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Bibliography on: Human Microbiome

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 21 Jun 2024 at 01:51 Created: 

Human Microbiome

The human microbiome is the set of all microbes that live on or in humans. Together, a human body and its associated microbiomes constitute a human holobiont. Although a human holobiont is mostly mammal by weight, by cell count it is mostly microbial. The number of microbial genes in the associated microbiomes far outnumber the number of human genes in the human genome. Just as humans (and other multicellular eukaryotes) evolved in the constant presence of gravity, so they also evolved in the constant presence of microbes. Consequently, nearly every aspect of human biology has evolved to deal with, and to take advantage of, the existence of associated microbiota. In some cases, the absence of a "normal microbiome" can cause disease, which can be treated by the transplant of a correct microbiome from a healthy donor. For example, fecal transplants are an effective treatment for chronic diarrhea from over abundant Clostridium difficile bacteria in the gut.

Created with PubMed® Query: "human microbiome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-06-18
CmpDate: 2024-06-18

Khawaja T, Mäklin T, Kallonen T, et al (2024)

Deep sequencing of Escherichia coli exposes colonisation diversity and impact of antibiotics in Punjab, Pakistan.

Nature communications, 15(1):5196.

Multi-drug resistant (MDR) E. coli constitute a major public health burden globally, reaching the highest prevalence in the global south yet frequently flowing with travellers to other regions. However, our comprehension of the entire genetic diversity of E. coli colonising local populations remains limited. We quantified this diversity, its associated antimicrobial resistance (AMR), and assessed the impact of antibiotic use by recruiting 494 outpatients and 423 community dwellers in the Punjab province, Pakistan. Rectal swab and stool samples were cultured on CLED agar and DNA extracted from plate sweeps was sequenced en masse to capture both the genetic and AMR diversity of E. coli. We assembled 5,247 E. coli genomes from 1,411 samples, displaying marked genetic diversity in gut colonisation. Compared with high income countries, the Punjabi population generally showed a markedly different distribution of genetic lineages and AMR determinants, while use of antibiotics elevated the prevalence of well-known globally circulating MDR clinical strains. These findings implicate that longitudinal multi-regional genomics-based surveillance of both colonisation and infections is a prerequisite for developing mechanistic understanding of the interplay between ecology and evolution in the maintenance and dissemination of (MDR) E. coli.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Fu C, Zhang Y, Liang L, et al (2024)

The microbiota in patients with interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome: a systematic review.

BJU international [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To comprehensively review and critically assess the literature on microbiota differences between patients with interstitial cystitis (IC)/bladder pain syndrome (BPS) and normal controls and to provide clinical practice guidelines.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: In this systematic review, we evaluated previous research on microbiota disparities between IC/BPS and normal controls, as well as distinctions among IC/BPS subgroups. A comprehensive literature search was conducted across PubMed/MEDLINE, EMBASE, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials. Relevant studies were shortlisted based on predetermined inclusion and exclusion criteria, followed by quality assessment. The primary focus was identifying specific taxonomic variations among these cohorts.

RESULTS: A total of 12 studies met the selection criteria. Discrepancies were adjudicated by a third reviewer. The Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used to assess study quality. Predominantly, the studies focused on disparities in urine microbiota between IC/BPS patients and normal controls, with one study examining gut microbiota differences between the groups, and two studies exploring vaginal microbiota distinctions. Unfortunately, analyses of discrepancies in other microbiota were limited. Our findings revealed evidence of distinct bacterial abundance variations, particularly involving Lactobacillus, alongside variations in specific metabolites among IC/BPS patients compared to controls.

CONCLUSIONS: Currently, there is evidence suggesting significant variations in the diversity and species composition of the urinary microbiota between individuals diagnosed with IC/BPS and control groups. In the foreseeable future, urologists should consider urine microbiota dysbiosis as a potential aetiology for IC, with potential clinical implications for diagnosis and treatment.

RevDate: 2024-06-17

Moussa AY (2024)

Streptomyces endophytes in edible plants: chemistry and medicinal significance.

Chemistry & biodiversity [Epub ahead of print].

Streptomyces is the largest source of microbial antibiotics with about 50% of marketed antimicrobial drugs originating from this genus. Endophytic streptomyces are the link between medicinal plants and the microbial world. Edible plants endophytic streptomyces were not targeted before despite their uniqueness and importance. In this review, we analyzed the chemical diversity of more than 150 compounds belonging to endophytic Streptomyces chemical classes such as alkaloids, polyketides, peptides, macrolides and terpenes and their biological activities. This analysis showed a dominant antimicrobial effect for most of the isolated compounds and highlighted an underestimated diversity to be studied or repurposed for other biological activities. Return to edible plants use and conducting toxicity studies to rationalize their nutraceutical potential based on their beneficial endophytes is urged. Although there are many studies for non-vertebrates, the nutraceutical potential of these plants is expected to improve the gut microbiota since they are enriched with bioactive compounds from streptomyces species. This is the first review to discuss edible plants associated streptomyces, and we prospect that many studies will follow to unravel the mysterious health benefits of streptomyces in the human microbiome and encourage the revival of a correct lifestyle for the sack of a healthier microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Zhang Z, Zhang HL, Yang DH, et al (2024)

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG triggers intestinal epithelium injury in zebrafish revealing host dependent beneficial effects.

iMeta, 3(2):e181.

Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG), the well-characterized human-derived probiotic strain, possesses excellent properties in the maintenance of intestinal homeostasis, immunoregulation and defense against gastrointestinal pathogens in mammals. Here, we demonstrate that the SpaC pilin of LGG causes intestinal epithelium injury by inducing cell pyroptosis and gut microbial dysbiosis in zebrafish. Dietary SpaC activates Caspase-3-GSDMEa pathways in the intestinal epithelium, promotes intestinal pyroptosis and increases lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-producing gut microbes in zebrafish. The increased LPS subsequently activates Gaspy2-GSDMEb pyroptosis pathway. Further analysis reveals the Caspase-3-GSDMEa pyroptosis is initiated by the species-specific recognition of SpaC by TLR4ba, which accounts for the species-specificity of the SpaC-inducing intestinal pyroptosis in zebrafish. The observed pyroptosis-driven gut injury and microbial dysbiosis by LGG in zebrafish suggest that host-specific beneficial/harmful mechanisms are critical safety issues when applying probiotics derived from other host species and need more attention.

RevDate: 2024-06-18

Wu D, Guan YX, Li CH, et al (2024)

"Nutrient-fungi-host" tripartite interaction in cancer progression.

iMeta, 3(2):e170.

The human microbiome exhibits a profound connection with the cancer development, progression, and therapeutic response, with particular emphasis on its components of the mycobiome, which are still in the early stages of research. In this review, we comprehensively summarize cancer-related symbiotic and pathogenic fungal genera. The intricate mechanisms through which fungi impact cancer as an integral member of both gut and tissue-resident microbiomes are further discussed. In addition, we shed light on the pivotal physiological roles of various nutrients, including cholesterol, carbohydrates, proteins and minerals, in facilitating the growth, reproduction, and invasive pathogenesis of the fungi. While our exploration of the interplay between nutrients and cancer, mediated by the mycobiome, is ongoing, the current findings have yet to yield conclusive results. Thus, delving into the relationship between nutrients and fungal pathogenesis in cancer development and progression would provide valuable insights into anticancer therapy and foster precision nutrition and individualized treatments that target fungi from bench to bedside.

RevDate: 2024-06-15
CmpDate: 2024-06-15

Jawanda IK, Soni T, Kumari S, et al (2024)

The evolving facets of vaginal microbiota transplantation: reinvigorating the unexplored frontier amid complex challenges.

Archives of microbiology, 206(7):306.

In an age of cutting-edge sequencing methods and worldwide endeavors such as The Human Microbiome Project and MetaHIT, the human microbiome stands as a complex and diverse community of microorganisms. A central theme in current scientific inquiry revolves around reinstating a balanced microbial composition, referred to as "eubiosis," as a targeted approach for treating vast array of diseases. Vaginal Microbiota Transplantation (VMT), inspired by the success of fecal microbiota transplantation, emerges as an innovative therapy addressing vaginal dysbacteriosis by transferring the complete microbiota from a healthy donor. Antibiotics, while effective, pose challenges with adverse effects, high recurrence rates, and potential harm to beneficial Lactobacillus strains. Continued antibiotic usage also sparks worries regarding the development of resistant strains. Probiotics, though showing promise, exhibit inconsistency in treating multifactorial diseases, and concerns linger about their suitability for diverse genetic backgrounds. Given the recurrent challenges associated with antibiotic and probiotic treatments, VMT emerges as an imperative alternative, offering a unique and promising avenue for efficiently and reliably managing vaginal dysbiosis among a majority of women. This review critically evaluates findings from both animal and human studies, offering nuanced insights into the efficacy and challenges of VMT. An extensive analysis of clinical trials, provides a current overview of ongoing and completed trials, shedding light on the evolving clinical landscape and therapeutic potential of VMT. Delving into the origins, mechanisms, and optimized protocols of VMT, the review underscores the imperative for sustained research efforts to advance this groundbreaking gynecological therapy.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Wu K, Chen J, Lin J, et al (2024)

The role of ferroptosis in DM-induced liver injury.

Biometals : an international journal on the role of metal ions in biology, biochemistry, and medicine [Epub ahead of print].

The liver damage caused by Diabetes Mellitus (DM) has attracted increasing attention in recent years. Liver injury in DM can be caused by ferroptosis, a form of cell death caused by iron overload. However, the role of iron transporters in this context is still not clear. Herein, we attempted to shed light on the pathophysiological mechanism of ferroptosis. DM was induced in 8-week-old male rats by streptozotocin (STZ) before assessment of the degree of liver injury. Together with histopathological changes, variations in glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4), glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), transferrin receptor 1 (TFR1), ferritin heavy chain (FTH), ferritin light chain (FTL), ferroportin and Prussian blue staining, were monitored in rat livers before and after treatment with Fer-1. In the liver of STZ-treated rats, GSH and SOD levels decreased, whereas those of malondialdehyde (MDA) increased. Expression of TFR1, FTH and FTL increased whereas that of glutathione peroxidase 4 (GPX4) and ferroportin did not change significantly. Prussian blue staining showed that iron levels increased. Histopathology showed liver fibrosis and decreased glycogen content. Fer-1 treatment reduced iron and MDA levels but GSH and SOD levels were unchanged. Expression of FTH and FTL was reduced whereas that of ferroportin showed a mild decrease. Fer-1 treatment alleviated liver fibrosis, increased glycogen content and mildly improved liver function. Our study demonstrates that ferroptosis is involved in DM-induced liver injury. Regulating the levels of iron transporters may become a new therapeutic strategy in ferroptosis-induced liver injury.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Shang Z, Pai L, S Patil (2024)

Unveiling the dynamics of gut microbial interactions: a review of dietary impact and precision nutrition in gastrointestinal health.

Frontiers in nutrition, 11:1395664.

The human microbiome, a dynamic ecosystem within the gastrointestinal tract, plays a pivotal role in shaping overall health. This review delves into six interconnected sections, unraveling the intricate relationship between diet, gut microbiota, and their profound impact on human health. The dance of nutrients in the gut orchestrates a complex symphony, influencing digestive processes and susceptibility to gastrointestinal disorders. Emphasizing the bidirectional communication between the gut and the brain, the Brain-Gut Axis section highlights the crucial role of dietary choices in physical, mental, and emotional well-being. Autoimmune diseases, particularly those manifesting in the gastrointestinal tract, reveal the delicate balance disrupted by gut microbiome imbalances. Strategies for reconciling gut microbes through diets, precision nutrition, and clinical indications showcase promising avenues for managing gastrointestinal distress and revolutionizing healthcare. From the Low-FODMAP diet to neuro-gut interventions, these strategies provide a holistic understanding of the gut's dynamic world. Precision nutrition, as a groundbreaking discipline, holds transformative potential by tailoring dietary recommendations to individual gut microbiota compositions, reshaping the landscape of gastrointestinal health. Recent advancements in clinical indications, including exact probiotics, fecal microbiota transplantation, and neuro-gut interventions, signify a new era where the gut microbiome actively participates in therapeutic strategies. As the microbiome takes center stage in healthcare, a paradigm shift toward personalized and effective treatments for gastrointestinal disorders emerges, reflecting the symbiotic relationship between the human body and its microbial companions.

RevDate: 2024-06-15

Chi J, Ye J, Y Zhou (2024)

A GLM-based zero-inflated generalized Poisson factor model for analyzing microbiome data.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1394204.

MOTIVATION: High-throughput sequencing technology facilitates the quantitative analysis of microbial communities, improving the capacity to investigate the associations between the human microbiome and diseases. Our primary motivating application is to explore the association between gut microbes and obesity. The complex characteristics of microbiome data, including high dimensionality, zero inflation, and over-dispersion, pose new statistical challenges for downstream analysis.

RESULTS: We propose a GLM-based zero-inflated generalized Poisson factor analysis (GZIGPFA) model to analyze microbiome data with complex characteristics. The GZIGPFA model is based on a zero-inflated generalized Poisson (ZIGP) distribution for modeling microbiome count data. A link function between the generalized Poisson rate and the probability of excess zeros is established within the generalized linear model (GLM) framework. The latent parameters of the GZIGPFA model constitute a low-rank matrix comprising a low-dimensional score matrix and a loading matrix. An alternating maximum likelihood algorithm is employed to estimate the unknown parameters, and cross-validation is utilized to determine the rank of the model in this study. The proposed GZIGPFA model demonstrates superior performance and advantages through comprehensive simulation studies and real data applications.

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Takallu S, Aiyelabegan HT, Zomorodi AR, et al (2024)

Nanotechnology improves the detection of bacteria: Recent advances and future perspectives.

Heliyon, 10(11):e32020.

Nanotechnology has advanced significantly, particularly in biomedicine, showing promise for nanomaterial applications. Bacterial infections pose persistent public health challenges due to the lack of rapid pathogen detection methods, resulting in antibiotic overuse and bacterial resistance, threatening the human microbiome. Nanotechnology offers a solution through nanoparticle-based materials facilitating early bacterial detection and combating resistance. This study explores recent research on nanoparticle development for controlling microbial infections using various nanotechnology-driven detection methods. These approaches include Surface Plasmon Resonance (SPR) Sensors, Surface-Enhanced Raman Scattering (SERS) Sensors, Optoelectronic-based sensors, Bacteriophage-Based Sensors, and nanotechnology-based aptasensors. These technologies provide precise bacteria detection, enabling targeted treatment and infection prevention. Integrating nanoparticles into detection approaches holds promise for enhancing patient outcomes and mitigating harmful bacteria spread in healthcare settings.

RevDate: 2024-06-14
CmpDate: 2024-06-12

Heinzel S, Jureczek J, Kainulainen V, et al (2024)

Elevated fecal calprotectin is associated with gut microbial dysbiosis, altered serum markers and clinical outcomes in older individuals.

Scientific reports, 14(1):13513.

Fecal calprotectin is an established marker of gut inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Elevated levels of fecal calprotectin as well as gut microbial dysbiosis have also been observed in other clinical conditions. However, systemic and multi-omics alterations linked to elevated fecal calprotectin in older individuals remain unclear. This study comprehensively investigated the relationship between fecal calprotectin levels, gut microbiome composition, serum inflammation and targeted metabolomics markers, and relevant lifestyle and medical data in a large sample of older individuals (n = 735; mean age ± SD: 68.7 ± 6.3) from the TREND cohort study. Low (0-50 μg/g; n = 602), moderate (> 50-100 μg/g; n = 64) and high (> 100 μg/g; n = 62) fecal calprotectin groups were stratified. Several pro-inflammatory gut microbial genera were significantly increased and short-chain fatty acid producing genera were decreased in high vs. low calprotectin groups. In serum, IL-17C, CCL19 and the toxic metabolite indoxyl sulfate were increased in high vs. low fecal calprotectin groups. These changes were partially mediated by the gut microbiota. Moreover, the high fecal calprotectin group showed increased BMI and a higher disease prevalence of heart attack and obesity. Our findings contribute to the understanding of fecal calprotectin as a marker of gut dysbiosis and its broader systemic and clinical implications in older individuals.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Anonymous (2024)

The human microbiome and immune response shift during spaceflight.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-06-14

Ma Y, Ke D, Li D, et al (2022)

Donors' experiences and attitudes of fecal microbiota transplantation: An empirical bioethics study from China.

iMeta, 1(4):e62.

Donor participation is a critical part of ensuring the development of human microbiome research and the clinical application of fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Most FMT donors are still not sufficiently aware of the risks associated with the act of donating gut microbiota, especially the risk of data privacy disclosure. Enhanced awareness of the moral responsibility of the researchers and ethical oversight by ethics committees are needed.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Tierney BT, Kim J, Overbey EG, et al (2024)

Longitudinal multi-omics analysis of host microbiome architecture and immune responses during short-term spaceflight.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Maintenance of astronaut health during spaceflight will require monitoring and potentially modulating their microbiomes. However, documenting microbial shifts during spaceflight has been difficult due to mission constraints that lead to limited sampling and profiling. Here we executed a six-month longitudinal study to quantify the high-resolution human microbiome response to three days in orbit for four individuals. Using paired metagenomics and metatranscriptomics alongside single-nuclei immune cell profiling, we characterized time-dependent, multikingdom microbiome changes across 750 samples and 10 body sites before, during and after spaceflight at eight timepoints. We found that most alterations were transient across body sites; for example, viruses increased in skin sites mostly during flight. However, longer-term shifts were observed in the oral microbiome, including increased plaque-associated bacteria (for example, Fusobacteriota), which correlated with immune cell gene expression. Further, microbial genes associated with phage activity, toxin-antitoxin systems and stress response were enriched across multiple body sites. In total, this study reveals in-depth characterization of microbiome and immune response shifts experienced by astronauts during short-term spaceflight and the associated changes to the living environment, which can help guide future missions, spacecraft design and space habitat planning.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Osbelt L, Almási ÉDH, Wende M, et al (2024)

Klebsiella oxytoca inhibits Salmonella infection through multiple microbiota-context-dependent mechanisms.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The Klebsiella oxytoca species complex is part of the human microbiome, especially during infancy and childhood. K. oxytoca species complex strains can produce enterotoxins, namely, tilimycin and tilivalline, while also contributing to colonization resistance (CR). The relationship between these seemingly contradictory roles is not well understood. Here, by coupling ex vivo assays with CRISPR-mutagenesis and various mouse models, we show that K. oxytoca provides CR against Salmonella Typhimurium. In vitro, the antimicrobial activity against various Salmonella strains depended on tilimycin production and was induced by various simple carbohydrates. In vivo, CR against Salmonella depended on toxin production in germ-free mice, while it was largely toxin-independent in mice with residual microbiota. This was linked to the relative levels of toxin-inducing carbohydrates in vivo. Finally, dulcitol utilization was essential for toxin-independent CR in gnotobiotic mice. Together, this demonstrates that nutrient availability is key to both toxin-dependent and substrate-driven competition between K. oxytoca and Salmonella.

RevDate: 2024-06-11

Zhang L, Wu R, Ma T, et al (2024)

Investigation on the Therapeutic Mechanism of Danbie Capsules for Endometriosis: A Network Pharmacology Approach.

International journal of general medicine, 17:2557-2574.

OBJECTIVE: To explore the active substances and targets of Danbie Capsules in Endometriosis therapy.

METHODS: This study was conducted through TCMSP and published literature screened and obtained 183 active substances of Danbie Capsules, combined and intersected with Endometriosis target genes collected and screened in the GEO database, obtained 24 target genes for Endometriosis treatment, and mapped the target network map of Danbie Capsules active substances against Endometriosis. The network was analyzed with the aid of Cytoscape version 3.9.1. With the aid of the platform of the STRING data analysis, PPI network analysis was conducted on 24 anti-Endometriosis targets of the Danbie Capsules.

RESULTS: The research results obtained three critical active substances, namely, Quercetin, β-sitosterol, and Luteolin. Seven critical targets were identified, and two representative genes (TP53 and AKT1) have been verified in Macromolecular docking and immunohistochemical verification.

CONCLUSION: The active substances of Danbie Capsules in the treatment of Endometriosis are Quercetin, β-sitosterol and Luteolin, and the main targets are TP53 and AKT1.

RevDate: 2024-06-10

Byrne SR, DeMott MS, Yuan Y, et al (2024)

Temporal dynamics and metagenomics of phosphorothioate epigenomes in the human gut microbiome.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.05.29.596306.

BACKGROUND: Epigenetic regulation of gene expression and host defense is well established in microbial communities, with dozens of DNA modifications comprising the epigenomes of prokaryotes and bacteriophage. Phosphorothioation (PT) of DNA, in which a chemically-reactive sulfur atom replaces a non-bridging oxygen in the sugar-phosphate backbone, is catalyzed by dnd and ssp gene families widespread in bacteria and archaea. However, little is known about the role of PTs or other microbial epigenetic modifications in the human microbiome. Here we optimized and applied fecal DNA extraction, mass spectrometric, and metagenomics technologies to characterize the landscape and temporal dynamics of gut microbes possessing PT modifications.

RESULTS: Exploiting the nuclease-resistance of PTs, mass spectrometric analysis of limit digests of PT-containing DNA reveals PT dinucleotides as part of genomic consensus sequences, with 16 possible dinucleotide combinations. Analysis of mouse fecal DNA revealed a highly uniform spectrum of 11 PT dinucleotides in all littermates, with PTs estimated to occur in 5-10% of gut microbes. Though at similar levels, PT dinucleotides in fecal DNA from 11 healthy humans possessed signature combinations and levels of individual PTs. Comparison with a widely distributed microbial epigenetic mark, m [6] dA, suggested temporal dynamics consistent with expectations for gut microbial communities based on Taylor's Power Law. Application of PT-seq for site-specific metagenomic analysis of PT-containing bacteria in one fecal donor revealed the larger consensus sequences for the PT dinucleotides in Bacteroidota, Firmicutes, Actinobacteria, and Proteobacteria, which differed from unbiased metagenomics and suggested that the abundance of PT-containing bacteria did not simply mirror the spectrum of gut bacteria. PT-seq further revealed low abundance PT sites not detected as dinucleotides by mass spectrometry, attesting to the complementarity of the technologies.

CONCLUSIONS: The results of our studies provide a benchmark for understanding the behavior of an abundant and chemically-reactive epigenetic mark in the human gut microbiome, with implications for inflammatory conditions of the gut.

RevDate: 2024-06-11
CmpDate: 2024-06-08

Hoisington AJ, Stamper CE, Ellis JC, et al (2024)

Quantifying variation across 16S rRNA gene sequencing runs in human microbiome studies.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 108(1):367.

Recent microbiome research has incorporated a higher number of samples through more participants in a study, longitudinal studies, and metanalysis between studies. Physical limitations in a sequencing machine can result in samples spread across sequencing runs. Here we present the results of sequencing nearly 1000 16S rRNA gene sequences in fecal (stabilized and swab) and oral (swab) samples from multiple human microbiome studies and positive controls that were conducted with identical standard operating procedures. Sequencing was performed in the same center across 18 different runs. The simplified mock community showed limitations in accuracy, while precision (e.g., technical variation) was robust for the mock community and actual human positive control samples. Technical variation was the lowest for stabilized fecal samples, followed by fecal swab samples, and then oral swab samples. The order of technical variation stability was inverse of DNA concentrations (e.g., highest in stabilized fecal samples), highlighting the importance of DNA concentration in reproducibility and urging caution when analyzing low biomass samples. Coefficients of variation at the genus level also followed the same trend for lower variation with higher DNA concentrations. Technical variation across both sample types and the two human sampling locations was significantly less than the observed biological variation. Overall, this research providing comparisons between technical and biological variation, highlights the importance of using positive controls, and provides semi-quantified data to better understand variation introduced by sequencing runs. KEY POINTS: • Mock community and positive control accuracy were lower than precision. • Samples with lower DNA concentration had increased technical variation across sequencing runs. • Biological variation was significantly higher than technical variation due to sequencing runs.

RevDate: 2024-06-10
CmpDate: 2024-06-08

Lu W, Aihaiti A, Abudukeranmu P, et al (2024)

Unravelling the role of intratumoral bacteria in digestive system cancers: current insights and future perspectives.

Journal of translational medicine, 22(1):545.

Recently, research on the human microbiome, especially concerning the bacteria within the digestive system, has substantially advanced. This exploration has unveiled a complex interplay between microbiota and health, particularly in the context of disease. Evidence suggests that the gut microbiome plays vital roles in digestion, immunity and the synthesis of vitamins and neurotransmitters, highlighting its significance in maintaining overall health. Conversely, disruptions in these microbial communities, termed dysbiosis, have been linked to the pathogenesis of various diseases, including digestive system cancers. These bacteria can influence cancer progression through mechanisms such as DNA damage, modulation of the tumour microenvironment, and effects on the host's immune response. Changes in the composition and function within the tumours can also impact inflammation, immune response and cancer therapy effectiveness. These findings offer promising avenues for the clinical application of intratumoral bacteria for digestive system cancer treatment, including the potential use of microbial markers for early cancer detection, prognostication and the development of microbiome-targeted therapies to enhance treatment outcomes. This review aims to provide a comprehensive overview of the pivotal roles played by gut microbiome bacteria in the development of digestive system cancers. Additionally, we delve into the specific contributions of intratumoral bacteria to digestive system cancer development, elucidating potential mechanisms and clinical implications. Ultimately, this review underscores the intricate interplay between intratumoral bacteria and digestive system cancers, underscoring the pivotal role of microbiome research in transforming diagnostic, prognostic and therapeutic paradigms for digestive system cancers.

RevDate: 2024-06-10
CmpDate: 2024-06-07

Kingsley SF, Seo Y, Wood A, et al (2024)

Glucose-fed microbiota alters C. elegans intestinal epithelium and increases susceptibility to multiple bacterial pathogens.

Scientific reports, 14(1):13177.

Overconsumption of dietary sugar can lead to many negative health effects including the development of Type 2 diabetes, metabolic syndrome, cardiovascular disease, and neurodegenerative disorders. Recently, the human intestinal microbiota, strongly associated with our overall health, has also been known to be affected by diet. However, mechanistic insight into the importance of the human intestinal microbiota and the effects of chronic sugar ingestion has not been possible largely due to the complexity of the human microbiome which contains hundreds of types of organisms. Here, we use an interspecies C. elegans/E. coli system, where E. coli are subjected to high sugar, then consumed by the bacterivore host C. elegans to become the microbiota. This glucose-fed microbiota results in a significant lifespan reduction accompanied by reduced healthspan (locomotion), reduced stress resistance, and changes in behavior and feeding. Lifespan reduction is also accompanied by two potential major contributors: increased intestinal bacterial density and increased concentration of reactive oxygen species. The glucose-fed microbiota accelerated the age-related development of intestinal cell permeability, intestinal distention, and dysregulation of immune effectors. Ultimately, the changes in the intestinal epithelium due to aging with the glucose-fed microbiota results in increased susceptibility to multiple bacterial pathogens. Taken together, our data reveal that chronic ingestion of sugar, such as a Western diet, has profound health effects on the host due to changes in the microbiota and may contribute to the current increased incidence of ailments including inflammatory bowel diseases as well as multiple age-related diseases.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Jones J, Murphy CP, Sleator RD, et al (2024)

An exploratory in silico analysis of bacteriocin gene clusters in the urobiome.

Microbiome research reports, 3(2):24.

Background: The role of the urobiome in health and disease remains an understudied area compared to the rest of the human microbiome. Enhanced culturing techniques and next-generation sequencing technologies have identified the urobiome as an untapped source of potentially novel antimicrobials. The aim of this study was to screen the urobiome for genes encoding bacteriocin production. Methods: The genomes of 181 bacterial urobiome isolates were screened in silico for the presence of bacteriocin gene clusters using the bacteriocin mining tool BAGEL4 and secondary metabolite screening tool antiSMASH7. Results: From these isolates, an initial 263 areas of interest were identified, manually annotated, and evaluated for potential bacteriocin gene clusters. This resulted in 32 isolates containing 80 potential bacteriocin gene clusters, of which 72% were identified as class II, 13.75% as class III, 8.75% as class I, and 5% as unclassified bacteriocins. Conclusion: Overall, 53 novel variants were discovered, including nisin, gassericin, ubericin, and colicins.

RevDate: 2024-06-06

Davison C, Tallman S, de Ste-Croix M, et al (2024)

Long-term evolution of Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pneumoniae leads to higher genetic diversity within rather than between human populations.

PLoS genetics, 20(6):e1011317 pii:PGENETICS-D-23-01308 [Epub ahead of print].

Evaluation of the apportionment of genetic diversity of human bacterial commensals within and between human populations is an important step in the characterization of their evolutionary potential. Recent studies showed a correlation between the genomic diversity of human commensal strains and that of their host, but the strength of this correlation and of the geographic structure among human populations is a matter of debate. Here, we studied the genomic diversity and evolution of the phylogenetically related oro-nasopharyngeal healthy-carriage Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus pneumoniae, whose lifestyles range from stricter commensalism to high pathogenic potential. A total of 119 S. mitis genomes showed higher within- and among-host variation than 810 S. pneumoniae genomes in European, East Asian and African populations. Summary statistics of the site-frequency spectrum for synonymous and non-synonymous variation and ABC modelling showed this difference to be due to higher ancestral bacterial population effective size (Ne) in S. mitis, whose genomic variation has been maintained close to mutation-drift equilibrium across (at least many) generations, whereas S. pneumoniae has been expanding from a smaller ancestral bacterial population. Strikingly, both species show limited differentiation among human populations. As genetic differentiation is inversely proportional to the product of effective population size and migration rate (Nem), we argue that large Ne have led to similar differentiation patterns, even if m is very low for S. mitis. We conclude that more diversity within than among human populations and limited population differentiation must be common features of the human microbiome due to large Ne.

RevDate: 2024-06-07

Manrique P, Montero I, Fernandez-Gosende M, et al (2024)

Past, present, and future of microbiome-based therapies.

Microbiome research reports, 3(2):23.

Technological advances in studying the human microbiome in depth have enabled the identification of microbial signatures associated with health and disease. This confirms the crucial role of microbiota in maintaining homeostasis and the host health status. Nowadays, there are several ways to modulate the microbiota composition to effectively improve host health; therefore, the development of therapeutic treatments based on the gut microbiota is experiencing rapid growth. In this review, we summarize the influence of the gut microbiota on the development of infectious disease and cancer, which are two of the main targets of microbiome-based therapies currently being developed. We analyze the two-way interaction between the gut microbiota and traditional drugs in order to emphasize the influence of gut microbial composition on drug effectivity and treatment response. We explore the different strategies currently available for modulating this ecosystem to our benefit, ranging from 1st generation intervention strategies to more complex 2nd generation microbiome-based therapies and their regulatory framework. Lastly, we finish with a quick overview of what we believe is the future of these strategies, that is 3rd generation microbiome-based therapies developed with the use of artificial intelligence (AI) algorithms.

RevDate: 2024-06-05

Matharu D, Ponsero AJ, Lengyel M, et al (2024)

Human milk oligosaccharide composition is affected by season and parity and associates with infant gut microbiota in a birth mode dependent manner in a Finnish birth cohort.

EBioMedicine, 104:105182 pii:S2352-3964(24)00217-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), their determinants, infant gut microbiota and health are under extensive research; however, seldom jointly addressed. Leveraging data from the HELMi birth cohort, we investigated them collectively, considering maternal and infant secretor status.

METHODS: HMO composition in breastmilk collected 3 months postpartum (n = 350 mothers) was profiled using high-performance liquid chromatography. Infant gut microbiota taxonomic and functional development was studied at 3, 6, and 12 months (n = 823 stool samples) via shotgun metagenomic sequencing, focusing on HMO metabolism via glycoside hydrolase (GH) analysis. Maternal and infant secretor statuses were identified through phenotyping and genotyping, respectively. Child health, emphasizing allergies and antibiotics as proxies for infectious diseases, was recorded until 2 years.

FINDINGS: Mother's parity, irritable bowel syndrome, gestational diabetes, and season of milk collection associated with HMO composition. Neither maternal nor infant secretor status associated with infant gut microbiota, except for a few taxa linked to individual HMOs. Analysis stratified for birth mode revealed distinct patterns between the infant gut microbiota and HMOs. Child health parameters were not associated to infant or maternal secretor status.

INTERPRETATION: This comprehensive exploration unveils intricate links between secretor genotype, maternal factors, HMO composition, infant microbiota, and child health. Understanding these nuanced relationships is paramount for refining strategies to optimize early life nutrition and its enduring impact on long-term health.

FUNDING: Sweet Crosstalk EU H2020 MSCA ITN, Academy of Finland, Mary and Georg C. Ehrnrooth Foundation, Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, and Tekes.

RevDate: 2024-06-07
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Lopes W, Amor DR, J Gore (2024)

Cooperative growth in microbial communities is a driver of multistability.

Nature communications, 15(1):4709.

Microbial communities often exhibit more than one possible stable composition for the same set of external conditions. In the human microbiome, these persistent changes in species composition and abundance are associated with health and disease states, but the drivers of these alternative stable states remain unclear. Here we experimentally demonstrate that a cross-kingdom community, composed of six species relevant to the respiratory tract, displays four alternative stable states each dominated by a different species. In pairwise coculture, we observe widespread bistability among species pairs, providing a natural origin for the multistability of the full community. In contrast with the common association between bistability and antagonism, experiments reveal many positive interactions within and between community members. We find that multiple species display cooperative growth, and modeling predicts that this could drive the observed multistability within the community as well as non-canonical pairwise outcomes. A biochemical screening reveals that glutamate either reduces or eliminates cooperativity in the growth of several species, and we confirm that such supplementation reduces the extent of bistability across pairs and reduces multistability in the full community. Our findings provide a mechanistic explanation of how cooperative growth rather than competitive interactions can underlie multistability in microbial communities.

RevDate: 2024-06-06
CmpDate: 2024-06-03

Kitsios GD, Sayed K, Fitch A, et al (2024)

Longitudinal multicompartment characterization of host-microbiota interactions in patients with acute respiratory failure.

Nature communications, 15(1):4708.

Critical illness can significantly alter the composition and function of the human microbiome, but few studies have examined these changes over time. Here, we conduct a comprehensive analysis of the oral, lung, and gut microbiota in 479 mechanically ventilated patients (223 females, 256 males) with acute respiratory failure. We use advanced DNA sequencing technologies, including Illumina amplicon sequencing (utilizing 16S and ITS rRNA genes for bacteria and fungi, respectively, in all sample types) and Nanopore metagenomics for lung microbiota. Our results reveal a progressive dysbiosis in all three body compartments, characterized by a reduction in microbial diversity, a decrease in beneficial anaerobes, and an increase in pathogens. We find that clinical factors, such as chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, immunosuppression, and antibiotic exposure, are associated with specific patterns of dysbiosis. Interestingly, unsupervised clustering of lung microbiota diversity and composition by 16S independently predicted survival and performed better than traditional clinical and host-response predictors. These observations are validated in two separate cohorts of COVID-19 patients, highlighting the potential of lung microbiota as valuable prognostic biomarkers in critical care. Understanding these microbiome changes during critical illness points to new opportunities for microbiota-targeted precision medicine interventions.

RevDate: 2024-06-04

Tan J, Zhang J, Hu C, et al (2024)

Pharmacokinetic enhancement of oncolytic virus M1 by inhibiting JAK‒STAT pathway.

Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B, 14(6):2554-2566.

Oncolytic viruses (OVs), a group of replication-competent viruses that can selectively infect and kill cancer cells while leaving healthy cells intact, are emerging as promising living anticancer agents. Unlike traditional drugs composed of non-replicating compounds or biomolecules, the replicative nature of viruses confer unique pharmacokinetic properties that require further studies. Despite some pharmacokinetics studies of OVs, mechanistic insights into the connection between OV pharmacokinetics and antitumor efficacy remain vague. Here, we characterized the pharmacokinetic profile of oncolytic virus M1 (OVM) in immunocompetent mouse tumor models and identified the JAK‒STAT pathway as a key modulator of OVM pharmacokinetics. By suppressing the JAK‒STAT pathway, early OVM pharmacokinetics are ameliorated, leading to enhanced tumor-specific viral accumulation, increased AUC and Cmax, and improved antitumor efficacy. Rather than compromising antitumor immunity after JAK‒STAT inhibition, the improved pharmacokinetics of OVM promotes T cell recruitment and activation in the tumor microenvironment, providing an optimal opportunity for the therapeutic outcome of immune checkpoint blockade, such as anti-PD-L1. Taken together, this study advances our understanding of the pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic relationship in OV therapy.

RevDate: 2024-06-03

Sahle Z, Engidaye G, Shenkute Gebreyes D, et al (2024)

Fecal microbiota transplantation and next-generation therapies: A review on targeting dysbiosis in metabolic disorders and beyond.

SAGE open medicine, 12:20503121241257486.

The human microbiome, particularly the gut microbiome, has emerged as a central determinant of health and disease. Dysbiosis, an imbalance in the microbial composition of the gut, is associated with a variety of metabolic and other diseases, highlighting the potential for microbiota-targeted treatments. Fecal microbiota transplantation has received considerable attention as a promising therapy to modulate the gut microbiome and restore microbial homeostasis. However, challenges remain, including standardization, safety, and long-term efficacy. This review summarizes current knowledge on fecal microbiota transplantation and describes the next generation therapies targeting microbiome. This review looked at the mechanistic understanding of fecal microbiota transplantation and alternative strategies, elucidating their potential role in improving dysbiosis-associated metabolic disorders, such as obesity, and type 2 diabetes and others. Additionally, this review discussed the growing application of therapies targeting the gut microbiome. Insights from clinical trials, preclinical studies, and emerging technologies provide a comprehensive overview of the evolving landscape of microbiome-based interventions. Through a critical assessment of current advances and prospects, this review aims to highlight the therapeutic potential of targeting gut microbiome and pave the way for innovative approaches in precision medicine and personalized treatments.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Kasperek MC, Velasquez Galeas A, Caetano-Silva ME, et al (2024)

Microbial aromatic amino acid metabolism is modifiable in fermented food matrices to promote bioactivity.

Food chemistry, 454:139798 pii:S0308-8146(24)01448-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Ingestion of fermented foods impacts human immune function, yet the bioactive food components underlying these effects are not understood. Here, we interrogated whether fermented food bioactivity relates to microbial metabolites derived from aromatic amino acids, termed aryl-lactates. Using targeted metabolomics, we established the presence of aryl-lactates in commercially available fermented foods. After pinpointing fermented food-associated lactic acid bacteria that produce high levels of aryl-lactates, we identified fermentation conditions to increase aryl-lactate production in food matrices up to 5 × 10[3] fold vs. standard fermentation conditions. Using ex vivo reporter assays, we found that food matrix conditions optimized for aryl-lactate production exhibited enhanced agonist activity for the human aryl-hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) as compared to standard fermentation conditions and commercial products. Reduced microbial-induced AhR activity has emerged as a hallmark of many chronic inflammatory diseases, thus we envision strategies to enhance AhR bioactivity of fermented foods to be leveraged to improve human health.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Haange SB, Riesbeck S, Aldehoff AS, et al (2024)

Chemical mixture effects on the simplified human intestinal microbiota: Assessing xenobiotics at environmentally realistic concentrations.

Journal of hazardous materials, 474:134683 pii:S0304-3894(24)01262-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The microbial community present in our intestines is pivotal for converting indigestible substances into vital nutrients and signaling molecules such as short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs). These compounds have considerable influence over our immune system and the development of diverse human diseases. However, ingested environmental contaminants, known as xenobiotics, can upset the delicate balance of the microbial gut community and enzymatic processes, consequently affecting the host organism. In our study, we employed an in vitro bioreactor model system based on the simplified human microbiome model (SIHUMIx) to investigate the direct effects of specific xenobiotics, such as perfluorooctanoic acid (PFOA), perfluorohexanoic acid (PFHxA) and perfluorobutanoic acid (PFBA) or bisphenol S (BPS) and bisphenol F (BPF), either individually or in combination, on the microbiota. We observed increased SCFA production, particularly acetate and butyrate, with PFAS exposure. Metaproteomics revealed pathway alterations across treatments, including changes in vitamin synthesis and fatty acid metabolism with BPX. This study underscores the necessity of assessing the combined effects of xenobiotics to better safeguard public health. It emphasizes the significance of considering adverse effects on the microbiome in the risk assessment of environmental chemicals.

RevDate: 2024-05-31

Solasaari T, Korpela K, Lommi S, et al (2024)

Bowel function in a prospective cohort of 1052 healthy term infants up to 4 months of age.

European journal of pediatrics [Epub ahead of print].

The purpose of this study is to describe the defecation pattern of healthy infants up to 17 weeks of age. We included 1052 healthy term infants from the prospective HELMi cohort (NCT03996304). Parents filled in recurring online questionnaires on feeding, gastrointestinal function, and crying weekly for the first 17 weeks of life. Defecation frequency was highest at the age of 3 weeks (a median of 4 times/day, interquartile range (IQR) 2.9-5). At each time point, the median defecation frequency of breastfed infants was higher than that of infants receiving formula (e.g., at week 17 a median of 2 times/day, IQR 0.9-3.6, and a median of 1.1, IQR 0.6-1.4, respectively). The dominant color of the stool was most often yellow or light brown. Nearly black stools were reported in the first week of life in 3.4%. Nearly half (47.4%) of the infants had green stool color dominating for at least 1 week, with comparable frequency among breastfed (47.7%) and formula-fed (45.2%) infants. Green stools were associated with a higher defecation frequency (linear mixed-effect model p < 0.0001). Occasional blood in stool was reported in 9.3% and recurrent blood in 5.2% of the infants with no difference in stool consistency. Hard stools were rare (≤ 1%). Conclusion: This study enlightens the spectrum of defecation patterns in healthy term infants during the first 17 weeks of life. A better understanding of bowel function helps healthcare professionals distinguish normal from abnormal when addressing defecation, the color of stools, and the type of feeding. What is Known: • Breastfed infants have more frequent and more yellow-colored stools than formula-fed infants. • Stools with green color are often suggested by the parents or even by medical professionals to indicate disease or discomfort in early life. What is New: • Nearly half of the healthy term infants had green stool dominating for at least one week during the first 17 weeks and occasional blood was reported in almost 10% of the infants during this period. • Data on normal variation in bowel function and stool may serve primary health care professionals when educating the families and caretakers of infants.

RevDate: 2024-06-01

Efremova I, Maslennikov R, Poluektova E, et al (2024)

Presepsin as a biomarker of bacterial translocation and an indicator for the prescription of probiotics in cirrhosis.

World journal of hepatology, 16(5):822-831.

BACKGROUND: The gut-liver axis and bacterial translocation are important in cirrhosis, but there is no available universal biomarker of cellular bacterial translocation, for which presepsin may be a candidate.

AIM: To evaluate the relationship of the blood presepsin levels with the state of the gut microbiota in cirrhosis in the absence of obvious infection.

METHODS: This study included 48 patients with Child-Pugh cirrhosis classes B and C and 15 healthy controls. The fecal microbiome was assessed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Plasma levels of presepsin were measured. A total of 22 patients received a probiotic (Saccharomyces boulardii) for 3 months.

RESULTS: Presepsin levels were higher in patients with cirrhosis than in healthy individuals [342 (91-2875) vs 120 (102-141) pg/mL; P = 0.048]. Patients with elevated presepsin levels accounted for 56.3% of all included patients. They had lower levels of serum albumin and higher levels of serum total bilirubin and overall severity of cirrhosis as assessed using the Child-Pugh scale. Patients with elevated presepsin levels had an increased abundance of the main taxa responsible for bacterial translocation, namely Bacilli and Proteobacteria (including the main class Gammaproteobacteria and the minor taxa Xanthobacteraceae and Stenotrophomonas), and a low abundance of bacteria from the family Lachnospiraceae (including the minor genus Fusicatenibacter), which produce short-chain fatty acids that have a positive effect on intestinal barrier function. The presepsin level directly correlated with the relative abundance of Bacilli, Proteobacteria, and inversely correlated with the abundance of Lachnospiraceae and Propionibacteriaceae. After 3 months of taking the probiotic, the severity of cirrhosis on the Child-Pugh scale decreased significantly only in the group with elevated presepsin levels [from 9 (8-11) to 7 (6-9); P = 0.004], while there were no significant changes in the group with normal presepsin levels [from 8 (7-8) to 7 (6-8); P = 0.123]. A high level of presepsin before the prescription of the probiotic was an independent predictor of a greater decrease in Child-Pugh scores (P = 0.046), as well as a higher level of the Child-Pugh scale (P = 0.042), but not the C-reactive protein level (P = 0.679) according to multivariate linear regression analysis.

CONCLUSION: The level of presepsin directly correlates with the abundance in the gut microbiota of the main taxa that are substrates of bacterial translocation in cirrhosis. This biomarker, in the absence of obvious infection, seems important for assessing the state of the gut-liver axis in cirrhosis and deciding on therapy targeted at the gut microbiota in this disease.

RevDate: 2024-06-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-31

Warren A, Nyavor Y, Zarabian N, et al (2024)

The microbiota-gut-brain-immune interface in the pathogenesis of neuroinflammatory diseases: a narrative review of the emerging literature.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1365673.

IMPORTANCE: Research is beginning to elucidate the sophisticated mechanisms underlying the microbiota-gut-brain-immune interface, moving from primarily animal models to human studies. Findings support the dynamic relationships between the gut microbiota as an ecosystem (microbiome) within an ecosystem (host) and its intersection with the host immune and nervous systems. Adding this to the effects on epigenetic regulation of gene expression further complicates and strengthens the response. At the heart is inflammation, which manifests in a variety of pathologies including neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Multiple Sclerosis (MS).

OBSERVATIONS: Generally, the research to date is limited and has focused on bacteria, likely due to the simplicity and cost-effectiveness of 16s rRNA sequencing, despite its lower resolution and inability to determine functional ability/alterations. However, this omits all other microbiota including fungi, viruses, and phages, which are emerging as key members of the human microbiome. Much of the research has been done in pre-clinical models and/or in small human studies in more developed parts of the world. The relationships observed are promising but cannot be considered reliable or generalizable at this time. Specifically, causal relationships cannot be determined currently. More research has been done in Alzheimer's disease, followed by Parkinson's disease, and then little in MS. The data for MS is encouraging despite this.

CONCLUSIONS AND RELEVANCE: While the research is still nascent, the microbiota-gut-brain-immune interface may be a missing link, which has hampered our progress on understanding, let alone preventing, managing, or putting into remission neurodegenerative diseases. Relationships must first be established in humans, as animal models have been shown to poorly translate to complex human physiology and environments, especially when investigating the human gut microbiome and its relationships where animal models are often overly simplistic. Only then can robust research be conducted in humans and using mechanistic model systems.

RevDate: 2024-05-30
CmpDate: 2024-05-30

Ezra S, A Bashan (2024)

Network impact of a single-time-point microbial sample.

PloS one, 19(5):e0301683.

The human microbiome plays a crucial role in determining our well-being and can significantly influence human health. The individualized nature of the microbiome may reveal host-specific information about the health state of the subject. In particular, the microbiome is an ecosystem shaped by a tangled network of species-species and host-species interactions. Thus, analysis of the ecological balance of microbial communities can provide insights into these underlying interrelations. However, traditional methods for network analysis require many samples, while in practice only a single-time-point microbial sample is available in clinical screening. Recently, a method for the analysis of a single-time-point sample, which evaluates its 'network impact' with respect to a reference cohort, has been applied to analyze microbial samples from women with Gestational Diabetes Mellitus. Here, we introduce different variations of the network impact approach and systematically study their performance using simulated 'samples' fabricated via the Generalized Lotka-Volttera model of ecological dynamics. We show that the network impact of a single sample captures the effect of the interactions between the species, and thus can be applied to anomaly detection of shuffled samples, which are 'normal' in terms of species abundance but 'abnormal' in terms of species-species interrelations. In addition, we demonstrate the use of the network impact in binary and multiclass classifications, where the reference cohorts have similar abundance profiles but different species-species interactions. Individualized analysis of the human microbiome has the potential to improve diagnosis and personalized treatments.

RevDate: 2024-05-29
CmpDate: 2024-05-29

Elzinga J, Narimatsu Y, de Haan N, et al (2024)

Binding of Akkermansia muciniphila to mucin is O-glycan specific.

Nature communications, 15(1):4582.

The intestinal anaerobic bacterium Akkermansia muciniphila is specialized in the degradation of mucins, which are heavily O-glycosylated proteins that constitute the major components of the mucus lining the intestine. Despite that adhesion to mucins is considered critical for the persistence of A. muciniphila in the human intestinal tract, our knowledge of how this intestinal symbiont recognizes and binds to mucins is still limited. Here, we first show that the mucin-binding properties of A. muciniphila are independent of environmental oxygen concentrations and not abolished by pasteurization. We then dissected the mucin-binding properties of pasteurized A. muciniphila by use of a recently developed cell-based mucin array that enables display of the tandem repeats of human mucins with distinct O-glycan patterns and structures. We found that A. muciniphila recognizes the unsialylated LacNAc (Galβ1-4GlcNAcβ1-R) disaccharide selectively on core2 and core3 O-glycans. This disaccharide epitope is abundantly found on human colonic mucins capped by sialic acids, and we demonstrated that endogenous A. muciniphila neuraminidase activity can uncover the epitope and promote binding. In summary, our study provides insights into the mucin-binding properties important for colonization of a key mucin-foraging bacterium.

RevDate: 2024-05-29

Chang CJ, Liu B, Liebmann JM, et al (2024)

Glaucoma and the Human Microbiome.

Journal of glaucoma pii:00061198-990000000-00413 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: To explore a view of the human microbiome as an interconnected, functional, dynamic system that may be linked to the pathogenesis and progression of glaucoma.

METHOD: A literature review was undertaken that included publications from 1966 to 2023.

RESULTS: Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS) activate toll-like receptors (TLR) and mediate the human immune response. The LPS-TLR4 pathway is a potential avenue for the ocular, gut, and oral microbiomes to interface and/or influence ocular disease. Studies of gut dysbiosis have shown that alterations on the healthy microbiota can predispose the host to immune-mediated inflammatory and neurodegenerative conditions, while oral and ocular surface dysbiosis have been correlated with glaucoma. While developmental exposure to commensal microflora has shown to be necessary for the autoimmune and neurodegenerative responses to elevated intraocular pressure to take place, commensal bacterial products like short chain fatty acids have regulatory effects protective against glaucoma.

SUMMARY: Alterations to human microbiotas have been associated with changes in intestinal permeability, gene regulation, immune cell differentiation, and neural functioning, which may predispose the host to glaucoma. Select microbes have been highlighted for their potential contributions to glaucoma disease progression or protection, raising the potential for microbiota-based treatment modalities. Current topical glaucoma treatments may disrupt the ocular surface microbiota, potentially having ramifications on host health. Further study of the relationships between human microbiome and glaucoma is needed.

RevDate: 2024-05-29

Selma-Royo M, Ricci L, Golzato D, et al (2024)

Draft genome sequences of multiple bacterial strains isolated from human feces.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

Bacterial isolation is necessary for functional and mechanistic analyses, and the increased human microbiome diversity revealed by metagenomic sequencing is expanding the relevant cultivation targets. Here, we report 46 draft genome sequences of bacterial isolates obtained from fecal samples of healthy adults in Trento and Milan (Italy), including strains from seven taxonomically uncharacterized species.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Wang T, Li L, Figeys D, et al (2024)

Pairing metagenomics and metaproteomics to characterize ecological niches and metabolic essentiality of gut microbiomes.

ISME communications, 4(1):ycae063.

The genome of a microorganism encodes its potential functions that can be implemented through expressed proteins. It remains elusive how a protein's selective expression depends on its metabolic essentiality to microbial growth or its ability to claim resources as ecological niches. To reveal a protein's metabolic or ecological role, we developed a computational pipeline, which pairs metagenomics and metaproteomics data to quantify each protein's gene-level and protein-level functional redundancy simultaneously. We first illustrated the idea behind the pipeline using simulated data of a consumer-resource model. We then validated it using real data from human and mouse gut microbiome samples. In particular, we analyzed ABC-type transporters and ribosomal proteins, confirming that the metabolic and ecological roles predicted by our pipeline agree well with prior knowledge. Finally, we performed in vitro cultures of a human gut microbiome sample and investigated how oversupplying various sugars involved in ecological niches influences the community structure and protein abundance. The presented results demonstrate the performance of our pipeline in identifying proteins' metabolic and ecological roles, as well as its potential to help us design nutrient interventions to modulate the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-05-30

Chmiel JA, Stuivenberg GA, Wong JFW, et al (2024)

Predictive Modeling of Urinary Stone Composition Using Machine Learning and Clinical Data: Implications for Treatment Strategies and Pathophysiological Insights.

Journal of endourology [Epub ahead of print].

Purpose: Preventative strategies and surgical treatments for urolithiasis depend on stone composition. However, stone composition is often unknown until the stone is passed or surgically managed. Given that stone composition likely reflects the physiological parameters during its formation, we used clinical data from stone formers to predict stone composition. Materials and Methods: Data on stone composition, 24-hour urine, serum biochemistry, patient demographics, and medical history were prospectively collected from 777 kidney stone patients. Data were used to train gradient boosted machine and logistic regression models to distinguish calcium vs noncalcium, calcium oxalate monohydrate vs dihydrate, and calcium oxalate vs calcium phosphate vs uric acid stone types. Model performance was evaluated using the kappa score, and the influence of each predictor variable was assessed. Results: The calcium vs noncalcium model differentiated stone types with a kappa of 0.5231. The most influential predictors were 24-hour urine calcium, blood urate, and phosphate. The calcium oxalate monohydrate vs dihydrate model is the first of its kind and could discriminate stone types with a kappa of 0.2042. The key predictors were 24-hour urine urea, calcium, and oxalate. The multiclass model had a kappa of 0.3023 and the top predictors were age and 24-hour urine calcium and creatinine. Conclusions: Clinical data can be leveraged with machine learning algorithms to predict stone composition, which may help urologists determine stone type and guide their management plan before stone treatment. Investigating the most influential predictors of each classifier may improve the understanding of key clinical features of urolithiasis and shed light on pathophysiology.

RevDate: 2024-05-28
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Kwon KM, Kim EH, Sim KH, et al (2024)

Phenylacetic acid, an anti-vaginitis metabolite produced by the vaginal symbiotic bacterium Chryseobacterium gleum.

Scientific reports, 14(1):12226.

The human microbiome contains genetic information that regulates metabolic processes in response to host health and disease. While acidic vaginal pH is maintained in normal conditions, the pH level increases in infectious vaginitis. We propose that this change in the vaginal environment triggers the biosynthesis of anti-vaginitis metabolites. Gene expression levels of Chryseobacterium gleum, a vaginal symbiotic bacterium, were found to be affected by pH changes. The distinctive difference in the metabolic profiles between two C. gleum cultures incubated under acidic and neutral pH conditions was suggested to be an anti-vaginitis molecule, which was identified as phenylacetic acid (PAA) by spectroscopic data analysis. The antimicrobial activity of PAA was evaluated in vitro, showing greater toxicity toward Gardnerella vaginalis and Candida albicans, two major vaginal pathogens, relative to commensal Lactobacillus spp. The activation of myeloperoxidase, prostaglandin E2, and nuclear factor-κB, and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 were reduced by an intravaginal administration of PAA in the vaginitis mouse model. In addition, PAA displayed the downregulation of mast cell activation. Therefore, PAA was suggested to be a messenger molecule that mediates interactions between the human microbiome and vaginal health.

RevDate: 2024-05-28
CmpDate: 2024-05-28

Mahoney D (2024)

The Role of the Human Microbiome in Epithelial Ovarian Cancer.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1452:97-105.

Ovarian cancer is the fifth-leading cause of cancer deaths among women due to the absence of available screening methods to identify early disease. Thus, prevention and early disease detection investigations are of high priority, surrounding a critical window of opportunity to better understand important pathogenic mechanisms of disease progression. Microorganisms modulate molecular interactions in humans that can influence states of health and disease, including ovarian cancer. While the mechanisms of infectious microbial invasion that trigger the immune-inflammatory axis are well studied in cancer research, the complex interactions that promote the transition of noninfectious healthy microbes to pathobiont expansion are less understood. As traditional research has focused on the influences of infectious pathogens on ovarian cancer development and progression, the impact of noninfectious microbes has gained scientific attention. The objective of this chapter is to summarize current evidence on the role of microbiota in epithelial ovarian cancer throughout disease.

RevDate: 2024-05-25

Quesada S, Rosso AD, Mascardi F, et al (2024)

Integrative analysis of systemic lupus erythematosus biomarkers: Role of fecal hsa-mir-223-3p and gut microbiota in transkingdom dynamics.

Molecular immunology, 171:77-92 pii:S0161-5890(24)00095-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) involves a florid set of clinical manifestations whose autoreactive origin is characterized by an overactivation of the immune system and the production of a large number of autoantibodies. Because it is a complex pathology with an inflammatory component, its pathogenesis is not yet fully understood, assuming both genetic and environmental predisposing factors. Currently, it is known that the role of the human microbiome is crucial in maintaining the transkingdom balance between commensal microorganisms and the immune system. In the present work we study the intestinal microbiota of Argentine patients with different stages of SLE receiving or not different treatments. Microbiota composition and fecal miRNAs were assessed by 16 S sequencing and qPCR. hsa-miR-223-3p, a miRNA involved in several inflammation regulation pathways, was found underexpressed in SLE patients without immunosuppressive treatment. In terms of microbiota there were clear differences in population structure (Weighted and Unweighted Unifrac distances, p-value <0.05) and core microbiome between cases and controls. In addition, Collinsella, Bifidobacterium, Streptococcus genera and aromatics degradation metabolisms were overrepresented in the SLE group. Medical treatment was also determinant as several microbial metabolic pathways were influenced by immunosuppressive therapy. Particularly, allantoin degradation metabolism was differentially expressed in the group of patients receiving immunosuppressants. Finally, we performed a logistic regression model (LASSO: least absolute shrinkage and selection operator) considering the expression levels of the fecal hsa-miR223-3p; the core microbiota; the differentially abundant bacterial taxa and the differentially abundant metabolic pathways (p<0.05). The model predicted that SLE patients could be associated with greater relative abundance of the formaldehyde oxidation pathway (RUMP_PWY). On the contrary, the preponderance of the ketodeoxyoctonate (Kdo) biosynthesis and activation route (PWY_1269) and the genera Lachnospiraceae_UCG_004, Lachnospira, Victivallis and UCG_003 (genus belonging to the family Oscillospiraceae of the class Clostridia) were associated with a control phenotype. Overall, the present work could contribute to the development of integral diagnostic tools for the comprehensive phenotyping of patients with SLE. In this sense, studying the commensal microbial profile and possible pathobionts associated with SLE in our population proposes more effective and precise strategies to explore possible treatments based on the microbiota of SLE patients.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Putrino A, Marinelli E, Galeotti A, et al (2024)

A Journey into the Evolution of Human Host-Oral Microbiome Relationship through Ancient Dental Calculus: A Scoping Review.

Microorganisms, 12(5):.

One of the most promising areas of research in palaeomicrobiology is the study of the human microbiome. In particular, ancient dental calculus helps to reconstruct a substantial share of oral microbiome composition by mapping together human evolution with its state of health/oral disease. This review aims to trace microbial characteristics in ancient dental calculus to describe the evolution of the human host-oral microbiome relationship in oral health or disease in children and adults. Following the PRISMA-Extension for Scoping Reviews guidelines, the main scientific databases (PubMed, Scopus, Lilacs, Cochrane Library) have been drawn upon. Eligibility criteria were established, and all the data collected on a purpose-oriented collection form were analysed descriptively. From the initial 340 records, only 19 studies were deemed comprehensive enough for the purpose of this review. The knowledge of the composition of ancient oral microbiomes has broadened over the past few years thanks to increasingly well-performing decontamination protocols and additional analytical avenues. Above all, metagenomic sequencing, also implemented by state-of-the-art bioinformatics tools, allows for the determination of the qualitative-quantitative composition of microbial species associated with health status and caries/periodontal disease. Some microbial species, especially periodontal pathogens, do not appear to have changed in history, while others that support caries disease or oral health could be connected to human evolution through lifestyle and environmental contributing factors.

RevDate: 2024-05-27

Koo H, CD Morrow (2024)

Bacteroidales-Specific Antimicrobial Genes Can Influence the Selection of the Dominant Fecal Strain of Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides uniformis from the Gastrointestinal Tract Microbial Community.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 14(5):.

Bacteroides vulgatus and Bacteroides uniformis are known to be abundant in the human fecal microbial community. Although these strains typically remain stable over time in humans, disruption of this microbial community following antibiotics resulted in the transient change to new strains suggesting that a complex, dynamic strain community exists in humans. To further study the selection of dominant fecal microbial strains from the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) community, we analyzed three longitudinal metagenomic sequencing data sets using BLAST+ to identify genes encoding Bacteroidales-specific antimicrobial proteins (BSAP) that have known functions to restrict species-specific replication of B. uniformis (BSAP-2) or B. vulgatus (BSAP-3) and have been postulated to provide a competitive advantage in microbial communities. In the HMP (Human Microbiome Project) data set, we found fecal samples from individuals had B. vulgatus or B. uniformis with either complete or deleted BSAP genes that did not change over time. We also examined fecal samples from two separate longitudinal data sets of individuals who had been given either single or multiple antibiotics. The BSAP gene pattern from most individuals given either single or multiple antibiotics recovered to be the same as the pre-antibiotic strain. However, in a few individuals, we found incomplete BSAP-3 genes at early times during the recovery that were replaced by B. vulgatus with the complete BSAP-3 gene, consistent with the function of the BSAP to specifically restrict Bacteroides spp. The results of these studies provide insights into the fluxes that occur in the Bacteroides spp. GIT community following perturbation and the dynamics of the selection of a dominant fecal strain of Bacteroides spp.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Olteanu G, Ciucă-Pană MA, Busnatu ȘS, et al (2024)

Unraveling the Microbiome-Human Body Axis: A Comprehensive Examination of Therapeutic Strategies, Interactions and Implications.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(10):.

This review scrutinizes the intricate interplay between the microbiome and the human body, exploring its multifaceted dimensions and far-reaching implications. The human microbiome, comprising diverse microbial communities inhabiting various anatomical niches, is increasingly recognized as a critical determinant of human health and disease. Through an extensive examination of current research, this review elucidates the dynamic interactions between the microbiome and host physiology across multiple organ systems. Key topics include the establishment and maintenance of microbiota diversity, the influence of host factors on microbial composition, and the bidirectional communication pathways between microbiota and host cells. Furthermore, we delve into the functional implications of microbiome dysbiosis in disease states, emphasizing its role in shaping immune responses, metabolic processes, and neurological functions. Additionally, this review discusses emerging therapeutic strategies aimed at modulating the microbiome to restore host-microbe homeostasis and promote health. Microbiota fecal transplantation represents a groundbreaking therapeutic approach in the management of dysbiosis-related diseases, offering a promising avenue for restoring microbial balance within the gut ecosystem. This innovative therapy involves the transfer of fecal microbiota from a healthy donor to an individual suffering from dysbiosis, aiming to replenish beneficial microbial populations and mitigate pathological imbalances. By synthesizing findings from diverse fields, this review offers valuable insights into the complex relationship between the microbiome and the human body, highlighting avenues for future research and clinical interventions.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-25

Pérez-Pérez ME, Nieto-Torres E, Bollain-Y-Goytia JJ, et al (2024)

Protein Citrullination by Peptidyl Arginine Deiminase/Arginine Deiminase Homologs in Members of the Human Microbiota and Its Recognition by Anti-Citrullinated Protein Antibodies.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(10): pii:ijms25105192.

The human microbiome exists throughout the body, and it is essential for maintaining various physiological processes, including immunity, and dysbiotic events, which are associated with autoimmunity. Peptidylarginine deiminase (PAD) enzymes can citrullinate self-proteins related to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) that induce the production of anti-citrullinated protein antibodies (ACPAs) and lead to inflammation and joint damage. The present investigation was carried out to demonstrate the expression of homologs of PADs or arginine deiminases (ADs) and citrullinated proteins in members of the human microbiota. To achieve the objective, we used 17 microbial strains and specific polyclonal antibodies (pAbs) of the synthetic peptide derived from residues 100-200 of human PAD2 (anti-PAD2 pAb), and the recombinant fragment of amino acids 326 and 611 of human PAD4 (anti-PAD4 pAb), a human anti-citrulline pAb, and affinity ACPAs of an RA patient. Western blot (WB), enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), elution, and a test with Griess reagent were used. This is a cross-sectional case-control study on patients diagnosed with RA and control subjects. Inferential statistics were applied using the non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis test and Mann-Whitney U test generated in the SPSS program. Some members of phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria harbor homologs of PADs/ADs and citrullinated antigens that are reactive to the ACPAs of RA patients. Microbial citrullinome and homolog enzymes of PADs/ADs are extensive in the human microbiome and are involved in the production of ACPAs. Our findings suggest a molecular link between microorganisms of a dysbiotic microbiota and RA pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Filippo D, Guardone L, Listorti V, et al (2024)

Microbiome in cancer: A comparative analysis between humans and dogs.

Veterinary journal (London, England : 1997) pii:S1090-0233(24)00084-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Cancer is a major cause of death in humans and animals worldwide. While cancer survival rates have increased over recent decades, further research to identify risk factors for the onset and progression of disease, and safe and highly efficacious treatments, is needed. Spontaneous tumours in pets represent an excellent model for neoplastic disease in humans. In this regard, dogs are an interesting species, as the divergence between the dog and human genome is low, humans and dogs have important similarities in the development and functioning of the immune system, and both species often share the same physical environment. There is also a higher homology between the canine and human microbiome than murine model. This review aims to describe and organize recently published information on canine microbiome assemblages and their relationship with the onset and progression of colorectal cancer, breast cancer and lymphoma, and to compare this with human disease. In both species, dysbiosis can induce variations in the gut microbiota that strongly influence shifts in status between health and disease. This can produce an inflammatory state, potentially leading to neoplasia, especially in the intestine, thus supporting canine studies in comparative oncology. Intestinal dysbiosis can also alter the efficacy and side effects of cancer treatments. Fewer published studies are available on changes in the relevant microbiomes in canine lymphoma and mammary cancer, and further research in this area could improve our understanding of the role of microbiota in the development of these cancers.

RevDate: 2024-05-24

Mishra AK, Mahmud I, Lorenzi PL, et al (2024)

TARO: tree-aggregated factor regression for microbiome data integration.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:7681879 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Although the human microbiome plays a key role in health and disease, the biological mechanisms underlying the interaction between the microbiome and its host are incompletely understood. Integration with other molecular profiling data offers an opportunity to characterize the role of the microbiome and elucidate therapeutic targets. However, this remains challenging to the high dimensionality, compositionality, and rare features found in microbiome profiling data. These challenges necessitate the use of methods that can achieve structured sparsity in learning cross-platform association patterns.

RESULTS: We propose Tree-Aggregated factor RegressiOn (TARO) for the integration of microbiome and metabolomic data. We leverage information on the taxonomic tree structure to flexibly aggregate rare features. We demonstrate through simulation studies that TARO accurately recovers a low-rank coefficient matrix and identifies relevant features. We applied TARO to microbiome and metabolomic profiles gathered from subjects being screened for colorectal cancer to understand how gut microrganisms shape intestinal metabolite abundances.

The R package TARO implementing the proposed methods is available online at https://github.com/amishra-stats/taro-package.

RevDate: 2024-05-25
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

McKee K, Bassis CM, Golob J, et al (2024)

Host factors are associated with vaginal microbiome structure in pregnancy in the ECHO Cohort Consortium.

Scientific reports, 14(1):11798.

Using pooled vaginal microbiota data from pregnancy cohorts (N = 683 participants) in the Environmental influences on Child Health Outcomes (ECHO) Program, we analyzed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequences to identify clinical and demographic host factors that associate with vaginal microbiota structure in pregnancy both within and across diverse cohorts. Using PERMANOVA models, we assessed factors associated with vaginal community structure in pregnancy, examined whether host factors were conserved across populations, and tested the independent and combined effects of host factors on vaginal community state types (CSTs) using multinomial logistic regression models. Demographic and social factors explained a larger amount of variation in the vaginal microbiome in pregnancy than clinical factors. After adjustment, lower education, rather than self-identified race, remained a robust predictor of L. iners dominant (CST III) and diverse (CST IV) (OR = 8.44, 95% CI = 4.06-17.6 and OR = 4.18, 95% CI = 1.88-9.26, respectively). In random forest models, we identified specific taxonomic features of host factors, particularly urogenital pathogens associated with pregnancy complications (Aerococcus christensenii and Gardnerella spp.) among other facultative anaerobes and key markers of community instability (L. iners). Sociodemographic factors were robustly associated with vaginal microbiota structure in pregnancy and should be considered as sources of variation in human microbiome studies.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Mangalea MR, Halpin AL, Haile M, et al (2024)

Decolonization and Pathogen Reduction Approaches to Prevent Antimicrobial Resistance and Healthcare-Associated Infections.

Emerging infectious diseases, 30(6):1069-1076.

Antimicrobial resistance in healthcare-associated bacterial pathogens and the infections they cause are major public health threats affecting nearly all healthcare facilities. Antimicrobial-resistant bacterial infections can occur when colonizing pathogenic bacteria that normally make up a small fraction of the human microbiota increase in number in response to clinical perturbations. Such infections are especially likely when pathogens are resistant to the collateral effects of antimicrobial agents that disrupt the human microbiome, resulting in loss of colonization resistance, a key host defense. Pathogen reduction is an emerging strategy to prevent transmission of, and infection with, antimicrobial-resistant healthcare-associated pathogens. We describe the basis for pathogen reduction as an overall prevention strategy, the evidence for its effectiveness, and the role of the human microbiome in colonization resistance that also reduces the risk for infection once colonized. In addition, we explore ideal attributes of current and future pathogen-reducing approaches.

RevDate: 2024-05-24
CmpDate: 2024-05-23

Scanu M, Toto F, Petito V, et al (2024)

An integrative multi-omic analysis defines gut microbiota, mycobiota, and metabolic fingerprints in ulcerative colitis patients.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1366192.

BACKGROUND: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a multifactorial chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) that affects the large intestine with superficial mucosal inflammation. A dysbiotic gut microbial profile has been associated with UC. Our study aimed to characterize the UC gut bacterial, fungal, and metabolic fingerprints by omic approaches.

METHODS: The 16S rRNA- and ITS2-based metataxonomics and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry/solid phase microextraction (GC-MS/SPME) metabolomic analysis were performed on stool samples of 53 UC patients and 37 healthy subjects (CTRL). Univariate and multivariate approaches were applied to separated and integrated omic data, to define microbiota, mycobiota, and metabolic signatures in UC. The interaction between gut bacteria and fungi was investigated by network analysis.

RESULTS: In the UC cohort, we reported the increase of Streptococcus, Bifidobacterium, Enterobacteriaceae, TM7-3, Granulicatella, Peptostreptococcus, Lactobacillus, Veillonella, Enterococcus, Peptoniphilus, Gemellaceae, and phenylethyl alcohol; and we also reported the decrease of Akkermansia; Ruminococcaceae; Ruminococcus; Gemmiger; Methanobrevibacter; Oscillospira; Coprococus; Christensenellaceae; Clavispora; Vishniacozyma; Quambalaria; hexadecane; cyclopentadecane; 5-hepten-2-ol, 6 methyl; 3-carene; caryophyllene; p-Cresol; 2-butenal; indole, 3-methyl-; 6-methyl-3,5-heptadiene-2-one; 5-octadecene; and 5-hepten-2-one, 6 methyl. The integration of the multi-omic data confirmed the presence of a distinctive bacterial, fungal, and metabolic fingerprint in UC gut microbiota. Moreover, the network analysis highlighted bacterial and fungal synergistic and/or divergent interkingdom interactions.

CONCLUSION: In this study, we identified intestinal bacterial, fungal, and metabolic UC-associated biomarkers. Furthermore, evidence on the relationships between bacterial and fungal ecosystems provides a comprehensive perspective on intestinal dysbiosis and ecological interactions between microorganisms in the framework of UC.

RevDate: 2024-05-22

Chen Z, Lin K, H Yu (2024)

Reply to Qiao et al.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-22

Dorst M, Zeevenhooven N, Wilding R, et al (2024)

FAIR compliant database development for human microbiome data samples.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1384809.

INTRODUCTION: Sharing microbiome data among researchers fosters new innovations and reduces cost for research. Practically, this means that the (meta)data will have to be standardized, transparent and readily available for researchers. The microbiome data and associated metadata will then be described with regards to composition and origin, in order to maximize the possibilities for application in various contexts of research. Here, we propose a set of tools and protocols to develop a real-time FAIR (Findable. Accessible, Interoperable and Reusable) compliant database for the handling and storage of human microbiome and host-associated data.

METHODS: The conflicts arising from privacy laws with respect to metadata, possible human genome sequences in the metagenome shotgun data and FAIR implementations are discussed. Alternate pathways for achieving compliance in such conflicts are analyzed. Sample traceable and sensitive microbiome data, such as DNA sequences or geolocalized metadata are identified, and the role of the GDPR (General Data Protection Regulation) data regulations are considered. For the construction of the database, procedures have been realized to make data FAIR compliant, while preserving privacy of the participants providing the data.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: An open-source development platform, Supabase, was used to implement the microbiome database. Researchers can deploy this real-time database to access, upload, download and interact with human microbiome data in a FAIR complaint manner. In addition, a large language model (LLM) powered by ChatGPT is developed and deployed to enable knowledge dissemination and non-expert usage of the database.

RevDate: 2024-05-23
CmpDate: 2024-05-21

Chaudhary PP, Kaur M, IA Myles (2024)

Does "all disease begin in the gut"? The gut-organ cross talk in the microbiome.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology, 108(1):339.

The human microbiome, a diverse ecosystem of microorganisms within the body, plays pivotal roles in health and disease. This review explores site-specific microbiomes, their role in maintaining health, and strategies for their upkeep, focusing on oral, lung, vaginal, skin, and gut microbiota, and their systemic connections. Understanding the intricate relationships between these microbial communities is crucial for unraveling mechanisms underlying human health. Recent research highlights bidirectional communication between the gut and distant microbiome sites, influencing immune function, metabolism, and disease susceptibility. Alterations in one microbiome can impact others, emphasizing their interconnectedness and collective influence on human physiology. The therapeutic potential of gut microbiota in modulating distant microbiomes offers promising avenues for interventions targeting various disorders. Through interdisciplinary collaboration and technological advancements, we can harness the power of the microbiome to revolutionize healthcare, emphasizing microbiome-centric approaches to promote holistic well-being while identifying areas for future research.

RevDate: 2024-05-21

Wang P, Duan F, Lv Y, et al (2024)

Long- and Intermediate-Term Ambient Particulate Pollution Is Associated with Increased Osteoarthritis Risk: A Population-Based Prospective Analysis.

Environmental science & technology [Epub ahead of print].

Recent studies found the intrusion and retention of exogenous fine particles into joints, but epidemiological data for long- and intermediate-term exposure associations are scare. Here, all urban working, retired employee, and rural residents (16.78 million) in Beijing from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2019 were included to investigate the effects of long- and intermediate-term ambient particulate exposure on development of osteoarthritis. We identified 1,742,067 participants as first-visit patients with osteoarthritis. For each interquartile range increase in annual PM2.5 (23.32 μg/m[3]) and PM10 (23.92 μg/m[3]) exposure concentration, the pooled hazard ratios were respectively 1.238 (95% CI: 1.228, 1.249) and 1.178 (95% CI: 1.168, 1.189) for first osteoarthritis outpatient visits. Moreover, age at first osteoarthritis outpatient visits significantly decreased by 4.52 (95% CI: 3.45 to 5.40) days per μg/m[3] for annual PM2.5 exposure at below 67.85 μg/m[3]. Finally, among the six constituents analyzed, black carbon appears to be the most important component associated with the association between PM2.5 exposure and the three osteoarthritis-related outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-20

Kalluçi E, Preni B, Dhamo X, et al (2024)

A comparative study of supervised and unsupervised machine learning algorithms applied to human microbiome.

La Clinica terapeutica, 175(3):98-116.

BACKGROUND: The human microbiome, consisting of diverse bacte-rial, fungal, protozoan and viral species, exerts a profound influence on various physiological processes and disease susceptibility. However, the complexity of microbiome data has presented significant challenges in the analysis and interpretation of these intricate datasets, leading to the development of specialized software that employs machine learning algorithms for these aims.

METHODS: In this paper, we analyze raw data taken from 16S rRNA gene sequencing from three studies, including stool samples from healthy control, patients with adenoma, and patients with colorectal cancer. Firstly, we use network-based methods to reduce dimensions of the dataset and consider only the most important features. In addition, we employ supervised machine learning algorithms to make prediction.

RESULTS: Results show that graph-based techniques reduces dimen-sion from 255 up to 78 features with modularity score 0.73 based on different centrality measures. On the other hand, projection methods (non-negative matrix factorization and principal component analysis) reduce dimensions to 7 features. Furthermore, we apply supervised machine learning algorithms on the most important features obtained from centrality measures and on the ones obtained from projection methods, founding that the evaluation metrics have approximately the same scores when applying the algorithms on the entire dataset, on 78 feature and on 7 features.

CONCLUSIONS: This study demonstrates the efficacy of graph-based and projection methods in the interpretation for 16S rRNA gene sequencing data. Supervised machine learning on refined features from both approaches yields comparable predictive performance, emphasizing specific microbial features-bacteroides, prevotella, fusobacterium, lysinibacillus, blautia, sphingomonas, and faecalibacterium-as key in predicting patient conditions from raw data.

RevDate: 2024-05-14

de Moraes DC, Rollin-Pinheiro R, Pinto MDCFR, et al (2024)

Antifungal activity of β-lapachone against a fluconazole-resistant Candida auris strain.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

Candida spp. can be found in the human microbiome. However, immunocompromised patients are likely to develop invasive Candida infections, with mortality rates higher than 50%. The discovery of C. auris, a species that rapidly acquire antifungal resistance, increased the concern about Candida infections. The limited number of antifungal agents and the high incidence of resistance to them make imperative the development of new antifungal drugs. β-lapachone is a biological active naphthoquinone that displays antifungal activity against C. albicans and C. glabrata. The aim of this study was to evaluate if this substance affects C. auris growth and elucidate its mechanism of action. A fluconazole-resistant C. auris isolate was used in this study. The antifungal activity of β-lapachone was determined through microbroth dilution assays, and its mechanism of action was evaluated using fluorescent probes. Interaction with fluconazole and amphotericin B was assessed by disk diffusion assay and checkerboard. β-lapachone inhibited planktonic C. auris cell growth by 92.7%, biofilm formation by 84.9%, and decrease the metabolism of preformed biofilms by 87.1% at 100 µg/ml. At 100 µg/ml, reductions of 30% and 59% of Calcofluor White and Nile red fluorescences were observed, indicating that β-lapachone affects cell wall chitin and neutral lipids content, respectively. Also, the ratio 590 nm/529 nm of JC-1 decreased 52%, showing that the compound affects mitochondria. No synergism was observed between β-lapachone and fluconazole or amphotericin B. Data show that β-lapachone may be a promising candidate to be used as monotherapy to treat C. auris resistant infections.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Han S, Guiberson ER, Li Y, et al (2024)

High-throughput identification of gut microbiome-dependent metabolites.

Nature protocols [Epub ahead of print].

A significant hurdle that has limited progress in microbiome science has been identifying and studying the diverse set of metabolites produced by gut microbes. Gut microbial metabolism produces thousands of difficult-to-identify metabolites, which present a challenge to study their roles in host biology. In recent years, mass spectrometry-based metabolomics has become one of the core technologies for identifying small metabolites. However, metabolomics expertise, ranging from sample preparation to instrument use and data analysis, is often lacking in academic labs. Most targeted metabolomics methods provide high levels of sensitivity and quantification, while they are limited to a panel of predefined molecules that may not be informative to microbiome-focused studies. Here we have developed a gut microbe-focused and wide-spectrum metabolomic protocol using liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry and bioinformatic analysis. This protocol enables users to carry out experiments from sample collection to data analysis, only requiring access to a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry instrument, which is often available at local core facilities. By applying this protocol to samples containing human gut microbial metabolites, spanning from culture supernatant to human biospecimens, our approach enables high-confidence identification of >800 metabolites that can serve as candidate mediators of microbe-host interactions. We expect this protocol will lower the barrier to tracking gut bacterial metabolism in vitro and in mammalian hosts, propelling hypothesis-driven mechanistic studies and accelerating our understanding of the gut microbiome at the chemical level.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Paone P, Latousakis D, Terrasi R, et al (2024)

Human milk oligosaccharide 2'-fucosyllactose protects against high-fat diet-induced obesity by changing intestinal mucus production, composition and degradation linked to changes in gut microbiota and faecal proteome profiles in mice.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2023-330301 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To decipher the mechanisms by which the major human milk oligosaccharide (HMO), 2'-fucosyllactose (2'FL), can affect body weight and fat mass gain on high-fat diet (HFD) feeding in mice. We wanted to elucidate whether 2'FL metabolic effects are linked with changes in intestinal mucus production and secretion, mucin glycosylation and degradation, as well as with the modulation of the gut microbiota, faecal proteome and endocannabinoid (eCB) system.

RESULTS: 2'FL supplementation reduced HFD-induced obesity and glucose intolerance. These effects were accompanied by several changes in the intestinal mucus layer, including mucus production and composition, and gene expression of secreted and transmembrane mucins, glycosyltransferases and genes involved in mucus secretion. In addition, 2'FL increased bacterial glycosyl hydrolases involved in mucin glycan degradation. These changes were linked to a significant increase and predominance of bacterial genera Akkermansia and Bacteroides, different faecal proteome profile (with an upregulation of proteins involved in carbon, amino acids and fat metabolism and a downregulation of proteins involved in protein digestion and absorption) and, finally, to changes in the eCB system. We also investigated faecal proteomes from lean and obese humans and found similar changes observed comparing lean and obese mice.

CONCLUSION: Our results show that the HMO 2'FL influences host metabolism by modulating the mucus layer, gut microbiota and eCB system and propose the mucus layer as a new potential target for the prevention of obesity and related disorders.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Long AR, Mortara EL, Mendoza BN, et al (2024)

Sequence similarity network analysis of drug- and dye-modifying azoreductase enzymes found in the human gut microbiome.

Archives of biochemistry and biophysics pii:S0003-9861(24)00144-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Drug metabolism by human gut microbes is often exemplified by azo bond reduction in the anticolitic prodrug sulfasalazine. Azoreductase activity is often found in incubations with cell cultures or ex vivo gut microbiome samples and contributes to the xenobiotic metabolism of drugs and food additives. Applying metagenomic studies to personalized medicine requires knowledge of the genes responsible for sulfasalazine and other drug metabolism, and candidate genes and proteins for drug modifications are understudied. A representative gut-abundant azoreductase from Anaerotignum lactatifermentan DSM 14214 efficiently reduces sulfasalazine and another drug, phenazopyridine, but could not reduce all azo-bonded drugs in this class. We used enzyme kinetics to characterize this enzyme for its NADH-dependent reduction of these drugs and food additives and performed computational docking to provide the groundwork for understanding substrate specificity in this family. We performed an analysis of the Flavodoxin-like fold InterPro family (IPR003680) by computing a sequence similarity network to classify distinct subgroups of the family and then performed chemically-guided functional profiling to identify proteins that are abundant in the NIH Human Microbiome Project dataset. This strategy aims to reduce the number of unique azoreductases needed to characterize one protein family in the diverse set of potential drug- and dye-modifying activities found in the human gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-13

Pang Z, Korpela R, H Vapaatalo (2024)

Local aldosterone release and CYP11B2 expression in response to angiotensin peptides, glucose, and potassium - an ex vivo study on murine colon.

Journal of physiology and pharmacology : an official journal of the Polish Physiological Society, 75(2):185-194.

We have previously described local aldosterone synthesis in mouse colon. In the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS), angiotensin II (Ang II) peptide is the physiological factor which stimulates aldosterone synthesis in the adrenal glands. We have recently demonstrated that Ang II stimulates aldosterone synthesis also in mouse colon. Here, we conducted a 75-min ex vivo incubation of murine colonic tissue and evaluated the effects of three other Ang peptides, Ang I (1 μM), Ang III (0.1 μM) and Ang (1-7) (0.1 μM) on aldosterone synthesis. As a possible mechanism, their effects on tissue levels of the rate-limiting enzyme, aldosterone synthase (CYP11B2) were measured by ELISA and Western blot. Ang III significantly elevated the amount of tissue CYP11B2 protein in colon. The values of released aldosterone in colon tissue incubation were increased over the control in the presence of Ang I, II or III, however, being statistically non-significant. In Western blot analysis, the values of tissue CYP11B2 protein content were elevated by Ang I and II. Ang (1-7) alone in colon did not influence CYP11B2 protein levels in the incubation experiment but showed higher aldosterone release without statistical significance. Ang (1-7) showed an antagonistic effect towards Ang II in release of aldosterone in adrenal gland. An overall estimation of a single peptide (three measured variables), the results were always in an increasing direction. The responses of aldosterone synthesis to high levels of glucose (44 mM) and potassium (18.8 mM) as physiological stimulators in vivo were investigated in the colon incubation. Glucose, equal to four times the concentration of the control buffer in the incubation, showed higher values of aldosterone release in colon than control without statistical significance similarly to the effect seen in adrenal glands. Increasing the concentration of potassium in the incubation buffer exerted no effect on colonic aldosterone production. Intriguingly, no correlation was found between aldosterone release and the tissue CYP11B2 protein content in colon. In summary, the response of colonic aldosterone synthesis to different Ang peptides resembles, but is not identical to, the situation in the adrenal glands.

RevDate: 2024-05-12

Ma Y, Zhao Y, X Zhang (2024)

Factors Affecting Neutrophil Functions During Sepsis: Human Microbiome and Epigenetics.

Journal of leukocyte biology pii:7670684 [Epub ahead of print].

Sepsis is a severe disease that occurs when the body's immune system reacts excessively to infection. The body's response, which includes an intense anti-bacterial reaction, can damage its tissues and organs. Neutrophils are the major components of white blood cells in circulation and play a vital role in innate immunity while fighting against infections, and are considered a feature determining sepsis classification. There's a plethora of basic research detailing neutrophil functioning, among which, the study of neutrophil extracellular traps (NETs) is providing novel insights into mechanisms and treatments of sepsis. This review explores their functions, dysfunctions, and influences in the context of sepsis. The interplay between neutrophils and the human microbiome and the impact of DNA methylation on neutrophil function in sepsis are crucial areas of study. The interaction between neutrophils and the human microbiome is complex, particularly in the context of sepsis where dysbiosis may occur. We highlight the importance of deciphering neutrophil's functional alterations and their epigenetic features in sepsis because it is critical for defining sepsis endotypes and opening up the possibility for novel diagnostic methods and therapy. Specifically, epigenetic signatures are pivotal since they will provide a novel implication for sepsis diagnostic method when used in combination with the cell-free DNA (cfDNA). Research is exploring how specific patterns of DNA methylation in neutrophils, detectable in cfDNA, could serve as biomarkers for the early detection of sepsis.

RevDate: 2024-05-13
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Luiskari L, Lindén J, Lehto M, et al (2024)

Ketogenic Diet Protects from Experimental Colitis in a Mouse Model Regardless of Dietary Fat Source.

Nutrients, 16(9):.

While ketogenic diets (KDs) may have potential as adjunct treatments for gastrointestinal diseases, there is little knowledge on how the fat source of these diets impacts intestinal health. The objective of this study was to investigate how the source of dietary fat of KD influences experimental colitis. We fed nine-week-old male C57BL/6J mice (n = 36) with a low-fat control diet or KD high either in saturated fatty acids (SFA-KD) or polyunsaturated linoleic acid (LA-KD) for four weeks and then induced colitis with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). To compare the diets, we analyzed macroscopic and histological changes in the colon, intestinal permeability to fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran (FITC-dextran), and the colonic expression of tight junction proteins and inflammatory markers. While the effects were more pronounced with LA-KD, both KDs markedly alleviated DSS-induced histological lesions. LA-KD prevented inflammation-related weight loss and the shortening of the colon, as well as preserved Il1b and Tnf expression at a healthy level. Despite no significant between-group differences in permeability to FITC-dextran, LA-KD mitigated changes in tight junction protein expression. Thus, KDs may have preventive potential against intestinal inflammation, with the level of the effect being dependent on the dietary fat source.

RevDate: 2024-05-10

Richter D, J Piel (2024)

Novel types of RiPP-modifying enzymes.

Current opinion in chemical biology, 80:102463 pii:S1367-5931(24)00039-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Novel discoveries in natural product biosynthesis reveal hidden bioactive compounds and expand our knowledge in enzymology. Ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) are a rapidly growing class of natural products featuring diverse non-canonical amino acids introduced by maturation enzymes as a class-defining characteristic. Underexplored RiPP sources, such as the human microbiome, the oceans, uncultured microorganisms, and plants are rich hunting grounds for novel enzymology. Unusual α- and β-amino acids, peptide cleavages, lipidations, diverse macrocyclizations, and other features expand the range of chemical groups that are installed in RiPPs by often promiscuous enzymes. This review highlights the search for novelty in RiPP enzymology in the past two years, with respect to the discovery of new biochemical modifications but also towards novel applications.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Nicholson LK, Kofonow JM, Robertson CE, et al (2024)

Clinical and Microbial Determinants of Upper Respiratory Colonization with Streptococcus pneumoniae and Native Microbiota in People with HIV-1 and Control Adults.

The Journal of infectious diseases pii:7667308 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The substantial risk for respiratory and invasive infections with Streptococcus pneumoniae (Spn) among people with HIV-1 (PWH) begins with asymptomatic colonization. The frequency of Spn colonization among U.S. adults with and without HIV-1 infection is not well-characterized in the conjugate vaccine era.

METHODS: We determined Spn colonization frequency by culture and specific lytA gene QPCR and microbiota profile by 16S rRNA gene sequencing in nasopharyngeal (NP) and oropharyngeal (OP) DNA from 138 PWH and 93 control adults and associated clinical characteristics.

RESULTS: The frequencies of Spn colonization among PWH and controls did not differ (11.6% vs 8.6%, respectively; p=0.46) using combined results of culture and PCR, independent of vaccination or behavioral risks. PWH showed altered microbiota composition (i.e., beta-diversity. NP: p=0.0028, OP: p=0.0098), decreased alpha-diversity (NP: p=0.024, OP: p=0.0045), and differences in the relative abundance of multiple bacterial taxa. Spn colonization was associated with altered beta-diversity in the NP (p=0.011), but not OP (p=0.21).

CONCLUSIONS: Despite widespread conjugate vaccine and antiretroviral use, frequencies of Spn colonization among PWH and controls are currently consistent with those reported in the pre-conjugate era. The persistently increased risk of pneumococcal disease despite ART may relate to behavioral and immunologic variables other than colonization.

RevDate: 2024-05-11
CmpDate: 2024-05-08

Akouris PP, Stuivenberg GA, Chmiel JA, et al (2024)

Ethanolamine enhances adhesion, promotes microcompartment formation, and modulates gene expression in Levilactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2350778.

Ethanolamine is an abundant compound in the gastrointestinal tract and a valuable source of carbon and nitrogen for pathogenic bacteria harboring ethanolamine utilization (eut) genes. Eut-positive pathogens can consume free ethanolamine to outcompete commensal microbes, which often lack eut genes, and establish infection. Ethanolamine can also act as a host recognition signal for eut-positive pathogens to upregulate virulence genes during colonization. Therefore, reducing free ethanolamine titers may represent a novel approach to preventing infection by eut-positive pathogens. Interestingly, the commensal microorganism Levilactobacillus brevis ATCC 14869 was found to encode over 18 eut genes within its genome. This led us to hypothesize that L. brevis can compete with eut-positive pathogens by clearing free ethanolamine from the environment. Our results demonstrate that despite being unable to metabolize ethanolamine under most conditions, L. brevis ATCC 14869 responds to the compound by increasing the expression of genes encoding proteins involved in microcompartment formation and adhesion to the intestinal epithelial barrier. The improved intestinal adhesion of L. brevis in the presence of ethanolamine also enhanced the exclusion of eut-positive pathogens from adhering to intestinal epithelial cells. These findings support further studies to test whether L. brevis ATCC 14869 can counter enteric pathogens and prevent or reduce the severity of infections. Overall, the metabolic capabilities of L. brevis ATCC 14869 offer a unique opportunity to add to the armamentarium of antimicrobial therapies as well as our understanding of the mechanisms used by beneficial microbes to sense and adapt to host microenvironments.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Yadegar A, Bar-Yoseph H, Monaghan TM, et al (2024)

Fecal microbiota transplantation: current challenges and future landscapes.

Clinical microbiology reviews [Epub ahead of print].

SUMMARYGiven the importance of gut microbial homeostasis in maintaining health, there has been considerable interest in developing innovative therapeutic strategies for restoring gut microbiota. One such approach, fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT), is the main "whole gut microbiome replacement" strategy and has been integrated into clinical practice guidelines for treating recurrent Clostridioides difficile infection (rCDI). Furthermore, the potential application of FMT in other indications such as inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), metabolic syndrome, and solid tumor malignancies is an area of intense interest and active research. However, the complex and variable nature of FMT makes it challenging to address its precise functionality and to assess clinical efficacy and safety in different disease contexts. In this review, we outline clinical applications, efficacy, durability, and safety of FMT and provide a comprehensive assessment of its procedural and administration aspects. The clinical applications of FMT in children and cancer immunotherapy are also described. We focus on data from human studies in IBD in contrast with rCDI to delineate the putative mechanisms of this treatment in IBD as a model, including colonization resistance and functional restoration through bacterial engraftment, modulating effects of virome/phageome, gut metabolome and host interactions, and immunoregulatory actions of FMT. Furthermore, we comprehensively review omics technologies, metagenomic approaches, and bioinformatics pipelines to characterize complex microbial communities and discuss their limitations. FMT regulatory challenges, ethical considerations, and pharmacomicrobiomics are also highlighted to shed light on future development of tailored microbiome-based therapeutics.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Ramkumar D, Marty A, Ramkumar J, et al (2024)

Food for thought: Making the case for food produced via regenerative agriculture in the battle against non-communicable chronic diseases (NCDs).

One health (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 18:100734.

Non-communicable diseases (NCDs) pose a global health challenge, leading to substantial morbidity, mortality, and economic strain. Our review underscores the escalating incidence of NCDs worldwide and highlights the potential of regenerative agriculture (RA) products in mitigating these diseases. We also explore the efficacy of dietary interventions in NCD management and prevention, emphasizing the superiority of plant-based diets over those high in processed foods and red meat. Examining the role of the gut microbiome in various diseases, including liver disorders, allergies, metabolic syndrome, inflammatory bowel disease, and colon cancer, we find compelling evidence implicating its influence on disease development. Notably, dietary modifications can positively affect the gut microbiome, fostering a symbiotic relationship with the host and making this a critical strategy in disease prevention and treatment. Investigating agricultural practices, we identify parallels between soil/plant and human microbiome studies, suggesting a crucial link between soil health, plant- and animal-derived food quality, and human well-being. Conventional/Industrial agriculture (IA) practices, characterized in part by use of chemical inputs, have adverse effects on soil microbiome diversity, food quality, and ecosystems. In contrast, RA prioritizes soil health through natural processes, and includes avoiding synthetic inputs, crop rotation, and integrating livestock. Emerging evidence suggests that food from RA systems surpasses IA-produced food in quality and nutritional value. Recognizing the interconnection between human, plant, and soil microbiomes, promoting RA-produced foods emerges as a strategy to improve human health and environmental sustainability. By mitigating climate change impacts through carbon sequestration and water cycling, RA offers dual benefits for human and planetary health and well-being. Emphasizing the pivotal role of diet and agricultural practices in combating NCDs and addressing environmental concerns, the adoption of regional RA systems becomes imperative. Increasing RA integration into local food systems can enhance food quality, availability, and affordability while safeguarding human health and the planet's future.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Zhao F, J Wang (2024)

Another piece of the puzzle for the human microbiome: the gut virome under dietary modulation.

Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao pii:S1673-8527(24)00098-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The virome is the most abundant and highly variable microbial consortium in the gut. Because of difficulties in isolating and culturing gut viruses and consequently shorting of reference genomes, the virome has remained a relatively elusive aspect of the human microbiome. In recent years, studies on the virome have accumulated growing evidence showing that the virome is diet-modulated and widely involved in regulating health. Here, we review the responses of the gut virome to dietary intake and the potential health implications, presenting changes in the gut viral community, preferences of viral members to particular diets. We further discuss how viral-bacterial interactions and phage lifestyle shifts shape the gut microbiota. We also discuss the specific functions conferred by diet on the gut virome and bacterial community in the context of horizontal gene transfer, as well as the import of new viral members along with the diet. Collating these studies will expand our understanding of the dietary regulation of the gut virome and inspire dietary interventions and health maintenance strategies targeting the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Geaman W, Choi BI, Kaindl J, et al (2024)

Microbroth dilution method for antibiotic susceptibility testing of fastidious and anaerobic bacteria of the urinary microbiome.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Bacterial isolates from the human urinary microbiome have been extensively studied for their antibiotic resistance; however, little work has been done on those isolates that are difficult to grow in vitro. This study was designed to qualify a serum-based medium, New York City Broth III (NYCIII), in both sections =and a broth microdilution method to determine the antibiotic susceptibility of previously underreported or undescribed microbes that have a difficult time growing in standard Mueller-Hinton broth. Here, we demonstrate that NYCIII microbroth dilution can be an effective method for the determination of antibiotic susceptibility of species found in the human urinary microbiome. We show that this method serves well to characterize fastidious and anaerobic urinary microbes that have no Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines, including several in the families Aerococcaceae, Lactobacillaceae, or Actinomycetaceae. Previous studies using expanded quantitative urine culture reveal that urine samples from clinical patients are commonly polymicrobial in composition. Thus, we test whether NYCIII can serve as a viable harmonized medium, capable of supporting antibiotic susceptibility testing in a range of fastidious, non-fastidious, and anaerobic urinary microbes. We propose this methodology to be standardized comparable to CLSI standards to allow for resistance testing in uncharacterized urinary bacteria.

IMPORTANCE: Antibiotic susceptibilities of fastidious and anaerobic bacteria of the human urinary microbiome are largely underreported due to difficulty in growing them in the lab environment. The current standard medium, Muller-Hinton broth, has difficulty supporting the growth of many of these species, leaving microbiologists without a standardized method. To address this need, this study offers a methodology to survey susceptibilities in a high-throughput manner of these understudied microbes with a proposed harmonized medium, NYCIII, which is capable of supporting the growth of both fastidious and non-fastidious urinary microbes. Broader standardization of this method can allow for the development of antibiotic-resistant breakpoints of the many uncharacterized urinary microbes.

RevDate: 2024-05-07

Koudokpon H, Legba BB, Dougnon V, et al (2024)

Strengthening clinical bacteriology laboratory diagnostics to combat sepsis and antimicrobial resistance in Benin: a train-the-trainer approach.

Frontiers in medicine, 11:1281418.

INTRODUCTION: Improved laboratory diagnostics is needed to support sepsis diagnosis and combat increasing antibiotic resistance in Benin. We trained clinical laboratory experts and technicians to improve their skills in accurate and up-to-date diagnostics.

METHODS: A Train-the-Trainer (TtT) approach was used to design the course that combines theoretical and practical laboratory skills, specifically addressing the knowledge gaps we had previously identified in our national survey. Pedagogical methods were student-centered, including peer learning, use of online materials, practical laboratory work and pre-and post-course tests.

RESULTS: We first trained 10 trainers who in turn trained 40 laboratory technicians from across the country, from both public and private clinical and veterinary laboratories. The trainers also prepared standard operation procedures for blood culture and antibiotic susceptibility testing based on international standards. Three months after the training, follow-up visits were made to the laboratories where the implementation of the new skills was evaluated. The progress of the participants observed during the course and the implementation of the new skills afterwards proved the training to be effective.

DISCUSSION: The professional networks created during the training, the empowerment that utilizes local knowledge resources, and the government support for our initiative can be expected to bring sustainability to the initiative and support the participation of Beninese laboratories in international surveillance programs in the future.

RevDate: 2024-05-06

Alagiakrishnan K, Morgadinho J, T Halverson (2024)

Approach to the diagnosis and management of dysbiosis.

Frontiers in nutrition, 11:1330903.

All microorganisms like bacteria, viruses and fungi that reside within a host environment are considered a microbiome. The number of bacteria almost equal that of human cells, however, the genome of these bacteria may be almost 100 times larger than the human genome. Every aspect of the physiology and health can be influenced by the microbiome living in various parts of our body. Any imbalance in the microbiome composition or function is seen as dysbiosis. Different types of dysbiosis are seen and the corresponding symptoms depend on the site of microbial imbalance. The contribution of the intestinal and extra-intestinal microbiota to influence systemic activities is through interplay between different axes. Whole body dysbiosis is a complex process involving gut microbiome and non-gut related microbiome. It is still at the stage of infancy and has not yet been fully understood. Dysbiosis can be influenced by genetic factors, lifestyle habits, diet including ultra-processed foods and food additives, as well as medications. Dysbiosis has been associated with many systemic diseases and cannot be diagnosed through standard blood tests or investigations. Microbiota derived metabolites can be analyzed and can be useful in the management of dysbiosis. Whole body dysbiosis can be addressed by altering lifestyle factors, proper diet and microbial modulation. The effect of these interventions in humans depends on the beneficial microbiome alteration mostly based on animal studies with evolving evidence from human studies. There is tremendous potential for the human microbiome in the diagnosis, treatment, and prognosis of diseases, as well as, for the monitoring of health and disease in humans. Whole body system-based approach to the diagnosis of dysbiosis is better than a pure taxonomic approach. Whole body dysbiosis could be a new therapeutic target in the management of various health conditions.

RevDate: 2024-05-06
CmpDate: 2024-05-03

Shen S, Liu X, Huang J, et al (2024)

Efficacy of a mouthwash containing ε-poly-L-lysine, funme peptides and domiphen in reducing halitosis and supragingival plaque: a randomized clinical trial.

BMC oral health, 24(1):525.

OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the antibacterial effectiveness of a combination of ε-poly-L-lysine (ε-PL), funme peptide (FP) as well as domiphen against oral pathogens, and assess the efficacy of a BOP® mouthwash supplemented with this combination in reducing halitosis and supragingival plaque in a clinical trial.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) and minimum bactericidal concentration (MBC) of the compound against Fusobacterium nucleatum, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Streptococcus mutans, and Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans were determined by the gradient dilution method. Subsequently, the CCK-8 assay was used to detect the toxicity of mouthwash on human gingival fibroblastst, and the effectiveness in reducing halitosis and supragingival plaque of the mouthwash supplemented with the combination was analyzed by a randomized, double-blind, parallel-controlled clinical trial.

RESULTS: The combination exhibited significant inhibitory effects on tested oral pathogens with the MIC < 1.56% (v/v) and the MBC < 3.13% (v/v), and the mouthwash containing this combination did not inhibit the viability of human gingival fibroblasts at the test concentrations. The clinical trial showed that the test group displayed notably lower volatile sulfur compounds (VSCs) at 0, 10, 24 h, and 7 d post-mouthwash (P < 0.05), compared with the baseline. After 7 days, the VSC levels of the and control groups were reduced by 50.27% and 32.12%, respectively, and notably cutting severe halitosis by 57.03% in the test group. Additionally, the Plaque Index (PLI) of the test and control group decreased by 54.55% and 8.38%, respectively, and there was a significant difference in PLI between the two groups after 7 days (P < 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: The combination of ε-PL, FP and domiphen demonstrated potent inhibitory and bactericidal effects against the tested oral pathogens, and the newly formulated mouthwash added with the combination exhibited anti-dental plaque and anti-halitosis properties in a clinical trial and was safe.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: The randomized controlled clinical trial was registered on Chinese Clinical Trial Registry (No. ChiCTR2300073816, Date: 21/07/2023).

RevDate: 2024-05-03

Jang CS, Kim H, Kim D, et al (2024)

MicroPredict: predicting species-level taxonomic abundance of whole-shotgun metagenomic data using only 16S amplicon sequencing data.

Genes & genomics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The importance of the human microbiome in the analysis of various diseases is emerging. The two main methods used to profile the human microbiome are 16S rRNA gene sequencing (16S sequencing) and whole-genome shotgun sequencing (WGS). Owing to the full coverage of the genome in sequencing, WGS has multiple advantages over 16S sequencing, including higher taxonomic profiling resolution at the species-level and functional profiling analysis. However, 16S sequencing remains widely used because of its relatively low cost. Although WGS is the standard method for obtaining accurate species-level data, we found that 16S sequencing data contained rich information to predict high-resolution species-level abundances with reasonable accuracy.

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we proposed MicroPredict, a method for accurately predicting WGS-comparable species-level abundance data using 16S taxonomic profile data.

METHODS: We employed a mixed model using two key strategies: (1) modeling both sample- and species-specific information for predicting WGS abundances, and (2) accounting for the possible correlations among different species.

RESULTS: We found that MicroPredict outperformed the other machine learning methods.

CONCLUSION: We expect that our approach will help researchers accurately approximate the species-level abundances of microbiome profiles in datasets for which only cost-effective 16S sequencing has been applied.

RevDate: 2024-05-06
CmpDate: 2024-05-02

Araujo R, Merino-Ribas A, Pereira L, et al (2024)

The urogenital microbiome in chronic kidney disease patients on peritoneal dialysis.

Nefrologia, 44(2):194-203.

INTRODUCTION AND OBJECTIVES: Diabetes, dyslipidemia, older age, gender, urinary tract infections, and recent antibiotic intake have been associated with a decrease in the urobiome richness and other fluctuations in this microbiome. Gut and blood microbiome have been reported to be altered in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD), and specifically in peritoneal dialysis (PD) patients. Still, there are currently no studies describing the urogenital microbiome in CKD-PD patients. In this study we characterized the urobiome profile in 46 PD patients and analyzed its clinical and inflammatory parameters.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Mid-stream urine, fecal and blood samples were collected from 46 patients undergoing PD at Centro Hospitalar Universitário de São João (CHUSJ) in Porto, Portugal. Exclusion criteria were age under 18 years old, inability to give informed consent, history of infection in the last three months, and antibiotic intake in the last three months. The microbiome communities were analyzed by amplification and sequencing of the V3-V4 region of the bacterial 16S rRNA gene. Correlations with the patients' clinical data and inflammatory profile were performed.

RESULTS: CKD-PD patients presented a unique urobiome profile dominated by Bacillota, Actinomycetota and Pseudomonadota and characterized by a lower Shannon diversity than fecal and blood microbiome. The taxonomic profiles of urogenital samples were organized in multiple subtypes dominated by populations of Lactobacillus, Staphylococcus, Streptococcus, Gardnerella, Prevotella, Escherichia-Shigella, being similar to other non-PD-CKD patients. Gender, sCD14, residual diuresis and history of peritonitis were significantly associated to variations in the urobiome. Although not reaching statistical significance, diabetes and the time on PD also showed association with particular taxonomic groups. Depletion of Gardnerella, Staphylococcus, Corynebacterium, Lactobacillus or Dermabacter populations correlated with CKD-PD patients with history of diabetes, history of peritonitis and altered levels of sCD14.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results highlight urogenital microbiome as a potential partner and/or marker in the overall health state of CKD-PD patients.

RevDate: 2024-05-02
CmpDate: 2023-08-04

Fletcher AA, Kelly MS, Eckhoff AM, et al (2023)

Revisiting the intrinsic mycobiome in pancreatic cancer.

Nature, 620(7972):E1-E6.

A growing body of literature suggests that alterations in the human microbiome are causative of disease initiation and progression. Aykut et al. present data supporting the argument that alterations in the gut fungal microbiome (the “mycobiome”), along with the presence of fungal elements within pancreatic tissue (specifically those of the genus Malassezia), are associated with pancreatic oncogenesis. Upon analyzing the human sequencing data presented in the original manuscript, we found few fungal reads in pancreatic tissue samples and did not identify differences in pancreatic or gut mycobiome composition between healthy and pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) patients. Our re-analysis of these data does not support an association between an intrinsic pancreatic mycobiome and the development of human PDAC, and illustrates the challenges in analyzing microbiome sequencing data from low biomass samples.

RevDate: 2024-05-02
CmpDate: 2024-05-02

Roussel C, Sola M, Lessard-Lord J, et al (2024)

Human gut microbiota and their production of endocannabinoid-like mediators are directly affected by a dietary oil.

Gut microbes, 16(1):2335879.

Dietary omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFAs) and the gut microbiome affect each other. We investigated the impact of supplementation with Buglossoides arvensis oil (BO), rich in stearidonic acid (SDA), on the human gut microbiome. Employing the Mucosal Simulator of the Human Intestinal Microbial Ecosystem (M-SHIME), we simulated the ileal and ascending colon microbiomes of four donors. Our results reveal two distinct microbiota clusters influenced by BO, exhibiting shared and contrasting shifts. Notably, Bacteroides and Clostridia abundance underwent similar changes in both clusters, accompanied by increased propionate production in the colon. However, in the ileum, cluster 2 displayed a higher metabolic activity in terms of BO-induced propionate levels. Accordingly, a triad of bacterial members involved in propionate production through the succinate pathway, namely Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, and Phascolarctobacterium, was identified particularly in this cluster, which also showed a surge of second-generation probiotics, such as Akkermansia, in the colon. Finally, we describe for the first time the capability of gut bacteria to produce N-acyl-ethanolamines, and particularly the SDA-derived N-stearidonoyl-ethanolamine, following BO supplementation, which also stimulated the production of another bioactive endocannabinoid-like molecule, commendamide, in both cases with variations across individuals. Spearman correlations enabled the identification of bacterial genera potentially involved in endocannabinoid-like molecule production, such as, in agreement with previous reports, Bacteroides in the case of commendamide. This study suggests that the potential health benefits on the human microbiome of certain dietary oils may be amenable to stratified nutrition strategies and extend beyond n-3 PUFAs to include microbiota-derived endocannabinoid-like mediators.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

Zhang Y, Xue G, Wang F, et al (2024)

The impact of antibiotic exposure on antibiotic resistance gene dynamics in the gut microbiota of inflammatory bowel disease patients.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1382332.

BACKGROUND: While antibiotics are commonly used to treat inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), their widespread application can disturb the gut microbiota and foster the emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance. However, the dynamic changes to the human gut microbiota and direction of resistance gene transmission under antibiotic effects have not been clearly elucidated.

METHODS: Based on the Human Microbiome Project, a total of 90 fecal samples were collected from 30 IBD patients before, during and after antibiotic treatment. Through the analysis workflow of metagenomics, we described the dynamic process of changes in bacterial communities and resistance genes pre-treatment, during and post-treatment. We explored potential consistent relationships between gut microbiota and resistance genes, and established gene transmission networks among species before and after antibiotic use.

RESULTS: Exposure to antibiotics can induce alterations in the composition of the gut microbiota in IBD patients, particularly a reduction in probiotics, which gradually recovers to a new steady state after cessation of antibiotics. Network analyses revealed intra-phylum transfers of resistance genes, predominantly between taxonomically close organisms. Specific resistance genes showed increased prevalence and inter-species mobility after antibiotic cessation.

CONCLUSION: This study demonstrates that antibiotics shape the gut resistome through selective enrichment and promotion of horizontal gene transfer. The findings provide insights into ecological processes governing resistance gene dynamics and dissemination upon antibiotic perturbation of the microbiota. Optimizing antibiotic usage may help limit unintended consequences like increased resistance in gut bacteria during IBD management.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Karaman I, Pathak A, Bayik D, et al (2024)

Harnessing Bacterial Extracellular Vesicle Immune Effects for Cancer Therapy.

Pathogens & immunity, 9(1):56-90.

There are a growing number of studies linking the composition of the human microbiome to disease states and treatment responses, especially in the context of cancer. This has raised significant interest in developing microbes and microbial products as cancer immunotherapeutics that mimic or recapitulate the beneficial effects of host-microbe interactions. Bacterial extracellular vesicles (bEVs) are nano-sized, membrane-bound particles secreted by essentially all bacteria species and contain a diverse bioactive cargo of the producing cell. They have a fundamental role in facilitating interactions among cells of the same species, different microbial species, and even with multicellular host organisms in the context of colonization (microbiome) and infection. The interaction of bEVs with the immune system has been studied extensively in the context of infection and suggests that bEV effects depend largely on the producing species. They thus provide functional diversity, while also being nonreplicative, having inherent cell-targeting qualities, and potentially overcoming natural barriers. These characteristics make them highly appealing for development as cancer immunotherapeutics. Both natively secreted and engineered bEVs are now being investigated for their application as immunotherapeutics, vaccines, drug delivery vehicles, and combinations of the above, with promising early results. This suggests that both the intrinsic immunomodulatory properties of bEVs and their ability to be modified could be harnessed for the development of next-generation microbe-inspired therapies. Nonetheless, there remain major outstanding questions regarding how the observed preclinical effectiveness will translate from murine models to primates, and humans in particular. Moreover, research into the pharmacology, toxicology, and mass manufacturing of this potential novel therapeutic platform is still at early stages. In this review, we highlight the breadth of bEV interactions with host cells, focusing on immunologic effects as the main mechanism of action of bEVs currently in preclinical development. We review the literature on ongoing efforts to develop natively secreted and engineered bEVs from a variety of bacterial species for cancer therapy and finally discuss efforts to overcome outstanding challenges that remain for clinical translation.

RevDate: 2024-04-30

Nagpal S, Mande SS, Hooda H, et al (2024)

EnsembleSeq: a workflow towards real-time, rapid, and simultaneous multi-kingdom-amplicon sequencing for holistic and resource-effective microbiome research at scale.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Bacterial communities are often concomitantly present with numerous microorganisms in the human body and other natural environments. Amplicon-based microbiome studies have generally paid skewed attention, that too at a rather shallow genus level resolution, to the highly abundant bacteriome, with interest now forking toward the other microorganisms, particularly fungi. Given the generally sparse abundance of other microbes in the total microbiome, simultaneous sequencing of amplicons targeting multiple microbial kingdoms could be possible even with full multiplexing. Guiding studies are currently needed for performing and monitoring multi-kingdom-amplicon sequencing and data capture at scale. Aiming to address these gaps, amplification of full-length bacterial 16S rRNA gene and entire fungal internal-transcribed spacer (ITS) region was performed for human saliva samples (n = 96, including negative and positive controls). Combined amplicon DNA libraries were prepared for nanopore sequencing using a major fraction of 16S molecules and a minor fraction of ITS amplicons. Sequencing was performed in a single run of an R10.4.1 flow cell employing the latest V14 chemistry. An approach for real-time monitoring of the species saturation using dynamic rarefaction was designed as a guiding determinant of optimal run time. Real-time saturation monitoring for both bacterial and fungal species enabled the completion of sequencing within 30 hours, utilizing less than 60% of the total nanopores. Approximately 5 million high quality (HQ) taxonomically assigned reads were generated (~4.2 million bacterial and 0.7 million fungal), providing a wider (beyond bacteriome) snapshot of human oral microbiota at species-level resolution. Among the more than 400 bacterial and 240 fungal species identified in the studied samples, the species of Streptococcus (e.g., Streptococcus mitis and Streptococcus oralis) and Candida (e.g., Candida albicans and Candida tropicalis) were observed to be the dominating microbes in the oral cavity, respectively. This conformed well with the previous reports of the human oral microbiota. EnsembleSeq provides a proof-of-concept toward the identification of both fungal and bacterial species simultaneously in a single fully multiplexed nanopore sequencing run in a time- and resource-effective manner. Details of this workflow, along with the associated codebase, are provided to enable large-scale application for a holistic species-level microbiome study.

IMPORTANCE: Human microbiome is a sum total of a variety of microbial genomes (including bacteria, fungi, protists, viruses, etc.) present in and on the human body. Yet, a majority of amplicon-based microbiome studies have largely remained skewed toward bacteriome as an assumed proxy of the total microbiome, primarily at a shallow genus level. Cost, time, effort, data quality/management, and importantly lack of guiding studies often limit progress in the direction of moving beyond bacteriome. Here, EnsembleSeq presents a proof-of-concept toward concomitantly capturing multiple-kingdoms of microorganisms (bacteriome and mycobiome) in a fully multiplexed (96-sample) single run of long-read amplicon sequencing. In addition, the workflow captures dynamic tracking of species-level saturation in a time- and resource-effective manner.

RevDate: 2024-04-30

Kallio S, Jian C, Korpela K, et al (2024)

Early-life gut microbiota associates with allergic rhinitis during 13-year follow-up in a Finnish probiotic intervention cohort.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Perinatal and early-life factors reported to affect risk of allergic diseases may be mediated by changes in the gut microbiota. Here, we explored the associations between the infant gut microbiota and allergic morbidity in childhood until 13 years of age in a subgroup of the FLORA probiotic intervention cohort. A mixture of four probiotic strains with galacto-oligosaccharides was administrated to the mothers from the 36th week of the pregnancy and later to their infants until 6 months of age. The infants were monitored for the manifestations of atopic eczema, food allergy, allergic rhinitis, and asthma by a pediatrician at 2 and 5 years of age; the allergic status was subsequently verified by a questionnaire at 10 and 13 years of age. The fecal microbiota at 3 months was profiled by 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing targeting the V3-V4 region, with and without adjusting for potentially important early-life factors. Overall, the positive diagnosis for allergic rhinitis between 2 and 13 years was associated with microbiota composition both in non-adjusted and adjusted models. This association was more pronounced in children born to one parent with confirmed atopic diseases compared to those who had two atopic parents and was characterized by a lower relative abundance of Bifidobacterium and Escherichia/Shigella spp. and a higher proportion of Bacteroides. While the probiotic and galacto-oligosaccharides intervention in the entire cohort was previously shown to reduce the prevalence of eczema to a certain extent, no associations were found between the 3-month gut microbiota and childhood eczema in the studied sub-cohort.IMPORTANCEAllergic diseases have increased in prevalence during the past decades globally. Although probiotics have been considered a promising strategy for preventing certain allergy related symptoms, studies connecting the infant gut microbiota and later life allergic morbidity in various populations remain limited. The present study supports an association between the infant microbiota and allergic morbidity after first years of life, which has been rarely examined.CLINICAL TRIALSRegistered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT00298337).

RevDate: 2024-04-30

Zhang Y, Miao D, Su M, et al (2024)

Synergistic Drug-Loaded Shear-Thinning Star Polymer Hydrogel Facilitates Gastrointestinal Lesion Resection and Promotes Wound Healing.

Advanced science (Weinheim, Baden-Wurttemberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Easy injection, long-lasting barrier, and drug loading are the critical properties of submucosal injection materials for endoscopic surgery. However, conventional injectable polymers face challenges in simultaneously attaining these properties due to the inherent conflict between injectability and in situ stability. Here, a multi-arm star polymer hydrogel (denoted as βCP hydrogel) with long-lasting submucosal barrier (exceeding 120 min), rapid hemostasis, and sustained antibacterial properties is successfully developed by grafting poly(oligo(ethylene glycol) methyl ether methacrylate) (PEGMA) side-chains from β-CD via atom transfer radical polymerization (ATRP). During the onset of shearing, βCP hydrogel experiences the unwinding of polymer side-chains between neighboring star polymers, which facilitates the process of endoscopic injectability. After submucosal injection, βCP hydrogel undergoes the winding of polymer side-chains, thereby establishing a long-lasting barrier cushion. Meanwhile, owing to its distinctive structures with a hydrophobic inner cavity and an outer layer of hydrophilic polymer side-chains, βCP hydrogel enables simultaneous loading and on-demand release of diverse categories of drugs. This unique performance can adapt to the diverse demands during different stages of wound healing in a porcine endoscopic surgery model. These results indicate an appealing prospect for new application of star polymers as a good submucosal injection material in endoscopic treatments.

RevDate: 2024-04-30

Chen See JR, Leister J, Wright JR, et al (2024)

Clostridioides difficile infection is associated with differences in transcriptionally active microbial communities.

Frontiers in microbiology, 15:1398018.

Clostridioides difficile infection (CDI) is responsible for around 300,000 hospitalizations yearly in the United States, with the associated monetary cost being billions of dollars. Gut microbiome dysbiosis is known to be important to CDI. To the best of our knowledge, metatranscriptomics (MT) has only been used to characterize gut microbiome composition and function in one prior study involving CDI patients. Therefore, we utilized MT to investigate differences in active community diversity and composition between CDI+ (n = 20) and CDI- (n = 19) samples with respect to microbial taxa and expressed genes. No significant (Kruskal-Wallis, p > 0.05) differences were detected for richness or evenness based on CDI status. However, clustering based on CDI status was significant for both active microbial taxa and expressed genes datasets (PERMANOVA, p ≤ 0.05). Furthermore, differential feature analysis revealed greater expression of the opportunistic pathogens Enterocloster bolteae and Ruminococcus gnavus in CDI+ compared to CDI- samples. When only fungal sequences were considered, the family Saccharomycetaceae expressed more genes in CDI-, while 31 other fungal taxa were identified as significantly (Kruskal-Wallis p ≤ 0.05, log(LDA) ≥ 2) associated with CDI+. We also detected a variety of genes and pathways that differed significantly (Kruskal-Wallis p ≤ 0.05, log(LDA) ≥ 2) based on CDI status. Notably, differential genes associated with biofilm formation were expressed by C. difficile. This provides evidence of another possible contributor to C. difficile's resistance to antibiotics and frequent recurrence in vivo. Furthermore, the greater number of CDI+ associated fungal taxa constitute additional evidence that the mycobiome is important to CDI pathogenesis. Future work will focus on establishing if C. difficile is actively producing biofilms during infection and if any specific fungal taxa are particularly influential in CDI.

RevDate: 2024-04-27

Luo X, Hounmanou YMG, Ndayisenga F, et al (2024)

Spontaneous fermentation mitigates the frequency of genes encoding antimicrobial resistance spreading from the phyllosphere reservoir to the diet.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(24)02859-6 [Epub ahead of print].

The phyllosphere microbiome of vegetable products constitutes an important reservoir for multidrug resistant bacteria and Antibiotic Resistance Genes (ARG). Vegetable products including fermented products such as Paocai therefore may serve as a shuttle for extrinsic microorganisms with ARGs into the gut of consumers. Here we study the effect of fermentation on Paocai ARG dissemination by metagenomic analysis. Microbial abundance and diversity of the Paocai microbiome were diminished during fermentation, which correlated with the reduction of abundance in ARGs. Specifically, as fermentation progressed, Enterobacterales overtook Pseudomonadales as the predominant ARG carriers, and Lactobacillales and Enterobacteriales became the determinants of Paocai resistome variation. Moreover, the dual effect of microbes and metal resistance genes (MRGs) was the major contributor driving Paocai resistome dynamics. We recovered several metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) carrying acquired ARGs in the phyllosphere microbiome. ARGs of potential clinical and epidemiological relevance such as tet M and emrB-qacA, were mainly hosted by non-dominant bacterial genera. Overall, our study provides evidence that changes in microbial community composition by fermentation aid in constraining ARG dispersal from raw ingredients to the human microbiome but does not eliminate them.

RevDate: 2024-04-29

Brogna C, Bisaccia DR, Costanzo V, et al (2024)

Who Is the Intermediate Host of RNA Viruses? A Study Focusing on SARS-CoV-2 and Poliovirus.

Microorganisms, 12(4):.

The COVID-19 pandemic has sparked a surge in research on microbiology and virology, shedding light on overlooked aspects such as the infection of bacteria by RNA virions in the animal microbiome. Studies reveal a decrease in beneficial gut bacteria during COVID-19, indicating a significant interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and the human microbiome. However, determining the origins of the virus remains complex, with observed phenomena such as species jumps adding layers to the narrative. Prokaryotic cells play a crucial role in the disease's pathogenesis and transmission. Analyzing previous studies highlights intricate interactions from clinical manifestations to the use of the nitrogen isotope test. Drawing parallels with the history of the Poliovirus underscores the need to prioritize investigations into prokaryotic cells hosting RNA viruses.

RevDate: 2024-04-29
CmpDate: 2024-04-27

Hernández-Zulueta J, Bolaños-Chang AJ, Santa Cruz-Pavlovich FJ, et al (2024)

Microbial Dynamics in Ophthalmic Health: Exploring the Interplay between Human Microbiota and Glaucoma Pathogenesis.

Medicina (Kaunas, Lithuania), 60(4):.

The human microbiome has a crucial role in the homeostasis and health of the host. These microorganisms along with their genes are involved in various processes, among these are neurological signaling, the maturation of the immune system, and the inhibition of opportunistic pathogens. In this sense, it has been shown that a healthy ocular microbiota acts as a barrier against the entry of pathogens, contributing to the prevention of infections. In recent years, a relationship has been suggested between microbiota dysbiosis and the development of neurodegenerative diseases. In patients with glaucoma, it has been observed that the microbiota of the ocular surface, intraocular cavity, oral cavity, stomach, and gut differ from those observed in healthy patients, which may suggest a role in pathology development, although the evidence remains limited. The mechanisms involved in the relationship of the human microbiome and this neurodegenerative disease remain largely unknown. For this reason, the present review aims to show a broad overview of the influence of the structure and composition of the human oral and gut microbiota and relate its dysbiosis to neurodegenerative diseases, especially glaucoma.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Sengupta S, Pabbaraja S, G Mehta (2024)

Natural products from the human microbiome: an emergent frontier in organic synthesis and drug discovery.

Organic & biomolecular chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Often referred to as the "second genome", the human microbiome is at the epicenter of complex inter-habitat biochemical networks like the "gut-brain axis", which has emerged as a significant determinant of cognition, overall health and well-being, as well as resistance to antibiotics and susceptibility to diseases. As part of a broader understanding of the nexus between the human microbiome, diseases and microbial interactions, whether encoded secondary metabolites (natural products) play crucial signalling roles has been the subject of intense scrutiny in the recent past. A major focus of these activities involves harvesting the genomic potential of the human microbiome via bioinformatics guided genome mining and culturomics. Through these efforts, an impressive number of structurally intriguing antibiotics, with enhanced chemical diversity vis-à-vis conventional antibiotics have been isolated from human commensal bacteria, thereby generating considerable interest in their total synthesis and expanding their therapeutic space for drug discovery. These developments augur well for the discovery of new drugs and antibiotics, particularly in the context of challenges posed by mycobacterial resistance and emerging new diseases. The current landscape of various synthetic campaigns and drug discovery initiatives on antibacterial natural products from the human microbiome is captured in this review with an intent to stimulate further activities in this interdisciplinary arena among the new generation.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Farfour E, Vasse M, A Vallée (2024)

Oligella spp.: A systematic review on an uncommon urinary pathogen.

European journal of clinical microbiology & infectious diseases : official publication of the European Society of Clinical Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Oligella is an uncommon Gram-negative coccobacillus that was first thought to belong to the urogenital tract. The genus Oligella comprises two species that were recovered from various samples worldwide.

METHODS: We perform a systematic review focusing on Oligella microbiological characteristics, habitat, role in Human microbiome and infection, and antimicrobial susceptibility.

RESULTS: In humans, Oligella is mainly found as part of the microbiome of individuals with predisposing conditions. Oligella were also associated with invasive infections in patients with underlying diseases. Nevertheless, their prevalence remains to determine. Oligella culture requires up to 48 h on agar media in vitro, while urinary samples are usually incubated for 24 h. Consequently, microbiologists should be prompt to prolong the incubation of agar media when the direct examination showed Gram-negative coccobacilli. Oligella is accurately identified using MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry, but biochemical methods often provided inconsistent results. Specific guidelines for antimicrobial susceptibility testing of Oligella lack but the incubation could require up to 48 h of incubation. In contrast to O. urethralis, which is susceptible to third-generation cephalosporin, O. ureolytica is likely resistant to numerous antimicrobials. Genectic determinants of resistance were identified for beta-lactams and aminoglycosides.

CONCLUSION: Oligella is an uncommon pathogen that can be underrecognized. Microbiologists should be prompt to prolong the incubation of agar media plated with urines when the direct examination showed Gram-negative coccobacilli. Carbapenems should probably be given for the empirical treatment.

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Pujolassos M, Susín A, ML Calle (2024)

Microbiome compositional data analysis for survival studies.

NAR genomics and bioinformatics, 6(2):lqae038.

The growing interest in studying the relationship between the human microbiome and our health has also extended to time-to-event studies where researchers explore the connection between the microbiome and the occurrence of a specific event of interest. The analysis of microbiome obtained through high throughput sequencing techniques requires the use of specialized Compositional Data Analysis (CoDA) methods designed to accommodate its compositional nature. There is a limited availability of statistical tools for microbiome analysis that incorporate CoDA, and this is even more pronounced in the context of survival analysis. To fill this methodological gap, we present coda4microbiome for survival studies, a new methodology for the identification of microbial signatures in time-to-event studies. The algorithm implements an elastic-net penalized Cox regression model adapted to compositional covariates. We illustrate coda4microbiome algorithm for survival studies with a case study about the time to develop type 1 diabetes for non-obese diabetic mice. Our algorithm identified a bacterial signature composed of 21 genera associated with diabetes development. coda4microbiome for survival studies is integrated in the R package coda4microbiome as an extension of the existing functions for cross-sectional and longitudinal studies.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Liang L, Zhang J, Chen J, et al (2024)

Bazedoxifene attenuates dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis in mice through gut microbiota modulation and inhibition of STAT3 and NF-κB pathways.

European journal of pharmacology pii:S0014-2999(24)00299-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic and relapsing inflammatory disorder of the gastrointestinal tract for which treatment options remain limited. In this study, we used a dual-luciferase-based screening of an FDA-approved drug library, identifying Bazedoxifene (BZA) as an inhibitor of the NF-κB pathway. We further investigated its therapeutic effects in a dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis model and explored its impact on gut microbiota regulation and the underlying molecular mechanisms. Our results showed that BZA significantly reduced DSS-induced colitis symptoms in mice, evidenced by decreased colon length shortening, lower histological scores, and increased expression of intestinal mucosal barrier-associated proteins, such as Claudin 1, Occludin, Zo-1, Mucin 2 (Muc2), and E-cadherin. Used independently, BZA showed therapeutic effects comparable to those of infliximab (IFX). In addition, BZA modulated the abundance of gut microbiota especially Bifidobacterium pseudolongum, and influenced microbial metabolite production. Crucially, BZA's alleviation of DSS-induced colitis in mice was linked to change in gut microbiota composition, as evidenced by in vivo gut microbiota depletion and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) mice model. Molecularly, BZA inhibited STAT3 and NF-κB activation in DSS-induced colitis in mice. In general, BZA significantly reduced DSS-induced colitis in mice through modulating the gut microbiota and inhibiting STAT3 and NF-κB activation, and its independent use demonstrated a therapeutic potential comparable to IFX. This study highlights gut microbiota's role in IBD drug development, offering insights for BZA's future development and its clinical applications.

RevDate: 2024-04-26
CmpDate: 2024-04-25

Pedrazzoli E, Demozzi M, Visentin E, et al (2024)

CoCas9 is a compact nuclease from the human microbiome for efficient and precise genome editing.

Nature communications, 15(1):3478.

The expansion of the CRISPR-Cas toolbox is highly needed to accelerate the development of therapies for genetic diseases. Here, through the interrogation of a massively expanded repository of metagenome-assembled genomes, mostly from human microbiomes, we uncover a large variety (n = 17,173) of type II CRISPR-Cas loci. Among these we identify CoCas9, a strongly active and high-fidelity nuclease with reduced molecular size (1004 amino acids) isolated from an uncultivated Collinsella species. CoCas9 is efficiently co-delivered with its sgRNA through adeno associated viral (AAV) vectors, obtaining efficient in vivo editing in the mouse retina. With this study we uncover a collection of previously uncharacterized Cas9 nucleases, including CoCas9, which enriches the genome editing toolbox.

RevDate: 2024-04-23

Choi BI, Fontes Noronha M, Kaindl J, et al (2024)

Complete genome sequences of Aerococcus loyolae ATCC TSD-300[T], Aerococcus mictus ATCC TSD-301[T], and Aerococcus tenax ATCC TSD-302[T].

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

Previously identified under the single designation of Aerococcus urinae, three distinct taxonomic species have been distinguished as Aerococcus loyolae, Aerococcus mictus, and Aerococcus tenax. Here, we present the complete genome sequences of the type strains of these species assembled via a combination of short-read and long-read sequencing techniques.Registered at ClinicalTrials.gov (NCT01166438).

RevDate: 2024-04-25
CmpDate: 2024-04-22

Filardo S, Di Pietro M, R Sessa (2024)

Current progresses and challenges for microbiome research in human health: a perspective.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 14:1377012.

It is becoming increasingly clear that the human microbiota, also known as "the hidden organ", possesses a pivotal role in numerous processes involved in maintaining the physiological functions of the host, such as nutrient extraction, biosynthesis of bioactive molecules, interplay with the immune, endocrine, and nervous systems, as well as resistance to the colonization of potential invading pathogens. In the last decade, the development of metagenomic approaches based on the sequencing of the bacterial 16s rRNA gene via Next Generation Sequencing, followed by whole genome sequencing via third generation sequencing technologies, has been one of the great advances in molecular biology, allowing a better profiling of the human microbiota composition and, hence, a deeper understanding of the importance of microbiota in the etiopathogenesis of different pathologies. In this scenario, it is of the utmost importance to comprehensively characterize the human microbiota in relation to disease pathogenesis, in order to develop novel potential treatment or preventive strategies by manipulating the microbiota. Therefore, this perspective will focus on the progress, challenges, and promises of the current and future technological approaches for microbiome profiling and analysis.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Sarrazin-Gendron R, Ghasemloo Gheidari P, Butyaev A, et al (2024)

Improving microbial phylogeny with citizen science within a mass-market video game.

Nature biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Citizen science video games are designed primarily for users already inclined to contribute to science, which severely limits their accessibility for an estimated community of 3 billion gamers worldwide. We created Borderlands Science (BLS), a citizen science activity that is seamlessly integrated within a popular commercial video game played by tens of millions of gamers. This integration is facilitated by a novel game-first design of citizen science games, in which the game design aspect has the highest priority, and a suitable task is then mapped to the game design. BLS crowdsources a multiple alignment task of 1 million 16S ribosomal RNA sequences obtained from human microbiome studies. Since its initial release on 7 April 2020, over 4 million players have solved more than 135 million science puzzles, a task unsolvable by a single individual. Leveraging these results, we show that our multiple sequence alignment simultaneously improves microbial phylogeny estimations and UniFrac effect sizes compared to state-of-the-art computational methods. This achievement demonstrates that hyper-gamified scientific tasks attract massive crowds of contributors and offers invaluable resources to the scientific community.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Lintala A, Vapalahti O, Nousiainen A, et al (2024)

Whole Blood as a Sample Matrix in Homogeneous Time-Resolved Assay-Förster Resonance Energy Transfer-Based Antibody Detection.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 14(7):.

The protein-L-utilizing Förster resonance energy transfer (LFRET) assay enables mix-and-read antibody detection, as demonstrated for sera from patients with, e.g., severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2), Zika virus, and orthohantavirus infections. In this study, we compared paired serum and whole blood (WB) samples of COVID-19 patients and SARS-CoV-2 vaccine recipients. We found that LFRET also detects specific antibodies in WB samples. In 44 serum-WB pairs from patients with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19, LFRET showed a strong correlation between the sample materials. By analyzing 89 additional WB samples, totaling 133 WB samples, we found that LFRET results were moderately correlated with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay results for samples collected 2 to 14 months after receiving COVID-19 diagnosis. However, the correlation decreased for samples >14 months after receiving a diagnosis. When comparing the WB LFRET results to neutralizing antibody titers, a strong correlation emerged for samples collected 1 to 14 months after receiving a diagnosis. This study also highlights the versatility of LFRET in detecting antibodies directly from WB samples and suggests that it could be employed for rapidly assessing antibody responses to infectious agents or vaccines.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Heston SM, Hurst JH, MS Kelly (2024)

Understanding the influence of the microbiome on childhood infections.

Expert review of anti-infective therapy [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: The microbiome is known to have a substantial impact on human health and disease. However, the impacts of the microbiome on immune system development, susceptibility to infectious diseases, and vaccine-elicited immune responses are emerging areas of interest.

AREAS COVERED: In this review, we provide an overview of development of the microbiome during childhood. We highlight available data suggesting that the microbiome is critical to maturation of the immune system and modifies susceptibility to a variety of infections during childhood and adolescence, including respiratory tract infections, Clostridioides difficile infection, and sexually transmitted infections. We discuss currently available and investigational therapeutics that have the potential to modify the microbiome to prevent or treat infections among children. Finally, we review the accumulating evidence that the gut microbiome influences vaccine-elicited immune responses among children.

EXPERT OPINION: Recent advances in sequencing technologies have led to an explosion of studies associating the human microbiome with the risk and severity of infectious diseases. As our knowledge of the extent to which the microbiome influences childhood infections continues to grow, microbiome-based diagnostics and therapeutics will increasingly be incorporated into clinical practice to improve the prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of infectious diseases among children.

RevDate: 2024-04-12
CmpDate: 2024-04-12

Soto-Dávila M, Langlois Fiorotto L, Heath JW, et al (2024)

The effects of Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M on growth performance, gut integrity, and immune response using in vitro and in vivo Pacific salmonid models.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1306458.

Microbial management is central to aquaculture's efficiency. Pediococcus acidilactici MA18/5M has shown promising results promoting growth, modulation of the immune response, and disease resistance in many fishes. However, the mechanisms through which this strain confers health benefits in fish are poorly understood, particularly in Pacific salmonid models. Briefly, the aims of this study were to i) assess the protective effects of P. acidilactici MA18/5M by examining gut barrier function and the expression of tight junction (TJ) and immune genes in vitro and in vivo, and ii) to determine the protective effects of this strain against a common saltwater pathogen, Vibrio anguillarum J382. An in vitro model of the salmonid gut was employed utilizing the cell line RTgutGC. Barrier formation and integrity assessed by TEER measurements in RTgutGC, showed a significant decrease in resistance in cells exposed only to V. anguillarum J382 for 24 h, but pre-treatment with P. acidilactici MA18/5M for 48 h mitigated these effects. While P. acidilactici MA18/5M did not significantly upregulate tight junction and immune molecules, pre-treatment with this strain protected against pathogen-induced insults to the gut barrier. In particular, the expression of ocldn was significantly induced by V. anguillarum J382, suggesting that this molecule might play a role in the host response against this pathogen. To corroborate these observations in live fish, the effects of P. acidilactici MA18/5M was evaluated in Chinook salmon reared in real aquaculture conditions. Supplementation with P. acidilactici MA18/5M had no effect on Chinook salmon growth parameters after 10 weeks. Interestingly, histopathological results did not show alterations associated with P. acidilactici MA18/5M supplementation, indicating that this strain is safe to be used in the industry. Finally, the expression pattern of transcripts encoding TJ and immune genes in all the treatments suggest that variation in expression is more likely to be due to developmental processes rather than P. acidilactici MA18/5M supplementation. Overall, our results showed that P. acidilactici MA18/5M is a safe strain for use in fish production, however, to assess the effects on growth and immune response previously observed in other salmonid species, an assessment in adult fish is needed.

RevDate: 2024-04-13
CmpDate: 2024-04-12

Hong A, Umar A, Chen H, et al (2024)

Advances in the study of the interaction between schistosome infections and the host's intestinal microorganisms.

Parasites & vectors, 17(1):185.

Schistosomiasis, also called bilharziasis, is a neglected tropical disease induced by schistosomes that infects hundreds of millions of people worldwide. In the life cycle of schistosomiasis, eggs are regarded as the main pathogenic factor, causing granuloma formation in the tissues and organs of hosts, which can cause severe gastrointestinal and liver granulomatous immune responses and irreversible fibrosis. Increasing evidence suggests that the gut microbiome influences the progression of schistosomiasis and plays a central role in liver disease via the gut-liver axis. When used as pharmaceutical supplements or adjunctive therapy, probiotics have shown promising results in preventing, mitigating, and even treating schistosomiasis. This review elucidates the potential mechanisms of this three-way parasite-host-microbiome interaction by summarizing schistosome-mediated intestinal flora disorders, local immune changes, and host metabolic changes, and elaborates the important role of the gut microbiome in liver disease after schistosome infection through the gut-liver axis. Understanding the mechanisms behind this interaction may aid in the discovery of probiotics as novel therapeutic targets and sustainable control strategies for schistosomiasis.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Franceschetti L, Lodetti G, Blandino A, et al (2024)

Exploring the role of the human microbiome in forensic identification: opportunities and challenges.

International journal of legal medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Forensic microbiology is rapidly emerging as a novel tool for human identification. The human microbiome, comprising diverse microbial communities including fungi, bacteria, protozoa, and viruses, is unique to each individual, offering a new dimension to forensic investigations. While traditional identification methods primarily rely on DNA profiling and fingerprint analysis, they face limitations when complete DNA or fingerprints profiles are unattainable or degraded. In this context, the microbial signatures of the human skin microbiome present a promising alternative due to their resilience to environmental stresses and individual-specific composition. This review explores the potential of microbiome analysis in forensic human identification, evaluating its applications, advantages, limitations, and future prospects. The uniqueness of an individual's microbial community, particularly the skin microbiota, can provide distinctive biological markers for identification purposes, while technological advancements like 16 S rRNA sequencing and metagenomic shotgun sequencing are enhancing the specificity of microbial identification, enabling detailed analysis of these complex ecological communities. Despite these promising findings, current research has not yet achieved a level of identification probability that could establish microbial analysis as a stand-alone evidence tool. Therefore, it is presently considered ancillary to traditional methods, contributing to a more comprehensive biological profile of individuals.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Jian C, Sorensen N, Lutter R, et al (2024)

The impact of daily supplementation with rhamnogalacturonan-I on the gut microbiota in healthy adults: A randomized controlled trial.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 174:116561 pii:S0753-3322(24)00445-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Pectin and its derivatives have been shown to modulate immune signaling as well as gut microbiota in preclinical studies, which may constitute the mechanisms by which supplementation of specific pectic polysaccharides confers protection against viral respiratory infections. In a double-blind, placebo-controlled rhinovirus (RV16) challenge study, healthy volunteers were randomized to consume placebo (0.0 g/day) (N = 46), low-dose (0.3 g/day) (N = 49) or high-dose (1.5 g/day) (N = 51) of carrot derived rhamnogalacturonan-I (cRG-I) for eight weeks and they were subsequently challenged with RV-16. Here, the effect of 8-week cRG-I supplementation on the gut microbiota was studied. While the overall gut microbiota composition in the population was generally unaltered by this very low dose of fibre, the relative abundance of Bifidobacterium spp. (mainly B. adolescentis and B. longum) was significantly increased by both doses of cRG-1. Moreover, daily supplementation of cRG-I led to a dose-dependent reduction in inter- and intra-individual microbiota heterogeneity, suggesting a stabilizing effect on the gut microbiota. The severity of respiratory symptoms did not directly correlate with the cRG-I-induced microbial changes, but several dominant groups of the Ruminococcaceae family and microbiota richness were positively associated with a reduced and hence desired post-infection response. Thus, the present results on the modulation of the gut microbiota composition support the previously demonstrated immunomodulatory and protective effect of cRG-I during a common cold infection.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

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