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30 Jun 2022 at 01:53
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Bibliography on: Telomeres


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Wikipedia: A telomere is a region of repetitive nucleotide sequences at each end of a chromosome, which protects the end of the chromosome from deterioration or from fusion with neighboring chromosomes. Its name is derived from the Greek nouns telos (τέλος) "end" and merοs (μέρος, root: μερ-) "part". For vertebrates, the sequence of nucleotides in telomeres is TTAGGG, with the complementary DNA strand being AATCCC, with a single-stranded TTAGGG overhang. This sequence of TTAGGG is repeated approximately 2,500 times in humans. In humans, average telomere length declines from about 11 kilobases at birth to less than 4 kilobases in old age,[3] with average rate of decline being greater in men than in women. During chromosome replication, the enzymes that duplicate DNA cannot continue their duplication all the way to the end of a chromosome, so in each duplication the end of the chromosome is shortened (this is because the synthesis of Okazaki fragments requires RNA primers attaching ahead on the lagging strand). The telomeres are disposable buffers at the ends of chromosomes which are truncated during cell division; their presence protects the genes before them on the chromosome from being truncated instead. The telomeres themselves are protected by a complex of shelterin proteins, as well as by the RNA that telomeric DNA encodes.

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Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2022-06-27

Buttet M, Bagheri R, Ugbolue UC, et al (2022)

Effect of a lifestyle intervention on telomere length:A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Mechanisms of ageing and development pii:S0047-6374(22)00076-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the effects of lifestyle intervention on telomere length (TL).

METHOD: Four databases were searched for studies reporting TL in leukocytes, before and after a lifestyle intervention. We computed random-effects meta-analysis on TL within intervention and control group after versus before intervention, and on changes in TL between groups. Sensitivity analyses and Meta-regression were conducted.

RESULTS: We included 20 studies in the systematic review (2995 participants, mean 50.3 years old, 77% women, 2045 following an intervention and 950 controls) and 19 in the meta-analysis. TL were similar at baseline between intervention and control groups. The physical activity ± diet group had an increase in TL (Effect size 0.17, 95%CI 0.03 to 0.31, p=0.020) using changes within the intervention group, whereas TL shortened in the control group (-0.32, -0.61 to -0.02, p=0.037). TL was longer in the physical activity ± diet intervention group (0.24, 0.08 to 0.40, p=0.004) compared to controls after the intervention. Sensitivity analysis gave similar results. Meta-regressions demonstrated that combining strength and endurance exercise increased TL more than endurance alone or strength alone.

CONCLUSION: A lifestyle intervention with physical activity ± diet can increase telomere length, independently of population characteristics or baseline TL.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Llorente H, Perez-Rivera JA, Perez-Nieto M, et al (2022)

Genetic susceptibility to telomere shortening through the rs2293607 polymorphism is associated with a greater risk of alcohol use disorder.

Mechanisms of ageing and development pii:S0047-6374(22)00075-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Telomere shortening is usually considered a biomarker of ageing. Harmful alcohol use promotes accelerated biological ageing and alcohol use disorders (AUDs) are associated with short telomere length (TL). This study was conducted to examine the relationship of TL to AUD and determine whether single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in TERC and TERT modulate this association. For this purpose, we genotyped TERC SNPs rs2293607, rs12696304, and rs16847897 and TERT SNPs rs2735940, rs2736100, and rs2736098 in 308 male patients with AUD and 255 sex-matched healthy controls and measured TL in a subset of 99 patients and 99 controls paired by age and smoking status. Our results showed that the mean TL was shorter in patients with AUD than in controls. The area under the ROC curve was 0.70 (P < 0.001). The GG genotype of TERC rs2293607 was more common among patients with AUD than among controls (9.8% vs. 5.1%; P = 0.038). No difference was found for the other SNPs. Carriers of the GG genotype of rs2293607 had shorter telomeres than did allele A carriers. In conclusion, patients with AUD had shorter telomeres. Genetic susceptibility to telomere shortening through the rs2293607 SNP is associated with a greater risk of AUD.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Madaeva IM, Kurashova NA, Ukhinov EB, et al (2022)

[Changes in the telomeres length in patients with obstructive sleep apnea after continuous positive airway pressure therapy: a pilot study].

Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova, 122(5. Vyp. 2):52-57.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a relative telomere length in patients with obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) before and after a 6-month course of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) therapy.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Seventy-five men participated in the study, including 50 men with OSA (the main group 1) and 25 men without OSA (the control group). The average age in the total group was 53.4±3.6 years. Thirty-five men completed the study (the main group 2). According to the design, night polysomnography (PSG) was performed for all the subjects, blood sampling to assess the length of telomeres was carried out in the morning according to the standard method. The values of the relative telomere length were obtained using the difference between the values of the threshold cycles for telomeric DNA and the reference gene albumin (∆CCt). After clarifying the diagnosis, CPAP was applied for 6 months.

RESULTS: Statistically significant indicators of PSG were revealed: a decrease in NREM 3 in patients with OSA compared to controls (89.3±15.8 versus 150±23.4 minutes), an increase in NREM1-2 in OSA (296.2±31.1 and 170.1±24.5, respectively), REM was 84.6±15.4 in the main group and 118.5±19.5 in the control group. CPAP therapy conducted for 6 months (at least 4-5 nights a week, lasting at least 5-6 hours of night sleep) demonstrated a significant improvement in the qualitative and quantitative parameters of sleep. In patients of the main group 1, there is a shortening of the telomere length compared with the control group (p<0.001). With the elimination of hypoxia and improvement of the structure of sleep after CPAP, there was an increase in the telomere lengths in the main group 1 from 0.28 [0.24-0.29] to 0.32 [0.30-0.34] in the main group 2 (p=0.03). The telomers length in the control group was 0.53 [0.50-0.55].

CONCLUSION: Intermittent hypoxia and fragmentation of sleep in OSA leads to shortening of telomeres. CPAP, by eliminating the pathophysiological triggers of OSA, contributes to an increase in telomeres lengths and can slow down the premature aging in OSA.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Aguayo L, Ogolsky B, Teran-Garcia M, et al (2021)

From culture to chromosomes: A mother-child dyadic study of acculturation, telomere lengths and body fat.

Comprehensive psychoneuroendocrinology, 5:100029 pii:S2666-4976(21)00003-5.

Studies suggest that telomere lengths, a biomarker of aging, could also capture the physiological weathering attributable to poor health behaviors and adverse experiences, particularly those experienced in early life. For these reasons, we propose that telomere lengths may be a pivotal biomarker for measuring the heightened susceptibility to illness resulting from the cumulative exposure to acculturation to the US culture. This binational study used an Actor-Partner Interdependence Model to test if maternal acculturation to the US moderates the cross-sectional associations of telomere lengths with percentage of body fat (PBF) among Mexican women, among their children, and the intergenerational associations of mother and children telomere lengths with each other's PBF. Low income Mexican child-mother dyads (n ​= ​108 dyads) were recruited to participate in this cross-sectional study in Mexico and the US. The pooled dataset included measurements of maternal acculturation to the US, mother and children's salivary telomere lengths, PBF measured through bioelectrical impedance, and demographic characteristics. Results showed that the influences of maternal acculturation in the associations of telomere lengths with PBF were different for mothers and their children: Among mothers with higher maternal acculturation to the US, longer salivary telomere lengths were associated with lower PBF. In contrast, among mothers with lower maternal acculturation to the US, salivary telomere lengths were not associated with PBF. There were no significant associations between children's salivary telomere lengths and PBF, and the null associations did not vary across different levels of maternal acculturation to the US. Future longitudinal studies are needed to determine whether acculturation to the US (experienced through immigration or remotely) influences the association of telomere length attrition with obesity risks among immigrant and non-immigrant Mexican children and adults.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Zhang Y, Fu J, Wang K, et al (2022)

The telomere-to-telomere gap-free genome of four rice parents reveals SV and PAV patterns in hybrid rice breeding.

Plant biotechnology journal [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Isehunwa OO, Warner ET, Spiegelman D, et al (2022)

Depression, religiosity, and telomere length in the Study on Stress, Spirituality, and Health (SSSH).

International journal of mental health and addiction, 20(3):1465-1484.

Prospective studies on the association between depression and telomere length have produced mixed results and have been largely limited to European ancestry populations. We examined the associations between depression and telomere length, and the modifying influence of religion and spirituality, in four cohorts, each representing a different race/ethnic population. Relative leukocyte telomere length (RTL) was measured by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Our result showed that depression was not associated with RTL (percent difference: 3.0 95% CI: -3.9, 10.5; p = 0.41; p-heterogeneity across studies = 0.67) overall or in cohort-specific analyses. However, in cohort-specific analyses, there was some evidence of effect modification by the extent of religiosity or spirituality, religious congregation membership, and group prayer. Further research is needed to investigate prospective associations between depression and telomere length, and the resources of resilience including dimensions of religion and spirituality that may impact such dynamics in diverse racial/ethnic populations.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Deng Y, Liu S, Zhang Y, et al (2022)

A telomere-to-telomere gap-free reference genome of watermelon and its mutation library provide important resources for gene discovery and breeding.

Molecular plant pii:S1674-2052(22)00192-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Watermelon, Citrullus lanatus, is the world's third largest fruity crop. Reference genomes with gaps and narrow genetic base hinder functional genomics and genetic improvement of watermelon. Here, we report the assembly of a telomere-to-telomere (T2T) gap-free genome of the elite watermelon inbred G42 by incorporating the high-coverage and accurate long-read sequence data with multiple assembly strategies. All 11 chromosomes have been assembled into single contig pseudomolecules without gap, representing the highest completeness and assembly quality till now. The G42 reference genome contained a total length of 369,321,829 bp and 24,205 predicted protein-coding genes, with all 22 telomeres and 11 centromeres characterized. Over 200,000 M1 seeds from inbred G42 were generated using pollen EMS mutagenesis. In a sampling pool, 48 monogenic phenotypic mutations, selected from 223 M1 and 78 M2 mutants with morphological changes, were confirmed. The average density of mutation is 1 SNP/1.69 Mb and 1 indel/4.55 Mb per M1 plant, and 1 SNP/1.08 Mb and 1 indel/6.25 Mb per M2 plant. Taking advantage of the gap-free G42 genome, 8,039 mutations from the 32 plants sampled from M1 and M2 families were identified with 100% accuracy, whereas only 25% of the randomly selected mutations identified using 97103v2 reference genome could be confirmed. Using this library and the gap-free genome, two genes responsible for elongated fruit shape and male sterility (ClMS1) were identified, both being caused by a single base change from G to A. The validated gap-free genome and its EMS mutation library provide invaluable resources for functional genomics and genetic improvement of watermelon.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Ebata H, Loo TM, A Takahashi (2022)

Telomere Maintenance and the cGAS-STING Pathway in Cancer.

Cells, 11(12): pii:cells11121958.

Cancer cells exhibit the unique characteristics of high proliferation and aberrant DNA damage response, which prevents cancer therapy from effectively eliminating them. The machinery required for telomere maintenance, such as telomerase and the alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT), enables cancer cells to proliferate indefinitely. In addition, the molecules in this system are involved in noncanonical pro-tumorigenic functions. Of these, the function of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)-stimulator of interferon genes (STING) pathway, which contains telomere-related molecules, is a well-known contributor to the tumor microenvironment (TME). This review summarizes the current knowledge of the role of telomerase and ALT in cancer regulation, with emphasis on their noncanonical roles beyond telomere maintenance. The components of the cGAS-STING pathway are summarized with respect to intercell communication in the TME. Elucidating the underlying functional connection between telomere-related molecules and TME regulation is important for the development of cancer therapeutics that target cancer-specific pathways in different contexts. Finally, strategies for designing new cancer therapies that target cancer cells and the TME are discussed.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Miller JG, Buthmann JL, IH Gotlib (2022)

Hippocampal volume indexes neurobiological sensitivity to the effect of pollution burden on telomere length in adolescents.

New directions for child and adolescent development [Epub ahead of print].

Exposure to environmental pollutants has been associated with cellular aging in children and adolescents. Individuals may vary, however, in their sensitivity or vulnerability to the effects of environmental pollutants. Larger hippocampal volume has emerged as a potential index of increased sensitivity to social contexts. In exploratory analyses (N = 214), we extend work in this area by providing evidence that larger hippocampal volume in early adolescence reflects increased sensitivity to the effect of neighborhood pollution burden on telomere length (standardized β = -0.40, 95% CI[-0.65, -0.15]). In contrast, smaller hippocampal volume appears to buffer this association (standardized β = 0.02). In youth with larger hippocampal volume, pollution burden was indirectly associated with shorter telomere length approximately 2 years later through shorter telomere length at baseline (indirect standardized β = -0.25, 95% CI[-0.40, 0.10]). For these youth, living in high or low pollution-burdened neighborhoods may predispose them to develop shorter or longer telomeres, respectively, later in adolescence.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Xiong K, Ouyang C, Liu J, et al (2022)

Chiral RuII-PtII Complexes Inducing Telomere Dysfunction against Cisplatin-Resistant Cancer Cells.

Angewandte Chemie (International ed. in English) [Epub ahead of print].

The application of G-quadruplex stabilizers presents a promising anticancer strategy. However, the molecular crowding conditions within cells diminish the potency of current G-quadruplex stabilizers. Herein, chiral Ru(II)-Pt(II) dinuclear complexes were developed as highly potent G-quadruplex stabilizers even under challenging molecular crowding conditions. The compounds were encapsulated with biotin-functionalized DNA cages to enhance sub-cellular localization and provide cancer selectivity. The nanoparticles were able to efficiently inhibit the endogenous activities of telomerase in cisplatin-resistant cancer cells and cause cell death by apoptosis. The nanomaterials demonstrated high antitumor activity towards cisplatin-resistant tumor cells as well as tumor-bearing mice. To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first example of a Ru(II)-Pt(II) dinuclear complex as a G-quadruplex stabilizer with an anti-cancer effect towards drug-resistant tumors inside an animal model.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Benelli R, M Weiss (2022)

Probing local chromatin dynamics by tracking telomeres.

Biophysical journal pii:S0006-3495(22)00506-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Chromatin dynamics is key for cell viability and replication. In interphase, chromatin is decondensed, allowing the transcription machinery to access a plethora of DNA loci. Yet, decondensed chromatin occupies almost the entire nucleus, suggesting that DNA molecules can hardly move. Recent reports have even indicated that interphase chromatin behaves like a solid body on mesoscopic scales. To explore the local chromatin dynamics, we have performed single-particle tracking on telomeres under varying conditions. We find that mobile telomeres feature in all conditions a strongly subdiffusive, anti-persistent motion that is consistent with the monomer motion of a Rouse polymer in viscoelastic media. In addition, telomere trajectories show intermittent accumulations in local niches at physiological conditions, suggesting the surrounding chromatin to reorganize on these time scales. Reducing the temperature or exposing cells to osmotic stress resulted in a significant reduction of mobile telomeres and the number of visited niches. Altogether, our data indicate a vivid local chromatin dynamics, akin to a semi-dilute polymer solution, unless perturbations enforce a more rigid or entangled state of chromatin.

RevDate: 2022-06-22

Mao Y, G Zhang (2022)

Publisher Correction: A complete, telomere-to-telomere human genome sequence presents new opportunities for evolutionary genomics.

RevDate: 2022-06-22

Cozzolino M, E Seli (2022)

Mitochondrial dysfunction caused by targeted deletion of Mfn1 does not result in telomere shortening in oocytes.

Zygote (Cambridge, England) pii:S0967199422000089 [Epub ahead of print].

Telomere shortening during oocyte growth and development is related to reproductive ageing and infertility. The main mechanism involved in the maintenance of telomeres is based on telomerase activity, a specialized enzyme complex, which is capable of adding TTAGGG repeats at the ends of the chromosomes. Mitochondrial dysfunction may cause progressive shortening of telomeres by promoting the generation of reactive oxygen species. Mitofusin-1 is a protein required for mitochondrial fusion. Mice with the mitofusin-1 (Mfn1) deletion in the oocyte are characterized by accelerated follicular depletion and infertility, associated with defective oocyte maturation and follicular development. We hypothesized whether mitochondrial dysfunction in oocytes with targeted deletion of Mfn1 causes telomere shortening. We analyzed telomere length in oocyte and somatic cells in 3-, 6- and 9-month-old Mfn1-/- and wild-type mice. Immunofluorescence in oocyte mice of TRF1 and H2A.X was assessed to evaluate the interplay between the end-protection functions and the response to DNA damage occurring inside the telomeric repeats. Mitochondrial dysfunction due to the deletion of Mfn1 does not seem to affect telomere length in mouse oocytes.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Courtney MG, Roberts J, K Godde (2022)

Author Correction: How social/environmental determinants and inflammation affect salivary telomere length among middle-older adults in the health and retirement study.

Scientific reports, 12(1):10195 pii:10.1038/s41598-022-14839-x.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Guérin C, Crestani B, Dupin C, et al (2022)

[Telomeres and lung].

Revue des maladies respiratoires pii:S0761-8425(22)00161-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Genetic studies of familial forms of interstitial lung disease (ILD) have led to the discovery of telomere-related gene (TRG) mutations (TERT, TERC, RTEL1, PARN, DKC1, TINF2, NAF1, NOP10, NHP2, ACD, ZCCH8) in approximately 30% of familial ILD forms. ILD patients with TRG mutation are also subject to extra-pulmonary (immune-hematological, hepatic and/or mucosal-cutaneous) manifestations. TRG mutations may be associated not only with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF), but also with non-IPF ILDs, including idiopathic and secondary ILDs, such as hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). The presence of TRG mutation may also be associated with an accelerated decline of forced vital capacity (FVC) or poorer prognosis after lung transplantation, notwithstanding which, usual ILD treatments may be proposed. Lastly, patients and their relatives are called upon to reduce their exposure to environmental lung toxicity, and are likely to derive benefit from specific genetic counseling and pre-symptomatic genetic testing.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Qin S, Chen X, Xu Z, et al (2022)

Telomere G-triplex lights up Thioflavin T for RNA detection: new wine in an old bottle.

Analytical and bioanalytical chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Few reports are found working on the features and functions of the human telomere G-triplex (ht-G3) though the telomere G-quadruplex has been intensely studied and widely implemented to develop various biosensors. We herein report that ht-G3 lights up Thioflavin T (ThT) and establish a sensitive biosensing platform for RNA detection by introducing a target recycling strategy. An optimal condition was selected out for ht-G3 to promote ThT to generate a strong fluorescence. Accordingly, an ht-G3-based molecular beacon was successfully designed against the corresponding RNA sequence of the SARS-CoV-2 N-gene. The sensitivity for the non-amplified RNA target achieves 0.01 nM, improved 100 times over the conventional ThT-based method. We believe this ht-G3/ThT-based label-free strategy could be widely applied for RNA detection.

RevDate: 2022-06-21
CmpDate: 2022-06-21

Hu L, Zhang Q, Bai Y, et al (2022)

Triglyceride-Glucose Index Correlate With Telomere Length in Healthy Adults From the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

Frontiers in endocrinology, 13:844073.

Aim: The present investigation was designed to test the association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and two simple markers of insulin resistance, that is, homeostatic model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and triglyceride-glucose (TyG) index in U.S. adults without metabolic diseases.

Methods: A total of 6489 U.S. adults without diabetes from NHANES 1999-2002 were analyzed. TyG index was calculated as ln [fasting triglycerides (mg/dL) × fasting glucose (mg/dL)/2]. HOMA-Index was calculated as fasting plasma glucose (mmol/L) × fasting serum insulin (mU/mL)/22.5. LTL was obtained using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Multivariate linear regression analysis was assessed to evaluate the association of TyG index HOMA-IR with LTL. We further conducted a generalized additive model (GAM) and a fitted smoothing curve with penalized spline method.

Results: It was found that the mean LTL was 5796.1 bp in the measured healthy adults. Overall, TyG index was significantly associated with LTL, while HOMA-IR was not. Compared with participants in tertile 1 of the TyG index, the β (95% CI) for those in the second (8.27 to 8.77) and third (≥ 8.77) were -4.31 (95% CI: -48.12~39.49) and -95.98 (95% CI: -145.08~-46.89), respectively. Subjects with TyG index ≥ 8.77 had statistically significant shorter LTL (β = -93.33, 95%CI: -134.33~-52.32), compared with TyG index < 8.77. We further explored a dose-response relation between TyG index by a decile approach [≤ 7.81 (reference), 7.81-8.04, 8.04-8.21, 8.21-8.37, 8.37-8.52, 8.52-8.68, 8.68-8.83, 8.83-9.03, 9.03-9.33, and >9.33] and LTL. Five subgroups (TyG index 7.81-8.04, 8.04-8.21, 8.21-8.37, 8.37-8.52, and 8.52-8.68) did not show significant effect on LTL; while there was a significantly shorter LTL for participants with the TyG index > 8.68, supporting a threshold effect of TyG index on LTL.

Conclusions: The results suggested that higher TyG index (> 8.68) was closely related to shorter LTL and the TyG index was better associated with LTL than HOMA-IR.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Long L, Meng Z, Jia Z, et al (2022)

Exploring the Association of Leukocyte Telomere Length and Hearing Threshold Shifts of Adults in the United States.

Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 14:770159.

Background: Although telomere length has a significant relationship with various age-related diseases, studies on its relationship with hearing status in adults are limited and equivocal. This study investigated the associations between mean telomere length (MTL) and low-, speech-, and high-frequency hearing threshold shifts of adults in the United States.

Methods: A total of 2,027 adults, aged 20-69 years, from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES, 1999-2002) were included in the analytic sample. The quantitative polymerase chain reaction method was used for the MTL assay, and MTL was expressed using the telomere-to-single copy gene (T/S) ratio. Hearing loss was defined as a pure-tone average (PTA) for the better ear at ≥ 20 dB HL at frequencies 500, 1,000, 2,000, and 4,000 Hz. Univariate and multivariate linear regression analyses and smooth curve fittings were conducted to evaluate the correlation between MTL and low-, speech-, and high-frequency hearing levels.

Results: The mean age of the participants was 40.60 ± 12.76 years, including 952 men (weighted, 48.67%) and 303 (weighted, 12.88%) participants with hearing loss. After adjusting for potential confounders in the multivariate linear regression model, the relationship between MTL and hearing thresholds was not statistically significant. Smooth curve fittings indicated a non-linear relationship between MTL and high-frequency PTA hearing threshold shifts. MTL was inversely related to high-frequency PTA to the turning point (T/S ratio = 0.82) (adjusted β-21.45, 95% CI -37.28, -5.62; P = 0.008). When the T/S ratio exceeded0.82, MTL was not associated with high-frequency PTA (adjusted β0.18, 95% CI -2.21, 2.57; P = 0.8809).

Conclusion: Our findings revealed that MTL was associated with high-frequency PTA hearing threshold shifts of adults in the United States in a non-linear manner.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Khosravaniardakani S, Bokov DO, Mahmudiono T, et al (2022)

Obesity Accelerates Leukocyte Telomere Length Shortening in Apparently Healthy Adults: A Meta-Analysis.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:812846.

Background: Shorter telomere length is associated with numerous comorbidities. Several studies have investigated the role of obesity in telomere shortening. In the current systematic review and meta-analysis, we summarized the results of studies that evaluated the association between obesity and telomere length.

Methods: A systematic search from Scopus, PubMed, Embase, and ProQuest electronic databases up to 19 March 2021 without language restriction was performed and after data extraction and screening, 19 manuscripts were eligible to be included in the final meta-synthesis.

Results: The highest category of telomere length was associated with an approximate 0.75 kg/m2 reduction in body mass index (BMI; WMD = -0.75 kg/m2; CI = -1.19, -0.31; p < 0.001; I 2 = 99.4%). Moreover, overweight/obese individuals had 0.036 kbp shorter telomere length compared with non-overweight/obese adults (WMD = -0.036; CI = -0.05, -0.02; p = 0.030; I 2 = 100%). According to the results of subgroupings, continent, age, and sample size could be possible sources of heterogeneity.

Conclusion: From the results, it was clear that obesity was associated with shorter telomere length. Because of the observational design of included studies, the causality inference of results should be done with caution; thus, further longitudinal studies are warranted for better inference of causal association.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Viblanc VA, Criscuolo F, Sosa S, et al (2022)

Telomere dynamics in female Columbian ground squirrels: recovery after emergence and loss after reproduction.

Oecologia [Epub ahead of print].

Telomeres are specialized non-coding DNA sequences located at the end of chromosomes and that protect genetic information. Telomere loss over lifespan is generally viewed as a phenomenon associated with aging in animals. Recently, telomere elongation after hibernation has been described in several mammals. Whether this pattern is an adaptation to repair DNA damage caused during rewarming from torpor or if it coevolved as a mechanism to promote somatic maintenance in preparation for the upcoming reproductive effort remains unclear. In a longitudinal study measuring telomere length using buccal swabs, we tested if telomere elongation was related to reproductive success in wild adult female Columbian ground squirrels (Urocitellus columbianus) that were monitored from emergence from hibernation to the end of the reproductive season. We found three key results. First, female telomere length increased at the start of the breeding season, both in breeding and non-breeding individuals. Second, post-emergence telomere lengthening was unrelated to female future reproductive output. Third, telomere length decreased in breeding females during lactation, but remained stable in non-breeding females over a similar period. Within breeders, telomeres shortened more in females producing larger and heavier litters. We concluded that telomere lengthening after hibernation did not constrain immediate female reproductive capacities. It was more likely to be part of the body recovery process that takes place after hibernation. Telomere erosion that occurs after birth may constitute a physiological cost of female reproduction.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Jung J, McCartney DL, Wagner J, et al (2022)

Alcohol use disorder is associated with DNA methylation-based shortening of telomere length and regulated by TESPA1: implications for aging.

Molecular psychiatry [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic heavy alcohol consumption is associated with increased mortality and morbidity and often leads to premature aging; however, the mechanisms of alcohol-associated cellular aging are not well understood. In this study, we used DNA methylation derived telomere length (DNAmTL) as a novel approach to investigate the role of alcohol use on the aging process. DNAmTL was estimated by 140 cytosine phosphate guanines (CpG) sites in 372 individuals with alcohol use disorder (AUD) and 243 healthy controls (HC) and assessed using various endophenotypes and clinical biomarkers. Validation in an independent sample of DNAmTL on alcohol consumption was performed (N = 4219). Exploratory genome-wide association studies (GWAS) on DNAmTL were also performed to identify genetic variants contributing to DNAmTL shortening. Top GWAS findings were analyzed using in-silico expression quantitative trait loci analyses and related to structural MRI hippocampus volumes of individuals with AUD. DNAmTL was 0.11-kilobases shorter per year in AUD compared to HC after adjustment for age, sex, race, and blood cell composition (p = 4.0 × 10-12). This association was partially attenuated but remained significant after additionally adjusting for BMI, and smoking status (0.06 kilobases shorter per year, p = 0.002). DNAmTL shortening was strongly associated with chronic heavy alcohol use (ps < 0.001), elevated gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT), and aspartate aminotransferase (AST) (ps < 0.004). Comparison of DNAmTL with PCR-based methods of assessing TL revealed positive correlations (R = 0.3, p = 2.2 × 10-5), highlighting the accuracy of DNAmTL as a biomarker. The GWAS meta-analysis identified a single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP), rs4374022 and 18 imputed ones in Thymocyte Expressed, Positive Selection Associated 1(TESPA1), at the genome-wide level (p = 3.75 × 10-8). The allele C of rs4374022 was associated with DNAmTL shortening, lower hippocampus volume (p < 0.01), and decreased mRNA expression in hippocampus tissue (p = 0.04). Our study demonstrates DNAmTL-related aging acceleration in AUD and suggests a functional role for TESPA1 in regulating DNAmTL length, possibly via the immune system with subsequent biological effects on brain regions negatively affected by alcohol and implicated in aging.

RevDate: 2022-06-16

Liu W, Wang N, Zhu J, et al (2022)

The relationship between relative telomere length and anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatitis : A case-control study.

Therapie pii:S0040-5957(22)00103-2 [Epub ahead of print].

AIM: Anti-tuberculosis drug-induced hepatitis (AT-DIH) is a common and serious adverse drug reaction of tuberculosis treatment. Evidence demonstrated that many factors could affect the occurrence of AT-DIH, such as ageing, smoking, alcohol, oxidative stress, etc., while these factors could also promote telomere shortening. Therefore, relative telomere length (RTL) is indirectly related to the occurrence of AT-DIH. The present study aimed to explore and validate this relationship in Chinese tuberculosis patients.

METHODS: A 1:4 matched case-control study was undertaken using 202 AT-DIH cases and 808 controls. Logistic regression models were used to estimate the association between RTL and AT-DIH with odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). The area under receiver operating characteristic curve (AUC) was calculated to estimate the discriminative performance for distinguishing AT-DIH cases from controls.

RESULTS: The average RTL in AT-DIH cases was significantly shorter than that in controls (1.24 vs. 1.46, P=0.002). Patients with longer RTL were at a reduced risk of AT-DIH (OR=0.79, 95% CI: 0.66-0.94, P=0.009), and a dose-response relationship also existed between RTL and lower AT-DIH risk (P for trend=0.012). Under the optimal RTL cut-off value of 1.22, the corresponding AUCs were 0.57 (95% CI: 0.53-0.62, P=0.001) in the univariate model and 0.62 (95% CI: 0.57-0.66, P<0.001) in the multivariate model.

CONCLUSION: This study showed that the shorter the RTL, the higher the risk of AT-DIH during an anti-tuberculosis treatment. The short RTL could potentially serve as a risk factor or a predictive test of the hepatotoxic risk associated with anti-tuberculosis treatments.

RevDate: 2022-06-17
CmpDate: 2022-06-17

Gu W, Lin Z, Zhao S, et al (2022)

Research Progress on G-Quadruplexes in Human Telomeres and Human Telomerase Reverse Transcriptase (hTERT) Promoter.

Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2022:2905663.

The upregulation telomerase activity is observed in over 85-90% of human cancers and provides an attractive target for cancer therapies. The high guanine content in the telomere DNA sequences and the hTERT promoter can form G-quadruplexes (G4s). Small molecules targeting G4s in telomeres and hTERT promoter could stabilize the G4s and inhibit hTERT expression and telomere extension. Several G4 ligands have shown inhibitory effects in cancer cells and xenograft mouse models, indicating these ligands have a potential for cancer therapies. The current review article describes the concept of the telomere, telomerase, and G4s. Moreover, the regulation of telomerase and G4s in telomeres and hTERT promoter is discussed as well. The summary of the small molecules targeting G4s in telomeric DNA sequences and the hTERT promoter will also be shown.

RevDate: 2022-06-16

Zhang Y, Fu F, Zhang L, et al (2022)

Telomere is Shortened in Patients with Irritable Bowel Syndrome in the Chinese Population.

Journal of gastroenterology and hepatology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIM: Telomere shortening is an accepted indicator of ageing. Many studies have investigated an association between leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and psychiatric disorders. Mental or psychological factors could be an important cause of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, there are currently few research evaluating correlations between LTL and IBS.

METHODS: We examined associations between LTL and IBS using quantitative polymerase chain reaction in independent cohorts, including 205 patients with IBS and 189 healthy controls. Furthermore, we examined whether mental or psychological factors, types of IBS, duration of IBS and antidepressants had an association with LTL in patients with IBS.

RESULTS: Among total samples, patients with IBS presented shorter LTL when compared to healthy controls (p < 0.0001). Moreover, in subgroup analyses of patients with IBS, not only the LTL in patients with IBS caused by mental or psychological factors was shorter (p < 0.0001), but also in patients with IBS that were caused by other factors (p = 0.0082). Furthermore, LTL in patients with IBS who had taken antidepressants for more than 1 month was longer than that in patients with IBS who didn't take antidepressants or took for less than 1 month (p < 0.0001).

CONCLUSIONS: This is the first study to describe the relationship between LTL and IBS. This study showed significantly shorter telomeres in patients with IBS. Our findings suggest that LTL may hold the potential to serve as a predictor of IBS diagnosis.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Glousker G, Fernandes RV, Feretzaki M, et al (2022)

Detection of TERRA R-Loops at Human Telomeres.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2528:159-171.

R-loops are three-stranded nucleic acid structures composed of a DNA-RNA hybrid and a displaced DNA strand. The long noncoding RNA TERRA forms R-loops at telomeres influencing the telomeric chromatin composition and impacting on telomere maintenance mechanisms by semiconservative DNA replication, homology directed DNA repair and telomerase. Here, we describe a method to detect R-loops at telomeres, which involves immunoprecipitation with the R-loop recognizing S9.6 antibody, followed by detection of telomeric DNA by either dot-blot hybridization with a radiolabeled telomeric probe, or qPCR using DNA primers that are specific for subtelomeric sequences.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Wagner CB, B Luke (2022)

DNA-RNA Hybrids at Telomeres in Budding Yeast.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2528:145-157.

It has recently been demonstrated that budding yeast telomeres are transcribed into TERRA, a long noncoding RNA. Due to the G-rich nature of the coding strand, TERRA has a tendency to form DNA-RNA hybrids and potentially R-loops, which in turn, promote repair at short telomeres. Here, we report two methods to detect DNA-RNA hybrids at yeast telomeres, namely, DRIP, which employs the S9.6 hybrid-recognizing antibody, and R-ChIP, which takes advantage of a catalytic dead form of RNase H1 (Rnh1-cd). We use cross-linked material for both protocols as we have found that this does not negatively affect recovered material, and furthermore allows the precipitation of other proteins from the identical cross-linked material. Although both methods are successful in terms of detecting DNA-RNA hybrids at telomeres, the R-ChIP method yields an approximately ten-fold increased enrichment.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Zhang R, Du J, Xiao Z, et al (2022)

Association between the peripartum maternal and fetal telomere lengths and mitochondrial DNA copy numbers and preeclampsia: a prospective case-control study.

BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 22(1):483.

PURPOSE: To explore changes in telomere length (TL) and mitochondrial copy number (mtDNA-CN) in preeclampsia (PE) and to evaluate the combined effect of maternal TL and mtDNA-CN on PE risk.

METHODS: A case-control study of 471 subjects (130 PE cases and 341 age frequency matched controls with gestational age rank from 24 to 42 weeks) was conducted in Nanjing Drum Tower Hospital, Jiangsu Province of China. Relative telomere length (RTL) and mtDNA-CN were measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), and PE risk was compared between groups by logistic regression analyses.

RESULTS: PE patients displayed longer RTL (0.48 versus 0.30) and higher mtDNA-CN (3.02 versus 2.00) in maternal blood as well as longer RTL (0.61 versus 0.35) but lower mtDNA-CN (1.69 versus 5.49) in cord blood (all p < 0.001). Exercise during pregnancy exerted an obvious effect of maternal telomere length prolongation. Multiparous women with folic acid intake during early pregnancy and those who delivered vaginally showed longer telomere length, while those factors imposed no or opposite effect on RTL in PE cases. Furthermore, RTL and mtDNA-CN were positively correlated in controls (in maternal blood r = 0.18, p < 0.01; in cord blood r = 0.19, p < 0.001), but this correlation was disrupted in PE patients in both maternal blood and cord blood. Longer maternal RTL and higher mtDNA-CN were associated with a higher risk of PE, and the ROC curve of RTL and mtDNA-CN for predicting PE risk presented an AUC of 0.755 (95% CI: 0.698-0.812).

CONCLUSIONS: The interaction of TL and mtDNA-CN may play an important role in the pathogenesis of PE and could be a potential biomarker of PE risk.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Lee J, Sung K, Joo SY, et al (2022)

Dynamic interaction of BRCA2 with telomeric G-quadruplexes underlies telomere replication homeostasis.

Nature communications, 13(1):3396.

BRCA2-deficient cells precipitate telomere shortening upon collapse of stalled replication forks. Here, we report that the dynamic interaction between BRCA2 and telomeric G-quadruplex (G4), the non-canonical four-stranded secondary structure, underlies telomere replication homeostasis. We find that the OB-folds of BRCA2 binds to telomeric G4, which can be an obstacle during replication. We further demonstrate that BRCA2 associates with G-triplex (G3)-derived intermediates, which are likely to form during direct interconversion between parallel and non-parallel G4. Intriguingly, BRCA2 binding to G3 intermediates promoted RAD51 recruitment to the telomere G4. Furthermore, MRE11 resected G4-telomere, which was inhibited by BRCA2. Pathogenic mutations at the OB-folds abrogated the binding with telomere G4, indicating that the way BRCA2 associates with telomere is innate to its tumor suppressor activity. Collectively, we propose that BRCA2 binding to telomeric G4 remodels it and allows RAD51-mediated restart of the G4-driven replication fork stalling, simultaneously preventing MRE11-mediated breakdown of telomere.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Shen Z, Zheng R, Yang H, et al (2022)

G-quadruplex stabilizer Tetra-Pt(bpy) disrupts telomere maintenance and impairs FAK-mediated migration of telomerase-positive cells.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(22)01209-0 [Epub ahead of print].

G-quadruplex regulates a wide spectrum of biological processes, including telomere maintenance, DNA replication and transcription. The development of small molecules to selectively target G-quadruplex and their application remain hotspots in cancer therapy. Here, we explored the biological effect of G-quadruplexes stabilizer Tetra-Pt(bpy) in telomerase-positive cancer cells. Telomere maintenance was evaluated by telomerase repeat amplification protocol, chromosome orientation fluorescence in situ hybridization and telomere restriction fragment assays. We found that Tetra-Pt(bpy) accelerates telomere shortening through dual inhibition of telomerase activity and telomere sister chromatin exchanges mediated by telomeric G-quadruplexes. Consequently, Tetra-Pt(bpy)-treated cancer cells became enriched with extremely short telomeres and produced a strong telomeric DNA damage response following long-term treatment, leading to cell proliferation inhibition and senescence. Experimental evidence from RNA seq and cell migration-related assays showed that Tetra-Pt(bpy) decreased cell-matrix adhesion and inhibited the migration of non-senescent tumor cells. Mechanistically, Tetra-Pt(bpy) induced the formation of G-quadruplexes in focal adhesion kinase (FAK)-encoding gene PTK2, resulting in FAK transcription inhibition. Tetra-Pt(bpy) reduced xenograft tumor formation and inhibited tumor cell growth and migration in mice. This study further elucidates the function of G-quadruplexes in the human genome and reveals the potential of Tetra-Pt(bpy) as a novel chemotherapeutic agent for targeting telomerase-positive cancer cells.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Eastwood JR, Connallon T, Delhey K, et al (2022)

Hot and dry conditions predict shorter nestling telomeres in an endangered songbird: Implications for population persistence.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 119(25):e2122944119.

Climate warming is increasingly exposing wildlife to sublethal high temperatures, which may lead to chronic impacts and reduced fitness. Telomere length (TL) may link heat exposure to fitness, particularly at early-life stages, because developing organisms are especially vulnerable to adverse conditions, adversity can shorten telomeres, and TL predicts fitness. Here, we quantify how climatic and environmental conditions during early life are associated with TL in nestlings of wild purple-crowned fairy-wrens (Malurus coronatus), endangered songbirds of the monsoonal tropics. We found that higher average maximum air temperature (range 31 to 45 °C) during the nestling period was associated with shorter early-life TL. This effect was mitigated by water availability (i.e., during the wet season, with rainfall), but independent of other pertinent environmental conditions, implicating a direct effect of heat exposure. Models incorporating existing information that shorter early-life TL predicts shorter lifespan and reduced fitness showed that shorter TL under projected warming scenarios could lead to population decline across plausible future water availability scenarios. However, if TL is assumed to be an adaptive trait, population viability could be maintained through evolution. These results are concerning because the capacity to change breeding phenology to coincide with increased water availability appears limited, and the evolutionary potential of TL is unknown. Thus, sublethal climate warming effects early in life may have repercussions beyond individual fitness, extending to population persistence. Incorporating the delayed reproductive costs associated with sublethal heat exposure early in life is necessary for understanding future population dynamics with climate change.

RevDate: 2022-06-12

De Ruyter T, Martens DS, Bijnens EM, et al (2022)

A multi-exposure approach to study telomere dynamics in childhood: A role for residential green space and waist circumference.

Environmental research pii:S0013-9351(22)00983-5 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Telomeres are vulnerable to various environmental exposures and lifestyle factors, encompassed in the exposome. Recent research shows that telomere length is substantially determined early in life and that exposures in childhood may have important consequences in setting later life telomere length.

OBJECTIVES: We explore in a child population the associations of 17 exposures with telomere length and longitudinal telomere change.

METHODS: Children (2.8-10.3y at baseline, 51.3% boys) were followed-up for five to seven years. Relative telomere length was measured at baseline and follow-up using quantitative real-time PCR. Exposures and lifestyle factors included: body composition (body mass index and waist circumference), dietary habits (sugar- and fat-rich food intake, vegetables and fruit intake), psychosocial stress (events, emotions, behaviour), sleep duration, physical activity, and residential environmental quality (longterm black carbon, particulate matter exposure, and residential green space). Cross-sectional (n = 182) and longitudinal (n = 150) analyses were assessed using linear regression models, adjusting for age, sex, socioeconomic status and multiple testing.

RESULTS: Our longitudinal analyses showed that higher residential green space at baseline was associated with (β = 0.261, p = 0.002) lower telomere attrition and that children with a higher waist circumference at baseline showed a higher telomere attrition (β = -0.287, p = 0.001). These two predictors were confirmed via LASSO variable selection and correction for multiple testing. In addition, children with more unhealthy exposures at baseline had a significantly higher telomere attrition over the follow-up period compared to children with more healthy exposures (β = -0.200, p = 0.017).

DISCUSSION: Waist circumference and residential green space were identified as predictors associated with telomere attrition in childhood. These results further support the advantages of a healthy lifestyle from early age onwards and the importance of a green environment to promote molecular longevity from childhood onwards.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Mao Y, G Zhang (2022)

A complete, telomere-to-telomere human genome sequence presents new opportunities for evolutionary genomics.

Nature methods, 19(6):635-638.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Massey DJ, A Koren (2022)

Telomere-to-telomere human DNA replication timing profiles.

Scientific reports, 12(1):9560.

The spatiotemporal organization of DNA replication produces a highly robust and reproducible replication timing profile. Sequencing-based methods for assaying replication timing genome-wide have become commonplace, but regions of high repeat content in the human genome have remained refractory to analysis. Here, we report the first nearly-gapless telomere-to-telomere replication timing profiles in human, using the T2T-CHM13 genome assembly and sequencing data for five cell lines. We find that replication timing can be successfully assayed in centromeres and large blocks of heterochromatin. Centromeric regions replicate in mid-to-late S-phase and contain replication-timing peaks at a similar density to other genomic regions, while distinct families of heterochromatic satellite DNA differ in their bias for replicating in late S-phase. The high degree of consistency in centromeric replication timing across chromosomes within each cell line prompts further investigation into the mechanisms dictating that some cell lines replicate their centromeres earlier than others, and what the consequences of this variation are.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Sengupta D, K Sengupta (2022)

Lamin A and telomere maintenance in aging: Two to Tango.

Mutation research, 825:111788 pii:S0027-5107(22)00015-X [Epub ahead of print].

Lamin proteins which constitute the nuclear lamina in almost all higher eukaryotes, are mainly of two types A & B encoded by LMNA and LMNB1/B2 genes respectively. While lamin A remains the principal product of LMNA gene, variants like lamin C, C2 and A∆10 are also formed as alternate splice products. Role of lamin A in aging has been highlighted in recent times due to its association with progeroid or premature aging syndromes which is classified as a type of laminopathy. Progeria caused by accelerated accumulation of lamin A Δ50 or progerin occurs due to a mutation in this LMNA gene leading to defects in post translational modification of lamin A. One of the most common and severe symptoms of progeroid laminopathy is accelerated cellular senescence or aging along with bone resorption, muscle weakness, lipodystrophy and cardiovascular disorders. On the other hand, progerin accumulation and telomere dysfunction merge as common traits in the process of chronological aging. Two major hallmarks of physiological aging in humans include loss of genomic integrity and telomere attrition which can result from defective laminar organization leading to deformed nuclear architecture and culminates into replicative senescence. This also adversely affects epigenetic landscape, mitochondrial dysfunction and several signalling pathways like DNA repair, mTOR, MAPK, TGFβ. In this review, we discuss the telomere-lamina interplay in the context of physiological aging and progeria.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Paul T, Opresko PL, Ha T, et al (2022)

Vectorial folding of telomere overhang promotes higher accessibility.

Nucleic acids research pii:6605322 [Epub ahead of print].

Human telomere overhang composed of tandem repeats of TTAGGG folds into G-quadruplex (G4). Unlike in an experimental setting in the test tube in which the entire length is allowed to fold at once, inside the cell, the overhang is expected to fold as it is synthesized directionally (5' to 3') and released segmentally by a specialized enzyme, the telomerase. To mimic such vectorial G4 folding process, we employed a superhelicase, Rep-X which can unwind DNA to release the TTAGGG repeats in 5' to 3' direction. We demonstrate that the folded conformation achieved by the refolding of full sequence is significantly different from that of the vectorial folding for two to eight TTAGGG repeats. Strikingly, the vectorially folded state leads to a remarkably higher accessibility to complementary C-rich strand and the telomere binding protein POT1, reflecting a less stably folded state resulting from the vectorial folding. Importantly, our study points to an inherent difference between the co-polymerizing and post-polymerized folding of telomere overhang that can impact telomere architecture and downstream processes.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Gong H, Yu Q, Guo D, et al (2022)

The relationship between dietary selenium intake and telomere length among diabetes.

The British journal of nutrition pii:S000711452200174X [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Selenium is an indispensable trace element for the human body, and telomere length is considered a marker of biological aging. Previous studies have shown that dietary selenium intake is associated with telomere length. However, the relationship between selenium intake and telomere length in patients with diabetes has not been well studied. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the relationship between dietary selenium intake and telomere length in patients with diabetes.

METHODS: We extracted 878 participants with diabetes from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) database for 1990-2000 and 2001-2002. Dietary selenium intake was assessed using the 24 h dietary recall method, and telomere length was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Generalised linear models were constructed to assess the relationship between dietary selenium intake and telomere length.

RESULTS: After controlling for the confounders, 1 μg increase in dietary selenium intake in female patients with diabetes, and telomere length increased by 1.84 base pairs (β = 1.84 [95% confidence interval (CI): 0.15, 3.53]). There was a line relationship between dietary selenium intake and telomere length in female patients with diabetes, and telomere length increased with increasing dietary selenium intake within the range of 0-250 μg.

CONCLUSIONS: The study demonstrates that dietary selenium intake is significantly associated with telomere length only in the female population with diabetes in the United States. However, further prospective studies are required to confirm this finding.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Bountziouka V, Musicha C, Allara E, et al (2022)

Modifiable traits, healthy behaviours, and leukocyte telomere length: a population-based study in UK Biobank.

The Lancet. Healthy longevity, 3(5):e321-e331.

Background: Telomere length is associated with risk of several age-related diseases and cancers. We aimed to investigate the extent to which telomere length might be modifiable through lifestyle and behaviour, and whether such modification has any clinical consequences.

Methods: In this population-based study, we included participants from UK Biobank who had leukocyte telomere length (LTL) measurement, ethnicity, and white blood cell count data. We investigated associations of LTL with 117 potentially modifiable traits, as well as two indices of healthy behaviours incorporating between them smoking, physical activity, diet, maintenance of a healthy bodyweight, and alcohol intake, using both available and imputed data. To help interpretation, associations were summarised as the number of equivalent years of age-related change in LTL by dividing the trait β coefficients with the age β coefficient. We used mendelian randomisation to test causality of selected associations. We investigated whether the associations of LTL with 22 diseases were modified by the number of healthy behaviours and the extent to which the associations of more healthy behaviours with greater life expectancy and lower risk of coronary artery disease might be mediated through LTL.

Findings: 422 797 participants were available for the analysis (227 620 [53·8%] were women and 400 036 [94·6%] were White). 71 traits showed significant (p<4·27 × 10-4) associations with LTL but most were modest, equivalent to less than 1 year of age-related change in LTL. In multivariable analyses of 17 traits with stronger associations (equivalent to ≥2 years of age-related change in LTL), oily fish intake, educational attainment, and general health status retained a significant association of this magnitude, with walking pace and current smoking being additionally significant at this level of association in the imputed models. Mendelian randomisation analysis suggested that educational attainment and smoking behaviour causally affect LTL. Both indices of healthy behaviour were positively and linearly associated with LTL, with those with the most healthy behaviours having longer LTL equivalent to about 3·5 years of age-related change in LTL than those with the least heathy behaviours (p<0·001). However, healthy behaviours explained less than 0·2% of the total variation in LTL and did not significantly modify the association of LTL with risk of any of the diseases studied. Neither the association of more healthy behaviours on greater life expectancy or lower risk of coronary artery disease were substantially mediated through LTL.

Interpretation: Although several potentially modifiable traits and healthy behaviours have a quantifiable association with LTL, at least some of which are likely to be causal, these effects are not of a sufficient magnitude to substantially alter the association between LTL and various diseases or life expectancy. Attempts to change telomere length through lifestyle or behavioural changes might not confer substantial clinical benefit.

Funding: UK Medical Research Council, UK Biotechnology and Biological Sciences Research Council, and British Heart Foundation.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Alswady-Hoff M, Erdem JS, Aleksandersen M, et al (2022)

Multiwalled Carbon Nanotubes Induce Fibrosis and Telomere Length Alterations.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(11): pii:ijms23116005.

Telomere shortening can result in cellular senescence and in increased level of genome instability, which are key events in numerous of cancer types. Despite this, few studies have focused on the effect of nanomaterial exposure on telomere length as a possible mechanism involved in nanomaterial-induced carcinogenesis. In this study, effects of exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT) on telomere length were investigated in mice exposed by intrapleural injection, as well as in human lung epithelial and mesothelial cell lines. In addition, cell cycle, apoptosis, and regulation of genes involved in DNA damage repair were assessed. Exposure to MWCNT led to severe fibrosis, infiltration of inflammatory cells in pleura, and mesothelial cell hyperplasia. These histological alterations were accompanied by deregulation of genes involved in fibrosis and immune cell recruitment, as well as a significant shortening of telomeres in the pleura and the lung. Assessment of key carcinogenic mechanisms in vitro confirmed that long-term exposure to the long MWCNT led to a prominent telomere shortening in epithelial cells, which coincided with G1-phase arrest and enhanced apoptosis. Altogether, our data show that telomere shortening resulting in cell cycle arrest and apoptosis may be an important mechanism in long MWCNT-induced inflammation and fibrosis.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Alessandrini I, Percio S, Naghshineh E, et al (2022)

Telomere as a Therapeutic Target in Dedifferentiated Liposarcoma.

Cancers, 14(11): pii:cancers14112624.

BACKGROUND: Well-differentiated (WD)/dedifferentiated (DD) liposarcoma (LPS) accounts for ~60% of retroperitoneal sarcomas. WDLPS and DDLPS divergently evolve from a common precursor and are both marked by the amplification of the 12q13-q15 region, leading to the abnormal expression of MDM2, CDK4, and HMGA2 genes. DDLPS is a non-lipogenic disease associated with aggressive clinical behavior. Patients have limited therapeutic options, especially for advanced disease, and their outcome remains largely unsatisfactory. This evidence underlines the need for identifying and validating DDLPS-specific actionable targets to design novel biology-driven therapies.

METHODS: Following gene expression profiling of DDLPS clinical specimens, we observed the up-regulation of "telomere maintenance" (TMM) pathways in paired DD and WD components of DDLPS. Considering the relevance of TMM for LPS onset and progression, the activity of a telomeric G-quadruplex binder (RHPS4) was assessed in DDLPS patient-derived cell lines.

RESULTS: Equitoxic concentrations of RHPS4 in DDLPS cells altered telomeric c-circle levels, induced DNA damage, and resulted in the accumulation of γ-H2AX-stained micronuclei. This evidence was paralleled by an RHPS4-mediated reduction of in vitro cell migration and induction of apoptosis/autophagy.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings support telomere as an intriguing therapeutic target in DDLPS and suggest G-quadruplex binders as innovative therapeutic agents.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Andreu-Sánchez S, Aubert G, Ripoll-Cladellas A, et al (2022)

Genetic, parental and lifestyle factors influence telomere length.

Communications biology, 5(1):565.

The average length of telomere repeats (TL) declines with age and is considered to be a marker of biological ageing. Here, we measured TL in six blood cell types from 1046 individuals using the clinically validated Flow-FISH method. We identified remarkable cell-type-specific variations in TL. Host genetics, environmental, parental and intrinsic factors such as sex, parental age, and smoking are associated to variations in TL. By analysing the genome-wide methylation patterns, we identified that the association of maternal, but not paternal, age to TL is mediated by epigenetics. Single-cell RNA-sequencing data for 62 participants revealed differential gene expression in T-cells. Genes negatively associated with TL were enriched for pathways related to translation and nonsense-mediated decay. Altogether, this study addresses cell-type-specific differences in telomere biology and its relation to cell-type-specific gene expression and highlights how perinatal factors play a role in determining TL, on top of genetics and lifestyle.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Kuehl LK, de Punder K, Deuter CE, et al (2022)

Telomere length in individuals with and without major depression and adverse childhood experiences.

Psychoneuroendocrinology, 142:105762 pii:S0306-4530(22)00103-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Major depressive disorder (MDD) and adverse childhood experiences (ACE) are associated with poor physical and mental health in adulthood. One underlying mechanism might be accelerated cellular aging. For example, both conditions, MDD and ACE, have been related to a biological marker of cellular aging, accelerated shortening of telomere length (TL). Since MDD and ACE are confounded in many studies, we aimed with the current study to further disentangle the effects of MDD and ACE on TL using a full-factorial design including four carefully diagnosed groups of healthy participants and MDD patients with and without ACE (total N = 90, all without use of antidepressants). As dependent variable, TL was assessed in leukocytes. We found no group differences based on MDD and ACE exposure in TL. While TL was negatively associated with age and male sex, TL was not associated with any measure of severity of MDD, ACE or current stress. One possible explanation for our null result may be the comparatively good physical health status of our sample. Future research is needed to elucidate the relation of TL, MDD and ACE, taking potential effect modification by medication intake and physical health status into account.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Jiang L, Tang BS, Guo JF, et al (2022)

Telomere Length and COVID-19 Outcomes: A Two-Sample Bidirectional Mendelian Randomization Study.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:805903 pii:805903.

Observational studies have found a relationship between directly measured short leukocyte telomere length (LTL) and severe coronavirus disease 19 (COVID-19). We investigated the causal association between genetically predicted LTL and COVID-19 susceptibility or severity. A previous genome-wide association study (GWAS) of 78,592 European-ancestry participants identified single nucleotidepolymorphisms (SNPs) that can be utilized to genetically predict LTL. Summary-level data for COVID-19 outcomes were analyzed from the COVID-19 Host Genetics Initiative. A two-sample bidirectional Mendelian randomization (MR) study was designed to evaluate these causal relationships. Using an inverse-weighted MR analysis and population-based controls, genetically predicted LTL did not reveal any significant association with COVID-19 susceptibility (odds ratio (OR): 0.94; 95% CI: 0.85-1.04; p = 0.202) or severity (OR: 0.85; 95% CI: 0.70-1.03; p = 0.099). Similar results were found for five other definitions of cases/controls and/or COVID-19 outcomes. Six additional MR methods and sensitivity analyses were conducted after removing variants with potential horizontal pleiotropy and including variants at a liberal significance level, which produced similar results. Using SNPs identified for the prediction of LTL from another GWAS study, we found a non-significant association for COVID-19 susceptibility or severity with narrower CIs toward the null hypothesis. No proof of genetically predicted COVID-19 phenotypes remained causally associated with genetically predicted LTL, and the null association was consistent with a lack of significant genetic correlation. Genetic evidence does not support shorter LTL as a causal risk factor for COVID-19 susceptibility or severity.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Fan YH, Li XL, Liu XH, et al (2022)

Association between Polymorphisms in Telomere-Associated Protein Genes and the Cholinesterase Activity of Omethoate-Exposed Workers.

Biomedical and environmental sciences : BES, 35(5):448-452.

RevDate: 2022-06-08

Giaccherini M, Gentiluomo M, Arcidiacono PG, et al (2022)

A polymorphic variant in telomere maintenance is associated with worrisome features and high-risk stigmata development in IPMNs.

Carcinogenesis pii:6604468 [Epub ahead of print].

Intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasms (IPMNs) are non-obligatory precursor lesions of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). The identification of molecular biomarkers able to predict the risk of progression of IPMNs toward malignancy is largely lacking and sorely needed. Telomere length (TL) is associated with the susceptibility of developing cancers, including PDAC. Moreover, several PDAC risk factors have been shown to be associated with IPMN transition to malignancy. TL is genetically determined, and the aim of this study was to use 11 SNPs, alone or combined in a score (teloscore), to estimate the causal relation between genetically determined TL and IPMNs progression. For this purpose, 173 IPMN patients under surveillance were investigated. The teloscore did not show any correlation, however, we observed an association between PXK-rs6772228-A and an increased risk of IPMN transition to malignancy (HR=3.17; 95%CI 1.47-6.84; P=3.24x10 -3). This effect was also observed in a validation cohort of 142 IPMNs even though the association was not statistically significant. The combined analysis was consistent showing an association between PXK-rs6772228-A and increased risk of progression. The A allele of this SNP is strongly associated with shorter LTL that in turn have been reported to be associated with increased risk of developing PDAC. These results clearly highlight the importance of looking for genetic variants as potential biomarkers in this setting in order to further our understanding the etiopathogenesis of PDAC and suggest that genetically determined TL might be an additional marker of IPMN prognosis.

RevDate: 2022-06-07

Carroll JE, Olmstead R, Haque R, et al (2022)

Accelerated mononuclear cell telomere attrition in breast cancer survivors with depression history: A 2-year longitudinal cohort study.

Cancer [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Cancer treatments are thought to accelerate biological aging, although this trajectory is highly variable. Depression is more prevalent in breast cancer survivors and is thought to be a vulnerability factor for biological aging. A lifetime history of depression and cumulative lifetime number of depression episodes could hypothetically be associated with an accelerated rate of biological aging as indexed by attrition of telomere length in a prospective cohort of breast cancer survivors who were not currently depressed.

METHODS: Breast cancer survivors (n = 206) without current depression were recruited from a large community-based health plan and were assessed for depression history by a structured diagnostic interview. Blood specimens were provided at baseline and every 8 months over 24 months to measure peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) telomere length. Mixed linear models examined associations of depression history and number of depression episodes with change in telomere length, adjusting for demographic, comorbidity, and cancer-specific factors.

RESULTS: In the fully adjusted model, depression history predicted attrition of PBMC telomere length over 24 months (Beta [SE] = -.006 [.002], p = .001). Greater number of depressive episodes over the lifetime was also associated with accelerated attrition of PBMC telomere length over 24 months (Beta [SE] = -.004 [.001], p = .001).

CONCLUSIONS: In breast cancer survivors without current depression, telomere attrition over 24 months was greatest in those with a lifetime depression history, particularly those with the greatest number of episodes of major depressive disorder over their lifetime. Depression history and its cumulative burden may contribute to accelerated biological aging, with implications for risk of morbidity and mortality in breast cancer survivors.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Memaran N, Wilke H, Sugianto RI, et al (2022)

Telomere length is associated with intima-media thickness in pediatric liver transplant patients - a prospective cohort study.

Liver transplantation : official publication of the American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases and the International Liver Transplantation Society [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a marker for biological age. Pediatric liver transplant recipients show a high rate of subclinical atherosclerosis, indicated by elevated intima-media thickness (IMT). We hypothesized that atherosclerosis is associated with biological age in these patients, and investigated the course of LTL over time.

METHODS: We measured LTL from peripheral blood leukocytes by quantitative polymerase chain reaction and IMT from n=97 pediatric patients after liver transplantation in a prospective cohort study. Seventy-one percent (n=69) had ≥2 assessments (total 228 observations, median follow-up 1.1 years).

RESULTS: Lower LTL was associated with higher IMT (β -0.701, P=0.01) and higher aspartate aminotransferase (β -0.001, P=0.02), adjusted for age, sex, and age at transplantation. Forty-five percent of patients showed decreasing LTL over time, while 55% exhibited stable LTL. Patients with stable LTL showed a decrease in IMT (median -0.02mm/year) and a decrease of tacrolimus trough levels (median -0.08 μg/L/year).

CONCLUSIONS: LTL is associated with IMT independent of age in pediatric liver transplant patients, suggesting that early aging contributes to the high burden of subclinical cardiovascular damage, and may furthermore negatively affect the graft.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Carvalho CM, Coimbra BM, Xavier G, et al (2022)

Shorter Telomeres Related to Posttraumatic Stress Disorder Re-experiencing Symptoms in Sexually Assaulted Civilian Women.

Frontiers in psychiatry, 13:835783.

Telomeres are short tandem repeats of "TTAGGG" that protect the chromosome ends from deterioration or fusion of chromosomes. Their repeat length shortens with cell division acting as a biomarker of cellular aging. Traumatic stress events during adulthood or childhood have been associated with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) and short leukocyte telomere length (LTL). This study investigated whether LTL was associated with PTSD in a Brazilian sample of sexually assaulted civilian women at two time points: baseline and 1-year follow-up. At baseline, we assessed 64 women with PTSD following sexual assault (cases) and 60 women with no previous history of sexual trauma or mental disorders (healthy controls - HC). At follow-up visit, 13 persistent PTSD cases, 11 HCs, and 11 PTSD remitters patients were evaluated. PTSD diagnosis and severity were assessed using Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders III/IV criteria) and Clinician-Administered PTSD Scale for DSM-5 (CAPS-5), respectively. LTL was measured using multiplex real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In the baseline analysis, we observed that LTL was associated with re-experiencing symptoms (B = -0.16; confidence interval (CI) 95% = -0.027--0.005; Bonferroni-adjusted p-value = 0.02), but no association was observed between other PTSD symptoms and LTL. In the longitudinal analysis, telomere shortening was no longer observed in patients with PTSD and PTSD remitters. In conclusion, our findings indicate that shorter baseline LTL is associated with early stage of PTSD re-experiencing symptoms in recently sexually assaulted women.

RevDate: 2022-06-07

Hu L, Bai Y, Hu G, et al (2022)

Association of Dietary Magnesium Intake With Leukocyte Telomere Length in United States Middle-Aged and Elderly Adults.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:840804.

Aim: Magnesium supplementation may extend the life span; however, the biological mechanism is still unknown. Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a marker of cell aging and biological health in humans. Data concerning whether magnesium supplementation can maintain telomere length, thus prolonging life are limited. We aimed to investigate the association between dietary magnesium intake and LTL in United States middle-aged and elderly adults.

Methods: A total of 4,039 United States adults aged ≥ 45 years from National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (1999-2002). Dietary magnesium intake was collected by a trained interviewer using 24-h dietary recall method and LTL was obtained using the quantitative polymerase chain reaction method. Multiple linear regression analysis was performed to evaluate the crude and adjusted association of dietary magnesium intake with LTL.

Results: The overall mean (SD) of LTL was 5.6 (0.6) kp. After adjusting potential confounders, every 1 mg increase in log-transformed dietary magnesium intake was associated with 0.20 kp (95% confidence intervals: 0.05-0.34) longer LTL. Participants with the highest tertile (≥299 mg) of dietary magnesium intake had statistically significant longer LTL (β = 0.07, P = 0.038) compared with the lowest tertile (<198 mg), with significant linear trends across tertiles. Moreover, the association between dietary magnesium intake and LTL was significantly stronger in participants with higher levels of education (≥high school compared with < high school, P for interaction = 0.002). E-value analysis suggested robustness to unmeasured confounding.

Conclusion: Our findings showed that increased dietary magnesium intake was associated with longer LTL, which suggested that magnesium was conducive to a longer life expectancy.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

da Silva A, Silveira BKS, Hermsdorff HHM, et al (2022)

Effect of omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on telomere length and telomerase activity: A systematic review of clinical trials.

Prostaglandins, leukotrienes, and essential fatty acids, 181:102451 pii:S0952-3278(22)00063-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Evidence suggests antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA). However, the effect of supplementation of this fatty acid profile on the telomere length and the telomerase enzyme activity was not revised yet. The PubMed and Embase® databases were used to search for clinical trials. A total of six clinical trials were revised. Omega-3 PUFA supplementation did not statistically affect telomere length in three out of three studies but affected telomerase activity in two out of four studies. The supplementation increased telomerase enzyme activity in subjects with first-episode schizophrenia. Besides, it decreased telomerase enzyme activity without modulating the effects of Pro12Ala polymorphism on the PPARγ gene in type 2 diabetes subjects. The methodological differences between the studies and the limited number of studies on the theme suggest that further studies are needed to elucidate the effects of n-3 PUFA supplementation on telomere length and telomerase enzyme activity in humans.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Lim HF, Tan NS, Dehghan R, et al (2022)

Shortened Telomere Length in Sputum Cells of Bronchiectasis Patients is Associated with Dysfunctional Inflammatory Pathways.

Lung [Epub ahead of print].

Telomere attrition is an established ageing biomarker and shorter peripheral blood leukocyte telomere length has been associated with increased risks of respiratory diseases. However, whether telomere length in disease-relevant sputum immune cells of chronic respiratory disease patients is shortened and which pathways are dysfunctional are not clear. Here we measured telomere length from sputum samples of bronchiectasis and asthmatic subjects and determined that telomere length in sputum of bronchiectasis subjects was significantly shorter (Beta = - 1.167, PAdj = 2.75 × 10-4). We further performed global gene expression analysis and identified genes involved in processes such as NLRP3 inflammasome activation and regulation of adaptive immune cells when bronchiectasis sputum telomere length was shortened. Our study provides insights on dysfunctions related to shortened telomere length in sputum immune cells of bronchiectasis patients.

RevDate: 2022-06-07

Morosinotto C, Bensch S, Tarka M, et al (2022)

Heritability and Parental Effects in Telomere Length in a Color Polymorphic Long-Lived Bird.

Physiological and biochemical zoology : PBZ, 95(4):350-364.

AbstractRelative telomere length (RTL), an indicator of senescence, has been shown to be heritable but can also be affected by environmental factors, such as parental effects. Investigating heritability as well as parental effects and rearing environment can help us to understand the factors affecting offspring telomeres. Moreover, how phenotypic parental traits linked with fitness can impact offspring RTL is still unclear. A phenotypic marker closely associated with physiological traits and fitness is melanin-based color polymorphism, which in tawny owl (Strix aluco) is highly heritable and strongly associated with adult telomere shortening and survival. We studied narrow-sense heritability (h2) of RTL, as well as the impact of parental age and color morph and their interaction on offspring RTL. Offspring RTL at fledging was strongly positively correlated with both mother RTL and father RTL at breeding. Offspring RTL was also negatively associated with father age, suggesting that older fathers sired offspring with shorter telomeres. Parental color morph did not explain offspring RTL, and there were no interactive effects of parental morph and age, despite previously documented morph-specific senescence patterns. Our results suggest that RTL is highly heritable and affected by paternal age but not related to color polymorphism. This suggests that either morph-specific telomere shortening as an adult does not result in significantly shorter telomeres in their gametes, or that parents compensate morph-specific senescence via parental care. Morph-specific patterns of telomere dynamics in polymorphic species may thus emerge from different life history strategies adopted in adulthood.

RevDate: 2022-06-07

Armstrong ND, Irvin MR, Haley WE, et al (2022)

Telomere shortening and the transition to family caregiving in the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study.

PloS one, 17(6):e0268689 pii:PONE-D-22-03368.

Telomere length (TL) is widely studied as a possible biomarker for stress-related cellular aging and decreased longevity. There have been conflicting findings about the relationship between family caregiving stress and TL. Several initial cross-sectional studies have found associations between longer duration of caregiving or perceived stressfulness of caregiving and shortened TL, suggesting that caregiving poses grave risks to health. Previous reviews have suggested the need for longitudinal methods to investigate this topic. This study examined the association between the transition to family caregiving and change in TL across ~9 years. Data was utilized from the Caregiving Transitions Study, an ancillary study to the Reasons for Geographic and Racial Differences in Stroke (REGARDS) study. TL was assayed using qPCR and analyzed as the telomere-to-single copy gene ratio for each participant at baseline and follow-up. General linear models examined the association between caregiving status and the change in TL for 208 incident caregivers and 205 controls, as well as associations between perceived stress and TL among caregivers. No association was found between TL change and caregiving (p = 0.494), and fully adjusted models controlling for health and socioeconomic factors did not change the null relationship (p = 0.305). Among caregivers, no association was found between perceived caregiving stress and change in TL (p = 0.336). In contrast to earlier cross-sectional studies, this longitudinal, population-based study did not detect a significant relationship between the transition into a family caregiving role and changes in TL over time. Given the widespread citation of previous findings suggesting that caregiving shortens telomeres and places caregivers at risk of early mortality, these results demonstrate the potential need of a more balanced narrative about caregiving.

RevDate: 2022-06-03

Bennett S, Girndt A, Sánchez-Tójar A, et al (2022)

Evidence of Paternal Effects on Telomere Length Increases in Early Life.

Frontiers in genetics, 13:880455 pii:880455.

Offspring of older parents in many species have decreased longevity, a faster ageing rate and lower fecundity than offspring born to younger parents. Biomarkers of ageing, such as telomeres, that tend to shorten as individuals age, may provide insight into the mechanisms of such parental age effects. Parental age may be associated with offspring telomere length either directly through inheritance of shortened telomeres or indirectly, for example, through changes in parental care in older parents affecting offspring telomere length. Across the literature there is considerable variation in estimates of the heritability of telomere length, and in the direction and extent of parental age effects on telomere length. To address this, we experimentally tested how parental age is associated with the early-life telomere dynamics of chicks at two time points in a captive population of house sparrows Passer domesticus. We experimentally separated parental age from sex effects, and removed effects of age-assortative mating, by allowing the parent birds to only mate with young, or old partners. The effect of parental age was dependent on the sex of the parent and the chicks, and was found in the father-daughter relationship only; older fathers produced daughters with longer telomere lengths post-fledging. Overall we found that chick telomere length increased between the age of 0.5 and 3 months at the population and individual level. This finding is unusual in birds with such increases more commonly associated with non-avian taxa. Our results suggest parental age effects on telomere length are sex-specific either through indirect or direct inheritance. The study of similar patterns in different species and taxa will help us further understand variation in telomere length and its evolution.

RevDate: 2022-06-02

Bauch C, Gatt MC, Verhulst S, et al (2022)

Higher mercury contamination is associated with shorter telomeres in along-lived seabird - A direct effect or a consequence of among-individual variation in phenotypic quality?.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03456-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Mercury is a heavy metal, which is pervasive and persistent in the marine environment. It bioaccumulates within organisms and biomagnifies in the marine food chain. Due to its high toxicity, mercury contamination is a major concern for wildlife and human health. Telomere length is a biomarker of aging and health, because it predicts survival, making it a potential tool to investigate sublethal effects of mercury contamination. However, the relationship between telomeres and mercury contamination is unclear. We measured feather mercury concentration in Cory's Shearwaters Calonectris borealis, long-lived seabirds and top predators, between 9 and 35 years of age and related it to telomere length in erythrocytes. Cory's Shearwaters with higher mercury concentrations had shorter telomeres and the effect was sex-dependent, reaching significance in males only. This may be explained by the fact that males have longer telomeres and higher and more variable mercury concentrations than females in this population. The mercury effect on telomere length was stronger on longer telomeres in the genome within individuals. We discuss the hypotheses that the negative correlation could either be a direct effect of mercury on telomere shortening and/or a consequence of variation in phenotypic quality among individuals that results in a covariation between mercury contamination and telomere length.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Dos Santos IC, da Silva JT, Rohr P, et al (2022)

Genomic instability evaluation by BMCyt and telomere length in Brazilian family farmers exposed to pesticides.

Mutation research. Genetic toxicology and environmental mutagenesis, 878:503479.

Brazil is one of the largest consumers of pesticides in the world. This high consumption has resulted in higher potential health risk to agricultural farm workers due to occupational exposure. Hence, the aim of this study is to evaluate genomic instability, using Buccal Micronucleus Cytome (BMCyt) and telomere length (TL) measurement as biomarkers of occupational exposure to pesticides in rural workers living in the State of São Paulo, Brazil. Genomic instability was evaluated in 81 pesticide-exposed farm workers (69 males and 12 females) with a mean age of 49.16 ± 10.06 years and a mean time job of 30.00 ± 14.00 years,81 non-exposed individuals (62 males and 15 females) with a mean age of 47.87 ± 10.66 years. BMCyt results showed significantly higher levels of cell damage (micronuclei and binucleated cells) and cell death (karyorrhectic and condensed chromatin cells) in subjects exposed to pesticide when compared to those non-exposed (p < 0.05). Although our results did not show significant differences in TL among exposed and non-exposed groups, effects in TL due to pesticide exposure was found in a multivariable linear regression model when we stratified the groups by age (≤ 49 years and ≥ 50 years old; β = 11.21, p = 0.006). In addition, TL reduction on was identified in relation to an increase in cigarette pack consumption (β = -0.633, p = 0.045). Furthermore, exposure to specific pesticides presented different effects in TL. Cypermethrin exposure resulted in a reduction in TL (β = -18.039, p = 0.018), while abamectin exposure led to an increase in TL (β = 23.990, p = 0.007). Thus, our findings substantiate genomic instability due to pesticides exposure.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Shull JG, Planas-Cerezales L, Lara Compte C, et al (2022)

Harnessing PM2.5 Exposure Data to Predict Progression of Fibrotic Interstitial Lung Diseases Based on Telomere Length.

Frontiers in medicine, 9:871898.

Cross-analysis of clinical and pollution factors could help calculate the risk of fibrotic interstitial lung disease (ILD) development and progression. The intent of this study is to build a body of knowledge around early detection and diagnosis of lung disease, harnessing new data sets generated for other purposes. We cross-referenced exposure levels to particulate matter 2.5 (PM2.5) with telomere length of a cohort of 280 patients with fibrotic ILD to weigh impact and associations. There was no linear correlation between PM2.5 and telomere length in our data sets, as the value of the correlation coefficient was 0.08. This exploratory study offers additional insights into methodologies for investigating the development and prognosis of pulmonary fibrosis.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Córdova-Oriz I, Chico-Sordo L, E Varela (2022)

Telomeres, aging and reproduction.

Current opinion in obstetrics & gynecology, 34(3):151-158.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Women's fertility decay starts at the mid 30 s. However, the current delay of childbearing leads to ovarian aging and the need of assisted reproduction technologies (ART). Telomere biology is one of the main pathways involved in organismal aging. Thus, this review will focus on the knowledge acquired during the last 2 years about the telomere pathway and its influence on female fertility and the consequences for the newborn.

RECENT FINDINGS: New research on telomere biology reaffirms the relationship of telomere attrition and female infertility. Shorter maternal telomeres, which could be aggravated by external factors, underly premature ovarian aging and other complications including preeclampsia, preterm birth and idiopathic pregnancy loss. Finally, the telomere length of the fetus or the newborn is also affected by external factors, such as stress and nutrition.

SUMMARY: Recent evidence shows that telomeres are implicated in most processes related to female fertility, embryo development and the newborn's health. Thus, telomere length and telomerase activity may be good biomarkers for early detection of ovarian and pregnancy failures, opening the possibility to use telomere therapies to try to solve the infertility situation.

RevDate: 2022-05-28

Svikle Z, Pahirko L, Zariņa L, et al (2022)

Telomere Lengths and Serum Proteasome Concentrations in Patients with Type 1 Diabetes and Different Severities of Diabetic Retinopathy in Latvia and Lithuania.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(10): pii:jcm11102768.

The aim of the study was to compare telomere lengths and circulating proteasome concentrations in patients with different stages of diabetic retinopathy and type 1 diabetes in Latvia and Lithuania.

METHODS: Patients with no diabetic retinopathy and with non-proliferative diabetic retinopathy were included in the NDR/NPDR group (n = 187). Patients with proliferative diabetic retinopathy and status post laser-photocoagulation were included int the PDR/LPC group (n = 119). Telomeres were evaluated by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Proteasome concentration was measured by ELISA.

RESULTS: Telomeres were longer in PDR/LPC (ΔCT 0.21 (0.12-0.28)) vs. NDR/NPDR (ΔCT 0.18 (0.1-0.28)), p = 0.036. In NDR/NPDR, telomeres were correlated negatively with age (R = -0.17, p = 0.019), BMI (R = -0.21, p = 0.004), waist/hip ratio (R = -0.21, p = 0.005), total cholesterol (R = -0.18, p = 0.021), and low-density cholesterol (R = -0.20, p = 0.010), and positively with estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) (R = 0.28, p < 0.001). None of the above correlations were observed in PRD/LPC. Proteasome concentrations were lower in PDR/LPC (130 (90-210) ng/mL) vs. NDR/NPDR (150 (100-240) ng/mL), p = 0.024. This correlated negatively with eGFR (R = -0.17, p = 0.025) in the NDR/NPDR group and positively with age (R = 0.23, p = 0.014) and systolic blood pressure (R = 0.20, p = 0.032) in the PRD/LPC group. Telomere lengths did not correlate with proteasome concentrations.

CONCLUSION: Longer telomeres and lower circulating proteasome concentrations are observed in patients with type 1 diabetes and advanced diabetic retinopathy.

RevDate: 2022-05-28

Tung KTS, Wong RS, Tsang HW, et al (2022)

Family Financial Pressure in Childhood and Telomere Length in Early Adolescence: A Prospective Study.

Genes, 13(5): pii:genes13050721.

Much research on children in high-risk environments has focused on the biological consequences of maltreatment, adversity, and trauma. Whether other early-life stress sources such as family financial hardship are implicated in the cellular mechanism of disease development remains unclear. This study investigated the long-term effect of childhood exposure to family financial pressure on telomere length. It involved two waves of data collection occurring when participants reached Grade 3 (W1) and 7 (W2), respectively. In W1, parents reported family demographics and perceived financial stressors and pressure. In W2, participants provided buccal swab samples for measurement of their telomere length. Data from 92 participants (Mage in W2 = 13.2 years; 56.5% male) were analyzed. The main type of stressors reported by parents who perceived high family financial pressure in W1 were child-level stressors including affordability of their medical and educational expenses. Participants exposed to high parent-perceived family financial pressure in W1 had shorter telomeres in W2 when compared to those exposed to low parent-perceived family financial pressure (β = -0.61, p = 0.042). Subgroup analyses revealed stronger associations in girls than boys. These findings reveal an important spillover effect between parental financial perceptions and stress and children's health at the cellular level.

RevDate: 2022-05-28

Semeraro MD, Almer G, Renner W, et al (2022)

Influences of Long-Term Exercise and High-Fat Diet on Age-Related Telomere Shortening in Rats.

Cells, 11(10): pii:cells11101605.

(1) Obesity and exercise are believed to modify age-related telomere shortening by regulating telomerase and shelterins. Existing studies are inconsistent and limited to peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and selected solid tissues. (2) Female Sprague Dawley (SD) rats received either standard diet (ND) or high-fat diet (HFD). For 10 months, half of the animals from both diet groups performed 30 min running at 30 cm/s on five consecutive days followed by two days of rest (exeND, exeHFD). The remaining animals served as sedentary controls (coND, coHFD). Relative telomere length (RTL) and mRNA expression of telomerase (TERT) and the shelterins TERF-1 and TERF-2 were mapped in PBMCs and nine solid tissues. (3) At study end, coND and coHFD animals showed comparable RTL in most tissues with no systematic differences in TERT, TERF-1 and TERF-2 expression. Only visceral fat of coHFD animals showed reduced RTL and lower expression of TERT, TERF-1 and TERF-2. Exercise had heterogeneous effects on RTL in exeND and exeHFD animals with longer telomeres in aorta and large intestine, but shorter telomeres in PBMCs and liver. Telomere-regulating genes showed inconsistent expression patterns. (4) In conclusion, regular exercise or HFD cannot systematically modify RTL by regulating the expression of telomerase and shelterins.

RevDate: 2022-05-27

Lee BY, Kim J, J Lee (2022)

Long-read sequencing infers a mechanism for copy number variation of template for alternative lengthening of telomeres in a wild C. elegans strain.

microPublication biology, 2022:.

RevDate: 2022-05-26

Spano L, Hennion V, Marie-Claire C, et al (2022)

Associations between circadian misalignment and telomere length in BD: an actigraphy study.

International journal of bipolar disorders, 10(1):14.

BACKGROUND: Life expectancy is significantly decreased in bipolar disorder (BD). This is associated with accelerated cellular aging which can be estimated by telomere length (TL). However, specific determinants of shorter TL in BD are under-explored. This study examines whether circadian misalignment (i.e. mismatch between preferred and actual phase of circadian activity rhythms) is associated with shorter TL in BD.

METHODS: Euthymic individuals with BD (n = 101) undertook 21 consecutive days of actigraphy recording and completed the Composite Scale of Morningness (CSM) to assess phase preference for activities (chronotype). Polymerase chain reaction was used to measure TL in blood. Cluster analysis identified circadian aligned/misaligned subgroups as defined by preferred (CSM score) and actual phases of activity (actigraphically determined onset of active and inactive periods). We tested for any associations between TL and clusters, with adjustments for between-cluster differences in socio-demographic and illness factors.

RESULTS: We identified three clusters: an "Aligned Morning" cluster (n = 31) with preferred and actual timing of activity in the morning, an "Aligned Evening" cluster (n = 37) with preferred and actual timing of activity in the evening and a "Misaligned" cluster (n = 32) with an evening chronotype, but an earlier objective onset of active periods. After adjustment for confounders, we found that TL was significantly associated with circadian misalignment and older age.

CONCLUSIONS: Circadian misalignment may partly explain shorter TL in BD and could contribute to accelerated aging in these individuals.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Courtney MG, Roberts J, K Godde (2022)

How social/environmental determinants and inflammation affect salivary telomere length among middle-older adults in the health and retirement study.

Scientific reports, 12(1):8882.

Social epidemiology posits that chronic stress from social determinants will lead to a prolonged inflammatory response that may induce accelerated aging as measured, for example, through telomere length (TL). In this paper, we hypothesize variables across demographic, health-related, and contextual/environmental domains influence the body's stress response, increase inflammation (as measured through high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hs-CRP)), and thereby lead to shortening of telomeres. This population-based research uses data from the 2008 Health and Retirement Study on participants ages ≤ 54-95 + years, estimating logistic regression and Cox proportional hazards models of variables (with and without confounders) across the domains on shortened TL. A mediation analysis is also conducted. Contrary to expectations, hs-CRP is not associated with risk of shortened TL. Rather, factors related to accessing health care, underlying conditions of frailty, and social inequality appear to predict risk of shorter TL, and models demonstrate considerable confounding. Further, hs-CRP is not a mediator for TL. Therefore, the social determinants of health examined do not appear to follow an inflammatory pathway for shortened TL. The finding of a relationship to social determinants affecting access to health care and medical conditions underscores the need to address social determinants alongside primary care when examining health inequities.

RevDate: 2022-05-25

Koller A, Brandl C, Lamina C, et al (2022)

Relative Telomere Length Is Associated With Age-Related Macular Degeneration in Women.

Investigative ophthalmology & visual science, 63(5):30.

Purpose: Relative telomere length (RTL) is a biomarker for physiological aging. Premature shortening of telomeres is associated with oxidative stress, which is one possible pathway that might contribute to age-related macular degeneration (AMD). We therefore aimed to investigate the association between RTL and AMD in a well-characterized group of elderly individuals.

Methods: We measured RTL in participants of the AugUR study using a multiplex quantitative PCR-based assay determining the ratio between the telomere product and a single-copy gene product (T/S ratio). AMD was assessed by manual grading of color fundus images using the Three Continent AMD Consortium Severity Scale.

Results: Among the 2262 individuals 70 to 95 years old (627 with AMD and 1635 without AMD), RTL was significantly shorter in individuals with AMD compared to AMD-free participants. In age- and sex-adjusted logistic regression analyses, we observed an 8% higher odds for AMD per 0.1 unit shorter RTL (odds ratio [OR] = 1.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.02-1.14; P = 0.005). The estimates remained stable when adjusted for smoking, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, cardiovascular disease, diabetes, and hypertension. Interestingly, this association was only present in women (OR = 1.14; 95% CI, 1.06-1.23; P < 0.001), but not in men (OR = 1.01; 95% CI, 0.93-1.10; P = 0.76). A significant sex-by-RTL interaction on AMD was detected (P = 0.043).

Conclusions: Our results show an association of RTL with AMD that was restricted to women. This is in line with altered reactive oxygen species levels and higher telomerase activity in women and provides an indication for a sex-differential pathway for oxidative stress and AMD.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Armanios M (2022)

The Role of Telomeres in Human Disease.

Annual review of genomics and human genetics [Epub ahead of print].

Telomere biology was first studied in maize, ciliates, yeast, and mice, and in recent decades, it has informed understanding of common disease mechanisms with broad implications for patient care. Short telomere syndromes are the most prevalent premature aging disorders, with prominent phenotypes affecting the lung and hematopoietic system. Less understood are a newly recognized group of cancer-prone syndromes that are associated with mutations that lengthen telomeres. A large body of new data from Mendelian genetics and epidemiology now provides an opportunity to reconsider paradigms related to the role of telomeres in human aging and cancer, and in some cases, the findings diverge from what was interpreted from model systems. For example, short telomeres have been considered potent drivers of genome instability, but age-associated solid tumors are rare in individuals with short telomere syndromes, and T cell immunodeficiency explains their spectrum. More commonly, short telomeres promote clonal hematopoiesis, including somatic reversion, providing a new leukemogenesis paradigm that is independent of genome instability. Long telomeres, on the other hand, which extend the cellular life span in vitro, are now appreciated to be the most common shared germline risk factor for cancer in population studies. Through this contemporary lens, I revisit here the role of telomeres in human aging, focusing on how short and long telomeres drive cancer evolution but through distinct mechanisms. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Genomics and Human Genetics, Volume 23 is October 2022. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.

RevDate: 2022-05-24

Farladansky-Gershnabel S, Dekel N, Biron-Shental T, et al (2022)

Spontaneous Preterm Birth: Elevated Galectin-3 and Telomere Shortening May Reflect a Common Pathway of Enhanced Inflammation and Senescence.

Reproductive sciences (Thousand Oaks, Calif.) [Epub ahead of print].

Preterm delivery complicates 5-12% of pregnancies and is the primary cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality. The pathophysiology of preterm labor and parturition is not fully known, although it is probably related to inflammation and placental senescence. Telomere shortening is related to senescence and galectin-3 (Gal-3) protein is involved in cell growth, differentiation, inflammation, and fibrosis. This study examined changes in Gal-3 expression and telomere homeostasis (which represent inflammatory and stress markers) in maternal blood and placental tissue of spontaneous preterm births (SPTB) and uncomplicated, spontaneous term pregnancies (NTP) during labor. Participants included 19 women with NTP and 11 with SPTB who were enrolled during admission for delivery. Maternal blood samples were obtained along with placental tissue for Gal-3 analysis and telomere length evaluation. Gal-3 protein expression in placental tissue was increased in SPTB compared to NTP (fold change: 1.89 ± 0.36, P < 0.05). Gal-3 immunohistochemistry demonstrated strong staining in placental extravillous trophoblast tissue from SPTB. Maternal blood levels of Gal-3 protein were elevated in SPTB compared to NTP (19.3 ± 1.3 ng/ml vs. 13.6 ± 1.07 ng/ml, P = 0.001). Placental samples from SPTB had a higher percentage of trophoblasts with short telomeres (47.6%) compared to NTP (15.6%, P < 0.0001). Aggregate formation was enhanced in SPTB (7.8%) compared to NTP (1.98%, P < 0.0001). Maternal blood and placental samples from SPTB had shorter telomeres and increased Gal-3 expression compared to NTP. These findings suggest that increased senescence and inflammation might be factors in the abnormal physiology of spontaneous preterm labor.

RevDate: 2022-05-23

Roast MJ, Eastwood JR, Aranzamendi NH, et al (2022)

Telomere length declines with age, but relates to immune function independent of age in a wild passerine.

Royal Society open science, 9(4):212012 pii:rsos212012.

Telomere length (TL) shortens with age but telomere dynamics can relate to fitness components independent of age. Immune function often relates to such fitness components and can also interact with telomeres. Studying the link between TL and immune function may therefore help us understand telomere-fitness associations. We assessed the relationships between erythrocyte TL and four immune indices (haptoglobin, natural antibodies (NAbs), complement activity (CA) and heterophil-lymphocyte (HL) ratio; n = 477-589), from known-aged individuals of a wild passerine (Malurus coronatus). As expected, we find that TL significantly declined with age. To verify whether associations between TL and immune function were independent of parallel age-related changes (e.g. immunosenescence), we statistically controlled for sampling age and used within-subject centring of TL to separate relationships within or between individuals. We found that TL positively predicted CA at the between-individual level (individuals with longer average TL had higher CA), but no other immune indices. By contrast, age predicted the levels of NAbs and HL ratio, allowing inference that respective associations between TL and age with immune indices are independent. Any links existing between TL and fitness are therefore unlikely to be strongly mediated by innate immune function, while TL and immune indices appear independent expressions of individual heterogeneity.

RevDate: 2022-05-21

Zhang JC, Li SJ, Guo JY, et al (2022)

Urinary cadmium and peripheral blood telomere length predict the risk of renal function impairment: a study of 547 community residents of Shanxi, China.

Environmental science and pollution research international [Epub ahead of print].

Few reports have investigated the predictive value of urinary cadmium (UCd) and telomere length on renal function impairment. Therefore, we constructed nomogram models, using a cross-sectional survey to analyze the potential function of UCd and telomere length in renal function impairment risk. We randomly selected two community populations in Shanxi, China, and general information of the subjects was collected through face-to-face questionnaire surveys. Venous blood of subjects was collected to detect absolute telomere length (ATL) by real-time quantitative chain reaction (RT-PCR). Collecting urinary samples detected UCd and urinary N-acetyl-β-d-glucosaminidase (UNAG). Estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) was obtained based on serum creatinine (SCr). Nomogram models on risk prediction analysis of renal function impairment was constructed. After adjusting for other confounding factors, UCd (β = 0.853, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.739 ~ 0.986) and ATL (β = 1.803, 95%CI: 1.017 ~ 1.154) were independent risk influencing factors for increased UNAG levels, and the risk factors for eGFR reduction were UCd (β = 1.011, 95%CI: 1.187 ~ 1.471), age (β = 1.630, 95%CI: 1.303 ~ 2.038), and sex (β = 0.181, 95%CI: 0.105 ~ 0.310). Using UCd, ATL, sex, and age to construct the nomogram, and the C-statistics 0.584 (95%CI: 0.536 ~ 0.632) and 0.816 (95%CI: 0.781 ~ 0.851) were obtained by internal verification of the calibration curve, C-statistics revealed nomogram model validation was good and using decision curve analysis (DCA) confirmed a good predictive value of the nomogram models. In a nomogram model, ATL, UCd, sex, and age were detected as independent risk factors for renal function impairment, with UCd being the strongest predictor.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Dempsey PC, Musicha C, Rowlands AV, et al (2022)

Author Correction: Investigation of a UK biobank cohort reveals causal associations of self-reported walking pace with telomere length.

Communications biology, 5(1):498 pii:10.1038/s42003-022-03459-w.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Bhargava R, Lynskey ML, RJ O'Sullivan (2022)

New twists to the ALTernative endings at telomeres.

DNA repair, 115:103342 pii:S1568-7864(22)00075-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Activation of a telomere maintenance mechanism is key to achieving replicative immortality. Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres (ALT) is a telomerase-independent pathway that hijacks the homologous recombination pathways to elongate telomeres. Commitment to ALT is often associated with several hallmarks including long telomeres of heterogenous lengths, mutations in histone H3.3 or the ATRX/DAXX histone chaperone complex, and incorporation of non-canonical telomere sequences. The consequences of these genetic and epigenetic changes include enhanced replication stress and the presence of transcriptionally permissive chromatin, which can result in replication-associated DNA damage. Here, we detail the molecular mechanisms that are critical to repairing DNA damage at ALT telomeres, including the BLM Helicase, which acts at several steps in the ALT process. Furthermore, we discuss the emerging findings related to the telomere-associated RNA, TERRA, and its roles in maintaining telomeric integrity. Finally, we review new evidence for therapeutic interventions for ALT-positive cancers which are rooted in understanding the molecular underpinnings of this process.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Wong KK, Cheng F, Mao D, et al (2022)

Vitamin D levels during pregnancy are associated with offspring telomere length: a longitudinal mother-child study.

The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism pii:6588722 [Epub ahead of print].

CONTEXT: Leukocyte telomere length (LTL) is a biomarker of biological aging and is associated with metabolic diseases such as type 2 diabetes. Insufficient maternal vitamin D was associated with increased risk for many diseases and adverse later life outcomes.

OBJECTIVE: This study investigates the relationship between vitamin D levels and offspring LTL at early life.

DESIGN: Observational longitudinal cohort study.

SETTING: Hospital-based cohort study.

POPULATION: Eligible mother-child pairs from the HAPO Hong Kong Field Centre, with 853 offspring at age 6.96 ± 0.44 (mean ± SD) years.

MAIN OUTCOMES MEASURES: LTL was measured using real-time polymerase chain reaction while serum vitamin D metabolites 25(OH)D2, 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 were measured in maternal blood (at gestation 24-32 weeks) and cord blood by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry.

RESULTS: LTL at follow-up was significantly shorter in boys compared to girls (p<0.001) at age 7. Childhood LTL was negatively associated with childhood BMI (β ± SE=-0.016 ± 0.007)(p=0.02) and HOMA-IR (β ± SE=-0.065 ± 0.021)(p=0.002). Multiple linear regression was used to evaluate the relationship between 25(OH)D and LTL, with covariate adjustments. Childhood LTL was positively correlated with total maternal 25(OH)D (0.048 ± 0.017)(p=0.004) and maternal 3-epi-25(OH)D3 (0.05 ± 0.017)(p=0.003), even after adjustment for covariates. A similar association was also noted for cord 3-epi-25(OH)D3 (0.037 ± 0.018)(p=0.035) after adjustment for offspring sex and age.

CONCLUSIONS: Our findings suggest 25(OH)D3 and 3-epi-25(OH)D3 in utero may impact on childhood LTLs, highlighting a potential link between maternal vitamin D and biological aging.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Zahid S, Aloe S, Sutherland JH, et al (2022)

Ustilago maydis telomere protein Pot1 harbors an extra N-terminal OB fold and regulates homology-directed DNA repair factors in a dichotomous and context-dependent manner.

PLoS genetics, 18(5):e1010182 pii:PGENETICS-D-21-01605.

The telomere G-strand binding protein Pot1 plays multifaceted roles in telomere maintenance and protection. We examined the structure and activities of Pot1 in Ustilago maydis, a fungal model that recapitulates key features of mammalian telomere regulation. Compared to the well-characterized primate and fission yeast Pot1 orthologs, UmPot1 harbors an extra N-terminal OB-fold domain (OB-N), which was recently shown to be present in most metazoans. UmPot1 binds directly to Rad51 and regulates the latter's strand exchange activity. Deleting the OB-N domain, which is implicated in Rad51-binding, caused telomere shortening, suggesting that Pot1-Rad51 interaction facilitates telomere maintenance. Depleting Pot1 through transcriptional repression triggered growth arrest as well as rampant recombination, leading to multiple telomere aberrations. In addition, telomere repeat RNAs transcribed from both the G- and C-strand were dramatically up-regulated, and this was accompanied by elevated levels of telomere RNA-DNA hybrids. Telomere abnormalities of pot1-deficient cells were suppressed, and cell viability was restored by the deletion of genes encoding Rad51 or Brh2 (the BRCA2 ortholog), indicating that homology-directed repair (HDR) proteins are key mediators of telomere aberrations and cellular toxicity. Together, these observations underscore the complex physical and functional interactions between Pot1 and DNA repair factors, leading to context-dependent and dichotomous effects of HDR proteins on telomere maintenance and protection.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Gong H, Yu Q, Yuan M, et al (2022)

The Relationship between Dietary Copper intake and Telomere Length in Hypertension.

The journal of nutrition, health & aging, 26(5):510-514.

BACKGROUND: More indications proved that diet might be involved in the telomere length, a marker of biological aging and chronic diseases. Copper is widely viewed as one of the essential elements in the diet. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the relationship between telomere length and dietary copper intake in hypertension and provide a basis for guiding dietary copper intake in patients with hypertension.

METHODS: The data was collected from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) in 1999-2000 and 2001-2002. The relevance between telomere length and dietary copper intake in hypertension is assessed using a multivariable linear regression model.

RESULTS: We gathered 1,867 participants with hypertension with assessed telomere length and dietary copper intake. We found that one unit increasing log-transformed dietary copper intake in hypertension was significantly associated with longer telomere length base pair (bp) (β = 112.20, 95% confidence interval [CI]: 5.48, 218.92), after controlling for covariates, including age, sex, ethnicity, body mass index (BMI), physical activity, and taking medication for hypertension. For the age group, we found that one unit increasing log-transformed dietary copper in hypertension was associated with longer telomere length (β = 237.95, 95% CI: 114.39, 361.51) in the age group >45 years. The grouping was based on whether the participants take medication for hypertension. We found that one unit increasing log-transformed dietary copper in hypertension was associated with longer telomere length (β = 116.47, 95% CI: 0.72, 232.21) in the group that takes medication for hypertension.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates that dietary copper intake was associated with longer telomere length in patients with hypertension, which provides evidence for guiding dietary copper intake in patients with hypertension. However, further studies are needed to evaluate the effect of copper supplementation on telomere length in patients with hypertension in well-designed random control studies and prospective studies.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Pearce EE, Alsaggaf R, Katta S, et al (2022)

Telomere length and epigenetic clocks as markers of cellular aging: a comparative study.

GeroScience [Epub ahead of print].

Telomere length (TL) and DNA methylation-based epigenetic clocks are markers of biological age, but the relationship between the two is not fully understood. Here, we used multivariable regression models to evaluate the relationships between leukocyte TL (LTL; measured by qPCR [n = 635] or flow FISH [n = 144]) and five epigenetic clocks (Hannum, DNAmAge pan-tissue, PhenoAge, SkinBlood, or GrimAge clocks), or their epigenetic age acceleration measures in healthy adults (age 19-61 years). LTL showed statistically significant negative correlations with all clocks (qPCR: r = - 0.26 to - 0.32; flow FISH: r = - 0.34 to - 0.49; p < 0.001 for all). Yet, models adjusted for age, sex, and race revealed significant associations between three of five clocks (PhenoAge, GrimAge, and Hannum clocks) and LTL by flow FISH (p < 0.01 for all) or qPCR (p < 0.001 for all). Significant associations between age acceleration measures for the same three clocks and qPCR or flow FISH TL were also found (p < 0.01 for all). Additionally, LTL (by qPCR or flow FISH) showed significant associations with extrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (EEAA: p < 0.0001 for both), but not intrinsic epigenetic age acceleration (IEAA; p > 0.05 for both). In conclusion, the relationships between LTL and epigenetic clocks were limited to clocks reflecting phenotypic age. The observed association between LTL and EEAA reflects the ability of both measures to detect immunosenescence. The observed modest correlations between LTL and epigenetic clocks highlight a possible benefit from incorporating both measures in understanding disease etiology and prognosis.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Mota JIS, Silva-Júnior RMP, Martins CS, et al (2022)

Telomeres length and Wnt/β-catenin pathway in adamantinomatous craniopharyngiomas.

European journal of endocrinology pii:EJE-21-1269 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To evaluate how telomeres length behaves in adamantinomtous craniopharyngioma (aCP) and if it contributes to the pathogenesis of aCPs with and without CTNNB1 mutations.

DESIGN: Retrospective cross-sectional study enrolling 42 aCP patients from two tertiary institutions.

METHODS: Clinicopathological features were retrieved from patient's charts. Fresh frozen tumors were used for RNA and DNA analyses. Telomere length was evaluated by qPCR (T/S ratio). Somatic mutations in TERT promoter (TERTp) and CTNNB1 were detected by Sanger and/or whole-exome sequencing. We performed RNA-Seq to identify differentially expressed genes in aCPs presenting with shorter or longer telomere lengths.

RESULTS: Mutations in CTNNB1 were detected in 29 (69%) tumors. There was higher frequency of CTNNB1 mutations in aCPs from patients diagnosed under the age of 15 years (85% vs 15%; p=0.04) and a trend to recurrent disease (76% vs 24%; p=0.1). No mutation was detected in the TERTp region. The telomeres were shorter in CTNNB1-mutated aCPs (0.441, IQR:0.297-0.597 vs 0.607, IQR:0.445-0.778; p=0.04) but it was neither associated with clinicopathological features nor with recurrence. RNAseq identified a total of 387 differentially expressed genes, generating two clusters, being one enriched for short telomere and CTNNB1-mutated aCPs.

CONCLUSIONS: CTNNB1 mutations are more frequent in children and adolescents and appear to associate with progressive disease. CTNNB1-mutated aCPs have shorter telomeres, demonstrating a relationship between the Wnt/β-catenin pathway and telomere biology in the pathogenesis of aCPs.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Syreeni A, Carroll LM, Mutter S, et al (2022)

Telomeres do not always shorten over time in individuals with type 1 diabetes.

Diabetes research and clinical practice pii:S0168-8227(22)00740-9 [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: We aimed to determine how white blood cell (WBC) telomeres and telomere length change over time are associated with health status in type 1 diabetes.

METHODS: Relative telomere length (rTL) was measured in WBC DNA from two time-points (median 6.8 years apart) in 618 individuals from the Finnish Diabetic Nephropathy Study by quantitative PCR, with interassay CV ≤4%.

RESULTS: Baseline rTL correlated inversely with age and was shorter in men. Individuals in the shortest vs. longest rTL tertile had adverse cardiometabolic profiles, worse renal function, and were prescribed more antihypertensive and lipid-lowering drugs. While overall rTL tended to decrease during the median 6.8-years of follow-up, telomeres shortened in 55.3% of subjects, lengthened in 40.0%, and did not change in 4.7%. Baseline rTL correlated inversely with rTL change. Telomere lengthening was associated with higher HDL-Cholesterol (HDL-C), HDL-C/ApoA1, and with antihypertensive drug and (inversely) with lipid-lowering drug commencement during follow-up. Correlates of rTL percentage change per-annum (adjusted model) were baseline BMI, eGFR, previous retinal laser treatment, HDL-C, and HDL-C/ApoA1.

CONCLUSIONS: Telomere length measurements may facilitate the treatment and monitoring of the health status of individuals with type 1 diabetes.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Tissier ML, Bergeron P, Garant D, et al (2022)

Telomere length positively correlates with pace-of-life in a sex- and cohort-specific way and elongates with age in a wild mammal.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding ageing and the diversity of life histories is a cornerstone in biology. Telomeres, the protecting caps of chromosomes, are thought to be involved in ageing, cancer risks and life-history strategies. They shorten with cell division and age in somatic tissues of most species, possibly limiting lifespan. The resource allocation trade-off hypothesis predicts that short telomeres have thus co-evolved with early reproduction, proactive behaviour and reduced lifespan, i.e. a fast Pace-of-Life Syndrome (POLS). Conversely, since short telomeres may also reduce the risks of cancer, the anti-cancer hypothesis advances that they should be associated with slow POLS. Conclusion on which hypothesis best supports the role of telomeres as mediators of life-history strategies is hampered by a lack of study on wild short-lived vertebrates, apart from birds. Using seven years of data on wild Eastern chipmunks Tamias striatus, we highlighted that telomeres elongate with age (n = 204 and n = 20) and do not limit lifespan in this species (n = 51). Furthermore, short telomeres correlated with a slow POLS in a sex-specific way (n = 37). Females with short telomeres had a delayed age at first breeding and a lower fecundity rate than females with long telomeres, while we found no differences in males. Our findings support most predictions adapted from the anti-cancer hypothesis, but none of those from the resource allocation trade-off hypothesis. Results are in line with an increasing body of evidence suggesting that other evolutionary forces than resource allocation trade-offs shape the diversity of telomere length in adult somatic cells and the relationships between telomere length and life-histories.

RevDate: 2022-05-19

Tang L, Li T, Chang Y, et al (2022)

Diabetic oxidative stress-induced telomere damage aggravates periodontal bone loss in periodontitis.

Biochemical and biophysical research communications, 614:22-28 pii:S0006-291X(22)00562-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Periodontitis, one of the most common oral complications of diabetes mellitus (DM), causes a reduction in alveolar bone height and loss of alveolar bone mass. It has been shown that DM aggravates the progression of periodontitis, but the mechanism remains inconclusive. The hyperglycemic environment of DM has been proven to generate reactive oxygen species (ROS). Since telomeres, guanine-rich repeats, are highly susceptible to oxidative attack, we speculate that the excessive accumulation of ROS in DM could induce telomere damage resulting in dysfunction of periodontal ligament cells, especially periodontal ligament stem cells (PDLSCs), which reduces the ability of tissue repair and reconstruction in diabetic periodontitis. In this study, our current data revealed that oxidative telomere damage occurred in the periodontal ligaments of diabetic mice. And Micro-CT scans showed reduced alveolar bone height and impaired alveolar bone mass in a diabetic periodontitis model. Next, cultured mouse PDLSCs (mPDLSCs) were treated with the oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP) in vitro, as we expected telomere damage was observed and resulted in cellular senescence and dysfunction. Taken together, oxidative stress in DM causes telomere dysfunction and PDLSCs senescence, which influences periodontal bone tissue regeneration and reconstruction and ultimately exacerbates bone loss in periodontitis.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Min J, Kim JY, Choi JY, et al (2022)

Association between Physical Activity and Telomere Length in Women with Breast Cancer: A Systematic Review.

Journal of clinical medicine, 11(9):.

The association between physical activity and telomere length (TL) has been continuously reported. However, the interplay of physical activity and TL among women with breast cancer has not been elucidated. Thus, the purpose of this systematic review was to synthesize the evidence for the association of physical activity with TL in women with breast cancer. Systematic searches were conducted to identify quantified studies using MEDLINE, EMBASE, Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, Web of Science, and Clinical Trials.gov. Five studies were included in this systematic review. Three of the five studies reported that physical activity has a significant relationship in delaying TL shortening, but others observed no association between physical activity and TL in breast cancer survivors. Although the heterogeneous studies acted as limitations in drawing clear conclusions, physical activity strategies show encouraging impacts in delaying TL shortening. To understand the effects of physical activity on TL shortening in breast cancer survivors, further studies are needed considering the tissue site, treatments for breast cancer, DNA extraction methods, and tools for measuring physical activity.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Kjeldsen E (2022)

Congenital Aneuploidy in Klinefelter Syndrome with B-Cell Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Might Be Associated with Chromosomal Instability and Reduced Telomere Length.

Cancers, 14(9): pii:cancers14092316.

Rare congenital aneuploid conditions such as trisomy 13, trisomy 18, trisomy 21 and Klinefelter syndrome (KS, 47,XXY) are associated with higher susceptibility to developing cancer compared with euploid genomes. Aneuploidy frequently co-exists with chromosomal instability, which can be viewed as a "vicious cycle" where aneuploidy potentiates chromosomal instability, leading to further karyotype diversity, and in turn, paving the adaptive evolution of cancer. However, the relationship between congenital aneuploidy per se and tumor initiation and/or progression is not well understood. We used G-banding analysis, array comparative genomic hybridization analysis and quantitative fluorescence in situ hybridization for telomere length analysis to characterize the leukemic blasts of a three-year-old boy with KS and B-cell acute lymphoblastic leukemia (B-ALL), to gain insight into genomic evolution mechanisms in congenital aneuploidy and leukemic development. We found chromosomal instability and a significant reduction in telomere length in leukemic blasts when compared with the non-leukemic aneuploid cells. Reviewing published cases with KS and B-ALL revealed 20 additional cases with B-ALL diagnostic cytogenetics. Including our present case, 67.7% (14/21) had acquired two or more additional chromosomal aberrations at B-ALL diagnosis. The presented data indicate that congenital aneuploidy in B-ALL might be associated with chromosomal instability, which may be fueled by enhanced telomere attrition.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Kibriya MG, Raza M, Kamal M, et al (2022)

Relative Telomere Length Change in Colorectal Carcinoma and Its Association with Tumor Characteristics, Gene Expression and Microsatellite Instability.

Cancers, 14(9):.

We compared tumor and adjacent normal tissue samples from 165 colorectal carcinoma (CRC) patients to study change in relative telomere length (RTL) and its association with different histological and molecular features. To measure RTL, we used a Luminex-based assay. We observed shorter RTL in the CRC tissue compared to paired normal tissue (RTL 0.722 ± SD 0.277 vs. 0.809 ± SD 0.242, p = 0.00012). This magnitude of RTL shortening (by ~0.08) in tumor tissue is equivalent to RTL shortening seen in human leukocytes over 10 years of aging measured by the same assay. RTL was shorter in cancer tissue, irrespective of age group, gender, tumor pathology, location and microsatellite instability (MSI) status. RTL shortening was more prominent in low-grade CRC and in the presence of microsatellite instability (MSI). In a subset of patients, we also examined differential gene expression of (a) telomere-related genes, (b) genes in selected cancer-related pathways and (c) genes at the genome-wide level in CRC tissues to determine the association between gene expression and RTL changes. RTL shortening in CRC was associated with (a) upregulation of DNA replication genes, cyclin dependent-kinase genes (anti-tumor suppressor) and (b) downregulation of "caspase executor", reducing apoptosis.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Hou K, Yu Y, Li D, et al (2022)

Alternative Lengthening of Telomeres and Mediated Telomere Synthesis.

Cancers, 14(9):.

Telomeres are DNA-protein complexes that protect eukaryotic chromosome ends from being erroneously repaired by the DNA damage repair system, and the length of telomeres indicates the replicative potential of the cell. Telomeres shorten during each division of the cell, resulting in telomeric damage and replicative senescence. Tumor cells tend to ensure cell proliferation potential and genomic stability by activating telomere maintenance mechanisms (TMMs) for telomere lengthening. The alternative lengthening of telomeres (ALT) pathway is the most frequently activated TMM in tumors of mesenchymal and neuroepithelial origin, and ALT also frequently occurs during experimental cellular immortalization of mesenchymal cells. ALT is a process that relies on homologous recombination (HR) to elongate telomeres. However, some processes in the ALT mechanism remain poorly understood. Here, we review the most recent understanding of ALT mechanisms and processes, which may help us to better understand how the ALT pathway is activated in cancer cells and determine the potential therapeutic targets in ALT pathway-stabilized tumors.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Dratwa M, Wysoczanska B, Brankiewicz W, et al (2022)

Relationship between Telomere Length, TERT Genetic Variability and TERT, TP53, SP1, MYC Gene Co-Expression in the Clinicopathological Profile of Breast Cancer.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

The molecular mechanisms of telomerase reverse transcriptase (TERT) upregulation in breast cancer (BC) are complex. We compared genetic variability within TERT and telomere length with the clinical data of patients with BC. Additionally, we assessed the expression of the TERT, MYC, TP53 and SP1 genes in BC patients and in BC organoids (3D cell cultures obtained from breast cancer tissues). We observed the same correlation in the blood of BC patients and in BC organoids between the expression of TERT and TP53. Only in BC patients was a correlation found between the expression of the TERT and MYC genes and between TP53 and MYC. We found associations between TERT genotypes (rs2735940 and rs10069690) and TP53 expression and telomere length. BC patients with the TT genotype rs2735940 have a shorter telomere length, but patients with A allele rs10069690 have a longer telomere length. BC patients with a short allele VNTR-MNS16A showed higher expression of the SP1 and had a longer telomere. Our results bring new insight into the regulation of TERT, MYC, TP53 and SP1 gene expression related to TERT genetic variability and telomere length. Our study also showed for the first time a similar relationship in the expression of the above genes in BC patients and in BC organoids. These findings suggest that TERT genetic variability, expression and telomere length might be useful biomarkers for BC, but their prognostic value may vary depending on the clinical parameters of BC patients and tumor aggressiveness.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Libera V, Bianchi F, Rossi B, et al (2022)

Solvent Vibrations as a Proxy of the Telomere G-Quadruplex Rearrangements across Thermal Unfolding.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

G-quadruplexes (G4s) are noncanonical forms of DNA involved in many key genome functions. Here, we exploited UV Resonance Raman scattering to simultaneously explore the vibrational behavior of a human telomeric G4 (Tel22) and its aqueous solvent as the biomolecule underwent thermal melting. We found that the OH stretching band, related to the local hydrogen-bonded network of a water molecule, was in strict relation with the vibrational features of the G4 structure as a function of temperature. In particular, the modifications to the tetrahedral ordering of the water network were strongly coupled to the DNA rearrangements, showing changes in temperature that mirrored the multi-step melting process of Tel22. The comparison between circular dichroism and Raman results supported this view. The present findings provide novel insights into the impact of the molecular environment on G4 conformation. Improving current knowledge on the solvent structural properties will also contribute to a better understanding of the role played by water arrangement in the complexation of G4s with ligands.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Castillo-González C, Barbero Barcenilla B, Young PG, et al (2022)

Quantification of 8-oxoG in Plant Telomeres.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

Chemical modifications in DNA impact gene regulation and chromatin structure. DNA oxidation, for example, alters gene expression, DNA synthesis and cell cycle progression. Modification of telomeric DNA by oxidation is emerging as a marker of genotoxic damage and is associated with reduced genome integrity and changes in telomere length and telomerase activity. 8-oxoguanine (8-oxoG) is the most studied and common outcome of oxidative damage in DNA. The G-rich nature of telomeric DNA is proposed to make it a hotspot for oxidation, but because telomeres make up only a tiny fraction of the genome, it has been difficult to directly test this hypothesis by studying dynamic DNA modifications specific to this region in vivo. Here, we present a new, robust method to differentially enrich telomeric DNA in solution, coupled with downstream methods for determination of chemical modification. Specifically, we measure 8-oxoG in Arabidopsis thaliana telomeres under normal and oxidative stress conditions. We show that telomere length is unchanged in response to oxidative stress in three different wild-type accessions. Furthermore, we report that while telomeric DNA comprises only 0.02-0.07% of the total genome, telomeres contribute between 0.2 and 15% of the total 8-oxoG. That is, plant telomeres accumulate 8-oxoG at levels approximately 100-fold higher than the rest of the genome under standard growth conditions. Moreover, they are the primary targets of further damage upon oxidative stress. Interestingly, the accumulation of 8-oxoG in the chromosome body seems to be inversely proportional to telomere length. These findings support the hypothesis that telomeres are hotspots of 8-oxoG and may function as sentinels of oxidative stress in plants.

RevDate: 2022-05-18
CmpDate: 2022-05-17

Pham C, Vryer R, O'Hely M, et al (2022)

Shortened Infant Telomere Length Is Associated with Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Symptoms in Children at Age Two Years: A Birth Cohort Study.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(9):.

Environmental factors can accelerate telomere length (TL) attrition. Shortened TL is linked to attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) symptoms in school-aged children. The onset of ADHD occurs as early as preschool-age, but the TL-ADHD association in younger children is unknown. We investigated associations between infant TL and ADHD symptoms in children and assessed environmental factors as potential confounders and/or mediators of this association. Relative TL was measured by quantitative polymerase chain reaction in cord and 12-month blood in the birth cohort study, the Barwon Infant Study. Early life environmental factors collected antenatally to two years were used to measure confounding. ADHD symptoms at age two years were evaluated by the Child Behavior Checklist Attention Problems (AP) and the Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Problems (ADHP). Associations between early life environmental factors on TL or ADHD symptoms were assessed using multivariable regression models adjusted for relevant factors. Telomere length at 12 months (TL12), but not at birth, was inversely associated with AP (β = -0.56; 95% CI (-1.13, 0.006); p = 0.05) and ADHP (β = -0.66; 95% CI (-1.11, -0.21); p = 0.004). Infant secondhand smoke exposure at one month was independently associated with shorter TL12 and also higher ADHD symptoms. Further work is needed to elucidate the mechanisms that influence TL attrition and early neurodevelopment.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Fernandez RJ, Gardner ZJG, Slovik KJ, et al (2022)

GSK3 inhibition rescues growth and telomere dysfunction in dyskeratosis congenita iPSC-derived type II alveolar epithelial cells.

eLife, 11: pii:64430 [Epub ahead of print].

Dyskeratosis congenita (DC) is a rare genetic disorder characterized by deficiencies in telomere maintenance leading to very short telomeres and the premature onset of certain age-related diseases, including pulmonary fibrosis (PF). PF is thought to derive from epithelial failure, particularly that of type II alveolar epithelial (AT2) cells, which are highly dependent on Wnt signaling during development and adult regeneration. We use human iPSC-derived AT2 (iAT2) cells to model how short telomeres affect AT2 cells. Cultured DC mutant iAT2 cells accumulate shortened, uncapped telomeres and manifest defects in the growth of alveolospheres, hallmarks of senescence, and apparent defects in Wnt signaling. The GSK3 inhibitor, CHIR99021, which mimics the output of canonical Wnt signaling, enhances telomerase activity and rescues the defects. These findings support further investigation of Wnt agonists as potential therapies for DC related pathologies.

RevDate: 2022-05-13

Fathi E, Montazersaheb S, Sanaat Z, et al (2022)

L-carnitine reduced cellular aging of bone marrow resident C-kit+ hematopoietic stem cells through telomere dependent pathways.

Current stem cell research & therapy pii:CSCR-EPUB-123378 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Increased oxygen species levels can induce mitochondrial DNA damage and chromosomal aberrations and cause defective stem cell differentiation leading finally to senescence of stem cells. In recent years, several studies have reported that antioxidants can improve stem cell survival and subsequently affect the potency and differentiation of these cells. Finding factors, which reduce the senescence tendency of stem cells upon expansion, has great potential for cellular therapy in regenerative medicine. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of L-carnitine (LC) on the aging of C-kit+ hematopoietic progenitor cells (HPCs) via examining the expression of some signaling pathway components.

METHODS: For this purpose, bone marrow resident C-kit+ HPCs were enriched by the magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS) method and were characterized using flow cytometry as well as immunocytochemistry. In the following, cells were treated with LC and at the end of the treatment period, the cells were subjected to the real-time PCR technique along with western blotting assay for measurement of the telomere length and assessment of protein expression, respectively.

RESULTS: The results showed that 0.2 mM LC caused the elongation of the telomere length and increased the TERT protein expression. In addition, a significant increase was observed in the protein expression of p38, p53, BCL2, and p16 as key components of the telomere-dependent pathway.

CONCLUSION: It can be concluded that LC can increase the telomere length as an effective factor in increasing the cell survival and maintenance of the C-kit+ HPCs via these signaling pathway components.

RevDate: 2022-05-09

Yang Q, Liu R, Gao Y, et al (2022)

Mediating effect of telomere length in a hypertension population exposed to cadmium: a case-control study.

Journal of human hypertension [Epub ahead of print].

Cadmium (Cd) is associated with telomere length and hypertension, respectively, but the mechanism behind its relationship is unclear. Our study aimed to clarify the role of telomere length in the relationship between Cd and hypertension. A 1:1 matched case-control study was conducted with 213 hypertensive patients and 213 normotensive controls in Taiyuan, Shanxi Province, China, from February and June 2016. General demographic characteristics information and lifestyle were collected using a structured questionnaire. Urine samples were collected to test urinary Cd (UCd) levels and corrected by urinary creatinine (UCr) levels. Peripheral leukocyte absolute telomere length (ATL) was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression was used to screen the influencing factors of hypertension. A mediation effect analysis was used to explore the role of telomere length between Cd exposure and the risk of hypertension. We found that the hypertension group had a significantly higher UCd level compared to the control group (0.91 vs 0.80 μg/g Cr, P < 0.01), while ATL showed the opposite relationship (2.36 vs 2.65 kb, P < 0.01). The Regression analysis of hypertension identified these significant predictors: family history of hypertension (OR = 3.129, 95% confidence interval (95% CI): 1.767-5.540), Body mass index (BMI, OR = 1.088, 95% CI: 1.023-1.157), total cholesterol (TC, OR = 1.277, 95% CI: 1.024-1.592), UCd (OR = 2.092, 95% CI: 1.179-3.710), ATL (OR = 0.105, 95% CI: 0.025-0.453) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG, OR = 7.864, 95% CI: 3.516-17.589). Mediating effect analysis revealed that ATL was a potential partial mediating factor between Cd and hypertension. Cd may induce hypertension by affecting telomere length, but this requires further exploration.

RevDate: 2022-05-17

Nasiri L, Vaez-Mahdavi MR, Hassanpour H, et al (2022)

Concomitant use of relative telomere length, biological health score and physical/social statuses in the biological aging evaluation of mustard-chemical veterans.

International immunopharmacology, 109:108785 pii:S1567-5769(22)00269-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Sulfur mustard (SM) is a toxic gas that has been used as a chemical weapon in wars. After many years, SM-exposed people are still suffering from its side effects such as biological and premature aging. This study was aimed to evaluate biological aging rate via involving biological health scoring (BHS), relative telomere length (TL) and different physical/social variables i.e. marital and smoking statuses, body mass index, salary and educational levels. BHS was calculated according to measurement of 18 biomarkers related to function of four physiological systems (endocrine, inflammatory, cardiovascular and metabolic systems) and two organs (liver and kidney). The volunteers were 442 individuals exposed to SM gas in 1987 and 119 healthy individuals as non-exposed group. Each group was divided based on leukocyte relative TL (short, intermediate and long). Our data showed an inverse correlation between BHS and relative TL in two groups. The BHS was significantly higher in SM-exposed group than non-exposed group, especially in the participants with short and intermediate TL. The BHS had also a positive correlation with smoking and BMI parameters, and a negative correlation with salary and educational levels in the participants with shorter telomeres; and SM strengthened these correlations in the shorter telomeres. It is concluded that the higher BHS along with shorter relative TL that are indices for lower health quality and biological aging, could be used in the health evaluation of non- and SM-exposed people; and involving of BHS, TL and physical/social covariates could be useful to make this evaluation more accurate.

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Alder JK, M Armanios (2022)

Telomere-mediated Lung Disease.

Physiological reviews [Epub ahead of print].

Parenchymal lung disease is the fourth leading cause of death in the United States; among the top causes, it continues on the rise. Telomeres and telomerase have historically been linked to cellular processes related to aging and cancer, but surprisingly in the recent decade, genetic discoveries have linked the most apparent manifestations of telomere and telomerase dysfunction in humans to the etiology of lung disease: both idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis and emphysema. The short telomere defect is pervasive in a subset of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) patients, and human IPF is the phenotype most intimately tied to germline defects in telomere maintenance. One-third of families with pulmonary fibrosis carries germline mutations in telomerase or other telomere maintenance genes, and one half of patients with apparently sporadic IPF have short telomere length. Beyond explaining genetic susceptibility, short telomere length uncovers clinically relevant syndromic extrapulmonary disease including a T cell immunodeficiency and a propensity to myeloid malignancies. Recognizing this subset of patients who shares a unifying molecular defect has provided a precision medicine paradigm wherein the telomere-mediated lung disease diagnosis provides more prognostic value than histopathology or multi-disciplinary evaluation. Here, we critically evaluate this progress emphasizing how the genetic findings puts forth a new pathogenesis paradigm of age-related lung disease that links telomere abnormalities to alveolar stem senescence, remodeling and defective gas exchange.

RevDate: 2022-05-12

Taub MA, Conomos MP, Keener R, et al (2022)

Genetic determinants of telomere length from 109,122 ancestrally diverse whole-genome sequences in TOPMed.

Cell genomics, 2(1):.

Genetic studies on telomere length are important for understanding age-related diseases. Prior GWAS for leukocyte TL have been limited to European and Asian populations. Here, we report the first sequencing-based association study for TL across ancestrally-diverse individuals (European, African, Asian and Hispanic/Latino) from the NHLBI Trans-Omics for Precision Medicine (TOPMed) program. We used whole genome sequencing (WGS) of whole blood for variant genotype calling and the bioinformatic estimation of telomere length in n=109,122 individuals. We identified 59 sentinel variants (p-value <5×10-9) in 36 loci associated with telomere length, including 20 newly associated loci (13 were replicated in external datasets). There was little evidence of effect size heterogeneity across populations. Fine-mapping at OBFC1 indicated the independent signals colocalized with cell-type specific eQTLs for OBFC1 (STN1). Using a multi-variant gene-based approach, we identified two genes newly implicated in telomere length, DCLRE1B (SNM1B) and PARN. In PheWAS, we demonstrated our TL polygenic trait scores (PTS) were associated with increased risk of cancer-related phenotypes.

RevDate: 2022-05-18

Ferrer A, Mangaonkar AA, MM Patnaik (2022)

Clonal Hematopoiesis and Myeloid Neoplasms in the Context of Telomere Biology Disorders.

Current hematologic malignancy reports, 17(3):61-68.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Telomere biology disorders (TBDs) are cancer-predisposing multisystemic diseases that portend a higher risk of transforming into myeloid neoplasms (MNs). Due to the rarity and high variability of clinical presentations, TBD-specific characteristics of MN and the mechanisms behind this predisposition are not well defined. Herein, we review recent studies on TBD patient cohorts describing myeloid transformation events and summarize efforts to develop screening and treatment guidelines for these patients.

RECENT FINDINGS: Preliminary studies have indicated that TBD patients have a higher prevalence of somatic genetic alterations in hematopoietic cells, an age-related phenomenon, also known as clonal hematopoiesis; increasing predisposition to MN. The CH mutational landscape in TBD differs from that observed in non-TBD patients and preliminary data suggest a higher frequency of somatic mutations in the DNA repair mechanism pathway. Although initial studies did not observe specific features of MN in TBD patients, certain events are common in TBD, such as hypocellular bone marrows. The mechanisms of MN development need further elucidation. Current management options for MN-TBD patients need to be individualized and tailored as per the clinical context. Because of the high sensitivity to alkylator chemotherapy and radiation conferred by short telomeres, non-cytotoxic targeted therapies and immunotherapy are ideal therapeutic options, but these therapies are still being tested in clinical trials. Defining the mechanisms of CH evolution in TBD and identifying risk factors leading to MN evolution will allow for the development of screening and treatment guidelines for these patients.

RevDate: 2022-05-05

Shakirov EV, Chen JJ, DE Shippen (2022)

Plant telomere biology: The green solution to the end-replication problem.

The Plant cell pii:6576639 [Epub ahead of print].

Telomere maintenance is a fundamental cellular process conserved across all eukaryotic lineages. Although plants and animals diverged over 1.5 billion years ago, lessons learned from plants continue to push the boundaries of science, revealing detailed molecular mechanisms in telomere biology with broad implications for human health, aging biology, and stress responses. Recent studies of plant telomeres have unveiled unexpected divergence in telomere sequence and architecture, the proteins that engage telomeric DNA and telomerase. The discovery of telomerase RNA components in the plant kingdom and some algae groups revealed new insight into the divergent evolution and the universal core of telomerase across major eukaryotic kingdoms. In addition, resources cataloging the abundant natural variation in Arabidopsis thaliana, maize (Zea mays) and other plants are providing unparalleled opportunities to understand the genetic networks that govern telomere length polymorphism and, as a result, are uncovering unanticipated crosstalk between telomeres, environmental factors, organismal fitness and plant physiology. Here we recap current advances in plant telomere biology and put this field in perspective relative to telomere and telomerase research in other eukaryotic lineages.

RevDate: 2022-05-05

Ujvari B, Raven N, Madsen T, et al (2022)

Telomeres, the loop tying cancer to organismal life-histories.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Recent developments in telomere and cancer evolutionary ecology demonstrate a very complex relationship between the need of tissue repair and controlling the emergence of abnormally proliferating cells. The trade-off is balanced by natural and sexual selection and mediated via both intrinsic and environmental factors. We explore the effects of telomere-cancer dynamics on life history traits and strategies as well as on the cumulative effects of genetic and environmental factors. We show that telomere-cancer dynamics constitute an incredibly complex and a multifaceted process. From research to date, it appears that the relationship between telomere length and cancer risk is likely non-linear with good evidence that both (too) long and (too) short telomeres can be associated with an increased cancer risk. The ability and propensity of organisms to respond to the interplay of telomere dynamics and oncogenic processes, depends on a combination of its tissue environments, life history strategies, environmental challenges (i.e. extreme climatic conditions), pressure by predators and pollution, as well as its evolutionary history. Consequently, precise interpretation of telomere-cancer dynamics requires integrative and multidisciplinary approaches. Finally, incorporating information on telomere dynamics and the expression of tumour suppressor genes and oncogenes could potentially provide the synergistic overview that could lay the foundations to study telomere-cancer dynamics at ecosystem levels.

RevDate: 2022-05-16
CmpDate: 2022-05-04

Panelli DM, Leonard SA, Wong RJ, et al (2022)

Leukocyte telomere dynamics across gestation in uncomplicated pregnancies and associations with stress.

BMC pregnancy and childbirth, 22(1):381.

BACKGROUND: Short leukocyte telomere length is a biomarker associated with stress and morbidity in non-pregnant adults. Little is known, however, about maternal telomere dynamics in pregnancy. To address this, we examined changes in maternal leukocyte telomere length (LTL) during uncomplicated pregnancies and explored correlations with perceived stress.

METHODS: In this pilot study, maternal LTL was measured in blood collected from nulliparas who delivered live, term, singleton infants between 2012 and 2018 at a single institution. Participants were excluded if they had diabetes or hypertensive disease. Samples were collected over the course of pregnancy and divided into three time periods: < 200/7 weeks (Timepoint 1); 201/7 to 366/7 weeks (Timepoint 2); and 370/7 to 9-weeks postpartum (Timepoint 3). All participants also completed a survey assessing a multivariate profile of perceived stress at the time of enrollment in the first trimester. LTL was measured using quantitative polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Wilcoxon signed-rank tests were used to compare LTL differences within participants across all timepoint intervals. To determine whether mode of delivery affected LTL, we compared postpartum Timepoint 3 LTLs between participants who had vaginal versus cesarean birth. Secondarily, we evaluated the association of the assessed multivariate stress profile and LTL using machine learning analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 115 samples from 46 patients were analyzed. LTL (mean ± SD), expressed as telomere to single copy gene (T/S) ratios, were: 1.15 ± 0.26, 1.13 ± 0.23, and 1.07 ± 0.21 for Timepoints 1, 2, and 3, respectively. There were no significant differences in LTL between Timepoints 1 and 2 (LTL T/S change - 0.03 ± 0.26, p = 0.39); 2 and 3 (- 0.07 ± 0.29, p = 0.38) or Timepoints 1 and 3 (- 0.07 ± 0.21, p = 0.06). Participants who underwent cesareans had significantly shorter postpartum LTLs than those who delivered vaginally (T/S ratio: 0.94 ± 0.12 cesarean versus 1.12 ± 0.21 vaginal, p = 0.01). In secondary analysis, poor sleep quality was the main stress construct associated with shorter Timepoint 1 LTLs (p = 0.02) and shorter mean LTLs (p = 0.03).

CONCLUSIONS: In this cohort of healthy pregnancies, maternal LTLs did not significantly change across gestation and postpartum LTLs were shorter after cesarean than after vaginal birth. Significant associations between sleep quality and short LTLs warrant further investigation.

RevDate: 2022-05-04
CmpDate: 2022-05-04

Nickels M, Mastana S, Denniff M, et al (2022)

Pilates and telomere dynamics: A 12-month longitudinal study.

Journal of bodywork and movement therapies, 30:118-124.

Telomeres are dynamic structures that appear to be positively influenced by healthy lifestyle factors such as exercise. Pilates is an increasingly popular exercise modality that is reported to exert beneficial physiological effects in the body, although the cellular mechanisms are poorly understood. The aim of the present study was to investigate the influence of Pilates exercise on telomere length. This longitudinal study followed experienced female Pilates practitioners (n = 11, 50.8 ± 7.5 years) and healthy age- and sex-matched sedentary controls (n = 11, 49.3 ± 6.1 years) over a 12-month period. Leukocyte telomere length was quantified using qPCR. Circulatory inflammatory markers, mRNA gene expression, body composition, physical performance, and mental well-being were also assessed. Telomere length was comparable between Pilates practitioners and controls at baseline (Pre) and 12-months (Post) (p > 0.0125). Pilates practitioners displayed enhanced mRNA gene expression of antioxidant enzymes (SOD2 and GPX1), and lower body fat percentage and visceral fat rating, compared with sedentary controls (p < 0.0125). Over the 12-month longitudinal period, Pilates participants significantly increased dynamic balance (p < 0.05). In conclusion, long-term Pilates participation does not appear to influence telomere length. Nonetheless, Pilates exercise appears to increase antioxidant enzyme gene expression, effectively manage body composition, and improve dynamic balance.

RevDate: 2022-05-02

de Oliveira BCD, Shiburah ME, Paiva SC, et al (2022)

Corrigendum: Possible Involvement of Hsp90 in the Regulation of Telomere Length and Telomerase Activity During the Leishmania Amazonensis Developmental Cycle and Population Proliferation.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 10:894949 pii:894949.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.3389/fcell.2021.713415.].

RevDate: 2022-05-16

Kirk B, Kuo CL, Xiang M, et al (2022)

Associations between leukocyte telomere length and osteosarcopenia in 20,400 adults aged 60 years and over: Data from the UK Biobank.

Bone, 161:116425 pii:S8756-3282(22)00101-6 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Two mechanisms implicated in telomere shortening are oxidative stress and inflammation, both of which are linked to bone and muscle loss suggesting a pathological link between telomere attrition and osteosarcopenia. Using older adults aged 60 years and over in the UK Biobank, we examined the association between leukocyte telomere length and osteosarcopenia.

METHODS: Baseline leukocyte telomere length was measured using a multiplex qPCR technique and expressed as the amount of the telomere amplification product (T) to that of a single-copy gene (S) (T/S ratio). Osteosarcopenia data was from the first imaging visit and defined by WHO criteria (femoral neck bone density T score ≤ -1) for osteopenia/osteoporosis plus either the EWGSOP2 (low appendicular lean mass/height2 and low grip strength) or SDOC (low grip strength and slow walking pace) criteria for sarcopenia. Binary or multinomial logistic regression models were used to associate telomere length and osteosarcopenia or its components, adjusting for the covariates: age, sex, race, education, Townsend deprivation index, alcohol, smoking, BMI/weight, physical activity levels.

RESULTS: Among 20,400 older adults (mean age: 67.79 ± 4.9 years, 53% men), the prevalence of osteosarcopenia by EWGSOP2 (n = 96, 0.47%) or SDOC (n = 205, 1%) criteria was low at the first imaging visit (mean 8.82 years after baseline). Baseline telomere length was not associated with osteosarcopenia by EWGSOP2 (Relative Risk (RR): 1.00, 95% CI: 0.82-1.23 comparing osteosarcopenia to normal (non-osteopenic, non-osteoporotic, and non-sarcopenic) per Standard Deviation (SD) increase in telomere length) or SDOC (RR: 0.95, 95% CI: 0.83-1.09) criteria. Longer telomere length was associated with a lower risk of slow walking pace (Odds Ratio: 0.92, 95% CI: 0.87-0.99 per SD increase in telomere length, p = 0.021). Telomere length, however, was not associated with low grip strength, low bone density or low appendicular lean mass/height2 (p > 0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: In this population-based study, telomere length was not associated with osteosarcopenia; however, slow walking pace was. Further studies are needed to reexamine this relationship, including a greater number of the oldest-old (≥75 years) where osteosarcopenia is more prevalent.

RevDate: 2022-05-03
CmpDate: 2022-05-03

Mikheev RK, Grigoryan OR, Pankratova MS, et al (2022)

[Telomere pathology in ontogenesis in patients with Turner syndrome].

Problemy endokrinologii, 68(2):128-132.

According to present medical databases there many trials to provide in vivo researches in vivo to confirm/refute shortening process of telomeres among patients with Turner syndrome. Despite the successful clinical experience of providing such patients with Turner syndrome, a lot of omics (proteomic and metabolomic) aspects still stay unclear. Main disadvantages of most researches are small volume and minimized mathematical correlation with chronic disease (coronary heart disease, essential hypertension, cardiovascular malformations). Finally, organization of international prospective multi-centered researches in vivo including patients with mosaic cariotype and co-operation between physicians and biologists are optimal solutions for this present problem.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Although multicellular eukaryotes (MCEs) are the most visible component of the biosphere, they represent a highly derived and constrained evolutionary subset of the biosphere, unrepresentative of the vast, mostly unseen, microbial world of prokaryotic life that comprises at least half of the planet's biomass and most of its genetic diversity. The existence of telomeres is one component of the specialized biology of eukaryotes. R. Robbins

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