths overlaps within the narrow range of 10-19-10-17 W cell-1, where the lower end may represent the basal power requirement of microorganisms persisting in subseafloor sediments. In individual cores, AOA also exhibit similar cell-specific power requirements, regardless of the AOA population size or sediment depth/age. Such quantitative insights establish a relationship between the power supply and the total abundance of AOA, and therefore lay a foundation for a first-order estimate of the standing stock of AOA in global marine oxic sediments.

RevDate: 2021-08-05
CmpDate: 2021-08-05

Chen Z, Liu WS, Zhong X, et al (2021)

Genome- and community-level interaction insights into the ecological role of archaea in rare earth element mine drainage in South China.

Water research, 201:117331.

Microbial communities play crucial roles in mine drainage generation and remediation. Despite the wide distribution of archaea in the mine ecosystem, their diversity and ecological roles remain less understood than bacteria. Here, we retrieved 56 archaeal metagenome-assembled genomes from a river impacted by rare earth element (REE) mining activities in South China. Genomic analysis showed that archaea represented four distinct lineages, including phyla of Thaumarchaeota, Micrarchaeota, Nanoarchaeota and Thermoplasmata. These archaea represented a considerable fraction (up to 40%) of the total prokaryote community, which might contribute to nitrogen and sulfur cycling in the REE mine drainage. Reconstructed metabolic potential among diverse archaea taxa revealed that archaea were involved in the network of ammonia oxidation, denitrification, sulfate redox reaction, and required substrates supplied by other community members. As the dominant driver of ammonia oxidation, Thaumarchaeota might provide substrates to support the survival of two nano-sized archaea belonging to Micrarchaeota and Nanoarchaeota. Despite the absence of biosynthesis pathways for amino acids and nucleotides, the potential capacity for nitrite reduction (nirD) was observed in Micrarchaeota, indicating that these nano-sized archaea encompassed diverse metabolisms. Moreover, Thermoplasmata, as keystone taxa in community, might be the main genetic donor for the other three archaeal phyla, transferring many environmental resistance related genes (e.g., V/A-type ATPase and Vitamin B12-transporting ATPase). The genetic interactions within archaeal community through horizontal gene transfer might be the key to the formation of archaeal resistance and functional partitioning. This study provides putative metabolic and genetic insights into the diverse archaea taxa from community-level perspectives, and highlights the ecological roles of archaea in REE contaminated aquatic environment.

RevDate: 2021-09-30
CmpDate: 2021-09-30

Ziegler CA, PL Freddolino (2021)

The leucine-responsive regulatory proteins/feast-famine regulatory proteins: an ancient and complex class of transcriptional regulators in bacteria and archaea.

Critical reviews in biochemistry and molecular biology, 56(4):373-400.

Since the discovery of the Escherichia coli leucine-responsive regulatory protein (Lrp) almost 50 years ago, hundreds of Lrp homologs have been discovered, occurring in 45% of sequenced bacteria and almost all sequenced archaea. Lrp-like proteins are often referred to as the feast/famine regulatory proteins (FFRPs), reflecting their common regulatory roles. Acting as either global or local transcriptional regulators, FFRPs detect the environmental nutritional status by sensing small effector molecules (usually amino acids) and regulate the expression of genes involved in metabolism, virulence, motility, nutrient transport, stress tolerance, and antibiotic resistance to implement appropriate behaviors for the specific ecological niche of each organism. Despite FFRPs' complexity, a significant role in gene regulation, and prevalence throughout prokaryotes, the last comprehensive review on this family of proteins was published about a decade ago. In this review, we integrate recent notable findings regarding E. coli Lrp and other FFRPs across bacteria and archaea with previous observations to synthesize a more complete view on the mechanistic details and biological roles of this ancient class of transcription factors.

RevDate: 2021-06-22

De Lise F, Strazzulli A, Iacono R, et al (2021)

Programmed Deviations of Ribosomes From Standard Decoding in Archaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:688061.

Genetic code decoding, initially considered to be universal and immutable, is now known to be flexible. In fact, in specific genes, ribosomes deviate from the standard translational rules in a programmed way, a phenomenon globally termed recoding. Translational recoding, which has been found in all domains of life, includes a group of events occurring during gene translation, namely stop codon readthrough, programmed ± 1 frameshifting, and ribosome bypassing. These events regulate protein expression at translational level and their mechanisms are well known and characterized in viruses, bacteria and eukaryotes. In this review we summarize the current state-of-the-art of recoding in the third domain of life. In Archaea, it was demonstrated and extensively studied that translational recoding regulates the decoding of the 21st and the 22nd amino acids selenocysteine and pyrrolysine, respectively, and only one case of programmed -1 frameshifting has been reported so far in Saccharolobus solfataricus P2. However, further putative events of translational recoding have been hypothesized in other archaeal species, but not extensively studied and confirmed yet. Although this phenomenon could have some implication for the physiology and adaptation of life in extreme environments, this field is still underexplored and genes whose expression could be regulated by recoding are still poorly characterized. The study of these recoding episodes in Archaea is urgently needed.

RevDate: 2021-12-10

Kurth JM, Nobu MK, Tamaki H, et al (2021)

Methanogenic archaea use a bacteria-like methyltransferase system to demethoxylate aromatic compounds.

The ISME journal, 15(12):3549-3565.

Methane-generating archaea drive the final step in anaerobic organic compound mineralization and dictate the carbon flow of Earth's diverse anoxic ecosystems in the absence of inorganic electron acceptors. Although such Archaea were presumed to be restricted to life on simple compounds like hydrogen (H2), acetate or methanol, an archaeon, Methermicoccus shengliensis, was recently found to convert methoxylated aromatic compounds to methane. Methoxylated aromatic compounds are important components of lignin and coal, and are present in most subsurface sediments. Despite the novelty of such a methoxydotrophic archaeon its metabolism has not yet been explored. In this study, transcriptomics and proteomics reveal that under methoxydotrophic growth M. shengliensis expresses an O-demethylation/methyltransferase system related to the one used by acetogenic bacteria. Enzymatic assays provide evidence for a two step-mechanisms in which the methyl-group from the methoxy compound is (1) transferred on cobalamin and (2) further transferred on the C1-carrier tetrahydromethanopterin, a mechanism distinct from conventional methanogenic methyl-transfer systems which use coenzyme M as final acceptor. We further hypothesize that this likely leads to an atypical use of the methanogenesis pathway that derives cellular energy from methyl transfer (Mtr) rather than electron transfer (F420H2 re-oxidation) as found for methylotrophic methanogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-12-10

Murali R, Gennis RB, J Hemp (2021)

Evolution of the cytochrome bd oxygen reductase superfamily and the function of CydAA' in Archaea.

The ISME journal, 15(12):3534-3548.

Cytochrome bd-type oxygen reductases (cytbd) belong to one of three enzyme superfamilies that catalyze oxygen reduction to water. They are widely distributed in Bacteria and Archaea, but the full extent of their biochemical diversity is unknown. Here we used phylogenomics to identify three families and several subfamilies within the cytbd superfamily. The core architecture shared by all members of the superfamily consists of four transmembrane helices that bind two active site hemes, which are responsible for oxygen reduction. While previously characterized cytochrome bd-type oxygen reductases use quinol as an electron donor to reduce oxygen, sequence analysis shows that only one of the identified families has a conserved quinol binding site. The other families are missing this feature, suggesting that they use an alternative electron donor. Multiple gene duplication events were identified within the superfamily, resulting in significant evolutionary and structural diversity. The CydAA' cytbd, found exclusively in Archaea, is formed by the co-association of two superfamily paralogs. We heterologously expressed CydAA' from Caldivirga maquilingensis and demonstrated that it performs oxygen reduction with quinol as an electron donor. Strikingly, CydAA' is the first isoform of cytbd containing only b-type hemes shown to be active when isolated from membranes, demonstrating that oxygen reductase activity in this superfamily is not dependent on heme d.

RevDate: 2021-07-24

Takemata N, SD Bell (2021)

Chromosome conformation capture assay combined with biotin enrichment for hyperthermophilic archaea.

STAR protocols, 2(2):100576.

Chromosome organization in archaea has long been enigmatic due, in part, to the typically small cell size of archaea and the extremophilic nature of many of the model archaeal species studies, rendering live-cell imaging technically challenging. To circumvent these problems, we recently applied chromosome conformation capture combined with biotin enrichment and deep sequencing (Hi-C) to members of hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Sulfolobus. Our optimized Hi-C protocol described here permits delineation of how Sulfolobus species organize their chromosomes. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Takemata et al. (2019).

RevDate: 2021-06-19

Castelle CJ, Méheust R, Jaffe AL, et al (2021)

Protein Family Content Uncovers Lineage Relationships and Bacterial Pathway Maintenance Mechanisms in DPANN Archaea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:660052.

DPANN are small-celled archaea that are generally predicted to be symbionts, and in some cases are known episymbionts of other archaea. As the monophyly of the DPANN remains uncertain, we hypothesized that proteome content could reveal relationships among DPANN lineages, constrain genetic overlap with bacteria, and illustrate how organisms with hybrid bacterial and archaeal protein sets might function. We tested this hypothesis using protein family content that was defined in part using 3,197 genomes including 569 newly reconstructed genomes. Protein family content clearly separates the final set of 390 DPANN genomes from other archaea, paralleling the separation of Candidate Phyla Radiation (CPR) bacteria from all other bacteria. This separation is partly driven by hypothetical proteins, some of which may be symbiosis-related. Pacearchaeota with the most limited predicted metabolic capacities have Form II/III and III-like Rubisco, suggesting metabolisms based on scavenged nucleotides. Intriguingly, the Pacearchaeota and Woesearchaeota with the smallest genomes also tend to encode large extracellular murein-like lytic transglycosylase domain proteins that may bind and degrade components of bacterial cell walls, indicating that some might be episymbionts of bacteria. The pathway for biosynthesis of bacterial isoprenoids is widespread in Woesearchaeota genomes and is encoded in proximity to genes involved in bacterial fatty acids synthesis. Surprisingly, in some DPANN genomes we identified a pathway for synthesis of queuosine, an unusual nucleotide in tRNAs of bacteria. Other bacterial systems are predicted to be involved in protein refolding. For example, many DPANN have the complete bacterial DnaK-DnaJ-GrpE system and many Woesearchaeota and Pacearchaeota possess bacterial group I chaperones. Thus, many DPANN appear to have mechanisms to ensure efficient protein folding of both archaeal and laterally acquired bacterial proteins.

RevDate: 2021-09-28
CmpDate: 2021-09-28

Schulze S, Pfeiffer F, Garcia BA, et al (2021)

Comprehensive glycoproteomics shines new light on the complexity and extent of glycosylation in archaea.

PLoS biology, 19(6):e3001277.

Glycosylation is one of the most complex posttranslational protein modifications. Its importance has been established not only for eukaryotes but also for a variety of prokaryotic cellular processes, such as biofilm formation, motility, and mating. However, comprehensive glycoproteomic analyses are largely missing in prokaryotes. Here, we extend the phenotypic characterization of N-glycosylation pathway mutants in Haloferax volcanii and provide a detailed glycoproteome for this model archaeon through the mass spectrometric analysis of intact glycopeptides. Using in-depth glycoproteomic datasets generated for the wild-type (WT) and mutant strains as well as a reanalysis of datasets within the Archaeal Proteome Project (ArcPP), we identify the largest archaeal glycoproteome described so far. We further show that different N-glycosylation pathways can modify the same glycosites under the same culture conditions. The extent and complexity of the Hfx. volcanii N-glycoproteome revealed here provide new insights into the roles of N-glycosylation in archaeal cell biology.

RevDate: 2021-08-25
CmpDate: 2021-08-25

Shen LD, Yang YL, Liu JQ, et al (2021)

Different responses of ammonia-oxidizing archaea and bacteria in paddy soils to elevated CO2 concentration.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987), 286:117558.

The elevated atmospheric CO2 concentration is well known to have an important effect on soil nutrient cycling. Ammonia oxidation, mediated by ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) and ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB), is the rate-limiting step in soil nitrification, which controls the availability of two key soil nutrients (ammonium and nitrate) for crops. Until now, how the AOA and AOB communities in paddy soils respond to elevated CO2 remains largely unknown. Here, we examined the communities of AOA and AOB and nitrification potential at both surface (0-5 cm) and subsurface (5-10 cm) soil layers of paddy fields under three different CO2 treatments, including CK (ambient CO2 concentration), LT (CK + 160 ppm of CO2) and HT (CK + 200 ppm of CO2). The elevated CO2 was found to have a greater impact on the community structure of AOB than that of AOA in surface soils as revealed by high-throughput sequencing of their amoA genes. However, no obvious variation of AOA or AOB communities was observed in subsurface soils among different CO2 treatments. The abundance of AOA and AOB, and nitrification potential were significantly increased in surface soils under elevated CO2. The variation of AOB abundance correlated well with the variation of nitrification potential. The soil water content and dissolved organic carbon content had important impacts on the dynamic of AOB communities and nitrification potential. Overall, our results showed different responses of AOA and AOB communities to elevated CO2 in paddy ecosystems, and AOB were more sensitive to the rising CO2 concentration.

RevDate: 2021-07-24

Takemata N, SD Bell (2021)

High-resolution analysis of chromosome conformation in hyperthermophilic archaea.

STAR protocols, 2(2):100562.

Chromosome conformation capture (3C) techniques are emerging as promising approaches to study genome organization in Archaea, the least understood domain of life in terms of chromosome biology. Here, we describe a 3C technique combined with deep sequencing for the hyperthermophilic archaeal genus Sulfolobus. Instead of using restriction enzymes compatible with fill-in labeling, this protocol uses the 4-bp blunt cutter AluI to generate high-resolution (up to 2 kb) contact maps from Sulfolobus species. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Takemata and Bell (2021).

RevDate: 2021-06-12

Garnier F, Couturier M, Débat H, et al (2021)

Archaea: A Gold Mine for Topoisomerase Diversity.

Frontiers in microbiology, 12:661411.

The control of DNA topology is a prerequisite for all the DNA transactions such as DNA replication, repair, recombination, and transcription. This global control is carried out by essential enzymes, named DNA-topoisomerases, that are mandatory for the genome stability. Since many decades, the Archaea provide a significant panel of new types of topoisomerases such as the reverse gyrase, the type IIB or the type IC. These more or less recent discoveries largely contributed to change the understanding of the role of the DNA topoisomerases in all the living world. Despite their very different life styles, Archaea share a quasi-homogeneous set of DNA-topoisomerases, except thermophilic organisms that possess at least one reverse gyrase that is considered a marker of the thermophily. Here, we discuss the effect of the life style of Archaea on DNA structure and topology and then we review the content of these essential enzymes within all the archaeal diversity based on complete sequenced genomes available. Finally, we discuss their roles, in particular in the processes involved in both the archaeal adaptation and the preservation of the genome stability.

RevDate: 2021-12-10

Payne D, Spietz RL, ES Boyd (2021)

Reductive dissolution of pyrite by methanogenic archaea.

The ISME journal, 15(12):3498-3507.

The formation and fate of pyrite (FeS2) modulates global iron, sulfur, carbon, and oxygen biogeochemical cycles and has done so since early in Earth's geological history. A longstanding paradigm is that FeS2 is stable at low temperature and is unavailable to microorganisms in the absence of oxygen and oxidative weathering. Here, we show that methanogens can catalyze the reductive dissolution of FeS2 at low temperature (≤38 °C) and utilize dissolution products to meet cellular iron and sulfur demands associated with the biosynthesis of simple and complex co-factors. Direct access to FeS2 is required to catalyze its reduction and/or to assimilate iron monosulfide that likely forms through coupled reductive dissolution and precipitation, consistent with close associations observed between cells and FeS2. These findings demonstrate that FeS2 is bioavailable to anaerobic methanogens and can be mobilized in low temperature anoxic environments. Given that methanogens evolved at least 3.46 Gya, these data indicate that the microbial contribution to the iron and sulfur cycles in ancient and contemporary anoxic environments may be more complex and robust than previously recognized, with impacts on the sources and sinks of iron and sulfur and other bio-essential and thiophilic elements such as nickel and cobalt.

RevDate: 2021-08-11
CmpDate: 2021-08-11

Watanabe S, Murase Y, Watanabe Y, et al (2021)

Crystal structures of aconitase X enzymes from bacteria and archaea provide insights into the molecular evolution of the aconitase superfamily.

Communications biology, 4(1):687.

Aconitase superfamily members catalyze the homologous isomerization of specific substrates by sequential dehydration and hydration and contain a [4Fe-4S] cluster. However, monomeric and heterodimeric types of function unknown aconitase X (AcnX) have recently been characterized as a cis-3-hydroxy-L-proline dehydratase (AcnXType-I) and mevalonate 5-phosphate dehydratase (AcnXType-II), respectively. We herein elucidated the crystal structures of AcnXType-I from Agrobacterium tumefaciens (AtAcnX) and AcnXType-II from Thermococcus kodakarensis (TkAcnX) without a ligand and in complex with substrates. AtAcnX and TkAcnX contained the [2Fe-2S] and [3Fe-4S] clusters, respectively, conforming to UV and EPR spectroscopy analyses. The binding sites of the [Fe-S] cluster and substrate were clearlydifferent from those that were completely conserved in other aconitase enzymes; however, theoverall structural frameworks and locations of active sites were partially similar to each other.These results provide novel insights into the evolutionary scenario of the aconitase superfamilybased on the recruitment hypothesis.

RevDate: 2021-06-10
CmpDate: 2021-06-10

Pende N, Sogues A, Megrian D, et al (2021)

SepF is the FtsZ anchor in archaea, with features of an ancestral cell division system.

Nature communications, 12(1):3214.

Most archaea divide by binary fission using an FtsZ-based system similar to that of bacteria, but they lack many of the divisome components described in model bacterial organisms. Notably, among the multiple factors that tether FtsZ to the membrane during bacterial cell constriction, archaea only possess SepF-like homologs. Here, we combine structural, cellular, and evolutionary analyses to demonstrate that SepF is the FtsZ anchor in the human-associated archaeon Methanobrevibacter smithii. 3D super-resolution microscopy and quantitative analysis of immunolabeled cells show that SepF transiently co-localizes with FtsZ at the septum and possibly primes the future division plane. M. smithii SepF binds to membranes and to FtsZ, inducing filament bundling. High-resolution crystal structures of archaeal SepF alone and in complex with the FtsZ C-terminal domain (FtsZCTD) reveal that SepF forms a dimer with a homodimerization interface driving a binding mode that is different from that previously reported in bacteria. Phylogenetic analyses of SepF and FtsZ from bacteria and archaea indicate that the two proteins may date back to the Last Universal Common Ancestor (LUCA), and we speculate that the archaeal mode of SepF/FtsZ interaction might reflect an ancestral feature. Our results provide insights into the mechanisms of archaeal cell division and pave the way for a better understanding of the processes underlying the divide between the two prokaryotic domains.

RevDate: 2021-06-15

Vázquez-Madrigal AS, Barbachano-Torres A, Arellano-Plaza M, et al (2021)

Effect of Carbon Sources in Carotenoid Production from Haloarcula sp. M1, Halolamina sp. M3 and Halorubrum sp. M5, Halophilic Archaea Isolated from Sonora Saltern, Mexico.

Microorganisms, 9(5):.

The isolation and molecular and chemo-taxonomic identification of seventeen halophilic archaea from the Santa Bárbara saltern, Sonora, México, were performed. Eight strains were selected based on pigmentation. Molecular identification revealed that the strains belonged to the Haloarcula, Halolamina and Halorubrum genera. Neutral lipids (quinones) were identified in all strains. Glycolipid S-DGD was found only in Halolamina sp. strain M3; polar phospholipids 2,3-O-phytanyl-sn-glycerol-1-phosphoryl-3-sn-glycerol (PG), 2,3-di-O-phytanyl-sn-glycero-1-phospho-3'-sn-glycerol-1'-methyl phosphate (PGP-Me) and sodium salt 1-(3-sn-phosphatidyl)-rac-glycerol were found in all the strains; and one unidentified glyco-phospholipid in strains M1, M3 and M4. Strains M1, M3 and M5 were selected for further studies based on carotenoid production. The effect of glucose and succinic and glutamic acid on carotenoid production was assessed. In particular, carotenoid production and growth significantly improved in the presence of glucose in strains Haloarcula sp. M1 and Halorubrum sp. M5 but not in Halolamina sp. M3. Glutamic and succinic acid had no effect on carotenoid production, and even was negative for Halorubrum sp. M5. Growth was increased by glutamic and succinic acid on Haloarcula sp. M1 but not in the other strains. This work describes for first time the presence of halophilic archaea in the Santa Bárbara saltern and highlights the differences in the effect of carbon sources on the growth and carotenoid production of haloarchaea.

RevDate: 2021-08-03

McNichol J, Berube PM, Biller SJ, et al (2021)

Evaluating and Improving Small Subunit rRNA PCR Primer Coverage for Bacteria, Archaea, and Eukaryotes Using Metagenomes from Global Ocean Surveys.

mSystems, 6(3):e0056521.

Small subunit rRNA (SSU rRNA) amplicon sequencing can quantitatively and comprehensively profile natural microbiomes, representing a critically important tool for studying diverse global ecosystems. However, results will only be accurate if PCR primers perfectly match the rRNA of all organisms present. To evaluate how well marine microorganisms across all 3 domains are detected by this method, we compared commonly used primers with >300 million rRNA gene sequences retrieved from globally distributed marine metagenomes. The best-performing primers compared to 16S rRNA of bacteria and archaea were 515Y/926R and 515Y/806RB, which perfectly matched over 96% of all sequences. Considering cyanobacterial and chloroplast 16S rRNA, 515Y/926R had the highest coverage (99%), making this set ideal for quantifying marine primary producers. For eukaryotic 18S rRNA sequences, 515Y/926R also performed best (88%), followed by V4R/V4RB (18S rRNA specific; 82%)-demonstrating that the 515Y/926R combination performs best overall for all 3 domains. Using Atlantic and Pacific Ocean samples, we demonstrate high correspondence between 515Y/926R amplicon abundances (generated for this study) and metagenomic 16S rRNA (median R2 = 0.98, n = 272), indicating amplicons can produce equally accurate community composition data compared with shotgun metagenomics. Our analysis also revealed that expected performance of all primer sets could be improved with minor modifications, pointing toward a nearly completely universal primer set that could accurately quantify biogeochemically important taxa in ecosystems ranging from the deep sea to the surface. In addition, our reproducible bioinformatic workflow can guide microbiome researchers studying different ecosystems or human health to similarly improve existing primers and generate more accurate quantitative amplicon data. IMPORTANCE PCR amplification and sequencing of marker genes is a low-cost technique for monitoring prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities across space and time but will work optimally only if environmental organisms match PCR primer sequences exactly. In this study, we evaluated how well primers match globally distributed short-read oceanic metagenomes. Our results demonstrate that primer sets vary widely in performance, and that at least for marine systems, rRNA amplicon data from some primers lack significant biases compared to metagenomes. We also show that it is theoretically possible to create a nearly universal primer set for diverse saline environments by defining a specific mixture of a few dozen oligonucleotides, and present a software pipeline that can guide rational design of primers for any environment with available meta'omic data.

RevDate: 2021-05-26

Cockram C, Thierry A, R Koszul (2021)

Generation of gene-level resolution chromosome contact maps in bacteria and archaea.

STAR protocols, 2(2):100512.

Chromosome conformation capture (Hi-C) has become a routine method for probing the 3D organization of genomes. However, when applied to bacteria and archaea, current protocols are expensive and limited in their resolution. By dissecting the different steps of published eukaryotic and prokaryotic Hi-C protocols, we have developed a cost- and time-effective approach to generate high-resolution (down to 500 bp - 1 kb) contact matrices of both bacteria and archaea genomes. For complete details on the use and execution of this protocol, please refer to Cockram et al. (2020).

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Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

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Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

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Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

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Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

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While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

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Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

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Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Some Archaea thrive in extreme places around the planet such as in thermal pools, hot vents at the bottom of the sea, extremely salty water, and even in underground oil reserves. Others are found in the intestines of animals and in plankton, tiny organisms that form a feeding reserve for larger marine life. Once grouped with bacteria, the DNA of this fascinating group is sufficiently different that scientists have proposed that they should have a sixth kingdom of their own. This book examines the three main divisions into which members of the diverse Archaea kingdom are grouped according to their unusual biology. It also explains why little in general is known about them, and why further classification of Archaea is so difficult.

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