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Bibliography on: Taste-Aversion Learning

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 30 Jun 2022 at 01:54 Created: 

Taste-Aversion Learning

The notion of "conditioned taste aversions" refers to animals' ability to preferentially associate taste with illness, despite the passage of a significant time between ingestion and illness. When first described, this pattern seemed so at variance with the tenets of classical learning theory that one early reviewer claimed "results like that are no more likely than birdshit in a cuckoo clock." Now, however, the reality of the phenomenon is well established and has demonstrated relevance in practical areas ranging from rodent control to chemotherapy.

Created with PubMed® Query: "taste aversion" or "bait shyness" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2022-06-28

Sun H, Li J, Yan J, et al (2022)

Decreased taste sensitivity to sucrose in dopamine D3 receptor mutant mice.

Chemical senses, 47:.

Dopamine plays a key role in food rewards and sweet-taste stimulation. We examined the basis for behavioral responses to sweet taste in dopamine D3 receptor-deficient (D3-/-) mice by determining whether the absence of D3 receptors affects the sensitivity to dilute sucrose solutions. In experiment 1, we measured the intensity generalization threshold of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to a 0.2 M sucrose solution. Results showed that the generalization thresholds were 0.025-0.05 M in D3-/- mice and 0.0025-0.005 M in wild-type (WT) mice. In experiment 2, we found that D3-/- and WT mice had similar capabilities to form and extinguish CTAs. Since the intensity generalization threshold is mainly due to a combination of sweet-taste sensitivity and the robust nature of CTA formation, the results showed that taste sensitivity to sucrose in D3-/- mice was lower than that in WT mice. In experiment 3, to test whether the peripheral sensory signaling may also be affected by the disruption of the dopamine D3 receptors, the mRNA expression levels of sweet-taste-related proteins in taste buds of D3-/- mice were determined. The T1R1 and BDNF mRNA expression levels in D3-/- mice were higher than the controls, whereas T1R2, T1R3, α-gustducin, and TRPM5 mRNA were similar. These findings suggest that disruption of dopamine D3 receptor-mediated signaling decreases the sweet-taste sensitivity and alters the mRNA expression levels of some taste-related molecules.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Lyu H, M Mizunami (2022)

Conditioned taste aversion in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

Scientific reports, 12(1):9751.

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is a form of classical conditioning in which animals associate the taste of a food with illness caused by toxin contained in the food. CTA in mammals is achieved with a long interval of up to several hours between food ingestion and illness induced by LiCl injection. Insects also exhibit CTA, but not much is known about its features. We investigated whether the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus exhibits CTA when ingestion of a sugar solution is followed by LiCl injection. Crickets that ingested sucrose solution 5-10 min before LiCl injection exhibited reduction of sucrose consumption tested 24 or 48 h after injection compared to that tested 24 h before injection. In contrast, crickets that ingested sucrose solution 5-10 min after LiCl injection or 1 h or 8 h before or after injection did not exhibit reduction of sucrose consumption, indicating that reduction of sucrose consumption by CTA training is pairing-specific. We conclude that CTA in crickets is similar to that in mammals in that one-trial pairing is sufficient to achieve memory retention for days, but it differs in that it is achieved with a relatively short interval (< 1 h) between food ingestion and toxin injection.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Reyes-García SE, Gutiérrez-Vera B, ML Escobar (2022)

Calcineurin requirement for in vivo insular cortex LTD and CTA-extinction.

Neurobiology of learning and memory pii:S1074-7427(22)00071-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Currently, it is widely accepted that memory extinction involves the formation of a new associative memory rather than unlearning of the information previously acquired. Nonetheless, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. In this regard, it has been suggested that while kinases modulate conditioning and LTP, phosphatases are relevant for extinction and LTD. In particular, the protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) has been involved in the extinction of some behavioral tasks along with LTD. Indeed, studies of our research group have demonstrated that induction of LTD in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (Bla) to the insular cortex (IC) pathway facilitates the extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), while the induction of LTP in this pathway slows it down. In addition, we have shown that the extinction of CTA elicits an increase of CaN. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the participation of calcineurin in the extinction of CTA and in the expression of in vivo LTD in the Bla-IC pathway. For this purpose, we chemically inhibited calcineurin in the IC of adult male Wistar rats, either during CTA-extinction or thirty minutes after LTD induction in the Bla-IC pathway. Our results show that calcineurin inhibition slows down the CTA-extinction and blocks the maintenance of LTD. Furthermore, we show that CaN levels increase after LTD induction. These findings support the idea that calcineurin is a key molecular actor for both CTA extinction and LTD expression in the IC, a highly relevant neocortical area for the processing of aversively motivated learning tasks, suggesting that both processes are associated at a molecular level.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Gutiérrez-Vera B, Rivera-Olvera A, ML Escobar (2022)

ENVIRONMENTAL ENRICHMENT ATTENUATES CONDITIONED TASTE AVERSION THROUGH THE RESTORATION OF BDNF LEVELS IN THE INSULAR CORTEX.

Behavioural brain research pii:S0166-4328(22)00215-7 [Epub ahead of print].

It has been shown that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) can modulate the physiological impact of aversive stimuli in animals, promoting adaptive attitudes, as well as the development of resilience to stressful situations. These changes are known to be related to increased levels of some trophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has been considered a regulatory protein for synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. Our previous studies have demonstrated that in the insular cortex (IC), a brain region of the temporal lobe implicated in the acquisition, consolidation, and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task, BDNF can reverse the CTA memory deficit caused by a protein synthesis inhibitor. Likewise, our research group have also shown that BDNF is required for the maintenance of CTA long-term memory. Here we evaluate the effects of the exposure to an enriched environment on the CTA memory strength, using a weak and strong version of this paradigm. The exposure to an EE for 21 days was able to attenuate the strong-CTA response through the restoration of BDNF levels in the IC of adult rats. These results provide evidence that environmental enrichment is capable of reducing the strength of an aversive memory trace, restoring the BDNF levels in a neocortical region of the adult brain.

RevDate: 2022-05-31

Jung AH, King CT, Blonde GD, et al (2022)

A Subregion of Insular Cortex is Required for Rapid Taste-Visceral Integration and Consequent Conditioned Taste Aversion and Avoidance Expression in Rats.

eNeuro pii:ENEURO.0527-21.2022 [Epub ahead of print].

Postingestive signals are important for shaping appetitive and consummatory responses, but the brain mechanisms required to assimilate interoceptive events with those at the frontlines of ingestion (taste-guided) are poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether an insular cortex (IC) region, which receives viscerosensory input, including gustatory, is required to modify taste-elicited consummatory reactions in response to a real-time interoceptive change using a serial taste reactivity (TR) test where the rats' oromotor and somatic reactions to intraoral infusions of sucrose were periodically assessed over 45 minutes following Lithium Chloride (LiCl) administration. Results showed that neurally-intact rats shifted from an ingestive repertoire to an aversive one as LiCl took effect. Overall, this hedonic shift was delayed in rats with bilateral neurotoxic IC lesions. Rats with greater neuronal loss in posterior gustatory IC displayed fewer aversive reactions to sucrose following this initial LiCl injection. We further assessed if the failure to integrate interoceptive feedback with ongoing taste-guided behavior impaired acquisition and/or expression of conditioned aversion and/or avoidance in these same rats. Although, as a group, LiCl-injected rats with IC lesions subsequently avoided the sugar in a 48-hour two-bottle test, their preference for sucrose was significantly greater than that of the LiCl-injected neurally-intact rats. Overall lesion size, as well as proportion of the posterior gustatory and/or anterior visceral IC were each associated with impaired avoidance. These findings reveal new roles for the posterior gustatory and anterior visceral IC cortices in multisensory integrative function.Significance StatementAdaptive eating and drinking behaviors require that the brain incorporates interoceptive state information into appropriate taste-guided appetitive and consummatory responses in real time and over the long term through learning. Here, we show for the first time that loss of function in a subregion of insular cortex that receives both general visceral and gustatory sensory inputs hinders rapid adjustments to consummatory behaviors in response to a negative interoceptive event. We further show that this primary integrative deficit precludes robust adaptive avoidance behavior that normally safeguards against enduring the same visceral consequences again. Collectively, the findings yield new insights into the neural organization of taste-interoceptive integration in insular cortex, which subserve key aspects of short- and long-term control of ingestive behavior.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Nakai J, Chikamoto N, Fujimoto K, et al (2022)

Insulin and Memory in Invertebrates.

Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 16:882932.

Insulin and insulin-like peptides (ILP) help to maintain glucose homeostasis, whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF) promotes the growth and differentiation of cells in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between ILP and IGF in invertebrates, however, because in some cases ILP has the same function as IGF. In the present review, therefore, we refer to these peptides as ILP/IGF signaling (IIS) in invertebrates, and discuss the role of IIS in memory formation after classical conditioning in invertebrates. In the arthropod Drosophila melanogaster, IIS is involved in aversive olfactory memory, and in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, IIS controls appetitive/aversive response to NaCl depending on the duration of starvation. In the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis, IIS has a critical role in conditioned taste aversion. Insulin in mammals is also known to play an important role in cognitive function, and many studies in humans have focused on insulin as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Although analyses of tissue and cellular levels have progressed in mammals, the molecular mechanisms, such as transcriptional and translational levels, of IIS function in cognition have been far advanced in studies using invertebrates. We anticipate that the present review will help to pave the way for studying the effects of insulin, ILPs, and IGFs in cognitive function across phyla.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Bouton ME, NL Michaud (2022)

Partial reinforcement effects on acquisition and extinction of a conditioned taste aversion.

Learning & behavior [Epub ahead of print].

Four experiments with rat subjects asked whether a partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) occurs in taste aversion learning. The question has received little attention in the literature, and to our knowledge no taste aversion experiment has previously demonstrated a PREE. In each of the present experiments, experimental groups received a taste mixed in drinking water for 20 min; such taste exposures were sometimes paired with a lithium chloride (LiCl) injection and sometimes not. Control groups received only taste-LiCl pairings. There was evidence that each reinforced and non-reinforced trial produced increments and decrements in aversion strength (respectively), and trials mattered more than accumulated time during the conditioned stimulus and during the background (as emphasized in time-accumulation models like those of Gallistel and Gibbon, Psychological Review, 107, 289-344, 2000, and Gibbon and Balsam, Autoshaping and conditioning theory, Academic Press, New York, pp. 219-235, 1981). In addition, a partial reinforcement extinction effect was observed when there was a relatively large number of conditioning trials. The results extend our understanding of extinction in taste aversion learning and provide more evidence that aversion learning might follow rules that are qualitatively similar to those of other forms of learning.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Haines KM, CL Czachowski (2022)

Evaluating habit formation across pairs of female and male selectively bred alcohol preferring and non-preferring rats.

Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.) pii:S0741-8329(22)00033-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Some individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) continue to drink because they have developed a habit where they do not consider the consequences of their actions. Genetically selected lines of alcohol preferring and non-preferring rats allow for exploration of how specific endophenotypes, such as tendency to form habits, may be risk factors that interact with a genetic predisposition of AUD. While high alcohol drinking (HAD) and alcohol preferring (P) rats were selectively bred to consume high amounts of freely available ethanol, they exhibit differences in alcohol-seeking behaviors as well as impulsive behaviors and may represent different behavioral models of AUD. The goal of the current study was to compare the tendency to develop habitual behaviors across female and male HAD1, HAD2, and P rats and their respective alcohol non-preferring counterparts. Alcohol-naïve rats were trained on a variable interval schedule using a non-ethanol reinforcer and were then tested in two extinction sessions, one prior to a reinforcer devaluation (conditioned taste aversion) procedure and one after. There were no differences in total lever presses between P and alcohol non-preferring (NP) rats, but there were differences between HAD and low-alcohol drinking (LAD) rats. All six strains decreased lever pressing after reinforcer devaluation. However, P and NP females did not increase latency to first lever press after devaluation, suggesting some inclination towards habitual behavior that was not apparent in either the HAD/LAD lines. Selective breeding for alcohol preference does not seem to influence the tendency to form habits, whereas background strain and sex may have an influence on this behavior.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

Riley AL, Manke HN, S Huang (2022)

Impact of the Aversive Effects of Drugs on Their Use and Abuse.

Behavioural neurology, 2022:8634176.

Drug use and abuse are complex issues in that the basis of each may involve different determinants and consequences, and the transition from one to the other may be equally multifaceted. A recent model of the addiction cycle (as proposed by Koob and his colleagues) illustrates how drug-taking patterns transition from impulsive (acute use) to compulsive (chronic use) as a function of various neuroadaptations leading to the downregulation of DA systems, upregulation of stress systems, and the dysregulation of the prefrontal/orbitofrontal cortex. Although the nature of reinforcement in the initiation and mediation of these effects may differ (positive vs. negative), the role of reinforcement in drug intake (acute and chronic) is well characterized. However, drugs of abuse have other stimulus properties that may be important in their use and abuse. One such property is their aversive effects that limit drug intake instead of initiating and maintaining it. Evidence of such effects comes from both clinical and preclinical populations. In support of this position, the present review describes the aversive effects of drugs (assessed primarily in conditioned taste aversion learning), the fact that they occur concurrently with reward as assessed in combined taste aversion/place preference designs, the role of aversive effects in drug-taking (in balance with their rewarding effects), the dissociation of these affective properties in that they can be affected in different ways by the same manipulations, and the impact of various parametric, experiential, and subject factors on the aversive effects of drugs and the consequent impact of these factors on their use and abuse potential.

RevDate: 2022-04-23

Lopalco A, Manni A, Keeley A, et al (2022)

In Vivo Investigation of (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin-Based Formulation of Spironolactone in Aqueous Solution for Paediatric Use.

Pharmaceutics, 14(4): pii:pharmaceutics14040780.

Spironolactone (SPL), a potent anti-aldosterone steroidal drug used to treat several diseases in paediatric patients (e.g., hypertension, primary aldosteronism, Bartter's syndrome, and congestive heart failure), is not available in child-friendly dosage forms, and spironolactone liquids have been reported to be unpalatable. Aiming to enhance SPL solubility in aqueous solution and overcome palatability, herein, the effects of (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD) were thoroughly investigated on solubilisation in water and on masking the unpleasant taste of SPL in vivo. Although the complexation of SPL with HP-β-CyD was demonstrated through phase solubility studies, Job's plot, NMR and computational docking studies, our in vivo tests did not show significant effects on taste aversion. Our findings, on the one hand, suggest that the formation of an inclusion complex of SPL with HP-β-CyD itself is not necessarily a good indicator for an acceptable degree of palatability, whereas, on the other hand, they constitute the basis for investigating other cyclodextrin-based formulations of the poorly water-soluble steroidal drug, including solid dosage forms, such as spray-dried powders and orodispersible tablets.

RevDate: 2022-04-12

Berríos-Cárcamo P, Quezada M, Santapau D, et al (2022)

A Novel Morphine Drinking Model of Opioid Dependence in Rats.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(7): pii:ijms23073874.

An animal model of voluntary oral morphine consumption would allow for a pre-clinical evaluation of new treatments aimed at reducing opioid intake in humans. However, the main limitation of oral morphine consumption in rodents is its bitter taste, which is strongly aversive. Taste aversion is often overcome by the use of adulterants, such as sweeteners, to conceal morphine taste or bitterants in the alternative bottle to equalize aversion. However, the adulterants' presence is the cause for consumption choice and, upon removal, the preference for morphine is not preserved. Thus, current animal models are not suitable to study treatments aimed at reducing consumption elicited by morphine itself. Since taste preference is a learned behavior, just-weaned rats were trained to accept a bitter taste, adding the bitterant quinine to their drinking water for one week. The latter was followed by allowing the choice of quinine or morphine (0.15 mg/mL) solutions for two weeks. Then, quinine was removed, and the preference for morphine against water was evaluated. Using this paradigm, we show that rats highly preferred the consumption of morphine over water, reaching a voluntary morphine intake of 15 mg/kg/day. Morphine consumption led to significant analgesia and hyperlocomotion, and to a marked deprivation syndrome following the administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Voluntary morphine consumption was also shown to generate brain oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, signs associated with opioid dependence development. We present a robust two-bottle choice animal model of oral morphine self-administration for the evaluation of therapeutic interventions for the treatment of morphine dependence.

RevDate: 2022-04-01

Gil-Lievana E, Ramírez-Mejía G, Urrego-Morales O, et al (2022)

Photostimulation of Ventral Tegmental Area-Insular Cortex Dopaminergic Inputs Enhances the Salience to Consolidate Aversive Taste Recognition Memory via D1-Like Receptors.

Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 16:823220.

Taste memory involves storing information through plasticity changes in the neural network of taste, including the insular cortex (IC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), a critical provider of dopamine. Although a VTA-IC dopaminergic pathway has been demonstrated, its role to consolidate taste recognition memory remains poorly understood. We found that photostimulation of dopaminergic neurons in the VTA or VTA-IC dopaminergic terminals of TH-Cre mice improves the salience to consolidate a subthreshold novel taste stimulus regardless of its hedonic value, without altering their taste palatability. Importantly, the inhibition of the D1-like receptor into the IC impairs the salience to facilitate consolidation of an aversive taste recognition memory. Finally, our results showed that VTA photostimulation improves the salience to consolidate a conditioned taste aversion memory through the D1-like receptor into the IC. It is concluded that the dopamine activity from the VTA into IC is required to increase the salience enabling the consolidation of a taste recognition memory. Notably, the D1-like receptor activity into the IC is required to consolidate both innate and learned aversive taste memories but not appetitive taste memory.

RevDate: 2022-03-23

Salguero A, Marengo L, Portillo-Salido E, et al (2022)

Administration of the s1-r agonist pre-084 at emerging adulthood, but not at early adolescence, attenuated ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in female rats.

Neuroscience letters pii:S0304-3940(22)00142-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is greater in late adolescence or young adulthood than in early adolescence. The role of the sigma receptor system in this age-related difference has not been extensively explored, particularly in female rats. This study assessed the effects of the activation of sigma-1 receptors (S1-R), via the selective S1-R agonist PRE-084, on ethanol-induced CTA at early or at terminal adolescence/emerging adulthood (28 or 56 days-old at the beginning of the procedures, respectively) in female Wistar rats. The modulation of binge-like ethanol intake by PRE-084 was assessed at terminal adolescence. S1-R activation at the acquisition of ethanol-induced CTA attenuated such learning at terminal but not at early adolescence. PRE-084 did not significantly affect ethanol binge drinking in the terminal adolescents. These results highlight the role of S1-R in ethanol-induced CTA and suggest that differential functionality of this transmitter system may underlie age-specific sensitivities to the aversive effects of ethanol.

RevDate: 2022-03-17

Ramos R, Wu CH, GG Turrigiano (2022)

Strong Aversive Conditioning Triggers a Long-Lasting Generalized Aversion.

Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 16:854315.

Generalization is an adaptive mnemonic process in which an animal can leverage past learning experiences to navigate future scenarios, but overgeneralization is a hallmark feature of anxiety disorders. Therefore, understanding the synaptic plasticity mechanisms that govern memory generalization and its persistence is an important goal. Here, we demonstrate that strong CTA conditioning results in a long-lasting generalized aversion that persists for at least 2 weeks. Using brain slice electrophysiology and activity-dependent labeling of the conditioning-active neuronal ensemble within the gustatory cortex, we find that strong CTA conditioning induces a long-lasting increase in synaptic strengths that occurs uniformly across superficial and deep layers of GC. Repeated exposure to salt, the generalized tastant, causes a rapid attenuation of the generalized aversion that correlates with a reversal of the CTA-induced increases in synaptic strength. Unlike the uniform strengthening that happens across layers, reversal of the generalized aversion results in a more pronounced depression of synaptic strengths in superficial layers. Finally, the generalized aversion and its reversal do not impact the acquisition and maintenance of the aversion to the conditioned tastant (saccharin). The strong correlation between the generalized aversion and synaptic strengthening, and the reversal of both in superficial layers by repeated salt exposure, strongly suggests that the synaptic changes in superficial layers contribute to the formation and reversal of the generalized aversion. In contrast, the persistence of synaptic strengthening in deep layers correlates with the persistence of CTA. Taken together, our data suggest that layer-specific synaptic plasticity mechanisms separately govern the persistence and generalization of CTA memory.

RevDate: 2022-03-08

Pham H, Seeley SL, MS D'Souza (2022)

Pharmacological activation of kappa opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and ventral tegmental area increases the aversive effects of nicotine.

Behavioural pharmacology pii:00008877-900000000-99079 [Epub ahead of print].

Aversive effects of nicotine play an important role in the development of nicotine dependence. However, neural substrates and/or brain regions that play a role in the aversive effects of nicotine have not been fully identified. Previous work done in our laboratory showed that systemic administration of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) agonist ±U50488 increased the aversive effects of nicotine. In this study, we assessed the effects of KOR activation in specific brain regions, namely, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) core and ventral tegmental area (VTA) on the aversive effects of nicotine using the conditioned taste aversion model. Separate groups of Wistar rats were implanted with cannulae above either the NAcc core or the VTA. KOR agonist (±U50488) was bilaterally infused in the NAcc core (0, 0.3, and 3 ug/0.5 ul/side) or VTA (0, 0.3, 1.5, and 3 ug/0.5 ul/side) prior to receiving nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base; s.c.) during conditioning. Bilateral infusion of the KOR agonist (3 ug/0.5 ul/side) in the NAcc core or the VTA increased the aversive effects of nicotine compared with respective saline controls. Together, these results suggest that pharmacological activation of the KORs in the NAcc core and VTA dose dependently modulate the aversive effects of nicotine. Because aversive effects of nicotine determine susceptibility to development of nicotine dependence, we can conclude that KOR activity in the NAcc and VTA after administration of nicotine may determine susceptibility to the development of nicotine dependence.

RevDate: 2022-03-07

Han F, Xu F, Zhu Q, et al (2022)

Virus-mediated GHS-R1a expression in the basolateral amygdala blocks extinction of conditioned taste aversion memory in rats.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 602:57-62 pii:S0006-291X(22)00310-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Ghrelin is an orexigenic gastric hormone that promotes feeding behaviors and regulating energy homeostasis in both humans and rodents. Our previous studies have shown that ghrelin, when locally infused into the basolateral amygdala (BLA), blocks both acquisition and extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory in rats. In this study, we further investigated the effect of virus-mediated overexpression of ghrelin receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) in BLA pyramidal neurons on CTA memory processes. We found that upregulation of GHS-R1a expression in BLA pyramidal neurons repressed CTA extinction while it had no effect on CTA acquisition. In addition, we reported that local infusion of the endogenous GHS-R1a antagonist, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2), in the BLA abolished the inhibitory effect of increased GHS-R1a on CTA memory extinction. Those findings provide new supportive evidence that ghrelin/GHS-R1a signaling in the BLA circuit shapes emotional memory processes.

RevDate: 2022-02-26

Boccia L, Borner T, Ghidewon MY, et al (2022)

Hypophagia induced by salmon calcitonin, but not by amylin, is partially driven by malaise and is mediated by CGRP neurons.

Molecular metabolism, 58:101444 pii:S2212-8778(22)00013-8 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The behavioral mechanisms and the neuronal pathways mediated by amylin and its long-acting analog sCT (salmon calcitonin) are not fully understood and it is unclear to what extent sCT and amylin engage overlapping or distinct neuronal subpopulations to reduce food intake. We here hypothesize that amylin and sCT recruit different neuronal population to mediate their anorectic effects.

METHODS: Viral approaches were used to inhibit calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) neurons and assess their role in amylin's and sCT's ability to decrease food intake in mice. In addition, to test the involvement of LPBN CGRP neuropeptidergic signaling in the mediation of amylin and sCT's effects, a LPBN site-specific knockdown was performed in rats. To deeper investigate whether the greater anorectic effect of sCT compared to amylin is due do the recruitment of additional neuronal pathways related to malaise multiple and distinct animal models tested whether amylin and sCT induce conditioned avoidance, nausea, emesis, and conditioned affective taste aversion.

RESULTS: Our results indicate that permanent or transient inhibition of CGRP neurons in LPBN blunts sCT-, but not amylin-induced anorexia and neuronal activation. Importantly, sCT but not amylin induces behaviors indicative of malaise including conditioned affective aversion, nausea, emesis, and conditioned avoidance; the latter mediated by CGRPLPBN neurons.

CONCLUSIONS: Together, the present study highlights that although amylin and sCT comparably decrease food intake, sCT is distinctive from amylin in the activation of anorectic neuronal pathways associated with malaise.

RevDate: 2022-02-16

Yu M, Zhu QQ, Niu ML, et al (2022)

Ghrelin infusion into the basolateral amygdala suppresses CTA memory formation in rats via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and PLC/PKC signaling pathways.

Acta pharmacologica Sinica [Epub ahead of print].

Ghrelin is a circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes feeding behavior and regulates metabolism in humans and rodents. We previously reported that local infusion of ghrelin into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) blocked memory acquisition for conditioned taste aversion (CTA) by activating growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a. In this study, we further explored the underlying mechanism and signaling pathways mediating ghrelin modulation of CTA memory in rats. Pharmacological agents targeting distinct signaling pathways were infused into the BLA during conditioning. We showed that preadministration of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abolished the repressive effect of ghrelin on CTA memory. Moreover, LY294002 pretreatment prevented ghrelin from inhibiting Arc and zif268 mRNA expression in the BLA triggered by CTA memory retrieval. Preadministration of rapamycin eliminated the repressive effect of ghrelin, while Gsk3 inhibitors failed to mimic ghrelin's effect. In addition, PLC and PKC inhibitors microinfused in the BLA blocked ghrelin's repression of CTA acquisition. These results demonstrate that ghrelin signaling in the BLA shapes CTA memory via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and PLC/PKC pathways. We conducted in vivo multichannel recordings from mouse BLA neurons and found that microinjection of ghrelin (20 µM) suppressed intrinsic excitability. By means of whole-cell recordings from rat brain slices, we showed that bath application of ghrelin (200 nM) had no effect on basal synaptic transmission or synaptic plasticity of BLA pyramidal neurons. Together, this study reveals the mechanism underlying ghrelin-induced interference with CTA memory acquisition in rats, i.e., suppression of intrinsic excitability of BLA principal neurons via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and PLC/PKC pathways.

RevDate: 2022-02-14

Totani Y, Nakai J, Hatakeyama D, et al (2022)

CNS serotonin content mediating food deprivation-enhanced learning is regulated by hemolymph tryptophan concentration and autophagic flux in the pond snail.

Nutritional neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].

Nutritional status affects cognitive function in many types of organisms. In the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, 1 day of food deprivation enhances taste aversion learning ability by decreasing the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin; 5-HT) content in the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand, after 5 days of food deprivation, learning ability and the CNS 5-HT concentration return to basal levels. How food deprivation leads to alterations of 5-HT levels in the CNS, however, is unknown. Here, we measured the concentration of the 5-HT precursor tryptophan in the hemolymph and CNS, and demonstrated that the CNS tryptophan concentration was higher in 5-day food-deprived snails than in non-food-deprived or 1-day food-deprived snails, whereas the hemolymph tryptophan concentration was not affected by the duration of food deprivation. This finding suggests the existence of a mediator of the CNS tryptophan concentration independent of food deprivation. To identify the mediator, we investigated autophagic flux in the CNS under different food deprivation conditions. We found that autophagic flux was significantly upregulated by inhibition of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk)-Akt-mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1) pathway in the CNS of 5-day food-deprived snails. Moreover, when autophagy was inhibited, the CNS 5-HT content was significantly downregulated in 5-day food-deprived snails. Our results suggest that the hemolymph tryptophan concentration and autophagic flux in the CNS cooperatively regulate learning ability affected by different durations of food deprivation. This mechanism may underlie the selection of behaviors appropriate for animal survival depending on the degree of nutrition.

RevDate: 2022-01-20

Flores VL, Tanner B, Katz DB, et al (2022)

Cortical taste processing evolves through benign taste exposures.

Behavioral neuroscience pii:2022-24198-001 [Epub ahead of print].

Experience impacts learning and perception. Familiarity with stimuli that later become the conditioned stimulus (CS) in a learning paradigm, for instance, reduces the strength of that learning-a fact well documented in studies of conditioned taste aversion (CTA; De la Casa & Lubow, 1995; Lubow, 1973; Lubow & Moore, 1959). Recently, we have demonstrated that even experience with "incidental" (i.e., non-CS) stimuli influences CTA learning: Long Evans rats pre-exposed to salty and/or sour tastes later learn unusually strong aversions to novel sucrose (Flores et al., 2016), and exhibit enhanced sucrose-responsiveness after learning in gustatory cortex (GC; Flores et al., 2018). These findings suggest that incidental taste exposure (TE) may change spiking responses that have been shown to underlie the processing of tastes in GC. Here, we test this hypothesis, evaluating whether GC neuron spiking responses change across 3 days of taste exposure. Our results demonstrate that the discriminability of GC ensemble taste responses increases with this familiarization. Analysis of single-neuron responses recorded across multiple sessions reveals that taste exposure not only enriches identity and palatability information in taste-evoked activity but also enhances the discriminability of even novel tastes. These findings demonstrate that "mere" familiarization with incidental episodes of tasting changes the neural spiking responses of taste processing and provides specific insight into how such TE may impact later learning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2022-01-11

Head MA, McColl LK, Klockars A, et al (2021)

Acute Hypophagia and Changes in c-Fos Immunoreactivity in Adolescent Rats Treated with Low Doses of Oxytocin and Naltrexone.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(1): pii:jcm11010059.

A recent case report has shown that an adjunctive oxytocin + naltrexone (OT + NTX) treatment promoted more robust hypophagia and body weight reduction than OT alone in an adolescent male with hypothalamic obesity after craniopharyngioma resection. Thus far, there has been no basic research in adolescent laboratory animals that would examine whether the benefit of OT + NTX on appetite extends onto adolescent individuals without surgically induced overeating. Thus, here we examined whether low doses of combined OT + NTX acutely affect post-deprivation intake of energy-dense, standard chow; intake of energy-dense and palatable high-fat high-sugar (HFHS) diet; or calorie-dilute, palaTable 10% sucrose solution without deprivation in adolescent male rats. We assessed whether OT + NTX decreases water intake after water deprivation or produces a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Finally, by using c-Fos immunoreactivity, we determined changes in activity of feeding-related brain areas after OT + NTX. We found that individual subthreshold doses of OT and NTX decreased feeding induced by energy and by palatability. Significant c-Fos changes were noted in the arcuate and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. The hypophagic doses of OT + NTX did not suppress water intake in thirsty rats and did not cause a CTA, which suggests that feeding reduction is not a secondary effect of gastrointestinal discomfort or changes in thirst processing. We conclude that OT + NTX is an effective drug combination to reduce appetite in adolescent male rats.

RevDate: 2021-12-17

Arieli E, Younis N, A Moran (2021)

Distinct progressions of neuronal activity changes underlie the formation and consolidation of a gustatory associative memory.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience pii:JNEUROSCI.1599-21.2021 [Epub ahead of print].

Acquiring new memories is a multi-stage process. Numerous studies have convincingly demonstrated that initially acquired memories are labile, and only stabilized by later consolidation processes. These multiple phases of memory formation are known to involve modification of both cellular excitability and synaptic connectivity, which in turn change neuronal activity at both the single neuron and ensemble levels. However, the specific mapping between the known phases of memory and the changes in neuronal activity at different organizational levels - the single-neuron, population representations, and ensemble state dynamics - remains unknown. Here we address this issue in the context of conditioned taste aversion learning by continuously tracking gustatory cortex (GC) neuronal taste responses in alert male and female rats during the 24 hours following a taste-malaise pairing. We found that the progression of activity changes depends on the neuronal organizational level: whereas the population response changed continuously, the population mean response amplitude and the number of taste responsive neurons only increased during the acquisition and consolidation phases. In addition, the known quickening of the ensemble state dynamics associated with the faster rejection of harmful foods appeared only after consolidation. Overall, these results demonstrate how complex dynamics in the different representational levels of cortical activity underlie the formation and stabilization of memory within the cortex.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENTMemory formation is a multi-phased process; early acquired memories are labile and consolidate to their stable forms over hours and days. The progression of memory is assumed to be supported by changes in neuronal activity, but the mapping between memory phases and neuronal activity changes remains elusive. Here we tracked cortical neuronal activity over 24 hours as rats acquired and consolidated a taste-malaise association memory, and found specific differences between the progression at the single-neuron and populations levels. These results demonstrate how balanced changes in the single-neuron level lead to changes in the network-level representation and dynamics required for the stabilization of memories.

RevDate: 2021-12-15

Boniatti J, Tappin MRR, da S Teixeira RG, et al (2021)

In Vivo and In Vitro Taste Assessment of Artesunate-Mefloquine, Praziquantel, and Benznidazole Drugs for Neglected Tropical Diseases and Pediatric Patients.

AAPS PharmSciTech, 23(1):22.

The assessment of drug taste is crucial for pediatric treatments so that formulations can be developed to enhance their effectiveness. In this study, in vivo and in vitro methods were applied to evaluate the taste of tablets of three drugs administered to children without taste-masking excipients to treat tropical diseases, namely artesunate-mefloquine (ASMQ), praziquantel (PZQ), and benznidazole (BNZ). In the first method, a model of rat palatability was adapted with recirculation to ensure sample dispersion, and the data were analyzed using ANOVA (single factor, 95%). The taste assessment results (in vivo) indicated an aversion to the three medicines, denoted by the animals retracting themselves to the bottom of the box after the first contact with the drugs. For the placebo samples, the animals behaved normally, indicating that taste perception was acceptable. The second method was based on the in vitro analysis of capacitance data from a homemade impedimetric electronic tongue. Consistent with the in vivo taste assessment results, the data points obtained with PZQ, ASMQ, and BNZ were far away from those of their placebos in a map built with the multidimensional projection technique referred to as Interactive Document Mapping (IDMAP). A combined analysis of the results with the two methods allowed us to confirm the bitterness of the three drugs, also pointing to electronic tongues as a promising tool to replace in vivo palatability tests.

RevDate: 2021-12-13

Bernanke A, Burnette E, Murphy J, et al (2021)

Behavior and Fos activation reveal that male and female rats differentially assess affective valence during CTA learning and expression.

PloS one, 16(12):e0260577 pii:PONE-D-21-26653.

Females are more affected by psychiatric illnesses including eating disorders, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder than males. However, the neural mechanisms mediating these sex differences are poorly understood. Animal models can be useful in exploring such neural mechanisms. Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is a behavioral task that assesses how animals process the competition between associated reinforcing and aversive stimuli in subsequent task performance, a process critical to healthy behavior in many domains. The purpose of the present study was to identify sex differences in this behavior and associated neural responses. We hypothesized that females would value the rewarding stimulus (Boost®) relative to the aversive stimulus (LiCl) more than males in performing CTA. We evaluated behavior (Boost® intake, LiCl-induced behaviors, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), CTA performance) and Fos activation in relevant brain regions after the acute stimuli [acute Boost® (AB), acute LiCl (AL)] and the context-only task control (COT), Boost® only task (BOT) and Boost®-LiCl task (BLT). Acutely, females drank more Boost® than males but showed similar aversive behaviors after LiCl. Females and males performed CTA similarly. Both sexes produced 55 kHz USVs anticipating BOT and inhibited these calls in the BLT. However, more females emitted both 22 kHz and 55 kHz USVs in the BLT than males: the latter correlated with less CTA. Estrous cycle stage also influenced 55 kHz USVs. Fos responses were similar in males and females after AB or AL. Females engaged the gustatory cortex and ventral tegmental area (VTA) more than males during the BOT and males engaged the amygdala more than females in both the BOT and BLT. Network analysis of correlated Fos responses across brain regions identified two unique networks characterizing the BOT and BLT, in both of which the VTA played a central role. In situ hybridization with RNAscope identified a population of D1-receptor expressing cells in the CeA that responded to Boost® and D2 receptor-expressing cells that responded to LiCl. The present study suggests that males and females differentially process the affective valence of a stimulus to produce the same goal-directed behavior.

RevDate: 2021-12-02

Shah T, Dunning JL, C Contet (2021)

At the heart of the interoception network: Influence of the parasubthalamic nucleus on autonomic functions and motivated behaviors.

Neuropharmacology pii:S0028-3908(21)00463-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The parasubthalamic nucleus (PSTN), a small nucleus located on the lateral edge of the posterior hypothalamus, has emerged in recent years as a highly interconnected node within the network of brain regions sensing and regulating autonomic function and homeostatic needs. Furthermore, the strong integration of the PSTN with extended amygdala circuits makes it ideally positioned to serve as an interface between interoception and emotions. While PSTN neurons are mostly glutamatergic, some of them also express neuropeptides that have been associated with stress-related affective and motivational dysfunction, including substance P, corticotropin-releasing factor, and pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide. PSTN neurons respond to food ingestion and anorectic signals, as well as to arousing and distressing stimuli. Functional manipulation of defined pathways demonstrated that the PSTN serves as a central hub in multiple physiologically relevant networks and is notably implicated in appetite suppression, conditioned taste aversion, place avoidance, impulsive action, and fear-induced thermoregulation. We also discuss the putative role of the PSTN in interoceptive dysfunction and negative urgency. This review aims to synthesize the burgeoning preclinical literature dedicated to the PSTN and to stimulate interest in further investigating its influence on physiology and behavior.

RevDate: 2021-11-16

Garr E, Padovan-Hernandez Y, Janak PH, et al (2021)

Maintained goal-directed control with overtraining on ratio schedules.

Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.), 28(12):435-439 pii:28/12/435.

It is thought that goal-directed control of actions weakens or becomes masked by habits over time. We tested the opposing hypothesis that goal-directed control becomes stronger over time, and that this growth is modulated by the overall action-outcome contiguity. Despite group differences in action-outcome contiguity early in training, rats trained under random and fixed ratio schedules showed equivalent goal-directed control of lever pressing that appeared to grow over time. We confirmed that goal-directed control was maintained after extended training under another type of ratio schedule-continuous reinforcement-using specific satiety and taste aversion devaluation methods. These results add to the growing literature showing that extensive training does not reliably weaken goal-directed control and that it may strengthen it, or at least maintain it.

RevDate: 2021-11-15

Smith DW, Islam M, Furst KE, et al (2021)

Chlorine taste can increase simulated exposure to both fecal contamination and disinfection byproducts in water supplies.

Water research, 207:117806 pii:S0043-1354(21)01000-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Expanding drinking water chlorination could substantially reduce the burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries, but the taste of chlorinated water often impedes adoption. We developed a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the effect of people's choice to accept or reject drinking water based on chlorine taste and their subsequent exposure to E. coli and trihalomethanes, a class of disinfection byproduct (DBP). The simulation used empirical data from Dhaka, Bangladesh, a megacity with endemic waterborne disease. We drew on published taste acceptability thresholds from Dhaka residents, measured residual chlorine and thermotolerant E. coli inactivation following the addition of six chlorine doses (0.25-3.0 mg/L as Cl2) to untreated piped water samples from 100 locations, and analyzed trihalomethane formation in 54 samples. A dose of 0.5 mg/L, 75% lower than the 2 mg/L dose typically recommended for household chlorination of low-turbidity waters, minimized overall exposure to E. coli. Doses of 1-2 mg/L maximized overall exposure to trihalomethanes. Accounting for chlorine taste aversion indicates that microbiological exposure increases and DBP exposure decreases above certain doses as a higher proportion of people reject chlorinated water in favor of untreated water. Taken together with findings from other modeling analyses, empirical studies, and field trials, our results suggest that taste acceptability should be a critical consideration in establishing chlorination dosing guidelines. Particularly when chlorination is first implemented in water supplies with low chlorine demand, lower doses than those generally recommended for household water treatment can help avoid taste-related objections while still meaningfully reducing contaminant exposure.

RevDate: 2021-11-08

Shyu BC, Gao ZY, Wu JJ, et al (2021)

Methamphetamine and Modulation Functionality of the Prelimbic Cortex for Developing a Possible Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease in an Animal Model.

Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 13:751913.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that causes cognitive impairment and other neuropsychiatric symptoms. Previously, little research has thus far investigated whether methamphetamine (MAMPH) can enhance cognitive function or ameliorate AD symptoms. This study examined whether a low dose of MAMPH can induce conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning, or can increase plasma corticosterone levels, neural activity, and neural plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) (responsible for cognitive function), the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the amygdala (related to rewarding and aversive emotion), and the hippocampus (responsible for spatial learning). Furthermore, the excitations or lesions of the prelimbic cortex (PrL) can affect MAMPH-induced CTA learning, plasma corticosterone levels, and neural activity or plasticity in the mPFC [i.e., PrL, infralimbic cortex (IL), cingulate cortex 1 (Cg1)], the NAc, the amygdala [i.e., basolateral amygdala (BLA) and central amygdala (CeA)], and the hippocampus [i.e., CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG)]. In the experimental procedure, the rats were administered either saline or NMDA solutions, which were injected into the PrL to excite or destroy PrL neurons. Additionally, rats received 0.1% saccharin solution for 15 min, followed by intraperitoneal injections of either normal saline or 1 mg/kg MAMPH to induce CTA. A one-way ANOVA was performed to analyze the effects of saccharin intake on CTA, plasma corticosterone levels, and the expression of c-Fos and p-ERK. The results showed that the MAMPH induced CTA learning and increased plasma corticosterone levels. The mPFC, and particularly the PrL and IL and the DG of the hippocampus, appeared to show increased neural activity in c-Fos expression or neural plasticity in p-ERK expression. The excitation of the PrL neurons upregulated neural activity in c-Fos expression and neural plasticity in p-ERK expression in the PrL and IL. In summary, MAMPH may be able to improve cognitive and executive function in the brain and reduce AD symptoms. Moreover, the excitatory modulation of the PrL with MAMPH administration can facilitate MAMPH-induced neural activity and plasticity in the PrL and IL of the mPFC. The present data provide clinical implications for developing a possible treatment for AD in an animal model.

RevDate: 2021-10-15

Zheng Y, Chen ZY, Ma WJ, et al (2021)

B Vitamins Supplementation Can Improve Cognitive Functions and May Relate to the Enhancement of Transketolase Activity in A Rat Model of Cognitive Impairment Associated with High-fat Diets.

Current medical science [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether B vitamin treatment was sufficient to reduce cognitive impairment associated with high-fat diets in rats and to modulate transketolase (TK) expression and activity.

METHODS: To test this, we separated 50 rats into five groups that were either fed a standard chow diet (controls) or a high-fat diet (experimental groups H0, H1, H2, and H3). H0 group animals received no additional dietary supplementation, while H1 group animals were administered 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) thiamine, 100 mg/kg BW riboflavin, and 250 mg/kg BW niacin each day, and group H2 animals received daily doses of 100 mg/kg BW pyridoxine, 100 mg/kg BW cobalamin, and 5 mg/kg BW folate. Animals in the H3 group received the B vitamin regimens administered to both H1 and H2 each day.

RESULTS: Over time, group H0 exhibited greater increases in BW and fat mass relative to other groups. When spatial and memory capabilities in these animals were evaluated via conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and Morris Water Maze (MWM), we found B vitamin treatment was associated with significant improvements relative to untreated H0 controls. Similarly, B vitamin supplementation was associated with elevated TK expression in erythrocytes and hypothalamus of treated animals relative to those in H0 (P<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Together, these findings suggest B vitamin can modulate hypothalamic TK activity to reduce the severity of cognitive deficits in a rat model of obesity. As such, B vitamin supplementation may be a beneficial method for reducing cognitive dysfunction in clinical settings associated with high-fat diets.

RevDate: 2021-09-30

Strekalova T, Svirin E, Veniaminova E, et al (2021)

ASD-like behaviors, a dysregulated inflammatory response and decreased expression of PLP1 characterize mice deficient for sialyltransferase ST3GAL5.

Brain, behavior, & immunity - health, 16:100306 pii:S2666-3546(21)00109-5.

Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids, which are abundant in brain, are known to modulate ion channels and cell-to-cell communication. Deficiencies can result in aberrant myelination and altered immune responses, which can give rise to neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. However, to date, little mechanistic data is available on how ganglioside deficiencies contribute to the behavioural disorders. In humans, the loss of lactosylceramide-alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase (ST3Gal5) leads to a severe neuropathology, but in ST3Gal5 knock-out (St3gal5-/-) mice the absence of GM3 and associated a-, b- and c-series gangliosides is partially compensated by 0-series gangliosides and there is no overt behavioural phenotype. Here, we sought to examine the behavioural and molecular consequences of GM3 loss more closely. Mutants of both sexes exhibited impaired conditioned taste aversion in an inhibitory learning task and anxiety-like behaviours in the open field, moderate motor deficits, abnormal social interactions, excessive grooming and rearing behaviours. Taken together, the aberrant behaviours are suggestive of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like syndrome. Molecular analysis showed decreased gene and protein expression of proteolipid protein-1 (Plp1) and over expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which has been associated with ASD-like syndromes. The inflammatory and behavioural responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were also altered in the St3gal5-/- mice compared to wild-type, which is indicative of the importance of GM3 gangliosides in regulating immune responses. Together, the St3gal5-/- mice display ASD-like behavioural features, altered response to systemic inflammation, signs of hypomyelination and neuroinflammation, which suggests that deficiency in a- and b-series gangliosides could contribute to the development of an ASD-like pathology in humans.

RevDate: 2021-09-24

Angulo R, CA Arévalo-Romero (2021)

Sexual dimorphism in classical conditioning? Sex differences in neophobia, latent inhibition, generalization, and extinction for rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a conditioned taste aversion preparation irrespective of housing conditions.

Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983), 135(3):315-326.

This study aimed to assess possible sex differences and a potential impact of social housing conditions for some Pavlovian conditioning effects in a conditioned taste aversion preparation with rats. The results of Experiment 1 suggest sex differences in neophobia, latent inhibition, and generalization. Specifically, for females, neophobia, and generalization appeared to be stronger while latent inhibition seemed to be attenuated. Experiment 2 confirmed these sex differences in neophobia and generalization, while also revealing slower extinction in males. Experiment 3 provided evidence for the same sex differences in neophobia and generalization, even when a perceptual learning effect was in operation following pre-exposures to the test stimulus. No effects of social housing conditions were found in either Experiment 1 or Experiment 2. In general, these findings appear to support the hypothesis of sexual dimorphism in Pavlovian conditioning, encouraging a systematic approach to the topic by means of further research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Dornellas APS, Burnham NW, Luhn KL, et al (2021)

Activation of locus coeruleus to rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) noradrenergic pathway blunts binge-like ethanol drinking and induces aversive responses in mice.

Neuropharmacology pii:S0028-3908(21)00352-X [Epub ahead of print].

There is strong evidence that ethanol entails aversive effects that can act as a deterrent to overconsumption. We have found that in doses that support the development of a conditioned taste aversion ethanol increases the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC), a primary source of norepinephrine (NE). Using cre-inducible AAV5-ChR2 viruses in TH-ires-cre mice we found that the LC provides NE projections that innervate the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a brain region that has been implicated in the aversive properties of drugs. Because the neurocircuitry underlying the aversive effects of ethanol is poorly understood, we characterized the role of the LC to RMTg circuit in modulating aversive unconditioned responses and binge-like ethanol intake. Here, both male and female TH-ires-cre mice were cannulated in the RMTg and injected in the LC with rAVV viruses that encode for a Gq-expressing designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) virus, or its control virus, to directly control the activity of NE neurons. A Latin Square paradigm was used to analyze both 20% ethanol and 3% sucrose consumption using the "drinking-in-the-dark" (DID) paradigm. Chemogenetic activation of the LC to RMTg pathway significantly blunted the binge-ethanol drinking, with no effect on the sucrose consumption, increased the emission of mid-frequency vocalizations and induced malaise-like behaviors in mice. The present findings indicate an important involvement of the LC to RMTg pathway in reducing ethanol consumption, and characterize unconditioned aversive reactions induced by activation of this noradrenergic pathway.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Simões S, Almeida AJ, J Marto (2021)

Palatability of pediatric formulations: Do rats predict aversiveness?.

Drug development and industrial pharmacy [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The brief-access taste aversion (BATA) model has been used as an alternative taste assessment tool to human taste panels and became an important element of pharmaceutical drug development, especially regarding pediatric patient's compliance. This model has been validated, demonstrating a concentration-dependent sensitivity to drug aversiveness, as well as the capacity to evaluate the taste-masking effects of cyclodextrins. In the BATA model, samples are presented randomly to rodents in numerous sipper tubes and a lickometer is used for the electronic record of licks in a sophisticated approach.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test possible drug taste-masking strategies. Additionally, we have used an alternative approach to measure the animal lick number in the presence of different compounds, non-simultaneously.

RESULTS: In the present work we show for the first time the licking profile of different compounds during the time course of the experiment, with each animal being exposed to only one bottle of testing product. To validate the experiments, quinine hydrochloride dihydrate (QHD) was used as a bitter reference compound.

CONCLUSION: The results obtained using this simple approach showed that aversiveness is dependent on the assay duration, and that it is possible to predict the aversiveness just by measuring the mass of the tested substance consumption. Moreover, some taste-masking strategies, such as those used in pediatric formulations and corresponding to the addition of sweeteners or flavors, cannot be predicted from rodents BATA model.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Bouton ME, Allan SM, Tavakkoli A, et al (2021)

Effect of context on the instrumental reinforcer devaluation effect produced by taste-aversion learning.

Journal of experimental psychology. Animal learning and cognition pii:2021-82871-001 [Epub ahead of print].

Four experiments manipulated the context in which taste-aversion conditioning occurred when the reinforcer was devalued after instrumental learning. In all experiments, rats learned to lever press in an operant conditioning chamber and then had an aversion to the food-pellet reinforcer conditioned by pairing it with lithium chloride (LiCl) in either that context or a different context. Lever pressing was then tested in extinction to assess its status as a goal-directed action. In Experiment 1, aversion conditioning in the operant conditioning chamber suppressed lever-pressing during the test, but aversion conditioning in the home cage did not. Exposure to the averted pellet in the operant conditioning chamber after conditioning in the home cage did not change this effect (Experiment 2). The same pattern was observed when the different context was a second operant-style chamber (counterbalanced), exposure to the contexts was controlled, and pellets were presented in them in the same manner (Experiment 3). The greater effect of aversion conditioning in the instrumental context was not merely due to potentiated contextual conditioning (Experiment 4). Importantly, consumption tests revealed that the aversion conditioned in the different context had transferred to the test context. Thus, when reinforcer devaluation occurred in a different context, the rats lever pressed in extinction for a reinforcer they would otherwise reject. The results suggest that animals encode contextual information about the reinforcer during instrumental learning and suggest caution in making inferences about action versus habit learning when the reinforcer is devalued in a different context. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Nakajima S (2021)

Food avoidance learning based on entirely voluntary wheel running in laboratory mice (Mus musculus).

Behavioural processes, 192:104484 pii:S0376-6357(21)00168-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Previous studies (Nakajima, 2019a,b) demonstrated food avoidance learning based on wheel running in laboratory mice: Consumption of a target snack becomes suppressed if it is repeatedly paired with an opportunity to run in an activity wheel. This is a kind of Pavlovian conditioning, because the avoidance is specific to the paired snack. For example, in an experiment, mice were initially trained to run in closed wheels. Then, access to one of the two kinds of snacks (cheese or raisins, counterbalanced) was followed by confinement in a large pet cage with an open wheel, while access to the other snack was not. After several repetitions of these two types of trials, differentiation in consumption between the two snacks emerged: The intake of the unpaired snack increased gradually over days, while the increase was attenuated for the running-paired snack. The present study replicated this food avoidance learning without the pretraining of running in a closed wheel, emphasizing the intrinsic capacity of running to establish food avoidance. The results somewhat suggest that pretraining in open wheels facilitates running-based food avoidance, but this effect was too weak in the present study to draw a clear conclusion.

RevDate: 2021-08-14

Zajdel J, Sköld J, Jaarola M, et al (2021)

Calcitonin gene related peptide α is dispensable for many danger-related motivational responses.

Scientific reports, 11(1):16204.

Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus have been shown to encode danger. Through projections to the amygdala and other forebrain structures, they regulate food intake and trigger adaptive behaviors in response to threats like inflammation, intoxication, tumors and pain. Despite the fact that this danger-encoding neuronal population has been defined based on its CGRP expression, it is not clear if CGRP is critical for its function. It is also not clear if CGRP in other neuronal structures is involved in danger-encoding. To examine the role of CGRP in danger-related motivational responses, we used male and female mice lacking αCGRP, which is the main form of CGRP in the brain. These mice had no, or only very weak, CGRP expression. Despite this, they did not behave differently compared to wildtype mice when they were tested for a battery of danger-related responses known to be mediated by CGRP neurons in the parabrachial nucleus. Mice lacking αCGRP and wildtype mice showed similar inflammation-induced anorexia, conditioned taste aversion, aversion to thermal pain and pain-induced escape behavior, although it should be pointed out that the study was not powered to detect any possible differences that were minor or sex-specific. Collectively, our findings suggest that αCGRP is not necessary for many threat-related responses, including some that are known to be mediated by CGRP neurons in the parabrachial nucleus.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Yu Y, He AB, Liou M, et al (2021)

The Paradoxical Effect Hypothesis of Abused Drugs in a Rat Model of Chronic Morphine Administration.

Journal of clinical medicine, 10(15):.

A growing body of studies has recently shown that abused drugs could simultaneously induce the paradoxical effect in reward and aversion to influence drug addiction. However, whether morphine induces reward and aversion, and which neural substrates are involved in morphine's reward and aversion remains unclear. The present study first examined which doses of morphine can simultaneously produce reward in conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in rats. Furthermore, the aversive dose of morphine was determined. Moreover, using the aversive dose of 10 mg/kg morphine tested plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels and examined which neural substrates were involved in the aversive morphine-induced CTA on conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement. Further, we analyzed c-Fos and p-ERK expression to demonstrate the paradoxical effect-reward and aversion and nonhomeostasis or disturbance by morphine-induced CTA. The results showed that a dose of more than 20 mg/kg morphine simultaneously induced reward in CPP and aversion in CTA. A dose of 10 mg/kg morphine only induced the aversive CTA, and it produced higher plasma CORT levels in conditioning and reacquisition but not extinction. High plasma CORT secretions by 10 mg/kg morphine-induced CTA most likely resulted from stress-related aversion but were not a rewarding property of morphine. For assessments of c-Fos and p-ERK expression, the cingulate cortex 1 (Cg1), prelimbic cortex (PrL), infralimbic cortex (IL), basolateral amygdala (BLA), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and dentate gyrus (DG) were involved in the morphine-induced CTA, and resulted from the aversive effect of morphine on conditioning and reinstatement. The c-Fos data showed fewer neural substrates (e.g., PrL, IL, and LH) on extinction to be hyperactive. In the context of previous drug addiction data, the evidence suggests that morphine injections may induce hyperactivity in many neural substrates, which mediate reward and/or aversion due to disturbance and nonhomeostasis in the brain. The results support the paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs. Insight from the findings could be used in the clinical treatment of drug addiction.

RevDate: 2021-07-31

Dantzer R (2021)

Love and fear in the times of sickness.

Comprehensive psychoneuroendocrinology, 6:.

Sickness induced by gastrointestinal malaise or by microbial pathogens is more than a private experience. Sick individuals share their illness within their social environment by communicating their sickness to others. In turn, recipients of the communication respond with appropriate behavioral adaptations. Avoidance of sick individuals and the events associated with their sickness is advantageous for members of the group. However, these responses can conflict with the need for comfort or social support expressed by sick individuals. There is evidence that the relationship between the sick individual and its social environment involves neurobiological mechanisms that are similar to those that mediate social bonding. Despite their commonality the feelings of love and fear/disgust that are associated with the sociality of sickness have thus far been neglected by mainstream affective neuroscience.

RevDate: 2021-07-29

Wu CW, Ou CY, Yu YH, et al (2021)

Involvement of the ventral tegmental area but not periaqueductal gray matter in the paradoxical rewarding and aversive effects of morphine.

Behavioral neuroscience pii:2021-69213-001 [Epub ahead of print].

The paradoxical effects of reward and aversion with abused drugs may interact to produce drug addiction, which is the so-called paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs. However, there is no research examining how the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) regulates morphine's paradoxical effect of reward and aversion. The present study addresses this issue, utilizing a high concentration of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) via injections to destroy the VTA or the PAG. Moreover, the study employed the new "pre- and postassociation" experimental paradigm (2010) to test whether the simultaneous rewarding and aversive effects of morphine can be affected by an NMDA lesion in the VTA or the PAG. The results indicated that the NMDA lesion of the VTA simultaneously reduced morphine-induced conditioned suppression of saccharin solution intake in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and morphine-induced spent time in the preference compartment in conditioned place preference (CPP), whereas the PAG lesion did not change either measure. Thus, the VTA, but not the PAG, appears to contribute to the paradoxical effect reward in CPP and aversion in CTA induced by morphine. The VTA's involvement in morphine-induced CTA aversion and CPP reward supports the paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Wang YC, Chiu WC, Cheng CN, et al (2021)

Examination of neuroinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta expression in the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus for the paradoxical effects of reward and aversion induced by morphine.

Neuroscience letters, 760:136076.

A growing body of evidence has shown that abused drugs could simultaneously induce the paradoxical effect-reward and aversion. Moreover, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala, and hippocampus were involved in this paradoxical effect by abused drugs. However, no research examined whether neuroinflammatory changes in the mPFC [including cingulate cortex area 1 (Cg1); prelimbic cortex (PrL); infralimbic cortex (IL)], basolateral amygdala, and hippocampus [e.g., CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG)] after morphine-induced reward in conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion in conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The results showed that after morphine administration, the consumption of a 0.1% saccharin solution decreased; the mean time spent in the morphine-paired side compartment of the CPP box increased, indicating that morphine simultaneously induced the paradoxical effects of reward and aversion. The PrL and IL of the mPFC, the BLA of the amygdala, the CA1, CA2, CA3, and DG of the hippocampus but not the Cg1 presented hyperactive IL-1β expression in response to morphine's aversion and reward. The mPFC, amygdala, and hippocampus may appear neuroinflammation activity following morphine-induced paradoxical effect-reward in CPP and aversion in CTA. The present data may provide a better understanding of the relationship between neuroinflammation and morphine addiction.

RevDate: 2021-06-24

Rivi V, Batabyal A, Juego K, et al (2021)

To eat or not to eat: a Garcia effect in pond snails (Lymnaea stagnalis).

Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, 207(4):479-495.

Taste aversion learning is universal. In animals, a single presentation of a novel food substance followed hours later by visceral illness causes animals to avoid that taste. This is known as bait-shyness or the Garcia effect. Humans demonstrate this by avoiding a certain food following the development of nausea after ingesting that food ('Sauce Bearnaise effect'). Here, we show that the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is capable of the Garcia effect. A single 'pairing' of a novel taste, a carrot slurry followed hours later by a heat shock stressor (HS) is sufficient to suppress feeding response elicited by carrot for at least 24 h. Other food tastes are not suppressed. If snails had previously been exposed to carrot as their food source, the Garcia-like effect does not occur when carrot is 'paired' with the HS. The HS up-regulates two heat shock proteins (HSPs), HSP70 and HSP40. Blocking the up-regulation of the HSPs by a flavonoid, quercetin, before the heat shock, prevented the Garcia effect in the snails. Finally, we found that snails exhibit Garcia effect following a period of food deprivation but the long-term memory (LTM) phenotype can be observed only if the animals are tested in a food satiated state.

RevDate: 2021-05-18

Zhong W, NA Darmani (2021)

The HCN Channel Blocker ZD7288 Induces Emesis in the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva).

Frontiers in pharmacology, 12:647021.

Subtypes (1-4) of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as the cells of smooth muscles in many organs. They mainly serve to regulate cellular excitability in these tissues. The HCN channel blocker ZD7288 has been shown to reduce apomorphine-induced conditioned taste aversion on saccharin preference in rats suggesting potential antinausea/antiemetic effects. Currently, in the least shew model of emesis we find that ZD7288 induces vomiting in a dose-dependent manner, with maximal efficacies of 100% at 1 mg/kg (i.p.) and 83.3% at 10 µg (i.c.v.). HCN channel subtype (1-4) expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry in the least shrew brainstem dorsal vagal complex (DVC) containing the emetic nuclei (area postrema (AP), nucleus tractus solitarius and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus). Highly enriched HCN1 and HCN4 subtypes are present in the AP. A 1 mg/kg (i.p.) dose of ZD7288 strongly evoked c-Fos expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the shrew brainstem DVC, but not in the in the enteric nervous system in the jejunum, suggesting a central contribution to the evoked vomiting. The ZD7288-evoked c-Fos expression exclusively occurred in tryptophan hydroxylase 2-positive serotonin neurons of the dorsal vagal complex, indicating activation of serotonin neurons may contribute to ZD7288-induced vomiting. To reveal its mechanism(s) of emetic action, we evaluated the efficacy of diverse antiemetics against ZD7288-evoked vomiting including the antagonists/inhibitors of: ERK1/2 (U0126), L-type Ca2+ channel (nifedipine); store-operated Ca2+ entry (MRS 1845); T-type Ca2+ channel (Z944), IP3R (2-APB), RyR receptor (dantrolene); the serotoninergic type 3 receptor (palonosetron); neurokinin 1 receptor (netupitant), dopamine type 2 receptor (sulpride), and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor agonist, resiniferatoxin. All tested antiemetics except sulpride attenuated ZD7288-evoked vomiting to varying degrees. In sum, ZD7288 has emetic potential mainly via central mechanisms, a process which involves Ca2+ signaling and several emetic receptors. HCN channel blockers have been reported to have emetic potential in the clinic since they are currently used/investigated as therapeutic candidates for cancer therapy related- or unrelated-heart failure, pain, and cognitive impairment.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Har-Paz I, Arieli E, A Moran (2021)

ApoE4 attenuates cortical neuronal activity in young behaving apoE4 rats.

Neurobiology of disease, 155:105373.

The E4 allele of apolipoprotein E (apoE4) is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, apoE4 may cause innate brain abnormalities before the appearance of AD-related neuropathology. Understanding these primary dysfunctions is vital for the early detection of AD and the development of therapeutic strategies. Recently we reported impaired extra-hippocampal memory in young apoE4 mice, a deficit that was correlated with attenuated structural pre-synaptic plasticity in cortical and subcortical regions. Here we tested the hypothesis that these early structural deficits impact learning via changes in basal and stimuli evoked neuronal activity. We recorded extracellular neuronal activity from the gustatory cortex (GC) of three-month-old humanized apoE4 (hApoE4) and wildtype rats expressing rat apoE (rAE), before and after conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training. Despite normal sucrose drinking behavior before CTA, young hApoE4 rats showed impaired CTA learning, consistent with our previous results in target-replacement apoE4 mice. This behavioral deficit was correlated with decreased basal and taste-evoked firing rates in both putative excitatory and inhibitory GC neurons. Further taste coding analyses at the single neuron and ensemble levels revealed that GC neurons of the hApoE4 group correctly classified tastes, but were unable to undergo plasticity to support learning. These results suggest that apoE4 impacts brain excitability and plasticity early in life that may act as an initiator for later AD pathologies.

RevDate: 2021-07-14

Yiannakas A, Kolatt Chandran S, Kayyal H, et al (2021)

Parvalbumin interneuron inhibition onto anterior insula neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdala drives aversive taste memory retrieval.

Current biology : CB, 31(13):2770-2784.e6.

Memory retrieval refers to the fundamental ability of organisms to make use of acquired, sometimes inconsistent, information about the world. Although memory acquisition has been studied extensively, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying memory retrieval remain largely unknown. Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is a robust associative paradigm, through which animals can be trained to express aversion toward innately appetitive tastants. The anterior insula (aIC) is indispensable in the ability of mammals to retrieve associative information regarding tastants that have been previously linked with gastric malaise. Here, we show that CTA memory retrieval promotes cell-type-specific activation in the aIC. Using chemogenetic tools in the aIC, we found that CTA memory acquisition requires activation of excitatory neurons and inhibition of inhibitory neurons, whereas retrieval necessitates activation of both excitatory and inhibitory aIC circuits. CTA memory retrieval at the aIC activates parvalbumin (PV) interneurons and increases synaptic inhibition onto activated pyramidal neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdala (aIC-BLA). Unlike innately appetitive taste memory retrieval, CTA retrieval increases synaptic inhibition onto aIC-BLA-projecting neurons that is dependent on activity in aIC PV interneurons. PV aIC interneurons coordinate CTA memory retrieval and are necessary for its dominance when conflicting internal representations are encountered over time. The reinstatement of CTA memories following extinction is also dependent on activation of aIC PV interneurons, which increase the frequency of inhibition onto aIC-BLA-projecting neurons. This newly described interaction of PV and a subset of excitatory neurons can explain the coherency of aversive memory retrieval, an evolutionary pre-requisite for animal survival.

RevDate: 2021-09-22

Urrieta E, ML Escobar (2021)

Metaplastic regulation of neocortical long-term depression in vivo is sensitive to distinct phases of conditioned taste aversion.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 182:107449.

Metaplasticity refers to the persistent modification, by previous activity, in the ability to induce synaptic plasticity. Accumulated evidence has proposed that metaplasticity contributes to network function and cognitive processes such as learning and memory. In this regard, it has been observed that training in several behavioral tasks modifies the possibility to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). For instance, our previous studies have shown that conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training prevents the induction of in vivo LTP in the projection from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala to the insular cortex (BLA-IC). Likewise, we reported that extinction of CTA allows induction but not maintenance of LTP in the same pathway. Besides, we showed that it is possible to express in vivo low-frequency stimulation LTD in the BLA-IC projection and that its induction prior to CTA training facilitates the extinction of this task. However, until now, little is known about the participation of LTD on metaplastic processes. The present study aimed to analyze whether CTA training modifies the expression of in vivo LTD in the BLA-IC projection. To do so, animals received low-frequency stimulation to induce IC-LTD 48 h after CTA training. Our results show that CTA training occludes the subsequent induction of LTD in the BLA-IC pathway in a retrieval-dependent manner. These findings reveal that CTA elicits a metaplastic regulation of long-lasting changes in the IC synaptic strength, as well as that specific phases of learning differentially take part in adjusting the expression of synaptic plasticity in neocortical regions.

RevDate: 2021-06-10
CmpDate: 2021-06-10

de Brugada I, González F, Cándido A, et al (2021)

Contextual control of the retardation of flavour aversion learning by preexposure to the unconditioned stimulus: Acquisition or retrieval deficit?.

Behavioural processes, 188:104394.

Two experiments, using rats as the subjects, and flavour aversion learning with an injection of lithium chloride (LiCl) as the unconditioned stimulus (US), examined the effects of a context shift between phases of the procedure on the retardation of learning produced by preexposure to the US. Experiment 1 showed that the US-preexposure effect (the reduction in the size of the conditioned aversion) was not attenuated when the animals were given both preexposure to the US and the conditioning procedure in a novel context but received the test phase in a different context (the home cages). Experiment 2 showed that, after degrading the injection cues-illness association by interpolating saline injections between LiCl preexposures, the US-preexposure effect was attenuated when there was a context shift between preexposure and conditioning, but that the context shift was without effect when it occurred between conditioning and test. These results are consistent with the proposal that US preexposure obtained in this procedure has its effect by interfering with the formation of the target association; they provide no support for the suggestion that the effect depends on interference at the test stage.

RevDate: 2021-08-20

Osorio-Gómez D, Bermúdez-Rattoni F, KR Guzmán-Ramos (2021)

Cortical neurochemical signaling of gustatory stimuli and their visceral consequences during the acquisition and consolidation of taste aversion memory.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 181:107437.

The insular cortex (IC) has a crucial role in taste recognition memory, including conditioned taste aversion (CTA). CTA is a learning paradigm in which a novel taste stimulus (CS) is associated with gastric malaise (US), inducing aversion to the CS in future encounters. The role of the IC in CTA memory formation has been extensively studied. However, the functional significance of neurotransmitter release during the presentation of taste stimuli and gastric malaise-inducing agents remains unclear. Using microdialysis in free-moving animals, we evaluated simultaneous changes in glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine release in response to the presentation of an innate appetitive or aversive gustatory novel stimulus, as well as after i.p. administration of isotonic or hypertonic gastric malaise-inducing solutions. Our results demonstrate that the presentation of novel stimuli, regardless of their innate valence, induces an elevation of norepinephrine and dopamine. Administration of a gastric malaise inducing agent (LiCl) promotes an elevation of glutamate regardless of its concentration. In comparison, norepinephrine release is related to the LiCl concentration and its equimolar NaCl control. Additionally, we evaluated their functional role on short and long-term taste aversion memory. Results indicate that the blockade of noradrenergic β1,2 receptors in the IC spares CTA acquisition and memory consolidation. In contrast, blockade of dopamine D1/D5 receptors impaired CTA consolidation, whereas the NMDA receptor blockade impedes both acquisition and consolidation of CTA. These results suggest that dopaminergic and noradrenergic release are related to the salience of conditioned taste stimuli. However, only cortical D1/D5 dopaminergic activity, but not the noradrenergic β1,2 activity, is involved in the acquisition and consolidation of taste memory formation. Additionally, glutamatergic activity signals visceral distress caused by LiCl administration and activates NMDA receptors necessary for the acquisition and consolidation of long-lasting taste aversion memory.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Kotańska M, Mika K, Szafarz M, et al (2021)

Effects of GPR18 Ligands on Body Weight and Metabolic Parameters in a Female Rat Model of Excessive Eating.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 14(3):.

GPR18 has been proposed to play a role in the progression of metabolic disease and obesity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of selective GRP18 ligands (the antagonists PSB-CB5 and PSB-CB27 and the agonist PSB-KK1415) on body mass and the development of metabolic disorders commonly accompanying obesity. Experiments were carried out on female Wistar rats. In order to determine the anorectic activity of the investigated ligands, their effect on food and water intake in a model of excessive eating was assessed. Lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels as well as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in plasma were also evaluated. Potential side effects were examined in rat models of pica behavior and conditioned taste aversion. Animals treated with different ligands gained significantly less weight than rats from the obese control group. Effects of GPR18 antagonists on food intake and body weight were specific and unrelated to visceral illness, stress or changes in spontaneous activity. However, the GPR18 agonist is likely to affect body weight by inducing gastrointestinal disorders such as nausea. The presented preliminary data support the idea that the search for selective GPR18 antagonists for the treatment of obesity might be promising.

RevDate: 2021-05-28
CmpDate: 2021-05-28

Calder AN, Yu T, Dahir NS, et al (2021)

Ghrelin Receptors Enhance Fat Taste Responsiveness in Female Mice.

Nutrients, 13(4):.

Ghrelin is a major appetite-stimulating neuropeptide found in circulation. While its role in increasing food intake is well known, its role in affecting taste perception, if any, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor's (GHS-R; a ghrelin receptor) activity in the peripheral taste system using feeding studies and conditioned taste aversion assays by comparing wild-type and GHS-R-knockout models. Using transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP), we demonstrated GHS-R expression in the taste system in relation phospholipase C ß2 isotype (PLCβ2; type II taste cell marker)- and glutamate decarboxylase type 67 (GAD67; type III taste cell marker)-expressing cells using immunohistochemistry. We observed high levels of co-localization between PLCβ2 and GHS-R within the taste system, while GHS-R rarely co-localized in GAD67-expressing cells. Additionally, following 6 weeks of 60% high-fat diet, female Ghsr-/- mice exhibited reduced responsiveness to linoleic acid (LA) compared to their wild-type (WT) counterparts, while no such differences were observed in male Ghsr-/- and WT mice. Overall, our results are consistent with the interpretation that ghrelin in the taste system is involved in the complex sensing and recognition of fat compounds. Ghrelin-GHS-R signaling may play a critical role in the recognition of fatty acids in female mice, and this differential regulation may contribute to their distinct ingestive behaviors.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Wu CH, Ramos R, Katz DB, et al (2021)

Homeostatic synaptic scaling establishes the specificity of an associative memory.

Current biology : CB, 31(11):2274-2285.e5.

Correlation-based (Hebbian) forms of synaptic plasticity are crucial for the initial encoding of associative memories but likely insufficient to enable the stable storage of multiple specific memories within neural circuits. Theoretical studies have suggested that homeostatic synaptic normalization rules provide an essential countervailing force that can stabilize and expand memory storage capacity. Although such homeostatic mechanisms have been identified and studied for decades, experimental evidence that they play an important role in associative memory is lacking. Here, we show that synaptic scaling, a widely studied form of homeostatic synaptic plasticity that globally renormalizes synaptic strengths, is dispensable for initial associative memory formation but crucial for the establishment of memory specificity. We used conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning, a form of associative learning that relies on Hebbian mechanisms within gustatory cortex (GC), to show that animals conditioned to avoid saccharin initially generalized this aversion to other novel tastants. Specificity of the aversion to saccharin emerged slowly over a time course of many hours and was associated with synaptic scaling down of excitatory synapses onto conditioning-active neuronal ensembles within gustatory cortex. Blocking synaptic scaling down in the gustatory cortex enhanced the persistence of synaptic strength increases induced by conditioning and prolonged the duration of memory generalization. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that synaptic scaling is crucial for sculpting the specificity of an associative memory and suggest that the relative strengths of Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity can modulate the balance between stable memory formation and memory generalization.

RevDate: 2021-08-30
CmpDate: 2021-08-30

Igarashi A, Ogasawara S, Takagi R, et al (2021)

Acute Oral Calcium Suppresses Food Intake Through Enhanced Peptide-YY Secretion Mediated by the Calcium-Sensing Receptor in Rats.

The Journal of nutrition, 151(5):1320-1328.

BACKGROUND: Dietary calcium has been proposed to reduce appetite in human studies. Postprandial satiety is mainly controlled by gut hormones. However, the effect of calcium on appetite and the role of gut hormones remain unclear.

OBJECTIVES: We examined whether oral administration of calcium reduces food intake in rats and investigated the underlying mechanism.

METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats (8-12 wk old) were used after an overnight fastifffng. In a series of 2 trials with 1-wk interval between challenges, food intake was measured 0.5-24 h after oral gavage of a vehicle (saline containing 1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) as the control treatment, or the vehicle containing various calcium compounds [calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium carbonate, calcium lactate, in a random order] at 150 mg calcium/kg dose. A conditional taste aversion test was conducted. In separate experiments, plasma calcium and gut hormone concentrations were measured 15 or 30 min after oral administration of the calcium compounds. In anesthetized rats, portal peptide-YY (PYY) concentrations were measured after intraluminal administration of a liquid meal with or without additional calcium.

RESULTS: Oral CaCl2 reduced food intake acutely (30 min, ∼20%, P < 0.05) compared with control rats, without taste aversion. Plasma PYY concentration was higher (100%, P < 0.05) in CaCl2-preloaded rats than in control rats, 15 min after administration. In anesthetized rats, luminal meal + CaCl2 induced a 4-fold higher increase in plasma PYY than the control treatment did. Oral administration of a calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) agonist suppressed food intake (∼30%, P < 0.05), but CaCl2 and CaSR agonist did not suppress food intake under treatment with a PYY receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the CaSR antagonist attenuated the effect of CaCl2 on food intake.

CONCLUSIONS: CaCl2 suppresses food intake partly by increasing CaSR-mediated PYY secretion in rats. Our findings could at least partially explain the satiating effect of calcium.

RevDate: 2021-07-29
CmpDate: 2021-07-29

Karavasili C, Gkaragkounis A, DG Fatouros (2021)

Patent landscape of pediatric-friendly oral dosage forms and administration devices.

Expert opinion on therapeutic patents, 31(7):663-686.

INTRODUCTION: The current availability of dosage forms designed specifically for children is limited, constituting common practice the use of unlicensed or off-labeled medicines and extemporaneous preparations. Swallowing difficulties and taste aversion are the primary reasons for medicine rejection; therefore, enhancing palatability and ease of administration are the most common approaches adopted to overcome these issues.

AREAS COVERED: A search of patents was performed for pediatric dosage forms and devices. The review aims to provide an overview on new formulation approaches and technologies adopted to develop pediatric-friendly dosage forms and devices, as well as on the regulatory efforts aiming to support the pediatrics market.

EXPERT OPINION: Children deserve medicines of the same efficacy, quality and safety as adults. The present review highlights the momentum developed by pharmaceutical industries in the field of pediatrics, since more than 60 patents have been published in the last 5 years. An increasing interest, especially in mini-tablets, orodispersible, and chewable dosage forms, as well as on excipients and methods, to achieve sufficient taste-masking was identified, recognizing also the need for coordinated research networks and sustainable collaborations across the public and private sectors to provide better medicines for children.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-08-02

Sabatini PV, Frikke-Schmidt H, Arthurs J, et al (2021)

GFRAL-expressing neurons suppress food intake via aversive pathways.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(8):.

The TGFβ cytokine family member, GDF-15, reduces food intake and body weight and represents a potential treatment for obesity. Because the brainstem-restricted expression pattern of its receptor, GDNF Family Receptor α-like (GFRAL), presents an exciting opportunity to understand mechanisms of action for area postrema neurons in food intake; we generated Gfral Cre and conditional Gfral CreERT mice to visualize and manipulate GFRAL neurons. We found infection or pathophysiologic states (rather than meal ingestion) stimulate GFRAL neurons. TRAP-Seq analysis of GFRAL neurons revealed their expression of a wide range of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Artificially activating Gfral Cre -expressing neurons inhibited feeding, decreased gastric emptying, and promoted a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). GFRAL neurons most strongly innervate the parabrachial nucleus (PBN), where they target CGRP-expressing (CGRPPBN) neurons. Silencing CGRPPBN neurons abrogated the aversive and anorexic effects of GDF-15. These findings suggest that GFRAL neurons link non-meal-associated pathophysiologic signals to suppress nutrient uptake and absorption.

RevDate: 2021-08-12

Dannenhoffer CA, Werner DF, Varlinskaya EI, et al (2021)

Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure does not alter responsiveness to ifenprodil or expression of vesicular GABA and glutamate transporters.

Developmental psychobiology, 63(5):903-914.

Adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure in the rat results in a retention of adolescent-like responsiveness to ethanol into adulthood characterized by enhanced sensitivity to socially facilitating and decreased sensitivity to socially suppressing and aversive effects. Similar pattern of responsiveness to social and aversive effects of the selective glutamate NMDA NR2B receptor antagonist ifenprodil is evident in adolescent rats, suggesting that AIE would also retain this pattern of ifenprodil sensitivity into adulthood. Social (Experiment 1) and aversive (measured via conditioned taste aversion; Experiment 2) effects of ifenprodil were assessed in adult male and female rats following AIE exposure. Sensitivity to the social and aversive effects of ifenprodil was not affected by AIE exposure. Experiment 3 assessed protein expression of vesicular transporters of GABA (vGAT) and glutamate (vGlut2) within the prelimbic cortex and nucleus accumbens in adolescents versus adults and in AIE adults versus controls. vGlut2 expression was higher in adolescents relative to adults within the PrL, but lower in the NAc. AIE adults did not retain these adolescent-typical ratios. These findings suggest that AIE is not associated with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivity to NR2B receptor antagonism, along with no AIE-induced shift in vGlut2 to vGAT ratios.

RevDate: 2021-09-21
CmpDate: 2021-09-21

Indigo NL, Jolly CJ, Kelly E, et al (2021)

Effects of learning and adaptation on population viability.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology, 35(4):1245-1255.

Cultural adaptation is one means by which conservationists may help populations adapt to threats. A learned behavior may protect an individual from a threat, and the behavior can be transmitted horizontally (within generations) and vertically (between generations), rapidly conferring population-level protection. Although possible in theory, it remains unclear whether such manipulations work in a conservation setting; what conditions are required for them to work; and how they might affect the evolutionary process. We examined models in which a population can adapt through both genetic and cultural mechanisms. Our work was motivated by the invasion of highly toxic cane toads (Rhinella marina) across northern Australia and the resultant declines of endangered northern quolls (Dasyurus hallucatus), which attack and are fatally poisoned by the toxic toads. We examined whether a novel management strategy in which wild quolls are trained to avoid toads can reduce extinction probability. We used a simulation model tailored to quoll life history. Within simulations, individuals were trained and a continuous evolving trait determined innate tendency to attack toads. We applied this model in a population viability setting. The strategy reduced extinction probability only when heritability of innate aversion was low (<20%) and when trained mothers trained >70% of their young to avoid toads. When these conditions were met, genetic adaptation was slower, but rapid cultural adaptation kept the population extant while genetic adaptation was completed. To gain insight into the evolutionary dynamics (in which we saw a transitory peak in cultural adaptation over time), we also developed a simple analytical model of evolutionary dynamics. This model showed that the strength of natural selection declined as the cultural transmission rate increased and that adaptation proceeded only when the rate of cultural transmission was below a critical value determined by the relative levels of protection conferred by genetic versus cultural mechanisms. Together, our models showed that cultural adaptation can play a powerful role in preventing extinction, but that rates of cultural transmission need to be high for this to occur.

RevDate: 2021-08-16
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Itoh A, Komatsuzaki Y, Lukowiak K, et al (2021)

Epicatechin increases the persistence of long-term memory formed by conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

The Journal of experimental biology, 224(Pt 3): pii:jeb.238055.

We examined the effects of epicatechin (Epi), a flavonoid abundant in green tea and cocoa, on long-term memory (LTM) formed following conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training in Lymnaea stagnalis In CTA training, the snails learnt to avoid a food that initially they liked (i.e. sucrose). Twenty-four hours after CTA training, 67% of the trained snails showed a significant decrease in the feeding behaviour elicited by sucrose. Placing snails in the Epi solution in CTA training did not alter the percentage of snails exhibiting LTM, but it significantly increased LTM persistence. We also examined changes following Epi exposure in spontaneous activity of the cerebral giant cells (CGCs) that modulate feeding behaviour and are necessary for CTA-LTM. Our data suggest that Epi causes a decrease in CGC activity and increases LTM persistence, possibly via a GABAergic mechanism.

RevDate: 2021-03-29
CmpDate: 2021-03-29

Toyoda H, Katagiri A, Kato T, et al (2020)

Intranasal Administration of Rotenone Reduces GABAergic Inhibition in the Mouse Insular Cortex Leading to Impairment of LTD and Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(1):.

The pesticide rotenone inhibits mitochondrial complex I and is thought to cause neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and cognitive disorders. However, little is known about the effects of rotenone on conditioned taste aversion memory. In the present study, we investigated whether intranasal administration of rotenone affects conditioned taste aversion memory in mice. We also examined how the intranasal administration of rotenone modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity in layer V pyramidal neurons of the mouse insular cortex that is critical for conditioned taste aversion memory. We found that the intranasal administration of rotenone impaired conditioned taste aversion memory to bitter taste. Regarding its cellular mechanisms, long-term depression (LTD) but not long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in rotenone-treated mice. Furthermore, spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents and tonic GABA currents were decreased in layer V pyramidal neurons of rotenone-treated mice compared to the control mice. The impaired LTD observed in pyramidal neurons of rotenone-treated mice was restored by a GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. These results suggest that intranasal administration of rotenone decreases GABAergic synaptic transmission in layer V pyramidal neurons of the mouse insular cortex, the result of which leads to impairment of LTD and conditioned taste aversion memory.

RevDate: 2021-04-19
CmpDate: 2021-04-19

Kawabata F, Yoshida Y, Inoue Y, et al (2021)

Research Note: Behavioral preference and conditioned taste aversion to oleic acid solution in chickens.

Poultry science, 100(1):372-376.

A functional fatty acid taste receptor, GPR120, is present in chicken oral tissues, and chickens show a preference for lipid in feed. However, it remains unclear whether chickens can detect fatty acids. To address this issue, we adopted 2 behavioral paradigms: a one-bowl drinking test to evaluate the preference for oleic acid solution and a conditioned taste aversion test to investigate the role of gustation in chickens' ability to detect oleic acid. In the one-bowl drinking test, chickens did not show any preference for solution containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, or 30 mmol/L oleic acid although 30 mmol/L oleic acid was enough to fully activate GPR120, confirmed by Ca2+ imaging. On the other hand, chickens conditioned to avoid 30 mmol/L oleic acid solution also learned to avoid the solution. These results suggested that chickens have a gustatory perception of oleic acid solution but do not have a preference for it. The present results support the idea that chickens prefer lipid in feed, not only by a postingestive effect but also by sensing the taste of fatty acid.

RevDate: 2021-09-15
CmpDate: 2021-09-15

Wyszogrodzka E, Dyr W, Siwińska-Ziółkowska A, et al (2021)

Higher sensitivity to ethanol's aversive properties in WLP (Warsaw Low Preferring) vs. WHP (Warsaw High Preferring) rats.

Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.), 90:67-73.

Ethanol can have both an aversive and rewarding effect, which may have a significant relationship to its individual preference. So far, the reasons for the high and low ethanol preference in the WHP (Warsaw High Preferring) and WLP (Warsaw Low Preferring) lines have not been found. WHP rats spontaneously drink over 5 g/kg/day of ethanol, while WLP rats drink under 2 g/kg/day. The purpose of the work was to study the sensitivity of WHP and WLP rats to the aversive effects of ethanol at doses of 1.5 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg in the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure. Lower doses (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg, i.p. [intraperitoneally]) were tested earlier and only 1.0 g/kg produced a slight aversion in WLP rats. The secondary aim was to check the additional potential factors (blood ethanol concentration, pain sensitivity, anxiety-related behavior, learning, and memory) that may constitute an important differentiating feature of the WHP and WLP lines. For this purpose, the following tests were conducted: blood ethanol concentration, novel object recognition (NOR), flinch-jump, hot-plate, and elevated plus maze (EPM). The 1.5 g/kg i.p. dose of ethanol caused the development of an aversion only in WLP rats and the aversion extinguished in the post-conditioning phase. The 2.0 g/kg i.p. dose of ethanol resulted in the development of an aversion in both the tested groups, with the aversion being maintained throughout the whole post-conditioning period only in the WLP rats. There were no differences between the lines in terms of the blood ethanol concentration and the EPM tests. WHP rats had a higher pain sensitivity compared to WLP rats in flinch-jump and hot-plate tests. WLP rats showed a shorter exploration time for both objects compared to WHP in the NOR test. In conclusion, WHP and WLP rats differ in sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol. This difference may partially explain their opposite ethanol preference.

RevDate: 2021-01-05

Robinson SL, Dornellas APS, Burnham NW, et al (2020)

Distinct and Overlapping Patterns of Acute Ethanol-Induced C-Fos Activation in Two Inbred Replicate Lines of Mice Selected for Drinking to High Blood Ethanol Concentrations.

Brain sciences, 10(12):.

The inbred high drinking in the dark (iHDID1 and iHDID2) strains are two replicate lines bred from the parent HS/Npt (HS) line for achieving binge levels of blood ethanol concentration (≥80 mg/dL BEC) in a four-hour period. In this work, we sought to evaluate differences in baseline and ethanol-induced c-Fos activation between the HS, iHDID1, and iHDID2 genetic lines in brain regions known to process the aversive properties of ethanol.

METHODS: Male and female HS, iHDID1, and iHDID2 mice underwent an IP saline 2 3 g/kg ethanol injection. Brain sections were then stained for c-Fos expression in the basolateral/central amygdala (BLA/CeA), bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST), A2, locus coeruleus (LC), parabrachial nucleus (PBN), lateral/medial habenula (LHb/MHb), paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), periaqueductal gray (PAG), Edinger-Westphal nuclei (EW), and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg).

RESULTS: The iHDID1 and iHDID2 lines showed similar and distinct patterns of regional c-Fos; however, in no region did the two both significantly differ from the HS line together.

CONCLUSIONS: These data lend further support to altered baseline or ethanol-induced activation in brain regions associated with processing the aversive properties of ethanol in the iHDID1 and iHDID2 genetic lines.

RevDate: 2021-05-14
CmpDate: 2021-05-14

Stensmyr MC, SJC Caron (2020)

Neuroscience: The Secret of Sauce Béarnaise Syndrome Is in the Circuit.

Current biology : CB, 30(23):R1413-R1415.

During conditioned food aversion - a.k.a. sauce béarnaise syndrome - the ingestion of a spoiled food item leads to a lasting aversion towards cues reminiscent of the item. A new study finds that, in Drosophila, taste aversion depends on the immune system and the mushroom body.

RevDate: 2020-12-26

Nakai J, Totani Y, Hatakeyama D, et al (2020)

Another Example of Conditioned Taste Aversion: Case of Snails.

Biology, 9(12):.

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in mammals has several specific characteristics: (1) emergence of a negative symptom in subjects due to selective association with a taste-related stimulus, (2) robust long-term memory that is resistant to extinction induced by repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS), (3) a very-long-delay presentation of the unconditioned stimulus (US), and (4) single-trial learning. The pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, can also form a CTA. Although the negative symptoms, like nausea, in humans cannot be easily observed in invertebrate animal models of CTA, all the other characteristics of CTA seem to be present in snails. Selective associability was confirmed using a sweet sucrose solution and a bitter KCl solution. Once snails form a CTA, repeated presentation of the CS does not extinguish the CTA. A long interstimulus interval between the CS and US, like in trace conditioning, still results in the formation of a CTA in snails. Lastly, even single-trial learning has been demonstrated with a certain probability. In the present review, we compare, in detail, CTA in mammals and snails, and discuss the possible molecular events in CTA.

RevDate: 2021-04-14
CmpDate: 2021-04-14

Haley MS, Bruno S, Fontanini A, et al (2020)

LTD at amygdalocortical synapses as a novel mechanism for hedonic learning.

eLife, 9:.

A novel, pleasant taste stimulus becomes aversive if associated with gastric malaise, a form of learning known as conditioned taste aversion (CTA). CTA is common to vertebrates and invertebrates and is an important survival response: eating the wrong food may be deadly. CTA depends on the gustatory portion of the insular cortex (GC) and the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA) however, its synaptic underpinnings are unknown. Here we report that CTA was associated with decreased expression of immediate early genes in rat GC of both sexes, and with reduced amplitude of BLA-GC synaptic responses, pointing to long-term depression (LTD) as a mechanism for learning. Indeed, association of a novel tastant with induction of LTD at the BLA-GC input in vivo was sufficient to change the hedonic value of a taste stimulus. Our results demonstrate a direct role for amygdalocortical LTD in taste aversion learning.

RevDate: 2021-05-07
CmpDate: 2021-05-07

Morin JP, Rodríguez-Nava E, Torres-García VM, et al (2021)

Muscarinic receptor signaling in the amygdala is required for conditioned taste aversion.

Neuroscience letters, 740:135466.

The sense of taste provides information regarding the nutrient content, safety or potential toxicity of an edible. This is accomplished via a combination of innate and learned taste preferences. In conditioned taste aversion (CTA), rats learn to avoid ingesting a taste that has previously been paired with gastric malaise. Recent evidence points to a role of cholinergic muscarinic signaling in the amygdala for the learning and storage of emotional memories. The present study tested the participation of muscarinic receptors in the amygdala during the formation of CTA by infusing the non-specific antagonist scopolamine into the basolateral or central subnuclei before or after conditioning, as well as before retrieval. Our data show that regardless of the site of infusion, pre-conditioning administration of scopolamine impaired CTA acquisition whereas post-conditioning infusion did not affect its storage. Also, infusions into the basolateral but not in the central amygdala before retrieval test partially reduced the expression of CTA. Our results indicate that muscarinic receptors activity is required for acquisition but not consolidation of CTA. In addition, our data add to recent evidence pointing to a role of cholinergic signaling in peri-hippocampal structures in the process of memory retrieval.

RevDate: 2021-09-02
CmpDate: 2021-09-02

Steinfeld MR, ME Bouton (2021)

Renewal of goal direction with a context change after habit learning.

Behavioral neuroscience, 135(1):79-87.

An instrumental action can be goal-directed after a moderate amount of practice and then convert to habit after more extensive practice. Recent evidence suggests, however, that habits can return to action status after different environmental manipulations. The present experiments therefore asked whether habit learning interferes with goal direction in a context-dependent manner like other types of retroactive interference (e.g., extinction, punishment, counterconditioning). In Experiment 1, rats were given a moderate amount of instrumental training to form an action in one context (Context A) and then more extended training of the same response to form a habit in another context (Context B). We then performed reinforcer devaluation with taste aversion conditioning in both contexts, and tested the response in both contexts. The response remained habitual in Context B, but was goal-directed in Context A, indicating renewal of goal direction after habit learning. Experiment 2 expanded on Experiment 1 by testing the response in a third context (Context C). It found that the habitual response also renewed as action in this context. Together, the results establish a parallel between habit and extinction learning: Conversion to habit does not destroy action knowledge, but interferes with it in a context-specific way. They are also consistent with other results suggesting that habit is specific to the context in which it is learned, whereas goal-direction can transfer between contexts. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2021-06-18
CmpDate: 2021-06-18

Fonseca E, Sandoval-Herrera V, Simon SA, et al (2020)

Behavioral Disassociation of Perceived Sweet Taste Intensity and Hedonically Positive Palatability.

eNeuro, 7(5):.

The intensity of sucrose (its perceived concentration) and its palatability (positive hedonic valence associated with ingestion) are two taste attributes that increase its attractiveness and overconsumption. Although both sensory attributes covary, in that increases in sucrose concentration leads to similar increases in its palatability, this covariation does not imply that they are part of the same process or whether they represent separate processes. Both these possibilities are considered in the literature. For this reason, we tested whether sucrose's perceived intensity could be separated from its hedonically positive palatability. To address this issue, rats were trained in a sucrose intensity task to report the perceived intensity of a range of sucrose concentrations before and after its palatability was changed using a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) protocol. We found that the subjects' performance remained essentially unchanged, although its palatability was changed from hedonically positive to negative. Overall, these data demonstrate that sucrose's perceived intensity and its positive palatability can be dissociated, meaning that changes of one taste attribute render the other mostly unaffected. Thus, the intensity attribute is sufficient to inform the perceptual judgments of sucrose's concentrations.

RevDate: 2021-01-27
CmpDate: 2021-01-27

Sato T, Hirai Y, Su S, et al (2020)

Involvement of the area postrema and the nucleus tractus solitarius in the emetogenic action of emetine in rats.

Journal of oral biosciences, 62(4):310-314.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to demonstrate the effective dose of emetine for inducing nausea and/or emesis, and the effects of emetine on the excitability of central neurons in the area postrema (AP) and the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS).

METHODS: Rats were used as experimental animals. We measured the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) induced by the intraperitoneal administration of emetine solution (0.03, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, and 1.0 mM in saline) and that of only saline. We also performed immunohistochemical analyses of c-Fos expression in the area postrema and the NTS, to examine changes in the excitability of brainstem neurons that may be responsible for emetine-induced nausea and/or emesis.

RESULTS: The emetine-induced CTA occurred in a dose-dependent manner. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC50) of emetine on the saccharin preference was calculated to be 0.348 mM using the Hill equation. In the animals injected with emetine (0.5 and 1.0 mM), many c-Fos-like immunoreactive (Fos-ir) cells were observed in the area postrema and the NTS, while few Fos-ir cells were identified in the animals injected with saline. The average number of Fos-ir cells in the area postrema and the NTS was significantly larger in animals injected with emetine than in animals injected with saline.

CONCLUSIONS: The present study demonstrated a dose-responsive manner of emetine effects and emetine-induced upregulation of neuronal excitability in the area postrema and the NTS that form a part of the induction mechanisms of emetine-induced nausea and/or emesis.

RevDate: 2021-01-26
CmpDate: 2021-01-26

Tobajas J, Ruiz-Aguilera MJ, López-Bao JV, et al (2020)

The effectiveness of conditioned aversion in wolves: Insights from experimental tests.

Behavioural processes, 181:104259.

It has been suggested that conditioned food aversion (CFA) could be a potential non-lethal intervention by which to deter attacks on livestock by large carnivores. CFA occurs when an animal associates the characteristics of a food with an illness, thus rejecting that food in subsequent encounters. CFA can be associated with an artificial odour during conditioning. Despite the debate surrounding the use of this intervention, more studies evaluating the effectiveness of CFA are necessary. We experimentally evaluated the potential of microgranulated levamisole + a vanilla odour cue to induce CFA in captive Iberian wolves (Canis lupus signatus). Four out of the five wolves treated showed an aversion to the meat for a minimum of one month after conditioning. The microgranulated presentation masked the flavour and smell of the levamisole but increased its volume, which may have facilitated its detection by the wolves. We also observed that the strength of the odour played an important role in the aversion extinction. The use of microgranulated levamisole + an odour cue has the potential to be used as an intervention by which to induce aversive conditioning in wolves in the wild, although rigorous field tests are required. We discuss the potential of CFA to deter attacks on livestock by large carnivores.

RevDate: 2021-04-21
CmpDate: 2021-02-01

Fukabori R, Iguchi Y, Kato S, et al (2020)

Enhanced Retrieval of Taste Associative Memory by Chemogenetic Activation of Locus Coeruleus Norepinephrine Neurons.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 40(43):8367-8385.

The ability of animals to retrieve memories stored in response to the environment is essential for behavioral adaptation. Norepinephrine (NE)-containing neurons in the brain play a key role in the modulation of synaptic plasticity underlying various processes of memory formation. However, the role of the central NE system in memory retrieval remains unclear. Here, we developed a novel chemogenetic activation strategy exploiting insect olfactory ionotropic receptors (IRs), termed "IR-mediated neuronal activation," and used it for selective stimulation of NE neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC). Drosophila melanogaster IR84a and IR8a subunits were expressed in LC NE neurons in transgenic mice. Application of phenylacetic acid (a specific ligand for the IR84a/IR8a complex) at appropriate doses induced excitatory responses of NE neurons expressing the receptors in both slice preparations and in vivo electrophysiological conditions, resulting in a marked increase of NE release in the LC nerve terminal regions (male and female). Ligand-induced activation of LC NE neurons enhanced the retrieval process of conditioned taste aversion without affecting taste sensitivity, general arousal state, and locomotor activity. This enhancing effect on taste memory retrieval was mediated, in part, through α1- and β-adrenergic receptors in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (BLA; male). Pharmacological inhibition of LC NE neurons confirmed the facilitative role of these neurons in memory retrieval via adrenergic receptors in the BLA (male). Our findings indicate that the LC NE system, through projections to the BLA, controls the retrieval process of taste associative memory.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Norepinephrine (NE)-containing neurons in the brain play a key role in the modulation of synaptic plasticity underlying various processes of memory formation, but the role of the NE system in memory retrieval remains unclear. We developed a chemogenetic activation system based on insect olfactory ionotropic receptors and used it for selective stimulation of NE neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC) in transgenic mice. Ligand-induced activation of LC NE neurons enhanced the retrieval of conditioned taste aversion, which was mediated, in part, through adrenoceptors in the basolateral amygdala. Pharmacological blockade of LC activity confirmed the facilitative role of these neurons in memory retrieval. Our findings indicate that the LC-amygdala pathway plays an important role in the recall of taste associative memory.

RevDate: 2021-04-05

Grijalva LE, Miranda MI, RG Paredes (2021)

Differential changes in GAP-43 or synaptophysin during appetitive and aversive taste memory formation.

Behavioural brain research, 397:112937.

Association between events in time and space is a major mechanism for all animals, including humans, which allows them to learn about the world and potentially change their behavior in the future to adapt to different environments. Conditioning taste aversion (CTA) is a single-trial learning paradigm where animals are trained to avoid a novel flavor which is associated with malaise. Many variables can be analyzed with this model and the circuits involved are well described. Thus, the amygdala and the gustatory cortex (GC) are some of the most relevant structures involved in CTA. In the present study we focused in plastic changes that occur during appetitive and/or aversive taste memory formation. Previous studies have demonstrated that memory consolidation, in hippocampal dependent paradigms, induces plastic changes like increase in the concentration of proteins considered as markers of neuronal plasticity, such as the growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43) and synaptophysin (SYN). In the present experiment in male rats we evaluated changes in GAP-43 and SYN expression, using immunofluorescence, induce by the formation of aversive and appetitive taste memory. We found that taste aversive memory formation can induce an increase in GAP-43 in the granular layer of the GC. Furthermore, we also found an increase in SYN expression in both layers of the GC, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the central amygdala (CeA). These results suggest that aversive memory representation induces a new circuitry (inferred from an increase in GAP 43). On the other hand, an appetitive taste learning increased SYN expression in the GC (both layers), the BLA and the CeA without any changes in GAP 43. Together these results indicate that aversive memory formation induces structural and synaptic changes, while appetitive memory formation induces synaptic changes; suggesting that aversive and appetitive memories require a different set of cortical and amygdala plastic changes.

RevDate: 2021-04-06
CmpDate: 2021-04-06

Heyes C, Chater N, DM Dwyer (2020)

Sinking In: The Peripheral Baldwinisation of Human Cognition.

Trends in cognitive sciences, 24(11):884-899.

The Baldwin effect is a hypothetical process in which a learned response to environmental change evolves a genetic basis. Modelling has shown that the Baldwin effect offers a plausible and elegant explanation for the emergence of complex behavioural traits, but there is little direct empirical evidence for its occurrence. We highlight experimental evidence of the Baldwin effect and argue that it acts preferentially on peripheral rather than on central cognitive processes. Careful scrutiny of research on taste-aversion and fear learning, language, and imitation indicates that their efficiency depends on adaptively specialised input and output processes: analogues of scanner and printer interfaces that feed information to core inference processes and structure their behavioural expression.

RevDate: 2020-11-04
CmpDate: 2020-11-04

Galistu A, PS D'Aquila (2020)

Memantine effects on ingestion microstructure and the effect of administration time: A within-subject study.

PloS one, 15(9):e0239270.

In a between-subject comparison of two memantine administration schedules we observed that treatment with the NMDA receptor antagonist memantine before testing sessions reduced ingestion of a 10% sucrose solution in rats, due to reduced licking burst size, thus suggesting a blunted hedonic response. Conversely, daily post-session administration reduced burst number, indicating a reduced level of behavioural activation, likely due to the development of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). In this study, the effect of pre-session and post-session memantine administration was investigated within-subjects. Memantine was administered in daily intraperitoneal injections for 13 days, on alternate days, either 1-h before-"before testing" sessions-or immediately after a 30-min session-"after testing" sessions. The effects on the microstructure of licking for a 10% sucrose solution were examined in the course of treatment and for 21 days after treatment discontinuation. The results show reduced burst size in the "before testing" sessions, without effects on the intra-burst lick rate, an index of motoric effects. Moreover, burst number was reduced since the third session of both administration conditions until the end of treatment. Interestingly, the effect of memantine of reducing the activation of ingestive behaviour was less pronounced in this study with respect to that observed with the previous study post-session administration schedule, in spite of the longer treatment. This apparent paradox might be explained if one considers these effects as instances of a memory-related effect, such as the development of CTA. In the framework of this hypothesis, the "before testing" sessions, not being followed by memantine administration, can be considered as extinction sessions performed every other day. Moreover, the animals treated with memantine at the highest dose failed to recover to pre-treatment ingestion levels 21 days after treatment discontinuation, while the animals treated after testing sessions in the previously published study showed a complete recovery well before the 15th day test. Within the same interpretative framework, this might depend by the reduced number and frequency of the extinction trials-i.e. the number of the sessions run after treatment discontinuation-in the present study. These results provide further support to the conclusion that memantine administration before sessions reduce burst size, an effect which is likely due to blockade of NMDA receptors occurring during behavioural testing. The observation that this effect can be obtained even in absence of a reduced intra-burst lick rate, which rules out the involvement of motor impairment, provides an important piece of evidence in support to the interpretation of this effect as a blunted hedonic response. Moreover, these results provide further evidence that burst number reduction is due to a memory-related effect induced by memantine administration after sessions.

RevDate: 2021-03-01
CmpDate: 2021-03-01

Arieli E, Gerbi R, Shein-Idelson M, et al (2020)

Temporally-precise basolateral amygdala activation is required for the formation of taste memories in gustatory cortex.

The Journal of physiology, 598(23):5505-5522.

KEY POINTS: The basolateral amygdala (BLA), the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM), and the gustatory cortex (GC) are involved in taste processing, taste memory formation and conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning, but their fine-temporal interactions that support these cognitive functions are not well understood. We found that the formation of novel-taste and CTA memories in the GC depend on a distinct late response (700-3000 ms) of BLA projection neurons. In contrast, BLA activity was not essential for palatability-related behaviour and coding in the GC prior to CTA. We identified the BLA→NBM pathway as a potential pathway for the transmission of taste novelty information, required for the formation of taste and CTA memories in the GC. Our results demonstrate how neuronal dynamics across multiple brain regions support long-term memory formation.

ABSTRACT: Learning to associate malaise with the intake of novel food is critical for survival. Since food poisoning may take hours to take effect, animals developed brain circuits to transform the current novel taste experience into a taste memory trace (TMT) and bridge this time lag. Ample studies showed that the basolateral amygdala (BLA), the nucleus basalis magnocellularis (NBM) and the gustatory cortex (GC) are involved in TMT formation and taste-malaise association. However, how dynamic activity across these brain regions during novel taste experience promotes the formation of these memories is currently unknown. We used the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning paradigm in combination with short-term optogenetics and electrophysiological recording in rats to test the hypothesis that temporally specific activation of BLA projection neurons is essential for TMT formation in the GC, and consequently CTA. We found that a short late epoch (LE, 700-3000 ms), but not the early epoch (EE, 0-500 ms), of BLA activation during novel taste experience is essential for normal CTA, for early c-Fos expression in the GC (a marker of TMT formation) and for the post-CTA changes in GC ensemble palatability coding. Interestingly, BLA activity was not required for intact taste identity or palatability perceptions before CTA. We further show that BLA-LE information is transmitted to GC through the BLA→NBM pathway where it affects the formation of taste memories. These results expose the dependence of long-term memory formation on specific temporal windows during sensory responses and the distributed circuits supporting this dependence.

RevDate: 2021-02-25
CmpDate: 2021-02-25

Levitan D, Liu C, Yang T, et al (2020)

Deletion of Stk11 and Fos in mouse BLA projection neurons alters intrinsic excitability and impairs formation of long-term aversive memory.

eLife, 9:.

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is a form of one-trial learning dependent on basolateral amygdala projection neurons (BLApn). Its underlying cellular and molecular mechanisms remain poorly understood. RNAseq from BLApn identified changes in multiple candidate learning-related transcripts including the expected immediate early gene Fos and Stk11, a master kinase of the AMP-related kinase pathway with important roles in growth, metabolism and development, but not previously implicated in learning. Deletion of Stk11 in BLApn blocked memory prior to training, but not following it and increased neuronal excitability. Conversely, BLApn had reduced excitability following CTA. BLApn knockout of a second learning-related gene, Fos, also increased excitability and impaired learning. Independently increasing BLApn excitability chemogenetically during CTA also impaired memory. STK11 and C-FOS activation were independent of one another. These data suggest key roles for Stk11 and Fos in CTA long-term memory formation, dependent at least partly through convergent action on BLApn intrinsic excitability.

RevDate: 2021-03-03
CmpDate: 2021-01-01

Hurley SW, RM Carelli (2020)

Activation of Infralimbic to Nucleus Accumbens Shell Pathway Suppresses Conditioned Aversion in Male But Not Female Rats.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 40(36):6888-6895.

Hedonic processing plays an integral role in directing appropriate behavior, but disrupted hedonic processing is associated with psychiatric disorders such as depression. The infralimbic cortex (IL) is a key structure in affective processing in rodents and activation of its human homolog, the ventromedial prefrontal cortex, has been implicated in suppressing aversive states. Here, we tested whether optogenetic activation of glutamatergic projections from the IL to the nucleus accumbens shell (NAcSh) suppresses the aversive impact of sucrose devalued using the conditioned taste aversion paradigm in males and female rats. In naive rats, no significant differences in appetitive or aversive taste reactivity (TR) to sucrose was observed indicating that initial sucrose palatability was equivalent across sex. However, we found that optical activation of the IL-NAcSh pathway during intraoral infusion of devalued sucrose inhibited aversive TR in male but not female rats. Interestingly, when allowed to freely ingest water and sucrose in a two-bottle test both males and females with a history of IL-NAcSh stimulation exhibited greater preference for sucrose. Optical pathway activation failed to alter TR to innately bitter quinine in either sex. Finally, both sexes lever pressed to self-stimulate the IL-NAcSh pathway. These results indicate that the IL-NAcSh pathway plays an important role in suppressing learned aversive states selectively in males but spares hedonic processing of innately aversive tastants. Further, pathway activation is reinforcing in both sexes, indicating that suppression of conditioned aversive TR can be dissociable from the effects of unconditioned rewarding properties of IL-NAcSh pathway activation.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Negative emotional states contribute to psychiatric disorders including depression and substance use disorders. In this study, we examined whether brain circuitry previously implicated in suppressing negative emotional states in humans can inhibit learned aversion in male and female rats. We found that optical activation of the infralimbic to nucleus accumbens shell pathway attenuates learned aversive responses in male but not female rats, indicating an important sex difference in the function of this brain pathway. Furthermore, we found that pathway stimulation was reinforcing in both sexes. Collectively, these findings support the role of the infralimbic cortex and its projection to the nucleus accumbens shell in suppressing learned negative emotional states and highlight an important sex-specific function of this pathway.

RevDate: 2021-07-08
CmpDate: 2021-07-08

Abe K, Kuroda M, Narumi Y, et al (2020)

Cortico-amygdala interaction determines the insular cortical neurons involved in taste memory retrieval.

Molecular brain, 13(1):107.

The insular cortex (IC) is the primary gustatory cortex, and it is a critical structure for encoding and retrieving the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory. In the CTA, consumption of an appetitive tastant is associated with aversive experience such as visceral malaise, which results in avoidance of consuming a learned tastant. Previously, we showed that levels of the cyclic-AMP-response-element-binding protein (CREB) determine the insular cortical neurons that proceed to encode a conditioned taste memory. In the amygdala and hippocampus, it is shown that CREB and neuronal activity regulate memory allocation and the neuronal mechanism that determines the specific neurons in a neural network that will store a given memory. However, cellular mechanism of memory allocation in the insular cortex is not fully understood. In the current study, we manipulated the neuronal activity in a subset of insular cortical and/or basolateral amygdala (BLA) neurons in mice, at the time of learning; for this purpose, we used an hM3Dq designer receptor exclusively activated by a designer drug system (DREADD). Subsequently, we examined whether the neuronal population whose activity is increased during learning, is reactivated by memory retrieval, using the expression of immediate early gene c-fos. When an hM3Dq receptor was activated only in a subset of IC neurons, c-fos expression following memory retrieval was not significantly observed in hM3Dq-positive neurons. Interestingly, the probability of c-fos expression in hM3Dq-positive IC neurons after retrieval was significantly increased when the IC and BLA were co-activated during conditioning. Our findings suggest that functional interactions between the IC and BLA regulates CTA memory allocation in the insular cortex, which shed light on understanding the mechanism of memory allocation regulated by interaction between relevant brain areas.

RevDate: 2021-02-17

Angulo R, Bustamante J, CA Arévalo-Romero (2020)

Age, sex and pre-exposure effects on acquisition and generalization of conditioned taste aversion in rats.

Behavioural brain research, 394:112813.

The main aim of the present study was to assess the effect of sex and aging in two pre-exposure learning effects, latent inhibition (LI) and perceptual learning (PL), with a conditioned taste aversion paradigm. Young adult (90 days) and aged (more than 18 months) males and females received 8 pre-exposure trials either with stimulus AX (LI conditions) or BX (PL conditions). Then, all animals received a conditioning trial with AX and two test trials, one with AX and other with BX. The level of generalization between AX and BX was assessed by means of the absolute level of consumption of BX and by the difference in consumption between both stimuli. The results showed an attenuation of latent inhibition as well a stronger generalization of conditioned taste aversion in females when generalization is inferred from the BX consumption. A facilitation of conditioning for the aged animals was also found regardless of the pre-exposed stimulus. Pre-exposures to BX resulted in little generalization, but pre-exposures to AX resulted in a very similar consumption of both compounds, indicating a strong generalization between them. Overall, the study provided novel evidence about the effect of sex and aging on taste aversion, raising at the same time some relevant questions about perceptual learning and how such pre-exposure effect has been typically assessed.

RevDate: 2021-01-26
CmpDate: 2021-01-26

Miranda MI, Rangel-Hernández A, Vera-Rivera G, et al (2021)

Taste association capabilities differ in high- and low-yawning rats versus outbred Sprague-Dawley rats after prolonged sugar consumption.

Animal cognition, 24(1):41-52.

Yawning is a stereotypical behavior pattern commonly associated with other behaviors such as grooming, sleepiness, and arousal. Several differences in behavioral and neurochemical characteristics have been described in high-yawning (HY) and low-yawning (LY) sublines from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats that support they had changes in the neural mechanism between sublines. Differences in behavior and neurochemistry observed in yawning sublines could also overlap in processes needed during taste learning, particularly during conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and its latent inhibition. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze taste memory differences, after familiarization to novel or highly sweet stimuli, between yawning sublines and compare them with outbred SD rats. First, we evaluated changes in appetitive response during long-term sugar consumption for 14 days. Then, we evaluated the latent inhibition of CTA strength induced by this long pre-exposure, and we also measured aversive memory extinction rate. The results showed that SD rats and the two sublines developed similar CTA for novel sugar and significantly stronger appetitive memory after long-term sugar exposure. However, after 14 days of sugar exposure, HY and LY sublines were unable to develop latent inhibition of CTA after two acquisition trials and had a slower aversive memory extinction rate than outbreed rats. Thus, the inability of the HY and LY sublines to develop latent inhibition of CTA after long-term sugar exposure could be related to the time/context processes involved in long-term appetitive re-learning, and in the strong inbreeding that characterizes the behavioral traits of these sublines, suggesting that inbreeding affects associative learning, particularly after long-term exposure to sweet stimuli which reflects high familiarization.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Angulo R, Bustamante J, Estades V, et al (2020)

Sex Differences in Cue Competition Effects With a Conditioned Taste Aversion Preparation.

Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 14:107.

This study aimed to test whether male and female rats might show differences in cue competition effects in a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) model. Experiment 1 tested for sex differences in overshadowing. After conditioning of a flavored compound AB or only one simple flavor A (being A and B a solution of sugar 10% and salt 1%, counterbalanced), consumption of the A solution at test was larger in the former than in the latter case only in males. Thus, the usual effect of overshadowing was observed in males but not in females. Experiment 2 examined sex differences in blocking with the same stimuli used in Experiment 1. After conditioning of AB, the consumption of B was larger for the animals that previously received a single conditioning trial with A than for those that received unpaired presentations of A and the illness. As observed in Experiment 1, the typical blocking effect appeared only in males but not in females. The present findings thus support the hypothesis that sex dimorphism might be expressed in classical conditioning, or at least, in cue competition effects such as overshadowing and blocking with a taste aversion model.

RevDate: 2021-07-27
CmpDate: 2021-07-27

Lai Y, Despouy E, Sandoz JC, et al (2020)

Degradation of an appetitive olfactory memory via devaluation of sugar reward is mediated by 5-HT signaling in the honey bee.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 173:107278.

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning induces the devaluation of a preferred food through its pairing with a stimulus inducing internal illness. In invertebrates, it is still unclear how this aversive learning impairs the memories of stimuli that had been associated with the appetitive food prior to its devaluation. Here we studied this phenomenon in the honey bee and characterized its neural underpinnings. We first trained bees to associate an odorant (conditioned stimulus, CS) with appetitive fructose solution (unconditioned stimulus, US) using a Pavlovian olfactory conditioning. We then subjected the bees that learned the association to a CTA training during which the antennal taste of fructose solution was contingent or not to the ingestion of quinine solution, which induces malaise a few hours after ingestion. Only the group experiencing contingent fructose stimulation and quinine-based malaise exhibited a decrease in responses to the fructose and a concomitant decrease in odor-specific retention in tests performed 23 h after the original odor conditioning. Furthermore, injection of dopamine- and serotonin-receptor antagonists after CTA learning revealed that this long-term decrease was mediated by serotonergic signaling as its blockade rescued both the responses to fructose and the odor-specific memory 23 h after conditioning. The impairment of a prior CS memory by subsequent CTA conditioning confirms that bees retrieve a devaluated US representation when presented with the CS. Our findings further highlight the importance of serotonergic signaling in aversive learning in the bee and uncover mechanisms underlying aversive memories induced by internal illness in invertebrates.

RevDate: 2021-02-24
CmpDate: 2021-02-24

Molero-Chamizo A, GN Rivera-Urbina (2020)

Taste Processing: Insights from Animal Models.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 25(14):.

Taste processing is an adaptive mechanism involving complex physiological, motivational and cognitive processes. Animal models have provided relevant data about the neuroanatomical and neurobiological components of taste processing. From these models, two important domains of taste responses are described in this review. The first part focuses on the neuroanatomical and neurophysiological bases of olfactory and taste processing. The second part describes the biological and behavioral characteristics of taste learning, with an emphasis on conditioned taste aversion as a key process for the survival and health of many species, including humans.

RevDate: 2021-03-25

Blednov YA, Da Costa A, Mayfield J, et al (2021)

Deletion of Tlr3 reduces acute tolerance to alcohol and alcohol consumption in the intermittent access procedure in male mice.

Addiction biology, 26(2):e12932.

Pharmacological studies implicate toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3) signaling in alcohol drinking. We examined the role of TLR3 in behavioral responses to alcohol and GABAergic drugs by studying Tlr3 -/- mice. Because of opposing signaling between TLR3 and MyD88 pathways, we also evaluated Myd88 -/- mice. Ethanol consumption and preference decreased in male but not in female Tlr3 -/- mice during two-bottle choice every-other-day (2BC-EOD) drinking. There were no genotype differences in either sex during continuous or limited-access drinking. Null mutations in Tlr3 or Myd88 did not alter conditioned taste aversion to alcohol and had small or no effects on conditioned place preference. The Tlr3 null mutation did not alter acute alcohol withdrawal. Male, but not female, Tlr3 -/- mice took longer than wild-type littermates to recover from ataxia by ethanol or diazepam and longer to recover from sedative-hypnotic effects of ethanol or gaboxadol, indicating regulation of GABAergic signaling by TLR3. Acute functional tolerance (AFT) to alcohol-induced ataxia was decreased in Tlr3 -/- mice but was increased in Myd88 -/- mice. Thus, MyD88 and TLR3 pathways coordinately regulate alcohol consumption and tolerance to intoxicating doses of alcohol and GABAergic drugs. Despite similar alcohol metabolism and similar amounts of total alcohol consumed during 2BC and 2BC-EOD procedures in C57BL/6J mice, only 2BC-EOD drinking induced tolerance to alcohol-induced ataxia. Ataxia recovery was inversely correlated with level of drinking in wild-type and Tlr3 -/- littermates. Thus, deleting Tlr3 reduces alcohol consumption by reducing AFT to alcohol and not by altering tolerance induced by 2BC-EOD drinking.

RevDate: 2021-01-27
CmpDate: 2021-01-27

Yamamura T, Nakamura F, Yasuo T, et al (2020)

Effect of the duration of a conditioned stimulus on component recognition in binary taste mixtures in rats.

Journal of oral biosciences, 62(3):267-271.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this behavioral study was to investigate the duration of a conditioned stimulus (CS-duration) necessary for rats to recognize the components of a binary taste mixture in a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm as well as the relationship between CS-duration and their spontaneous recovery.

METHODS: The experimental rats were categorized under conditioned and control groups and further divided into three groups according to the CS-duration: 10, 30, and 60 s. As the test stimuli, a mixture of 100 mM sucrose (S) + 30 μM quinine hydrochloride (Q) and its components were used.

RESULTS: On day 1 of the CTA test, the number of licks (NL) for S + Q and S in all conditioned groups was significantly lower than that of the control group presented with CS for 60 s (CON-60), which was the representative control group determined by the initial CTA test. For Q, there was no significant difference between NL of the CTA group presented with CS for 10 s and that of CON-60; however, NL in the other two CTA groups, i.e., CTA-30 and CTA-60, was significantly lower than that of CON-60. When the rats were presented with a shorter CS-duration, they showed spontaneous recovery earlier depending on the CS-duration.

CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that rats can recognize a binary taste mixture and its components using a CS-duration of more than 30 s and that spontaneous recovery from CTA learning depends on the CS- duration.

RevDate: 2021-06-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-07

Molero-Chamizo A, GN Rivera-Urbina (2020)

Temporal specificity of latent inhibition in rats with daily water restriction prior to taste conditioning.

Acta neurobiologiae experimentalis, 80(2):99-107.

Temporal specificity of latent inhibition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) has been demonstrated after prolonged habituation to temporal contexts in the stages preceding conditioning, and it has been eliminated by restricting consumption during conditioning. However, it is not known if latent inhibition of CTA is still dependent on the temporal context when fluid consumption is limited in the stages prior to conditioning. We tested temporal specificity of latent inhibition in rats with (different time of day for the conditioning stage) and without (same time of day for pre-exposure and conditioning stages) temporal changes on the conditioning day. All animals had limited access to water in the morning sessions of the stages prior to the conditioning day and 15 min of free access to fluid in the evening sessions of these stages. Compared to animals without temporal changes between stages, animals with a different temporal context during conditioning did not show evidence of latent inhibition. Unlike the effects observed after taste stimulus restrictions during conditioning, these results suggest that the temporal specificity of latent inhibition of CTA is not abolished when access to water is limited in the stages preceding conditioning.

RevDate: 2021-09-03
CmpDate: 2021-04-27

Hao L, Kshatriya D, Li X, et al (2020)

Acute feeding suppression and toxicity of raspberry ketone [4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone] in mice.

Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association, 143:111512.

Raspberry ketone (RK; [4-(4-hydroxyphenyl)-2-butanone]) is used by the food and cosmetic industry as a flavoring agent. RK is also marketed as a dietary supplement for weight maintenance and appetite control. The purpose of the study was to characterize the acute feeding suppression with RK (64-640 mg/kg) by oral gavage in male and female C57BL/6J mice. Cumulative 24 h food intake was reduced at 200 mg/kg (24% feeding suppression) in males and reliably reduced at 640 mg/kg (49-77% feeding suppression). Feeding suppression was not associated with pica behavior over the range of doses or conditioned taste aversion. In a separate experiment, a single oral gavage of RK (640 mg/kg) resulted in approximate 43% mortality rate (6 out 14 male mice) within 2 days. Atrophy of white adipose tissue, splenic abnormalities, and thymus involution were noted after 2-4 days after oral gavage RK. Total white blood cell count, lymphocytes, monocytes, eosinophils were significantly lower, while mean red blood cells, hemoglobin, and hematocrit were significantly higher with RK treatment. Our findings indicated a dose-dependent feeding suppression with acute RK, but doses that reliable suppress food intake are associated with pathological changes.

RevDate: 2021-06-16
CmpDate: 2021-06-16

Csikós V, Varró P, Bódi V, et al (2020)

The mycotoxin deoxynivalenol activates GABAergic neurons in the reward system and inhibits feeding and maternal behaviours.

Archives of toxicology, 94(9):3297-3313.

Deoxynivalenol (DON) or vomitoxin, is a trichothecene mycotoxin produced mainly by Fusarium graminearum and culmorum. Mycotoxins or secondary metabolic products of mold fungi are micro-pollutants, which may affect human and animal health. The neuronal and behavioural actions of DON were analysed in the present study. To address, which neurons can be affected by DON, the neuronal activation pattern following intraperitoneal injection of DON (1 mg/kg) was investigated in adult male rats and the results were confirmed in mice, too. DON-induced neuronal activation was assessed by c-Fos immunohistochemistry. DON injection resulted in profound c-Fos activation in only the elements of the reward system, such as the accumbens nucleus, the medial prefrontal cortex, and the ventral tegmental area. Further double labelling studies suggested that GABAergic neurons were activated by DON treatment. To study the behavioural relevance of this activation, we examined the effect of DON on feed intake as an example of reward-driven behaviours. Following DON injection, feed consumption was markedly reduced but returned to normal the following day suggesting an inhibitory action of DON on feed intake without forming taste-aversion. To further test how general the effect of DON on goal-directed behaviours is, its actions on maternal behaviour was also examined. Pup retrieval latencies were markedly increased by DON administration, and DON-treated mother rats spent less time with nursing suggesting reduced maternal motivation. In a supplementary control experiment, DON did not induce conditioned place preference arguing against its addictive or aversive actions. The results imply that acute uptake of the mycotoxin DON can influence the reward circuit of the brain and exert inhibitory actions on goal-directed, reward-driven behaviours. In addition, the results also suggest that DON exposure of mothers may have specific implications.

RevDate: 2021-07-14
CmpDate: 2021-07-14

Huang ACW, Yu YH, He ABH, et al (2020)

Interactions between prelimbic cortex and basolateral amygdala contribute to morphine-induced conditioned taste aversion in conditioning and extinction.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 172:107248.

The consequences of exciting or destroying the prelimbic cortex (PrL) or the basolateral amygdala (BLA) remain unclear, including the effects on morphine-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in the conditioning and extinction phases, plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels, and c-Fos/p-ERK expressions in the subareas of the medial prefrontal cortex (i.e., PrL, infralimbic cortex [IL], cingulate cortex 1 [Cg1]), basolateral amygdala (BLA), central amygdala (CeA), hippocampus (i.e., CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus [DG]), nucleus accumbens (NAc), lateral hypothalamus (LH), and piriform cortex (PC). During conditioning, excitation of the PrL glutamate neurons via NMDA injections disrupted morphine-induced CTA and decreased plasma CORT levels; moreover, c-Fos and p-ERK expression was hyperactive in the PrL and IL but hypoactive in the Cg1 and BLA. In conditioning, excitation of the BLA glutamate neurons via NMDA injections facilitated morphine-induced CTA and increased plasma CORT levels. The expression of c-Fos and p-ERK was hypoactive in the PrL and IL but hyperactive in the BLA. During extinction, lesion of the PrL glutamate neurons via NMDA injections impaired morphine-induced CTA extinction and enhanced plasma CORT levels. The expression of c-Fos and p-ERK was hypoactive in the PrL and IL but hyperactive in the BLA. In extinction, excitation of the PrL glutamatergic neurons via NMDA injections facilitated morphine-induced CTA extinction and did not affect plasma CORT levels; moreover, the expression of c-Fos and p-ERK was hypoactive in the Cg1, PrL, and IL but hyperactive in the BLA. Altogether, the interaction between the PrL and BLA plays a balancing role in morphine-induced CTA conditioning and extinction. During conditioning, the activity of the PrL correlated negatively with plasma CORT secretions, whereas the activity of the BLA correlated positively with the plasma CORT levels. During extinction, the activity of the PrL correlated negatively with plasma CORT secretions; however, the activity of the BLA may be negatively associated with the plasma CORT levels. The data presented here provide some implications for morphine addiction and dependence.

RevDate: 2021-07-09
CmpDate: 2021-07-09

Nakai J, Totani Y, Kojima S, et al (2020)

Features of behavioral changes underlying conditioned taste aversion in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis.

Invertebrate neuroscience : IN, 20(2):8 pii:10.1007/s10158-020-00241-7.

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in the freshwater pulmonate Lymnaea stagnalis can be formed by presenting ten pairings of sucrose as the conditioned stimulus (CS) and KCl as the unconditioned stimulus (US). The CTA is consolidated to long-term memory (LTM) lasting longer than a month. In the present study, we examined the time course of protein synthesis-dependent period during the consolidation of Lymnaea CTA to LTM by pharmacological inhibition of transcription or translation. The robustness for CTA-LTM was then examined by extinction trials, i.e., repeated presentations of the CS alone. Furthermore, we evaluated the effects of the interstimulus interval (ISI) between the presentation of the CS and US. Our findings indicated that the protein synthesis-dependent period coincides with the CTA training. Repeated presentations of the CS alone after establishment of CTA did not extinguish the CTA, demonstrating the robustness of the CTA-LTM. The ISI ranged from 10 s to a few minutes, and there was no inverted U-shaped function between the ISI and the conditioned response (i.e., suppression of feeding). Thus, CTA still formed even when the presentation of the US was delayed. These features of Lymnaea CTA complement the knowledge for mammalian CTA.

RevDate: 2021-07-27
CmpDate: 2021-07-27

Steinfeld MR, ME Bouton (2020)

Context and renewal of habits and goal-directed actions after extinction.

Journal of experimental psychology. Animal learning and cognition, 46(4):408-421.

Instrumental behaviors that are goal-directed actions after moderate amounts of training can become habits after more extended training. Little research has asked how actions and habits are affected by retroactive interference treatments like extinction. The present experiments begin to fill this gap in the literature. In Experiments 1a and 1b, lever pressing in rats was minimally trained (1a) or extensively trained (1b) in one context (Context A), extinguished in a second context (Context B), and then tested in the acquisition context (Context A). Exposure to both contexts was equated and controlled throughout, and the status of the behavior as action or habit was determined by reinforcer devaluation methods (taste aversion conditioning). Results confirmed that action (1a) and habit (1b) renewed with action or habit status, respectively, when they were returned to Context A. Experiments 2a and 2b then similarly tested action and habit after extinction in an ABC renewal paradigm. Here, lever pressing that was trained in Context A and extinguished in Context B renewed as action in Context C regardless of whether it had been an action or habit before extinction. The apparent conversion of habit to action during renewal testing in Context C was consistent with other results suggesting that habits converted to action when the context was changed at the start of extinction. Together, the results suggest that extinction in a second context inhibits instrumental behaviors trained as either actions or habits in a context-specific manner. They also expand on prior findings suggesting that actions transfer across contexts, and that habits do not. A change of context may be sufficient to convert a habit to goal-directed action. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Keating AV, Soto J, Forbes C, et al (2020)

Multi-Methodological Quantitative Taste Assessment of Anti-Tuberculosis Drugs to Support the Development of Palatable Paediatric Dosage Forms.

Pharmaceutics, 12(4):.

The unpalatability of antituberculosis drugs is often cited as a major cause of non-adherence in children, yet limited quantitative taste assessment data are available. The aim of this research was to quantify the bitterness of isoniazid, rifampicin, pyrazinamide, and ethambutol dihydrochloride using two in vivo (a human taste panel and a rat brief-access taste aversion (BATA) model) and one in vitro (sensor) method. The response of the Insent TS-5000Z electronic tongue was compared to the in vivo drug concentration found to elicit and suppress half the maximum taste response (EC50 in human and IC50 in rats). Using dose-relevant concentrations, an overarching rank order of bitterness was derived (rifampicin > ethambutol > pyrazinamid~isoniazid). In vitro, only ethambutol exhibited a linear response for all sensors/concentrations. Based on the EC50/IC50 generated, a 'taste index' was proposed to allow for anticipation of the likelihood of taste issues in practice, taking in account the saturability in the saliva and therapeutic doses; ethambutol and isoniazid were found to be the worst tasting using this measure. The study presents the first quantitative taste analysis of these life-saving drugs and has allowed for a comparison of three methods of obtaining such data. Such information allows the operator to identify and prioritise the drugs requiring taste masking to produce palatable formulations.

RevDate: 2021-01-21
CmpDate: 2021-01-21

Sandoval-Sánchez AR, Cedillo Zavaleta LN, Jiménez JC, et al (2020)

Administration of low doses of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT attenuates the discriminative signal of amphetamine in the conditioned taste aversion procedure.

Pharmacology, biochemistry, and behavior, 193:172932.

Several studies have reported that low doses of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT reduce cocaine-induced locomotor activity. However, it has also been reported that high doses of 8-OH-DPAT do not substitute for or alter the discriminative signal of cocaine (COC) or amphetamine (AMPH). This study aimed to evaluate the effects of low and high doses of the 5-HT1A agonist 8-OH-DPAT on the discriminative signal of AMPH using conditioned taste aversion as a drug discrimination procedure. Additionally, to establish a correlation between the behavioral effects in drug discrimination and changes in dopamine (DA) and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) concentrations, we evaluated the effect of systemic administration of low or high doses of the 5-HT1A receptor agonist 8-OH-DPAT and of the 5-HT1A receptor antagonist WAY100135 on DA and GABA extracellular concentrations in the nucleus accumbens (nAcc) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), respectively, using cerebral microdialysis. The behavioral results showed that low but not high doses of 8-OH-DPAT produced a reduction in the AMPH-induced discriminative signal, while WAY100135 administration prevented such effects. The microdialysis results showed that a low dose of 8-OH-DPAT decreased extracellular DA concentrations in the nAcc and increased GABA concentrations in the VTA. Pretreatment with WAY100135 prevented these effects. These data support the hypothesis that 5-HT1A receptors modulate the behavioral effects of psychostimulant drugs, such as AMPH, through somatodendritic 5-HT1A autoreceptors in the raphe nucleus indicating that 5-HT1A receptors may be an important target for the development of pharmacological treatments for psychostimulant addiction.

RevDate: 2021-05-24
CmpDate: 2021-05-24

Nakajima S (2020)

Effect of pretrial running on running-based taste aversion learning in rats.

Journal of experimental psychology. Animal learning and cognition, 46(3):273-285.

Voluntary wheel running works as an effective unconditioned stimulus (US) to establish conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in rats with a preceding taste solution as a conditioned stimulus (CS): repeated CS-US pairings evoke avoidance of the CS in the two-choice (CS vs. tap water) test administered at the end of the training. Experiment 1 demonstrated that exposure to running immediately before each CS-US trial alleviates CTA. Subsequent two experiments explored the characteristics of the proximal US-preexposure effect: the alleviation of CTA by the pretrial running was not affected by changing the background contexts between the pretrial and the trial running (Experiment 2) or by signaling the pretrial running via another taste cue (Experiment 3). These results indicate the robustness of the proximal US-preexposure effect and fit well with the predictions of Wagner's (1976, 1978) priming theory. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2020 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2021-06-18
CmpDate: 2021-06-18

Totani Y, Nakai J, Dyakonova VE, et al (2020)

Induction of LTM following an Insulin Injection.

eNeuro, 7(2):.

The pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis learns conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and consolidates it into long-term memory (LTM). One-day food-deprived snails (day 1 snails) show the best CTA learning and memory, whereas more severely food-deprived snails (5 d) do not express good memory. However, previous studies showed that CTA-LTM was indeed formed in 5-d food-deprived snails (day 5 snails), but its recall was prevented by the effects of food deprivation. CTA-LTM recall in day 5 snails was expressed following 7 d of feeding and then 1 d of food deprivation (day 13 snails). In the present study, we thus hypothesized that memory recall occurs because day 13 snails are in an optimal internal state. One day of food deprivation before the memory test in day 13 snails increased the mRNA level of molluscan insulin-related peptide (MIP) in the CNS. Thus, we further hypothesized that an injection of insulin into day 5 snails following seven additional days with access to food (day 12 snails) activates CTA neurons and mimics the food deprivation state before the memory test in day 13 snails. Day 12 snails injected with insulin could recall the memory. In addition, the simultaneous injection of an anti-insulin receptor antibody and insulin into day 12 snails did not allow memory recall. Insulin injection also decreased the hemolymph glucose concentration. Together, the results suggest that an optimal internal state (i.e., a spike in insulin release and specific glucose levels) are necessary for LTM recall following CTA training in snails.

RevDate: 2021-08-10
CmpDate: 2021-08-10

Amaya KA, Stott JJ, KS Smith (2020)

Sign-tracking behavior is sensitive to outcome devaluation in a devaluation context-dependent manner: implications for analyzing habitual behavior.

Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.), 27(4):136-149.

Motivationally attractive cues can draw in behavior in a phenomenon termed incentive salience. Incentive cue attraction is an important model for animal models of drug seeking and relapse. One question of interest is the extent to which the pursuit of motivationally attractive cues is related to the value of the paired outcome or can become unrelated and habitual. We studied this question using a sign-tracking (ST) paradigm in rats, in which a lever stimulus preceding food reward comes to elicit conditioned lever-interaction behavior. We asked whether reinforcer devaluation by means of conditioned taste aversion, a classic test of habitual behavior, can modify ST to incentive cues, and whether this depends upon the manner in which reinforcer devaluation takes place. In contrast to several recent reports, we conclude that ST is indeed sensitive to reinforcer devaluation. However, this effect depends critically upon the congruence between the context in which taste aversion is learned and the context in which it is tested. When the taste aversion successfully transfers to the testing context, outcome value strongly influences ST behavior, both when the outcome is withheld (in extinction) and when animals can learn from outcome feedback (reacquisition). When taste aversion does not transfer to the testing context, ST remains high. In total, the extent to which ST persists after outcome devaluation is closely related to the extent to which that outcome is truly devalued in the task context. We believe this effect of context on devaluation can reconcile contradictory findings about the flexibility/inflexibility of ST. We discuss this literature and relate our findings to the study of habits generally.

RevDate: 2020-09-08
CmpDate: 2020-09-08

Xu LH, Yang Y, Liu HX, et al (2020)

Inner Ear Arginine Vasopressin-Vasopressin Receptor 2-Aquaporin 2 Signaling Pathway Is Involved in the Induction of Motion Sickness.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 373(2):248-260.

It has been identified that arginine vasopressin (AVP), vasopressin receptor 2(V2R), and the aquaporin 2 (AQP2) signaling pathway in the inner ear play important roles in hearing and balance functions through regulating the endolymph equilibrium; however, the contributions of this signaling pathway to the development of motion sickness are unclear. The present study was designed to investigate whether the activation of the AVP-V2R-AQP2 signaling pathway in the inner ear is involved in the induction of motion sickness and whether mozavaptan, a V2R antagonist, could reduce motion sickness. We found that both rotatory stimulus and intraperitoneal AVP injection induced conditioned taste aversion (a confirmed behavioral index for motion sickness) in rats and activated the AVP-V2R-AQP2 signaling pathway with a responsive V2R downregulation in the inner ears, and AVP perfusion in cultured epithelial cells from rat endolymphatic sacs induced similar changes in this pathway signaling. Vestibular training, V2R antagonist mozavaptan, or PKA inhibitor H89 blunted these changes in the V2R-AQP2 pathway signaling while reducing rotatory stimulus- or DDAVP (a V2R agonist)-induced motion sickness in rats and dogs. Therefore, our results suggest that activation of the inner ear AVP-V2R-AQP2 signaling pathway is potentially involved in the development of motion sickness; thus, mozavaptan targeting AVP V2Rs in the inner ear may provide us with a new application option to reduce motion sickness. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Motion sickness affects many people traveling or working. In the present study our results showed that activation of the inner ear arginine vasopressin-vaspopressin receptor 2 (V2R)-aquaporin 2 signaling pathway was potentially involved in the development of motion sickness and that blocking V2R with mozavaptan, a V2R antagonist, was much more effective in reducing motion sickness in both rat and dog; therefore, we demonstrated a new mechanism to underlie motion sickness and a new candidate drug to reduce motion sickness.

RevDate: 2021-05-25
CmpDate: 2021-05-25

László BR, Hormay E, Szabó I, et al (2020)

Disturbance of taste reactivity and other behavioral alterations after bilateral interleukin-1β microinjection into the cingulate cortex of the rat.

Behavioural brain research, 383:112537.

The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), is known to be intimately involved in food-related motivational processes and their behavioral organization, primarily by evaluating hedonic properties of the relevant stimuli. In the present study, the involvement of cingulate cortical interleukin-1β (IL-1β) mediated mechanisms in a) gustation associated facial and somato-motor behavioral patterns of Wistar rats were examined in taste reactivity test (TR). In addition, b) conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm was performed to investigate the role of these cytokine mechanisms in taste sensation associated learning processes, c) the general locomotor activity of the animals was observed in open field test (OPF), and d) the potentially negative reinforcing effect of IL-1β was examined in conditioned place preference test (CPP). During the TR test, species specific behavioral patterns in response to the five basic tastes were analyzed. Response rates of ingestive and aversive patterns of the cytokine treated and the control groups differed significantly in case of the weaker bitter (QHCl, 0.03 mM), and the stronger umami (MSG, 0.5 M) tastes. IL-1β itself did not elicit CTA, it did not interfere with the acquisition of LiCl induced CTA, and it also failed to cause place preference or aversion in the CPP test. In the OPF paradigm, however, significant differences were found between the cytokine treated and the control groups in the rearing and grooming, the number of crossings, and in the distance moved. Our results indicate the involvement of cingulate cortical IL-1β mechanisms in the control of taste perception and other relevant behavioral processes.

RevDate: 2020-12-13
CmpDate: 2020-03-31

Chia J, K Scott (2020)

Activation of specific mushroom body output neurons inhibits proboscis extension and sucrose consumption.

PloS one, 15(1):e0223034.

The ability to modify behavior based on prior experience is essential to an animal's survival. For example, animals may become attracted to a previously neutral odor or reject a previously appetitive food source based on previous encounters. In Drosophila, the mushroom bodies (MBs) are critical for olfactory associative learning and conditioned taste aversion, but how the output of the MBs affects specific behavioral responses is unresolved. In conditioned taste aversion, Drosophila shows a specific behavioral change upon learning: proboscis extension to sugar is reduced after a sugar stimulus is paired with an aversive stimulus. While studies have identified MB output neurons (MBONs) that drive approach or avoidance behavior, whether the same MBONs impact innate proboscis extension behavior is unknown. Here, we tested the role of MB pathways in altering proboscis extension and identified MBONs that synapse onto multiple MB compartments that upon activation significantly decreased proboscis extension to sugar. Activating several of these lines also decreased sugar consumption, revealing that these MBONs have a general role in modifying feeding behavior beyond proboscis extension. The MBONs that decreased proboscis extension and ingestion are different from those that drive avoidance behavior in another context. These studies provide insight into how activation of MB output neurons decreases proboscis extension to taste compounds.

RevDate: 2021-07-23
CmpDate: 2020-09-22

Derman RC, Bass CE, CR Ferrario (2020)

Effects of hM4Di activation in CamKII basolateral amygdala neurons and CNO treatment on sensory-specific vs. general PIT: refining PIT circuits and considerations for using CNO.

Psychopharmacology, 237(5):1249-1266.

BACKGROUND: Pavlovian stimuli can influence instrumental behaviors via phenomena such as Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT). PIT arises via dissociable processes as sensory-specific PIT (SS-PIT) and general PIT. The basolateral amygdala (BLA) mediates SS-PIT, but not general PIT. However, the specific BLA neuronal populations involved are unknown.

AIMS: To determine the contribution of glutamatergic BLA neurons to the expression of SS-PIT and to the recall of sensory-specific properties of stimulus-outcome associations.

METHODS: BLA neurons were transduced with virus containing either GFP or hM4Di, driven by the CamKII promoter. Rats were then tested for SS and general PIT and subsequently for expression of Pavlovian outcome devaluation effects and conditioned taste aversion following injections of vehicle or clozapine-N-oxide (CNO, the hM4Di agonist).

RESULTS: CNO selectively blocked SS-PIT in the hM4Di-expressing group, but not controls, without altering expression of Pavlovian outcome devaluation or sensory-specific taste aversion in either group. Unexpectedly, CNO disrupted general PIT in both groups.

CONCLUSIONS: CamKII BLA neurons mediate the expression of SS-PIT by enabling Pavlovian stimuli to trigger recall of the correct action-outcome associations rather than by mediating recall of the sensory-specific properties of the stimulus-outcome association. Separately, our data demonstrate that CNO alone is sufficient to disrupt affective, but not sensory-specific processes, an effect that was not due to generalized motor disruption. This non-specific effect on general PIT may be related to CNO-induced shifts in internal state. Together, these data identify BLA CamKII neurons as critical for the expression of SS-PIT and reveal important considerations for using CNO to study general affective motivation.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Liu DW, Ma L, Zhang XH, et al (2019)

Conditioned taste aversion memory extinction temporally induces insular cortical BDNF release and inhibits neuronal apoptosis.

Neuropsychiatric disease and treatment, 15:2403-2414.

Background: Memory extinction has been reported to be related to psychiatric disorders, such as post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Secretion and synthesis of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) have been shown to temporally regulate various memory processes via activation of tropomyosin-related kinase B (TrkB) receptors. However, whether memory extinction induces the synthesis and secretion of BDNF on the basis of its localization is not understood. In this study, we aim to investigate activity-dependent BDNF secretion and synthesis in the insular cortex (IC) in the setting of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory extinction.

Materials and methods: Rats were subjected to CTA memory extinction and BDNF antibody (or the equal volume of vehicle) was microinjected into the IC immediately after the extinction testing. Real-time polymerase chain reaction and in situ hybridization were used to detect the gene expression of BDNF, NGF and NT4. The protein levels of BDNF were determined through the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. In addition, the levels of phosphorylated TrkB normalized to total TrkB were evaluated using immunoprecipitation and immunoblotting. c-Fos, total extracellular signal-regulated kinase (Erk), phosphorylated Erk, and apoptosis-related protein (caspase-3), were detected by Western blotting.

Results: We found that blocking BDNF signaling within the IC disrupts CTA extinction, suggesting that BDNF signaling in the IC is necessary for CTA extinction. Increased expression levels of c-Fos indicate the induced neuronal activity in the IC during CTA extinction. In addition, temporal changes in the gene expression and protein levels of BDNF in the IC were noted during extinction. Moreover, we found that phosphorylation of TrkB increased prior to the enhanced BDNF expression, suggesting that CTA extinction induces rapid activity-dependent BDNF secretion in the IC. Finally, we found decreased expression of caspase-3 in the IC after CTA extinction.

Conclusion: These results demonstrate that CTA memory extinction temporally induces the release and synthesis of BDNF in the IC and inhibits neuronal apoptosis.

RevDate: 2021-03-02
CmpDate: 2021-01-19

Bouton ME, Broomer MC, Rey CN, et al (2020)

Unexpected food outcomes can return a habit to goal-directed action.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 169:107163.

Three experiments examined the return of a habitual instrumental response to the status of goal-directed action. In all experiments, rats received extensive training in which lever pressing was reinforced with food pellets on a random-interval schedule of reinforcement. In Experiment 1, the extensively-trained response was not affected by conditioning a taste aversion to the reinforcer, and was therefore considered a habit. However, if the response had earned a new and unexpected food pellet during the final training session, the response was affected by taste aversion conditioning to the (first) reinforcer, and had thus been converted to a goal-directed action. In Experiment 3, 30 min of prefeeding with an irrelevant food pellet immediately before the test also converted a habit back to action, as judged by the taste-aversion devaluation method. That result was consistent with difficulty in finding evidence of habit with the sensory-specific satiety method after extensive instrumental training (Experiment 2). The results suggest that an instrumental behavior's status as a habit is not permanent, and that a habit can be returned to action status by associating it with a surprising reinforcer (Experiment 1) or by giving the animal an unexpected prefeeding immediately prior to the action/habit test (Experiment 3).

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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