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22 Apr 2024 at 01:43
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Bibliography on: DNA Barcoding


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 22 Apr 2024 at 01:43 Created: 

DNA Barcoding

Wikipedia: DNA Barcoding is a method of species identification using a short section of DNA from a specific gene or genes. The premise of DNA barcoding is that by comparison with a reference library of such DNA sections (also called "sequences"), an individual sequence can be used to uniquely identify an organism to species, just as a supermarket scanner uses the familiar black stripes of the UPC barcode to identify an item in its stock against its reference database. These "barcodes" are sometimes used in an effort to identify unknown species or parts of an organism, simply to catalog as many taxa as possible, or to compare with traditional taxonomy in an effort to determine species boundaries.

Different gene regions are used to identify the different organismal groups using barcoding. The most commonly used barcode region for animals and some protists is a portion of the cytochrome c oxidase I (COI or COX1) gene, found in mitochondrial DNA. Other genes suitable for DNA barcoding are the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA often used for fungi and RuBisCO used for plants. Microorganisms are detected using different gene regions.

See also: What is DNA barcoding? or DNA barcoding workflows

Created with PubMed® Query: DNA[TIAB] barcode[TIAB] OR barcodes[TIAB] OR barcoding[TIAB] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-04-21

Nathans JF, Ayers JL, Shendure J, et al (2024)

Genetic Tools for Cell Lineage Tracing and Profiling Developmental Trajectories in the Skin.

The Journal of investigative dermatology, 144(5):936-949.

The epidermis is the body's first line of protection against dehydration and pathogens, continually regenerating the outermost protective skin layers throughout life. During both embryonic development and wound healing, epidermal stem and progenitor cells must respond to external stimuli and insults to build, maintain, and repair the cutaneous barrier. Recent advances in CRISPR-based methods for cell lineage tracing have remarkably expanded the potential for experiments that track stem and progenitor cell proliferation and differentiation over the course of tissue and even organismal development. Additional tools for DNA-based recording of cellular signaling cues promise to deepen our understanding of the mechanisms driving normal skin morphogenesis and response to stressors as well as the dysregulation of cell proliferation and differentiation in skin diseases and cancer. In this review, we highlight cutting-edge methods for cell lineage tracing, including in organoids and model organisms, and explore how cutaneous biology researchers might leverage these techniques to elucidate the developmental programs that support the regenerative capacity and plasticity of the skin.

RevDate: 2024-04-20

Alloun W, Berkani M, Shavandi A, et al (2024)

Harnessing artificial intelligence-driven approach for enhanced indole-3-acetic acid from the newly isolated Streptomyces rutgersensis AW08.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(24)00837-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) derived from Actinobacteria fermentations on agro-wastes constitutes a safer and low-cost alternative to synthetic IAA. This study aims to select a high IAA-producing Streptomyces-like strain isolated from Lake Oubeira sediments (El Kala, Algeria) for further investigations (i.e., 16S rRNA gene barcoding and process optimization). Subsequently, artificial intelligence-based approaches were employed to maximize IAA bioproduction on spent coffee grounds as high-value-added feedstock. The specificity was the novel application of the Limited-Memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno Box (L-BFGS-B) optimization algorithm. The new strain AW08 was a significant producer of IAA (26.116 ± 0.61 μg/mL) and was identified as Streptomyces rutgersensis by 16S rRNA gene barcoding and phylogenetic inquiry. The empirical data involved the inoculation of AW08 in various cultural conditions according to a four-factor Box Behnken Design matrix (BBD) of Response surface methodology (RSM). The input parameters and regression equation extracted from the RSM-BBD were the basis for implementing and training the L-BFGS-B algorithm. Upon training the model, the optimal conditions suggested by the BBD and L-BFGS-B algorithm were, respectively, L-Trp (X1) = 0.58 %; 0.57 %; T° (X2) = 26.37 °C; 28.19 °C; pH (X3) = 7.75; 8.59; and carbon source (X4) = 30 %; 33.29 %, with the predicted response IAA (Y) =152.8; 169.18 μg/mL). Our findings emphasize the potential of the multifunctional S. rutgersensis AW08, isolated and reported for the first time in Algeria, as a robust producer of IAA. Validation investigations using the bioprocess parameters provided by the L-BFGS-B and the BBD-RSM models demonstrate the effectiveness of AI-driven optimization in maximizing IAA output by 5.43-fold and 4.2-fold, respectively. This study constitutes the first paper reporting a novel interdisciplinary approach and providing insights into biotechnological advancements. These results support for the first time a reasonable approach for valorizing spent coffee grounds as feedstock for sustainable and economic IAA production from S. rutgersensis AW08.

RevDate: 2024-04-19

Reicher A, Reiniš J, Ciobanu M, et al (2024)

Pooled multicolour tagging for visualizing subcellular protein dynamics.

Nature cell biology [Epub ahead of print].

Imaging-based methods are widely used for studying the subcellular localization of proteins in living cells. While routine for individual proteins, global monitoring of protein dynamics following perturbation typically relies on arrayed panels of fluorescently tagged cell lines, limiting throughput and scalability. Here, we describe a strategy that combines high-throughput microscopy, computer vision and machine learning to detect perturbation-induced changes in multicolour tagged visual proteomics cell (vpCell) pools. We use genome-wide and cancer-focused intron-targeting sgRNA libraries to generate vpCell pools and a large, arrayed collection of clones each expressing two different endogenously tagged fluorescent proteins. Individual clones can be identified in vpCell pools by image analysis using the localization patterns and expression level of the tagged proteins as visual barcodes, enabling simultaneous live-cell monitoring of large sets of proteins. To demonstrate broad applicability and scale, we test the effects of antiproliferative compounds on a pool with cancer-related proteins, on which we identify widespread protein localization changes and new inhibitors of the nuclear import/export machinery. The time-resolved characterization of changes in subcellular localization and abundance of proteins upon perturbation in a pooled format highlights the power of the vpCell approach for drug discovery and mechanism-of-action studies.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Patil GS, Pinto N, Nath R, et al (2024)

Decoding the molecular phylogenetics of ornamental catfishes (siluriformes) of North East India using DNA barcoding approach.

Molecular biology reports, 51(1):528.

BACKGROUND: Catfishes (order Siluriformes) are among the most diverse and widely distributed fish groups in the world. They are not only used for human consumption but are also a major part of the ornamental fish trade. Being a Biodiversity Hotspot, the North Eastern Region of India is home to a diverse population of ornamental fishes. Catfishes contain a humongous number of species; in this study, the authors have tried to elucidate the phylogenetic relationship of some important ornamental catfishes found in North East India using DNA barcodes.

METHODS AND RESULTS: In this study, we have tried to explore the phylogenetic history of 13 species (41 specimens) of ornamental catfishes spanning 12 genera and 9 families of Siluriformes using DNA barcoding. Pairwise genetic distances using Kimura 2-Parameter (K2P) were calculated at intra-specific and inter-specific levels. A Neighbor-Joining tree was constructed to understand the phylogenetic relationship among the nine different catfish families. All the specimens under this study clustered with their respective species under the same family and formed three sub-clades. However, Olyra longicaudata, belonging to the Bagridae family, did not cluster with other species from the same family. In this study, the authors have suggested a revision of the classification of O. longicaudata back to its original family, Olyridae.

CONCLUSIONS: In this study, the maximum intraspecific genetic distance of 0.03 and the minimum interspecific genetic distance of 0.14 were observed among the species. Therefore, it is evident that there is a barcoding gap among the species, which helped in the correct identification of the species. Thus, DNA barcoding helped complement the phenetic approach and also revealed a different phylogenetic relationship among the catfishes belonging to the Bagridae family.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Chevée V, Hullahalli K, Dailey KG, et al (2024)

Temporal and spatial dynamics of Listeria monocytogenes central nervous system infection in mice.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(17):e2320311121.

Listeria monocytogenes is a bacterial pathogen that can cause life-threatening central nervous system (CNS) infections. While mechanisms by which L. monocytogenes and other pathogens traffic to the brain have been studied, a quantitative understanding of the underlying dynamics of colonization and replication within the brain is still lacking. In this study, we used barcoded L. monocytogenes to quantify the bottlenecks and dissemination patterns that lead to cerebral infection. Following intravenous (IV) inoculation, multiple independent invasion events seeded all parts of the CNS from the blood, however, only one clone usually became dominant in the brain. Sequential IV inoculations and intracranial inoculations suggested that clones that had a temporal advantage (i.e., seeded the CNS first), rather than a spatial advantage (i.e., invaded a particular brain region), were the main drivers of clonal dominance. In a foodborne model of cerebral infection with immunocompromised mice, rare invasion events instead led to a highly infected yet monoclonal CNS. This restrictive bottleneck likely arose from pathogen transit into the blood, rather than directly from the blood to the brain. Collectively, our findings provide a detailed quantitative understanding of the L. monocytogenes population dynamics that lead to CNS infection and a framework for studying the dynamics of other cerebral infections.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Chakraborty M, Kaur J, Gunjan , et al (2024)

Clinical relevance of glycosylation in triple negative breast cancer: a review.

Glycoconjugate journal [Epub ahead of print].

Glycosylation alterations in TNBC have significant implications for tumor behavior, diagnosis, prognosis, and therapeutic strategies. Dysregulated glycosylation affects cell adhesion, signaling, immune recognition, and response to therapy in TNBC. Different types of glycosylation, including N-linked glycosylation, O-linked glycosylation, glycosphingolipid glycosylation, mucin-type glycosylation, and sialylation, play distinct roles in TNBC. The "barcoding" method based on glycosylation sites of the membrane type mannose receptor (MR) shows promise in accurately distinguishing breast cancer subtypes, including TNBC. Alpha-L-fucosidase 1 (FUCA1) and Monocarboxylate transporter 4 (MCT4) have been identified as potential diagnostic and prognostic markers for TNBC. The glycosylation status of PD-L1 impacts the response to immune checkpoint blockade therapy in TNBC. Inhibiting fucosylation of B7H3 enhances immune responses and improves anti-tumor effects. Targeting glycosylated B7H4 and modulating estrogen metabolism through glycosylation-related mechanisms are potential therapeutic strategies for TNBC. Understanding the role of glycosylation in TNBC provides insights into disease mechanisms, diagnosis, and potential therapeutic targets. Further research in this field may lead to personalized treatment approaches and improved outcomes for TNBC patients.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Kang S, Choi P, Maile-Moskowitz A, et al (2024)

Highly Multiplexed Reverse-Transcription Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification and Nanopore Sequencing (LAMPore) for Wastewater-Based Surveillance.

ACS ES&T water, 4(4):1629-1636.

Wastewater-based surveillance (WBS) has gained attention as a strategy to monitor and provide an early warning for disease outbreaks. Here, we applied an isothermal gene amplification technique, reverse-transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP), coupled with nanopore sequencing (LAMPore) as a means to detect SARS-CoV-2. Specifically, we combined barcoding using both an RT-LAMP primer and the nanopore rapid barcoding kit to achieve highly multiplexed detection of SARS-CoV-2 in wastewater. RT-LAMP targeting the SARS-CoV-2 N region was conducted on 96 reactions including wastewater RNA extracts and positive and no-target controls. The resulting amplicons were pooled and subjected to nanopore sequencing, followed by demultiplexing based on barcodes that differentiate the source of each SARS-CoV-2 N amplicon derived from the 96 RT-LAMP products. The criteria developed and applied to establish whether SARS-CoV-2 was detected by the LAMPore assay indicated high consistency with polymerase chain reaction-based detection of the SARS-CoV-2 N gene, with a sensitivity of 89% and a specificity of 83%. We further profiled sequence variations on the SARS-CoV-2 N amplicons, revealing a number of mutations on a sample collected after viral variants had emerged. The results demonstrate the potential of the LAMPore assay to facilitate WBS for SARS-CoV-2 and the emergence of viral variants in wastewater.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Hu H, Liu L, Wei XY, et al (2024)

Revolutionizing aquatic eco-environmental monitoring: Utilizing the RPA-Cas-FQ detection platform for zooplankton.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02560-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The integration of recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) with CRISPR/Cas technology has revolutionized molecular diagnostics and pathogen detection due to its unparalleled sensitivity and trans-cleavage ability. However, its potential in the ecological and environmental monitoring scenarios for aquatic ecosystems remains largely unexplored, particularly in accurate qualitative/quantitative detection, and its actual performance in handling complex real environmental samples. Using zooplankton as a model, we have successfully optimized the RPA-CRISPR/Cas12a fluorescence detection platform (RPA-Cas-FQ), providing several crucial "technical tips". Our findings indicate the sensitivity of CRISPR/Cas12a alone is 5 × 10[9] copies/reaction, which can be dramatically increased to 5 copies/reaction when combined with RPA. The optimized RPA-Cas-FQ enables reliable qualitative and semi-quantitative detection within 50 min, and exhibits a good linear relationship between fluorescence intensity and DNA concentration (R[2] = 0.956-0.974***). Additionally, we developed a rapid and straightforward identification procedure for single zooplankton by incorporating heat-lysis and DNA-barcode techniques. We evaluated the platform's effectiveness using real environmental DNA (eDNA) samples from the Three Gorges Reservoir, confirming its practicality. The eDNA-RPA-Cas-FQ demonstrated strong consistency (Kappa = 0.43***) with eDNA-Metabarcoding in detecting species presence/absence in the reservoir. Furthermore, the two semi-quantitative eDNA quantification technologies showed a strong positive correlation (R[2] = 0.58-0.87***). This platform also has the potential to monitor environmental pollutants by selecting appropriate indicator species. The novel insights and methodologies presented in this study represent a significant advancement in meeting the complex needs of aquatic ecosystem protection and monitoring.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Alkathiry HA, Alghamdi SQ, Sinha A, et al (2024)

Microbiome and mitogenomics of the chigger mite Pentidionis agamae: potential role as an Orientia vector and associations with divergent clades of Wolbachia and Borrelia.

BMC genomics, 25(1):380.

BACKGROUND: Trombiculid mites are globally distributed, highly diverse arachnids that largely lack molecular resources such as whole mitogenomes for the elucidation of taxonomic relationships. Trombiculid larvae (chiggers) parasitise vertebrates and can transmit bacteria (Orientia spp.) responsible for scrub typhus, a zoonotic febrile illness. Orientia tsutsugamushi causes most cases of scrub typhus and is endemic to the Asia-Pacific Region, where it is transmitted by Leptotrombidium spp. chiggers. However, in Dubai, Candidatus Orientia chuto was isolated from a case of scrub typhus and is also known to circulate among rodents in Saudi Arabia and Kenya, although its vectors remain poorly defined. In addition to Orientia, chiggers are often infected with other potential pathogens or arthropod-specific endosymbionts, but their significance for trombiculid biology and public health is unclear.

RESULTS: Ten chigger species were collected from rodents in southwestern Saudi Arabia. Chiggers were pooled according to species and screened for Orientia DNA by PCR. Two species (Microtrombicula muhaylensis and Pentidionis agamae) produced positive results for the htrA gene, although Ca. Orientia chuto DNA was confirmed by Sanger sequencing only in P. agamae. Metagenomic sequencing of three pools of P. agamae provided evidence for two other bacterial associates: a spirochaete and a Wolbachia symbiont. Phylogenetic analysis of 16S rRNA and multi-locus sequence typing genes placed the spirochaete in a clade of micromammal-associated Borrelia spp. that are widely-distributed globally with no known vector. For the Wolbachia symbiont, a genome assembly was obtained that allowed phylogenetic localisation in a novel, divergent clade. Cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) barcodes for Saudi Arabian chiggers enabled comparisons with global chigger diversity, revealing several cases of discordance with classical taxonomy. Complete mitogenome assemblies were obtained for the three P. agamae pools and almost 50 SNPs were identified, despite a common geographic origin.

CONCLUSIONS: P. agamae was identified as a potential vector of Ca. Orientia chuto on the Arabian Peninsula. The detection of an unusual Borrelia sp. and a divergent Wolbachia symbiont in P. agamae indicated links with chigger microbiomes in other parts of the world, while COI barcoding and mitogenomic analyses greatly extended our understanding of inter- and intraspecific relationships in trombiculid mites.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Fiedler S, Frenzel F, Würth C, et al (2024)

Interlaboratory Comparison on Absolute Photoluminescence Quantum Yield Measurements of Solid Light Converting Phosphors with Three Commercial Integrating Sphere Setups.

Analytical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Scattering luminescent materials dispersed in liquid and solid matrices and luminescent powders are increasingly relevant for fundamental research and industry. Examples are luminescent nano- and microparticles and phosphors of different compositions in various matrices or incorporated into ceramics with applications in energy conversion, solid-state lighting, medical diagnostics, and security barcoding. The key parameter to characterize the performance of these materials is the photoluminescence/fluorescence quantum yield (Φf), i.e., the number of emitted photons per number of absorbed photons. To identify and quantify the sources of uncertainty of absolute measurements of Φf of scattering samples, the first interlaboratory comparison (ILC) of three laboratories from academia and industry was performed by following identical measurement protocols. Thereby, two types of commercial stand-alone integrating sphere setups with different illumination and detection geometries were utilized for measuring the Φf of transparent and scattering dye solutions and solid phosphors, namely, YAG:Ce optoceramics of varying surface roughness, used as converter materials for blue light emitting diodes. Special emphasis was dedicated to the influence of the measurement geometry, the optical properties of the blank utilized to determine the number of photons of the incident excitation light absorbed by the sample, and the sample-specific surface roughness. While the Φf values of the liquid samples matched between instruments, Φf measurements of the optoceramics with different blanks revealed substantial differences. The ILC results underline the importance of the measurement geometry, sample position, and blank for reliable Φf data of scattering the YAG:Ce optoceramics, with the blank's optical properties accounting for uncertainties exceeding 20%.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Fening KO, Okyere SO, Forchibe EE, et al (2024)

First report of Leucinodes africensis and Leucinodes laisalis on Solanum aethiopicum and Solanum melongena in farmer's fields in southern Ghana.

Bulletin of entomological research pii:S0007485324000154 [Epub ahead of print].

The eggplant fruit and shoot borer (EFSB) is a devastating pest of eggplants (Solanum aethiopicum L. and Solanum melongena L.) in Ghana, causing significant economic losses. Although initially thought to be the Leucinodes orbonalis Guenee species found in Asia, recent European and Mediterranean Plant Protection Organization reports suggest its absence in Africa. However, eight Leucinodes species have been recently described in Africa, including two new species, Leucinodes africensis sp. n. and Leucinodes laisalis Walker, which were intercepted in eggplant fruits exported from Ghana to the United Kingdom. Despite the reported absence of L. orbonalis in Africa, it remains on the pest list of Ghana as a species known to attack eggplants. To accurately determine the identity of the EFSB complex occurring on eggplant in Southern Ghana, molecular and morphological taxonomic tools were employed, and adult male populations were monitored in on-farm conditions. Our results revealed the presence of two EFSB species, L. africensis and L. laisalis, in the shoot and fruits of eggplants, with L. africensis being the dominant species and widely distributed in Southern Ghana. Notably, L. africensis males were attracted to the pheromone lure of L. orbonalis despite the two species being biologically distinct. This study provides crucial information on correctly identifying the EFSB species attacking eggplants in Southern Ghana and has significant implications for developing management interventions against these pests and their effects on international eggplant trade.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Grisendi A, Calzolari M, Defilippo F, et al (2024)


The Journal of parasitology, 110(2):155-158.

Eight ticks were found in Comacchio (FE), Italy parasitizing a young black iguana (Ctenosaura similis) that had been accidentally transported in a commercial plant container from Costa Rica. Specimens were identified morphologically as Amblyomma scutatum and then confirmed by the barcoding of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene. Amblyomma scutatum is a common tick known to infest reptiles in Central America, Mexico, and Venezuela, but not in Europe. In Italy, the possibility for this tick to become endemic is unlikely because of the absence of its principal hosts. Nevertheless, this finding confirms the high risk of introducing exotic species that is linked with global commerce and therefore the need for veterinary control of shipments.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Liu Z, Zeng H, Xiang H, et al (2024)

Achieving single-cell-resolution lineage tracing in zebrafish by continuous barcoding mutations during embryogenesis.

Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao pii:S1673-8527(24)00074-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Unraveling the lineage relationships of all descendants from a zygote is fundamental to advancing our understanding of developmental and stem cell biology. However, existing cell barcoding technologies in zebrafish lack the resolution to capture the majority of cell divisions during embryogenesis. A recently developed method, SMALT, successfully reconstructed high-resolution cell phylogenetic trees for Drosophila melanogaster. Here, we implement the SMALT system in zebrafish, recording a median of 14 substitution mutations on a one-kilobase-pair barcoding sequence for one-day post-fertilization embryos. Leveraging this system, we reconstruct four cell lineage trees for zebrafish fin cells, encompassing both original and regenerated fin. Each tree consists of hundreds of internal nodes with a median bootstrap support of 99%. Analysis of the obtained cell lineage trees reveals that regenerated fin cells mainly originate from cells in the same part of the fins. Through multiple times sampling germ cells from the same individual, we confirm the stability of the germ cell pool and the early separation of germ cell and somatic cell progenitors. Our system offers the potential for reconstructing high-quality cell phylogenies across diverse tissues, providing valuable insights into development and disease in zebrafish.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Ge X, Wang C, Pei W, et al (2024)

New descriptions of the larval and pupal stages of Orthocladiusnitidoscutellatus and Psectrocladiusnevalis from Xizang, China (Diptera, Chironomidae).

Biodiversity data journal, 12:e121952.

BACKGROUND: Tibetan Plateau is one of the most typical areas of biodiversity in the world because of its unique environmental and regional units, which breed unique biological communities and concentrate on many unique and rare wild animals and plants. Research on Chironomidae in the Tibetan Plateau is relatively weak. At present, the identification of Chironomidae species mainly depends on male adults, while identification of larvae and pupae is relatively difficult and there is less research on them.

NEW INFORMATION: During the investigations of insect diversity in the Tibetan Plateau, larval and pupal stages of Orthocladiusnitidoscutellatus Lundström, 1915 and Psectrocladiusnevalis Akhrorov, 1977 were described and illustrated. Matching and identification of larval and pupal stages were based on DNA barcodes. Neighbour-joining trees were reconstructed, based on known Orthocladius and Psectrocladius COI DNA barcodes, respectively.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Scherer M, Singh I, Braun M, et al (2024)

Somatic epimutations enable single-cell lineage tracing in native hematopoiesis across the murine and human lifespan.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.04.01.587514.

Current approaches to lineage tracing of stem cell clones require genetic engineering or rely on sparse somatic DNA variants, which are difficult to capture at single-cell resolution. Here, we show that targeted single-cell measurements of DNA methylation at single-CpG resolution deliver joint information about cellular differentiation state and clonal identities. We develop EPI-clone, a droplet-based method for transgene-free lineage tracing, and apply it to study hematopoiesis, capturing hundreds of clonal trajectories across almost 100,000 single-cells. Using ground-truth genetic barcodes, we demonstrate that EPI-clone accurately identifies clonal lineages throughout hematopoietic differentiation. Applied to unperturbed hematopoiesis, we describe an overall decline of clonal complexity during murine ageing and the expansion of rare low-output stem cell clones. In aged human donors, we identified expanded hematopoietic clones with and without genetic lesions, and various degrees of clonal complexity. Taken together, EPI-clone enables accurate and transgene-free single-cell lineage tracing at scale.

RevDate: 2024-04-14

Merivaara A, Puranen J, Sadeghi A, et al (2024)

Barcode lipids for absolute quantitation of liposomes in ocular tissues.

Journal of controlled release : official journal of the Controlled Release Society pii:S0168-3659(24)00244-X [Epub ahead of print].

Lipid-based drug formulations are promising systems for improving delivery of drugs to ocular tissues, such as retina. To develop lipid-based systems further, an improved understanding of their pharmacokinetics is required, but high-quality in vivo experiments require a large number of animals, raising ethical and economic questions. In order to expedite in vivo kinetic testing of lipid-based systems, we propose a barcode approach that is based on barcoding liposomes with non-endogenous lipids. We developed and evaluated a liquid-chromatography-mass spectrometry method to quantify many liposomes simultaneously in aqueous humor, vitreous, and neural retina at higher than ±20% precision and accuracy. Furthermore, we showed in vivo suitability of the method in pharmacokinetic evaluation of six different liposomes after their simultaneous injection into the rat vitreal cavity. We calculated pharmacokinetic parameters in vitreous and aqueous humor, quantified liposome concentrations in the retina, and quantitated retinal distribution of the liposomes in the rats. Compared to individual injections of the liposome formulations, the barcode-based study design enabled reduction of animal numbers from 72 to 12. We believe that the proposed approach is reliable and will reduce and refine ocular pharmacokinetic experiments with liposomes and other lipid-based systems.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Lu Q, Tian Q, Gu W, et al (2024)

Comparative genomics on chloroplasts of Rubus (Rosaceae).

Genomics pii:S0888-7543(24)00066-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Rubus, the largest genus in Rosaceae, contains over 1400 species that distributed in multiple habitats across the world, with high species diversity in the temperate regions of Northern Hemisphere. Multiple Rubus species are cultivated for their valuable fruits. However, the intrageneric classification and phylogenetic relationships are still poorly understood. In this study, we sequenced, assembled, and characterized 17 plastomes of Rubus, and conducted comparative genomics integrating with 47 previously issued plastomes of this genus. The 64 plastomes of Rubus exhibited typical quadripartite structure with sizes ranging from 155,144 to 156,700 bp, and contained 132 genes including 87 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes and eight rRNA genes. All plastomes are conservative in the gene order, the frequency of different types of long repeats and simple sequence repeats (SSRs), the codon usage, and the selection pressure of protein-coding genes. However, there are also some differences in the Rubus plastomes, including slight contraction and expansion of the IRs, a variation in the numbers of SSRs and long repeats, and some genes in certain clades undergoing intensified or relaxed purifying selection. Phylogenetic analysis based on whole plastomes showed that the monophyly of Rubus was strongly supported and resolved it into six clades corresponding to six subgenera. Moreover, we identified 12 highly variable regions that could be potential molecular markers for phylogenetic, population genetic, and barcoding studies. Overall, our study provided insight into plastomic structure and sequence diversification of Rubus, which could be beneficial for future studies on identification, evolution, and phylogeny in this genus.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Zhang J, Zheng T, Helalat SH, et al (2024)

Synthesis of eco-friendly multifunctional dextran microbeads for multiplexed assays.

Journal of colloid and interface science, 666:603-614 pii:S0021-9797(24)00780-X [Epub ahead of print].

There has been an increasing demand for simultaneous detection of multiple analytes in one sample. Microbead-based platforms have been developed for multiplexed assays. However, most of the microbeads are made of non-biodegradable synthetic polymers, leading to environmental and human health concerns. In this study, we developed an environmentally friendly dextran microbeads as a new type of multi-analyte assay platform. Biodegradable dextran was utilized as the primary material. Highly uniform magnetic dextran microspheres were successfully synthesized using the Shirasu porous glass (SPG) membrane emulsification technique. To enhance the amount of surface functional groups for ligand conjugation, we coated the dextran microbeads with a layer of dendrimers via a simple electrostatic adsorption process. Subsequently, a unique and efficient click chemistry coupling technique was developed for the fluorescence encoding of the microspheres, enabling multiplexed detection. The dextran microbeads were tested for 3-plex cytokine analysis, and exhibited excellent biocompatibility, stable coding signals, low background noise and high sensitivity.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Vella A, N Vella (2024)

The First Report of Pennella (Crustacea: Copepoda) Infesting Stenella coeruleoalba Stranded in Malta: Morphological and Genetic Analyses.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 14(7): pii:ani14071107.

Here, we document the stranding of a striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba (Meyen, 1833) (Mammalia: Delphinidae), which was found dead in Maltese waters in July 2020. The stranded dolphin exhibited a severe infestation of the mesoparasitic copepod, Pennella balaenoptera Koren and Danielssen, 1877 (Copepoda: Pennelidae). Parasites of this genus represent the largest known mesoparasites to infest cetaceans. Under normal circumstances, cetaceans may have a few P. balaenoptera individuals attached to them, but cetaceans with compromised health are more prone to heavy infestations. The identification of the parasite was accomplished through morphological and genetic analyses. This incident highlights the significance of monitoring mesoparasitic infestations, offering valuable insights into the health of cetacean populations and emphasizing the potential implications for conservation efforts in the region.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Graziosi G, Lupini C, Gobbo F, et al (2024)

Genetic Diversity of Avian Influenza Viruses Detected in Waterbirds in Northeast Italy Using Two Different Sampling Strategies.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 14(7): pii:ani14071018.

Avian influenza viruses (AIVs), which circulate endemically in wild aquatic birds, pose a significant threat to poultry and raise concerns for their zoonotic potential. From August 2021 to April 2022, a multi-site cross-sectional study involving active AIV epidemiological monitoring was conducted in wetlands of the Emilia-Romagna region, northern Italy, adjacent to densely populated poultry areas. A total of 129 cloacal swab samples (CSs) and 407 avian faecal droppings samples (FDs) were collected, with 7 CSs (5.4%) and 4 FDs (1%) testing positive for the AIV matrix gene through rRT-PCR. A COI-barcoding protocol was applied to recognize the species of origin of AIV-positive FDs. Multiple low-pathogenic AIV subtypes were identified, and five of these were isolated, including an H5N3, an H1N1, and three H9N2 in wild ducks. Following whole-genome sequencing, phylogenetic analyses of the hereby obtained strains showed close genetic relationships with AIVs detected in countries along the Black Sea/Mediterranean migratory flyway. Notably, none of the analyzed gene segments were genetically related to HPAI H5N1 viruses of clade isolated from Italian poultry during the concurrent 2021-2022 epidemic. Overall, the detected AIV genetic diversity emphasizes the necessity for ongoing monitoring in wild hosts using diverse sampling strategies and whole-genome sequencing.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Kuijpers L, Hornung B, van den Hout-van Vroonhoven MCGN, et al (2024)

Split Pool Ligation-based Single-cell Transcriptome sequencing (SPLiT-seq) data processing pipeline comparison.

BMC genomics, 25(1):361.

BACKGROUND: Single-cell sequencing techniques are revolutionizing every field of biology by providing the ability to measure the abundance of biological molecules at a single-cell resolution. Although single-cell sequencing approaches have been developed for several molecular modalities, single-cell transcriptome sequencing is the most prevalent and widely applied technique. SPLiT-seq (split-pool ligation-based transcriptome sequencing) is one of these single-cell transcriptome techniques that applies a unique combinatorial-barcoding approach by splitting and pooling cells into multi-well plates containing barcodes. This unique approach required the development of dedicated computational tools to preprocess the data and extract the count matrices. Here we compare eight bioinformatic pipelines (alevin-fry splitp, LR-splitpipe, SCSit, splitpipe, splitpipeline, SPLiTseq-demultiplex, STARsolo and zUMI) that have been developed to process SPLiT-seq data. We provide an overview of the tools, their computational performance, functionality and impact on downstream processing of the single-cell data, which vary greatly depending on the tool used.

RESULTS: We show that STARsolo, splitpipe and alevin-fry splitp can all handle large amount of data within reasonable time. In contrast, the other five pipelines are slow when handling large datasets. When using smaller dataset, cell barcode results are similar with the exception of SPLiTseq-demultiplex and splitpipeline. LR-splitpipe that is originally designed for processing long-read sequencing data is the slowest of all pipelines. Alevin-fry produced different down-stream results that are difficult to interpret. STARsolo functions nearly identical to splitpipe and produce results that are highly similar to each other. However, STARsolo lacks the function to collapse random hexamer reads for which some additional coding is required.

CONCLUSION: Our comprehensive comparative analysis aids users in selecting the most suitable analysis tool for efficient SPLiT-seq data processing, while also detailing the specific prerequisites for each of these pipelines. From the available pipelines, we recommend splitpipe or STARSolo for SPLiT-seq data analysis.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Laojun S, Changbunjong T, Abdulloh A, et al (2024)

Geometric morphometrics to differentiate species and explore seasonal variation in three Mansonia species (Diptera: Culicidae) in central Thailand and their association with meteorological factors.

Medical and veterinary entomology [Epub ahead of print].

Mansonia mosquito species are recognised as a significant vector of human pathogens, primarily transmitting the filarial nematode, Brugia malayi. In central Thailand, the three most prevalent Mansonia species are Mansonia annulifera, Mansonia indiana and Mansonia uniformis. This study explored the influence of seasonal changes on the phenotypic variation of these Mansonia species in central Thailand using the geometric morphometrics (GM). To ensure accurate species identification, we integrated GM techniques with DNA barcoding, examining distinctions in both phenotype and genotype among the species. The intraspecific genetic divergence ranged from 0.00% to 1.69%, whereas the interspecific genetic divergence ranged from 10.52% to 16.36%. The clear distinction between intra- and interspecific distances demonstrated the presence of a barcoding gap, confirming the successful differentiation of the three Mansonia mosquito species through DNA barcoding. Similarly, the interspecies GM assessment for classifying Mansonia species demonstrated a high degree of accuracy, with an overall performance of 98.12%. Exploring seasonal variation in the three Mansonia species revealed wing variations across different seasons, and pronounced variations appearing in the cool season. Regarding their association with meteorological factors, Ma. annulifera and Ma. uniformis showed significant positive correlations with temperature (p < 0.05), and Ma. uniformis also displayed a significant negative correlation with atmospheric pressure (p < 0.05). The insights from this study will deepen our understanding of the adaptive patterns of Mansonia mosquitoes in Thailand's central region, paving the way for enhanced disease surveillance related to these vectors.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Cai L, Lin L, Lin S, et al (2024)

Highly Multiplexing, Throughput and Efficient Single-Cell Protein Analysis with Digital Microfluidics.

Small methods [Epub ahead of print].

Proteins as crucial components of cells are responsible for the majority of cellular processes. Sensitive and efficient protein detection enables a more accurate and comprehensive investigation of cellular phenotypes and life activities. Here, a protein sequencing method with high multiplexing, high throughput, high cell utilization, and integration based on digital microfluidics (DMF-Protein-seq) is proposed, which transforms protein information into DNA sequencing readout via DNA-tagged antibodies and labels single cells with unique cell barcodes. In a 184-electrode DMF-Protein-seq system, ≈1800 cells are simultaneously detected per experimental run. The digital microfluidics device harnessing low-adsorbed hydrophobic surface and contaminants-isolated reaction space supports high cell utilization (>90%) and high mapping reads (>90%) with the input cells ranging from 140 to 2000. This system leverages split&pool strategy on the DMF chip for the first time to overcome DMF platform restriction in cell analysis throughput and replace the traditionally tedious bench-top combinatorial barcoding. With the benefits of high efficiency and sensitivity in protein analysis, the system offers great potential for cell classification and drug monitoring based on protein expression at the single-cell level.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Cheng H, Qu J, Mao W, et al (2024)

Continuous-Wave Pumped Monolayer WS2 Lasing for Photonic Barcoding.

Nanomaterials (Basel, Switzerland), 14(7): pii:nano14070614.

Micro/nano photonic barcoding has emerged as a promising technology for information security and anti-counterfeiting applications owing to its high security and robust tamper resistance. However, the practical application of conventional micro/nano photonic barcodes is constrained by limitations in encoding capacity and identification verification (e.g., broad emission bandwidth and the expense of pulsed lasers). Herein, we propose high-capacity photonic barcode labels by leveraging continuous-wave (CW) pumped monolayer tungsten disulfide (WS2) lasing. Large-area, high-quality monolayer WS2 films were grown via a vapor deposition method and coupled with external cavities to construct optically pumped microlasers, thus achieving an excellent CW-pumped lasing with a narrow linewidth (~0.39 nm) and a low threshold (~400 W cm[-2]) at room temperature. Each pixel within the photonic barcode labels consists of closely packed WS2 microlasers of varying sizes, demonstrating high-density and nonuniform multiple-mode lasing signals that facilitate barcode encoding. Notably, CW operation and narrow-linewidth lasing emission could significantly simplify detection. As proof of concept, a 20-pixel label exhibits a high encoding capacity (2.35 × 10[108]). This work may promote the advancement of two-dimensional materials micro/nanolasers and offer a promising platform for information encoding and security applications.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Mwamula AO, Kwon OG, Kwon C, et al (2024)

A Revision of the Phylogeny of Helicotylenchus Steiner, 1945 (Tylenchida: Hoplolaimidae) as Inferred from Ribosomal and Mitochondrial DNA.

The plant pathology journal, 40(2):171-191.

Identification of Helicotylenchus species is very challenging due to phenotypic plasticity and existence of cryptic species complexes. Recently, the use of rDNA barcodes has proven to be useful for identification of Helicotylenchus. Molecular markers are a quick diagnostic tool and are crucial for discriminating related species and resolving cryptic species complexes within this speciose genus. However, DNA barcoding is not an error-free approach. The public databases appear to be marred by incorrect sequences, arising from sequencing errors, mislabeling, and misidentifications. Herein, we provide a comprehensive analysis of the newly obtained, and published DNA sequences of Helicotylenchus, revealing the potential faults in the available DNA barcodes. A total of 97 sequences (25 nearly full-length 18S-rRNA, 12 partial 28S-rRNA, 16 partial internal transcribed spacer [ITS]-rRNA, and 44 partial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I [COI] gene sequences) were newly obtained in the present study. Phylogenetic relationships between species are given as inferred from the analyses of 103 sequences of 18S-rRNA, 469 sequences of 28S-rRNA, 183 sequences of ITS-rRNA, and 63 sequences of COI. Remarks on suggested corrections of published accessions in GenBank database are given. Additionally, COI gene sequences of H. dihystera, H. asiaticus and the contentious H. microlobus are provided herein for the first time. Similar to rDNA gene analyses, the COI sequences support the genetic distinctness and validity of H. microlobus. DNA barcodes from type material are needed for resolving the taxonomic status of the unresolved taxonomic groups within the genus.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Pellecchia S, Franchini M, Viscido G, et al (2024)

Single cell lineage tracing reveals clonal dynamics of anti-EGFR therapy resistance in triple negative breast cancer.

Genome medicine, 16(1):55.

BACKGROUND: Most primary Triple Negative Breast Cancers (TNBCs) show amplification of the Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor (EGFR) gene, leading to increased protein expression. However, unlike other EGFR-driven cancers, targeting this receptor in TNBC yields inconsistent therapeutic responses.

METHODS: To elucidate the underlying mechanisms of this variability, we employ cellular barcoding and single-cell transcriptomics to reconstruct the subclonal dynamics of EGFR-amplified TNBC cells in response to afatinib, a tyrosine kinase inhibitor (TKI) that irreversibly inhibits EGFR.

RESULTS: Integrated lineage tracing analysis revealed a rare pre-existing subpopulation of cells with distinct biological signature, including elevated expression levels of Insulin-Like Growth Factor Binding Protein 2 (IGFBP2). We show that IGFBP2 overexpression is sufficient to render TNBC cells tolerant to afatinib treatment by activating the compensatory insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF1-R) signalling pathway. Finally, based on reconstructed mechanisms of resistance, we employ deep learning techniques to predict the afatinib sensitivity of TNBC cells.

CONCLUSIONS: Our strategy proved effective in reconstructing the complex signalling network driving EGFR-targeted therapy resistance, offering new insights for the development of individualized treatment strategies in TNBC.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Cai Y, Chen T, Cai Y, et al (2024)

Surface protein profiling and subtyping of extracellular vesicles in body fluids reveals non-CSF biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease.

Journal of extracellular vesicles, 13(4):e12432.

Noninvasive and effortless diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) remains challenging. Here we report the multiplexed profiling of extracellular vesicle (EV) surface proteins at the single EV level in five types of easily accessible body fluids using a proximity barcoding assay (PBA). A total of 183 surface proteins were detected on the EVs from body fluids collected from APP/PS1 transgenic mice and patients with AD. The AD-associated differentially expressed EV proteins could discriminate between the control and AD/AD model samples with high accuracy. Based on machine learning predictive models, urinary EV proteins exhibited the highest diagnostic potential compared to those on other biofluid EVs, both in mice and humans. Single EV analysis further revealed AD-associated EV subpopulations in the tested body fluids, and a urinary EV subpopulation with the signature proteins PLAU, ITGAX and ANXA1 could diagnose patients with AD in blinded datasets with 88% accuracy. Our results suggest that EVs and their subpopulations from noninvasive body fluids, particularly urine, are potential diagnostic biomarkers for AD.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Adao DEV, WL Rivera (2024)

Subtype-host patterns and genetic differentiation of Blastocystis sp. in the Philippines.

Heliyon, 10(7):e29019.

Blastocystis sp. is a gastrointestinal protozoan commonly encountered in humans and animals. Specificity to certain hosts may be associated with 38 known subtypes (STs) and 8 nonmammalian and avian STs (NMASTs). This can be determined by analyzing ST-host associations, ST-allele data, genetic variability analyses, and fixation index (FST) with sufficient data present. Thus, newly acquired and previously published data on Blastocystis sp. STs and NMASTs from the Philippines were compiled to determine the following: (1) ST-host associations, (2) ST-allele diversity per ST in certain hosts/sources, (3) intrasubtype diversity of certain STs found in different hosts using genetic variability analysis, and (4) comparison of similarities between specific ST populations to determine if these are the same circulating populations using FST. A total of 448 samples subtyped using both sequence-tagged site primers and the 600-bp barcoding region of the Blastocystis sp. SSU rRNA gene were analyzed in this study. Patterns of association for the Philippine samples were similar to those from neighboring Southeast Asian countries and around the world: ST1-ST4 were found in humans but ST3 was the most common, ST5 were found in pigs, and ST6 and ST7 were found in poultry. Blastocystis sp. from humans are mostly the same ST alleles (ST3 allele 34 and ST1 allele 4) while 3-5 ST alleles were found in the most common STs in pigs, macaques, and poultry. Also, ST1, ST3, ST5, and NMAST I are undergoing population expansion according to genetic variability analyses through possible addition of new alleles based on ST-allele diversity. Moreover, FST shows the same circulating population of ST1 in humans, pigs, and water indicating a possible waterborne route of cross-transmission. In contrast, ST3 found in humans possibly come from the same circulating population and is genetically distinct from those in nonhuman sources.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Cardinali I, M Ceccarelli (2024)

Molecular and cytogenetic analyses in Geranium macrorrhizum L. wild Italian plants.

Royal Society open science, 11(4):240035.

Geranium macrorrhizum L. is a herbaceous species native to southern Europe and was introduced in central Europe and North America. It is also widely distributed in Italy. In this study, molecular and cytogenetic analyses were carried out on 22 wild plants, collected in central and southern Italy, compared with five cultivated plants, with the main purpose to identify those living near the Marmore waterfalls in central Italy, recently described as the new species Geranium lucarinii. Four barcoding markers (rbcL, matK, trnH-psbA intergenic spacer and internal transcribed spacer region) were sequenced and their variability among the plants was evaluated. Chromosome numbers were determined and 45S rDNA was physically mapped by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Moreover, genomic affinity between wild and cultivated plants was evaluated by genomic in situ hybridization. The results of this study supported that all the plants belong to G. macrorrhizum, including the Marmore population. Barcoding analyses showed a close similarity among the wild plants, and a differentiation, although not significant, between the wild plants on one hand and the cultivated plants on the other. Integrated studies focusing on morphological, genetic and ecological characterization of a larger number of wild populations would allow us to know the extent of the variability within the species.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Visagie CM, Yilmaz N, Kocsubé S, et al (2024)

A review of recently introduced Aspergillus, Penicillium, Talaromyces and other Eurotiales species.

Studies in mycology, 107:1-66.

The order Eurotiales is diverse and includes species that impact our daily lives in many ways. In the past, its taxonomy was difficult due to morphological similarities, which made accurate identification of species difficult. This situation improved and stabilised with recent taxonomic and nomenclatural revisions that modernised Aspergillus, Penicillium and Talaromyces. This was mainly due to the availability of curated accepted species lists and the publication of comprehensive DNA sequence reference datasets. This has also led to a sharp increase in the number of new species described each year with the accepted species lists in turn also needing regular updates. The focus of this study was to review the 160 species described between the last list of accepted species published in 2020 until 31 December 2022. To review these species, single-gene phylogenies were constructed and GCPSR (Genealogical Concordance Phylogenetic Species Recognition) was applied. Multi-gene phylogenetic analyses were performed to further determine the relationships of the newly introduced species. As a result, we accepted 133 species (37 Aspergillus, two Paecilomyces, 59 Penicillium, two Rasamsonia, 32 Talaromyces and one Xerochrysium), synonymised 22, classified four as doubtful and created a new combination for Paraxerochrysium coryli, which is classified in Xerochrysium. This brings the number of accepted species to 453 for Aspergillus, 12 for Paecilomyces, 535 for Penicillium, 14 for Rasamsonia, 203 for Talaromyces and four for Xerochrysium. We accept the newly introduced section Tenues (in Talaromyces), and series Hainanici (in Aspergillus sect. Cavernicolarum) and Vascosobrinhoana (in Penicillium sect. Citrina). In addition, we validate the invalidly described species Aspergillus annui and A. saccharicola, and series Annuorum (in Aspergillus sect. Flavi), introduce a new combination for Dichlaena lentisci (type of the genus) and place it in a new section in Aspergillus subgenus Circumdati, provide an updated description for Rasamsonia oblata, and list excluded and recently synonymised species that were previously accepted. This study represents an important update of the accepted species lists in Eurotiales. Taxonomic novelties: New sections: Aspergillus section Dichlaena Visagie, Kocsubé & Houbraken. New series: Aspergillus series Annuorum J.J. Silva, B.T. Iamanaka, Frisvad. New species: Aspergillus annui J.J. Silva, M.H.P. Fungaro, Frisvad, M.H. Taniwaki & B.T. Iamanaka; Aspergillus saccharicola J.J. Silva, Frisvad, M.H.P. Fungaro, M.H. Taniwaki & B.T. Iamanaka. New combinations: Aspergillus lentisci (Durieu & Mont.) Visagie, Malloch, L. Kriegsteiner, Samson & Houbraken; Xerochrysium coryli (Crous & Decock) Visagie & Houbraken. Citation: Visagie CM, Yilmaz N, Kocsubé S, Frisvad JC, Hubka V, Samson RA, Houbraken J (2024). A review of recently introduced Aspergillus, Penicillium, Talaromyces and other Eurotiales species. Studies in Mycology 107: 1-66. doi: 10.3114/sim.2024.107.01.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Diver P, Ward BA, M Cunliffe (2024)

Physiological and morphological plasticity in response to nitrogen availability of a yeast widely distributed in the open ocean.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7643851 [Epub ahead of print].

Yeasts are prevalent in the open ocean, yet we have limited understanding of their ecophysiological adaptations, including their response to nitrogen availability, which can have a major role in determining the ecological potential of other planktonic microbes. In this study, we characterised the nitrogen uptake capabilities and growth responses of marine-occurring yeasts. Yeast isolates from the North Atlantic Ocean were screened for growth on diverse nitrogen substrates, and across a concentration gradient of three environmentally relevant nitrogen substrates: nitrate, ammonium, and urea. Three strains grew with enriched nitrate while two did not, demonstrating that nitrate utilisation is present but not universal in marine yeasts, consistent with existing knowledge of non-marine yeast strains. Naganishia diffluens MBA_F0213 modified the key functional trait of cell size in response to nitrogen concentration, suggesting yeast cell morphology changes along chemical gradients in the marine environment. Meta-analysis of the reference DNA barcode in public databases revealed that the genus Naganishia has a global ocean distribution, strengthening the environmental applicability of the culture-based observations. This study provides novel quantitative understanding of the ecophysiological and morphological responses of marine-derived yeasts to variable nitrogen availability in vitro, providing insight into the functional ecology of yeasts within pelagic open ocean environments.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Sidstedt M, Gynnå AH, Kiesler KM, et al (2024)

Ultrasensitive sequencing of STR markers utilizing unique molecular identifiers and the SiMSen-Seq method.

Forensic science international. Genetics, 71:103047 pii:S1872-4973(24)00041-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Massively parallel sequencing (MPS) is increasingly applied in forensic short tandem repeat (STR) analysis. The presence of stutter artefacts and other PCR or sequencing errors in the MPS-STR data partly limits the detection of low DNA amounts, e.g., in complex mixtures. Unique molecular identifiers (UMIs) have been applied in several scientific fields to reduce noise in sequencing. UMIs consist of a stretch of random nucleotides, a unique barcode for each starting DNA molecule, that is incorporated in the DNA template using either ligation or PCR. The barcode is used to generate consensus reads, thus removing errors. The SiMSen-Seq (Simple, multiplexed, PCR-based barcoding of DNA for sensitive mutation detection using sequencing) method relies on PCR-based introduction of UMIs and includes a sophisticated hairpin design to reduce unspecific primer binding as well as PCR protocol adjustments to further optimize the reaction. In this study, SiMSen-Seq is applied to develop a proof-of-concept seven STR multiplex for MPS library preparation and an associated bioinformatics pipeline. Additionally, machine learning (ML) models were evaluated to further improve UMI allele calling. Overall, the seven STR multiplex resulted in complete detection and concordant alleles for 47 single-source samples at 1 ng input DNA as well as for low-template samples at 62.5 pg input DNA. For twelve challenging mixtures with minor contributions of 10 pg to 150 pg and ratios of 1-15% relative to the major donor, 99.2% of the expected alleles were detected by applying the UMIs in combination with an ML filter. The main impact of UMIs was a substantially lowered number of artefacts as well as reduced stutter ratios, which were generally below 5% of the parental allele. In conclusion, UMI-based STR sequencing opens new means for improved analysis of challenging crime scene samples including complex mixtures.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Hussain A, Kakar A, Naseem M, et al (2024)

Molecular identification of Hymenopteran insects collected by using Malaise traps from Hazarganji Chiltan National Park Quetta, Pakistan.

PloS one, 19(4):e0300903 pii:PONE-D-23-25794.

The order Hymenoptera holds great significance for humans, particularly in tropical and subtropical regions, due to its role as a pollinator of wild and cultivated flowering plants, parasites of destructive insects and honey producers. Despite this importance, limited attention has been given to the genetic diversity and molecular identification of Hymenopteran insects in most protected areas. This study provides insights into the first DNA barcode of Hymenopteran insects collected from Hazarganji Chiltan National Park (HCNP) and contributes to the global reference library of DNA barcodes. A total of 784 insect specimens were collected using Malaise traps, out of which 538 (68.62%) specimens were morphologically identified as Hymenopteran insects. The highest abundance of species of Hymenoptera (133/538, 24.72%) was observed during August and least in November (16/538, 2.97%). Genomic DNA extraction was performed individually from 90/538 (16.73%) morphologically identified specimens using the standard phenol-chloroform method, which were subjected separately to the PCR for their molecular confirmation via the amplification of cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1) gene. The BLAST analyses of obtained sequences showed 91.64% to 100% identities with related sequences and clustered phylogenetically with their corresponding sequences that were reported from Australia, Bulgaria, Canada, Finland, Germany, India, Israel, and Pakistan. Additionally, total of 13 barcode index numbers (BINs) were assigned by Barcode of Life Data Systems (BOLD), out of which 12 were un-unique and one was unique (BOLD: AEU1239) which was assigned for Anthidium punctatum. This indicates the potential geographical variation of Hymenopteran population in HCNP. Further comprehensive studies are needed to molecularly confirm the existing insect species in HCNP and evaluate their impacts on the environment, both as beneficial (for example, pollination, honey producers and natural enemies) and detrimental (for example, venomous stings, crop damage, and pathogens transmission).

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Askari H, Soleimanian-Zad S, Kadivar M, et al (2024)

Creating a novel genetic diversity of Trichoderma afroharzianum by γ-radiation for xylanase-cellulase production.

Heliyon, 10(7):e28349.

Creating novel sources of a microbial strain using induced mutation can increase enzyme production for industrial use. According to this, we have developed a mutant strain of Trichoderma afroharzianum by Co[60] gamma irradiation. Trichoderma mutants were isolated from an optimum dose of 250 Gy. The qualitative and quantitative screening were used for evaluating their enzyme production and the DNA barcoding method was used to identify the best Trichoderma mutant isolates. The highest cellulase (exo-glucanase, endoglucanase, β-glucosidase, and total cellulase) and xylanase activities were observed in superior mutant isolates of Trichoderma afroharzianum NAS107-M44 and Trichoderma afroharzianum NAS107-M82, which is approximately 1.6-2.5 times higher than its parent strain, respectively. The electrophoretic pattern of proteins showed that the exo-glucanase I, endo-glucanase III, and the xylanase I enzymes hydrolyzed the corn bran, synergistically. Overall, gamma irradiation-induced mutation could be an expedient technique to access such superior mutants for the bioconversion of corn bran wastes.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Stelbrink B, von Rintelen T, Marwoto RM, et al (2024)

Mitogenomes do not substantially improve phylogenetic resolution in a young non-model adaptive radiation of freshwater gastropods.

BMC ecology and evolution, 24(1):42.

BACKGROUND: Species flocks in ancient lakes, and particularly those arising from adaptive radiation, make up the bulk of overall taxonomic and morphological diversity in these insular ecosystems. For these mostly young species assemblages, classical mitochondrial barcoding markers have so far been key to disentangle interspecific relationships. However, with the rise and further development of next-generation sequencing (NGS) methods and mapping tools, genome-wide data have become an increasingly important source of information even for non-model groups.

RESULTS: Here, we provide, for the first time, a comprehensive mitogenome dataset of freshwater gastropods endemic to Sulawesi and thus of an ancient lake invertebrate species flock in general. We applied low-coverage whole-genome sequencing for a total of 78 individuals including 27 out of the 28 Tylomelania morphospecies from the Malili lake system as well as selected representatives from Lake Poso and adjacent catchments. Our aim was to assess whether mitogenomes considerably contribute to the phylogenetic resolution within this young species flock. Interestingly, we identified a high number of variable and parsimony-informative sites across the other 'non-traditional' mitochondrial loci. However, although the overall support was very high, the topology obtained was largely congruent with previously published single-locus phylogenies. Several clades remained unresolved and a large number of species was recovered polyphyletic, indicative of both rapid diversification and mitochondrial introgression.

CONCLUSIONS: This once again illustrates that, despite the higher number of characters available, mitogenomes behave like a single locus and thus can only make a limited contribution to resolving species boundaries, particularly when introgression events are involved.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Rund H, Wanzenböck J, Dobrovolny S, et al (2024)

Relating target fish DNA concentration to community composition analysis in freshwater fish via metabarcoding.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02424-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Metabarcoding has been widely accepted as a useful tool for biodiversity assessment based on eDNA. The method allows for the detection of entire groups of organisms in a single sample, making it particularly applicable in aquatic habitats. The high sensitivity of the molecular approaches is especially beneficial in detecting elusive and rare fish species, improving biodiversity assessments. Numerous biotic and abiotic factors that affect the persistence and availability of fish DNA in surface waters and therefore affecting species detectability, have been identified. However, little is known about the relationship between the total fish DNA concentration and the detectability of differential abundant species. In this study three controlled mock-community DNA samples (56 individual samples) were analyzed by (i) metabarcoding (MiSeq) of 12S rDNA (175 bp) and by (ii) total freshwater fish DNA quantification (via qPCR of 12S rDNA). We show that the fish DNA quantity affects the relative abundance of species-specific sequences and the detectability of rare species. In particular we found that samples with a concentration between 1000 pg/μL down to 10 pg/μL of total fish DNA revealed a stable relative frequency of DNA sequences obtained for a specific fish species, as well as a low variability between replicates. Additionally, we observed that even in complex mock-community DNA samples, a total fish DNA concentration of 23 pg/μL was sufficient to reliably detect all species in every replicate, including three rare species with proportions of ≤0.5 %. We also found that the DNA barcode similarity between species can affect detectability, if evenness is low. Our data suggest that the total DNA concentration of fish is an important factor to consider when analyzing and interpreting relative sequence abundance data. Therefore, the workflow proposed here will contribute to an ecologically and economically efficient application of metabarcoding in fish biodiversity assessment.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Xue W, Wang L, Yi K, et al (2024)

Hepatocellular carcinoma biomarkers screening based on hydrogel photonic barcodes with tyramine deposition amplified ELISA.

Biosensors & bioelectronics, 255:116270 pii:S0956-5663(24)00275-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), as one of the most lethal cancers, significantly impacts human health. Attempts in this area tends to develop novel technologies with sensitive and multiplexed detection properties for early diagnosis. Here, we present novel hydrogel photonic crystal (PhC) barcodes with tyramine deposition amplified enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) for highly sensitive and multiplexed HCC biomarker screening. Because of the abundant amino groups of acrylic acid (AA) component, the constructed hydrogel PhC barcodes with inverse opal structure could facilitate the loading of antibody probes for subsequent detection of tumor markers. By integrating tyramine deposition amplified ELISA on the barcode, the detection signal of tumor markers has been enhanced. Based on these features, it is demonstrated that the hydrogel PhC barcodes with tyramine deposition amplified ELISA could realize highly sensitive and multiplexed detection of HCC-related biomarkers. It was found that this method is flexible, sensitive and accurate, suitable for multivariate analysis of low abundance tumor markers and future cancer diagnosis. These features make the newly developed PhC barcodes an innovation platform, which possesses tremendous potential for practical application of low abundance targets.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Saunders SH, AM Ahmed (2024)

ORBIT for E. coli: kilobase-scale oligonucleotide recombineering at high throughput and high efficiency.

Nucleic acids research pii:7642070 [Epub ahead of print].

Microbiology and synthetic biology depend on reverse genetic approaches to manipulate bacterial genomes; however, existing methods require molecular biology to generate genomic homology, suffer from low efficiency, and are not easily scaled to high throughput. To overcome these limitations, we developed a system for creating kilobase-scale genomic modifications that uses DNA oligonucleotides to direct the integration of a non-replicating plasmid. This method, Oligonucleotide Recombineering followed by Bxb-1 Integrase Targeting (ORBIT) was pioneered in Mycobacteria, and here we adapt and expand it for Escherichia coli. Our redesigned plasmid toolkit for oligonucleotide recombineering achieved significantly higher efficiency than λ Red double-stranded DNA recombineering and enabled precise, stable knockouts (≤134 kb) and integrations (≤11 kb) of various sizes. Additionally, we constructed multi-mutants in a single transformation, using orthogonal attachment sites. At high throughput, we used pools of targeting oligonucleotides to knock out nearly all known transcription factor and small RNA genes, yielding accurate, genome-wide, single mutant libraries. By counting genomic barcodes, we also show ORBIT libraries can scale to thousands of unique members (>30k). This work demonstrates that ORBIT for E. coli is a flexible reverse genetic system that facilitates rapid construction of complex strains and readily scales to create sophisticated mutant libraries.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Franco-Enzástiga Ú, Inturi NN, Natarajan K, et al (2024)

Epigenomic landscape of the human dorsal root ganglion: sex differences and transcriptional regulation of nociceptive genes.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.03.27.587047.

UNLABELLED: Gene expression is influenced by chromatin architecture via controlled access of regulatory factors to DNA. To better understand regulation of gene expression in the human dorsal root ganglion (hDRG) we used bulk and spatial transposase-accessible chromatin technology followed by sequencing (ATAC-seq). We detected a total of 3005 differentially accessible chromatin regions (DARs) between sexes using bulk ATAC-seq. DARs in female hDRG mapped mainly to the X chromosome. In males, DARs were found in autosomal genes. We also found differential transcription factor binding motifs within DARs. EGR1/3 and SP1/4 were abundant in females, and JUN, FOS and other AP-1 family members in males. With the aim of dissecting the open chromatin profile in hDRG neurons, we used spatial ATAC-seq. Consistent with our bulk ATAC-seq data, most of the DARs in female hDRG were located in X chromosome genes. Neuron cluster showed higher chromatin accessibility in GABAergic, glutamatergic, and interferon-related genes in females, and in Ca [2+] -signaling-related genes in males. Sex differences in open chromatin transcription factor binding sites in neuron-proximal barcodes were consistent with the bulk data, having EGR1 transcription factor activity in females and AP-1 family members in males. Accordingly, we showed higher expression of EGR1 in female hDRG compared to male with in-situ hybridization. Our findings point to epigenomic sex differences in the hDRG that likely underlie divergent transcriptional responses that determine mechanistic sex differences in pain.

SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Women more frequently suffer from chronic pain than men. Animal and human studies demonstrate that underlying molecular mechanisms causing chronic pain differ by sex. We hypothesized that epigenomic differences in the hDRG may underlie both the higher propensity for women to develop chronic pain disorders and mechanistic sex differences in chronic pain. As a first test of this idea, we mapped the open chromatin accessibility landscape of the hDRG in female and male organ donor-recovered tissues. Our findings highlight clear baseline sex differences in the hDRG that provide a mechanistic explanation for how injury and/or inflammation can drive different transcriptional programs that ultimately change the excitability of DRG neurons, creating signals that cause pain.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Shepherdson JL, Granas DM, Li J, et al (2024)

Mutational scanning of CRX classifies clinical variants and reveals biochemical properties of the transcriptional effector domain.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.03.21.585809.

Cone-Rod Homeobox, encoded by CRX , is a transcription factor (TF) essential for the terminal differentiation and maintenance of mammalian photoreceptors. Structurally, CRX comprises an ordered DNA-binding homeodomain and an intrinsically disordered transcriptional effector domain. Although a handful of human variants in CRX have been shown to cause several different degenerative retinopathies with varying cone and rod predominance, as with most human disease genes the vast majority of observed CRX genetic variants are uncharacterized variants of uncertain significance (VUS). We performed a deep mutational scan (DMS) of nearly all possible single amino acid substitution variants in CRX, using an engineered cell-based transcriptional reporter assay. We measured the ability of each CRX missense variant to transactivate a synthetic fluorescent reporter construct in a pooled fluorescence-activated cell sorting assay and compared the activation strength of each variant to that of wild-type CRX to compute an activity score, identifying thousands of variants with altered transcriptional activity. We calculated a statistical confidence for each activity score derived from multiple independent measurements of each variant marked by unique sequence barcodes, curating a high-confidence list of nearly 2,000 variants with significantly altered transcriptional activity compared to wild-type CRX. We evaluated the performance of the DMS assay as a clinical variant classification tool using gold-standard classified human variants from ClinVar, and determined that activity scores could be used to identify pathogenic variants with high specificity. That this performance could be achieved using a synthetic reporter assay in a foreign cell type, even for a highly cell type-specific TF like CRX, suggests that this approach shows promise for DMS of other TFs that function in cell types that are not easily accessible. Per-position average activity scores closely aligned to a predicted structure of the ordered homeodomain and demonstrated position-specific residue requirements. The intrinsically disordered transcriptional effector domain, by contrast, displayed a qualitatively different pattern of substitution effects, following compositional constraints without specific residue position requirements in the peptide chain. The observed compositional constraints of the effector domain were consistent with the acidic exposure model of transcriptional activation. Together, the results of the CRX DMS identify molecular features of the CRX effector domain and demonstrate clinical utility for variant classification.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Sarhan MS, Filosi M, Maixner F, et al (2024)

Taxonize-gb: A tool for filtering GenBank non-redundant databases based on taxonomy.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.03.22.586347.

Analyzing taxonomic diversity and identification in diverse ecological samples has become a crucial routine in various research and industrial fields. While DNA barcoding marker-gene approaches were once prevalent, the decreasing costs of next-generation sequencing have made metagenomic shotgun sequencing more popular and feasible. In contrast to DNA-barcoding, metagenomic shotgun sequencing offers possibilities for in-depth characterization of structural and functional diversity. However, analysis of such data is still considered a hurdle due to absence of taxa-specific databases. Here we present taxonize-gb, a command-line software tool to extract GenBank non-redundant nucleotide and protein databases, related to one or more input taxonomy identifier. Our tool allows the creation of taxa-specific reference databases tailored to specific research questions, which reduces search times and therefore represents a practical solution for researchers analyzing large metagenomic data on regular basis. Taxonize-gb is an open-source command-line Python-based tool freely available for installation at https://pypi.org/project/taxonize-gb/ and on GitHub https://github.com/msabrysarhan/taxonize_genbank . It is released under Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC 4.0).

RevDate: 2024-04-07

Afifi MAM, Azab AM, Ali E, et al (2024)

DNA barcoding, phylogeography and evolutionary dynamics of Chrysichthys auratus.

Gene pii:S0378-1119(24)00329-9 [Epub ahead of print].

This study embarked on an exploration into the genetic structure and evolutionary history of the Chrysichthys auratus species, leveraging PCR amplification, phylogenetic trees, and haplotype networks. Specific DNA segments were successfully amplified and visualized through electrophoresis. Newly obtained sequences were Bank into GenBank and given accession numbers (OR730807-OR730808-OR730809). The Neighbor-Joining method provided insights into the evolutionary relationships among taxa, further augmented by bootstrap values and the Tamura 3-parameter method. A comprehensive geographical haplotype network showcased pronounced genetic differentiation, especially between remote populations. Nonetheless, shared haplotypes between proximate regions indicated either ancestral genetic connections or ongoing gene flow. Employing the COI-DNA barcodes, an in-depth understanding of intra- and inter-populational genetic diversity was achieved. The study's findings unravel the intricate genetic landscape and evolutionary dynamics of C. auratus, offering novel perspectives into its demographic history across its vast native habitat.

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Mikhaylova V, Rzepka M, Kawamura T, et al (2024)

Targeted phasing of 2-200 kilobase DNA fragments with a short-read sequencer and a single-tube linked-read library method.

Scientific reports, 14(1):7988.

In the human genome, heterozygous sites refer to genomic positions with a different allele or nucleotide variant on the maternal and paternal chromosomes. Resolving these allelic differences by chromosomal copy, also known as phasing, is achievable on a short-read sequencer when using a library preparation method that captures long-range genomic information. TELL-Seq is a library preparation that captures long-range genomic information with the aid of molecular identifiers (barcodes). The same barcode is used to tag the reads derived from the same long DNA fragment within a range of up to 200 kilobases (kb), generating linked-reads. This strategy can be used to phase an entire genome. Here, we introduce a TELL-Seq protocol developed for targeted applications, enabling the phasing of enriched loci of varying sizes, purity levels, and heterozygosity. To validate this protocol, we phased 2-200 kb loci enriched with different methods: CRISPR/Cas9-mediated excision coupled with pulse-field electrophoresis for the longest fragments, CRISPR/Cas9-mediated protection from exonuclease digestion for mid-size fragments, and long PCR for the shortest fragments. All selected loci have known clinical relevance: BRCA1, BRCA2, MLH1, MSH2, MSH6, APC, PMS2, SCN5A-SCN10A, and PKI3CA. Collectively, the analyses show that TELL-Seq can accurately phase 2-200 kb targets using a short-read sequencer.

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Quail MA, Corton C, Uphill J, et al (2024)

Identifying the best PCR enzyme for library amplification in NGS.

Microbial genomics, 10(4):.

Background. PCR amplification is a necessary step in many next-generation sequencing (NGS) library preparation methods [1, 2]. Whilst many PCR enzymes are developed to amplify single targets efficiently, accurately and with specificity, few are developed to meet the challenges imposed by NGS PCR, namely unbiased amplification of a wide range of different sizes and GC content. As a result PCR amplification during NGS library prep often results in bias toward GC neutral and smaller fragments. As NGS has matured, optimized NGS library prep kits and polymerase formulations have emerged and in this study we have tested a wide selection of available enzymes for both short-read Illumina library preparation and long fragment amplification ahead of long-read sequencing.We tested over 20 different hi-fidelity PCR enzymes/NGS amplification mixes on a range of Illumina library templates of varying GC content and composition, and find that both yield and genome coverage uniformity characteristics of the commercially available enzymes varied dramatically. Three enzymes Quantabio RepliQa Hifi Toughmix, Watchmaker Library Amplification Hot Start Master Mix (2X) 'Equinox' and Takara Ex Premier were found to give a consistent performance, over all genomes, that mirrored closely that observed for PCR-free datasets. We also test a range of enzymes for long-read sequencing by amplifying size fractionated S. cerevisiae DNA of average size 21.6 and 13.4 kb, respectively.The enzymes of choice for short-read (Illumina) library fragment amplification are Quantabio RepliQa Hifi Toughmix, Watchmaker Library Amplification Hot Start Master Mix (2X) 'Equinox' and Takara Ex Premier, with RepliQa also being the best performing enzyme from the enzymes tested for long fragment amplification prior to long-read sequencing.

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Veselovsky VA, Boldyreva DI, Olekhnovich EI, et al (2024)

Effect of the consumption of brazzein and monellin, two recombinant sweet-tasting proteins, on rat gut microbiota.

Frontiers in nutrition, 11:1362529.

Sweet-tasting proteins (SPs) are proteins of plant origin initially isolated from tropical fruits. They are thousands of times sweeter than sucrose and most artificial sweeteners. SPs are a class of proteins capable of causing a sweet taste sensation in humans when interacting with the T1R2/T1R3 receptor. SP thaumatin has already been introduced in the food industry in some countries. Other SPs, such as monellin and brazzein, are promising products. An important stage in researching SPs, in addition to confirming the absence of toxicity, mutagenicity, oncogenicity, and allergenic effects, is studying their influence on gut microbiota. In this paper we describe changes in the composition of rat gut microbiota after six months of consuming one of two recombinant SPs-brazzein or monellin. A full length 16S gene sequencing method was used for DNA library barcoding. The MaAsLin2 analysis results showed noticeable fluctuations in the relative abundances of Anaerocella delicata in brazzein-fed rat microbiota, and of Anaerutruncus rubiinfantis in monellin-fed rat microbiota, which, however, did not exceed the standard deviation. The sucrose-fed group was associated with an increase in the relative abundance of Faecalibaculum rodentium, which may contribute to obesity. Overall, prolonged consumption of the sweet proteins brazzein and monellin did not significantly change rat microbiota and did not result in the appearance of opportunistic microbiota. This provides additional evidence for the safety of these potential sweeteners.

RevDate: 2024-04-04

Li P, Zhao Z, Li Z, et al (2024)

Distinguishing features of Prunus humilis, P. japonica, P. pedunculata seeds and their adulterant based on DNA barcoding, morphological characterization, and chemical profiles.

Fitoterapia pii:S0367-326X(24)00125-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Pruni Semen, the dried ripe seed of Prunus humilis, P. japonica, or P. pedunculata as recorded in the Chinese Pharmacopoeia, has been widely used in pharmaceutical and food industries. The adulteration of the marketed product with morphologically similar plants of the same genus has led to variable product quality and clinical effectiveness. This study systematically investigated the phylogenetic relationships, morphological traits, and chemical profiles of 37 Pruni Semen samples from planting bases, markets, and fields. DNA barcoding could successfully distinguish the genuine and counterfeit Pruni Semen, and the results indicated that there was almost no authentic Pruni Semen available in the market. The samples were divided into "big seed" (P. pedunculata and P. salicina seeds) and "small seed" (P. humilis, P. japonica, P. tomentosa, and P. avium seeds) categories based on morphology results. The notable discrepancy in the chemical characteristics of "big seed" and "small seed" was that "small seeds" were rich in flavonoids and low in amygdalin, whereas "big seeds" were the opposite. Furthermore, principal component analysis and clustered heatmap analysis verified the distinguishing features of "big seed" and "small seed" based on morphological and chemical characteristics. This study suggested that a combination of DNA barcoding and morphological and chemical characteristics can aid in the identification and quality evaluation of authentic and adulterated Pruni Semen. These findings may help standardize Pruni Semen available in the market and protect the rights and interests of customers.

RevDate: 2024-04-04

Tiktak GP, Gabb A, Brandt M, et al (2024)

Genetic identification of three CITES-listed sharks using a paper-based Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC).

PloS one, 19(4):e0300383 pii:PONE-D-23-38097.

Threatened shark species are caught in large numbers by artisanal and commercial fisheries and traded globally. Monitoring both which shark species are caught and sold in fisheries, and the export of CITES-restricted products, are essential in reducing illegal fishing. Current methods for species identification rely on visual examination by experts or DNA barcoding techniques requiring specialist laboratory facilities and trained personnel. The need for specialist equipment and/or input from experts means many markets are currently not monitored. We have developed a paper-based Lab-on-a-Chip (LOC) to facilitate identification of three threatened and CITES-listed sharks, bigeye thresher (Alopias superciliosus), pelagic thresher (A. pelagicus) and shortfin mako shark (Isurus oxyrinchus) at market source. DNA was successfully extracted from shark meat and fin samples and combined with DNA amplification and visualisation using Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification (LAMP) on the LOC. This resulted in the successful identification of the target species of sharks in under an hour, with a working positive and negative control. The LOC provided a simple "yes" or "no" result via a colour change from pink to yellow when one of the target species was present. The LOC serves as proof-of-concept (PoC) for field-based species identification as it does not require specialist facilities. It can be used by non-scientifically trained personnel, especially in areas where there are suspected high frequencies of mislabelling or for the identification of dried shark fins in seizures.

RevDate: 2024-04-04

Ang YS, LL Yung (2024)

Protein-to-DNA Converter with High Signal Gain.

ACS nano [Epub ahead of print].

DNA isothermal amplification techniques have been applied extensively for evaluating nucleic acid inputs but cannot be implemented directly on other types of biomolecules. In this work, we designed a proximity activation mechanism that converts protein input into DNA barcodes for the DNA exponential amplification reaction, which we termed PEAR. Several design parameters were identified and experimentally verified, which included the choice of enzymes, sequences of proximity probes and template strand via the NUPACK design tool, and the implementation of a hairpin lock on the proximity probe structure. Our PEAR system was surprisingly more robust against nonspecific DNA amplification, which is a major challenge faced in existing formats of the DNA-based exponential amplification reaction. The as-designed PEAR exhibited good target responsiveness for three protein models with a dynamic range of 4-5 orders of magnitude down to femtomolar input concentration. Overall, our proposed protein-to-DNA converter module led to the development of a stable and robust configuration of the DNA exponential amplification reaction to achieve high signal gain. We foresee this enabling the use of protein inputs for more complex molecular evaluation as well as ultrasensitive protein detection.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Weile J, Ferra G, Boyle G, et al (2024)

Pacybara: Accurate long-read sequencing for barcoded mutagenized allelic libraries.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:7639979 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Long read sequencing technologies, an attractive solution for many applications, often suffer from higher error rates. Alignment of multiple reads can improve base-calling accuracy, but some applications, e.g. sequencing mutagenized libraries where multiple distinct clones differ by one or few variants, require the use of barcodes or unique molecular identifiers. Unfortunately, sequencing errors can interfere with correct barcode identification, and a given barcode sequence may be linked to multiple independent clones within a given library.

RESULTS: Here we focus on the target application of sequencing mutagenized libraries in the context of multiplexed assays of variant effects (MAVEs). MAVEs are increasingly used to create comprehensive genotype-phenotype maps that can aid clinical variant interpretation. Many MAVE methods use long-read sequencing of barcoded mutant libraries for accurate association of barcode with genotype. Existing long-read sequencing pipelines do not account for inaccurate sequencing or non-unique barcodes. Here, we describe Pacybara, which handles these issues by clustering long reads based on the similarities of (error-prone) barcodes while also detecting barcodes that have been associated with multiple genotypes. Pacybara also detects recombinant (chimeric) clones and reduces false positive indel calls. In three example applications, we show that Pacybara identifies and correctly resolves these issues.

AVAILABILITY: Pacybara, freely available at https://github.com/rothlab/pacybara, is implemented using R, Python and bash for Linux. It runs on GNU/Linux HPC clusters via Slurm, PBS, or GridEngine schedulers. A single-machine simplex version is also available.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

D'Ercole J, Dapporto L, Opler P, et al (2024)

A genetic atlas for the butterflies of continental Canada and United States.

PloS one, 19(4):e0300811 pii:PONE-D-23-32941.

Multi-locus genetic data for phylogeographic studies is generally limited in geographic and taxonomic scope as most studies only examine a few related species. The strong adoption of DNA barcoding has generated large datasets of mtDNA COI sequences. This work examines the butterfly fauna of Canada and United States based on 13,236 COI barcode records derived from 619 species. It compiles i) geographic maps depicting the spatial distribution of haplotypes, ii) haplotype networks (minimum spanning trees), and iii) standard indices of genetic diversity such as nucleotide diversity (π), haplotype richness (H), and a measure of spatial genetic structure (GST). High intraspecific genetic diversity and marked spatial structure were observed in the northwestern and southern North America, as well as in proximity to mountain chains. While species generally displayed concordance between genetic diversity and spatial structure, some revealed incongruence between these two metrics. Interestingly, most species falling in this category shared their barcode sequences with one at least other species. Aside from revealing large-scale phylogeographic patterns and shedding light on the processes underlying these patterns, this work also exposed cases of potential synonymy and hybridization.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Crous PW, Osieck ER, Shivas RG, et al (2023)

Fungal Planet description sheets: 1478-1549.

Persoonia, 50:158-310.

Novel species of fungi described in this study include those from various countries as follows: Australia, Aschersonia mackerrasiae on whitefly, Cladosporium corticola on bark of Melaleuca quinquenervia, Penicillium nudgee from soil under Melaleuca quinquenervia, Pseudocercospora blackwoodiae on leaf spot of Persoonia falcata, and Pseudocercospora dalyelliae on leaf spot of Senna alata. Bolivia, Aspicilia lutzoniana on fully submersed siliceous schist in high-mountain streams, and Niesslia parviseta on the lower part and apothecial discs of Erioderma barbellatum on a twig. Brazil, Cyathus bonsai on decaying wood, Geastrum albofibrosum from moist soil with leaf litter, Laetiporus pratigiensis on a trunk of a living unknown hardwood tree species, and Scytalidium synnematicum on dead twigs of unidentified plant. Bulgaria, Amanita abscondita on sandy soil in a plantation of Quercus suber. Canada, Penicillium acericola on dead bark of Acer saccharum, and Penicillium corticola on dead bark of Acer saccharum. China, Colletotrichum qingyuanense on fruit lesion of Capsicum annuum. Denmark, Helminthosphaeria leptospora on corticioid Neohypochnicium cremicolor. Ecuador (Galapagos), Phaeosphaeria scalesiae on Scalesia sp. Finland, Inocybe jacobssonii on calcareous soils in dry forests and park habitats. France, Cortinarius rufomyrrheus on sandy soil under Pinus pinaster, and Periconia neominutissima on leaves of Poaceae. India, Coprinopsis fragilis on decaying bark of logs, Filoboletus keralensis on unidentified woody substrate, Penicillium sankaranii from soil, Physisporinus tamilnaduensis on the trunk of Azadirachta indica, and Poronia nagaraholensis on elephant dung. Iran, Neosetophoma fici on infected leaves of Ficus elastica. Israel, Cnidariophoma eilatica (incl. Cnidariophoma gen. nov.) from Stylophora pistillata. Italy, Lyophyllum obscurum on acidic soil. Namibia, Aureobasidium faidherbiae on dead leaf of Faidherbia albida, and Aureobasidium welwitschiae on dead leaves of Welwitschia mirabilis. Netherlands, Gaeumannomycella caricigena on dead culms of Carex elongata, Houtenomyces caricicola (incl. Houtenomyces gen. nov.) on culms of Carex disticha, Neodacampia ulmea (incl. Neodacampia gen. nov.) on branch of Ulmus laevis, Niesslia phragmiticola on dead standing culms of Phragmites australis, Pseudopyricularia caricicola on culms of Carex disticha, and Rhodoveronaea nieuwwulvenica on dead bamboo sticks. Norway, Arrhenia similis half-buried and moss-covered pieces of rotting wood in grass-grown path. Pakistan, Mallocybe ahmadii on soil. Poland, Beskidomyces laricis (incl. Beskidomyces gen. nov.) from resin of Larix decidua ssp. polonica, Lapidomyces epipinicola from sooty mould community on Pinus nigra, and Leptographium granulatum from a gallery of Dendroctonus micans on Picea abies. Portugal, Geoglossum azoricum on mossy areas of laurel forest areas planted with Cryptomeria japonica, and Lunasporangiospora lusitanica from a biofilm covering a biodeteriorated limestone wall. Qatar, Alternaria halotolerans from hypersaline sea water, and Alternaria qatarensis from water sample collected from hypersaline lagoon. South Africa, Alfaria thamnochorti on culm of Thamnochortus fraternus, Knufia aloeicola on Aloe gariepensis, Muriseptatomyces restionacearum (incl. Muriseptatomyces gen. nov.) on culms of Restionaceae, Neocladosporium arctotis on nest of cases of bag worm moths (Lepidoptera, Psychidae) on Arctotis auriculata, Neodevriesia scadoxi on leaves of Scadoxus puniceus, Paraloratospora schoenoplecti on stems of Schoenoplectus lacustris, Tulasnella epidendrea from the roots of Epidendrum × obrienianum, and Xenoidriella cinnamomi (incl. Xenoidriella gen. nov.) on leaf of Cinnamomum camphora. South Korea, Lemonniera fraxinea on decaying leaves of Fraxinus sp. from pond. Spain, Atheniella lauri on the bark of fallen trees of Laurus nobilis, Halocryptovalsa endophytica from surface-sterilised, asymptomatic roots of Salicornia patula, Inocybe amygdaliolens on soil in mixed forest, Inocybe pityusarum on calcareous soil in mixed forest, Inocybe roseobulbipes on acidic soils, Neonectria borealis from roots of Vitis berlandieri × Vitis rupestris, Sympoventuria eucalyptorum on leaves of Eucalyptus sp., and Tuber conchae from soil. Sweden, Inocybe bidumensis on calcareous soil. Thailand, Cordyceps sandindaengensis on Lepidoptera pupa, buried in soil, Ophiocordyceps kuchinaraiensis on Coleoptera larva, buried in soil, and Samsoniella winandae on Lepidoptera pupa, buried in soil. Taiwan region (China), Neophaeosphaeria livistonae on dead leaf of Livistona rotundifolia. Türkiye, Melanogaster anatolicus on clay loamy soils. UK, Basingstokeomyces allii (incl. Basingstokeomyces gen. nov.) on leaves of Allium schoenoprasum. Ukraine, Xenosphaeropsis corni on recently dead stem of Cornus alba. USA, Nothotrichosporon aquaticum (incl. Nothotrichosporon gen. nov.) from water, and Periconia philadelphiana from swab of coil surface. Morphological and culture characteristics for these new taxa are supported by DNA barcodes. Citation: Crous PW, Osieck ER, Shivas RG, et al. 2023. Fungal Planet description sheets: 1478-1549. Persoonia 50: 158- 310. https://doi.org/10.3767/persoonia.2023.50.05.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Wojciechowska D, Salamon S, K Wróblewska-Seniuk (2024)

It's time to shed some light on the importance of fungi in neonatal intensive care units: what do we know about the neonatal mycobiome?.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1355418.

The 21st century, thanks to the development of molecular methods, including DNA barcoding, using Sanger sequencing, and DNA metabarcoding, based on next-generation sequencing (NGS), is characterized by flourishing research on the human microbiome. Microbial dysbiosis is perceived as a new pathogenetic factor for neonatal diseases. Fungi are crucial, but neglected, components of the neonatal microbiome, which, despite their low abundance, significantly impact morbidity and mortality rates of premature infants hospitalized in Neonatal Intensive Care Units (NICUs). The neonatal mycobiome's composition and effect on health remain poorly studied research areas. Our knowledge about neonatal mycobiome, composed of limited genera, is mainly based on research on the bacterial microbiome. We presume it is influenced by clinical factors, including prematurity, antibiotic therapy, and type of delivery. Understanding these risk factors may be useful in prevention strategies against dysbiosis and invasive fungal infections. Despite the methodological challenges resulting from the biology of the fungal cell, this topic is an attractive area of research that may contribute to more effective treatment, especially of newborns from risk groups. In this mini review, we discuss the current state of knowledge, research gaps, study difficulties, and future research directions on the neonatal mycobiome, concerning potential future clinical applications.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Moreno K, Rico DM, Middlebrooks M, et al (2024)

A cryptic radiation of Caribbean sea slugs revealed by integrative analysis: Cyerce 'antillensis' (Sacoglossa: Caliphyllidae) is six distinct species.

Zoological journal of the Linnean Society, 200(4):940-979.

Integrative studies have revealed cryptic radiations in several Caribbean lineages of heterobranch sea slugs, raising questions about the evolutionary mechanisms that promote speciation within the tropical Western Atlantic. Cyerce Bergh, 1871 is a genus comprising 12 named species in the family Caliphyllidae that lack the photosynthetic ability of other sacoglossans but are noted for vibrant colours on the large cerata (dorsal leaf-like appendages) that characterize many species. Two species are widely reported from the Caribbean: Cyerce cristallina (Trinchese, 1881) and Cyerce antillensis Engel, 1927. Here, we present an integrative assessment of diversity in Caribbean Cyerce. Four methods of molecular species delimitation supported seven species in samples from the Caribbean and adjacent subtropical Western Atlantic. Six delimited species formed a monophyletic lineage in phylogenetic analyses but were > 9% divergent at the barcoding COI locus and could be differentiated using ecological, reproductive and/or morphological traits. We redescribe C. antillensis, a senior synonym for the poorly known Cyerce habanensis Ortea & Templado, 1988, and describe five new species. Evolutionary shifts in algal host use, penial armature and larval life history might have acted synergistically to promote the rapid divergence of endemic species with restricted distributions in this radiation, substantially increasing global diversity of the genus.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Khan Q, Kakar A, K Kamran (2024)

New faunistic data on Diptera (Hexapoda, Insecta) from the Ziarat Juniperus forest ecosystem (Pakistan).

Biodiversity data journal, 12:e114414.

BACKGROUND: This study presents the first faunistic record and DNA barcoding for some Diptera species recorded from the Juniperus forest ecosystem of Balochistan, Pakistan. DNA barcoding was used to explore species diversity of Dipterans and collections carried out using a Malaise trap between December 2018 to December 2019. This process involved sequencing the 658 bp Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) gene.

NEW INFORMATION: Amongst the collected Diptera specimens, nine families were identified, representing 13 genera. These species include Atherigonasoccata (Rondani, 1871), Atherigonavaria (Schiner, 1868), Chironomusdorsalis (Meigen, 1818), Eupeodescorollae (Linnaeus, 1758), Eristalistenax (Linnaeus,1758), Goniaornata (Meigen, 1826), Luciliasericata (Meigen, 1826), Paragusquadrifasciatus (Linnaeus, 1758), Polleniarudis (Fabricius, 1794), Raviniapernix (Thompson, 1869), Sarcophagadux (Thompson, 1869), Trupaneaamoena (Schiner, 1868) and Wohlfahrtiabella (Linnaeus, 1758). The families Syrphidae and Sarcophagidae exhibited the highest representation, each comprising three genera and three species. They were followed by the family Muscidae, which had a single genus and two species. Anthomyiidae, Chironomidae, Calliphoridae, Polleniidae, Tachinidae and Tephritidae were represented by only one genus and one species. A nique Barcode Index Number (BIN) was allotted to Tachinidae (specie i.e Goniaornata). The results indicated that barcoding through cytochrome oxidase I is an effective approach for the accurate identification and genetic studies of Diptera species. This discovery highlights the significant diversity of this insect order in study region. Furthermore, a comprehensive list of other Diptera species remains elusive because of difficulties in distinguishing them, based on morphology and a lack of professional entomological knowledge.

RevDate: 2024-04-02

Reichl J, Prossegger C, Petutschnig S, et al (2024)

Comparison of a multiplex PCR with DNA barcoding for identification of container breeding mosquito species.

Parasites & vectors, 17(1):171.

BACKGROUND: Identification of mosquitoes greatly relies on morphological specification. Since some species cannot be distinguished reliably by morphological methods, it is important to incorporate molecular techniques into the diagnostic pipeline. DNA barcoding using Sanger sequencing is currently widely used for identification of mosquito species. However, this method does not allow detection of multiple species in one sample, which would be important when analysing mosquito eggs. Detection of container breeding Aedes is typically performed by collecting eggs using ovitraps. These traps consist of a black container filled with water and a wooden spatula inserted for oviposition support. Aedes mosquitoes of different species might lay single or multiple eggs on the spatula. In contrast to Sanger sequencing of specific polymerase chain reaction (PCR) products, multiplex PCR protocols targeting specific species of interest can be of advantage for detection of multiple species in the same sample.

METHODS: For this purpose, we adapted a previously published PCR protocol for simultaneous detection of four different Aedes species that are relevant for Austrian monitoring programmes, as they can be found in ovitraps: Aedes albopictus, Aedes japonicus, Aedes koreicus, and Aedes geniculatus. For evaluation of the multiplex PCR protocol, we analysed 2271 ovitrap mosquito samples from the years 2021 and 2022, which were collected within the scope of an Austrian nationwide monitoring programme. We compared the results of the multiplex PCR to the results of DNA barcoding.

RESULTS: Of 2271 samples, the multiplex PCR could identify 1990 samples, while species determination using DNA barcoding of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I gene was possible in 1722 samples. The multiplex PCR showed a mixture of different species in 47 samples, which could not be detected with DNA barcoding.

CONCLUSIONS: In conclusion, identification of Aedes species in ovitrap samples was more successful when using the multiplex PCR protocol as opposed to the DNA barcoding protocol. Additionally, the multiplex PCR allowed us to detect multiple species in the same sample, while those species might have been missed when using DNA barcoding with Sanger sequencing alone. Therefore, we propose that the multiplex PCR protocol is highly suitable and of great advantage when analysing mosquito eggs from ovitraps.

RevDate: 2024-04-02

Wang J, Suh JM, Woo BJ, et al (2024)

Systematic annotation of orphan RNAs reveals blood-accessible molecular barcodes of cancer identity and cancer-emergent oncogenic drivers.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.03.19.585748.

From extrachromosomal DNA to neo-peptides, the broad reprogramming of the cancer genome leads to the emergence of molecules that are specific to the cancer state. We recently described orphan non-coding RNAs (oncRNAs) as a class of cancer-specific small RNAs with the potential to play functional roles in breast cancer progression [1] . Here, we report a systematic and comprehensive search to identify, annotate, and characterize cancer-emergent oncRNAs across 32 tumor types. We also leverage large-scale in vivo genetic screens in xenografted mice to functionally identify driver oncRNAs in multiple tumor types. We have not only discovered a large repertoire of oncRNAs, but also found that their presence and absence represent a digital molecular barcode that faithfully captures the types and subtypes of cancer. Importantly, we discovered that this molecular barcode is partially accessible from the cell-free space as some oncRNAs are secreted by cancer cells. In a large retrospective study across 192 breast cancer patients, we showed that oncRNAs can be reliably detected in the blood and that changes in the cell-free oncRNA burden captures both short-term and long-term clinical outcomes upon completion of a neoadjuvant chemotherapy regimen. Together, our findings establish oncRNAs as an emergent class of cancer-specific non-coding RNAs with potential roles in tumor progression and clinical utility in liquid biopsies and disease monitoring.

RevDate: 2024-04-02

Lee E, Zhang Z, Chen CC, et al (2024)

Timing of treatment shapes the path to androgen receptor signaling inhibitor resistance in prostate cancer.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.03.18.585532.

There is optimism that cancer drug resistance can be addressed through appropriate combination therapy, but success requires understanding the growing complexity of resistance mechanisms, including the evolution and population dynamics of drug-sensitive and drug-resistant clones over time. Using DNA barcoding to trace individual prostate tumor cells in vivo , we find that the evolutionary path to acquired resistance to androgen receptor signaling inhibition (ARSI) is dependent on the timing of treatment. In established tumors, resistance occurs through polyclonal adaptation of drug-sensitive clones, despite the presence of rare subclones with known, pre-existing ARSI resistance. Conversely, in an experimental setting designed to mimic minimal residual disease, resistance occurs through outgrowth of pre-existing resistant clones and not by adaptation. Despite these different evolutionary paths, the underlying mechanisms responsible for resistance are shared across the two evolutionary paths. Furthermore, mixing experiments reveal that the evolutionary path to adaptive resistance requires cooperativity between subclones. Thus, despite the presence of pre-existing ARSI-resistant subclones, acquired resistance in established tumors occurs primarily through cooperative, polyclonal adaptation of drug-sensitive cells. This tumor ecosystem model of resistance has new implications for developing effective combination therapy.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Li S, Wang S, Mi X, et al (2024)

Four new species of Anyphaena Sundevall, 1833 from Xizang, China (Araneae, Anyphaenidae).

ZooKeys, 1196:1-14 pii:119509.

Four new species of the genus Anyphaena Sundevall, 1833 collected from Xizang, China, are described: A.cibagou Wang & Mi, sp. nov. (♂♀), A.linzhi Wang & Mi, sp. nov. (♂♀), A.shufui Wang & Mi, sp. nov. (♀) and A.yejiei Wang & Mi, sp. nov. (♀). Diagnostic photos of the habitus and copulatory organs and a distributional map are provided.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Kim CJ, Tan JL, Kim JK, et al (2024)

Confirmation of the valid specific status of Dolichovespulakuami Kim & Yoon, 1996 (Hymenoptera, Vespidae) based on molecular and morphological evidence.

ZooKeys, 1196:111-119 pii:110224.

The taxonomic validity of Dolichovespulakuami, especially in relation to D.flora, has been the subject of a long-term debate. Herein, the valid specific status of the former was supported through an integrated analysis of morphological characters and DNA barcodes. The pronotal rugae and male genitalia of the two species are different, and partial mitochondrial genes (cytochrome oxidase subunit I, COI) indicate that they form significantly distinct lineages. The hitherto unknown male of D.kuami is described for the first time, and a brief discussion of the D.maculata species group is provided.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Walton RT, Qin Y, PC Blainey (2024)

CROPseq-multi: a versatile solution for multiplexed perturbation and decoding in pooled CRISPR screens.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.03.17.585235.

Forward genetic screens seek to dissect complex biological systems by systematically perturbing genetic elements and observing the resulting phenotypes. While standard screening methodologies introduce individual perturbations, multiplexing perturbations improves the performance of single-target screens and enables combinatorial screens for the study of genetic interactions. Current tools for multiplexing perturbations are incompatible with pooled screening methodologies that require mRNA-embedded barcodes, including some microscopy and single cell sequencing approaches. Here, we report the development of CROPseq-multi, a CROPseq-inspired lentiviral system to multiplex Streptococcus pyogenes (Sp) Cas9-based perturbations with mRNA-embedded barcodes. CROPseq-multi has equivalent per-guide activity to CROPseq and low lentiviral recombination frequencies. CROPseq-multi is compatible with enrichment screening methodologies and optical pooled screens, and is extensible to screens with single-cell sequencing readouts. For optical pooled screens, an optimized and multiplexed in situ detection protocol improves barcode detection efficiency 10-fold, enables detection of recombination events, and increases decoding efficiency 3-fold relative to CROPseq. CROPseq-multi is a widely applicable multiplexing solution for diverse SpCas9-based genetic screening approaches.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Montes-Herrera JC, Cimoli E, Cummings VJ, et al (2024)

Quantifying pigment content in crustose coralline algae using hyperspectral imaging: A case study with Tethysphytum antarcticum (Ross Sea, Antarctica).

Journal of phycology [Epub ahead of print].

Crustose coralline algae (CCA) are a highly diverse group of habitat-forming, calcifying red macroalgae (Rhodophyta) with unique adaptations to diverse irradiance regimes. A distinctive CCA phenotype adaptation, which allows them to maximize photosynthetic performance in low light, is their content of a specific group of light-harvesting pigments called phycobilins. In this study, we assessed the potential of noninvasive hyperspectral imaging (HSI) in the visible spectrum (400-800 nm) to describe the phenotypic variability in phycobilin content of an Antarctic coralline, Tethysphytum antarcticum (Hapalidiales), from two distinct locations. We validated our measurements with pigment extractions and spectrophotometry analysis, in addition to DNA barcoding using the psbA marker. Targeted spectral indices were developed and correlated with phycobilin content using linear mixed models (R[2] = 0.64-0.7). Once applied to the HSI, the models revealed the distinct phycoerythrin spatial distribution in the two site-specific CCA phenotypes, with thin and thick crusts, respectively. This study advances the capabilities of hyperspectral imaging as a tool to quantitatively study CCA pigmentation in relation to their phenotypic plasticity, which can be applied in laboratory studies and potentially in situ surveys using underwater hyperspectral imaging systems.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Yoon B, Kim H, Jung SW, et al (2024)

Single-cell lineage tracing approaches to track kidney cell development and maintenance.

Kidney international pii:S0085-2538(24)00244-8 [Epub ahead of print].

The kidney is a complex organ consisting of various cell types. Previous studies have aimed to elucidate the cellular relationships among these cell types in developing and mature kidneys using Cre-loxP-based lineage tracing. However, this methodology falls short of fully capturing the heterogeneous nature of the kidney, making it less than ideal for comprehensively tracing cellular progression during kidney development and maintenance. Recent technological advancements in single-cell genomics have revolutionized lineage tracing methodologies. Single-cell lineage tracing enables the simultaneous tracing of multiple cell types within complex tissues and their transcriptomic profiles, thereby allowing for the reconstruction of their lineage tree with cell state information. While single-cell lineage tracing has been successfully applied to investigate cellular hierarchies in various organs and tissues, its application in kidney research is currently lacking. This review comprehensively consolidates the single-cell lineage tracing methodologies, divided into four categories (CRISPR/Cas9-based, transposon-based, Polylox-based, and native barcoding methods), and outlines their technical advantages and disadvantages. Furthermore, we propose potential future research topics in kidney research that could benefit from single-cell lineage tracing and suggest suitable technical strategies to apply to these topics.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Chettih SN, Mackevicius EL, Hale S, et al (2024)

Barcoding of episodic memories in the hippocampus of a food-caching bird.

Cell pii:S0092-8674(24)00235-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The hippocampus is critical for episodic memory. Although hippocampal activity represents place and other behaviorally relevant variables, it is unclear how it encodes numerous memories of specific events in life. To study episodic coding, we leveraged the specialized behavior of chickadees-food-caching birds that form memories at well-defined moments in time whenever they cache food for subsequent retrieval. Our recordings during caching revealed very sparse, transient barcode-like patterns of firing across hippocampal neurons. Each "barcode" uniquely represented a caching event and transiently reactivated during the retrieval of that specific cache. Barcodes co-occurred with the conventional activity of place cells but were uncorrelated even for nearby cache locations that had similar place codes. We propose that animals recall episodic memories by reactivating hippocampal barcodes. Similarly to computer hash codes, these patterns assign unique identifiers to different events and could be a mechanism for rapid formation and storage of many non-interfering memories.

RevDate: 2024-03-29

Lima RC, de Lima SR, Rocha MS, et al (2024)

Identification of fish specimens of the Tocantins River, Brazil, using DNA barcoding.

Journal of fish biology [Epub ahead of print].

The fish fauna of the Tocantins River possesses many endemic species; however, it is little studied in molecular terms and is quite threatened by the construction of several hydroelectric dams. Therefore, the objective of this study was to identify the ichthyofauna of the Tocantins River using DNA barcoding. For this, collections were carried out in five points of this river, which resulted in the capture of 725 individuals from which partial sequences of the cytochrome oxidase subunit I (COI) gene were obtained for genetic analysis. A total of 443 haplotypes were recovered with the mean intraspecific K2P genetic distance of 1.82%. Altogether, 138 species were identified based on morphological criteria, which was a quantity that was much lower than that indicated by the four molecular methods (assemble species by automatic partitioning [ASAP], barcode index number [BIN], generalized mixed Yule coalescent (GMYC), and Bayesian Poisson tree processes [bPTP]) through which 152-157 molecular entities were identified. In all, 41 unique BINs were obtained based on the data generated in the BOLDSystems platform. According to the result indicated by ASAP (species delimitation approach considered the most appropriate in the present study), there was an increase of 17 molecular entities (12.32%), when compared to the number of species identified through their morphological criteria, as it can show cryptic diversity, candidates for new species, and misidentifications. There were 21 incongruities indicated between the different identification approaches for species. Therefore, it is suggested that these taxonomic problems be cautiously evaluated by experts to solve such taxonomic issues.

RevDate: 2024-03-29

Früh SP, Früh MA, Kaufer BB, et al (2024)

Unraveling the chicken T cell repertoire with enhanced genome annotation.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1359169.

T cell receptor (TCR) repertoire sequencing has emerged as a powerful tool for understanding the diversity and functionality of T cells within the host immune system. Yet, the chicken TCR repertoire remains poorly understood due to incomplete genome annotation of the TCR loci, despite the importance of chickens in agriculture and as an immunological model. Here, we addressed this critical issue by employing 5' rapid amplification of complementary DNA ends (5'RACE) TCR repertoire sequencing with molecular barcoding of complementary DNA (cDNA) molecules. Simultaneously, we enhanced the genome annotation of TCR Variable (V), Diversity (D, only present in β and δ loci) and Joining (J) genes in the chicken genome. To enhance the efficiency of TCR annotations, we developed VJ-gene-finder, an algorithm designed to extract VJ gene candidates from deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) sequences. Using this tool, we achieved a comprehensive annotation of all known chicken TCR loci, including the α/δ locus on chromosome 27. Evolutionary analysis revealed that each locus evolved separately by duplication of long homology units. To define the baseline TCR diversity in healthy chickens and to demonstrate the feasibility of the approach, we characterized the splenic α/β/γ/δ TCR repertoire. Analysis of the repertoires revealed preferential usage of specific V and J combinations in all chains, while the overall features were characteristic of unbiased repertoires. We observed moderate levels of shared complementarity-determining region 3 (CDR3) clonotypes among individual birds within the α and γ chain repertoires, including the most frequently occurring clonotypes. However, the β and δ repertoires were predominantly unique to each bird. Taken together, our TCR repertoire analysis allowed us to decipher the composition, diversity, and functionality of T cells in chickens. This work not only represents a significant step towards understanding avian T cell biology, but will also shed light on host-pathogen interactions, vaccine development, and the evolutionary history of avian immunology.

RevDate: 2024-03-29

Moraes Zenker M, Portella TP, Pessoa FAC, et al (2024)

Low coverage of species constrains the use of DNA barcoding to assess mosquito biodiversity.

Scientific reports, 14(1):7432.

Mosquitoes (Culicidae) represent the main vector insects globally, and they also inhabit many of the terrestrial and aquatic habitats of the world. DNA barcoding and metabarcoding are now widely used in both research and routine practices involving mosquitoes. However, these methodologies rely on information available in databases consisting of barcode sequences representing taxonomically identified voucher specimens. In this study, we assess the availability of public data for mosquitoes in the main online databases, focusing specifically on the two most widely used DNA barcoding markers in Culicidae: COI and ITS2. In addition, we test hypotheses on possible factors affecting species coverage (i.e., the percentage of species covered in the online databases) for COI in different countries and the occurrence of the DNA barcode gap for COI. Our findings showed differences in the data publicly available in the repositories, with a taxonomic or species coverage of 28.4-30.11% for COI in BOLD + GenBank, and 12.32% for ITS2 in GenBank. Afrotropical, Australian and Oriental biogeographic regions had the lowest coverages, while Nearctic, Palearctic and Oceanian had the highest. The Neotropical region had an intermediate coverage. In general, countries with a higher diversity of mosquitoes and higher numbers of medically important species had lower coverage. Moreover, countries with a higher number of endemic species tended to have a higher coverage. Although our DNA barcode gap analyses suggested that the species boundaries need to be revised in half of the mosquito species available in the databases, additional data must be gathered to confirm these results and to allow explaining the occurrence of the DNA barcode gap. We hope this study can help guide regional species inventories of mosquitoes and the completion of a publicly available reference library of DNA barcodes for all mosquito species.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Crous PW, Akulov A, Balashov S, et al (2023)

New and Interesting Fungi. 6.

Fungal systematics and evolution, 11:109-156.

Three new genera, six new species, three combinations, six epitypes, and 25 interesting new host and / or geographical records are introduced in this study. New genera: Neoleptodontidium (based on Neoleptodontidium aquaticum), and Nothoramularia (based on Nothoramularia ragnhildianicola). New species: Acremonium aquaticum (from cooling pad water, USA, Cladophialophora laricicola (on dead wood of Larix sp., Netherlands), Cyphellophora neerlandica (on lichen on brick wall, Netherlands), Geonectria muralis (on moss growing on a wall, Netherlands), Harposporium illinoisense (from rockwool, USA), and Neoleptodontidium aquaticum (from hydroponic water, USA). New combinations: Cyphellophora deltoidea (based on Anthopsis deltoidea), Neoleptodontidium aciculare (based on Leptodontidium aciculare), and Nothoramularia ragnhildianicola (based on Ramularia ragnhildianicola). Epitypes: Cephaliophora tropica (from water, USA), Miricatena prunicola (on leaves of Prunus serotina, Netherlands), Nothoramularia ragnhildianicola (on Ragnhildiana ferruginea, parasitic on Artemisia vulgaris, Germany), Phyllosticta multicorniculata (on needles of Abietis balsamea, Canada), Thyronectria caraganae (on twigs of Caragana arborescens, Ukraine), and Trichosphaeria pilosa (on decayed Salix branch, Netherlands). Furthermore, the higher order phylogeny of three genera regarded as incertae sedis is resolved, namely Cephaliophora (Ascodesmidaceae, Pezizales), Miricatena (Helotiales, Leotiomycetes), and Trichosphaeria (Trichosphaeriaceae, Trichosphaeriales), with Trichosphaeriaceae being an older name for Plectosphaerellaceae. Citation: Crous PW, Akulov A, Balashov S, Boers J, Braun U, Castillo J, Delgado MA, Denman S, Erhard A, Gusella G, Jurjević Ž, Kruse J, Malloch DW, Osieck ER, Polizzi G, Schumacher RK, Slootweg E, Starink-Willemse M, van Iperen AL, Verkley GJM, Groenewald JZ (2023). New and Interesting Fungi. 6. Fungal Systematics and Evolution 11: 109-156. doi: 10.3114/fuse.2023.11.09.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Wu T, Sima YK, Chen SY, et al (2024)

Comparative Analysis of the Chloroplast Genomes of Eight Species of the Genus Lirianthe Spach with Its Generic Delimitation Implications.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(6): pii:ijms25063506.

Based on Sima and Lu's system of the family Magnoliaceae, the genus Lirianthe Spach s. l. includes approximately 25 species, each with exceptional landscaping and horticultural or medical worth. Many of these plants are considered rare and are protected due to their endangered status. The limited knowledge of species within this genus and the absence of research on its chloroplast genome have greatly impeded studies on the relationship between its evolution and systematics. In this study, the chloroplast genomes of eight species from the genus Lirianthe were sequenced and analyzed, and their phylogenetic relationships with other genera of the family Magnoliaceae were also elucidated. The results showed that the chloroplast genome sizes of the eight Lirianthe species ranged from 159,548 to 159,833 bp. The genomes consisted of a large single-copy region, a small single-copy region, and a pair of inverted repeat sequences. The GC content was very similar across species. Gene annotation revealed that the chloroplast genomes contained 85 protein-coding genes, 37 tRNA genes, and 8 rRNA genes, totaling 130 genes. Codon usage analysis indicated that codon usage was highly conserved among the eight Lirianthe species. Repeat sequence analysis identified 42-49 microsatellite sequences, 16-18 tandem repeats, and 50 dispersed repeats, with microsatellite sequences being predominantly single-nucleotide repeats. DNA polymorphism analysis revealed 10 highly variable regions located in the large single-copy and small single-copy regions, among which rpl32-trnL, petA-psbJ, and trnH-psbA were the recommended candidate DNA barcodes for the genus Lirianthe species. The inverted repeat boundary regions show little variation between species and are generally conserved. The result of phylogenetic analysis confirmed that the genus Lirianthe s. l. is a monophyletic taxon and the most affinal to the genera, Talauma and Dugandiodendron, in Sima and Lu's system and revealed that the genus Lirianthe s. s. is paraphyletic and the genus Talauma s. l. polyphyletic in Xia's system, while Magnolia subsection Gwillimia is paraphyletic and subsection Blumiana polyphyletic in Figlar and Nooteboom's system. Morphological studies found noticeable differences between Lirianthe species in aspects including leaf indumentum, stipule scars, floral orientation, tepal number, tepal texture, and fruit dehiscence. In summary, this study elucidated the chloroplast genome evolution within Lirianthe and laid a foundation for further systematic and taxonomic research on this genus.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Ruzycka-Ayoush M, Prochorec-Sobieszek M, Cieszanowski A, et al (2024)

Extracellular Vesicles as Next-Generation Biomarkers in Lung Cancer Patients: A Case Report on Adenocarcinoma and Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 14(3): pii:life14030408.

Extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from primary cell lines, originating from resected tissues during biopsies in patients with non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) revealing adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma subtypes, were examined for membrane proteomic fingerprints using a proximity barcoding assay. All the collected EVs expressed canonical tetraspanins (CD9, CD63, and CD81) highly coexpressed with molecules such as lysosome-associated membrane protein-1 (LAMP1-CD107a), sialomucin core protein 24 (CD164), Raph blood group (CD151), and integrins (ITGB1 and ITGA2). This representation of the protein molecules on the EV surface may provide valuable information on NSCLC subtypes and offer new diagnostic opportunities as next-generation biomarkers in personalized oncology.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Freeman A, X Xia (2024)

Phylogeographic Reconstruction to Trace the Source Population of Asian Giant Hornet Caught in Nanaimo in Canada and Blaine in the USA.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 14(3): pii:life14030283.

The Asian giant hornet, Vespa mandarinia, is an invasive species that could potentially destroy the local honeybee industry in North America. It has been observed to nest in the coastal regions of British Columbia in Canada and Washington State in the USA. What is the source population of the immigrant hornets? The identification of the source population can shed light not only on the route of immigration but also on the similarity between the native habitat and the potential new habitat in the Pacific Northwest. We analyzed mitochondrial COX1 sequences of specimens sampled from multiple populations in China, the Republic of Korea, Japan, and the Russian Far East. V. mandarinia exhibits phylogeographic patterns, forming monophyletic clades for 16 specimens from China, six specimens from the Republic of Korea, and two specimens from Japan. The two mitochondrial COX1 sequences from Nanaimo, British Columbia, are identical to the two sequences from Japan. The COX1 sequence from Blaine, Washington State, clustered with those from the Republic of Korea and is identical to one sequence from the Republic of Korea. Our geophylogeny, which allows visualization of genetic variation over time and space, provides evolutionary insights on the evolution and speciation of three closely related vespine species (V. tropica, V. soror, and V. mandarinia), with the speciation events associated with the expansion of the distribution to the north.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Yang J, Zhang X, Hua Z, et al (2024)

High-Quality Assembly and Analysis of the Complete Mitogenomes of German Chamomile (Matricaria recutita) and Roman Chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile).

Genes, 15(3): pii:genes15030301.

German chamomile (Matricaria chamomilla L.) and Roman chamomile (Chamaemelum nobile) are the two well-known chamomile species from the Asteraceae family. Owing to their essential oils and higher medicinal value, these have been cultivated widely across Europe, Northwest Asia, North America, and Africa. Regarding medicinal applications, German chamomile is the most commonly utilized variety and is frequently recognized as the "star among medicinal species". The insufficient availability of genomic resources may negatively impact the progression of chamomile industrialization. Chamomile's mitochondrial genome is lacking in extensive empirical research. In this study, we achieved the successful sequencing and assembly of the complete mitochondrial genome of M. chamomilla and C. nobile for the first time. An analysis was conducted on codon usage, sequence repeats within the mitochondrial genome of M. chamomilla and C. nobile. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a consistent positioning of M. chamomilla and C. nobile branches within both mitochondrial and plastid-sequence-based phylogenetic trees. Furthermore, the phylogenetic analysis also showed a close relationship between M. chamomilla and C. nobile within the clade comprising species from the Asteraceae family. The results of our analyses provide valuable resources for evolutionary research and molecular barcoding in chamomile.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Rajasegaran P, Koosakulnirand S, Tan KK, et al (2024)

Multi-Locus Sequence Analysis Indicates Potential Cryptic Speciation in the Chigger Mite Neoschoengastia gallinarum (Hatori, 1920) Parasitising Birds in Asia.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 14(6): pii:ani14060980.

Neoschoengastia gallinarum is widely distributed in Asia, preferentially parasitising birds, and heavy infestations have clinical impacts on domestic fowl. In common with other trombiculid mites, the genetic diversity and potential variation in host preferences or pathology induced by N. gallinarum are poorly understood. This study aimed to unravel the geographical variation and population structure of N. gallinarum collected from galliform birds in Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand by inference from concatenated mitochondrial-encoded cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI), and nuclear-encoded internal transcribed spacer 2 (ITS2) and 18S ribosomal DNA gene sequences, including a comparison with previously published data from southeastern China. Our multi-locus sequence analysis revealed three monophyletic clades comprising (A) specimens from Peninsular Malaysia, (B) the samples from Thailand together with a minority of Chinese sequences, and (C) the majority of sequences from China. Similarly, most species delimitation approaches divided the specimens into three operational taxonomic units. Analysis of molecular variance revealed 96.41% genetic divergence between Malaysian and Thai populations, further supported by the absence of gene flow (Nm = 0.01). In conclusion, despite the two countries sharing a land border, populations of N. gallinarum from Peninsular Malaysia and Thailand appear to be genetically segregated and may represent distinct cryptic species.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Dalilah D, Syafruddin D, Saleh I, et al (2024)

A systematic review: is Anopheles vagus a species complex?.

Malaria journal, 23(1):88.

BACKGROUND: Anopheles vagus (subgenus Cellia) has been identified as a vector for malaria, filariasis, and Japanese encephalitis in Asia. Sporozoites of Plasmodium falciparum and Plasmodium vivax have been found in this zoophilic mosquito in Asia and Indonesia. This study systematically reviews publications regarding An. vagus species, variation, bio-ecology, and malaria transmission in various localities in Asia, especially Indonesia, to determine whether the current data support An. vagus as a species complex.

METHODS: The databases Pubmed, Scopus, Europe PMC, and Proquest were searched to identify information regarding the morphology, karyotypes, polytene chromosome, cross-mating, ecology, and molecular identification of An. vagus was then evaluated to determine whether there were possible species complexes.

RESULTS: Of the 1326 articles identified, 15 studies were considered for synthesis. The Anopheles spp. samples for this study came from Asia. Eleven studies used morphology to identify An. vagus, with singular studies using each of karyotype identification, chromosomal polytene identification, and cross-breeding experiments. Ten studies used molecular techniques to identify Anopheles spp., including An. vagus. Most studies discovered morphological variations of An. vagus either in the same or different areas and ecological settings. In this review, the members of An. vagus sensu lato grouped based on morphology (An. vagus, An. vagus vagus, An. vagus limosus, and An. limosus), karyotyping (form A and B), and molecular (An. vagus genotype A and B, An. vagus AN4 and AN5). Genetic analysis revealed a high conservation of the ITS2 fragment among members except for the An. vagus genotype B, which was, in fact, Anopheles sundaicus. This review also identified that An. vagus limosus and An. vagus vagus were nearly identical to the ITS2 sequence.

CONCLUSION: Literature review studies revealed that An. vagus is conspecific despite the distinct morphological characteristic of An. vagus and An. limosus. Further information using another barcoding tool, such as mitochondrial COI and ND6 and experimental cross-mating between the An. vagus and An. limosus may provide additional evidence for the status of An. vagus as a species complex.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Koo D, Mao Z, Dimatteo R, et al (2024)

Defining T cell receptor repertoires using nanovial-based binding and functional screening.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 121(14):e2320442121.

The ability to selectively bind to antigenic peptides and secrete effector molecules can define rare and low-affinity populations of cells with therapeutic potential in emerging T cell receptor (TCR) immunotherapies. We leverage cavity-containing hydrogel microparticles, called nanovials, each coated with peptide-major histocompatibility complex (pMHC) monomers to isolate antigen-reactive T cells. T cells are captured and activated by pMHCs inducing the secretion of effector molecules including IFN-γ and granzyme B that are accumulated on nanovials, allowing sorting based on both binding and function. The TCRs of sorted cells on nanovials are sequenced, recovering paired αβ-chains using microfluidic emulsion-based single-cell sequencing. By labeling nanovials having different pMHCs with unique oligonucleotide-barcodes and secretions with oligo-barcoded detection antibodies, we could accurately link TCR sequences to specific targets and rank each TCR based on the corresponding cell's secretion level. Using the technique, we identified an expanded repertoire of functional TCRs targeting viral antigens with high specificity and found rare TCRs with activity against cancer-specific splicing-enhanced epitopes.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Ru SS, Cheng C, Jiang P, et al (2024)

Identification of a Clinical Spirometra mansoni Plerocercoid Isolate Using Molecular and Morphological Data.

Acta parasitologica [Epub ahead of print].

Sparganosis has been a neglected parasitic zoonosis for a long time. The accurate identification of Spirometra tapeworms in clinical practice is poorly understood. A case of breast sparganosis was reported in Henan Province of central China. One plerocercoid approximately 3.5 cm in length was collected from the patient. The clinical isolate was identified as Spirometra mansoni based on the barcoding sequences of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (cox1). Finally, the epidemiology of sparganosis in central China was reviewed. Comprehensive public health education should be carried out, and the risky habit of eating live tadpoles must be discouraged in Henan Province.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Li X, Li R, Rao F, et al (2024)

Genetic characterization of 2 Ceutorhynchus (Coleoptera: Curculionidae) weevils with mitogenomes and insights into the phylogeny and evolution of related weevils.

Journal of insect science (Online), 24(2):.

The rape stem weevil (Ceutorhynchus asper Roel.) and its close relatives primarily breed on cruciferous plants and cause severe damage to rapeseed production. However, their genetic and molecular information is still scarce. Here, we generated mitogenomes for both C. asper and Ceutorhynchus albosuturalis. The lengths of the 2 mitochondrial genomes are 14,207 bp (C. asper) and 15,373 bp (C. albosuturalis), and both weevils exhibit identical numbers of protein-coding genes with the absence of trnI. A + T contents for both mitogenomes are high (80% and 79.9%, respectively). Haplotype and genetic distance analyses showed that the genetic differentiation of C. asper populations in northwestern China is low. Based on 5 datasets from mitogenomes, phylogenetic analyses with maximum-likelihood and Bayesian methods show that both species (C. asper and C. albosuturalis) fall in the CCCMS clade (Curculioninae, Conoderinae, Cossoninae, Molytinae, and Scolytinae) of Curculionidae and belong to clades H and I of the genus Ceutorhynchus, respectively. Larvae of the clade H weevils mainly are borers in petioles or stems of cruciferous plants, while larvae of the clade I weevils mainly inhabit the fruits of the same plants, suggesting that ecological niche specialization can play a critical role in the diversification of Ceutorhynchus species. This study generates baseline molecular and genetic information for future research of Ceutorhynchus-related taxa and provides insights into the phylogeny and evolution of Curculionidae.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Song C, Chen G, Wang L, et al (2024)

DNA Barcoding Supports "Color-Pattern''-Based Species of Stictochironomus from China (Diptera: Chironomidae).

Insects, 15(3): pii:insects15030179.

The genus Stictochironomus (Diptera: Chironomidae) has an almost worldwide distribution, with more than 30 species. However, species delimitation and identification based on the markings on the wings and legs are controversial and uncertain. In this study, we focused on color patterns to review the adults of the genus from China, and two new species (S. trifuscipes sp. nov. and S. quadrimaculatus sp. nov.) are described and figured. DNA barcodes can accurately separate the two new species with specific color patterns. However, heterospecific individuals form a monophyletic cluster in the phylogeny tree. For example, S. maculipennis (Meigen) and S. pictulus (Meigen), which have a lower interspecific genetic divergence, form a single clade. Sequences with the same species name but with high intraspecific distance form more than one phylogenetic clade, such as S. sticticus (Fabricius) of three clades, S. pictulus of four clades, S. akizukii (Tokunaga) and S. juncaii Qi, Shi, and Wang of two clades, might have potential cryptic species diversity. Species delimitation analysis using ASAP, PTP, and GMYC clearly delineated them as separate species. Consequently, color patterns are a good diagnostic characteristic for species delimitation in Stictochironomus. The distance-based analysis shows that a threshold of 4.5-7.7% is appropriate for species delimitation in Stictochironomus. Additionally, an updated key including color pattern variation for male adults of known Stictochironomus species from China is provided.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Zhao P, Chen S, Liu Y, et al (2024)

Review of the Genus Sycanus Amyot & Serville, 1843 (Heteroptera: Reduviidae: Harpactorinae), from China Based on DNA Barcoding and Morphological Evidence.

Insects, 15(3): pii:insects15030165.

Due to the variability of body coloration and morphological similarity among closely related species, unresolved issues and debates still persist in the taxonomic study of the genus Sycanus from China. In this study, we conducted phylogenetic analyses and species delimitation for Sycanus in China based on a COI DNA barcoding dataset comprising 81 samples. The results revealed that all the samples could be classified into 12 species by integrating molecular analyses with morphological comparison. This paper provides a comprehensive systematic review of the Sycanus species found in China, including descriptions of three new species: S. taiwanensis Zhao & Cai sp. nov., S. flavicorius Li & Cai sp. nov., and S. hainanensis Wang & Cai sp. nov. Furthermore, it is proposed that S. croceovittatus Dohrn, 1859, S. leucomesus Walker, 1873, and S. villicus Stål, 1863, are three synonyms of S. bifidus (Fabricius, 1787); S. bicolor Hsiao, 1979, is a synonym of S. versicolor Dohrn, 1859; and S. hsiaoi Maldonado-Capriles, 1990, is a synonym of S. marginellus Putshkov, 1987. Additionally, brief biological information is provided for two species, S. falleni Stål, 1863, and S. croceus Hsiao, 1979.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Yaish MW, Al-Busaidi A, Glick BR, et al (2024)

The Effects of Salinity and Genotype on the Rhizospheric Mycobiomes in Date Palm Seedlings.

Biology, 13(3): pii:biology13030190.

Salinity severely affects the health and productivity of plants, with root-associated microbes, including fungi, potentially playing a crucial role in mitigating this effect and promoting plant health. This study employed metagenomics to investigate differences in the structures of the epiphyte mycobiomes in the rhizospheres of seedlings of two distinct date palm cultivars with contrasting salinity tolerances, the susceptible cultivar, 'Zabad', and the tolerant cultivar, 'Umsila'. Next-generation sequencing (NGS) of the internal transcribed spacer (ITS) rRNA was utilized as a DNA barcoding tool. The sequencing of 12 mycobiome libraries yielded 905,198 raw sequences of 268,829 high-quality reads that coded for 135 unique and annotatable operational taxonomic units (OTUs). An OTU analysis revealed differences in the rhizofungal community structures between the treatments regardless of genotype, and non-metric dimensional scaling (N-MDS) analyses demonstrated distinct separations between the cultivars under saline stress. However, these differences were not detected under the control environmental conditions, i.e., no salinity. The rhizospheric fungal community included four phyla (Ascomycota, Basidiomycota, Chytridiomycota, and Mucoromycota), with differences in the abundances of Aspergillus, Clonostachys, and Fusarium genera in response to salinity, regardless of the genotype. Differential pairwise comparisons showed that Fusarium falciforme-solani and Aspergillus sydowii-versicolor increased in abundance under saline conditions, providing potential future in vitro isolation guidelines for plant growth-promoting fungi. This study highlights the intricate dynamics of the rhizosphere microbial communities in date palms and their responses to salt stress. Additionally, we found no support for the hypothesis that indigenous epiphytic fungal communities are significantly involved in salinity tolerance in date palms.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Limeira Filho D, França ERR, Costa DKP, et al (2024)

Molecular Evidence Reveals Taxonomic Uncertainties and Cryptic Diversity in the Neotropical Catfish of the Genus Pimelodus (Siluriformes: Pimelodidae).

Biology, 13(3): pii:biology13030162.

Pimelodus is the most speciose genus of the family Pimelodidae, and is amply distributed in the Neotropical region. The species-level taxonomy and phylogenetic relationships within this genus are still poorly resolved, however. These taxonomic problems and the general lack of data have generated major uncertainties with regard to the identification of specimens from different localities. In the present study, we applied a single-locus species delimitation approach to identify the MOTUs found within the genus Pimelodus and provide sound evidence for the evaluation of the species richness of this genus in the different river basins of the Neotropical region. The study was based on the analysis of sequences of the mitochondrial COI gene of 13 nominal species, which resulted in the identification of 24 consensus MOTUs. Only six nominal species were recovered as well-defined molecular entities by both the traditional barcoding analysis and the molecular delimitation methods, while the other seven presented cryptic diversity or persistent taxonomic uncertainties. The lineages identified from the Parnaíba ecoregions, Amazonas Estuary and Coastal Drainages may represent a much greater diversity of Pimelodus species than that recognized currently, although a more detailed study of this diversity will be necessary to provide a more definitive classification of the genus.

RevDate: 2024-03-26

Uechi L, Vasudevan S, Vilenski D, et al (2024)

Transcriptome free energy can serve as a dynamic patient-specific biomarker in acute myeloid leukemia.

NPJ systems biology and applications, 10(1):32.

Acute myeloid leukemia (AML) is prevalent in both adult and pediatric patients. Despite advances in patient categorization, the heterogeneity of AML remains a challenge. Recent studies have explored the use of gene expression data to enhance AML diagnosis and prognosis, however, alternative approaches rooted in physics and chemistry may provide another level of insight into AML transformation. Utilizing publicly available databases, we analyze 884 human and mouse blood and bone marrow samples. We employ a personalized medicine strategy, combining state-transition theory and surprisal analysis, to assess the RNA transcriptome of individual patients. The transcriptome is transformed into physical parameters that represent each sample's steady state and the free energy change (FEC) from that steady state, which is the state with the lowest free energy.We found the transcriptome steady state was invariant across normal and AML samples. FEC, representing active molecular processes, varied significantly between samples and was used to create patient-specific barcodes to characterize the biology of the disease. We discovered that AML samples that were in a transition state had the highest FEC. This disease state may be characterized as the most unstable and hence the most therapeutically targetable since a change in free energy is a thermodynamic requirement for disease progression. We also found that distinct sets of ongoing processes may be at the root of otherwise similar clinical phenotypes, implying that our integrated analysis of transcriptome profiles may facilitate a personalized medicine approach to cure AML and restore a steady state in each patient.

RevDate: 2024-03-25

Wang Y, Zhao J, Jiang Z, et al (2024)

Single-Cell Proteomics by Barcoded Phage-Displayed Screening via an Integrated Microfluidic Chip.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2793:101-112.

Recent advancements in the profiling of proteomes at the single-cell level necessitate the development of quantitative and versatile platforms, particularly for analyzing rare cells like circulating tumor cells (CTCs). In this chapter, we present an integrated microfluidic chip that utilizes magnetic nanoparticles to capture single tumor cells with exceptional efficiency. This chip enables on-chip incubation and facilitates in situ analysis of cell-surface protein expression. By combining phage-based barcoding with next-generation sequencing technology, we successfully monitored changes in the expression of multiple surface markers induced by CTC adherence. This innovative platform holds significant potential for comprehensive screening of multiple surface antigens simultaneously in rare cells, offering single-cell resolution. Consequently, it will contribute valuable insights into biological heterogeneity and human disease.

RevDate: 2024-03-25

Arulvendhan V, Saravana Bhavan P, R Rajaganesh (2024)

Molecular Identification and Phytochemical Analysis and Bioactivity Assessment of Catharanthus roseus Leaf Extract: Exploring Antioxidant Potential and Antimicrobial Activities.

Applied biochemistry and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Plants have long been at the main focus of the medical industry's attention due to their extensive list of biological and therapeutic properties and ethnobotanical applications. Catharanthus roseus, sometimes referred to as Nithyakalyani in Tamil, is an Apocynaceae family member used in traditional Indian medicine. It also examines the plant's potential antimicrobial and antioxidant activities as well as its preliminary phytochemical makeup. Leaf material from C. roseus was analyzed and found to include a variety of phytochemicals including alkaloids, terpenoids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols, saponins, glycosides, quinones, and steroids. Four of the seven secondary metabolic products discovered in C. roseus leaves showed bioactive principles: 3-methylmannoside, squalene, pentatriacontane, and 2,4,4-trimethyl-3-hydroxymethyl-5a-(3-methyl-but-2-enyl)-cyclohexene. Catharanthus roseus is rich in the anticancer compounds vinblastine and vincristine. Whole DNA was isolated from fresh leaves, then amplified, sequenced, and aligned to find prospective DNA barcode candidates. One DNA marker revealed the restricted genetic relationship among C. roseus based on genetic distance and phylogenetic analysis. The antioxidant activity of the plant extract was evaluated using the DPPH, ABTS, phosphomolybdenum, FRAP, and superoxide radical scavenging activity assays, while the antibacterial potential was evaluated using the agar well diffusion assay. The ethanol extract of C. roseus was found to have the highest reducing power. In addition, a 4- to 21-mm-wide zone of inhibition was seen when the C. roseus extract was tested against bacterial and fungal stains. In conclusion, C. roseus has the most promise as an antibacterial and antioxidant agent.

RevDate: 2024-03-25

Park S, Kim M, JW Lee (2024)

Optimizing Nucleic Acid Delivery Systems through Barcode Technology.

ACS synthetic biology [Epub ahead of print].

Conventional biological experiments often focus on in vitro assays because of the inherent limitations when handling multiple variables in vivo, including labor-intensive and time-consuming procedures. Often only a subset of samples demonstrating significant efficacy in the in vitro assays can be evaluated in vivo. Nonetheless, because of the low correlation between the in vitro and in vivo tests, evaluation of the variables under examination in vivo and not solely in vitro is critical. An emerging approach to achieve high-throughput in vivo tests involves using a barcode system consisting of various nucleotide combinations. Unique barcodes for each variant enable the simultaneous testing of multiple entities, eliminating the need for separate individual tests. Subsequently, to identify crucial parameters, samples were collected and analyzed using barcode sequencing. This review explores the development of barcode design and its applications, including the evaluation of nucleic acid delivery systems and the optimization of gene expression in vivo.

RevDate: 2024-03-25

Vargas HA (2024)

On Ypsolopha micromoths (Lepidoptera, Ypsolophidae) associated with Adesmia shrubs (Fabaceae) in the arid western slope of the central Andes.

ZooKeys, 1195:131-138.

Ypsolopha Latreille, 1796 (Lepidoptera, Ypsolophidae) is a genus comprised mostly of Holarctic micromoth species with a fairly broad range of larval hosts (e.g. Aceraceae, Rosaceae, and Fagaceae). The only previous record of herbivory on a representative of the South American genus Adesmia DC. (Fabaceae) was based on the discovery of Ypsolophamoltenii Vargas, 2018 larvae feeding on Adesmiaverrucosa Meyen in the Andes of northern Chile. Further surveys revealed Adesmiaatacamensis Phil. as another host for Y.moltenii, and Adesmiaspinosissima Meyen as the single host of Ypsolopha sp. The genetic distance between DNA barcodes of the two micromoth species was 7.9-8.1% (K2P). These results suggest narrow host ranges for Adesmia-feeding Ypsolopha and highlight the need to further explore the taxonomic diversity of these micromoths in other South American environments.

RevDate: 2024-03-25

Kim S, Sohn J, H Kim (2024)

Two new records of the genus Trioxys (Hymenoptera, Braconidae, Aphidiinae) parasitic on bamboo aphids from South Korea.

Biodiversity data journal, 12:e118599.

BACKGROUND: The genus Trioxys Haliday, 1833 consists of more than 80 species worldwide with three species being recorded in South Korea. In this study, we report the first observation of the two additional species, T.liui Chou & Chou, 1993 from Takecallisarundinariae (Essig, 1917) on Phyllostachysbambusoides Siebold & Zucc., 1843 and T.remaudierei Starý & Rakhshani, 2017 from T.taiwana (Takahashi, 1926) on Sasaborealis (Hack.) Makino & Shibata, 1901.

NEW INFORMATION: Trioxysliui and T.remaudierei are described and reported with phototographs of the diagnostic morphological characters and the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COI) data (barcode region) and Bayesian tree of the phylogenetic analysis amongst the closely-related taxa are provided.

RevDate: 2024-03-25

Pellitier PT, Van Nuland M, Salamov A, et al (2024)

Potential for functional divergence in ectomycorrhizal fungal communities across a precipitation gradient.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae031.

Functional traits influence the assembly of microbial communities, but identifying these traits in the environment has remained challenging. We studied ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities inhabiting Populus trichocarpa roots distributed across a precipitation gradient in the Pacific Northwest, USA. We profiled these communities using taxonomic (meta-barcoding) and functional (metagenomic) approaches. We hypothesized that genes involved in fungal drought-stress tolerance and fungal mediated plant water uptake would be most abundant in drier soils. We were unable to detect support for this hypothesis; instead, the abundance of genes involved in melanin synthesis, hydrophobins, aquaporins, trehalose-synthases, and other gene families exhibited no significant shifts across the gradient. Finally, we studied variation in sequence homology for certain genes, finding that fungal communities in dry soils are composed of distinct aquaporin and hydrophobin gene sequences. Altogether, our results suggest that while EMF communities exhibit significant compositional shifts across this gradient, coupled functional turnover, at least as inferred using community metagenomics is limited. Accordingly, the consequences of these distinct EMF communities on plant water uptake remain critically unknown, and future studies targeting the expression of genes involved in drought stress tolerance are required.

RevDate: 2024-03-25

Janko Š, Rok Š, Blaž K, et al (2024)

DNA barcoding insufficiently identifies European wild bees (Hymenoptera, Anthophila) due to undefined species diversity, genus-specific barcoding gaps and database errors.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Recent declines in insect abundances, especially populations of wild pollinators, pose a threat to many natural and agricultural ecosystems. Traditional species monitoring relies on morphological character identification and is inadequate for efficient and standardized surveys. DNA barcoding has become a standard approach for molecular identification of organisms, aiming to overcome the shortcomings of traditional biodiversity monitoring. However, its efficacy depends on the completeness of reference databases. Large DNA barcoding efforts are (almost entirely) lacking in many European countries and such patchy data limit Europe-wide analyses of precisely how to apply DNA barcoding in wild bee identification. Here, we advance towards an effective molecular identification of European wild bees. We conducted a high-effort survey of wild bees at the junction of central and southern Europe and DNA barcoded all collected morphospecies. For global analyses, we complemented our DNA barcode dataset with all relevant European species and conducted global analyses of species delimitation, general and genus-specific barcoding gaps and examined the error rate in DNA data repositories. We found that (i) a sixth of all specimens from Slovenia could not be reliably identified, (ii) species delimitation methods show numerous systematic discrepancies, (iii) there is no general barcoding gap across all bees and (iv) the barcoding gap is genus specific, but only after curating for errors in DNA data repositories. Intense sampling and barcoding efforts in underrepresented regions and strict curation of DNA barcode repositories are needed to enhance the use of DNA barcoding for the identification of wild bees.

RevDate: 2024-03-24

Sun Y, Nan HZ, Zhang C, et al (2024)

Genetic characteristics of Blastocystis sp. in cattle from Hebei Province, China.

Microbial pathogenesis pii:S0882-4010(24)00096-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Blastocystis sp. is a protozoan parasite that infects the intestines of humans and animals, causing chronic diseases such as skin rashes, abdominal pain, and irritable bowel syndrome. A survey was conducted to determine the prevalence and genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp. infection in cattle, in Hebei Province, China. 2746 cattle fecal samples were collected from 11 cities in Hebei Province and analyzed using polymerase chain reaction targeting the Blastocystis sp. barcoding gene. MEGA, PhyloSuite, and PopART were used to analyze the subtype, sequence signature, pairwise genetic distance, and genetic diversity indices. The results showed that the Blastocystis sp. detection rate was 12.60% (346/2746). The infection rate in different herds was affected by region, age, breeding mode, and variety; that is, the infection rates in areas of southern Hebei, cattle under one year old, intensive raising, and dairy cattle were higher than the infection rates in northern Hebei, cattle over one year old, scatter feeding, and beef cattle. Seven Blastocystis subtypes were identified, namely, ST1, ST2, ST5, ST10, ST14, ST21, and ST26; ST10 was the dominant subtype, and ST14 was the second most common subtype. A total of 374 polymorphic and conserved sites were obtained, including 273 invariable (monomorphic) sites and 101 variable (polymorphic) sites, accounting for 27.01% of all nucleotides. The nucleotide diversity index (Pi) was 0.07749, and the haplotype (gene) diversity index (Hd) was 0.946. This study provides the first comprehensive information on the epidemiological situation of Blastocystis sp. infection in cattle from Hebei Province, China, and revealed rich genetic diversity of Blastocystis sp.

RevDate: 2024-03-23

Suetsugu K, Ohta T, I Tayasu (2024)

Partial mycoheterotrophy in the leafless orchid Eulophia zollingeri specialized on wood-decaying fungi.

Mycorrhiza [Epub ahead of print].

Although the absence of normal leaves is often considered a sign of full heterotrophy, some plants remain at least partially autotrophic despite their leafless habit. Leafless orchids with green stems and capsules probably represent a late evolutionary stage toward full mycoheterotrophy and serve as valuable models for understanding the pathways leading to this nutritional strategy. In this study, based on molecular barcoding and isotopic analysis, we explored the physiological ecology of the leafless orchid Eulophia zollingeri, which displays green coloration, particularly during its fruiting phase. Although previous studies had shown that E. zollingeri, in its adult stage, is associated with Psathyrellaceae fungi and exhibits high [13]C isotope signatures similar to fully mycoheterotrophic orchids, it remained uncertain whether this symbiotic relationship is consistent throughout the orchid's entire life cycle and whether the orchid relies exclusively on mycoheterotrophy for its nutrition during the fruiting season. Our study has demonstrated that E. zollingeri maintains a specialized symbiotic relationship with Psathyrellaceae fungi throughout all life stages. However, isotopic analysis and chlorophyll data have shown that the orchid also engages in photosynthesis to meet its carbon needs, particularly during the fruiting stage. This research constitutes the first discovery of partial mycoheterotrophy in leafless orchids associated with saprotrophic non-rhizoctonia fungi.

RevDate: 2024-03-23

Macko P, Derka T, Čiamporová-Zaťovičová Z, et al (2024)

Detailed DNA barcoding of mayflies in a small European country proved how far we are from having comprehensive barcode reference libraries.

Molecular ecology resources [Epub ahead of print].

Mayflies (Ephemeroptera) are among the crucial water and habitat quality bioindicators. However, despite their intensive long-term use in various studies, more reliable mayfly DNA barcode data have been produced in a negligible number of countries, and only ~40% of European species had been barcoded with less than 50% of families covered. Despite being carried out in a small area, our study presents the second-most species-rich DNA reference library of mayflies from Europe and the first comprehensive view from an important biodiversity hotspot such as the Western Carpathians. Within 1153 sequences, 76 morphologically determined species were recorded and added to the Barcode of Life Data System (BOLD) database. All obtained sequences were assigned to 97 BINs, 11 of which were unique and three represented species never barcoded before. Sequences of 16 species with high intraspecific variability were divided into 40 BINs, confirming the presence of cryptic lineages. Due to the low interspecific divergence and the non-existing barcoding gap, sequences of six species were assigned to three shared BINs. Delimitation analyses resulted in 79 and 107 putative species respectively. Bayesian and maximum-likelihood phylogenies confirmed the monophyly of almost all species and complexes of cryptic taxa and proved that DNA barcoding distinguishes almost all studied mayfly species. We have shown that it is still sufficient to thoroughly investigate the fauna of a small but geographically important area to enrich global databases greatly. In particular, the insights gained here transcend the local context and may have broader implications for advancing barcoding efforts.

RevDate: 2024-03-23

Zhang H, Mulqueen RM, Iannuzo N, et al (2024)

txci-ATAC-seq: a massive-scale single-cell technique to profile chromatin accessibility.

Genome biology, 25(1):78.

We develop a large-scale single-cell ATAC-seq method by combining Tn5-based pre-indexing with 10× Genomics barcoding, enabling the indexing of up to 200,000 nuclei across multiple samples in a single reaction. We profile 449,953 nuclei across diverse tissues, including the human cortex, mouse brain, human lung, mouse lung, mouse liver, and lung tissue from a club cell secretory protein knockout (CC16[-/-]) model. Our study of CC16[-/-] nuclei uncovers previously underappreciated technical artifacts derived from remnant 129 mouse strain genetic material, which cause profound cell-type-specific changes in regulatory elements near many genes, thereby confounding the interpretation of this commonly referenced mouse model.

RevDate: 2024-03-22

Wang G, Ren Y, Su Y, et al (2024)

Identification of toxic Gelsemium elegans in processed food and honey based on real-time PCR analysis.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 182:114188.

Gelsemium elegans (GE) is a widely distributed hypertoxic plant that has caused many food poisoning incidents. Its pollen can also be collected by bees to produce toxic honey, posing a great threat to the health and safety of consumers. However, for the complex matrices such as cooked food and honey, it is challenging to perform composition analysis. It is necessary to establish more effective strategies for investigating GE contamination. In this study, the real-time PCR (qPCR) analysis combined with DNA barcode matK was proposed for the identification and detection of GE. Fifteen honey samples along with twenty-eight individuals of GE and the common confusable objects Lonicera japonica, Ficus hirta, Stellera chamaejasme and Chelidonium majus were gathered. Additionally, the food mixtures treated with 20-min boiling and 30-min digestion were prepared. Specific primers were designed, and the detection capability and sensitivity of qPCR in honey and boiled and digested food matrices were tested. The results demonstrated that the matK sequence with sufficient mutation sites was an effective molecular marker for species differentiation. GE and the confusable species could be clearly classified by the fluorescence signal of qPCR assay with a high sensitivity of 0.001 ng/μl. In addition, this method was successfully employed for the detection of deeply processed food materials and honey containing GE plants which even accounted for only 0.1 %. The sequencing-free qPCR approach undoubtedly can serve as a robust support for the quality supervision of honey industry and the prevention and diagnosis of food poisoning.

RevDate: 2024-03-22

Zhao S, Zhang H, Zhao Z, et al (2024)

Integrated DNA barcoding methods to identify species in the processed fish products from Chinese market.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 182:114140.

DNA-based methods are reliable for a precise identification of species in processed products. In this study, we assessed five typical DNA extraction methods from multiple aspects. Full-length and mini-length DNA barcoding were performed to detect the species substitution and mislabeling of 305 processed fish products from the Chinese market covering six processed fish products. The salt extraction method that exhibited the best overall performance was applied. All samples were successfully extracted; however, only 19.3 % of samples could be amplified using the full-DNA barcode primer set, and 90.2 % of samples could be amplified using the newly designed mini-DNA barcode primer sets (401 and 320 bp). Overall, the molecular identification results revealed that 36.4 % (111/305) of the samples were inconsistent with the labels, with commercial fraud observed in all six types of processed fish products. The survey findings provide technical references for effective fish authentication monitoring, offering insights into the seafood safety in markets.

RevDate: 2024-03-21

Urbina H, Jones C, Moore M, et al (2024)

Southern blight of water lily: The first host record of Agroathelia rolfsii on Nelumbo nucifera discovered in Florida, USA.

Plant disease [Epub ahead of print].

Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. (Nelumbonaceae, Eudicots), also known as water lily or sacred lotus, is a nonnative and invasive plant commonly found in artificial ponds and natural lakes throughout Florida (UF-IFAS 2023; Wunderlin et al. 2023). In August 2020, a single sample of water lily plants showing large leaf spots were collected at a residence in Dunnellon, Marion County, Florida (80% disease prevalence with 40% leaf coverage). Symptoms and signs of the disease were necrotized adaxial leaf spots only, bordered by whitish mycelia and hyphae with clamp connections, and whitish to light brown sclerotia formed in the center (<0.7 mm diameter). Symptomatic tissue was plated on acid potato dextrose agar (APDA) amended with chloramphenicol (100 mg/L) and ampicillin (30mg/L), and incubated at 20 °C for one week. Data supporting the molecular identification of this putative pathogen were gathered by PCR amplification and Sanger sequencing of the complete internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and a fragment of the large subunit (LSU) of the rRNA gene (~1.5 kb) using primers ITS1F and LR5 (FDACS-DPI PPST 2020-105211, GenBank OR492009) (White et al. 1990). The identification of the host was confirmed by Sanger sequencing of three plant barcode fragments: ITS2 (ITS2-S2F/ITS4, OR492008), ribulose 1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase large subunit (rbcL) (rbcLa-F/rbcLa-R, GenBank OR502388), and Maturase K (matK) (matK-KIM1R/matK-KIM3F, GenBank OR502389) (Fazekas et al. 2012). MegaBLAST queries of the ITS/LSU sequence obtained here recovered a 99.61% match to the fungal pathogen Agroathelia (=Athelia) rolfsii (Sacc.) Redhead & Mullineux. (Redhead and Mullineux 2023) (Amylocorticiaceae, Agaricomycotina) strain GP3 (GenBank JABRWF010000005) (Yan et al. 2021). MegaBLAST queries of three host plant DNA barcodes recovered matches of greater than 99.62% similarity to N. nucifera sequences. After diagnosis, symptomatic dried leaf samples were deposited at Plant Industry Herbarium Gainesville (PIHG 17807) and an axenic culture was deposited at the Agricultural Research Services Culture Collection (NRRL 66964). Koch's postulates were fulfilled by the inoculation of sclerotia (as in Terrones-Salgado et al. 2022) on adaxial leaf surface of four-week- old water lily transplants obtained from an artificial pond on campus (two plants with five leaves each). One additional transplant was not inoculated and served as a control; this plant remained asymptomatic during the experimentation period. Each transplant was kept in a 27-gallon plastic container (21W × 30L × 14H in) filled with tap water containing one tablespoon of 20-20-20 all-purpose-water-soluble plant fertilizer (VPG, TX, USA) in a plant biosafety level 2 greenhouse (23 °C, >50% relative humidity, and a 12-h/12-h photoperiod). All inoculated leaves showed necrotized areas after one week and new sclerotia were observed floating on the water surface after three weeks. Fungal pathogen was reisolated and reidentified subsequently. Agroathelia rolfsii is the causal agent of southern blight, also known as grey rot, and is reported from at least in 260 plant genera, including specialty crops such as citrus, cucumber, pepper, peanuts, pumpkin, and strawberry (Farr and Rossman 2018). Agroathelia rolfsii usually causes lower stem, crown, and root rots; consequently, leaf spots are a noteworthy presentation of symptoms for this fungus.

RevDate: 2024-03-21

Bañón R, Barros-García D, Baldó F, et al (2024)

Unveiling taxonomic diversity in the deep-sea fish genus Notacanthus (Notacanthiformes: Notacanthidae) with description of Notacanthus arrontei n. sp.

Journal of fish biology [Epub ahead of print].

Notacanthid fishes constitute a common part of benthopelagic deep-sea fish communities on seamounts and continental slopes around the world. However, their highly conserved morphology and the usual lack of information on deep-water organisms make it difficult to appropriately address their biodiversity. A multidisciplinary approach combining morphological data with a DNA-based species delimitation analyses was used to explore the taxonomy of Notacanthus species. For this purpose, morphological and molecular data were obtained from 43 individuals, and the resulting information was combined with the available data. The results showed the occurrence of Notacanthus arrontei n. sp. from the Iberian Peninsula and highlighted several taxonomic conundrums regarding the Notacanthus genus. For instance, no significant differences were found between Notacanthus indicus and the recently described Notacanthus laccadiviensis, questioning its taxonomic status. Similarly, the result of the species delimitation molecular analysis coincided with previous DNA barcoding studies supporting the snubnosed spiny eel Notacanthus chemnitzii as a species complex that requires further research. Moreover, two unidentified records from the Indian Ocean were confirmed to belong to an unknown species pending formal description, and barcoding data show for the first time the occurrence of the shortfin spiny eel Notacanthus bonaparte in the Australia-New Zealand area. This research confirms the existence of important gaps in the knowledge of notacanthid fishes and represents a step forward toward a better understanding of their biological diversity.

RevDate: 2024-03-21

Cavalluzzo B, Viuff MC, Tvingsholm SA, et al (2024)

Cross-reactive CD8[+] T cell responses to tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and homologous microbiota-derived antigens (MoAs).

Journal of experimental & clinical cancer research : CR, 43(1):87.

BACKGROUND: We have recently shown extensive sequence and conformational homology between tumor-associated antigens (TAAs) and antigens derived from microorganisms (MoAs). The present study aimed to assess the breadth of T-cell recognition specific to MoAs and the corresponding TAAs in healthy subjects (HS) and patients with cancer (CP).

METHOD: A library of > 100 peptide-MHC (pMHC) combinations was used to generate DNA-barcode labelled multimers. Homologous peptides were selected from the Cancer Antigenic Peptide Database, as well as Bacteroidetes/Firmicutes-derived peptides. They were incubated with CD8 + T cells from the peripheral blood of HLA-A*02:01 healthy individuals (n = 10) and cancer patients (n = 16). T cell recognition was identified using tetramer-staining analysis. Cytotoxicity assay was performed using as target cells TAP-deficient T2 cells loaded with MoA or the paired TuA.

RESULTS: A total of 66 unique pMHC recognized by CD8+ T cells across all groups were identified. Of these, 21 epitopes from microbiota were identified as novel immunological targets. Reactivity against selected TAAs was observed for both HS and CP. pMHC tetramer staining confirmed CD8+ T cell populations cross-reacting with CTA SSX2 and paired microbiota epitopes. Moreover, PBMCs activated with the MoA where shown to release IFNγ as well as to exert cytotoxic activity against cells presenting the paired TuA.

CONCLUSIONS: Several predicted microbiota-derived MoAs are recognized by T cells in HS and CP. Reactivity against TAAs was observed also in HS, primed by the homologous bacterial antigens. CD8+ T cells cross-reacting with MAGE-A1 and paired microbiota epitopes were identified in three subjects. Therefore, the microbiota can elicit an extensive repertoire of natural memory T cells to TAAs, possibly able to control tumor growth ("natural anti-cancer vaccination"). In addition, non-self MoAs can be included in preventive/therapeutic off-the-shelf cancer vaccines with more potent anti-tumor efficacy than those based on TAAs.

RevDate: 2024-03-20

Lee BC, Gin A, Wu C, et al (2024)

Impact of CRISPR/HDR editing versus lentiviral transduction on long-term engraftment and clonal dynamics of HSPCs in rhesus macaques.

Cell stem cell pii:S1934-5909(24)00053-5 [Epub ahead of print].

For precise genome editing via CRISPR/homology-directed repair (HDR), effective and safe editing of long-term engrafting hematopoietic stem cells (LT-HSCs) is required. The impact of HDR on true LT-HSC clonal dynamics in a relevant large animal model has not been studied. To track the output and clonality of HDR-edited cells and to provide a comparison to lentivirally transduced HSCs in vivo, we developed a competitive rhesus macaque (RM) autologous transplantation model, co-infusing HSCs transduced with a barcoded GFP-expressing lentiviral vector (LV) and HDR edited at the CD33 locus. CRISPR/HDR-edited cells showed a two-log decrease by 2 months following transplantation, with little improvement via p53 inhibition, in comparison to minimal loss of LV-transduced cells long term. HDR long-term clonality was oligoclonal in contrast to highly polyclonal LV-transduced HSCs. These results suggest marked clinically relevant differences in the impact of current genetic modification approaches on HSCs.

RevDate: 2024-03-20

Heimlich JB, Bhat P, Parker A, et al (2024)

Multiomic Profiling of Human Clonal Hematopoiesis Reveals Genotype and Cell-Specific Inflammatory Pathway Activation.

Blood advances pii:515374 [Epub ahead of print].

Clonal hematopoiesis (CH) is an age-associated phenomenon that increases risk for hematologic malignancy and cardiovascular disease. CH is thought to enhance disease risk through inflammation in the peripheral blood1. Here, we profile peripheral blood gene expression in 66,968 single cells from a cohort of 17 CH patients and 7 controls. Using a novel mitochondrial DNA barcoding approach, we were able to identify and separately compare mutant TET2 and DNMT3A cells to non-mutant counterparts. We discovered the vast majority of mutated cells were in the myeloid compartment. Additionally, patients harboring DNMT3A and TET2 CH mutations possessed a pro-inflammatory profile in CD14+ monocytes through previously unrecognized pathways such as galectin and macrophage Inhibitory Factor (MIF). We also found that T cells from CH patients, though mostly un-mutated, had decreased expression of GTPase of the immunity associated protein (GIMAP) genes, which are critical to T cell development, suggesting that CH impairs T cell function.

RevDate: 2024-03-20

Tsuchida A, Kaneko T, Nishikawa K, et al (2024)

Opto-combinatorial indexing enables high-content transcriptomics by linking cell images and transcriptomes.

Lab on a chip [Epub ahead of print].

We introduce a simple integrated analysis method that links cellular phenotypic behaviour with single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) by utilizing a combination of optical indices from cells and hydrogel beads. With our method, the combinations, referred to as joint colour codes, enable the link via matching the optical combinations measured by conventional epi-fluorescence microscopy with the concatenated DNA molecular barcodes created by cell-hydrogel bead pairs and sequenced by next-generation sequencing. We validated our approach by demonstrating an accurate link between the cell image and scRNA-seq with mixed species experiments, longitudinal cell tagging by electroporation and lipofection, and gene expression analysis. Furthermore, we extended our approach to multiplexed chemical transcriptomics, which enabled us to identify distinct phenotypic behaviours in HeLa cells treated with various concentrations of paclitaxel, and determine the corresponding gene regulation associated with the formation of a multipolar spindle.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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This edited collection of essays includes discussions ranging from what is DNA barcoding, to descriptions of methods (both general and specific to some groups of organisms), to case studies of various applications of DNA barcoding. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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