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29 Sep 2023 at 02:00
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Bibliography on: Taste-Aversion Learning


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 29 Sep 2023 at 02:00 Created: 

Taste-Aversion Learning

The notion of "conditioned taste aversions" refers to animals' ability to preferentially associate taste with illness, despite the passage of a significant time between ingestion and illness. When first described, this pattern seemed so at variance with the tenets of classical learning theory that one early reviewer claimed "results like that are no more likely than birdshit in a cuckoo clock." Now, however, the reality of the phenomenon is well established and has demonstrated relevance in practical areas ranging from rodent control to chemotherapy.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "taste aversion" OR "bait shyness" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-09-28

Nakai J, Namiki K, Fujimoto K, et al (2023)

FOXO in Lymnaea: Its Probable Involvement in Memory Consolidation.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091201.

Food deprivation activates forkhead box O (FOXO), a transcription factor downstream of insulin receptors. In the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, insulin signaling and food deprivation improve memory consolidation following conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning. We investigated the subcellular localization of FOXO in Lymnaea and changes in its expression levels following food deprivation, CTA learning, and insulin administration. Immunohistochemistry revealed that Lymnaea FOXO (LymFOXO) was located in the central nervous system (CNS) neuronal cytoplasm in food-satiated snails but was mainly in neuronal nuclei in food-deprived snails. Following CTA acquisition, LymFOXO translocated to the nuclei in food-satiated snails and remained in the nuclei in food-deprived snails. Contrary to our expectations, insulin administered to the CNS did not induce LymFOXO translocation into the nuclei in food-satiated snails. Real-time PCR was used to quantify LymFOXO mRNA levels, its target genes, and insulin signaling pathway genes and revealed that LymFOXO mRNA was upregulated in food-deprived snails compared to food-satiated snails. Insulin applied to isolated CNSs from food-satiated snails increased LymFOXO compared to vehicle-treated samples. Food deprivation prepares FOXO to function in the nucleus and enhances CTA learning in snails. Insulin application did not directly affect LymFOXO protein localization. Thus, insulin administration may stimulate pathways other than the LymFOXO cascade.

RevDate: 2023-09-25

Ramirez LA, Przybysz KR, Pitock JR, et al (2023)

Attenuated incubation of ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in a model of dependence.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.09.13.557582.

RATIONALE: Preclinical studies report attenuated ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) following chronic ethanol exposure, suggesting that tolerance develops to the aversive properties of ethanol. However, these studies are confounded by pre-exposure to the unconditioned stimulus (US; ethanol), which is well known to hinder conditioning.

OBJECTIVES: This study was designed to determine whether chronic ethanol exposure produces tolerance to the aversive properties of ethanol in the absence of a US pre-exposure confound.

METHODS: CTA was performed in adult male and female Long-Evans rats by pairing 0.1% ingested saccharin with an intraperitoneal injection of ethanol (1.5 or 2.0 g/kg) or saline. Rats were then rendered ethanol dependent using chronic intermittent ethanol (CIE) vapor exposure. Controls were exposed to room air (AIR). The effect of chronic ethanol on CTA expression and reconditioning were examined following vapor exposure.

RESULTS: Prior to vapor exposure, both sexes developed CTA to a comparable degree with 2.0 g/kg producing greater CTA than 1.5 g/kg ethanol. Following vapor exposure, AIR controls exhibited an increase in CTA magnitude compared to pre-vapor levels. This effect was absent in CIE-exposed rats. These group differences were eliminated upon re-conditioning after vapor exposure.

CONCLUSIONS: These data suggest that chronic ethanol does not facilitate tolerance to the aversive properties of ethanol but rather, attenuates incubation of ethanol-induced CTA. Loss of CTA incubation suggests that CIE exposure disrupts circuits encoding aversion.

RevDate: 2023-09-15

Barnhart WR, Dial LA, Jordan AK, et al (2023)

Higher meal disengagement and meal presentation are uniquely related to psychological distress and lower quality of life in undergraduate students.

Journal of American college health : J of ACH [Epub ahead of print].

Objective: Picky eating, which occurs in emerging adulthood and is associated with psychological distress and quality of life, has historically been conceptualized as unidimensional despite research suggesting it is a multifaceted construct. Participants: An undergraduate sample (N = 509; Mage = 19.96). Methods: A cross-sectional survey assessed picky eating facets (food variety, meal disengagement, meal presentation, and taste aversion), disordered eating, anxiety, depression, stress, obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD), and social phobia symptoms, and quality of life. Results: Meal disengagement was uniquely related to higher anxiety, depression, stress, and social phobia symptoms and lower quality of life, whereas meal presentation was uniquely related to higher anxiety, stress, and OCD symptoms, beyond covariates and disordered eating. Food variety and taste aversion were not uniquely related to outcomes. Conclusions: Considering picky eating multidimensionally may yield important insights beyond the broader construct in terms of its relationship with psychological well-being in undergraduates.

RevDate: 2023-08-26

Rivi V, Batabyal A, Lukowiak K, et al (2023)

LPS-Induced Garcia Effect and Its Pharmacological Regulation Mediated by Acetylsalicylic Acid: Behavioral and Transcriptional Evidence.

Biology, 12(8): pii:biology12081100.

Lymnaea stagnalis learns and remembers to avoid certain foods when their ingestion is followed by sickness. This rapid, taste-specific, and long-lasting aversion-known as the Garcia effect-can be formed by exposing snails to a novel taste and 1 h later injecting them with lipopolysaccharide (LPS). However, the exposure of snails to acetylsalicylic acid (ASA) for 1 h before the LPS injection, prevents both the LPS-induced sickness state and the Garcia effect. Here, we investigated novel aspects of this unique form of conditioned taste aversion and its pharmacological regulation. We first explored the transcriptional effects in the snails' central nervous system induced by the injection with LPS (25 mg), the exposure to ASA (900 nM), as well as their combined presentation in untrained snails. Then, we investigated the behavioral and molecular mechanisms underlying the LPS-induced Garcia effect and its pharmacological regulation by ASA. LPS injection, both alone and during the Garcia effect procedure, upregulated the expression levels of immune- and stress-related targets. This upregulation was prevented by pre-exposure to ASA. While LPS alone did not affect the expression levels of neuroplasticity genes, its combination with the conditioning procedure resulted in their significant upregulation and memory formation for the Garcia effect.

RevDate: 2023-05-19

Gao ZY, Huang CM, Cheng CN, et al (2023)

D2 Receptors and Sodium Ion Channel Blockades of the Basolateral Amygdala Attenuate Lithium Chloride-Induced Conditioned Taste Aversion Applying to Cancer Chemotherapy Nausea and Vomiting.

Brain sciences, 13(4):.

Cancer patients regularly suffer from the behavioral symptoms of chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting. Particularly, it is involved in Pavlovian conditioning. Lithium chloride (LiCl) was used as the unconditioned stimulus (US) and contingent with the tastant, for example, a saccharin solution (i.e., the conditioned stimulus; CS), resulted in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to the CS intake. The present study employed an animal model of LiCl-induced CTA to imitate chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting symptoms. Recently, the basolateral amygdala (BLA) was shown to mediate LiCl-induced CTA learning; however, which brain mechanisms of the BLA regulate CTA by LiCl remain unknown. The present study was designed to test this issue, and 4% lidocaine or D2 blocker haloperidol were microinjected into BLA between the 0.1% saccharin solution intake and 0.15M LiCl. The results showed lidocaine microinjections into the BLA could attenuate the LiCl-induced CTA. Microinjections of haloperidol blunted the CTA learning by LiCl. Altogether, BLA via the sodium chloride ion channel and D2 receptors control LiCl-induced conditioned saccharin solution intake suppression. The findings can provide some implications and contributions to cancer chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting side effects, and will help to develop novel strategies to prevent the side effects of cancer chemotherapy.

RevDate: 2023-03-17
CmpDate: 2023-01-20

Kolatt Chandran S, Yiannakas A, Kayyal H, et al (2023)

Intrinsic Excitability in Layer IV-VI Anterior Insula to Basolateral Amygdala Projection Neurons Correlates with the Confidence of Taste Valence Encoding.

eNeuro, 10(1):.

Avoiding potentially harmful, and consuming safe food is crucial for the survival of living organisms. However, the perceived valence of sensory information can change following conflicting experiences. Pleasurability and aversiveness are two crucial parameters defining the perceived valence of a taste and can be impacted by novelty. Importantly, the ability of a given taste to serve as the conditioned stimulus (CS) in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is dependent on its valence. Activity in anterior insula (aIC) Layer IV-VI pyramidal neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdala (BLA) is correlated with and necessary for CTA learning and retrieval, as well as the expression of neophobia toward novel tastants, but not learning taste familiarity. Yet, the cellular mechanisms underlying the updating of taste valence representation in this specific pathway are poorly understood. Here, using retrograde viral tracing and whole-cell patch-clamp electrophysiology in trained mice, we demonstrate that the intrinsic properties of deep-lying Layer IV-VI, but not superficial Layer I-III aIC-BLA neurons, are differentially modulated by both novelty and valence, reflecting the subjective predictability of taste valence arising from prior experience. These correlative changes in the profile of intrinsic properties of LIV-VI aIC-BLA neurons were detectable following both simple taste experiences, as well as following memory retrieval, extinction learning, and reinstatement.

RevDate: 2023-07-05

Nakajima S, Umemoto S, T Nagaishi (2023)

Food avoidance learning based on swimming in laboratory mice (Mus musculus).

Behavioural processes pii:S0376-6357(23)00092-X [Epub ahead of print].

Although it is now well documented that laboratory rats learn to avoid the flavored substance consumed immediately before running in activity wheels or swimming in water buckets, research on this activity-based flavor avoidance learning in other species is limited. Recently, running-based flavor avoidance learning has been demonstrated in laboratory mice by employing a method of resistance-to-habituation of neophobic reaction to novel food; mice that repeatedly experience running after encountering a novel food have a prolonged tendency to reject that food compared to control mice without paired running. The present article reports a series of attempts to obtain evidence of flavor avoidance learning based on swimming rather than running using this resistance-to-habituation method. Swimming-based flavor avoidance was clearly demonstrated in a differential conditioning paradigm; however, its demonstration in a simple conditioning paradigm requires a post-training choice test of the target food and another type of food. These results are likely due to the short swimming time (20min) and the formation of weak flavor aversion.

RevDate: 2023-06-29

Kagan D, Hollings J, Batabyal A, et al (2023)

Five-minute exposure to a novel appetitive food substance is sufficient time for a microRNA-dependent long-term memory to form.

Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology [Epub ahead of print].

The Garcia effect is a unique form of conditioned taste aversion which requires that a novel food stimulus be followed sometime later by a sickness state associated with the novel food stimulus. The long-lasting associative memory resulting from the Garcia effect ensures that organisms avoid toxic foods in their environment. Considering its ecological relevance, we sought to investigate whether a brief encounter (5 min) with a novel, appetitive food stimulus can cause a persisting long-term memory (LTM) to form that would in turn block the Garcia effect in Lymnaea stagnalis. Furthermore, we wanted to explore whether that persisting LTM could be modified by the alteration of microRNAs via an injection of poly-L-lysine (PLL), an inhibitor of Dicer-mediated microRNA biogenesis. The Garcia effect procedure involved two observations of feeding behavior in carrot separated by a heat stress (30 °C for 1 h). Exposing snails to carrot for 5 min caused a LTM to form and persist for 1 week, effectively preventing the Garcia effect in snails. In contrast, PLL injection following the 5-min carrot exposure impaired LTM formation, allowing the Garcia effect to occur. These results provide more insight into LTM formation and the Garcia effect, an important survival mechanism.

RevDate: 2023-06-23

Su S, Wei Z, Huang H, et al (2023)

Conditioned nausea induced by cisplatin and emetine identified by a taste reactivity test in rats.

Physiology & behavior pii:S0031-9384(23)00203-2 [Epub ahead of print].

No prior studies have shown that gaping reactions are produced with the avoidance of conditioned taste caused by cisplatin and emetine. Therefore, we tried to demonstrate it using a taste reactivity test in rats and found the gaping reactions induced when saccharin is readministered after gustatory conditioning that paired saccharin with cisplatin or emetine. Since conditioned gaping reactions indicate the aversion to saccharin taste and conditioned nausea, the present study suggest that the taste aversion is induced by cisplatin and emetine. It was also found that with intraperitoneal injections of emetine alone, gaping almost never occurs.

RevDate: 2023-06-19

Przybysz KR, Ramirez LA, Pitock JR, et al (2023)

A translational rodent model of individual differences in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.06.08.544209.

BACKGROUND: A strong relationship exists between individual sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol and risk for alcohol use disorder (AUD). Despite this, our understanding of the neurobiological mechanisms underlying subjective response to ethanol is relatively poor. A major contributor to this is the absence of preclinical models that enable exploration of this individual variability similar to studies performed in humans.

METHODS: Adult male and female Long-Evans rats were trained to associate a novel tastant (saccharin) with acute exposure to either saline or ethanol (1.5 g/kg or 2.0 g/kg i.p.) over three conditioning days using a standard conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure. Variability in sensitivity to ethanol-induced CTA was phenotypically characterized using a median split across the populations studied.

RESULTS: When examining group averages, both male and female rats that had saccharin paired with either dose of ethanol exhibited reduced saccharin intake relative to saline controls of ethanol-induced CTA. Examination of individual data revealed a bimodal distribution of responses uncovering two distinct phenotypes present in both sexes. CTA-sensitive rats exhibited a rapid and progressive reduction in saccharin intake with each successive ethanol pairing. In contrast, saccharin intake was unchanged or maintained after an initial decrease from baseline levels in CTA-resistant rats. While CTA magnitude was similar between male and female CTA-sensitive rats, CTA-resistant females were more resistant to the development of ethanol-induced CTA than their male counterparts. Phenotypic differences were not driven by differences in baseline saccharin intake. CTA sensitivity correlated with behavioral signs of intoxication in only a subset of rats.

CONCLUSIONS: These data parallel work in humans by revealing individual differences in sensitivity to the aversive properties of ethanol that emerge immediately after initial exposure to ethanol in both sexes. This model can be leveraged in future studies to investigate the neurobiological mechanisms that confer risk for AUD.

RevDate: 2023-06-12

Cote JM, Hood A, Kwon B, et al (2023)

Behavioral and neural responses to high strength magnetic fields are reduced in otolith mutant mice.

American journal of physiology. Regulatory, integrative and comparative physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Static high magnetic fields (MFs) interact with the vestibular system of humans and rodents. In rats and mice, exposure to MFs causes perturbations such as head movements, circular locomotion, suppressed rearing, nystagmus, and conditioned taste aversion acquisition. To test the role of otoconia, two mutant mouse models were examined: head-tilt Nox3[het] (het) and tilted Opt1[tlt] (tlt), with mutations respectively in Nox3, encoding the NADPH oxidase 3 enzyme, and Opt1, encoding the opterin1 proton channel, which are normally expressed in the otolith organs, and are critical for otoconia formation. Consequently, both mutants show a near complete loss of otoconia in the utricle and saccule, and are non-responsive to linear acceleration. Mice were exposed to a 14.1 T MF for 30 min. After exposure, locomotor activity, conditioned taste aversion and c-Fos (in het) were assessed. Wild-type mice exposed to the MF showed suppressed rearing, increased latency to rear, locomotor circling, and c-Fos in brainstem nuclei related to vestibular processing (prepositus, spinal vestibular, and supragenual nuclei). Mutant het mice showed no response to the magnet and were similar to sham animals in all assays. Unlike het, tlt mutants exposed to the MF showed significant locomotor circling and suppressed rearing compared to sham controls, although they failed to acquire a taste aversion. The residual responsiveness of tlt vs het mice might reflect a greater semicircular deficit in het mice. These results demonstrate the necessity of the otoconia for the full effect of exposure to high MFs, but also suggest a semicircular contribution.

RevDate: 2023-04-28

Yu YH, Tsai AC, Ou CY, et al (2023)

Optogenetic stimulation in the medial prefrontal cortex modulates stimulus valence from rewarding and aversive to neutral states.

Frontiers in psychiatry, 14:1119803.

INTRODUCTION: Understanding the modulations of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in the valence of the stimulus from rewarding and aversive status to neutral status is crucial for the development of novel treatments for drug addiction. This study addressed this issue and examined whether optogenetic ChR2 photostimulation in the cingulate, prelimbic, and infralimbic cortices of the mPFC regulated the valence of saccharin solution consumption from the rewarding property, the aversive property induced by morphine's conditioning, and the neutral states via saccharin extinction processes after morphine's conditioning.

METHODS: All rats received virus infection, buried optical fiber, optical stimulation, water deprivation, and saccharin solution consumption phases. In Experiment 1, rats were given ChR2 virus infection into the cingulate cortex (Cg1), prelimbic cortex (PrL), and infralimbic cortex (IL) to influence the rewarding saccharin solution consumption under photostimulation. In Experiment 2, rats were given ChR2 or EYFP virus infection into the Cg1, PrL, and IL to alter the saccharin solution consumption in the morphine-induced aversively conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and the saccharin solution consumption in the neutral state following the extinction process under photostimulation. Later, the immunohistochemical staining with c-Fos protein was performed for the Cg1, IL, PrL, nucleus accumbens core, nucleus accumbens shell, central amygdala, basolateral amygdala, ventral tegmental area, and dentate gyrus.

RESULTS: The results showed that optogenetic PrL stimulation decreased the rewarding valence of saccharin solution consumption and increased the morphine-induced, aversive valence of saccharin solution consumption. PrL stimulation decreased the neutral valence of saccharin solution consumption via the extinction process. Cg1 optogenetic stimulation increased the rewarding valence of saccharin solution consumption and the aversive valence of saccharin solution consumption induced by morphine in conditioning. Optogenetic IL stimulation increased the aversive valence of saccharin solution consumption induced by morphine via conditioning.

CONCLUSION: Altogether, optogenetic stimulation in the subareas of the mPFC modulated the reward, aversion, and neutral valences of the stimulus and altered neuronal activity in the mPFC, amygdala, nucleus accumbens, and hippocampus. Notably, the change of valence was temporary alternation during light-on related to the light-off periods. However, the findings may provide insights in the development of novel treatments for addictive symptoms.

RevDate: 2023-03-12

Chen A, Wang R, Kang Y, et al (2023)

Tongue-brain-transported ZnO NPs induced abnormal taste perception.

Advanced healthcare materials [Epub ahead of print].

Nanoparticles (NPs) can be transported to the brain, especially the nerve, because of their small size and high biological activity. Our previous studies confirmed that zinc oxide (ZnO) NPs could enter the brain through the tongue-brain pathway, but it is unclear whether they would further affect synaptic transmission and brain perception. In this study, we found that tongue-brain-transported ZnO NPs could cause a decrease in taste sensitivity and taste aversion learning ability, indicating abnormal taste perception. Moreover, the release of miniature excitatory postsynaptic currents, the frequency of action potential release and the expression of c-fos were decreased, suggesting that the synaptic transmission was reduced. To further explore the mechanism, we carried out protein chip detection of inflammatory factors and found that neuroinflammation occurs. Importantly, we found that neuroinflammation originated from neurons. The JAK-STAT signaling pathway was activated, which inhibited the Neurexin1-PSD95-Neurologigin1 pathway and c-fos expression. Blocking the activation of the JAK-STAT pathway prevented neuroinflammation and the reduction in Neurexin1-PSD95-Neurologigin1. These results indicate that ZnO NPs could be transported by the tongue-brain pathway and lead to abnormal taste perception by neuroinflammation-induced deficits in synaptic transmission. Our study reveals the influence of ZnO NPs on neuronal function and provides a novel mechanism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Miranda MI, Alcalá A, Vera-Rivera G, et al (2023)

Differential effects of thirst and satiety on conditioned taste aversion acquisition, retrieval, and memory extinction.

Physiology & behavior pii:S0031-9384(23)00071-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Thirst is an essential motivational component that could modulate the strength of conditioning; pioneer studies show that the rats' sexual dimorphism observed in the rate of aversive memory extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is affected by the state of fluid deprivation. On the other hand, previous evidence suggests that fluid intake volume and temporal context before and during conditioning may influence CTA. Furthermore, although CTA has been demonstrated using various types of stimuli, neural processing and homeostatic regulation of water and nutritional balance may differ depending on the stimulus used and the conditioning stages. Therefore, this study explored the effects of state motivated by thirst and satiation, using saccharin, as a non-caloric sweet stimulus, during CTA and the aversive memory extinction process under similar contextual and temporal conditions. First, we implemented an ad libitum water protocol in male and female adult rats to evaluate saccharin aversive memory formation; we compared this with a traditional CTA with liquid deprivation in the same context and temporal consumption conditions. Furthermore, we evaluated whether liquid satiety affects the acquisition or the aversive memory retrieval differentially. Our results show that the ad libitum liquid regimen allows reliable quantifications of basal water consumption, monitored every hour for more than five days. We observed a reliable CTA, where the magnitude of aversive memory and its extinction is significantly higher in both male and female rats; the strong CTA observed is substantially due to the satiety state during taste aversion memory retrieval. Our data show that although liquid deprivation does not affect CTA acquisition, it does induce weakness in the magnitude of aversive retrieval expression and fast aversive memory extinction, similarly in male and females. Overall, the results indicate that the need to satiate the demand for liquids during retrieval prevails over the conditioned aversion learned, suggesting, that thirst is a source of temporary variables dominating the aversive responses during CTA retrieval.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Arthurs J, Pauli J, RD Palmiter (2023)

Activation of parabrachial tachykinin 1 neurons counteracts some behaviors mediated by parabrachial CGRP neurons.

Neuroscience pii:S0306-4522(23)00119-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Many threats activate parabrachial neurons expressing calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP[PBN]) which transmit alarm signals to forebrain regions. Most CGRP[PBN] neurons also express tachykinin 1 (Tac1), but there are also Tac1-expressing neurons in the PBN that do not express CGRP (Tac1+;CGRP- neurons). Chemogenetic or optogenetic activation of all Tac1[PBN] neurons in mice elicited many physiological/behavioral responses resembling the activation of CGRP[PBN] neurons, e.g., anorexia, jumping on a hot plate, avoidance of photostimulation; however, two key responses opposed activation of CGRP[PBN] neurons. Activating Tac1[PBN] neurons did not produce conditioned taste aversion and it elicited dynamic escape behaviors rather than freezing. Activating Tac1+;CGRP- neurons, using an intersectional genetic targeting approach, resembles activating all Tac1[PBN] neurons. These results reveal that activation of Tac1+;CGRP- neurons can suppress some functions attributed to the CGRP[PBN] neurons, which provides a mechanism to bias behavioral responses to threats.

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Muñiz Moreno J, I Loy (2023)

Taste aversion learning in the snail Cornu aspersum.

Animal cognition [Epub ahead of print].

The present study was conducted to provide evidence of conditioned taste aversion learning (CTA) in the snail Cornu aspersum, using quinidine as the aversive stimulus in a procedure of Pavlovian Conditioning of Tentacle Lowering. Subjects were split into two groups: paired and unpaired. During the devaluation phase, subjects from the "paired group" received the US followed by the quinidine exposure, while subjects from the "unpaired group" received the quinidine and, 30 min later, the US. Subjects which had received the US paired with the quinidine showed a decrease of the conditioned response (CR), in contrast to subjects which had received the quinidine and the US unpaired. These results provide a useful CTA procedure in terrestrial snails. The implication of the results for learning and the physiological correlates is discussed.

RevDate: 2023-02-10

Ou CY, Yu YH, Wu CW, et al (2023)

Neuronal activity of the medial prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens, and basolateral amygdala in conditioned taste aversion and conditioned place preference induced by different doses of morphine administrations in rats.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 14:1062169.

To re-examine the paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs, the present study concerned whether different doses of morphine disparately affect neuronal activity and associations among the subareas of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC: cingulate cortex 1-Cg1, prelimbic cortex-PrL, infralimbic cortex-IL), the subregions of the nucleus accumbens (NAc; both core and shell), and the basolateral amygdala (BLA) following conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and conditioned place preference (CPP). All rats were given a 0.1% saccharin solution for 15-min, and they were intraperitoneally injected with saline or 20, 30, or 40 mg/kg morphine to form the aversive CTA learning. Later, half of the rats were tested for CPP (including the CTA and then CPP tests) for 30-min. Finally, the immunohistochemical staining with c-Fos was conducted after the behavioral test. After the CTA test, c-Fos (%) in the Cg1 and PrL (but not the IL) was more in 20-40 mg/kg of the morphine groups; c-Fos (%) in the NAc core, NAc shell, and BLA was more in the 30-40 mg/kg morphine group. After the CPP test, the Cg1, PrL, IL, and BLA showed more c-Fos (%) in 20 mg/kg morphine; the NAc core showed fewer in c-Fos (%) in the 30-40 mg/kg morphine groups. The mPFC subregions (e.g., Cg1, PrL, and IL), NAc subareas (e.g., NAc core and NAc shell), and BLA were involved in the different doses of morphine injections. The correlation analysis showed that a positive correlation was observed between PrL and IL with NAc core with low doses of morphine and with NAc shell with increasing doses of morphine after the CTA test. After the CPP, an association between PrL and NAc core and NAc shell at low doses and between IL and BLA and NAc shell with increasing doses of morphine. Therefore, different neural substrates and the neural connectivity are observed following different doses of morphine and after the CTA and CPP tests. The present data extend the paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs.

RevDate: 2022-12-26

Yuan Y, Yan Z, Lao Q, et al (2022)

Discovery of a potent and long-acting Xenopus GLP-1-based GLP-1/glucagon/Y2 receptor triple agonist.

European journal of medicinal chemistry, 247:115036 pii:S0223-5234(22)00938-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The combination of incretin-based therapies and PYY analogue has shown great potential for the treatment of type 2 diabetes (T2DM) and obesity. In this study we developed the first example of a unimolecular triple agonist peptide to simultaneously target GLP-1, glucagon and Y2 receptors, aiming for superior weight loss and better glycemic control. The strategy for constructing such a unimolecular triple agonist peptide is the conjugation of the GLP-1R/GCGR dual-agonistic moiety and PYY moiety via maleimide-thiol specific reaction. A novel triple agonist peptide, 3b, was identified via stepwise structure optimization, long-acting modification and in vitro receptor screens. Peptide 3b exhibited potent and balanced GCGR and GLP-1R activities as well as potent and highly selective Y2R activity. Peptide 3b potently reduced food intake without triggering nausea associated behavior in kaolin consumption and conditioned taste aversion assays. In diet induced obesity (DIO) mice, a lower dose of 3b achieved significantly better effects on lipid metabolism, body weight, and glycemic control than higher dose of GLP-1R mono-agonist, GLP-1R/GCGR dual agonist and GLP-1R/Y2R dual agonist counterparts. Collectively, these data support the therapeutic potential of our GLP-1R/GCGR/Y2R triple agonist 3b as a novel anti-obesity and anti-diabetic agent. Targeting GLP-1R, GCGR and Y2R with unimolecular triple agonist peptide offers a route to develop new obesity and T2DM treatments.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Lavi A, Sehgal M, de Sousa AF, et al (2022)

Local memory allocation recruits memory ensembles across brain regions.

Neuron pii:S0896-6273(22)01072-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Memories are thought to be stored in ensembles of neurons across multiple brain regions. However, whether and how these ensembles are coordinated at the time of learning remains largely unknown. Here, we combined CREB-mediated memory allocation with transsynaptic retrograde tracing to demonstrate that the allocation of aversive memories to a group of neurons in one brain region directly affects the allocation of interconnected neurons in upstream brain regions in a behavioral- and brain region-specific manner in mice. Our analysis suggests that this cross-regional recruitment of presynaptic neurons is initiated by downstream memory neurons through a retrograde mechanism. Together with statistical modeling, our results indicate that in addition to the anterograde flow of information between brain regions, the establishment of interconnected, brain-wide memory traces relies on a retrograde mechanism that coordinates memory ensembles at the time of learning.

RevDate: 2022-12-22

Gore-Langton JK, Varlinskaya EI, Werner DF, et al (2022)

Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion and associated neural activation in male rats: Impact of age and adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure.

PloS one, 17(12):e0279507 pii:PONE-D-22-15760.

Individuals that initiate alcohol use at younger ages and binge drink during adolescence are more susceptible to developing alcohol use disorder. Adolescents are relatively insensitive to the aversive effects of alcohol and tend to consume significantly more alcohol per occasion than adults, an effect that is conserved in rodent models. Adolescent typical insensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol may promote greater alcohol intake by attenuating internal cues that curb its consumption. Attenuated sensitivity to the aversive effects of alcohol is also retained into adulthood following protracted abstinence from adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure. Despite these effects, much remains unknown regarding the neural contributors. In the present study, we used a conditioned taste aversion (CTA) paradigm to investigate neuronal activation in late-developing forebrain structures of male adolescents and adult cFos-LacZ transgenic rats as well as in AIE adults following consumption of 0.9% sodium chloride previously paired with an intraperitoneal injection of 0, 1.5 or 2.5 g/kg of ethanol. Adults that were non-manipulated or received water exposure during adolescence showed CTA to both ethanol doses, whereas adolescents displayed CTA only to the 2.5 g/kg ethanol dose. Adults who experienced AIE did not show CTA. Adults displayed increased neuronal activation indexed via number of β-galactosidase positive (β-gal+) cells in the prefrontal and insular cortex that was absent in adolescents, whereas adolescents but not adults had a reduced number of β-gal+ cells in the central amygdala. Adults also displayed greater cortical-insular functional connectivity than adolescents as well as insular-amygdalar and prefrontal cortex-accumbens core functional connectivity. Like adolescents, adults previously exposed to AIE displayed reduced prefrontal-insular cortex and prefrontal-accumbal core functional connectivity. Taken together, these results suggest that attenuated sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol is related to a loss of an insular-prefrontal cortex-accumbens core circuit.

RevDate: 2022-12-12

Kikuchi E, Inui T, Su S, et al (2022)

Chemogenetic inhibition of the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis suppresses the intake of a preferable and learned aversive sweet taste solution in male mice.

Behavioural brain research pii:S0166-4328(22)00522-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is established by pairing a taste solution as a conditioned stimulus (CS) with visceral malaise as an unconditioned stimulus (US). CTA decreases the taste palatability of a CS. The bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) receives taste inputs from the brainstem. However, the involvement of the BNST in CTA remains unclear. Thus, this study examined the effects of chemogenetic inhibition of the BNST neurons on CS intake after CTA acquisition. An adeno-associated virus was microinjected into the BNST of male C57/BL6 mice to induce the inhibitory designer receptor hM4Di. The mice received a pairing of 0.2% saccharin solution (CS) with 0.3M lithium chloride (2% BW, intraperitoneal). After conditioning, the administration of clozapine-N-oxide (CNO, 1mg/kg) significantly enhanced the suppression of CS intake on the retrieval of CTA compared with its intake following saline administration (p < 0.01). We further assessed the effect of BNST neuron inhibition on the intake of water and taste solutions (saccharin, sucralose, sodium chloride, monosodium glutamate, quinine hydrochloride, and citric acid) using naïve (not learned CTA) mice. CNO administration significantly decreased the intake of saccharin and sucralose (p < 0.05). Our results indicate that BNST neurons mediate sweet taste and regulate sweet intake, regardless of whether sweets should be ingested or rejected. BNST neurons may be inhibited in the retrieval of CTA, thereby suppressing CS intake.

RevDate: 2022-12-12

Hatakeyama D, Chikamoto N, Fujimoto K, et al (2022)

Comparison between relative and absolute quantitative real-time PCR applied to single-cell analyses: Transcriptional levels in a key neuron for long-term memory in the pond snail.

PloS one, 17(12):e0279017 pii:PONE-D-22-24379.

Quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is a powerful method for measuring nucleic acid levels and quantifying mRNA levels, even in single cells. In the present study, we compared the results of single-cell qPCR obtained by different quantification methods (relative and absolute) and different reverse transcription methods. In the experiments, we focused on the cerebral giant cell (CGC), a key neuron required for the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion in the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, and examined changes in the mRNA levels of 3 memory-related genes, cAMP-response element binding proteins (LymCREB1 and LymCREB2) and CREB-binding protein (LymCBP), during memory formation. The results obtained by relative quantification showed similar patterns for the 3 genes. For absolute quantification, reverse transcription was performed using 2 different methods: a mixture of oligo d(T) primers and random primers (RT method 1); and gene-specific primers (RT method 2). These methods yielded different results and did not show consistent changes related to conditioning. The mRNA levels in the samples prepared by RT method 2 were up to 3.3 times higher than those in samples prepared by RT method 1. These results suggest that for qPCR of single neurons, the efficacy and validity do not differ between relative and absolute quantification methods, but the reverse transcription step critically influences the results of mRNA quantification.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Al-Kuraishy HM, Al-Gareeb AI, Alexiou A, et al (2022)

Metformin and growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) in type 2 diabetes mellitus: A hidden treasure.

Journal of diabetes [Epub ahead of print].

Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic endocrine disorder due to the reduction of insulin sensitivity and relative deficiency of insulin secretion. Growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) belongs to the transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) superfamily and was initially identified as macrophage inhibitory cytokine-1 (MIC-1). GDF15 is considered a cytokine with an anti-inflammatory effect and increases insulin sensitivity, reduces body weight, and improves clinical outcomes in diabetic patients. GDF15 acts through stimulation of glial-derived neurotrophic factor (GDNF) family receptor α-like (GFRAL), which is highly expressed in the brain stem to induce taste aversion. Metformin belongs to the group of biguanides that are derived from the plant Galega officinalis. It is interesting to note that metformin is an insulin-sensitizing agent used as a first-line therapy for T2DM that has been shown to increase the circulating level of GDF15. Thus, the present review aims to determine the critical association of the GDF15 biomarker in T2DM and how metformin agents affect it. This review illustrates that metformin activates GDF15 expression, which reduces appetite and leads to weight loss in both diabetic and nondiabetic patients. However, the present review cannot give a conclusion in this regard. Therefore, experimental, preclinical, and clinical studies are warranted to confirm the potential role of GDF15 in T2DM patients.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Panayi MC, S Killcross (2022)

Outcome devaluation by specific satiety disrupts sensory-specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer.

Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 16:983480.

Reward predictive cues can selectively motivate instrumental behaviors that predict the same rewarding outcomes, an effect known as specific Pavlovian-to-instrumental transfer (PIT). This selective effect is thought to be mediated by a representation of the sensory specific properties of an outcome, that has become associated with both the Pavlovian cue and the instrumental response during initial learning. Specific satiety is a common method of outcome devaluation that reduces an outcome's value but might also lead to the habituation of the outcome's sensory properties. Previous research has demonstrated that specific PIT is insensitive to changes in specific outcome value following taste aversion devaluation, as well as general satiety manipulations, and therefore specific satiety should not disrupt specific PIT by reducing outcome value. The present rodent experiments used a specific satiety devaluation procedure immediately prior to a specific PIT test to show that habituation of these outcome specific sensory representations can disrupt its efficacy as a stimulus and abolish the specific PIT effect. Experiment 1 employed a two-lever choice test to show that a non-devalued stimulus supports specific PIT, whereas a devalued stimulus abolished the specific PIT effect. Experiment 2 replicated this procedure while controlling for response competition by using a single-lever test to confirm that a devalued stimulus abolishes the specific PIT effect. These findings demonstrate that specific satiety can disrupt the ability of an outcome specific representation to support specific PIT. Given previous findings that specific PIT is insensitive to changes in outcome value by general satiety and taste aversion devaluation, this suggests that specific satiety devaluation might disrupt the use of sensory specific outcome representations to guide behavior via a mechanism that is independent of the outcome's current value.

RevDate: 2022-11-17

Yoshida Y, Tanaka R, Fujishiro S, et al (2022)

Conditioned Taste Aversion to L-Amino Acid Taste Stimuli and Oral Transcriptional Changes to Type 1 Taste Receptors T1R1 and T1R3 on Chronic Exposure to L-Alanine Solution in Chickens.

The journal of poultry science, 59(4):348-356.

Elucidating taste sensing systems in chickens is an important step toward understanding poultry nutrition. Amino acid taste receptors, type 1 taste receptors 1 and 3 (T1R1 and T1R3, respectively), are expressed in chicken taste cells, and chicken T1R1/T1R3 is activated by L-alanine (L-Ala) and L-serine (L-Ser), but not by L-proline (L-Pro). However, it is not clear whether chickens have a gustatory perception of L-amino acids. Here, we found that chickens conditioned to avoid either L-Ala, L-Ser, or L-Pro solutions could successfully learn to avoid the corresponding L-amino acid solution in the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) test. Because CTA is a well-established learning paradigm generated specifically by pairing gustatory perception and gastrointestinal malaise, the present study suggests that chickens can sense L-amino acids by gustatory perception. In addition, we found that the expression of the T1R1 and T1R3 genes was significantly downregulated in response to chronic exposure to L-Ala solution, but not to acute oral stimulation. Taken together, the present study suggests that chickens have a gustatory perception of L-amino acids, and the expression of T1R1/T1R3 mRNAs in the oral cavity can be regulated by L-amino acid intake. Since chickens can detect L-Pro solutions, additional amino acid receptors, other than T1R1/T1R3, may be involved in L-amino acid taste detection in chickens.

RevDate: 2022-12-07
CmpDate: 2022-12-07

Reich N, C Hölscher (2022)

Beyond appetite: Acylated ghrelin as a learning, memory and fear behavior-modulating hormone.

Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 143:104952.

Although often referred to as a hunger hormone, recent evidence highlights a neuroprotective function of acylated ghrelin (AG) and a substantial role in the regulation of declarative and aversive memories as well as fear behavior. As such, in this review, we i) evaluate what specific stages and forms of memory, as well as which respective brain areas are affected by acylated ghrelin, ii) illustrate the plasticity-associated signaling pathways of AG in the hippocampus, also involving memory resolution-enhancing neurogenesis, iii) elucidate how the peptide modulates neurotransmitter systems (glutamate, γ-aminobutyric acid, dopamine, serotonin), iV) clarify the role of AG in conditioned taste aversion, novelty learning and the formation of spatial, recognition, auditory fear, contextual fear and passive avoidance memories in the hippocampus and amygdala as well as V) solve the mystery behind AG, its impact on the 5-HT system, the recently established link to post-traumatic stress disorder and the either fear-suppressing or fear-potentiating effects under neutral and acutely stressed conditions or chronic stress, respectively.

RevDate: 2022-11-26
CmpDate: 2022-11-24

Staszko SM, Boughter JD, ML Fletcher (2022)

The impact of familiarity on cortical taste coding.

Current biology : CB, 32(22):4914-4924.e4.

The role of the gustatory region of the insular cortex in mediating associative taste learning, such as conditioned taste aversion, has been well studied. However, while associative learning plays a role in some taste behaviors, such as avoiding toxins, animals often encounter taste stimuli in their natural environment without explicit consequences. This type of inconsequential experience with sensory stimuli has been studied in other sensory systems, generally with the finding that neuronal responses habituate with repeated sensory exposure. This study sought to determine the effect of taste familiarity on population taste coding in the mouse gustatory cortex (GC). Using microendoscope calcium imaging, we studied the taste responses of visually identifiable neurons over 5 days of taste experience, during which animals could freely choose to consume taste stimuli. We found that the number of active cells in the insular cortex, as well as the number of cells characterized as taste-responsive, significantly decreased as animals became familiar with taste stimuli. Moreover, the magnitude of taste-evoked excited responses increased while inhibited responses decreased with experience. By tracking individual neurons over time, we identified a subpopulation of stable neurons present on all days of the taste familiarity paradigm and further characterized their taste coding properties. The population-level response across these stable cells was distinct for each taste quality when taste stimuli were novel, but population responses for readily consumed stimuli became more correlated as the stimuli became familiar. Overall, these results highlight the effects of familiarity on both taste-specific and non-taste responses in the gustatory cortex.

RevDate: 2022-10-19

López M, Dwyer DM, Gasalla P, et al (2022)

Characterizing Hedonic Responses to Flavors Paired with Internal Pain and Nausea through the Taste Reactivity Test in Rats.

Bio-protocol, 12(18):.

Feeding behavior is a complex experience that involves not only sensory (i.e., visual, odor, taste, or texture) but also affective or emotional aspects (i.e., pleasure, palatability, or hedonic value) of foods. As such, behavioral tests that assess the hedonic impact of foods are necessary to fully understand the factors involved in ingestive behavior. In this protocol, we use the taste reactivity (TR) test to characterize the hedonic responses of rats to flavors paired with either lithium chloride-induced nausea or internal pain produced by hypertonic NaCl, two treatments that reduce voluntary consumption. This application of the TR test demonstrates how emetic and non-emetic (somatic pain in particular) treatments produce dissociable patterns of hedonic reactions to fluids: only emetic treatments result in the production of aversive orofacial responses, reflecting conditioned nausea, whereas somatic pain produces immobility, reflecting conditioned fear. Other methods, such as the microstructural analysis of licking behavior, do not reliably distinguish conditioned nausea and fear, a key advantage of the more selective TR procedure. This protocol also contains guidance for adaptation to other species and designs.

RevDate: 2022-10-03

Buabang EK, Boddez Y, Wolf OT, et al (2022)

The role of goal-directed and habitual processes in food consumption under stress after outcome devaluation with taste aversion.

Behavioral neuroscience pii:2023-05719-001 [Epub ahead of print].

People are more likely to engage in various suboptimal behaviors such as overeating, addictive behaviors, and short-sighted financial decision-making when they are under stress. Traditional dual-process models propose that stress can impair the ability to engage in goal-directed behavior so that people have to rely on habitual behavior. Support for this idea comes from a study by Schwabe and Wolf (2010), in which stressed participants continued to perform a learned instrumental behavior leading to a liquid after the liquid was devalued with a satiation procedure. Based on these findings, suboptimal behavior under stress is often seen as habitual. In the present study, we conducted a conceptual replication of the study by Schwabe and Wolf (2010). Instead of using a satiation procedure to achieve the outcome devaluation, we devalued outcomes through taste aversion. We did not replicate the pattern of findings by Schwabe and Wolf (2010). Our results indicate instead that stressed participants were sensitive to outcome values when the outcomes became truly aversive and hence that their behavior was goal-directed. This suggests either that (a) habitual processes are subject to boundary conditions or (b) the processes responsible for the findings of Schwabe and Wolf (2010) were never habitual to begin with. This may have far-reaching implications for explaining suboptimal behavior under stress in general. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-11-08

Bishnoi IR, Cloutier CJ, Tyson CD, et al (2022)

Infection, learning, and memory: Focus on immune activation and aversive conditioning.

Neuroscience and biobehavioral reviews, 142:104898.

Here we review the effects of immune activation primarily via lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a cell wall component of Gram-negative bacteria, on hippocampal and non-hippocampal-dependent learning and memory. Rodent studies have found that LPS alters both the acquisition and consolidation of aversive learning and memory, such as those evoking evolutionarily adaptive responses like fear and disgust. The inhibitory effects of LPS on the acquisition and consolidation of contextual fear memory are discussed. LPS-induced alterations in the acquisition of taste and place-related conditioned disgust memory within bottle preference tasks and taste reactivity tests (taste-related), in addition to conditioned context avoidance tasks and the anticipatory nausea paradigm (place-related), are highlighted. Further, conditioned disgust memory consolidation may also be influenced by LPS-induced effects. Growing evidence suggests a central role of immune activation, especially pro-inflammatory cytokine activity, in eliciting the effects described here. Understanding how infection-induced immune activation alters learning and memory is increasingly important as bacterial and viral infections are found to present a risk of learning and memory impairment.

RevDate: 2022-10-11
CmpDate: 2022-09-20

Liu J, Wu R, Johnson B, et al (2022)

Selective TAAR1 agonists induce conditioned taste aversion.

Psychopharmacology, 239(10):3345-3353.

RATIONALE: Trace amine-associated receptor 1 (TAAR1) is the best-studied receptor of trace amines, a group of biogenic amines expressed at a relatively low level in the mammalian brain. Growing evidence suggests that TAAR1 plays a critical role in various neuropsychiatric disorders. Given that selective TAAR1 agonists were shown to produce pro-cognition and antipsychotic-like effects as well as to suppress drug use and relapse, they have been proposed to be novel treatments for mental disorders such as schizophrenia and addiction. However, the aversive effects of selective TAAR1 agonists remain largely unknown.

OBJECTIVES: Here, we evaluated whether the selective TAAR1 full agonist RO5166017 and partial agonist RO5263397 could induce conditioned taste aversion (CTA).

RESULTS: We found that RO5166017 and RO5263397 produced significant aversions to both saccharin and NaCl taste novelty. Furthermore, RO5166017 produced CTA to saccharin in TAAR1 heterozygous knockout (taar1[±]) and wild-type rats but not in TAAR1 homozygous knockout rats (taar1[-/-]), suggesting that TAAR1 was sufficient for the taste aversive stimulus property of RO5166017.

CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, our data indicate that selective TAAR1 agonists could produce strong CTA. Our study urges careful evaluations of the aversive effects of TAAR1 agonists before translating them to clinical use for the treatment of mental disorders.

RevDate: 2022-10-18
CmpDate: 2022-10-04

Niedringhaus M, EA West (2022)

Prelimbic cortex neural encoding dynamically tracks expected outcome value.

Physiology & behavior, 256:113938.

Animals must modify their behavior based on updated expected outcomes in a changing environment. Prelimbic cortex (PrL) neural encoding during learning predicts, and is necessary for, appropriately altering behavior based on a new expected outcome value following devaluation. We aimed to determine how PrL neural activity encodes reward predictive cues after the expected outcome value of those cues is decreased following conditioned taste aversion. In one post-devaluation session, rats were tested under extinction to determine their ability to alter their behavior to the expected outcome values (i.e., extinction test). In a second post-devaluation session, rats were tested with the newly devalued outcome delivered so that the rats experienced the updated outcome value within the session (i.e., re-exposure test). We found that PrL neural encoding of the cue associated with the devalued reward predicted the ability of rats to suppress behavior in the extinction test session, but not in the re-exposure test session. While all rats were able to successfully devalue the outcome during conditioned taste aversion, a subset of rats continued to consume the devalued outcome in the re-exposure test session. We found differential patterns of PrL neural encoding in the population of rats that did not avoid the devalued outcome during the re-exposure test compared to the rats that successfully avoided the devalued outcome. Our findings suggest that PrL neural encoding dynamically tracks expected outcome values, and differential neural encoding in the PrL to reward predictive cues following expected outcome value changes may contribute to distinct behavioral phenotypes.

RevDate: 2022-08-29
CmpDate: 2022-08-26

Ascencio Gutierrez V, Carrillo AA, Boersma GJ, et al (2022)

Effect of early-life stress or fluoxetine exposure on later-life conditioned taste aversion learning in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Neuroscience letters, 787:136818.

In rodents, early-life exposure to environmental stress or antidepressant medication treatment has been shown to induce similar long-term consequences on memory- and depression-related behavior in adulthood. To expand on this line of work, we evaluated how juvenile exposure to chronic variable stress (CVS) or the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine (FLX) influences conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning in adulthood. To do this, in Experiment 1, we examined how adolescent CVS alone (postnatal day [PND] 35-48), or with prenatal stress (PNS) history (PNS + CVS), influenced the acquisition and extinction of CTA in adult male Sprague Dawley rats. Specifically, at PND70+ (adulthood), rats were presented with 0.15 % saccharin followed by an intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of lithium chloride (LiCl) to induce visceral malaise. A total of four saccharin (conditioned stimulus) and LiCl (unconditioned stimulus) pairings occurred across the CTA acquisition phase. Next, saccharin was presented without aversive consequences, and intake was measured across consecutive days of the extinction phase. No differences in body weight gain across the experimental days, rate of CTA acquisition, or extinction of CTA, were observed among the experimental groups (control, n = 7; CVS, n = 12; PNS + CVS, n = 9). In Experiment 2, we evaluated if early-life FLX exposure alters CTA learning in adulthood. Specifically, adolescent stress naïve male and female rats received FLX (0 or 20 mg/kg/i.p) once daily for 15 consecutive days (PND35-49). During antidepressant exposure, FLX decreased body weight gain in both male (n = 7) and female rats (n = 7), when compared to respective controls (male control, n = 8; female control, n = 8). However, juvenile FLX exposure decreased body weight-gain in adult male, but not female, rats. Lastly, adolescent FLX history had no effect on CTA acquisition or extinction in adulthood (PND70), in neither male nor female rats. Together, the data indicate that juvenile FLX exposure results in a long-term decrease of body weight-gain in a male-specific manner. Yet, independent of sex, neither early-life stress nor FLX exposure alters CTA learning in adulthood.

RevDate: 2022-09-28
CmpDate: 2022-09-08

Tachibana T, Nakatani A, Khan S, et al (2022)

Effect of lithium chloride on food intake, cloacal temperature, voluntary activity, and crop-emptying rate in chicks.

Comparative biochemistry and physiology. Part A, Molecular & integrative physiology, 273:111284.

Infections frequently accompany with non-specific symptoms such as anorexia and hyperthermia. In addition, there may be unpleasant sensations such as visceral discomfort during infection. Lipopolysaccharide (LPS), a Gram-negative bacteria cell wall component, is known to induce the unpleasant sensation of conditioned taste aversion in mammals. However, the relationship between unpleasant sensations and changes in behavior and physiological conditions has not been investigated extensively in birds. Lithium chloride (LiCl) is a compound that induces unpleasant sensations, including visceral discomfort, although its effects on behavior and physiological conditions have also not been investigated extensively in birds. Thus, the present study was aimed to investigate the effect of an intraperitoneal (IP) injection of LiCl on conditioned visual aversion, food intake, cloacal temperature, voluntary activity, crop-emptying rate, and blood constituents in chicks (Gallus gallus). We also examined the effect of IP injections of LPS and zymosan, a cell wall component of fungus, on conditioned visual aversion formation. First, IP injection of LiCl was confirmed to induce conditioned visual aversion in chicks. An IP injection of LiCl significantly decreased food intake, voluntary activity, and crop-emptying rate but did not affect the temperature. In addition, the injection of LiCl significantly increased plasma corticosterone concentration, indicating that LiCl serves as a stressor in chicks. Finally, IP injections of LPS and zymosan were found to induce conditioned visual aversion in chicks. Collectively, these results suggest that LiCl induces conditioned aversion, anorexia, hypoactivity, and inhibition of crop-emptying in chicks. In addition, LPS and zymosan would induce unpleasant sensations in chicks.

RevDate: 2022-09-07
CmpDate: 2022-08-11

Bai L, Sivakumar N, Yu S, et al (2022)

Enteroendocrine cell types that drive food reward and aversion.

eLife, 11:.

Animals must learn through experience which foods are nutritious and should be consumed, and which are toxic and should be avoided. Enteroendocrine cells (EECs) are the principal chemosensors in the GI tract, but investigation of their role in behavior has been limited by the difficulty of selectively targeting these cells in vivo. Here, we describe an intersectional genetic approach for manipulating EEC subtypes in behaving mice. We show that multiple EEC subtypes inhibit food intake but have different effects on learning. Conditioned flavor preference is driven by release of cholecystokinin whereas conditioned taste aversion is mediated by serotonin and substance P. These positive and negative valence signals are transmitted by vagal and spinal afferents, respectively. These findings establish a cellular basis for how chemosensing in the gut drives learning about food.

RevDate: 2022-07-27
CmpDate: 2022-07-27

Sánchez J, Dwyer DM, Honey RC, et al (2022)

Perceptual learning after rapidly alternating exposure to taste compounds: Assessment with different indices of generalization.

Journal of experimental psychology. Animal learning and cognition, 48(3):169-178.

Exposure to two similar stimuli (AX and BX; e.g., two tastes) reduces the extent to which a conditioned response later established to BX generalizes to AX. This example of perceptual learning is more evident when AX and BX are exposed in an alternating manner (AX, BX, AX, BX,…) than when AX and BX occur in separate blocks (e.g., AX, AX,…BX, BX,…). We examined in male rats (N = 126) the impact of rapid alternation to AX and BX on generalization of a taste aversion from BX to AX. Experiment 1 showed that such alternating presentations (with 5-min intervals between AX and BX) reduced generalization relative to blocked exposure; but only as assessed by consumption levels and not by lick cluster size (an index of hedonic reactions). Experiment 1 also showed that the nature of exposure did not affect how A influenced performance to a novel conditioned taste, Y. Experiment 2 replicated the pattern of results involving the different influences of rapidly alternating and blocked exposure on generalization from BX to AX, and showed that this effect was only evident when rats received access to water during the 5-min intervals between AX and BX. These results reinforce parallels between perceptual learning effects in rats and humans, both at empirical and theoretical levels. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2022-11-03
CmpDate: 2022-11-03

Shanmugamprema D, Muthuswamy K, Ponnusamy V, et al (2022)

CD36 and GPR120 mediated orogustatory perception of dietary lipids and its physiological implication in the pygmy mouse Mus booduga.

Journal of animal physiology and animal nutrition, 106(6):1408-1419.

Fat taste perception has long been concerned in the regulation of dietary fat intake. Substantial experimental evidence defends fat as a sixth taste modality, but its allied peripheral mechanisms are not yet well established. The present study aimed to analyse the diet-induced changes in fat taste perception and its associated physiological variations in Mus booduga. Four groups of animals were used for the present study and were fed any one of the following diet; normal diet (10% fat), low-fat diet (4% fat), high-fat diet (36% fat), or high-fat diet (HFD) (36% fat) + rapeseed oil (HFRDO) (14%) for 9 weeks. The animals were then subjected to metabolic tolerance, fat preference, and conditioned taste aversion studies. Diet-induced alterations in the expression of genes associated with lipogenesis, inflammation, and fat taste (CD36 and GPR120) were analysed. Capacitative calcium signalling induced by both linoleic acid and grifolic acid in taste bud cells (TBCs) was also analysed. In result, both the HFD and HFDRO groups revealed deterioration in glucose homoeostasis and displayed decreased preference scores for fatty acids, which are associated with lower CD36 expression and increased GPR120 expression in TBCs. Furthermore, change in [Ca[2+] ]i induced by LA was also compromised in CD36 positive TBCs along with elevated systemic inflammatory and lipidemic responses in both these obese groups. Overall, for the first time, our results support that chronic HFD feeding alters the CD36 and GPR120 mediated fat taste perception in M. booduga.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Aiyer A, Bunuba Rangers , Bell T, et al (2022)

Taking the bait: Developing a bait delivery system to target free-ranging crocodiles and varanid lizards with a novel conservation strategy.

Ecology and evolution, 12(6):e8933.

In tropical Australia, conditioned taste aversion (CTA) can buffer vulnerable native predators from the invasion of a toxic prey species (cane toads, Rhinella marina). Thus, we need to develop methods to deploy aversion-inducing baits in the field, in ways that maximize uptake by vulnerable species (but not other taxa). We constructed and field-tested baiting devices, in situ with wild animals. Apparatus were set next to waterbodies and baited concurrently at multiple locations (over water, water's edge, and on the bank). Baits were checked and replaced twice daily during the trial; remote cameras recorded visitation by native predators. Bait longevity was compared at sun-exposed and shaded locations over 12 h. The strength required to remove baits from apparatus was measured in varanids and crocodiles. The device promoted high rates of bait uptake by freshwater crocodiles (47% baits consumed), varanid lizards (19% baits consumed), and non-target taxa (34% baits consumed). Targeting specific predators can be achieved by manipulating bait location and time of deployment, as well as the force required to dislodge the bait. Crocodiles were best targeted with over-water baits, whereas varanid lizards preferred baits located at the edges of waterbodies. When testing bait longevity in ambient conditions, during the daytime baits desiccated fully within 12 h, and faster in the sun than in the shade. Based on studies using captive animals, the "pulling force" strength of reptilian predators scaled with body size and was greater in crocodiles than in varanid lizards. We present the first conservation baiting protocol designed specifically for reptiles. Our results demonstrate the feasibility of widespread and taxon-specific deployment of aversion-inducing baits to buffer the impacts of invasive cane toads, and our methods are applicable (with modification) to other research and management programs globally.

RevDate: 2022-08-09
CmpDate: 2022-06-29

Sun H, Li J, Yan J, et al (2022)

Decreased taste sensitivity to sucrose in dopamine D3 receptor mutant mice.

Chemical senses, 47:.

Dopamine plays a key role in food rewards and sweet-taste stimulation. We examined the basis for behavioral responses to sweet taste in dopamine D3 receptor-deficient (D3-/-) mice by determining whether the absence of D3 receptors affects the sensitivity to dilute sucrose solutions. In experiment 1, we measured the intensity generalization threshold of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) to a 0.2 M sucrose solution. Results showed that the generalization thresholds were 0.025-0.05 M in D3-/- mice and 0.0025-0.005 M in wild-type (WT) mice. In experiment 2, we found that D3-/- and WT mice had similar capabilities to form and extinguish CTAs. Since the intensity generalization threshold is mainly due to a combination of sweet-taste sensitivity and the robust nature of CTA formation, the results showed that taste sensitivity to sucrose in D3-/- mice was lower than that in WT mice. In experiment 3, to test whether the peripheral sensory signaling may also be affected by the disruption of the dopamine D3 receptors, the mRNA expression levels of sweet-taste-related proteins in taste buds of D3-/- mice were determined. The T1R1 and BDNF mRNA expression levels in D3-/- mice were higher than the controls, whereas T1R2, T1R3, α-gustducin, and TRPM5 mRNA were similar. These findings suggest that disruption of dopamine D3 receptor-mediated signaling decreases the sweet-taste sensitivity and alters the mRNA expression levels of some taste-related molecules.

RevDate: 2022-08-11
CmpDate: 2022-06-15

Lyu H, M Mizunami (2022)

Conditioned taste aversion in the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus.

Scientific reports, 12(1):9751.

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is a form of classical conditioning in which animals associate the taste of a food with illness caused by toxin contained in the food. CTA in mammals is achieved with a long interval of up to several hours between food ingestion and illness induced by LiCl injection. Insects also exhibit CTA, but not much is known about its features. We investigated whether the cricket Gryllus bimaculatus exhibits CTA when ingestion of a sugar solution is followed by LiCl injection. Crickets that ingested sucrose solution 5-10 min before LiCl injection exhibited reduction of sucrose consumption tested 24 or 48 h after injection compared to that tested 24 h before injection. In contrast, crickets that ingested sucrose solution 5-10 min after LiCl injection or 1 h or 8 h before or after injection did not exhibit reduction of sucrose consumption, indicating that reduction of sucrose consumption by CTA training is pairing-specific. We conclude that CTA in crickets is similar to that in mammals in that one-trial pairing is sufficient to achieve memory retention for days, but it differs in that it is achieved with a relatively short interval (< 1 h) between food ingestion and toxin injection.

RevDate: 2022-08-31
CmpDate: 2022-08-17

Reyes-García SE, Gutiérrez-Vera B, ML Escobar (2022)

Calcineurin requirement for in vivo insular cortex LTD and CTA-extinction.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 193:107647.

Currently, it is widely accepted that memory extinction involves the formation of a new associative memory rather than unlearning of the information previously acquired. Nonetheless, the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying this process are still unclear. In this regard, it has been suggested that while kinases modulate conditioning and LTP, phosphatases are relevant for extinction and LTD. In particular, the protein phosphatase calcineurin (CaN) has been involved in the extinction of some behavioral tasks along with LTD. Indeed, studies of our research group have demonstrated that induction of LTD in the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala (Bla) to the insular cortex (IC) pathway facilitates the extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA), while the induction of LTP in this pathway slows it down. In addition, we have shown that the extinction of CTA elicits an increase of CaN. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the participation of calcineurin in the extinction of CTA and in the expression of in vivo LTD in the Bla-IC pathway. For this purpose, we chemically inhibited calcineurin in the IC of adult male Wistar rats, either during CTA-extinction or thirty minutes after LTD induction in the Bla-IC pathway. Our results show that calcineurin inhibition slows down the CTA-extinction and blocks the maintenance of LTD. Furthermore, we show that CaN levels increase after LTD induction. These findings support the idea that calcineurin is a key molecular actor for both CTA extinction and LTD expression in the IC, a highly relevant neocortical area for the processing of aversively motivated learning tasks, suggesting that both processes are associated at a molecular level.

RevDate: 2022-07-06
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Gutiérrez-Vera B, Rivera-Olvera A, ML Escobar (2022)

Environmental enrichment attenuates conditioned taste aversion through the restoration of BDNF levels in the insular cortex.

Behavioural brain research, 430:113947.

It has been shown that exposure to an enriched environment (EE) can modulate the physiological impact of aversive stimuli in animals, promoting adaptive attitudes, as well as the development of resilience to stressful situations. These changes are known to be related to increased levels of some trophic factors, such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), which has been considered a regulatory protein for synaptic plasticity in the adult brain. Our previous studies have demonstrated that in the insular cortex (IC), a brain region of the temporal lobe implicated in the acquisition, consolidation, and retention of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) task, BDNF can reverse the CTA memory deficit caused by a protein synthesis inhibitor. Likewise, our research group have also shown that BDNF is required for the maintenance of CTA long-term memory. Here we evaluate the effects of the exposure to an enriched environment on the CTA memory strength, using a weak and strong version of this paradigm. The exposure to an EE for 21 days was able to attenuate the strong-CTA response through the restoration of BDNF levels in the IC of adult rats. These results provide evidence that environmental enrichment is capable of reducing the strength of an aversive memory trace, restoring the BDNF levels in a neocortical region of the adult brain.

RevDate: 2022-08-23
CmpDate: 2022-07-11

Jung AH, King CT, Blonde GD, et al (2022)

A Subregion of Insular Cortex Is Required for Rapid Taste-Visceral Integration and Consequent Conditioned Taste Aversion and Avoidance Expression in Rats.

eNeuro, 9(4):.

Postingestive signals are important for shaping appetitive and consummatory responses, but the brain mechanisms required to assimilate interoceptive events with those at the frontlines of ingestion (taste-guided) are poorly understood. Here, we investigated whether an insular cortex (IC) region, which receives viscerosensory input, including gustatory, is required to modify taste-elicited consummatory reactions in response to a real-time interoceptive change using a serial taste reactivity (TR) test where the rats' oromotor and somatic reactions to intraoral (IO) infusions of sucrose were periodically assessed over 45 min following lithium chloride (LiCl) administration. Results showed that neurally-intact rats shifted from an ingestive repertoire to an aversive one as LiCl took effect. Overall, this hedonic shift was delayed in rats with bilateral neurotoxic IC lesions. Rats with greater neuronal loss in posterior gustatory IC displayed fewer aversive reactions to sucrose following this initial LiCl injection. We further assessed whether the failure to integrate interoceptive feedback with ongoing taste-guided behavior impaired acquisition and/or expression of conditioned aversion and/or avoidance in these same rats. Although, as a group, LiCl-injected rats with IC lesions subsequently avoided the sugar in a 48-h two-bottle test, their preference for sucrose was significantly greater than that of the LiCl-injected neurally-intact rats. Overall lesion size, as well as proportion of the posterior gustatory and/or anterior visceral IC were each associated with impaired avoidance. These findings reveal new roles for the posterior gustatory and anterior visceral ICs in multisensory integrative function.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Nakai J, Chikamoto N, Fujimoto K, et al (2022)

Insulin and Memory in Invertebrates.

Frontiers in behavioral neuroscience, 16:882932.

Insulin and insulin-like peptides (ILP) help to maintain glucose homeostasis, whereas insulin-like growth factor (IGF) promotes the growth and differentiation of cells in both vertebrates and invertebrates. It is sometimes difficult to distinguish between ILP and IGF in invertebrates, however, because in some cases ILP has the same function as IGF. In the present review, therefore, we refer to these peptides as ILP/IGF signaling (IIS) in invertebrates, and discuss the role of IIS in memory formation after classical conditioning in invertebrates. In the arthropod Drosophila melanogaster, IIS is involved in aversive olfactory memory, and in the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, IIS controls appetitive/aversive response to NaCl depending on the duration of starvation. In the mollusk Lymnaea stagnalis, IIS has a critical role in conditioned taste aversion. Insulin in mammals is also known to play an important role in cognitive function, and many studies in humans have focused on insulin as a potential treatment for Alzheimer's disease. Although analyses of tissue and cellular levels have progressed in mammals, the molecular mechanisms, such as transcriptional and translational levels, of IIS function in cognition have been far advanced in studies using invertebrates. We anticipate that the present review will help to pave the way for studying the effects of insulin, ILPs, and IGFs in cognitive function across phyla.

RevDate: 2022-09-19
CmpDate: 2022-09-14

Bouton ME, NL Michaud (2022)

Partial reinforcement effects on acquisition and extinction of a conditioned taste aversion.

Learning & behavior, 50(3):360-371.

Four experiments with rat subjects asked whether a partial reinforcement extinction effect (PREE) occurs in taste aversion learning. The question has received little attention in the literature, and to our knowledge no taste aversion experiment has previously demonstrated a PREE. In each of the present experiments, experimental groups received a taste mixed in drinking water for 20 min; such taste exposures were sometimes paired with a lithium chloride (LiCl) injection and sometimes not. Control groups received only taste-LiCl pairings. There was evidence that each reinforced and non-reinforced trial produced increments and decrements in aversion strength (respectively), and trials mattered more than accumulated time during the conditioned stimulus and during the background (as emphasized in time-accumulation models like those of Gallistel and Gibbon, Psychological Review, 107, 289-344, 2000, and Gibbon and Balsam, Autoshaping and conditioning theory, Academic Press, New York, pp. 219-235, 1981). In addition, a partial reinforcement extinction effect was observed when there was a relatively large number of conditioning trials. The results extend our understanding of extinction in taste aversion learning and provide more evidence that aversion learning might follow rules that are qualitatively similar to those of other forms of learning.

RevDate: 2022-08-03
CmpDate: 2022-07-07

Haines KM, CL Czachowski (2022)

Evaluating habit formation across pairs of female and male selectively bred alcohol-preferring and non-preferring rats.

Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.), 102:11-22.

Some individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) continue to drink because they have developed a habit where they do not consider the consequences of their actions. Genetically selected lines of alcohol-preferring and non-preferring rats allow for exploration of how specific endophenotypes, such as tendency to form habits, may be risk factors that interact with a genetic predisposition of AUD. While high alcohol drinking (HAD) and alcohol-preferring (P) rats were selectively bred to consume high amounts of freely available ethanol, they exhibit differences in alcohol-seeking behaviors as well as impulsive behaviors, and may represent different behavioral models of AUD. The goal of the current study was to compare the tendency to develop habitual behaviors across female and male HAD1, HAD2, and P rats and their respective alcohol non-preferring counterparts. Alcohol-naïve rats were trained on a variable interval schedule using a non-ethanol reinforcer and were then tested in two extinction sessions, one prior to a reinforcer devaluation (conditioned taste aversion) procedure and one after. There were no differences in total lever presses between P and alcohol non-preferring (NP) rats, but there were differences between HAD and low-alcohol drinking (LAD) rats. All six strains decreased lever pressing after reinforcer devaluation. However, P and NP females did not increase latency to first lever press after devaluation, suggesting some inclination toward habitual behavior that was not apparent in either the HAD or LAD lines. Selective breeding for alcohol preference does not seem to influence the tendency to form habits, whereas background strain and sex may have an influence on this behavior.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-03

Riley AL, Manke HN, S Huang (2022)

Impact of the Aversive Effects of Drugs on Their Use and Abuse.

Behavioural neurology, 2022:8634176.

Drug use and abuse are complex issues in that the basis of each may involve different determinants and consequences, and the transition from one to the other may be equally multifaceted. A recent model of the addiction cycle (as proposed by Koob and his colleagues) illustrates how drug-taking patterns transition from impulsive (acute use) to compulsive (chronic use) as a function of various neuroadaptations leading to the downregulation of DA systems, upregulation of stress systems, and the dysregulation of the prefrontal/orbitofrontal cortex. Although the nature of reinforcement in the initiation and mediation of these effects may differ (positive vs. negative), the role of reinforcement in drug intake (acute and chronic) is well characterized. However, drugs of abuse have other stimulus properties that may be important in their use and abuse. One such property is their aversive effects that limit drug intake instead of initiating and maintaining it. Evidence of such effects comes from both clinical and preclinical populations. In support of this position, the present review describes the aversive effects of drugs (assessed primarily in conditioned taste aversion learning), the fact that they occur concurrently with reward as assessed in combined taste aversion/place preference designs, the role of aversive effects in drug-taking (in balance with their rewarding effects), the dissociation of these affective properties in that they can be affected in different ways by the same manipulations, and the impact of various parametric, experiential, and subject factors on the aversive effects of drugs and the consequent impact of these factors on their use and abuse potential.

RevDate: 2022-07-16

Lopalco A, Manni A, Keeley A, et al (2022)

In Vivo Investigation of (2-Hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin-Based Formulation of Spironolactone in Aqueous Solution for Paediatric Use.

Pharmaceutics, 14(4):.

Spironolactone (SPL), a potent anti-aldosterone steroidal drug used to treat several diseases in paediatric patients (e.g., hypertension, primary aldosteronism, Bartter's syndrome, and congestive heart failure), is not available in child-friendly dosage forms, and spironolactone liquids have been reported to be unpalatable. Aiming to enhance SPL solubility in aqueous solution and overcome palatability, herein, the effects of (2-hydroxypropyl)-β-cyclodextrin (HP-β-CyD) were thoroughly investigated on solubilisation in water and on masking the unpleasant taste of SPL in vivo. Although the complexation of SPL with HP-β-CyD was demonstrated through phase solubility studies, Job's plot, NMR and computational docking studies, our in vivo tests did not show significant effects on taste aversion. Our findings, on the one hand, suggest that the formation of an inclusion complex of SPL with HP-β-CyD itself is not necessarily a good indicator for an acceptable degree of palatability, whereas, on the other hand, they constitute the basis for investigating other cyclodextrin-based formulations of the poorly water-soluble steroidal drug, including solid dosage forms, such as spray-dried powders and orodispersible tablets.

RevDate: 2022-04-19
CmpDate: 2022-04-13

Berríos-Cárcamo P, Quezada M, Santapau D, et al (2022)

A Novel Morphine Drinking Model of Opioid Dependence in Rats.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(7):.

An animal model of voluntary oral morphine consumption would allow for a pre-clinical evaluation of new treatments aimed at reducing opioid intake in humans. However, the main limitation of oral morphine consumption in rodents is its bitter taste, which is strongly aversive. Taste aversion is often overcome by the use of adulterants, such as sweeteners, to conceal morphine taste or bitterants in the alternative bottle to equalize aversion. However, the adulterants' presence is the cause for consumption choice and, upon removal, the preference for morphine is not preserved. Thus, current animal models are not suitable to study treatments aimed at reducing consumption elicited by morphine itself. Since taste preference is a learned behavior, just-weaned rats were trained to accept a bitter taste, adding the bitterant quinine to their drinking water for one week. The latter was followed by allowing the choice of quinine or morphine (0.15 mg/mL) solutions for two weeks. Then, quinine was removed, and the preference for morphine against water was evaluated. Using this paradigm, we show that rats highly preferred the consumption of morphine over water, reaching a voluntary morphine intake of 15 mg/kg/day. Morphine consumption led to significant analgesia and hyperlocomotion, and to a marked deprivation syndrome following the administration of the opioid antagonist naloxone. Voluntary morphine consumption was also shown to generate brain oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, signs associated with opioid dependence development. We present a robust two-bottle choice animal model of oral morphine self-administration for the evaluation of therapeutic interventions for the treatment of morphine dependence.

RevDate: 2022-04-02

Gil-Lievana E, Ramírez-Mejía G, Urrego-Morales O, et al (2022)

Photostimulation of Ventral Tegmental Area-Insular Cortex Dopaminergic Inputs Enhances the Salience to Consolidate Aversive Taste Recognition Memory via D1-Like Receptors.

Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 16:823220.

Taste memory involves storing information through plasticity changes in the neural network of taste, including the insular cortex (IC) and ventral tegmental area (VTA), a critical provider of dopamine. Although a VTA-IC dopaminergic pathway has been demonstrated, its role to consolidate taste recognition memory remains poorly understood. We found that photostimulation of dopaminergic neurons in the VTA or VTA-IC dopaminergic terminals of TH-Cre mice improves the salience to consolidate a subthreshold novel taste stimulus regardless of its hedonic value, without altering their taste palatability. Importantly, the inhibition of the D1-like receptor into the IC impairs the salience to facilitate consolidation of an aversive taste recognition memory. Finally, our results showed that VTA photostimulation improves the salience to consolidate a conditioned taste aversion memory through the D1-like receptor into the IC. It is concluded that the dopamine activity from the VTA into IC is required to increase the salience enabling the consolidation of a taste recognition memory. Notably, the D1-like receptor activity into the IC is required to consolidate both innate and learned aversive taste memories but not appetitive taste memory.

RevDate: 2022-08-09
CmpDate: 2022-04-18

Salguero A, Marengo L, Portillo-Salido E, et al (2022)

Administration of the sigma-1 receptor agonist PRE-084 at emerging adulthood, but not at early adolescence, attenuated ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion in female rats.

Neuroscience letters, 778:136585.

Ethanol-induced conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is greater in late adolescence or young adulthood than in early adolescence. The role of the sigma receptor system in this age-related difference has not been extensively explored, particularly in female rats. This study assessed the effects of the activation of sigma-1 receptors (S1-R), via the selective S1-R agonist PRE-084, on ethanol-induced CTA at early or at terminal adolescence/emerging adulthood (28 or 56 days-old at the beginning of the procedures, respectively) in female Wistar rats. The modulation of binge-like ethanol intake by PRE-084 was assessed at terminal adolescence. S1-R activation at the acquisition of ethanol-induced CTA attenuated such learning at terminal but not at early adolescence. PRE-084 did not significantly affect ethanol binge drinking in the terminal adolescents. These results highlight the role of S1-R in ethanol-induced CTA and suggest that differential functionality of this transmitter system may underlie age-specific sensitivities to the aversive effects of ethanol.

RevDate: 2022-03-19

Ramos R, Wu CH, GG Turrigiano (2022)

Strong Aversive Conditioning Triggers a Long-Lasting Generalized Aversion.

Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 16:854315.

Generalization is an adaptive mnemonic process in which an animal can leverage past learning experiences to navigate future scenarios, but overgeneralization is a hallmark feature of anxiety disorders. Therefore, understanding the synaptic plasticity mechanisms that govern memory generalization and its persistence is an important goal. Here, we demonstrate that strong CTA conditioning results in a long-lasting generalized aversion that persists for at least 2 weeks. Using brain slice electrophysiology and activity-dependent labeling of the conditioning-active neuronal ensemble within the gustatory cortex, we find that strong CTA conditioning induces a long-lasting increase in synaptic strengths that occurs uniformly across superficial and deep layers of GC. Repeated exposure to salt, the generalized tastant, causes a rapid attenuation of the generalized aversion that correlates with a reversal of the CTA-induced increases in synaptic strength. Unlike the uniform strengthening that happens across layers, reversal of the generalized aversion results in a more pronounced depression of synaptic strengths in superficial layers. Finally, the generalized aversion and its reversal do not impact the acquisition and maintenance of the aversion to the conditioned tastant (saccharin). The strong correlation between the generalized aversion and synaptic strengthening, and the reversal of both in superficial layers by repeated salt exposure, strongly suggests that the synaptic changes in superficial layers contribute to the formation and reversal of the generalized aversion. In contrast, the persistence of synaptic strengthening in deep layers correlates with the persistence of CTA. Taken together, our data suggest that layer-specific synaptic plasticity mechanisms separately govern the persistence and generalization of CTA memory.

RevDate: 2022-06-08
CmpDate: 2022-05-30

Pham H, Seeley SL, MS D'Souza (2022)

Pharmacological activation of kappa opioid receptors in the nucleus accumbens core and ventral tegmental area increases the aversive effects of nicotine.

Behavioural pharmacology, 33(4):266-281.

Aversive effects of nicotine play an important role in the development of nicotine dependence. However, neural substrates and/or brain regions that play a role in the aversive effects of nicotine have not been fully identified. Previous work done in our laboratory showed that systemic administration of kappa opioid receptors (KORs) agonist ±U50488 increased the aversive effects of nicotine. In this study, we assessed the effects of KOR activation in specific brain regions, namely, the nucleus accumbens (NAcc) core and ventral tegmental area (VTA) on the aversive effects of nicotine using the conditioned taste aversion model. Separate groups of Wistar rats were implanted with cannulae above either the NAcc core or the VTA. KOR agonist (±U50488) was bilaterally infused in the NAcc core (0, 0.3, and 3 ug/0.5 ul/side) or VTA (0, 0.3, 1.5, and 3 ug/0.5 ul/side) prior to receiving nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, base; s.c.) during conditioning. Bilateral infusion of the KOR agonist (3 ug/0.5 ul/side) in the NAcc core or the VTA increased the aversive effects of nicotine compared with respective saline controls. Together, these results suggest that pharmacological activation of the KORs in the NAcc core and VTA dose dependently modulate the aversive effects of nicotine. Because aversive effects of nicotine determine susceptibility to development of nicotine dependence, we can conclude that KOR activity in the NAcc and VTA after administration of nicotine may determine susceptibility to the development of nicotine dependence.

RevDate: 2022-05-31
CmpDate: 2022-04-22

Han F, Xu F, Zhu Q, et al (2022)

Virus-mediated GHS-R1a expression in the basolateral amygdala blocks extinction of conditioned taste aversion memory in rats.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 602:57-62.

Ghrelin is an orexigenic gastric hormone that promotes feeding behaviors and regulating energy homeostasis in both humans and rodents. Our previous studies have shown that ghrelin, when locally infused into the basolateral amygdala (BLA), blocks both acquisition and extinction of conditioned taste aversion (CTA) memory in rats. In this study, we further investigated the effect of virus-mediated overexpression of ghrelin receptor growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1a) in BLA pyramidal neurons on CTA memory processes. We found that upregulation of GHS-R1a expression in BLA pyramidal neurons repressed CTA extinction while it had no effect on CTA acquisition. In addition, we reported that local infusion of the endogenous GHS-R1a antagonist, liver-expressed antimicrobial peptide 2 (LEAP2), in the BLA abolished the inhibitory effect of increased GHS-R1a on CTA memory extinction. Those findings provide new supportive evidence that ghrelin/GHS-R1a signaling in the BLA circuit shapes emotional memory processes.

RevDate: 2022-11-09
CmpDate: 2022-09-07

Yu M, Zhu QQ, Niu ML, et al (2022)

Ghrelin infusion into the basolateral amygdala suppresses CTA memory formation in rats via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and PLC/PKC signaling pathways.

Acta pharmacologica Sinica, 43(9):2242-2252.

Ghrelin is a circulating orexigenic hormone that promotes feeding behavior and regulates metabolism in humans and rodents. We previously reported that local infusion of ghrelin into the basolateral amygdala (BLA) blocked memory acquisition for conditioned taste aversion (CTA) by activating growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a. In this study, we further explored the underlying mechanism and signaling pathways mediating ghrelin modulation of CTA memory in rats. Pharmacological agents targeting distinct signaling pathways were infused into the BLA during conditioning. We showed that preadministration of the PI3K inhibitor LY294002 abolished the repressive effect of ghrelin on CTA memory. Moreover, LY294002 pretreatment prevented ghrelin from inhibiting Arc and zif268 mRNA expression in the BLA triggered by CTA memory retrieval. Preadministration of rapamycin eliminated the repressive effect of ghrelin, while Gsk3 inhibitors failed to mimic ghrelin's effect. In addition, PLC and PKC inhibitors microinfused in the BLA blocked ghrelin's repression of CTA acquisition. These results demonstrate that ghrelin signaling in the BLA shapes CTA memory via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and PLC/PKC pathways. We conducted in vivo multichannel recordings from mouse BLA neurons and found that microinjection of ghrelin (20 µM) suppressed intrinsic excitability. By means of whole-cell recordings from rat brain slices, we showed that bath application of ghrelin (200 nM) had no effect on basal synaptic transmission or synaptic plasticity of BLA pyramidal neurons. Together, this study reveals the mechanism underlying ghrelin-induced interference with CTA memory acquisition in rats, i.e., suppression of intrinsic excitability of BLA principal neurons via the PI3K/Akt/mTOR and PLC/PKC pathways.

RevDate: 2022-02-14

Totani Y, Nakai J, Hatakeyama D, et al (2022)

CNS serotonin content mediating food deprivation-enhanced learning is regulated by hemolymph tryptophan concentration and autophagic flux in the pond snail.

Nutritional neuroscience [Epub ahead of print].

Nutritional status affects cognitive function in many types of organisms. In the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis, 1 day of food deprivation enhances taste aversion learning ability by decreasing the serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamin; 5-HT) content in the central nervous system (CNS). On the other hand, after 5 days of food deprivation, learning ability and the CNS 5-HT concentration return to basal levels. How food deprivation leads to alterations of 5-HT levels in the CNS, however, is unknown. Here, we measured the concentration of the 5-HT precursor tryptophan in the hemolymph and CNS, and demonstrated that the CNS tryptophan concentration was higher in 5-day food-deprived snails than in non-food-deprived or 1-day food-deprived snails, whereas the hemolymph tryptophan concentration was not affected by the duration of food deprivation. This finding suggests the existence of a mediator of the CNS tryptophan concentration independent of food deprivation. To identify the mediator, we investigated autophagic flux in the CNS under different food deprivation conditions. We found that autophagic flux was significantly upregulated by inhibition of the tropomyosin receptor kinase (Trk)-Akt-mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (MTORC1) pathway in the CNS of 5-day food-deprived snails. Moreover, when autophagy was inhibited, the CNS 5-HT content was significantly downregulated in 5-day food-deprived snails. Our results suggest that the hemolymph tryptophan concentration and autophagic flux in the CNS cooperatively regulate learning ability affected by different durations of food deprivation. This mechanism may underlie the selection of behaviors appropriate for animal survival depending on the degree of nutrition.

RevDate: 2022-05-02
CmpDate: 2022-05-02

Boccia L, Borner T, Ghidewon MY, et al (2022)

Hypophagia induced by salmon calcitonin, but not by amylin, is partially driven by malaise and is mediated by CGRP neurons.

Molecular metabolism, 58:101444.

OBJECTIVE: The behavioral mechanisms and the neuronal pathways mediated by amylin and its long-acting analog sCT (salmon calcitonin) are not fully understood and it is unclear to what extent sCT and amylin engage overlapping or distinct neuronal subpopulations to reduce food intake. We here hypothesize that amylin and sCT recruit different neuronal population to mediate their anorectic effects.

METHODS: Viral approaches were used to inhibit calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) lateral parabrachial nucleus (LPBN) neurons and assess their role in amylin's and sCT's ability to decrease food intake in mice. In addition, to test the involvement of LPBN CGRP neuropeptidergic signaling in the mediation of amylin and sCT's effects, a LPBN site-specific knockdown was performed in rats. To deeper investigate whether the greater anorectic effect of sCT compared to amylin is due do the recruitment of additional neuronal pathways related to malaise multiple and distinct animal models tested whether amylin and sCT induce conditioned avoidance, nausea, emesis, and conditioned affective taste aversion.

RESULTS: Our results indicate that permanent or transient inhibition of CGRP neurons in LPBN blunts sCT-, but not amylin-induced anorexia and neuronal activation. Importantly, sCT but not amylin induces behaviors indicative of malaise including conditioned affective aversion, nausea, emesis, and conditioned avoidance; the latter mediated by CGRP[LPBN] neurons.

CONCLUSIONS: Together, the present study highlights that although amylin and sCT comparably decrease food intake, sCT is distinctive from amylin in the activation of anorectic neuronal pathways associated with malaise.

RevDate: 2022-10-03
CmpDate: 2022-04-04

Flores VL, Tanner B, Katz DB, et al (2022)

Cortical taste processing evolves through benign taste exposures.

Behavioral neuroscience, 136(2):182-194.

Experience impacts learning and perception. Familiarity with stimuli that later become the conditioned stimulus (CS) in a learning paradigm, for instance, reduces the strength of that learning-a fact well documented in studies of conditioned taste aversion (CTA; De la Casa & Lubow, 1995; Lubow, 1973; Lubow & Moore, 1959). Recently, we have demonstrated that even experience with "incidental" (i.e., non-CS) stimuli influences CTA learning: Long Evans rats pre-exposed to salty and/or sour tastes later learn unusually strong aversions to novel sucrose (Flores et al., 2016), and exhibit enhanced sucrose-responsiveness after learning in gustatory cortex (GC; Flores et al., 2018). These findings suggest that incidental taste exposure (TE) may change spiking responses that have been shown to underlie the processing of tastes in GC. Here, we test this hypothesis, evaluating whether GC neuron spiking responses change across 3 days of taste exposure. Our results demonstrate that the discriminability of GC ensemble taste responses increases with this familiarization. Analysis of single-neuron responses recorded across multiple sessions reveals that taste exposure not only enriches identity and palatability information in taste-evoked activity but also enhances the discriminability of even novel tastes. These findings demonstrate that "mere" familiarization with incidental episodes of tasting changes the neural spiking responses of taste processing and provides specific insight into how such TE may impact later learning. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2022 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2022-01-14

Head MA, McColl LK, Klockars A, et al (2021)

Acute Hypophagia and Changes in c-Fos Immunoreactivity in Adolescent Rats Treated with Low Doses of Oxytocin and Naltrexone.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(1):.

A recent case report has shown that an adjunctive oxytocin + naltrexone (OT + NTX) treatment promoted more robust hypophagia and body weight reduction than OT alone in an adolescent male with hypothalamic obesity after craniopharyngioma resection. Thus far, there has been no basic research in adolescent laboratory animals that would examine whether the benefit of OT + NTX on appetite extends onto adolescent individuals without surgically induced overeating. Thus, here we examined whether low doses of combined OT + NTX acutely affect post-deprivation intake of energy-dense, standard chow; intake of energy-dense and palatable high-fat high-sugar (HFHS) diet; or calorie-dilute, palaTable 10% sucrose solution without deprivation in adolescent male rats. We assessed whether OT + NTX decreases water intake after water deprivation or produces a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). Finally, by using c-Fos immunoreactivity, we determined changes in activity of feeding-related brain areas after OT + NTX. We found that individual subthreshold doses of OT and NTX decreased feeding induced by energy and by palatability. Significant c-Fos changes were noted in the arcuate and dorsomedial hypothalamic nuclei. The hypophagic doses of OT + NTX did not suppress water intake in thirsty rats and did not cause a CTA, which suggests that feeding reduction is not a secondary effect of gastrointestinal discomfort or changes in thirst processing. We conclude that OT + NTX is an effective drug combination to reduce appetite in adolescent male rats.

RevDate: 2022-08-03
CmpDate: 2022-02-15

Arieli E, Younis N, A Moran (2022)

Distinct Progressions of Neuronal Activity Changes Underlie the Formation and Consolidation of a Gustatory Associative Memory.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience, 42(5):909-921.

Acquiring new memories is a multistage process. Numerous studies have convincingly demonstrated that initially acquired memories are labile and are stabilized only by later consolidation processes. These multiple phases of memory formation are known to involve modification of both cellular excitability and synaptic connectivity, which in turn change neuronal activity at both the single neuron and ensemble levels. However, the specific mapping between the known phases of memory and the changes in neuronal activity at different organizational levels-the single-neuron, population representations, and ensemble-state dynamics-remains unknown. Here we address this issue in the context of conditioned taste aversion learning by continuously tracking gustatory cortex neuronal taste responses in alert male and female rats during the 24 h following a taste-malaise pairing. We found that the progression of activity changes depends on the neuronal organizational level: whereas the population response changed continuously, the population mean response amplitude and the number of taste-responsive neurons only increased during the acquisition and consolidation phases. In addition, the known quickening of the ensemble-state dynamics associated with the faster rejection of harmful foods appeared only after consolidation. Overall, these results demonstrate how complex dynamics in the different representational levels of cortical activity underlie the formation and stabilization of memory within the cortex.SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT Memory formation is a multiphased process; early acquired memories are labile and consolidate to their stable forms over hours and days. The progression of memory is assumed to be supported by changes in neuronal activity, but the mapping between memory phases and neuronal activity changes remains elusive. Here we tracked cortical neuronal activity over 24 h as rats acquired and consolidated a taste-malaise association memory, and found specific differences between the progression at the single-neuron and populations levels. These results demonstrate how balanced changes on the single-neuron level lead to changes in the network-level representation and dynamics required for the stabilization of memories.

RevDate: 2022-02-01
CmpDate: 2021-12-16

Boniatti J, Tappin MRR, da S Teixeira RG, et al (2021)

In Vivo and In Vitro Taste Assessment of Artesunate-Mefloquine, Praziquantel, and Benznidazole Drugs for Neglected Tropical Diseases and Pediatric Patients.

AAPS PharmSciTech, 23(1):22.

The assessment of drug taste is crucial for pediatric treatments so that formulations can be developed to enhance their effectiveness. In this study, in vivo and in vitro methods were applied to evaluate the taste of tablets of three drugs administered to children without taste-masking excipients to treat tropical diseases, namely artesunate-mefloquine (ASMQ), praziquantel (PZQ), and benznidazole (BNZ). In the first method, a model of rat palatability was adapted with recirculation to ensure sample dispersion, and the data were analyzed using ANOVA (single factor, 95%). The taste assessment results (in vivo) indicated an aversion to the three medicines, denoted by the animals retracting themselves to the bottom of the box after the first contact with the drugs. For the placebo samples, the animals behaved normally, indicating that taste perception was acceptable. The second method was based on the in vitro analysis of capacitance data from a homemade impedimetric electronic tongue. Consistent with the in vivo taste assessment results, the data points obtained with PZQ, ASMQ, and BNZ were far away from those of their placebos in a map built with the multidimensional projection technique referred to as Interactive Document Mapping (IDMAP). A combined analysis of the results with the two methods allowed us to confirm the bitterness of the three drugs, also pointing to electronic tongues as a promising tool to replace in vivo palatability tests.

RevDate: 2022-01-19
CmpDate: 2022-01-19

Bernanke A, Burnette E, Murphy J, et al (2021)

Behavior and Fos activation reveal that male and female rats differentially assess affective valence during CTA learning and expression.

PloS one, 16(12):e0260577.

Females are more affected by psychiatric illnesses including eating disorders, depression, and post-traumatic stress disorder than males. However, the neural mechanisms mediating these sex differences are poorly understood. Animal models can be useful in exploring such neural mechanisms. Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is a behavioral task that assesses how animals process the competition between associated reinforcing and aversive stimuli in subsequent task performance, a process critical to healthy behavior in many domains. The purpose of the present study was to identify sex differences in this behavior and associated neural responses. We hypothesized that females would value the rewarding stimulus (Boost®) relative to the aversive stimulus (LiCl) more than males in performing CTA. We evaluated behavior (Boost® intake, LiCl-induced behaviors, ultrasonic vocalizations (USVs), CTA performance) and Fos activation in relevant brain regions after the acute stimuli [acute Boost® (AB), acute LiCl (AL)] and the context-only task control (COT), Boost® only task (BOT) and Boost®-LiCl task (BLT). Acutely, females drank more Boost® than males but showed similar aversive behaviors after LiCl. Females and males performed CTA similarly. Both sexes produced 55 kHz USVs anticipating BOT and inhibited these calls in the BLT. However, more females emitted both 22 kHz and 55 kHz USVs in the BLT than males: the latter correlated with less CTA. Estrous cycle stage also influenced 55 kHz USVs. Fos responses were similar in males and females after AB or AL. Females engaged the gustatory cortex and ventral tegmental area (VTA) more than males during the BOT and males engaged the amygdala more than females in both the BOT and BLT. Network analysis of correlated Fos responses across brain regions identified two unique networks characterizing the BOT and BLT, in both of which the VTA played a central role. In situ hybridization with RNAscope identified a population of D1-receptor expressing cells in the CeA that responded to Boost® and D2 receptor-expressing cells that responded to LiCl. The present study suggests that males and females differentially process the affective valence of a stimulus to produce the same goal-directed behavior.

RevDate: 2022-03-23
CmpDate: 2022-03-23

Shah T, Dunning JL, C Contet (2022)

At the heart of the interoception network: Influence of the parasubthalamic nucleus on autonomic functions and motivated behaviors.

Neuropharmacology, 204:108906.

The parasubthalamic nucleus (PSTN), a small nucleus located on the lateral edge of the posterior hypothalamus, has emerged in recent years as a highly interconnected node within the network of brain regions sensing and regulating autonomic function and homeostatic needs. Furthermore, the strong integration of the PSTN with extended amygdala circuits makes it ideally positioned to serve as an interface between interoception and emotions. While PSTN neurons are mostly glutamatergic, some of them also express neuropeptides that have been associated with stress-related affective and motivational dysfunction, including substance P, corticotropin-releasing factor, and pituitary adenylate-cyclase activating polypeptide. PSTN neurons respond to food ingestion and anorectic signals, as well as to arousing and distressing stimuli. Functional manipulation of defined pathways demonstrated that the PSTN serves as a central hub in multiple physiologically relevant networks and is notably implicated in appetite suppression, conditioned taste aversion, place avoidance, impulsive action, and fear-induced thermoregulation. We also discuss the putative role of the PSTN in interoceptive dysfunction and negative urgency. This review aims to synthesize the burgeoning preclinical literature dedicated to the PSTN and to stimulate interest in further investigating its influence on physiology and behavior.

RevDate: 2022-12-02
CmpDate: 2022-01-27

Garr E, Padovan-Hernandez Y, Janak PH, et al (2021)

Maintained goal-directed control with overtraining on ratio schedules.

Learning & memory (Cold Spring Harbor, N.Y.), 28(12):435-439.

It is thought that goal-directed control of actions weakens or becomes masked by habits over time. We tested the opposing hypothesis that goal-directed control becomes stronger over time, and that this growth is modulated by the overall action-outcome contiguity. Despite group differences in action-outcome contiguity early in training, rats trained under random and fixed ratio schedules showed equivalent goal-directed control of lever pressing that appeared to grow over time. We confirmed that goal-directed control was maintained after extended training under another type of ratio schedule-continuous reinforcement-using specific satiety and taste aversion devaluation methods. These results add to the growing literature showing that extensive training does not reliably weaken goal-directed control and that it may strengthen it, or at least maintain it.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-08

Smith DW, Islam M, Furst KE, et al (2021)

Chlorine taste can increase simulated exposure to both fecal contamination and disinfection byproducts in water supplies.

Water research, 207:117806.

Expanding drinking water chlorination could substantially reduce the burden of disease in low- and middle-income countries, but the taste of chlorinated water often impedes adoption. We developed a Monte Carlo simulation to estimate the effect of people's choice to accept or reject drinking water based on chlorine taste and their subsequent exposure to E. coli and trihalomethanes, a class of disinfection byproduct (DBP). The simulation used empirical data from Dhaka, Bangladesh, a megacity with endemic waterborne disease. We drew on published taste acceptability thresholds from Dhaka residents, measured residual chlorine and thermotolerant E. coli inactivation following the addition of six chlorine doses (0.25-3.0 mg/L as Cl2) to untreated piped water samples from 100 locations, and analyzed trihalomethane formation in 54 samples. A dose of 0.5 mg/L, 75% lower than the 2 mg/L dose typically recommended for household chlorination of low-turbidity waters, minimized overall exposure to E. coli. Doses of 1-2 mg/L maximized overall exposure to trihalomethanes. Accounting for chlorine taste aversion indicates that microbiological exposure increases and DBP exposure decreases above certain doses as a higher proportion of people reject chlorinated water in favor of untreated water. Taken together with findings from other modeling analyses, empirical studies, and field trials, our results suggest that taste acceptability should be a critical consideration in establishing chlorination dosing guidelines. Particularly when chlorination is first implemented in water supplies with low chlorine demand, lower doses than those generally recommended for household water treatment can help avoid taste-related objections while still meaningfully reducing contaminant exposure.

RevDate: 2021-11-10

Shyu BC, Gao ZY, Wu JJ, et al (2021)

Methamphetamine and Modulation Functionality of the Prelimbic Cortex for Developing a Possible Treatment of Alzheimer's Disease in an Animal Model.

Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 13:751913.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative condition that causes cognitive impairment and other neuropsychiatric symptoms. Previously, little research has thus far investigated whether methamphetamine (MAMPH) can enhance cognitive function or ameliorate AD symptoms. This study examined whether a low dose of MAMPH can induce conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning, or can increase plasma corticosterone levels, neural activity, and neural plasticity in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) (responsible for cognitive function), the nucleus accumbens (NAc) and the amygdala (related to rewarding and aversive emotion), and the hippocampus (responsible for spatial learning). Furthermore, the excitations or lesions of the prelimbic cortex (PrL) can affect MAMPH-induced CTA learning, plasma corticosterone levels, and neural activity or plasticity in the mPFC [i.e., PrL, infralimbic cortex (IL), cingulate cortex 1 (Cg1)], the NAc, the amygdala [i.e., basolateral amygdala (BLA) and central amygdala (CeA)], and the hippocampus [i.e., CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG)]. In the experimental procedure, the rats were administered either saline or NMDA solutions, which were injected into the PrL to excite or destroy PrL neurons. Additionally, rats received 0.1% saccharin solution for 15 min, followed by intraperitoneal injections of either normal saline or 1 mg/kg MAMPH to induce CTA. A one-way ANOVA was performed to analyze the effects of saccharin intake on CTA, plasma corticosterone levels, and the expression of c-Fos and p-ERK. The results showed that the MAMPH induced CTA learning and increased plasma corticosterone levels. The mPFC, and particularly the PrL and IL and the DG of the hippocampus, appeared to show increased neural activity in c-Fos expression or neural plasticity in p-ERK expression. The excitation of the PrL neurons upregulated neural activity in c-Fos expression and neural plasticity in p-ERK expression in the PrL and IL. In summary, MAMPH may be able to improve cognitive and executive function in the brain and reduce AD symptoms. Moreover, the excitatory modulation of the PrL with MAMPH administration can facilitate MAMPH-induced neural activity and plasticity in the PrL and IL of the mPFC. The present data provide clinical implications for developing a possible treatment for AD in an animal model.

RevDate: 2022-02-04
CmpDate: 2022-02-04

Zheng Y, Chen ZY, Ma WJ, et al (2021)

B Vitamins Supplementation Can Improve Cognitive Functions and May Relate to the Enhancement of Transketolase Activity in A Rat Model of Cognitive Impairment Associated with High-fat Diets.

Current medical science, 41(5):847-856.

OBJECTIVE: To determine whether B vitamin treatment was sufficient to reduce cognitive impairment associated with high-fat diets in rats and to modulate transketolase (TK) expression and activity.

METHODS: To test this, we separated 50 rats into five groups that were either fed a standard chow diet (controls) or a high-fat diet (experimental groups H0, H1, H2, and H3). H0 group animals received no additional dietary supplementation, while H1 group animals were administered 100 mg/kg body weight (BW) thiamine, 100 mg/kg BW riboflavin, and 250 mg/kg BW niacin each day, and group H2 animals received daily doses of 100 mg/kg BW pyridoxine, 100 mg/kg BW cobalamin, and 5 mg/kg BW folate. Animals in the H3 group received the B vitamin regimens administered to both H1 and H2 each day.

RESULTS: Over time, group H0 exhibited greater increases in BW and fat mass relative to other groups. When spatial and memory capabilities in these animals were evaluated via conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and Morris Water Maze (MWM), we found B vitamin treatment was associated with significant improvements relative to untreated H0 controls. Similarly, B vitamin supplementation was associated with elevated TK expression in erythrocytes and hypothalamus of treated animals relative to those in H0 (P<0.05).

CONCLUSION: Together, these findings suggest B vitamin can modulate hypothalamic TK activity to reduce the severity of cognitive deficits in a rat model of obesity. As such, B vitamin supplementation may be a beneficial method for reducing cognitive dysfunction in clinical settings associated with high-fat diets.

RevDate: 2021-10-01

Strekalova T, Svirin E, Veniaminova E, et al (2021)

ASD-like behaviors, a dysregulated inflammatory response and decreased expression of PLP1 characterize mice deficient for sialyltransferase ST3GAL5.

Brain, behavior, & immunity - health, 16:100306.

Gangliosides are glycosphingolipids, which are abundant in brain, are known to modulate ion channels and cell-to-cell communication. Deficiencies can result in aberrant myelination and altered immune responses, which can give rise to neurodevelopmental psychiatric disorders. However, to date, little mechanistic data is available on how ganglioside deficiencies contribute to the behavioural disorders. In humans, the loss of lactosylceramide-alpha-2,3-sialyltransferase (ST3Gal5) leads to a severe neuropathology, but in ST3Gal5 knock-out (St3gal5-/-) mice the absence of GM3 and associated a-, b- and c-series gangliosides is partially compensated by 0-series gangliosides and there is no overt behavioural phenotype. Here, we sought to examine the behavioural and molecular consequences of GM3 loss more closely. Mutants of both sexes exhibited impaired conditioned taste aversion in an inhibitory learning task and anxiety-like behaviours in the open field, moderate motor deficits, abnormal social interactions, excessive grooming and rearing behaviours. Taken together, the aberrant behaviours are suggestive of an autism spectrum disorder (ASD)-like syndrome. Molecular analysis showed decreased gene and protein expression of proteolipid protein-1 (Plp1) and over expression of proinflammatory cytokines, which has been associated with ASD-like syndromes. The inflammatory and behavioural responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were also altered in the St3gal5-/- mice compared to wild-type, which is indicative of the importance of GM3 gangliosides in regulating immune responses. Together, the St3gal5-/- mice display ASD-like behavioural features, altered response to systemic inflammation, signs of hypomyelination and neuroinflammation, which suggests that deficiency in a- and b-series gangliosides could contribute to the development of an ASD-like pathology in humans.

RevDate: 2021-11-01
CmpDate: 2021-11-01

Angulo R, CA Arévalo-Romero (2021)

Sexual dimorphism in classical conditioning? Sex differences in neophobia, latent inhibition, generalization, and extinction for rats (Rattus norvegicus) in a conditioned taste aversion preparation irrespective of housing conditions.

Journal of comparative psychology (Washington, D.C. : 1983), 135(3):315-326.

This study aimed to assess possible sex differences and a potential impact of social housing conditions for some Pavlovian conditioning effects in a conditioned taste aversion preparation with rats. The results of Experiment 1 suggest sex differences in neophobia, latent inhibition, and generalization. Specifically, for females, neophobia, and generalization appeared to be stronger while latent inhibition seemed to be attenuated. Experiment 2 confirmed these sex differences in neophobia and generalization, while also revealing slower extinction in males. Experiment 3 provided evidence for the same sex differences in neophobia and generalization, even when a perceptual learning effect was in operation following pre-exposures to the test stimulus. No effects of social housing conditions were found in either Experiment 1 or Experiment 2. In general, these findings appear to support the hypothesis of sexual dimorphism in Pavlovian conditioning, encouraging a systematic approach to the topic by means of further research. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2022-11-02
CmpDate: 2022-03-30

Dornellas APS, Burnham NW, Luhn KL, et al (2021)

Activation of locus coeruleus to rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg) noradrenergic pathway blunts binge-like ethanol drinking and induces aversive responses in mice.

Neuropharmacology, 199:108797.

There is strong evidence that ethanol entails aversive effects that can act as a deterrent to overconsumption. We have found that in doses that support the development of a conditioned taste aversion ethanol increases the activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) positive neurons in the locus coeruleus (LC), a primary source of norepinephrine (NE). Using cre-inducible AAV8-ChR2 viruses in TH-ires-cre mice we found that the LC provides NE projections that innervate the rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg), a brain region that has been implicated in the aversive properties of drugs. Because the neurocircuitry underlying the aversive effects of ethanol is poorly understood, we characterized the role of the LC to RMTg circuit in modulating aversive unconditioned responses and binge-like ethanol intake. Here, both male and female TH-ires-cre mice were cannulated in the RMTg and injected in the LC with rAVV viruses that encode for a Gq-expressing designer receptor exclusively activated by designer drugs (DREADDs) virus, or its control virus, to directly control the activity of NE neurons. A Latin Square paradigm was used to analyze both 20% ethanol and 3% sucrose consumption using the "drinking-in-the-dark" (DID) paradigm. Chemogenetic activation of the LC to RMTg pathway significantly blunted the binge-ethanol drinking, with no effect on the sucrose consumption, increased the emission of mid-frequency vocalizations and induced malaise-like behaviors in mice. The present findings indicate an important involvement of the LC to RMTg pathway in reducing ethanol consumption, and characterize unconditioned aversive reactions induced by activation of this noradrenergic pathway.

RevDate: 2022-04-29
CmpDate: 2021-12-16

Simões S, Almeida AJ, J Marto (2021)

Palatability of pediatric formulations: do rats predict aversiveness?.

Drug development and industrial pharmacy, 47(7):1121-1126.

BACKGROUND: The brief-access taste aversion (BATA) model has been used as an alternative taste assessment tool to human taste panels and became an important element of pharmaceutical drug development, especially regarding pediatric patient's compliance. This model has been validated, demonstrating a concentration-dependent sensitivity to drug aversiveness, as well as the capacity to evaluate the taste-masking effects of cyclodextrins. In the BATA model, samples are presented randomly to rodents in numerous sipper tubes and a lickometer is used for the electronic record of licks in a sophisticated approach.

OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to test possible drug taste-masking strategies. Additionally, we have used an alternative approach to measure the animal lick number in the presence of different compounds, non-simultaneously.

RESULTS: In the present work we show for the first time the licking profile of different compounds during the time course of the experiment, with each animal being exposed to only one bottle of testing product. To validate the experiments, quinine hydrochloride dihydrate (QHD) was used as a bitter reference compound.

CONCLUSION: The results obtained using this simple approach showed that aversiveness is dependent on the assay duration, and that it is possible to predict the aversiveness just by measuring the mass of the tested substance consumption. Moreover, some taste-masking strategies, such as those used in pediatric formulations and corresponding to the addition of sweeteners or flavors, cannot be predicted from rodents BATA model.

RevDate: 2022-10-03
CmpDate: 2021-12-06

Bouton ME, Allan SM, Tavakkoli A, et al (2021)

Effect of context on the instrumental reinforcer devaluation effect produced by taste-aversion learning.

Journal of experimental psychology. Animal learning and cognition, 47(4):476-489.

Four experiments manipulated the context in which taste-aversion conditioning occurred when the reinforcer was devalued after instrumental learning. In all experiments, rats learned to lever press in an operant conditioning chamber and then had an aversion to the food-pellet reinforcer conditioned by pairing it with lithium chloride (LiCl) in either that context or a different context. Lever pressing was then tested in extinction to assess its status as a goal-directed action. In Experiment 1, aversion conditioning in the operant conditioning chamber suppressed lever-pressing during the test, but aversion conditioning in the home cage did not. Exposure to the averted pellet in the operant conditioning chamber after conditioning in the home cage did not change this effect (Experiment 2). The same pattern was observed when the different context was a second operant-style chamber (counterbalanced), exposure to the contexts was controlled, and pellets were presented in them in the same manner (Experiment 3). The greater effect of aversion conditioning in the instrumental context was not merely due to potentiated contextual conditioning (Experiment 4). Importantly, consumption tests revealed that the aversion conditioned in the different context had transferred to the test context. Thus, when reinforcer devaluation occurred in a different context, the rats lever pressed in extinction for a reinforcer they would otherwise reject. The results suggest that animals encode contextual information about the reinforcer during instrumental learning and suggest caution in making inferences about action versus habit learning when the reinforcer is devalued in a different context. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2021-10-06
CmpDate: 2021-10-06

Nakajima S (2021)

Food avoidance learning based on entirely voluntary wheel running in laboratory mice (Mus musculus).

Behavioural processes, 192:104484.

Previous studies (Nakajima, 2019a,b) demonstrated food avoidance learning based on wheel running in laboratory mice: Consumption of a target snack becomes suppressed if it is repeatedly paired with an opportunity to run in an activity wheel. This is a kind of Pavlovian conditioning, because the avoidance is specific to the paired snack. For example, in an experiment, mice were initially trained to run in closed wheels. Then, access to one of the two kinds of snacks (cheese or raisins, counterbalanced) was followed by confinement in a large pet cage with an open wheel, while access to the other snack was not. After several repetitions of these two types of trials, differentiation in consumption between the two snacks emerged: The intake of the unpaired snack increased gradually over days, while the increase was attenuated for the running-paired snack. The present study replicated this food avoidance learning without the pretraining of running in a closed wheel, emphasizing the intrinsic capacity of running to establish food avoidance. The results somewhat suggest that pretraining in open wheels facilitates running-based food avoidance, but this effect was too weak in the present study to draw a clear conclusion.

RevDate: 2021-11-08
CmpDate: 2021-11-08

Zajdel J, Sköld J, Jaarola M, et al (2021)

Calcitonin gene related peptide α is dispensable for many danger-related motivational responses.

Scientific reports, 11(1):16204.

Calcitonin gene related peptide (CGRP) expressing neurons in the parabrachial nucleus have been shown to encode danger. Through projections to the amygdala and other forebrain structures, they regulate food intake and trigger adaptive behaviors in response to threats like inflammation, intoxication, tumors and pain. Despite the fact that this danger-encoding neuronal population has been defined based on its CGRP expression, it is not clear if CGRP is critical for its function. It is also not clear if CGRP in other neuronal structures is involved in danger-encoding. To examine the role of CGRP in danger-related motivational responses, we used male and female mice lacking αCGRP, which is the main form of CGRP in the brain. These mice had no, or only very weak, CGRP expression. Despite this, they did not behave differently compared to wildtype mice when they were tested for a battery of danger-related responses known to be mediated by CGRP neurons in the parabrachial nucleus. Mice lacking αCGRP and wildtype mice showed similar inflammation-induced anorexia, conditioned taste aversion, aversion to thermal pain and pain-induced escape behavior, although it should be pointed out that the study was not powered to detect any possible differences that were minor or sex-specific. Collectively, our findings suggest that αCGRP is not necessary for many threat-related responses, including some that are known to be mediated by CGRP neurons in the parabrachial nucleus.

RevDate: 2021-08-09

Yu Y, He AB, Liou M, et al (2021)

The Paradoxical Effect Hypothesis of Abused Drugs in a Rat Model of Chronic Morphine Administration.

Journal of clinical medicine, 10(15):.

A growing body of studies has recently shown that abused drugs could simultaneously induce the paradoxical effect in reward and aversion to influence drug addiction. However, whether morphine induces reward and aversion, and which neural substrates are involved in morphine's reward and aversion remains unclear. The present study first examined which doses of morphine can simultaneously produce reward in conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in rats. Furthermore, the aversive dose of morphine was determined. Moreover, using the aversive dose of 10 mg/kg morphine tested plasma corticosterone (CORT) levels and examined which neural substrates were involved in the aversive morphine-induced CTA on conditioning, extinction, and reinstatement. Further, we analyzed c-Fos and p-ERK expression to demonstrate the paradoxical effect-reward and aversion and nonhomeostasis or disturbance by morphine-induced CTA. The results showed that a dose of more than 20 mg/kg morphine simultaneously induced reward in CPP and aversion in CTA. A dose of 10 mg/kg morphine only induced the aversive CTA, and it produced higher plasma CORT levels in conditioning and reacquisition but not extinction. High plasma CORT secretions by 10 mg/kg morphine-induced CTA most likely resulted from stress-related aversion but were not a rewarding property of morphine. For assessments of c-Fos and p-ERK expression, the cingulate cortex 1 (Cg1), prelimbic cortex (PrL), infralimbic cortex (IL), basolateral amygdala (BLA), nucleus accumbens (NAc), and dentate gyrus (DG) were involved in the morphine-induced CTA, and resulted from the aversive effect of morphine on conditioning and reinstatement. The c-Fos data showed fewer neural substrates (e.g., PrL, IL, and LH) on extinction to be hyperactive. In the context of previous drug addiction data, the evidence suggests that morphine injections may induce hyperactivity in many neural substrates, which mediate reward and/or aversion due to disturbance and nonhomeostasis in the brain. The results support the paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs. Insight from the findings could be used in the clinical treatment of drug addiction.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Dantzer R (2021)

Love and fear in the times of sickness.

Comprehensive psychoneuroendocrinology, 6:.

Sickness induced by gastrointestinal malaise or by microbial pathogens is more than a private experience. Sick individuals share their illness within their social environment by communicating their sickness to others. In turn, recipients of the communication respond with appropriate behavioral adaptations. Avoidance of sick individuals and the events associated with their sickness is advantageous for members of the group. However, these responses can conflict with the need for comfort or social support expressed by sick individuals. There is evidence that the relationship between the sick individual and its social environment involves neurobiological mechanisms that are similar to those that mediate social bonding. Despite their commonality the feelings of love and fear/disgust that are associated with the sociality of sickness have thus far been neglected by mainstream affective neuroscience.

RevDate: 2021-12-14
CmpDate: 2021-12-08

Wu CW, Ou CY, Yu YH, et al (2021)

Involvement of the ventral tegmental area but not periaqueductal gray matter in the paradoxical rewarding and aversive effects of morphine.

Behavioral neuroscience, 135(6):762-770.

The paradoxical effects of reward and aversion with abused drugs may interact to produce drug addiction, which is the so-called paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs. However, there is no research examining how the ventral tegmental area (VTA) or periaqueductal gray matter (PAG) regulates morphine's paradoxical effect of reward and aversion. The present study addresses this issue, utilizing a high concentration of N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) via injections to destroy the VTA or the PAG. Moreover, the study employed the new "pre- and postassociation" experimental paradigm (2010) to test whether the simultaneous rewarding and aversive effects of morphine can be affected by an NMDA lesion in the VTA or the PAG. The results indicated that the NMDA lesion of the VTA simultaneously reduced morphine-induced conditioned suppression of saccharin solution intake in conditioned taste aversion (CTA) and morphine-induced spent time in the preference compartment in conditioned place preference (CPP), whereas the PAG lesion did not change either measure. Thus, the VTA, but not the PAG, appears to contribute to the paradoxical effect reward in CPP and aversion in CTA induced by morphine. The VTA's involvement in morphine-induced CTA aversion and CPP reward supports the paradoxical effect hypothesis of abused drugs. (PsycInfo Database Record (c) 2021 APA, all rights reserved).

RevDate: 2022-01-10
CmpDate: 2022-01-10

Wang YC, Chiu WC, Cheng CN, et al (2021)

Examination of neuroinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1 beta expression in the medial prefrontal cortex, amygdala, and hippocampus for the paradoxical effects of reward and aversion induced by morphine.

Neuroscience letters, 760:136076.

A growing body of evidence has shown that abused drugs could simultaneously induce the paradoxical effect-reward and aversion. Moreover, the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), amygdala, and hippocampus were involved in this paradoxical effect by abused drugs. However, no research examined whether neuroinflammatory changes in the mPFC [including cingulate cortex area 1 (Cg1); prelimbic cortex (PrL); infralimbic cortex (IL)], basolateral amygdala, and hippocampus [e.g., CA1, CA2, CA3, and dentate gyrus (DG)] after morphine-induced reward in conditioned place preference (CPP) and aversion in conditioned taste aversion (CTA). The results showed that after morphine administration, the consumption of a 0.1% saccharin solution decreased; the mean time spent in the morphine-paired side compartment of the CPP box increased, indicating that morphine simultaneously induced the paradoxical effects of reward and aversion. The PrL and IL of the mPFC, the BLA of the amygdala, the CA1, CA2, CA3, and DG of the hippocampus but not the Cg1 presented hyperactive IL-1β expression in response to morphine's aversion and reward. The mPFC, amygdala, and hippocampus may appear neuroinflammation activity following morphine-induced paradoxical effect-reward in CPP and aversion in CTA. The present data may provide a better understanding of the relationship between neuroinflammation and morphine addiction.

RevDate: 2022-01-31
CmpDate: 2022-01-31

Rivi V, Batabyal A, Juego K, et al (2021)

To eat or not to eat: a Garcia effect in pond snails (Lymnaea stagnalis).

Journal of comparative physiology. A, Neuroethology, sensory, neural, and behavioral physiology, 207(4):479-495.

Taste aversion learning is universal. In animals, a single presentation of a novel food substance followed hours later by visceral illness causes animals to avoid that taste. This is known as bait-shyness or the Garcia effect. Humans demonstrate this by avoiding a certain food following the development of nausea after ingesting that food ('Sauce Bearnaise effect'). Here, we show that the pond snail Lymnaea stagnalis is capable of the Garcia effect. A single 'pairing' of a novel taste, a carrot slurry followed hours later by a heat shock stressor (HS) is sufficient to suppress feeding response elicited by carrot for at least 24 h. Other food tastes are not suppressed. If snails had previously been exposed to carrot as their food source, the Garcia-like effect does not occur when carrot is 'paired' with the HS. The HS up-regulates two heat shock proteins (HSPs), HSP70 and HSP40. Blocking the up-regulation of the HSPs by a flavonoid, quercetin, before the heat shock, prevented the Garcia effect in the snails. Finally, we found that snails exhibit Garcia effect following a period of food deprivation but the long-term memory (LTM) phenotype can be observed only if the animals are tested in a food satiated state.

RevDate: 2021-05-18

Zhong W, NA Darmani (2021)

The HCN Channel Blocker ZD7288 Induces Emesis in the Least Shrew (Cryptotis parva).

Frontiers in pharmacology, 12:647021.

Subtypes (1-4) of the hyperpolarization-activated cyclic nucleotide-gated (HCN) channels are widely expressed in the central and peripheral nervous systems, as well as the cells of smooth muscles in many organs. They mainly serve to regulate cellular excitability in these tissues. The HCN channel blocker ZD7288 has been shown to reduce apomorphine-induced conditioned taste aversion on saccharin preference in rats suggesting potential antinausea/antiemetic effects. Currently, in the least shew model of emesis we find that ZD7288 induces vomiting in a dose-dependent manner, with maximal efficacies of 100% at 1 mg/kg (i.p.) and 83.3% at 10 µg (i.c.v.). HCN channel subtype (1-4) expression was assessed using immunohistochemistry in the least shrew brainstem dorsal vagal complex (DVC) containing the emetic nuclei (area postrema (AP), nucleus tractus solitarius and dorsal motor nucleus of the vagus). Highly enriched HCN1 and HCN4 subtypes are present in the AP. A 1 mg/kg (i.p.) dose of ZD7288 strongly evoked c-Fos expression and ERK1/2 phosphorylation in the shrew brainstem DVC, but not in the in the enteric nervous system in the jejunum, suggesting a central contribution to the evoked vomiting. The ZD7288-evoked c-Fos expression exclusively occurred in tryptophan hydroxylase 2-positive serotonin neurons of the dorsal vagal complex, indicating activation of serotonin neurons may contribute to ZD7288-induced vomiting. To reveal its mechanism(s) of emetic action, we evaluated the efficacy of diverse antiemetics against ZD7288-evoked vomiting including the antagonists/inhibitors of: ERK1/2 (U0126), L-type Ca[2+] channel (nifedipine); store-operated Ca[2+] entry (MRS 1845); T-type Ca[2+] channel (Z944), IP3R (2-APB), RyR receptor (dantrolene); the serotoninergic type 3 receptor (palonosetron); neurokinin 1 receptor (netupitant), dopamine type 2 receptor (sulpride), and the transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 receptor agonist, resiniferatoxin. All tested antiemetics except sulpride attenuated ZD7288-evoked vomiting to varying degrees. In sum, ZD7288 has emetic potential mainly via central mechanisms, a process which involves Ca[2+] signaling and several emetic receptors. HCN channel blockers have been reported to have emetic potential in the clinic since they are currently used/investigated as therapeutic candidates for cancer therapy related- or unrelated-heart failure, pain, and cognitive impairment.

RevDate: 2022-01-20
CmpDate: 2022-01-20

Har-Paz I, Arieli E, A Moran (2021)

ApoE4 attenuates cortical neuronal activity in young behaving apoE4 rats.

Neurobiology of disease, 155:105373.

The E4 allele of apolipoprotein E (apoE4) is the strongest genetic risk factor for late-onset Alzheimer's disease (AD). However, apoE4 may cause innate brain abnormalities before the appearance of AD-related neuropathology. Understanding these primary dysfunctions is vital for the early detection of AD and the development of therapeutic strategies. Recently we reported impaired extra-hippocampal memory in young apoE4 mice, a deficit that was correlated with attenuated structural pre-synaptic plasticity in cortical and subcortical regions. Here we tested the hypothesis that these early structural deficits impact learning via changes in basal and stimuli evoked neuronal activity. We recorded extracellular neuronal activity from the gustatory cortex (GC) of three-month-old humanized apoE4 (hApoE4) and wildtype rats expressing rat apoE (rAE), before and after conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training. Despite normal sucrose drinking behavior before CTA, young hApoE4 rats showed impaired CTA learning, consistent with our previous results in target-replacement apoE4 mice. This behavioral deficit was correlated with decreased basal and taste-evoked firing rates in both putative excitatory and inhibitory GC neurons. Further taste coding analyses at the single neuron and ensemble levels revealed that GC neurons of the hApoE4 group correctly classified tastes, but were unable to undergo plasticity to support learning. These results suggest that apoE4 impacts brain excitability and plasticity early in life that may act as an initiator for later AD pathologies.

RevDate: 2022-04-06
CmpDate: 2022-04-06

Yiannakas A, Kolatt Chandran S, Kayyal H, et al (2021)

Parvalbumin interneuron inhibition onto anterior insula neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdala drives aversive taste memory retrieval.

Current biology : CB, 31(13):2770-2784.e6.

Memory retrieval refers to the fundamental ability of organisms to make use of acquired, sometimes inconsistent, information about the world. Although memory acquisition has been studied extensively, the neurobiological mechanisms underlying memory retrieval remain largely unknown. Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) is a robust associative paradigm, through which animals can be trained to express aversion toward innately appetitive tastants. The anterior insula (aIC) is indispensable in the ability of mammals to retrieve associative information regarding tastants that have been previously linked with gastric malaise. Here, we show that CTA memory retrieval promotes cell-type-specific activation in the aIC. Using chemogenetic tools in the aIC, we found that CTA memory acquisition requires activation of excitatory neurons and inhibition of inhibitory neurons, whereas retrieval necessitates activation of both excitatory and inhibitory aIC circuits. CTA memory retrieval at the aIC activates parvalbumin (PV) interneurons and increases synaptic inhibition onto activated pyramidal neurons projecting to the basolateral amygdala (aIC-BLA). Unlike innately appetitive taste memory retrieval, CTA retrieval increases synaptic inhibition onto aIC-BLA-projecting neurons that is dependent on activity in aIC PV interneurons. PV aIC interneurons coordinate CTA memory retrieval and are necessary for its dominance when conflicting internal representations are encountered over time. The reinstatement of CTA memories following extinction is also dependent on activation of aIC PV interneurons, which increase the frequency of inhibition onto aIC-BLA-projecting neurons. This newly described interaction of PV and a subset of excitatory neurons can explain the coherency of aversive memory retrieval, an evolutionary pre-requisite for animal survival.

RevDate: 2022-02-02
CmpDate: 2022-02-02

Urrieta E, ML Escobar (2021)

Metaplastic regulation of neocortical long-term depression in vivo is sensitive to distinct phases of conditioned taste aversion.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 182:107449.

Metaplasticity refers to the persistent modification, by previous activity, in the ability to induce synaptic plasticity. Accumulated evidence has proposed that metaplasticity contributes to network function and cognitive processes such as learning and memory. In this regard, it has been observed that training in several behavioral tasks modifies the possibility to induce subsequent synaptic plasticity, such as long-term potentiation (LTP) and long-term depression (LTD). For instance, our previous studies have shown that conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training prevents the induction of in vivo LTP in the projection from the basolateral nucleus of the amygdala to the insular cortex (BLA-IC). Likewise, we reported that extinction of CTA allows induction but not maintenance of LTP in the same pathway. Besides, we showed that it is possible to express in vivo low-frequency stimulation LTD in the BLA-IC projection and that its induction prior to CTA training facilitates the extinction of this task. However, until now, little is known about the participation of LTD on metaplastic processes. The present study aimed to analyze whether CTA training modifies the expression of in vivo LTD in the BLA-IC projection. To do so, animals received low-frequency stimulation to induce IC-LTD 48 h after CTA training. Our results show that CTA training occludes the subsequent induction of LTD in the BLA-IC pathway in a retrieval-dependent manner. These findings reveal that CTA elicits a metaplastic regulation of long-lasting changes in the IC synaptic strength, as well as that specific phases of learning differentially take part in adjusting the expression of synaptic plasticity in neocortical regions.

RevDate: 2021-06-10
CmpDate: 2021-06-10

de Brugada I, González F, Cándido A, et al (2021)

Contextual control of the retardation of flavour aversion learning by preexposure to the unconditioned stimulus: Acquisition or retrieval deficit?.

Behavioural processes, 188:104394.

Two experiments, using rats as the subjects, and flavour aversion learning with an injection of lithium chloride (LiCl) as the unconditioned stimulus (US), examined the effects of a context shift between phases of the procedure on the retardation of learning produced by preexposure to the US. Experiment 1 showed that the US-preexposure effect (the reduction in the size of the conditioned aversion) was not attenuated when the animals were given both preexposure to the US and the conditioning procedure in a novel context but received the test phase in a different context (the home cages). Experiment 2 showed that, after degrading the injection cues-illness association by interpolating saline injections between LiCl preexposures, the US-preexposure effect was attenuated when there was a context shift between preexposure and conditioning, but that the context shift was without effect when it occurred between conditioning and test. These results are consistent with the proposal that US preexposure obtained in this procedure has its effect by interfering with the formation of the target association; they provide no support for the suggestion that the effect depends on interference at the test stage.

RevDate: 2022-01-25
CmpDate: 2022-01-25

Osorio-Gómez D, Bermúdez-Rattoni F, KR Guzmán-Ramos (2021)

Cortical neurochemical signaling of gustatory stimuli and their visceral consequences during the acquisition and consolidation of taste aversion memory.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 181:107437.

The insular cortex (IC) has a crucial role in taste recognition memory, including conditioned taste aversion (CTA). CTA is a learning paradigm in which a novel taste stimulus (CS) is associated with gastric malaise (US), inducing aversion to the CS in future encounters. The role of the IC in CTA memory formation has been extensively studied. However, the functional significance of neurotransmitter release during the presentation of taste stimuli and gastric malaise-inducing agents remains unclear. Using microdialysis in free-moving animals, we evaluated simultaneous changes in glutamate, norepinephrine and dopamine release in response to the presentation of an innate appetitive or aversive gustatory novel stimulus, as well as after i.p. administration of isotonic or hypertonic gastric malaise-inducing solutions. Our results demonstrate that the presentation of novel stimuli, regardless of their innate valence, induces an elevation of norepinephrine and dopamine. Administration of a gastric malaise inducing agent (LiCl) promotes an elevation of glutamate regardless of its concentration. In comparison, norepinephrine release is related to the LiCl concentration and its equimolar NaCl control. Additionally, we evaluated their functional role on short and long-term taste aversion memory. Results indicate that the blockade of noradrenergic β1,2 receptors in the IC spares CTA acquisition and memory consolidation. In contrast, blockade of dopamine D1/D5 receptors impaired CTA consolidation, whereas the NMDA receptor blockade impedes both acquisition and consolidation of CTA. These results suggest that dopaminergic and noradrenergic release are related to the salience of conditioned taste stimuli. However, only cortical D1/D5 dopaminergic activity, but not the noradrenergic β1,2 activity, is involved in the acquisition and consolidation of taste memory formation. Additionally, glutamatergic activity signals visceral distress caused by LiCl administration and activates NMDA receptors necessary for the acquisition and consolidation of long-lasting taste aversion memory.

RevDate: 2021-04-13

Kotańska M, Mika K, Szafarz M, et al (2021)

Effects of GPR18 Ligands on Body Weight and Metabolic Parameters in a Female Rat Model of Excessive Eating.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 14(3):.

GPR18 has been proposed to play a role in the progression of metabolic disease and obesity. Therefore, the aim of this study was to determine the effects of selective GRP18 ligands (the antagonists PSB-CB5 and PSB-CB27 and the agonist PSB-KK1415) on body mass and the development of metabolic disorders commonly accompanying obesity. Experiments were carried out on female Wistar rats. In order to determine the anorectic activity of the investigated ligands, their effect on food and water intake in a model of excessive eating was assessed. Lipid profile, glucose and insulin levels as well as alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and γ-glutamyl transpeptidase activity in plasma were also evaluated. Potential side effects were examined in rat models of pica behavior and conditioned taste aversion. Animals treated with different ligands gained significantly less weight than rats from the obese control group. Effects of GPR18 antagonists on food intake and body weight were specific and unrelated to visceral illness, stress or changes in spontaneous activity. However, the GPR18 agonist is likely to affect body weight by inducing gastrointestinal disorders such as nausea. The presented preliminary data support the idea that the search for selective GPR18 antagonists for the treatment of obesity might be promising.

RevDate: 2021-05-28
CmpDate: 2021-05-28

Calder AN, Yu T, Dahir NS, et al (2021)

Ghrelin Receptors Enhance Fat Taste Responsiveness in Female Mice.

Nutrients, 13(4):.

Ghrelin is a major appetite-stimulating neuropeptide found in circulation. While its role in increasing food intake is well known, its role in affecting taste perception, if any, remains unclear. In this study, we investigated the role of the growth hormone secretagogue receptor's (GHS-R; a ghrelin receptor) activity in the peripheral taste system using feeding studies and conditioned taste aversion assays by comparing wild-type and GHS-R-knockout models. Using transgenic mice expressing enhanced green fluorescent protein (GFP), we demonstrated GHS-R expression in the taste system in relation phospholipase C ß2 isotype (PLCβ2; type II taste cell marker)- and glutamate decarboxylase type 67 (GAD67; type III taste cell marker)-expressing cells using immunohistochemistry. We observed high levels of co-localization between PLCβ2 and GHS-R within the taste system, while GHS-R rarely co-localized in GAD67-expressing cells. Additionally, following 6 weeks of 60% high-fat diet, female Ghsr[-/-] mice exhibited reduced responsiveness to linoleic acid (LA) compared to their wild-type (WT) counterparts, while no such differences were observed in male Ghsr[-/-] and WT mice. Overall, our results are consistent with the interpretation that ghrelin in the taste system is involved in the complex sensing and recognition of fat compounds. Ghrelin-GHS-R signaling may play a critical role in the recognition of fatty acids in female mice, and this differential regulation may contribute to their distinct ingestive behaviors.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-02-14

Wu CH, Ramos R, Katz DB, et al (2021)

Homeostatic synaptic scaling establishes the specificity of an associative memory.

Current biology : CB, 31(11):2274-2285.e5.

Correlation-based (Hebbian) forms of synaptic plasticity are crucial for the initial encoding of associative memories but likely insufficient to enable the stable storage of multiple specific memories within neural circuits. Theoretical studies have suggested that homeostatic synaptic normalization rules provide an essential countervailing force that can stabilize and expand memory storage capacity. Although such homeostatic mechanisms have been identified and studied for decades, experimental evidence that they play an important role in associative memory is lacking. Here, we show that synaptic scaling, a widely studied form of homeostatic synaptic plasticity that globally renormalizes synaptic strengths, is dispensable for initial associative memory formation but crucial for the establishment of memory specificity. We used conditioned taste aversion (CTA) learning, a form of associative learning that relies on Hebbian mechanisms within gustatory cortex (GC), to show that animals conditioned to avoid saccharin initially generalized this aversion to other novel tastants. Specificity of the aversion to saccharin emerged slowly over a time course of many hours and was associated with synaptic scaling down of excitatory synapses onto conditioning-active neuronal ensembles within gustatory cortex. Blocking synaptic scaling down in the gustatory cortex enhanced the persistence of synaptic strength increases induced by conditioning and prolonged the duration of memory generalization. Taken together, these findings demonstrate that synaptic scaling is crucial for sculpting the specificity of an associative memory and suggest that the relative strengths of Hebbian and homeostatic plasticity can modulate the balance between stable memory formation and memory generalization.

RevDate: 2021-08-30
CmpDate: 2021-08-30

Igarashi A, Ogasawara S, Takagi R, et al (2021)

Acute Oral Calcium Suppresses Food Intake Through Enhanced Peptide-YY Secretion Mediated by the Calcium-Sensing Receptor in Rats.

The Journal of nutrition, 151(5):1320-1328.

BACKGROUND: Dietary calcium has been proposed to reduce appetite in human studies. Postprandial satiety is mainly controlled by gut hormones. However, the effect of calcium on appetite and the role of gut hormones remain unclear.

OBJECTIVES: We examined whether oral administration of calcium reduces food intake in rats and investigated the underlying mechanism.

METHODS: Male Sprague Dawley rats (8-12 wk old) were used after an overnight fastifffng. In a series of 2 trials with 1-wk interval between challenges, food intake was measured 0.5-24 h after oral gavage of a vehicle (saline containing 1.5% carboxymethyl cellulose) as the control treatment, or the vehicle containing various calcium compounds [calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium carbonate, calcium lactate, in a random order] at 150 mg calcium/kg dose. A conditional taste aversion test was conducted. In separate experiments, plasma calcium and gut hormone concentrations were measured 15 or 30 min after oral administration of the calcium compounds. In anesthetized rats, portal peptide-YY (PYY) concentrations were measured after intraluminal administration of a liquid meal with or without additional calcium.

RESULTS: Oral CaCl2 reduced food intake acutely (30 min, ∼20%, P < 0.05) compared with control rats, without taste aversion. Plasma PYY concentration was higher (100%, P < 0.05) in CaCl2-preloaded rats than in control rats, 15 min after administration. In anesthetized rats, luminal meal + CaCl2 induced a 4-fold higher increase in plasma PYY than the control treatment did. Oral administration of a calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) agonist suppressed food intake (∼30%, P < 0.05), but CaCl2 and CaSR agonist did not suppress food intake under treatment with a PYY receptor antagonist. Furthermore, the CaSR antagonist attenuated the effect of CaCl2 on food intake.

CONCLUSIONS: CaCl2 suppresses food intake partly by increasing CaSR-mediated PYY secretion in rats. Our findings could at least partially explain the satiating effect of calcium.

RevDate: 2022-04-24
CmpDate: 2021-07-29

Karavasili C, Gkaragkounis A, DG Fatouros (2021)

Patent landscape of pediatric-friendly oral dosage forms and administration devices.

Expert opinion on therapeutic patents, 31(7):663-686.

INTRODUCTION: The current availability of dosage forms designed specifically for children is limited, constituting common practice the use of unlicensed or off-labeled medicines and extemporaneous preparations. Swallowing difficulties and taste aversion are the primary reasons for medicine rejection; therefore, enhancing palatability and ease of administration are the most common approaches adopted to overcome these issues.

AREAS COVERED: A search of patents was performed for pediatric dosage forms and devices. The review aims to provide an overview on new formulation approaches and technologies adopted to develop pediatric-friendly dosage forms and devices, as well as on the regulatory efforts aiming to support the pediatrics market.

EXPERT OPINION: Children deserve medicines of the same efficacy, quality and safety as adults. The present review highlights the momentum developed by pharmaceutical industries in the field of pediatrics, since more than 60 patents have been published in the last 5 years. An increasing interest, especially in mini-tablets, orodispersible, and chewable dosage forms, as well as on excipients and methods, to achieve sufficient taste-masking was identified, recognizing also the need for coordinated research networks and sustainable collaborations across the public and private sectors to provide better medicines for children.

RevDate: 2022-04-14
CmpDate: 2021-08-02

Sabatini PV, Frikke-Schmidt H, Arthurs J, et al (2021)

GFRAL-expressing neurons suppress food intake via aversive pathways.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(8):.

The TGFβ cytokine family member, GDF-15, reduces food intake and body weight and represents a potential treatment for obesity. Because the brainstem-restricted expression pattern of its receptor, GDNF Family Receptor α-like (GFRAL), presents an exciting opportunity to understand mechanisms of action for area postrema neurons in food intake; we generated Gfral[Cre] and conditional Gfral[CreERT] mice to visualize and manipulate GFRAL neurons. We found infection or pathophysiologic states (rather than meal ingestion) stimulate GFRAL neurons. TRAP-Seq analysis of GFRAL neurons revealed their expression of a wide range of neurotransmitters and neuropeptides. Artificially activating Gfral[Cre] -expressing neurons inhibited feeding, decreased gastric emptying, and promoted a conditioned taste aversion (CTA). GFRAL neurons most strongly innervate the parabrachial nucleus (PBN), where they target CGRP-expressing (CGRP[PBN]) neurons. Silencing CGRP[PBN] neurons abrogated the aversive and anorexic effects of GDF-15. These findings suggest that GFRAL neurons link non-meal-associated pathophysiologic signals to suppress nutrient uptake and absorption.

RevDate: 2022-07-16
CmpDate: 2022-03-25

Dannenhoffer CA, Werner DF, Varlinskaya EI, et al (2021)

Adolescent intermittent ethanol exposure does not alter responsiveness to ifenprodil or expression of vesicular GABA and glutamate transporters.

Developmental psychobiology, 63(5):903-914.

Adolescent intermittent ethanol (AIE) exposure in the rat results in a retention of adolescent-like responsiveness to ethanol into adulthood characterized by enhanced sensitivity to socially facilitating and decreased sensitivity to socially suppressing and aversive effects. Similar pattern of responsiveness to social and aversive effects of the selective glutamate NMDA NR2B receptor antagonist ifenprodil is evident in adolescent rats, suggesting that AIE would also retain this pattern of ifenprodil sensitivity into adulthood. Social (Experiment 1) and aversive (measured via conditioned taste aversion; Experiment 2) effects of ifenprodil were assessed in adult male and female rats following AIE exposure. Sensitivity to the social and aversive effects of ifenprodil was not affected by AIE exposure. Experiment 3 assessed protein expression of vesicular transporters of GABA (vGAT) and glutamate (vGlut2) within the prelimbic cortex and nucleus accumbens in adolescents versus adults and in AIE adults versus controls. vGlut2 expression was higher in adolescents relative to adults within the PrL, but lower in the NAc. AIE adults did not retain these adolescent-typical ratios. These findings suggest that AIE is not associated with the retention of adolescent-typical sensitivity to NR2B receptor antagonism, along with no AIE-induced shift in vGlut2 to vGAT ratios.

RevDate: 2021-09-21
CmpDate: 2021-09-21

Indigo NL, Jolly CJ, Kelly E, et al (2021)

Effects of learning and adaptation on population viability.

Conservation biology : the journal of the Society for Conservation Biology, 35(4):1245-1255.

Cultural adaptation is one means by which conservationists may help populations adapt to threats. A learned behavior may protect an individual from a threat, and the behavior can be transmitted horizontally (within generations) and vertically (between generations), rapidly conferring population-level protection. Although possible in theory, it remains unclear whether such manipulations work in a conservation setting; what conditions are required for them to work; and how they might affect the evolutionary process. We examined models in which a population can adapt through both genetic and cultural mechanisms. Our work was motivated by the invasion of highly toxic cane toads (Rhinella marina) across northern Australia and the resultant declines of endangered northern quolls (Dasyurus hallucatus), which attack and are fatally poisoned by the toxic toads. We examined whether a novel management strategy in which wild quolls are trained to avoid toads can reduce extinction probability. We used a simulation model tailored to quoll life history. Within simulations, individuals were trained and a continuous evolving trait determined innate tendency to attack toads. We applied this model in a population viability setting. The strategy reduced extinction probability only when heritability of innate aversion was low (<20%) and when trained mothers trained >70% of their young to avoid toads. When these conditions were met, genetic adaptation was slower, but rapid cultural adaptation kept the population extant while genetic adaptation was completed. To gain insight into the evolutionary dynamics (in which we saw a transitory peak in cultural adaptation over time), we also developed a simple analytical model of evolutionary dynamics. This model showed that the strength of natural selection declined as the cultural transmission rate increased and that adaptation proceeded only when the rate of cultural transmission was below a critical value determined by the relative levels of protection conferred by genetic versus cultural mechanisms. Together, our models showed that cultural adaptation can play a powerful role in preventing extinction, but that rates of cultural transmission need to be high for this to occur.

RevDate: 2021-08-16
CmpDate: 2021-06-25

Itoh A, Komatsuzaki Y, Lukowiak K, et al (2021)

Epicatechin increases the persistence of long-term memory formed by conditioned taste aversion in Lymnaea.

The Journal of experimental biology, 224(Pt 3): pii:jeb.238055.

We examined the effects of epicatechin (Epi), a flavonoid abundant in green tea and cocoa, on long-term memory (LTM) formed following conditioned taste aversion (CTA) training in Lymnaeastagnalis In CTA training, the snails learnt to avoid a food that initially they liked (i.e. sucrose). Twenty-four hours after CTA training, 67% of the trained snails showed a significant decrease in the feeding behaviour elicited by sucrose. Placing snails in the Epi solution in CTA training did not alter the percentage of snails exhibiting LTM, but it significantly increased LTM persistence. We also examined changes following Epi exposure in spontaneous activity of the cerebral giant cells (CGCs) that modulate feeding behaviour and are necessary for CTA-LTM. Our data suggest that Epi causes a decrease in CGC activity and increases LTM persistence, possibly via a GABAergic mechanism.

RevDate: 2021-03-29
CmpDate: 2021-03-29

Toyoda H, Katagiri A, Kato T, et al (2020)

Intranasal Administration of Rotenone Reduces GABAergic Inhibition in the Mouse Insular Cortex Leading to Impairment of LTD and Conditioned Taste Aversion Memory.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(1):.

The pesticide rotenone inhibits mitochondrial complex I and is thought to cause neurological disorders such as Parkinson's disease and cognitive disorders. However, little is known about the effects of rotenone on conditioned taste aversion memory. In the present study, we investigated whether intranasal administration of rotenone affects conditioned taste aversion memory in mice. We also examined how the intranasal administration of rotenone modulates synaptic transmission and plasticity in layer V pyramidal neurons of the mouse insular cortex that is critical for conditioned taste aversion memory. We found that the intranasal administration of rotenone impaired conditioned taste aversion memory to bitter taste. Regarding its cellular mechanisms, long-term depression (LTD) but not long-term potentiation (LTP) was impaired in rotenone-treated mice. Furthermore, spontaneous inhibitory synaptic currents and tonic GABA currents were decreased in layer V pyramidal neurons of rotenone-treated mice compared to the control mice. The impaired LTD observed in pyramidal neurons of rotenone-treated mice was restored by a GABAA receptor agonist muscimol. These results suggest that intranasal administration of rotenone decreases GABAergic synaptic transmission in layer V pyramidal neurons of the mouse insular cortex, the result of which leads to impairment of LTD and conditioned taste aversion memory.

RevDate: 2021-04-19
CmpDate: 2021-04-19

Kawabata F, Yoshida Y, Inoue Y, et al (2021)

Research Note: Behavioral preference and conditioned taste aversion to oleic acid solution in chickens.

Poultry science, 100(1):372-376.

A functional fatty acid taste receptor, GPR120, is present in chicken oral tissues, and chickens show a preference for lipid in feed. However, it remains unclear whether chickens can detect fatty acids. To address this issue, we adopted 2 behavioral paradigms: a one-bowl drinking test to evaluate the preference for oleic acid solution and a conditioned taste aversion test to investigate the role of gustation in chickens' ability to detect oleic acid. In the one-bowl drinking test, chickens did not show any preference for solution containing 0.001, 0.01, 0.03, 0.1, or 30 mmol/L oleic acid although 30 mmol/L oleic acid was enough to fully activate GPR120, confirmed by Ca[2+] imaging. On the other hand, chickens conditioned to avoid 30 mmol/L oleic acid solution also learned to avoid the solution. These results suggested that chickens have a gustatory perception of oleic acid solution but do not have a preference for it. The present results support the idea that chickens prefer lipid in feed, not only by a postingestive effect but also by sensing the taste of fatty acid.

RevDate: 2021-09-15
CmpDate: 2021-09-15

Wyszogrodzka E, Dyr W, Siwińska-Ziółkowska A, et al (2021)

Higher sensitivity to ethanol's aversive properties in WLP (Warsaw Low Preferring) vs. WHP (Warsaw High Preferring) rats.

Alcohol (Fayetteville, N.Y.), 90:67-73.

Ethanol can have both an aversive and rewarding effect, which may have a significant relationship to its individual preference. So far, the reasons for the high and low ethanol preference in the WHP (Warsaw High Preferring) and WLP (Warsaw Low Preferring) lines have not been found. WHP rats spontaneously drink over 5 g/kg/day of ethanol, while WLP rats drink under 2 g/kg/day. The purpose of the work was to study the sensitivity of WHP and WLP rats to the aversive effects of ethanol at doses of 1.5 g/kg and 2.0 g/kg in the conditioned taste aversion (CTA) procedure. Lower doses (0.5 and 1.0 g/kg, i.p. [intraperitoneally]) were tested earlier and only 1.0 g/kg produced a slight aversion in WLP rats. The secondary aim was to check the additional potential factors (blood ethanol concentration, pain sensitivity, anxiety-related behavior, learning, and memory) that may constitute an important differentiating feature of the WHP and WLP lines. For this purpose, the following tests were conducted: blood ethanol concentration, novel object recognition (NOR), flinch-jump, hot-plate, and elevated plus maze (EPM). The 1.5 g/kg i.p. dose of ethanol caused the development of an aversion only in WLP rats and the aversion extinguished in the post-conditioning phase. The 2.0 g/kg i.p. dose of ethanol resulted in the development of an aversion in both the tested groups, with the aversion being maintained throughout the whole post-conditioning period only in the WLP rats. There were no differences between the lines in terms of the blood ethanol concentration and the EPM tests. WHP rats had a higher pain sensitivity compared to WLP rats in flinch-jump and hot-plate tests. WLP rats showed a shorter exploration time for both objects compared to WHP in the NOR test. In conclusion, WHP and WLP rats differ in sensitivity to the aversive effects of ethanol. This difference may partially explain their opposite ethanol preference.

RevDate: 2022-01-25

Robinson SL, Dornellas APS, Burnham NW, et al (2020)

Distinct and Overlapping Patterns of Acute Ethanol-Induced C-Fos Activation in Two Inbred Replicate Lines of Mice Selected for Drinking to High Blood Ethanol Concentrations.

Brain sciences, 10(12):.

UNLABELLED: The inbred high drinking in the dark (iHDID1 and iHDID2) strains are two replicate lines bred from the parent HS/Npt (HS) line for achieving binge levels of blood ethanol concentration (≥80 mg/dL BEC) in a four-hour period. In this work, we sought to evaluate differences in baseline and ethanol-induced c-Fos activation between the HS, iHDID1, and iHDID2 genetic lines in brain regions known to process the aversive properties of ethanol.

METHODS: Male and female HS, iHDID1, and iHDID2 mice underwent an IP saline 2 3 g/kg ethanol injection. Brain sections were then stained for c-Fos expression in the basolateral/central amygdala (BLA/CeA), bed nucleus of the stria terminals (BNST), A2, locus coeruleus (LC), parabrachial nucleus (PBN), lateral/medial habenula (LHb/MHb), paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT), periaqueductal gray (PAG), Edinger-Westphal nuclei (EW), and rostromedial tegmental nucleus (RMTg).

RESULTS: The iHDID1 and iHDID2 lines showed similar and distinct patterns of regional c-Fos; however, in no region did the two both significantly differ from the HS line together.

CONCLUSIONS: These data lend further support to altered baseline or ethanol-induced activation in brain regions associated with processing the aversive properties of ethanol in the iHDID1 and iHDID2 genetic lines.

RevDate: 2021-05-14
CmpDate: 2021-05-14

Stensmyr MC, SJC Caron (2020)

Neuroscience: The Secret of Sauce Béarnaise Syndrome Is in the Circuit.

Current biology : CB, 30(23):R1413-R1415.

During conditioned food aversion - a.k.a. sauce béarnaise syndrome - the ingestion of a spoiled food item leads to a lasting aversion towards cues reminiscent of the item. A new study finds that, in Drosophila, taste aversion depends on the immune system and the mushroom body.

RevDate: 2020-12-26

Nakai J, Totani Y, Hatakeyama D, et al (2020)

Another Example of Conditioned Taste Aversion: Case of Snails.

Biology, 9(12):.

Conditioned taste aversion (CTA) in mammals has several specific characteristics: (1) emergence of a negative symptom in subjects due to selective association with a taste-related stimulus, (2) robust long-term memory that is resistant to extinction induced by repeated presentation of the conditioned stimulus (CS), (3) a very-long-delay presentation of the unconditioned stimulus (US), and (4) single-trial learning. The pond snail, Lymnaea stagnalis, can also form a CTA. Although the negative symptoms, like nausea, in humans cannot be easily observed in invertebrate animal models of CTA, all the other characteristics of CTA seem to be present in snails. Selective associability was confirmed using a sweet sucrose solution and a bitter KCl solution. Once snails form a CTA, repeated presentation of the CS does not extinguish the CTA. A long interstimulus interval between the CS and US, like in trace conditioning, still results in the formation of a CTA in snails. Lastly, even single-trial learning has been demonstrated with a certain probability. In the present review, we compare, in detail, CTA in mammals and snails, and discuss the possible molecular events in CTA.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

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