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Bibliography on: Human Microbiome

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 26 Jun 2019 at 01:34 Created: 

Human Microbiome

The human microbiome is the set of all microbes that live on or in humans. Together, a human body and its associated microbiomes constitute a human holobiont. Although a human holobiont is mostly mammal by weight, by cell count it is mostly microbial. The number of microbial genes in the associated microbiomes far outnumber the number of human genes in the human genome. Just as humans (and other multicellular eukaryotes) evolved in the constant presence of gravity, so they also evolved in the constant presence of microbes. Consequently, nearly every aspect of human biology has evolved to deal with, and to take advantage of, the existence of associated microbiota. In some cases, the absence of a "normal microbiome" can cause disease, which can be treated by the transplant of a correct microbiome from a healthy donor. For example, fecal transplants are an effective treatment for chronic diarrhea from over abundant Clostridium difficile bacteria in the gut.

Created with PubMed® Query: "human microbiome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-06-24

Savijoki K, Nyman TA, Kainulainen V, et al (2019)

Growth Mode and Carbon Source Impact the Surfaceome Dynamics of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1272.

Bacterial biofilms have clear implications in disease and in food applications involving probiotics. Here, we show that switching the carbohydrate source from glucose to fructose increased the biofilm formation and the total surface-antigenicity of a well-known probiotic, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG. Surfaceomes (all cell surface-associated proteins) of GG cells grown with glucose and fructose in planktonic and biofilm cultures were identified and compared, which indicated carbohydrate source-dependent variations, especially during biofilm growth. The most distinctive differences under these conditions were detected with several surface adhesins (e.g., MBF, SpaC pilus protein and penicillin-binding proteins), enzymes (glycoside hydrolases, PrsA, PrtP, PrtR, and HtrA) and moonlighting proteins (glycolytic, transcription/translation and stress-associated proteins, r-proteins, tRNA synthetases, Clp family proteins, PepC, PepN, and PepA). The abundance of several known adhesins and candidate moonlighters, including enzymes acting on casein-derived peptides (ClpP, PepC, and PepN), increased in the biofilm cells grown on fructose, from which the surface-associated aminopeptidase activity mediated by PepC and PepN was further confirmed by an enzymatic assay. The mucus binding factor (MBF) was found most abundant in fructose grown biofilm cells whereas SpaC adhesin was identified specifically from planktonic cells growing on fructose. An additional indirect ELISA indicated both growth mode- and carbohydrate-dependent differences in abundance of SpaC, whereas the overall adherence of GG assessed with porcine mucus indicated that the carbon source and the growth mode affected mucus adhesion. The adherence of GG cells to mucus was almost completely inhibited by anti-SpaC antibodies regardless of growth mode and/or carbohydrate source, indicating the key role of the SpaCBA pilus in adherence under the tested conditions. Altogether, our results suggest that carbon source and growth mode coordinate mechanisms shaping the proteinaceous composition of GG cell surface, which potentially contributes to resistance, nutrient acquisition and cell-cell interactions under different conditions. In conclusion, the present study shows that different growth regimes and conditions can have a profound impact on the adherent and antigenic features of GG, thereby providing new information on how to gain additional benefits from this probiotic.

RevDate: 2019-06-24

Stinson LF, Boyce MC, Payne MS, et al (2019)

The Not-so-Sterile Womb: Evidence That the Human Fetus Is Exposed to Bacteria Prior to Birth.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:1124.

The human microbiome includes trillions of bacteria, many of which play a vital role in host physiology. Numerous studies have now detected bacterial DNA in first-pass meconium and amniotic fluid samples, suggesting that the human microbiome may commence in utero. However, these data have remained contentious due to underlying contamination issues. Here, we have used a previously described method for reducing contamination in microbiome workflows to determine if there is a fetal bacterial microbiome beyond the level of background contamination. We recruited 50 women undergoing non-emergency cesarean section deliveries with no evidence of intra-uterine infection and collected first-pass meconium and amniotic fluid samples. Full-length 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed using PacBio SMRT cell technology, to allow high resolution profiling of the fetal gut and amniotic fluid bacterial microbiomes. Levels of inflammatory cytokines were measured in amniotic fluid, and levels of immunomodulatory short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) were quantified in meconium. All meconium samples and most amniotic fluid samples (36/43) contained bacterial DNA. The meconium microbiome was dominated by reads that mapped to Pelomonas puraquae. Aside from this species, the meconium microbiome was remarkably heterogeneous between patients. The amniotic fluid microbiome was more diverse and contained mainly reads that mapped to typical skin commensals, including Propionibacterium acnes and Staphylococcus spp. All meconium samples contained acetate and propionate, at ratios similar to those previously reported in infants. P. puraquae reads were inversely correlated with meconium propionate levels. Amniotic fluid cytokine levels were associated with the amniotic fluid microbiome. Our results demonstrate that bacterial DNA and SCFAs are present in utero, and have the potential to influence the developing fetal immune system.

RevDate: 2019-06-21

Lemas D, Wright L, Francois M, et al (2019)

Recruitment and Retention of Pregnant and Breastfeeding Mothers for Longitudinal Clinical Microbiome Studies (OR30-08-19).

Current developments in nutrition, 3(Suppl 1): pii:nzz048.OR30-08-19.

Objectives: Accumulating data suggest the health benefits of breastfeeding are, in part, mediated through interactions with the human microbiome. Despite these observations, recruitment of pregnant mothers in longitudinal clinical microbiome studies remains a significant challenge. The goal of this study is to develop data-driven strategies for recruitment and retention of breastfeeding mothers' into longitudinal clinical microbiome studies.

Methods: We recruited a total of 40 mothers (20 pregnant and 20 breastfeeding) to complete in-depth semi-structured interviews at the UF Clinical and Translational Science Institute. Additionally, mothers were asked to use self-administered microbiome collection kits and complete questionnaires related to health history, infant feeding practices, and physical activity. Informative interviews were designed to identify women's understanding, motivations and barriers surrounding longitudinal clinical research participation and their preferences for providing non-invasive biological samples.

Results: Our preliminary analysis indicates that 1) barriersfor participating in research include convenience, confidentiality and child protection; 2) factors motivating participation in research include general interest in breastfeeding, schedule, and perceived research relevance; 3) participant recruitment should consider social media and 4) biological sample collection should include adequate instructions and drop-off convenience.

Conclusions: The results of this study provide valuable theoretical and practical insights on how to effectively recruit and retain pregnant and breastfeeding women into longitudinal microbiome studies.

Funding Sources: 1K01DK115632-01A1.

RevDate: 2019-06-21

Faramarzi S, K Krishnan (2019)

The Spectacular Role of the Human Microbiome in Preventing Post-prandial or Metabolic Endotoxemia (OR23-02-19).

Current developments in nutrition, 3(Suppl 1): pii:nzz040.OR23-02-19.

Objectives: To determine if 30-d of oral spore-based probiotic supplementation could reduce dietary endotoxemia.

Methods: Apparently healthy men and women (n = 75) were screened for post-prandial dietary endotoxemia. Subjects whose serum endotoxin concentration increased by at least 5-fold from pre-meal levels at 5-h post-prandial were considered "responders" and were randomized to receive either placebo (rice flour) or a commercial spore-based probiotic supplement [Bacillus indicus (HU36), Bacillus subtilis (HU58), Bacillus coagulans, and Bacillus licheniformis, and Bacillus clausii] for 30-d. The dietary endotoxemia test was repeated at the conclusion of the supplementation period. Dietary endotoxin (LAL) and triglycerides (enzymatic) were measured using an automated chemistry analyzer. Serum disease risk biomarkers were measured using bead-based multiplex assays (Luminex and Milliplex) as secondary, exploratory measures.

Results: Data were statistically analyzed using repeated measures ANOVA and a P < 0.05. We found that spore-based probiotic supplementation was associated with a 42% reduction in endotoxin (12.9 ± 3.5 vs 6.1 ± 2.6, P = 0.011) and 24% reduction in triglyceride (212 ± 28 vs 138 ± 12, P = 0.004) in the post-prandial period Placebo subjects presented with a 36% increase in endotoxin (10.3 ± 3.4 vs 15.4 ± 4.1, P = 0.011) and 5% decrease in triglycerides (191 ± 24 vs 186 ± 28, P = 0.004) over the same post-prandial period. We also found that spore-based probiotic supplementation was associated with significant post-prandial reductions in IL-12p70 (24.3 ± 2.2 vs 21.5 ± 1.7, P = 0.017) and IL-1β (1.9 ± 0.2 vs 1.6 ± 0.1, P = 0.020). Compared to placebo post supplementation, probiotic subject had less ghrelin (6.8 ± 0.4 vs 8.3 ± 1.1, P = 0.017) compared to placebo subjects.

Conclusions: 30 days of supplementation with spore-based probiotics showed a 60% reduction in biomarkers of leaky gut when compared to the placebo group. These findings suggest that probiotics may play an integral role in reducing chronic low-grade inflammation that leads to chronic disease and autoimmunity.

Funding Sources: The present study was funded in part by a competitive research grant from Microbiome Labs, LLC (Glenview, IL) to the University of North Texas.

RevDate: 2019-06-21

Koontz JM, Dancy BCR, Horton CL, et al (2019)

The Role of the Human Microbiome in Chemical Toxicity.

International journal of toxicology [Epub ahead of print].

There is overwhelming evidence that the microbiome must be considered when evaluating the toxicity of chemicals. Disruption of the normal microbial flora is a known effect of toxic exposure, and these disruptions may lead to human health effects. In addition, the biotransformation of numerous compounds has been shown to be dependent on microbial enzymes, with the potential for different host health outcomes resulting from variations in the microbiome. Evidence suggests that such metabolism of environmental chemicals by enzymes from the host's microbiota can affect the toxicity of that chemical to the host. Chemical-microbial interactions can be categorized into two classes: Microbiome Modulation of Toxicity (MMT) and Toxicant Modulation of the Microbiome (TMM). MMT refers to transformation of a chemical by microbial enzymes or metabolites to modify the chemical in a way that makes it more or less toxic. TMM is a change in the microbiota that results from a chemical exposure. These changes span a large magnitude of effects and may vary from microbial gene regulation, to inhibition of a specific enzyme, to the death of the microbes. Certain microbiomes or microbiota may become associated with different health outcomes, such as resistance or susceptibility to exposure to certain toxic chemicals, the ability to recover following a chemical-induced injury, the presence of disease-associated phenotypes, and the effectiveness of immune responses. Future work in toxicology will require an understanding of how the microbiome interacts with toxicants to fully elucidate how a compound will affect a diverse, real-world population.

RevDate: 2019-06-20

Zhang YJ, Hu HW, Chen QL, et al (2019)

Transfer of antibiotic resistance from manure-amended soils to vegetable microbiomes.

Environment international, 130:104912 pii:S0160-4120(19)31273-5 [Epub ahead of print].

The increasing antimicrobial resistance in manure-amended soil can potentially enter food chain, representing an important vehicle for antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) transmission into human microbiome. However, the pathways for transmission of ARGs from soil to plant remain unclear. Here, we explored the impacts of poultry and cattle manure application on the patterns of resistome in soil and lettuce microbiome including rhizosphere, root endosphere, leaf endosphere and phyllosphere, to identify the potential transmission routes of ARGs in the soil-plant system. After 90 days of cultivation, a total of 144 ARGs were detected in all samples using high-throughput quantitative PCR. Rhizosphere soil samples harbored the most diverse ARGs compared with other components of lettuce. Cattle manure application increased the abundance of ARGs in root endophyte, while poultry manure application increased ARGs in rhizosphere, root endophyte and phyllosphere, suggesting that poultry manure may have a stronger impact on lettuce resistomes. The ARG profiles were significantly correlated with the bacterial community, and the enrichment of soil and plant resistomes was strongly affected by the bacterial taxa including Solibacteres, Chloroflexi, Acidobacteria, Gemm-1 and Gemmatimonadetes, as revealed by the network analyses. Moreover, the overlaps of ARGs between lettuce tissues and soil were identified, which indicated that plant and environmental resistomes are interconnected. Our findings provide insights into the transmission routes of ARGs from manured soil to vegetables, and highlight the potential risks of plant resistome migration to the human food chain.

RevDate: 2019-06-20

Shen X, Yao YF, Li JY, et al (2019)

[Human mycobiome and diseases].

Hua xi kou qiang yi xue za zhi = Huaxi kouqiang yixue zazhi = West China journal of stomatology, 37(3):314-319.

The proportion of mycobiome is less than 1% of human microbiome. However, fungal community plays a key role in human health and diseases. With high-throughput sequencing applications, the structure and composition of mycobiome in the mouth, lung, gut, vagina, and skin have been analyzed, and the role of microbiome in diseases has been investigated. Mycobiome also influences the composition of bacteriome and includes key species that maintain the structure and function of microbial communities. Fungi also influence host immune responses. In this review, we summarized the mycobiome com-position at various sites and different diseases and the interactions between fungi-bacteria and fungi-host.

RevDate: 2019-06-15

Picardo SL, Coburn B, AR Hansen (2019)

The microbiome and cancer for clinicians.

Critical reviews in oncology/hematology, 141:1-12 pii:S1040-8428(19)30112-X [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome is an emerging target in cancer development and therapeutics. It may be directly oncogenic, through promotion of mucosal inflammation or systemic dysregulation, or may alter anti-cancer immunity/therapy. Microorganisms within, adjacent to and distant from tumors may affect cancer progression, and interactions and differences between these populations can influence the course of disease. Here we review the microbiome as it pertains to cancer for clinicians. The microbiota of cancers including colorectal, pancreas, breast and prostate are discussed. We examine "omics" technologies, microbiota associated with tumor tissue and tumor-site fluids such as feces and urine, as well as indirect effects of the gut microbiome. We describe roles of the microbiome in immunotherapy, and how it can be modulated to improve cancer therapeutics. While research is still at an early stage, there is potential to exploit the microbiome, as modulation may increase efficacy of treatments, reduce toxicities and prevent carcinogenesis.

RevDate: 2019-06-15

Szafrański SP, Kilian M, Yang I, et al (2019)

Diversity patterns of bacteriophages infecting Aggregatibacter and Haemophilus species across clades and niches.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-019-0450-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Aggregatibacter and Haemophilus species are relevant human commensals and opportunistic pathogens. Consequently, their bacteriophages may have significant impact on human microbial ecology and pathologies. Our aim was to reveal the prevalence and diversity of bacteriophages infecting Aggregatibacter and Haemophilus species that colonize the human body. Genome mining with comparative genomics, screening of clinical isolates, and profiling of metagenomes allowed characterization of 346 phages grouped in 52 clusters and 18 superclusters. Less than 10% of the identified phage clusters were represented by previously characterized phages. Prophage diversity patterns varied significantly for different phage types, host clades, and environmental niches. A more diverse phage community lysogenizes Haemophilus influenzae and Haemophilus parainfluenzae strains than Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and "Haemophilus ducreyi". Co-infections occurred more often in "H. ducreyi". Phages from Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans preferably lysogenized strains of specific serotype. Prophage patterns shared by subspecies clades of different bacterial species suggest similar ecoevolutionary drivers. Changes in frequencies of DNA uptake signal sequences and guanine-cytosine content reflect phage-host long-term coevolution. Aggregatibacter and Haemophilus phages were prevalent at multiple oral sites. Together, these findings should help exploring the ecoevolutionary forces shaping virus-host interactions in the human microbiome. Putative lytic phages, especially phiKZ-like, may provide new therapeutic options.

RevDate: 2019-06-12

Nichols RG, Peters JM, AD Patterson (2019)

Interplay Between the Host, the Human Microbiome, and Drug Metabolism.

Human genomics, 13(1):27 pii:10.1186/s40246-019-0211-9.

The human microbiome is composed of four major areas including intestinal, skin, vaginal, and oral microbiomes, with each area containing unique species and unique functionalities. The human microbiome may be modulated with prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics to potentially aid in the treatment of diseases like irritable bowel syndrome, bacterial vaginosis, atopic dermatitis, gingivitis, obesity, or cancer. There is also potential for many of the inhabitants of the human microbiome to directly modulate host gene expression and modulate host detoxifying enzyme activity like cytochrome P450s (CYPs), dehydrogenases, and carboxylesterases. Therefore, the microbiome may be important to consider during drug discovery, risk assessment, and dosing regimens for various diseases given that the human microbiome has been shown to impact host detoxification processes.

RevDate: 2019-06-11

Zhao L, Xu J, Shang X, et al (2019)

Synaptic memory devices from CoO/Nb:SrTiO3 junction.

Royal Society open science, 6(4):181098 pii:rsos181098.

Non-volatile memristors are promising for future hardware-based neurocomputation application because they are capable of emulating biological synaptic functions. Various material strategies have been studied to pursue better device performance, such as lower energy cost, better biological plausibility, etc. In this work, we show a novel design for non-volatile memristor based on CoO/Nb:SrTiO3 heterojunction. We found the memristor intrinsically exhibited resistivity switching behaviours, which can be ascribed to the migration of oxygen vacancies and charge trapping and detrapping at the heterojunction interface. The carrier trapping/detrapping level can be finely adjusted by regulating voltage amplitudes. Gradual conductance modulation can therefore be realized by using proper voltage pulse stimulations. And the spike-timing-dependent plasticity, an important Hebbian learning rule, has been implemented in the device. Our results indicate the possibility of achieving artificial synapses with CoO/Nb:SrTiO3 heterojunction. Compared with filamentary type of the synaptic device, our device has the potential to reduce energy consumption, realize large-scale neuromorphic system and work more reliably, since no structural distortion occurs.

RevDate: 2019-06-06

Wijeyesekera A, Wagner J, De Goffau M, et al (2019)

Multi-Compartment Profiling of Bacterial and Host Metabolites Identifies Intestinal Dysbiosis and Its Functional Consequences in the Critically Ill Child.

Critical care medicine [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Adverse physiology and antibiotic exposure devastate the intestinal microbiome in critical illness. Time and cost implications limit the immediate clinical potential of microbial sequencing to identify or treat intestinal dysbiosis. Here, we examined whether metabolic profiling is a feasible method of monitoring intestinal dysbiosis in critically ill children.

DESIGN: Prospective multicenter cohort study.

SETTING: Three U.K.-based PICUs.

PATIENTS: Mechanically ventilated critically ill (n = 60) and age-matched healthy children (n = 55).

INTERVENTIONS: Collection of urine and fecal samples in children admitted to the PICU. A single fecal and urine sample was collected in healthy controls.

MEASUREMENTS AND MAIN RESULTS: Untargeted and targeted metabolic profiling using 1H-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry or urine and fecal samples. This was integrated with analysis of fecal bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA profiles and clinical disease severity indicators. We observed separation of global urinary and fecal metabolic profiles in critically ill compared with healthy children. Urinary excretion of mammalian-microbial co-metabolites hippurate, 4-cresol sulphate, and formate were reduced in critical illness compared with healthy children. Reduced fecal excretion of short-chain fatty acids (including butyrate, propionate, and acetate) were observed in the patient cohort, demonstrating that these metabolites also distinguished between critical illness and health. Dysregulation of intestinal bile metabolism was evidenced by increased primary and reduced secondary fecal bile acid excretion. Fecal butyrate correlated with days free of intensive care at 30 days (r = 0.38; p = 0.03), while urinary formate correlated inversely with vasopressor requirement (r = -0.2; p = 0.037).

CONCLUSIONS: Disruption to the functional activity of the intestinal microbiome may result in worsening organ failure in the critically ill child. Profiling of bacterial metabolites in fecal and urine samples may support identification and treatment of intestinal dysbiosis in critical illness.This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (CCBY), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

RevDate: 2019-06-06

Hsu T, Gemmell MR, Franzosa EA, et al (2019)

Comparative genomics and genome biology of Campylobacter showae.

Emerging microbes & infections, 8(1):827-840.

Campylobacter showae a bacterium historically linked to gingivitis and periodontitis, has recently been associated with inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer. Our aim was to generate genome sequences for new clinical C. showae strains and identify functional properties explaining their pathogenic potential. Eight C. showae genomes were assessed, four strains isolated from inflamed gut tissues from paediatric Crohn's disease patients, three strains from colonic adenomas, and one from a gastroenteritis patient stool. Genome assemblies were analyzed alongside the only 3 deposited C. showae genomes. The pangenome from these 11 strains consisted of 4686 unique protein families, and the core genome size was estimated at 1050 ± 15 genes with each new genome contributing an additional 206 ± 16 genes. Functional assays indicated that colonic strains segregated into 2 groups: adherent/invasive vs. non-adherent/non-invasive strains. The former possessed Type IV secretion machinery and S-layer proteins, while the latter contained Cas genes and other CRISPR associated proteins. Comparison of gene profiles with strains in Human Microbiome Project metagenomes showed that gut-derived isolates share genes specific to tongue dorsum and supragingival plaque counterparts. Our findings indicate that C. showae strains are phenotypically and genetically diverse and suggest that secretion systems may play an important role in virulence potential.

RevDate: 2019-06-06

Vress D, B Lim (2019)

Understanding the human microbiome: new icing on an old cake.

BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2019-06-10

LaPierre N, Mangul S, Alser M, et al (2019)

MiCoP: microbial community profiling method for detecting viral and fungal organisms in metagenomic samples.

BMC genomics, 20(Suppl 5):423 pii:10.1186/s12864-019-5699-9.

BACKGROUND: High throughput sequencing has spurred the development of metagenomics, which involves the direct analysis of microbial communities in various environments such as soil, ocean water, and the human body. Many existing methods based on marker genes or k-mers have limited sensitivity or are too computationally demanding for many users. Additionally, most work in metagenomics has focused on bacteria and archaea, neglecting to study other key microbes such as viruses and eukaryotes.

RESULTS: Here we present a method, MiCoP (Microbiome Community Profiling), that uses fast-mapping of reads to build a comprehensive reference database of full genomes from viruses and eukaryotes to achieve maximum read usage and enable the analysis of the virome and eukaryome in each sample. We demonstrate that mapping of metagenomic reads is feasible for the smaller viral and eukaryotic reference databases. We show that our method is accurate on simulated and mock community data and identifies many more viral and fungal species than previously-reported results on real data from the Human Microbiome Project.

CONCLUSIONS: MiCoP is a mapping-based method that proves more effective than existing methods at abundance profiling of viruses and eukaryotes in metagenomic samples. MiCoP can be used to detect the full diversity of these communities. The code, data, and documentation are publicly available on GitHub at: https://github.com/smangul1/MiCoP .

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Tang ZZ, Chen G, Hong Q, et al (2019)

Multi-Omic Analysis of the Microbiome and Metabolome in Healthy Subjects Reveals Microbiome-Dependent Relationships Between Diet and Metabolites.

Frontiers in genetics, 10:454.

The human microbiome has been associated with health status, and risk of disease development. While the etiology of microbiome-mediated disease remains to be fully elucidated, one mechanism may be through microbial metabolism. Metabolites produced by commensal organisms, including in response to host diet, may affect host metabolic processes, with potentially protective or pathogenic consequences. We conducted multi-omic phenotyping of healthy subjects (N = 136), in order to investigate the interaction between diet, the microbiome, and the metabolome in a cross-sectional sample. We analyzed the nutrient composition of self-reported diet (3-day food records and food frequency questionnaires). We profiled the gut and oral microbiome (16S rRNA) from stool and saliva, and applied metabolomic profiling to plasma and stool samples in a subset of individuals (N = 75). We analyzed these multi-omic data to investigate the relationship between diet, the microbiome, and the gut and circulating metabolome. On a global level, we observed significant relationships, particularly between long-term diet, the gut microbiome and the metabolome. Intake of plant-derived nutrients as well as consumption of artificial sweeteners were associated with significant differences in circulating metabolites, particularly bile acids, which were dependent on gut enterotype, indicating that microbiome composition mediates the effect of diet on host physiology. Our analysis identifies dietary compounds and phytochemicals that may modulate bacterial abundance within the gut and interact with microbiome composition to alter host metabolism.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Belforte FS, Fernandez N, Tonín Monzón F, et al (2019)

Getting to Know the Gut Microbial Diversity of Metropolitan Buenos Aires Inhabitants.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:965.

In recent years, the field of immunology has been revolutionized by the growing understanding of the fundamental role of microbiota in the immune system function. The immune system has evolved to maintain a symbiotic relationship with these microbes. The aim of our study was to know in depth the uncharacterized metagenome of the Buenos Aires (BA) city population and its metropolitan area, being the second most populated agglomeration in the southern hemisphere. For this purpose, we evaluated 30 individuals (age: 35.23 ± 8.26 years and BMI: 23.91 ± 3.4 kg/m2), from the general population of BA. The hypervariable regions V3-V4 of the bacterial 16S gene was sequenced by MiSeq-Illumina system, obtaining 47526 ± 4718 sequences/sample. The dominant phyla were Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Verrucomicrobia, and Actinobacteria. Additionally, we compared the microbiota of BA with other westernized populations (Santiago de Chile, Rosario-Argentina, United States-Human-microbiome-project, Bologna-Italy) and the Hadza population of hunter-gatherers. The unweighted UniFrac clustered together all westernized populations, leaving the hunter-gatherer population from Hadza out. In particular, Santiago de Chile's population turns out to be the closest to BA's, principally due to the presence of Verrucomicrobiales of the genus Akkermansia. These microorganisms have been proposed as a hallmark of a healthy gut. Finally, westernized populations showed more abundant metabolism related KEEG pathways than hunter-gatherers, including carbohydrate metabolism (amino sugar and nucleotide sugar metabolism), amino acid metabolism (alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolism), lipid metabolism, biosynthesis of secondary metabolites, and sulfur metabolism. These findings contribute to promote research and comparison of the microbiome in different human populations, in order to develop more efficient therapeutic strategies for the restoration of a healthy dialogue between host and environment.

RevDate: 2019-06-04

Granato ET, Meiller-Legrand TA, KR Foster (2019)

The Evolution and Ecology of Bacterial Warfare.

Current biology : CB, 29(11):R521-R537.

Bacteria have evolved a wide range of mechanisms to harm and kill their competitors, including chemical, mechanical and biological weapons. Here we review the incredible diversity of bacterial weapon systems, which comprise antibiotics, toxic proteins, mechanical weapons that stab and pierce, viruses, and more. The evolution of bacterial weapons is shaped by many factors, including cell density and nutrient abundance, and how strains are arranged in space. Bacteria also employ a diverse range of combat behaviours, including pre-emptive attacks, suicidal attacks, and reciprocation (tit-for-tat). However, why bacteria carry so many weapons, and why they are so often used, remains poorly understood. By comparison with animals, we argue that the way that bacteria live - often in dense and genetically diverse communities - is likely to be key to their aggression as it encourages them to dig in and fight alongside their clonemates. The intensity of bacterial aggression is such that it can strongly affect communities, via complex coevolutionary and eco-evolutionary dynamics, which influence species over space and time. Bacterial warfare is a fascinating topic for ecology and evolution, as well as one of increasing relevance. Understanding how bacteria win wars is important for the goal of manipulating the human microbiome and other important microbial systems.

RevDate: 2019-06-03

Zimmermann M, Zimmermann-Kogadeeva M, Wegmann R, et al (2019)

Mapping human microbiome drug metabolism by gut bacteria and their genes.

Nature pii:10.1038/s41586-019-1291-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Individuals vary widely in drug responses, which can be dangerous and expensive due to treatment delays and adverse effects. Growing evidence implicates the gut microbiome in this variability, however the molecular mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here we measured the ability of 76 diverse human gut bacteria to metabolize 271 oral drugs and found that many of these drugs are chemically modified by microbes. We combined high-throughput genetics with mass spectrometry to systematically identify drug-metabolizing microbial gene products. These microbiome-encoded enzymes can directly and significantly impact intestinal and systemic drug metabolism in mice and can explain drug-metabolizing activities of human gut bacteria and communities based on their genomic contents. These causal links between microbiota gene content and metabolic activities connect interpersonal microbiome variability to interpersonal differences in drug metabolism, which has implications for medical therapy and drug development across multiple disease indications.

RevDate: 2019-06-04

Williams DW, G Gibson (2019)

Classification of individuals and the potential to detect sexual contact using the microbiome of the pubic region.

Forensic science international. Genetics, 41:177-187 pii:S1872-4973(19)30070-5 [Epub ahead of print].

In the absence of traditional DNA evidence, detection of sexual contact during intercourse is an important need for forensic analysis that might be addressed by studies of the pubic microbiome. Since 16S sequencing of various other body parts has shown that the microbiome may be individualizing, we reasoned that transfer of the assailant's microbiome to a victim might be detectable. Microbiome profiles were generated from pubic hairs and swabs taken from the pubic mound region of 12 couples and 19 singles, and evaluated for similarity over an average of four collection times with varying degrees of self-reported sexual activity. A model constructed using a Random Forest classifier was able to predict samples belonging to the same individual collected up to 6 months apart, demonstrating the stability of the pubic mound microbiome over this time frame. Couples were found to be significantly more similar to one another than to unrelated members of the opposite sex, in proportion to shared sexual activity. Further analyses using the Deblur method to assign operational taxonomic units (OTUs) establish that at least 10% of the victim's pubic microbiome must be derived from the attacker in order to detect transfer, but that single transfer events will not generally be discovered. Nevertheless, Bayesian SourceTracker software is shown to have potential to establish that sexual contact occurred when the assailant is known, or to exonerate suspects as contributors to a mixed microbiome. Our results establish limited potential of the pubic hair/pubic area microbiome as a tool for forensic associations.

RevDate: 2019-05-30

Anonymous (2019)

After the Integrative Human Microbiome Project, what's next for the microbiome community?.

Nature, 569(7758):599.

RevDate: 2019-05-30

Proctor L (2019)

Priorities for the next 10 years of human microbiome research.

Nature, 569(7758):623-625.

RevDate: 2019-05-30

Lloyd-Price J, Arze C, Ananthakrishnan AN, et al (2019)

Multi-omics of the gut microbial ecosystem in inflammatory bowel diseases.

Nature, 569(7758):655-662.

Inflammatory bowel diseases, which include Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, affect several million individuals worldwide. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are complex diseases that are heterogeneous at the clinical, immunological, molecular, genetic, and microbial levels. Individual contributing factors have been the focus of extensive research. As part of the Integrative Human Microbiome Project (HMP2 or iHMP), we followed 132 subjects for one year each to generate integrated longitudinal molecular profiles of host and microbial activity during disease (up to 24 time points each; in total 2,965 stool, biopsy, and blood specimens). Here we present the results, which provide a comprehensive view of functional dysbiosis in the gut microbiome during inflammatory bowel disease activity. We demonstrate a characteristic increase in facultative anaerobes at the expense of obligate anaerobes, as well as molecular disruptions in microbial transcription (for example, among clostridia), metabolite pools (acylcarnitines, bile acids, and short-chain fatty acids), and levels of antibodies in host serum. Periods of disease activity were also marked by increases in temporal variability, with characteristic taxonomic, functional, and biochemical shifts. Finally, integrative analysis identified microbial, biochemical, and host factors central to this dysregulation. The study's infrastructure resources, results, and data, which are available through the Inflammatory Bowel Disease Multi'omics Database (http://ibdmdb.org), provide the most comprehensive description to date of host and microbial activities in inflammatory bowel diseases.

RevDate: 2019-05-30

Integrative HMP (iHMP) Research Network Consortium (2019)

The Integrative Human Microbiome Project.

Nature, 569(7758):641-648.

The NIH Human Microbiome Project (HMP) has been carried out over ten years and two phases to provide resources, methods, and discoveries that link interactions between humans and their microbiomes to health-related outcomes. The recently completed second phase, the Integrative Human Microbiome Project, comprised studies of dynamic changes in the microbiome and host under three conditions: pregnancy and preterm birth; inflammatory bowel diseases; and stressors that affect individuals with prediabetes. The associated research begins to elucidate mechanisms of host-microbiome interactions under these conditions, provides unique data resources (at the HMP Data Coordination Center), and represents a paradigm for future multi-omic studies of the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2019-05-30

Fettweis JM, Serrano MG, Brooks JP, et al (2019)

The vaginal microbiome and preterm birth.

Nature medicine pii:10.1038/s41591-019-0450-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The incidence of preterm birth exceeds 10% worldwide. There are significant disparities in the frequency of preterm birth among populations within countries, and women of African ancestry disproportionately bear the burden of risk in the United States. In the present study, we report a community resource that includes 'omics' data from approximately 12,000 samples as part of the integrative Human Microbiome Project. Longitudinal analyses of 16S ribosomal RNA, metagenomic, metatranscriptomic and cytokine profiles from 45 preterm and 90 term birth controls identified harbingers of preterm birth in this cohort of women predominantly of African ancestry. Women who delivered preterm exhibited significantly lower vaginal levels of Lactobacillus crispatus and higher levels of BVAB1, Sneathia amnii, TM7-H1, a group of Prevotella species and nine additional taxa. The first representative genomes of BVAB1 and TM7-H1 are described. Preterm-birth-associated taxa were correlated with proinflammatory cytokines in vaginal fluid. These findings highlight new opportunities for assessment of the risk of preterm birth.

RevDate: 2019-05-29

Varoni EM, Bavarian R, Robledo-Sierra J, et al (2019)

World Workshop on Oral Medicine VII: Targeting the microbiome for oral medicine specialists-Part 1. A methodological guide.

Oral diseases, 25 Suppl 1:12-27.

Advances in high-throughput sequencing technologies have allowed for a rapid increase in knowledge about the human microbiome in both healthy and diseased states, which is expected to increase our understanding of multifactorial diseases. The World Workshop on Oral Medicine VII chose the microbiome as one of its topics of focus. Part 1 of this review provides updated knowledge in the field of microbiome research, describes the advantages and disadvantages of currently available sequencing technologies, and proposes a seven-step "recipe" for designing and performing studies that is supported by contemporary evidence. Part 2 of this review in a companion paper discusses the results of high-throughput sequencing studies published to date on the microbiota associated with oral mucosal diseases. The goal of this collective enterprise is to encourage more oral medicine specialists to become engaged in multidisciplinary collaborations to investigate the role of the microbiome in relation to oral diseases, which could potentially lead to enhanced diagnosis, risk assessment and treatment of these patients.

RevDate: 2019-05-28

Gilbert JA, SV Lynch (2019)

Community ecology as a framework for human microbiome research.

Nature medicine pii:10.1038/s41591-019-0464-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The field of human microbiome research has revealed the intimate co-association of humans with diverse communities of microbes in various habitats in the human body, and the necessity of these microbes for the maintenance of human health. Microbial heterogeneity between humans and across spatial and temporal gradients requires multidimensional datasets and a unifying set of theories and statistical tools to analyze the human microbiome and fully realize the potential of this field. Here we consider the utility of community ecology as a framework for the interrogation and interpretation of the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2019-05-24

Pulkkinen E, Wicklund A, Oduor JMO, et al (2019)

Characterization of vB_ApiM_fHyAci03, a novel lytic bacteriophage that infects clinical Acinetobacter strains.

Archives of virology pii:10.1007/s00705-019-04284-z [Epub ahead of print].

We present here the isolation and characterization of Acinetobacter pittii phage vB_ApiM_fHyAci03 (fHyAci03), which belongs to the family Myoviridae. The fHyAci03 genome was found to be 165,975 bp in length and predicted to contain 255 genes. While the whole genome was 92.4% identical to Acinetobacter baumannii phage KARL-1, phylogenetic analysis based on phage long distal tail fiber amino acid sequences assigned fHyAci03 and KARL-1 to different subclusters, reflecting their different host species. Together with phylogenetic analysis, genome comparisons indicated that fHyAci03 is a novel member of the subfamily Tevenvirinae. Host range experiments revealed that fHyAci03 could infect two clinical strains of Acinetobacter nosocomialis and six clinical strains of A. pittii. Thus, fHyAci03 is a novel lytic phage that infects clinical Acinetobacter strains and represents a potential new candidate to be used in phage therapy.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Virtanen S, Rantsi T, Virtanen A, et al (2019)

Vaginal Microbiota Composition Correlates Between Pap Smear Microscopy and Next Generation Sequencing and Associates to Socioeconomic Status.

Scientific reports, 9(1):7750 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-44157-8.

Recent research on vaginal microbiota relies on high throughput sequencing while microscopic methods have a long history in clinical use. We investigated the correspondence between microscopic findings of Pap smears and the vaginal microbiota composition determined by next generation sequencing among 50 asymptomatic women. Both methods produced coherent results regarding the distinction between Lactobacillus-dominant versus mixed microbiota, reassuring gynaecologists for the use of Pap smear or wet mount microscopy for rapid evaluation of vaginal bacteria as part of diagnosis. Cytologic findings identified women with bacterial vaginosis and revealed that cytolysis of vaginal epithelial cells is associated to Lactobacillus crispatus-dominated microbiota. Education and socio-economic status were associated to the vaginal microbiota variation. Our results highlight the importance of including socio-economic status as a co-factor in future vaginal microbiota studies.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Ross AA, Rodrigues Hoffmann A, JD Neufeld (2019)

The skin microbiome of vertebrates.

Microbiome, 7(1):79 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0694-6.

The skin constitutes the primary physical barrier between vertebrates and their external environment. Characterization of skin microorganisms is essential for understanding how a host evolves in association with its microbial symbionts, modeling immune system development, diagnosing illnesses, and exploring the origins of potential zoonoses that affect humans. Although many studies have characterized the human microbiome with culture-independent techniques, far less is known about the skin microbiome of other mammals, amphibians, birds, fish, and reptiles. The aim of this review is to summarize studies that have leveraged high-throughput sequencing to better understand the skin microorganisms that associate with members of classes within the subphylum Vertebrata. Specifically, links will be explored between the skin microbiome and vertebrate characteristics, including geographic location, biological sex, animal interactions, diet, captivity, maternal transfer, and disease. Recent literature on parallel patterns between host evolutionary history and their skin microbial communities, or phylosymbiosis, will also be analyzed. These factors must be considered when designing future microbiome studies to ensure that the conclusions drawn from basic research translate into useful applications, such as probiotics and successful conservation strategies for endangered and threatened animals.

RevDate: 2019-05-24

Biesiekierski JR, Jalanka J, HM Staudacher (2019)

Can Gut Microbiota Composition Predict Response to Dietary Treatments?.

Nutrients, 11(5): pii:nu11051134.

Dietary intervention is a challenge in clinical practice because of inter-individual variability in clinical response. Gut microbiota is mechanistically relevant for a number of disease states and consequently has been incorporated as a key variable in personalised nutrition models within the research context. This paper aims to review the evidence related to the predictive capacity of baseline microbiota for clinical response to dietary intervention in two specific health conditions, namely, obesity and irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Clinical trials and larger predictive modelling studies were identified and critically evaluated. The findings reveal inconsistent evidence to support baseline microbiota as an accurate predictor of weight loss or glycaemic response in obesity, or as a predictor of symptom improvement in irritable bowel syndrome, in dietary intervention trials. Despite advancement in quantification methodologies, research in this area remains challenging and larger scale studies are needed until personalised nutrition is realistically achievable and can be translated to clinical practice.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Amato KR (2019)

Missing Links: the Role of Primates in Understanding the Human Microbiome.

mSystems, 4(3): pii:4/3/e00165-19.

The gut microbiome can influence host energy balances and metabolic programming. While this information is valuable in a disease context, it also has important implications for understanding host energetics from an ecological and evolutionary perspective. Here I argue that gut microbial influences on host life history-the timing of events that make up an organism's life-are an overlooked but robust area of study given that variation in life history is linked directly to host energetic budgets and allocation patterns. Additionally, while cultural influences on life history complicate the exploration of these links in humans, nonhuman primates represent an alternative system in which more robust associations can be made. By integrating human and nonhuman primate microbiome research within the context of life history theory, we will be able to more effectively pinpoint microbial contributions to host phenotypes. This information will improve our understanding of host-microbe interactions in health and disease and will transform the fields of ecology and evolution more generally.

RevDate: 2019-05-22

Lew KN, Starkweather A, Cong X, et al (2019)

A Mechanistic Model of Gut-Brain Axis Perturbation and High-Fat Diet Pathways to Gut Microbiome Homeostatic Disruption, Systemic Inflammation, and Type 2 Diabetes.

Biological research for nursing [Epub ahead of print].

Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is a highly prevalent metabolic disease, affecting nearly 10% of the American population. Although the etiopathogenesis of T2D remains poorly understood, advances in DNA sequencing technologies have allowed for sophisticated interrogation of the human microbiome, providing insight into the role of the gut microbiome in the development and progression of T2D. An emerging body of research reveals that gut-brain axis (GBA) perturbations and a high-fat diet (HFD), along with other modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors, contribute to gut microbiome homeostatic imbalance. Homeostatic imbalance or disruption increases gut wall permeability and facilitates translocation of endotoxins (lipopolysaccharides) into the circulation with resultant systemic inflammation. Chronic, low-grade systemic inflammation ensues with pro-inflammatory pathways activated, contributing to obesity, insulin resistance (IR), pancreatic β-cell decline, and, thereby, T2D. While GBA perturbations and HFD are implicated in provoking these conditions, prior mechanistic models have tended to examine HFD and GBA pathways exclusively without considering their shared pathways to T2D. Addressing this gap, this article proposes a mechanistic model informed by animal and human studies to advance scientific understanding of (1) modifiable and nonmodifiable risk factors for gut microbiome homeostatic disruption, (2) HFD and GBA pathways contributing to homeostatic disruption, and (3) shared GBA and HFD pro-inflammatory pathways to obesity, IR, β-cell decline, and T2D. The proposed mechanistic model, based on the extant literature, proposes a framework for studying the complex relationships of the gut microbiome to T2D to advance study in this promising area of research.

RevDate: 2019-05-31

Mainali K, Bewick S, Vecchio-Pagan B, et al (2019)

Detecting interaction networks in the human microbiome with conditional Granger causality.

PLoS computational biology, 15(5):e1007037 pii:PCOMPBIOL-D-18-00900.

Human microbiome research is rife with studies attempting to deduce microbial correlation networks from sequencing data. Standard correlation and/or network analyses may be misleading when taken as an indication of taxon interactions because "correlation is neither necessary nor sufficient to establish causation"; environmental filtering can lead to correlation between non-interacting taxa. Unfortunately, microbial ecologists have generally used correlation as a proxy for causality although there is a general consensus about what constitutes a causal relationship: causes both precede and predict effects. We apply one of the first causal models for detecting interactions in human microbiome samples. Specifically, we analyze a long duration, high resolution time series of the human microbiome to decipher the networks of correlation and causation of human-associated microbial genera. We show that correlation is not a good proxy for biological interaction; we observed a weak negative relationship between correlation and causality. Strong interspecific interactions are disproportionately positive, whereas almost all strong intraspecific interactions are negative. Interestingly, intraspecific interactions also appear to act at a short timescale causing vast majority of the effects within 1-3 days. We report how different taxa are involved in causal relationships with others, and show that strong interspecific interactions are rarely conserved across two body sites whereas strong intraspecific interactions are much more conserved, ranging from 33% between the gut and right-hand to 70% between the two hands. Therefore, in the absence of guiding assumptions about ecological interactions, Granger causality and related techniques may be particularly helpful for understanding the driving factors governing microbiome composition and structure.

RevDate: 2019-05-20

Ogunrinde E, Zhou Z, Luo Z, et al (2019)

A link between plasma microbial translocation, microbiome, and autoantibody development in first-degree relatives of systemic lupus erythematosus patients.

Arthritis & rheumatology (Hoboken, N.J.) [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is characterized by antibody production against self-antigens. However, the events underlying autoantibody formation in SLE remains unclear. This study investigated the role of plasma autoantibody levels, microbial translocation, and the microbiome in SLE.

METHODS: Plasma samples from two cohorts, one with 18 unrelated healthy controls (UHCs) and 18 first-degree relatives (FDRs) and the other with 19 healthy controls and 21 SLE patients were assessed for autoantibody levels by autoantigen microarrays, lipopolysaccharide (LPS) levels by limulus amebocyte assay and microbiome composition by microbial 16S rDNA sequencing.

RESULTS: FDRs and SLE patients exhibited increased plasma autoantibodies compared to their control groups. Parents and children of lupus patients exhibited elevated plasma LPS levels in comparison to controls (p = 0.02). Plasma LPS levels positively correlated with plasma anti-dsDNA IgG levels in FDRs (r=0.51, p=0.03) but not in SLE patients. Circulating microbiome analysis revealed that FDRs (Observed species, p=0.004; Chao1 index, p=0.005) but not patients had significantly reduced microbiome diversity compared to their controls. The majority of differentially abundant bacteria identified between UHCs and FDRs were in the Firmicutes phylum, while bacteria from several different phyla were identified between HCs and SLE patients. Bacteria in the Paenibacillus genus was the only overlapping differentially abundant bacteria in both cohorts, and it was reduced in FDRs (p.adj = 2.13 x 10-12) and SLE patients (p.adj = 0.008) but elevated in controls.

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate a possible role for plasma microbial translocation and microbiome composition in influencing autoantibody development in SLE. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-06-01

Levi Mortera S, Soggiu A, Vernocchi P, et al (2019)

Metaproteomic investigation to assess gut microbiota shaping in newborn mice: A combined taxonomic, functional and quantitative approach.

Journal of proteomics, 203:103378 pii:S1874-3919(19)30150-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Breastfeeding is nowadays known to be one of the most critical factors contributing to the development of an efficient immune system. In the last decade, a consistent number of pieces of evidence demonstrated the relationship between a healthy organism and its gut microbiota. However, this link is still not fully understood and requires further investigation. We recently adopted a murine model to describe the impact of either maternal milk or parental genetic background, on the composition of the gut microbial population in the first weeks of life. A metaproteomic approach to such complex environments is a big challenge that requires a strong effort in both data production and analysis, including the set-up of dedicated multitasking bioinformatics pipelines. Herein we present an LC-MS/MS based investigation to monitor mouse gut microbiota in the early life, aiming at characterizing its functions and metabolic activities together with a taxonomic description in terms of operational taxonomic units. We provided a quantitative evaluation of bacterial metaproteins, taking into account differential expression results in relation to the functional and taxonomic classification, particularly with proteins from orthologues groups. This allowed the reduction of the bias arising from the presence of a high number of shared peptides, and proteins, among different bacterial species. We also focused on host mucosal proteome and its modulation, according to different microbiota composition. SIGNIFICANCE: This paper would represent a reference work for investigations on gut microbiota in early life, from both a microbiological and a functional proteomic point of view. We focused on the shaping of the mouse gut microbiota in dependence on the feeding modality, defining a reliable taxonomic description, highlighting some functional characteristics of the microbial community, and performing a first quantitative evaluation by data independent analysis in metaproteomics.

RevDate: 2019-05-18

Birer C, ES Wright (2019)

Capturing the complex interplay between drugs and the intestinal microbiome.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

Predicting drug interactions, disposition, and side effects is central to the practice of clinical pharmacology. Until recently, the human microbiome has been an underappreciated player in the dynamics of drug metabolism. It is now clear that humans are 'superorganisms' with about tenfold more microbial cells than human cells and harboring an immense diversity of microbial enzymes. Owing to the advent of new technologies, we are beginning to understand the human microbiome's impact on clinical pharmacology. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2019-05-16

Oduor JMO, Kiljunen S, Kadija E, et al (2019)

Genomic characterization of four novel Staphylococcus myoviruses.

Archives of virology pii:10.1007/s00705-019-04267-0 [Epub ahead of print].

We report here the annotation of the complete genomes of four novel lytic Staphylococcus phages; Stab20, Stab21, Stab22 and Stab23. These phages have double-stranded DNA genomes ranging between 153,338 and 155,962 bp in size with terminal repeats of 10,814-12,304 bp. The genome analysis suggests that they represent new phage species within the genus Kayvirus in the subfamily Twortvirinae of the family Herelleviridae.

RevDate: 2019-05-23

Scott AJ, Alexander JL, Merrifield CA, et al (2019)

International Cancer Microbiome Consortium consensus statement on the role of the human microbiome in carcinogenesis.

Gut pii:gutjnl-2019-318556 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: In this consensus statement, an international panel of experts deliver their opinions on key questions regarding the contribution of the human microbiome to carcinogenesis.

DESIGN: International experts in oncology and/or microbiome research were approached by personal communication to form a panel. A structured, iterative, methodology based around a 1-day roundtable discussion was employed to derive expert consensus on key questions in microbiome-oncology research.

RESULTS: Some 18 experts convened for the roundtable discussion and five key questions were identified regarding: (1) the relevance of dysbiosis/an altered gut microbiome to carcinogenesis; (2) potential mechanisms of microbiota-induced carcinogenesis; (3) conceptual frameworks describing how the human microbiome may drive carcinogenesis; (4) causation versus association; and (5) future directions for research in the field.The panel considered that, despite mechanistic and supporting evidence from animal and human studies, there is currently no direct evidence that the human commensal microbiome is a key determinant in the aetiopathogenesis of cancer. The panel cited the lack of large longitudinal, cohort studies as a principal deciding factor and agreed that this should be a future research priority. However, while acknowledging gaps in the evidence, expert opinion was that the microbiome, alongside environmental factors and an epigenetically/genetically vulnerable host, represents one apex of a tripartite, multidirectional interactome that drives carcinogenesis.

CONCLUSION: Data from longitudinal cohort studies are needed to confirm the role of the human microbiome as a key driver in the aetiopathogenesis of cancer.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Bui TPN, Troise AD, Fogliano V, et al (2019)

Anaerobic Degradation of N-ε-Carboxymethyllysine, a Major Glycation End-Product, by Human Intestinal Bacteria.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Modifications of lysine contribute to the amount of dietary advanced glycation end-products reaching the colon. However, little is known about the ability of intestinal bacteria to metabolize dietary N-ε-carboxymethyllysine (CML). Successive transfers of fecal microbiota in growth media containing CML were used to identify and isolate species able to metabolize CML under anaerobic conditions. From our study, only donors exposed to processed foods degraded CML, and anaerobic bacteria enrichments from two of them used 77 and 100% of CML. Oscillibacter and Cloacibacillus evryensis increased in the two donors after the second transfer, highlighting that the bacteria from these taxa could be candidates for anaerobic CML degradation. A tentative identification of CML metabolites produced by a pure culture of Cloacibacillus evryensis was performed by mass spectrometry: carboxymethylated biogenic amines and carboxylic acids were identified as CML degradation products. The study confirmed the ability of intestinal bacteria to metabolize CML under anoxic conditions.

RevDate: 2019-05-15

Chernikova D, Yuan I, M Shaker (2019)

Prevention of allergy with diverse and healthy microbiota: an update.

Current opinion in pediatrics, 31(3):418-425.

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbiota consist of symbiotic microscopic neighbors that interact on and within our bodies in diverse and incompletely understood ways throughout our lifetime. Though various associations with allergic disease have been described, clear effective therapeutic interventions to prevent allergy have been elusive.

RECENT FINDINGS: The human microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, including: mode of infant delivery (vaginal vs. cesarean section), breastfeeding, diet, presence of siblings and pets, exposure to antibiotics and other medications (particularly antacids), lifestyle, and developmental context. Microbial species promoting atopic responses and tolerance have been described. Specific microbiota likely act through distinct metabolic pathways to promote the health of their human hosts, optimally directing the developing immune system away from pro-allergic, Th2-dominated responses to more T-regulatory-influenced behaviors.

SUMMARY: Evidence suggests that specific healthy infant microbiome signatures may influence development of some components of the allergic march of childhood by decreasing atopic dermatitis, asthma, and food allergy. Further understanding of factors that influence healthy microbiota may lead to specific strategies tailored for early intervention and disease prevention.

RevDate: 2019-05-16

Ahmed B, Cox MJ, L Cuthbertson (2019)

Growing up with your airway microbiota: a risky business.

Thorax, 74(6):525-526.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Beghini F, Renson A, Zolnik CP, et al (2019)

Tobacco exposure associated with oral microbiota oxygen utilization in the New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Study.

Annals of epidemiology, 34:18-25.e3.

PURPOSE: The effect of tobacco exposure on the oral microbiome has not been established.

METHODS: We performed amplicon sequencing of the 16S ribosomal RNA gene V4 variable region to estimate bacterial community characteristics in 259 oral rinse samples, selected based on self-reported smoking and serum cotinine levels, from the 2013-2014 New York City Health and Nutrition Examination Study. We identified differentially abundant operational taxonomic units (OTUs) by primary and secondhand tobacco exposure, and used "microbe set enrichment analysis" to assess shifts in microbial oxygen utilization.

RESULTS: Cigarette smoking was associated with depletion of aerobic OTUs (Enrichment Score test statistic ES = -0.75, P = .002) with a minority (29%) of aerobic OTUs enriched in current smokers compared with never smokers. Consistent shifts in the microbiota were observed for current cigarette smokers as for nonsmokers with secondhand exposure as measured by serum cotinine levels. Differential abundance findings were similar in crude and adjusted analyses.

CONCLUSIONS: Results support a plausible link between tobacco exposure and shifts in the oral microbiome at the population level through three lines of evidence: (1) a shift in microbiota oxygen utilization associated with primary tobacco smoke exposure; (2) consistency of abundance fold changes associated with current smoking and shifts along the gradient of secondhand smoke exposure among nonsmokers; and (3) consistency after adjusting for a priori hypothesized confounders.

RevDate: 2019-05-09

Rodricks J, Huang Y, Mantus E, et al (2019)

Do Interactions Between Environmental Chemicals and the Human Microbiome Need to Be Considered in Risk Assessments?.

Risk analysis : an official publication of the Society for Risk Analysis [Epub ahead of print].

One of the most dynamic and fruitful areas of current health-related research concerns the various roles of the human microbiome in disease. Evidence is accumulating that interactions between substances in the environment and the microbiome can affect risks of disease, in both beneficial and adverse ways. Although most of the research has concerned the roles of diet and certain pharmaceutical agents, there is increasing interest in the possible roles of environmental chemicals. Chemical risk assessment has, to date, not included consideration of the influence of the microbiome. We suggest that failure to consider the possible roles of the microbiome could lead to significant error in risk assessment results. Our purpose in this commentary is to summarize some of the evidence supporting our hypothesis and to urge the risk assessment community to begin considering and influencing how results from microbiome-related research could be incorporated into chemical risk assessments. An additional emphasis in our commentary concerns the distinct possibility that research on chemical-microbiome interactions will also reduce some of the significant uncertainties that accompany current risk assessments. Of particular interest is evidence suggesting that the microbiome has an influence on variability in disease risk across populations and (of particular interest to chemical risk) in animal and human responses to chemical exposure. The possible explanatory power of the microbiome regarding sources of variability could reduce what might be the most significant source of uncertainty in chemical risk assessment.

RevDate: 2019-05-18

Zhu L, Zou Q, Cao X, et al (2019)

Enterococcus faecalis Encodes an Atypical Auxiliary Acyl Carrier Protein Required for Efficient Regulation of Fatty Acid Synthesis by Exogenous Fatty Acids.

mBio, 10(3): pii:mBio.00577-19.

Acyl carrier proteins (ACPs) play essential roles in the synthesis of fatty acids and transfer of long fatty acyl chains into complex lipids. The Enterococcus faecalis genome contains two annotated acp genes, called acpA and acpB AcpA is encoded within the fatty acid synthesis (fab) operon and appears essential. In contrast, AcpB is an atypical ACP, having only 30% residue identity with AcpA, and is not essential. Deletion of acpB has no effect on E. faecalis growth or de novo fatty acid synthesis in media lacking fatty acids. However, unlike the wild-type strain, where growth with oleic acid resulted in almost complete blockage of de novo fatty acid synthesis, the ΔacpB strain largely continued de novo fatty acid synthesis under these conditions. Blockage in the wild-type strain is due to repression of fab operon transcription, leading to levels of fatty acid synthetic proteins (including AcpA) that are insufficient to support de novo synthesis. Transcription of the fab operon is regulated by FabT, a repressor protein that binds DNA only when it is bound to an acyl-ACP ligand. Since AcpA is encoded in the fab operon, its synthesis is blocked when the operon is repressed and acpA thus cannot provide a stable supply of ACP for synthesis of the acyl-ACP ligand required for DNA binding by FabT. In contrast to AcpA, acpB transcription is unaffected by growth with exogenous fatty acids and thus provides a stable supply of ACP for conversion to the acyl-ACP ligand required for repression by FabT. Indeed, ΔacpB and ΔfabT strains have essentially the same de novo fatty acid synthesis phenotype in oleic acid-grown cultures, which argues that neither strain can form the FabT-acyl-ACP repression complex. Finally, acylated derivatives of both AcpB and AcpA were substrates for the E. faecalis enoyl-ACP reductases and for E. faecalis PlsX (acyl-ACP; phosphate acyltransferase).IMPORTANCE AcpB homologs are encoded by many, but not all, lactic acid bacteria (Lactobacillales), including many members of the human microbiome. The mechanisms regulating fatty acid synthesis by exogenous fatty acids play a key role in resistance of these bacteria to those antimicrobials targeted at fatty acid synthesis enzymes. Defective regulation can increase resistance to such inhibitors and also reduce pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2019-05-06

Jagodzinski A, Zielinska E, Laczmanski L, et al (2019)

The early years of life. Are they influenced by our microbiome?.

Ginekologia polska, 90(4):228-232.

Human microbiome contains the genetic pool of bacteria and other microbes such as Achaea, fungi and viruses inhabiting the human body. It holds an immense potential to affect both physiological and pathological processes. The microbiome's composition can be defined in detail by analyzing ribosomal 16S rRNA and metagenomic tests. Recent increases in cesar- ean sections, the use of antibiotics during pregnancy, the increasing amount of prematurely born children and changes in infant nutrition have an impact on the microbiome forming process. A correlation between the bowel microbiome's com- position and the occurrence of certain diseases, especially inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), asthma and type 1 diabetes has been demonstrated. The influence on the development of cognitive functions and behaviour has also been displayed. This correlation justifies attempts to restore the beneficial the composition of the microbiome through the use of probiotics, vaginal microflora transfer in case of cesarean section and encouraging breastfeeding. Development of multiple studies on the topic of the human microbiome and its impact on the human body is necessary in order to reach final conclusions. The aim of this article is to summarize recent findings regarding the development of the human microbiome from the first days of life and the influence of changes in its composition on human health.

RevDate: 2019-05-08

Fiedorová K, Radvanský M, Němcová E, et al (2019)

The Impact of DNA Extraction Methods on Stool Bacterial and Fungal Microbiota Community Recovery.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:821.

Our understanding of human gut microbiota in health and disease depends on accurate and reproducible microbial data acquisition. The critical step in this process is to apply an appropriate methodology to extract microbial DNA, since biases introduced during the DNA extraction process may result in inaccurate microbial representation. In this study, we attempted to find a DNA extraction protocol which could be effectively used to analyze both the bacterial and fungal community. We evaluated the effect of five DNA extraction methods (QIAamp DNA Stool Mini Kit, PureLinkTM Microbiome DNA Purification Kit, ZR Fecal DNA MiniPrepTM Kit, NucleoSpin® DNA Stool Kit, and IHMS protocol Q) on bacterial and fungal gut microbiome recovery using (i) a defined system of germ-free mice feces spiked with bacterial or fungal strains, and (ii) non-spiked human feces. In our experimental setup, we confirmed that the examined methods significantly differed in efficiency and quality, which affected the identified stool microbiome composition. In addition, our results indicated that fungal DNA extraction might be prone to be affected by reagent/kit contamination, and thus an appropriate blank control should be included in mycobiome research. Overall, standardized IHMS protocol Q, recommended by the International Human Microbiome Consortium, performed the best when considering all the parameters analyzed, and thus could be applied not only in bacterial, but also in fungal microbiome research.

RevDate: 2019-05-05

Seferovic MD, Pace RM, Caroll M, et al (2019)

Visualization of Microbes by 16S in situ Hybridization in Term and Preterm Placentae without Intraamniotic Infection.

American journal of obstetrics and gynecology pii:S0002-9378(19)30622-2 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Numerous reports have documented bacteria in the placental membranes and basal plate decidua in the absence of immunopathology using histological techniques. Similarly, independent metagenomic characterizations have identified an altered taxonomical makeup in association with spontaneous preterm birth (PTB). Here we sought to corroborate these findings by localizing presumptive intact bacteria using molecular histology within the placental microanatomy.

OBJECTIVES: Here we examined for microbes in term and preterm gestations using a signal amplified 16S universal in situ hybridization (ISH) probe set for bacterial rRNA, alongside traditional histologic methods of Warthin-Starry and Gram stains, as well as clinical culture methodologies. We further sought to differentiate accompanying 16S gene sequencing taxonomic profiles from germ free (gnotobiotic) mouse and extraction and amplicon contamination controls.

STUDY DESIGN: Placentae were collected from a total of n=53 subjects, comprised of term, labored (n 4) and unlabored Cesarean deliveries (n 22) and preterm vaginal (n 18) and Cesarean deliveries (n 8); a placenta from a single subject with clinical and histologic evident choriomanionitis was employed as a 'positive' control (n 1). The preterm cohort included spontaneous PTB with (n 6) and without (n 10) preterm premature rupture of membranes (PPROM), as well as medically indicated PTBs (n 10). Placental microbes were visualized using an in situ hybridization probe set designed against highly conserved regions of the bacterial 16S ribosome, which produces an amplified stable signal using branched DNA probes. Extracted bacterial nucleic acid from these same samples were subjected to 16S rRNA metagenomic sequencing (Illumina, V4) for course taxonomical analysis, alongside environmental and kit contaminant controls. A subset of unlabored, Cesarean delivered term pregnancies were also assessed with clinical culture for readily cultivatable pathogenic microbes.

RESULTS: Molecular ISH of bacterial rRNA enabled visualization and localization of low-abundance microbes after systematic high power scanning. Despite the absence of clinical or histological chorioamnionitis in 52 of 53 subjects, instances of 16S rRNA signal were confidently observed in 13 of 16 sPTB placentas, which was not significantly different from term unlabored Cesarean specimens (18 of 22; p>0.05). 16S rRNA signal was largely localized to the villus parenchyma and/or syncytiotrophoblast, and less commonly the chorion and the maternal intervillous space. In all term and unlabored Cesarean deliveries, visualization of evident placental microbes by ISH occurred in the absence of clinical or histological detection using conventional clinical cultivation, H&E, and Gram staining. In one subject, appreciable villous bacteria localized to an infarction, where 16S microbial detection was confirmed by Warthin-Starry stain. In all instances, parallel sample principle coordinate analysis using Bray-Cutis distances of 16S rRNA gene sequencing data demonstrated consistent taxonomical distinction from all negative or potential contamination controls (p=0.024, PERMANOVA). Classification from contaminant filtered data identified a distinct taxonomical makeup among term and preterm cohorts when compared to contaminant controls (FDR<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Presumptively intact placental microbes are visualized as low-abundance, low-biomass and sparse populations within the placenta regardless of gestational age and mode of delivery. Their taxonomic makeup is distinct from contamination controls. These findings further support several previously published findings, including our own, which have used metagenomics to characterize low-abundance and low-biomass microbial communities in the placenta.

RevDate: 2019-05-03

Chetwynd AJ, Ogilvie LA, Nzakizwanayo J, et al (2019)

The potential of nanoflow liquid chromatography-nano electrospray ionisation-mass spectrometry for global profiling the faecal metabolome.

Journal of chromatography. A pii:S0021-9673(19)30396-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Faeces are comprised of a wide array of metabolites arising from the circulatory system as well as the human microbiome. A global metabolite analysis (metabolomics) of faecal extracts offers the potential to uncover new compounds which may be indicative of the onset of bowel diseases such as colorectal cancer (CRC). To date, faecal metabolomics is still in its infancy and the compounds of low abundance present in faecal extracts poorly characterised. In this study, extracts of faeces from healthy subjects were profiled using a sensitive nanoflow-nanospray LC-MS platform which resulted in highly repeatable peak retention times (<2% CV) and intensities (<15% CV). Analysis of the extracts revealed wide coverage of the faecal metabolome including detection of low abundant signalling compounds such as sex steroids and eicosanoids, alongside highly abundant pharmaceuticals and tetrapyrrole metabolites. A small pilot study investigating differences in metabolomics profiles of faecal samples obtained from 7 CRC, 25 adenomatous polyp and 26 healthy groups revealed that secondary bile acids, conjugated androgens, eicosanoids, phospholipids and an unidentified haem metabolite were potential classes of metabolites that discriminated between the CRC and control sample groups. However, much larger follow up studies are needed to confirm which components of the faecal metabolome are associated with actual CRC disease rather than dietary influences. This study reveals the potential of nanospray-nanoflow LC-MS profiling of faecal samples from large scale cohort studies for uncovering the role of the faecal metabolome in colorectal disease formation.

RevDate: 2019-05-10

Sharma A, Richardson M, Cralle L, et al (2019)

Longitudinal homogenization of the microbiome between both occupants and the built environment in a cohort of United States Air Force Cadets.

Microbiome, 7(1):70 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0686-6.

BACKGROUND: The microbiome of the built environment has important implications for human health and wellbeing; however, bidirectional exchange of microbes between occupants and surfaces can be confounded by lifestyle, architecture, and external environmental exposures. Here, we present a longitudinal study of United States Air Force Academy cadets (n = 34), which have substantial homogeneity in lifestyle, diet, and age, all factors that influence the human microbiome. We characterized bacterial communities associated with (1) skin and gut samples from roommate pairs, (2) four built environment sample locations inside the pairs' dormitory rooms, (3) four built environment sample locations within shared spaces in the dormitory, and (4) room-matched outdoor samples from the window ledge of their rooms.

RESULTS: We analyzed 2,170 samples, which generated 21,866 unique amplicon sequence variants. Linear convergence of microbial composition and structure was observed between an occupants' skin and the dormitory surfaces that were only used by that occupant (i.e., desk). Conversely, bacterial community beta diversity (weighted Unifrac) convergence between the skin of both roommates and the shared dormitory floor between the two cadet's beds was not seen across the entire study population. The sampling period included two semester breaks in which the occupants vacated their rooms; upon their return, the beta diversity similarity between their skin and the surfaces had significantly decreased compared to before the break (p < 0.05). There was no apparent convergence between the gut and building microbiota, with the exception of communal bathroom door-handles, which suggests that neither co-occupancy, diet, or lifestyle homogenization had a significant impact on gut microbiome similarity between these cadets over the observed time frame. As a result, predictive classifier models were able to identify an individual more accurately based on the gut microbiota (74%) compared to skin (51%).

CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show an increase in skin microbial similarity of two individuals who start living together for the first time and who are not genetically related or romantically involved. Cohabitation was significantly associated with increased skin microbiota similarity but did not significantly influence the gut microbiota. Following a departure from the occupied space of several weeks, the skin microbiota, but not the gut microbiota, showed a significant reduction in similarity relative to the building. Overall, longitudinal observation of these dynamics enables us to dissect the influence of occupation, diet, and lifestyle factors on occupant and built environment microbial ecology.

RevDate: 2019-05-05

Vangay P, Hillmann BM, D Knights (2019)

Microbiome Learning Repo (ML Repo): A public repository of microbiome regression and classification tasks.

GigaScience, 8(5):.

The use of machine learning in high-dimensional biological applications, such as the human microbiome, has grown exponentially in recent years, but algorithm developers often lack the domain expertise required for interpretation and curation of the heterogeneous microbiome datasets. We present Microbiome Learning Repo (ML Repo, available at https://knights-lab.github.io/MLRepo/), a public, web-based repository of 33 curated classification and regression tasks from 15 published human microbiome datasets. We highlight the use of ML Repo in several use cases to demonstrate its wide application, and we expect it to be an important resource for algorithm developers.

RevDate: 2019-05-09

Zhao S, Lieberman TD, Poyet M, et al (2019)

Adaptive Evolution within Gut Microbiomes of Healthy People.

Cell host & microbe, 25(5):656-667.e8.

Natural selection shapes bacterial evolution in all environments. However, the extent to which commensal bacteria diversify and adapt within the human gut remains unclear. Here, we combine culture-based population genomics and metagenomics to investigate the within-microbiome evolution of Bacteroides fragilis. We find that intra-individual B. fragilis populations contain substantial de novo nucleotide and mobile element diversity, preserving years of within-person history. This history reveals multiple signatures of within-person adaptation, including parallel evolution in sixteen genes. Many of these genes are implicated in cell-envelope biosynthesis and polysaccharide utilization. Tracking evolutionary trajectories using near-daily metagenomic sampling, we find evidence for years-long coexistence in one subject despite adaptive dynamics. We used public metagenomes to investigate one adaptive mutation common in our cohort and found that it emerges frequently in Western, but not Chinese, microbiomes. Collectively, these results demonstrate that B. fragilis adapts within individual microbiomes, pointing to factors that promote long-term gut colonization.

RevDate: 2019-04-28

Raju SC, Lagström S, Ellonen P, et al (2019)

Gender-Specific Associations Between Saliva Microbiota and Body Size.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:767.

Objective: The human intestinal microbiota likely play an important role in the development of overweight and obesity. However, the associations between saliva microbiota and body mass index (BMI) have been sparsely studied. The aim of this study was to identify the associations between saliva microbiota and body size in Finnish children.

Methods: The saliva microbiota of 900 Finnish children, aged 11-14 years with measured height and weight, was characterized using 16S rRNA (V3-V4) sequencing.

Results: The core saliva microbiota consisted of 14 genera that were present in more than 95% of the Finnish children. The saliva microbiota profiles were gender-specific with higher alpha-diversity in boys than girls and significant differences between the genders in community composition and abundances. Alpha-diversity differed between normal weight and overweight girls and between normal weight and obese boys. The composition was dissimilar between normal weight and obese girls, but not in boys. The relative abundance profiles differed according to body size. Decrease in commensal saliva bacteria were observed in all the body sizes when compared to normal weight children. Notably, the relative abundance of bacteria related to, Veillonella, Prevotella, Selenomonas, and Streptococcus was reduced in obese children.

Conclusion: Saliva microbiota diversity and composition were significantly associated with body size and gender in Finnish children. Body size-specific saliva microbiota profiles open new avenues for studying the potential roles of microbiota in weight development and management.

RevDate: 2019-05-06

Wassan JT, Wang H, Browne F, et al (2019)

Phy-PMRFI: Phylogeny-aware Prediction of Metagenomic Functions using Random Forest Feature Importance.

IEEE transactions on nanobioscience [Epub ahead of print].

High-throughput sequencing techniques have accelerated functional metagenomics studies through the generation of large volumes of "omics" data. The integration of these data using computational approaches is potentially useful for predicting metagenomic functions. Machine learning (ML) models can be trained using microbial features which are then used to classify microbial data into different functional classes. For example, ML analyses over the human microbiome data have been linked to the prediction of important biological states. For analysing omics data, integrating abundance count of taxonomical features with their biological relationships is important. These relationships can potentially be uncovered from the phylogenetic tree of microbial taxa. In this paper, we propose a novel integrative framework Phy-PMRFI. This framework is driven by the phylogeny-based modeling of omics data to predict metagenomic functions using important features selected by a Random Forest Importance (RFI) strategy. The proposed framework integrates the underlying phylogenetic tree information with abundance measures of microbial species (features) by creating a novel phylogeny and abundance aware matrix structure (PAAM). Phy-PMRFI progresses by ranking the microbial features using an RFI measure. This is then used as input for microbiome classification. The resultant feature set enhances the performance of state-of-art methods such as Support Vector Machines. Our proposed integrative framework also outperforms the state-of-the-art pipeline of Phylogenetic Isometric Log-Ratio Transform (PhILR) and MetaPhyl. Prediction accuracy of 90 % is obtained with Phy-PMRFI over human throat microbiome in comparison to other approaches of PhILR with 53% and MetaPhyl with 71% Accuracy.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Zhang X, D Figeys (2019)

Perspective and Guidelines for Metaproteomics in Microbiome Studies.

Journal of proteome research, 18(6):2370-2380.

The microbiome is emerging as a prominent factor affecting human health, and its dysbiosis is associated with various diseases. Compositional profiling of microbiome is increasingly being supplemented with functional characterization. Metaproteomics is intrinsically focused on functional changes and therefore will be an important tool in those studies of the human microbiome. In the past decade, development of new experimental and bioinformatic approaches for metaproteomics has enabled large-scale human metaproteomic studies. However, challenges still exist, and there remains a lack of standardizations and guidelines for properly performing metaproteomic studies on human microbiome. Herein, we provide a perspective of recent developments, the challenges faced, and the future directions of metaproteomics and its applications. In addition, we propose a set of guidelines/recommendations for performing and reporting the results from metaproteomic experiments for the study of human microbiomes. We anticipate that these guidelines will be optimized further as more metaproteomic questions are raised and addressed, and metaproteomic applications are published, so that they are eventually recognized and applied in the field.

RevDate: 2019-04-29

Holster S, Lindqvist CM, Repsilber D, et al (2019)

The Effect of Allogenic Versus Autologous Fecal Microbiota Transfer on Symptoms, Visceral Perception and Fecal and Mucosal Microbiota in Irritable Bowel Syndrome: A Randomized Controlled Study.

Clinical and translational gastroenterology, 10(4):e00034.

OBJECTIVES: Fecal microbiota transfer (FMT) is suggested as a potential treatment for patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We aimed to study the effect of allogenic and autologous FMT on IBS symptoms, visceral sensitivity, and compositional changes in fecal and mucosa-adherent microbiota.

METHODS: Seventeen patients with IBS were randomized either to receive fecal material from a healthy donor (allogenic) or to receive their own fecal material (autologous). The fecal material was administered into the cecum by whole colonoscopy after bowel cleansing.

RESULTS: No significant differences were found between the allogenic and the autologous FMT regarding symptom scores. However, symptom scores of patients receiving allogenic fecal material significantly decreased after FMT compared with baseline (P = 0.02), which was not the case in the autologous group (P = 0.16). Visceral sensitivity was not affected except for a small beneficial effect on urge scores in the autologous group (P < 0.05). While both fecal and mucosa-adherent microbiota of some patients shifted to their respective donor's fecal microbiota, some patients showed no relevant microbial changes after allogenic FMT. Large compositional shifts in fecal and mucosa-adherent microbiota also occurred in the autologous group.

CONCLUSIONS: This study showed that a single FMT by colonoscopy may have beneficial effects in IBS; however, the allogenic fecal material was not superior to the autologous fecal material. This suggests that bowel cleansing prior to the colonoscopy and/or processing of the fecal material as part of the FMT routine contribute to symptoms and gut microbiota composition changes in IBS.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Hollister EB, Oezguen N, Chumpitazi BP, et al (2019)

Leveraging Human Microbiome Features to Diagnose and Stratify Children with Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

The Journal of molecular diagnostics : JMD, 21(3):449-461.

Accurate diagnosis and stratification of children with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) remain challenging. Given the central role of recurrent abdominal pain in IBS, we evaluated the relationships of pediatric IBS and abdominal pain with intestinal microbes and fecal metabolites using a comprehensive clinical characterization and multiomics strategy. Using rigorous clinical phenotyping, we identified preadolescent children (aged 7 to 12 years) with Rome III IBS (n = 23) and healthy controls (n = 22) and characterized their fecal microbial communities using whole-genome shotgun metagenomics and global unbiased fecal metabolomic profiling. Correlation-based approaches and machine learning algorithms identified associations between microbes, metabolites, and abdominal pain. IBS cases differed from controls with respect to key bacterial taxa (eg, Flavonifractor plautii and Lachnospiraceae bacterium 7_1_58FAA), metagenomic functions (eg, carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism), and higher-order metabolites (eg, secondary bile acids, sterols, and steroid-like compounds). Significant associations between abdominal pain frequency and severity and intestinal microbial features were identified. A random forest classifier built on metagenomic and metabolic markers successfully distinguished IBS cases from controls (area under the curve, 0.93). Leveraging multiple lines of evidence, intestinal microbes, genes/pathways, and metabolites were associated with IBS, and these features were capable of distinguishing children with IBS from healthy children. These multi-omics features, and their links to childhood IBS coupled with nutritional interventions, may lead to new microbiome-guided diagnostic and therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2019-06-04

Díez López C, Vidaki A, Ralf A, et al (2019)

Novel taxonomy-independent deep learning microbiome approach allows for accurate classification of different forensically relevant human epithelial materials.

Forensic science international. Genetics, 41:72-82 pii:S1872-4973(19)30017-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Correct identification of different human epithelial materials such as from skin, saliva and vaginal origin is relevant in forensic casework as it provides crucial information for crime reconstruction. However, the overlap in human cell type composition between these three epithelial materials provides challenges for their differentiation and identification when using previously proposed human cell biomarkers, while their microbiota composition largely differs. By using validated 16S rRNA gene massively parallel sequencing data from the Human Microbiome Project of 1636 skin, oral and vaginal samples, 50 taxonomy-independent deep learning networks were trained to classify these three tissues. Validation testing was performed in de-novo generated high-throughput 16S rRNA gene sequencing data using the Ion Torrent™ Personal Genome Machine from 110 test samples: 56 hand skin, 31 saliva and 23 vaginal secretion specimens. Body-site classification accuracy of these test samples was very high as indicated by AUC values of 0.99 for skin, 0.99 for oral, and 1 for vaginal secretion. Misclassifications were limited to 3 (5%) skin samples. Additional forensic validation testing was performed in mock casework samples by de-novo high-throughput sequencing of 19 freshly-prepared samples and 22 samples aged for 1 up to 7.6 years. All of the 19 fresh and 20 (91%) of the 22 aged mock casework samples were correctly tissue-type classified. Moreover, comparing the microbiome results with outcomes from previous human mRNA-based tissue identification testing in the same 16 aged mock casework samples reveals that our microbiome approach performs better in 12 (75%), similarly in 2 (12.5%), and less good in 2 (12.5%) of the samples. Our results demonstrate that this new microbiome approach allows for accurate tissue-type classification of three human epithelial materials of skin, oral and vaginal origin, which is highly relevant for future forensic investigations.

RevDate: 2019-04-21

Inkpen SA (2019)

Health, ecology and the microbiome.

eLife, 8: pii:47626.

Advances in microbiomics have changed the way in which many researchers think about health and disease. These changes have also raised a number of philosophical questions around these topics, such as the types of living systems to which these concepts can be applied. Here, I discuss the human microbiome from two perspectives: the first treats the microbiome as part of a larger system that includes the human; the second treats the microbiome as an independent ecosystem that provides services to humans. Drawing on the philosophy of medicine and ecology, I explore two questions: i) how can we make sense of disease and dysfunction in these two perspectives? ii) are these two perspectives complimentary or do they compete with each other?

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Wang T, Yang C, H Zhao (2019)

Prediction analysis for microbiome sequencing data.

Biometrics [Epub ahead of print].

One goal of human microbiome studies is to relate host traits with human microbiome compositions. The analysis of microbial community sequencing data presents great statistical challenges, especially when the samples have different library sizes and the data are overdispersed with many zeros. To address these challenges, we introduce a new statistical framework, called predictive analysis in metagenomics via inverse regression (PAMIR), to analyze microbiome sequencing data. Within this framework, an inverse regression model is developed for overdispersed microbiota counts given the trait, and then a prediction rule is constructed by taking advantage of the dimension-reduction structure in the model. An efficient Monte Carlo expectation-maximization algorithm is proposed for maximum likelihood estimation. The method is further generalized to accommodate other types of covariates. We demonstrate the advantages of PAMIR through simulations and two real data examples.

RevDate: 2019-04-19

Garretto A, Hatzopoulos T, C Putonti (2019)

virMine: automated detection of viral sequences from complex metagenomic samples.

PeerJ, 7:e6695 pii:6695.

Metagenomics has enabled sequencing of viral communities from a myriad of different environments. Viral metagenomic studies routinely uncover sequences with no recognizable homology to known coding regions or genomes. Nevertheless, complete viral genomes have been constructed directly from complex community metagenomes, often through tedious manual curation. To address this, we developed the software tool virMine to identify viral genomes from raw reads representative of viral or mixed (viral and bacterial) communities. virMine automates sequence read quality control, assembly, and annotation. Researchers can easily refine their search for a specific study system and/or feature(s) of interest. In contrast to other viral genome detection tools that often rely on the recognition of viral signature sequences, virMine is not restricted by the insufficient representation of viral diversity in public data repositories. Rather, viral genomes are identified through an iterative approach, first omitting non-viral sequences. Thus, both relatives of previously characterized viruses and novel species can be detected, including both eukaryotic viruses and bacteriophages. Here we present virMine and its analysis of synthetic communities as well as metagenomic data sets from three distinctly different environments: the gut microbiota, the urinary microbiota, and freshwater viromes. Several new viral genomes were identified and annotated, thus contributing to our understanding of viral genetic diversity in these three environments.

RevDate: 2019-05-01

Aleti G, Baker JL, Tang X, et al (2019)

Identification of the Bacterial Biosynthetic Gene Clusters of the Oral Microbiome Illuminates the Unexplored Social Language of Bacteria during Health and Disease.

mBio, 10(2): pii:mBio.00321-19.

Small molecules are the primary communication media of the microbial world. Recent bioinformatic studies, exploring the biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) which produce many small molecules, have highlighted the incredible biochemical potential of the signaling molecules encoded by the human microbiome. Thus far, most research efforts have focused on understanding the social language of the gut microbiome, leaving crucial signaling molecules produced by oral bacteria and their connection to health versus disease in need of investigation. In this study, a total of 4,915 BGCs were identified across 461 genomes representing a broad taxonomic diversity of oral bacteria. Sequence similarity networking provided a putative product class for more than 100 unclassified novel BGCs. The newly identified BGCs were cross-referenced against 254 metagenomes and metatranscriptomes derived from individuals either with good oral health or with dental caries or periodontitis. This analysis revealed 2,473 BGCs, which were differentially represented across the oral microbiomes associated with health versus disease. Coabundance network analysis identified numerous inverse correlations between BGCs and specific oral taxa. These correlations were present in healthy individuals but greatly reduced in individuals with dental caries, which may suggest a defect in colonization resistance. Finally, corroborating mass spectrometry identified several compounds with homology to products of the predicted BGC classes. Together, these findings greatly expand the number of known biosynthetic pathways present in the oral microbiome and provide an atlas for experimental characterization of these abundant, yet poorly understood, molecules and socio-chemical relationships, which impact the development of caries and periodontitis, two of the world's most common chronic diseases.IMPORTANCE The healthy oral microbiome is symbiotic with the human host, importantly providing colonization resistance against potential pathogens. Dental caries and periodontitis are two of the world's most common and costly chronic infectious diseases and are caused by a localized dysbiosis of the oral microbiome. Bacterially produced small molecules, often encoded by BGCs, are the primary communication media of bacterial communities and play a crucial, yet largely unknown, role in the transition from health to dysbiosis. This study provides a comprehensive mapping of the BGC repertoire of the human oral microbiome and identifies major differences in health compared to disease. Furthermore, BGC representation and expression is linked to the abundance of particular oral bacterial taxa in health versus dental caries and periodontitis. Overall, this study provides a significant insight into the chemical communication network of the healthy oral microbiome and how it devolves in the case of two prominent diseases.

RevDate: 2019-05-17

Parida S, D Sharma (2019)

The power of small changes: Comprehensive analyses of microbial dysbiosis in breast cancer.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Reviews on cancer, 1871(2):392-405.

Disparate occurrence of breast cancer remains an intriguing question since only a subset of women with known risk factors develop cancer. Recent studies suggest an active role of local and distant microbiota in breast cancer initiation, progression, and overall prognosis. A dysbiotic microbiota predisposes the body to develop cancer by inducing genetic instability, initiating DNA damage and proliferation of the damaged progeny, eliciting favorable immune response, metabolic dysregulation and altered response to therapy. In this review, we present our analyses of the existing datasets and discuss the local dysbiosis observed in breast cancer patients and different aspects of breast carcinogenesis that can be potentially influenced by local breast microbiota. Striking differences between microbial community compositions in breast of cancer patients compared to healthy individuals were noted. Differences in microbiome were also apparent between benign and malignant disease and between nipple aspirate fluid of healthy individuals and breast survivors. We also discuss the identification of distinct bacterial, fungal, viral as well as parasite signatures for breast cancer. These microbes are capable of producing numerous secondary metabolites that can act as signaling mediators effecting breast cancer progression. We review how microbes potentially alter response to therapy affecting drug metabolism, pharmacokinetics, anti-tumor effects and toxicity. In conclusion, breast harbors a community of microbes that can communicate with the host cells inducing downstream signaling pathways and modulating various aspects of breast cancer growth and metastatic progression and an improved understanding of microbial dysbiosis can potentially reduce breast cancer risk and improve outcomes of breast cancer patients. The human microbiome, now referred to as, the "forgotten organ" contains a metagenome that is 100-fold more diverse compared to the human genome, thereby, is critically associated with human health [1,2]. With the revelations of the human microbiome project and advent of deep sequencing techniques, a plethora of information has been acquired in recent years. Body sites like stomach, bladder and lungs, once thought to be sterile, are now known to harbor millions of indigenous microbial species. Approximately 80% of the healthy microbiome consists of Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes accompanied by Verrucomicrobia, Actinobacteria, Proteobacteria, Tenericutes and Cyanobacteria [2-7]. The role of microbiome in diabetes, obesity and even neurodegenerative diseases was greatly appreciated in the last decade [1,7-14] and now it has been established that microbiome significantly contributes to many organ specific cancers [1,15,16].

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Lerner A, Shoenfeld Y, T Matthias (2019)

Probiotics: If It Does Not Help It Does Not Do Any Harm. Really?.

Microorganisms, 7(4): pii:microorganisms7040104.

Probiotics per definition should have beneficial effects on human health, and their consumption has tremendously increased in the last decades. In parallel, the amount of published material and claims for their beneficial efficacy soared continuously. Recently, multiple systemic reviews, meta-analyses, and expert opinions expressed criticism on their claimed effects and safety. The present review describes the dark side of the probiotics, in terms of problematic research design, incomplete reporting, lack of transparency, and under-reported safety. Highlighted are the potential virulent factors and the mode of action in the intestinal lumen, risking the physiological microbiome equilibrium. Finally, regulatory topics are discussed to lighten the heterogeneous guidelines applied worldwide. The shift in the scientific world towards a better understanding of the human microbiome, before consumption of the probiotic cargo, is highly endorsed. It is hoped that better knowledge will extend the probiotic repertoire, re-confirm efficacy or safety, establish their efficacy and substantiate their beneficial effects.

RevDate: 2019-04-17

Jeong H, Arif B, Caetano-Anollés G, et al (2019)

Horizontal gene transfer in human-associated microorganisms inferred by phylogenetic reconstruction and reconciliation.

Scientific reports, 9(1):5953 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-42227-5.

Horizontal gene transfer (HGT) is widespread in the evolution of prokaryotes, especially those associated with the human body. Here, we implemented large-scale gene-species phylogenetic tree reconstructions and reconciliations to identify putative HGT-derived genes in the reference genomes of microbiota isolated from six major human body sites by the NIH Human Microbiome Project. Comparisons with a control group representing microbial genomes from diverse natural environments indicated that HGT activity increased significantly in the genomes of human microbiota, which is confirmatory of previous findings. Roughly, more than half of total genes in the genomes of human-associated microbiota were transferred (donated or received) by HGT. Up to 60% of the detected HGTs occurred either prior to the colonization of the human body or involved bacteria residing in different body sites. The latter could suggest 'genetic crosstalk' and movement of bacterial genes within the human body via hitherto poorly understood mechanisms. We also observed that HGT activity increased significantly among closely-related microorganisms and especially when they were united by physical proximity, suggesting that the 'phylogenetic effect' can significantly boost HGT activity. Finally, we identified several core and widespread genes least influenced by HGT that could become useful markers for building robust 'trees of life' and address several outstanding technical challenges to improve the phylogeny-based genome-wide HGT detection method for future applications.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Shetty SA, Smidt H, WM de Vos (2019)

Reconstructing functional networks in the human intestinal tract using synthetic microbiomes.

Current opinion in biotechnology, 58:146-154 pii:S0958-1669(18)30230-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The human intestinal tract harbors one of the most densely populated and open microbial ecosystems. The application of multi-omics approaches has provided insight into a wide array of complex interactions between the various groups of mainly anaerobic colonic microbes as well as the host-microbe dialogue. Integration of multi-omics techniques in cultivation based experiments that vary in complexity from monocultures to synthetic microbial communities identified key metabolic players in the trophic interactions as well as their ecological dynamics. A synergy between these approaches will be of utmost importance to reconstruct the functional interaction networks at the ecosystem level within the human intestinal microbiome. The improved understanding of microbiome functioning at ecosystem level will further aid in developing better predictive models and design of effective microbiome modulation strategies for health benefits.

RevDate: 2019-04-08

Algazina T, Yermekbayeva B, Batpenova G, et al (2019)

FEATURES OF MICROBIOTA IN PSORIATIC DISEASE: FROM SKIN AND GUT PERSPECTIVES (REVIEW).

Georgian medical news.

Psoriatic disease is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized by skin lesions. Psoriasis development has been associated both with genetic and environmental factors. Though skin and gut microbiota has been implicated in number of pathologies including atopic dermatitis, inflammatory bowel disease, Crohn's disease, allergy, and obesity, its role has been poorly studied in psoriatic disease, which incorporates both psoriasis and psoriatic arthritis. This literature review summarizes the most recent and major findings on microbiota features in psoriatic disease. Despite conflicting findings, psoriasis patients were frequently found to have distinct microbial composition in both skin and guts especially in the major bacterial phyla, Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes, and genus Akkermansia. Furthermore, bacterial DNA has been found in psoriatic patients both locally and systemically, and altogether suggesting a crucial role of bacteria in psoriatic disease and future studies in this field.

RevDate: 2019-04-30

Checinska Sielaff A, Urbaniak C, Mohan GBM, et al (2019)

Characterization of the total and viable bacterial and fungal communities associated with the International Space Station surfaces.

Microbiome, 7(1):50 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0666-x.

BACKGROUND: The International Space Station (ISS) is a closed system inhabited by microorganisms originating from life support systems, cargo, and crew that are exposed to unique selective pressures such as microgravity. To date, mandatory microbial monitoring and observational studies of spacecraft and space stations have been conducted by traditional culture methods, although it is known that many microbes cannot be cultured with standard techniques. To fully appreciate the true number and diversity of microbes that survive in the ISS, molecular and culture-based methods were used to assess microbial communities on ISS surfaces. Samples were taken at eight pre-defined locations during three flight missions spanning 14 months and analyzed upon return to Earth.

RESULTS: The cultivable bacterial and fungal population ranged from 104 to 109 CFU/m2 depending on location and consisted of various bacterial (Actinobacteria, Firmicutes, and Proteobacteria) and fungal (Ascomycota and Basidiomycota) phyla. Amplicon sequencing detected more bacterial phyla when compared to the culture-based analyses, but both methods identified similar numbers of fungal phyla. Changes in bacterial and fungal load (by culture and qPCR) were observed over time but not across locations. Bacterial community composition changed over time, but not across locations, while fungal community remained the same between samplings and locations. There were no significant differences in community composition and richness after propidium monoazide sample treatment, suggesting that the analyzed DNA was extracted from intact/viable organisms. Moreover, approximately 46% of intact/viable bacteria and 40% of intact/viable fungi could be cultured.

CONCLUSIONS: The results reveal a diverse population of bacteria and fungi on ISS environmental surfaces that changed over time but remained similar between locations. The dominant organisms are associated with the human microbiome and may include opportunistic pathogens. This study provides the first comprehensive catalog of both total and intact/viable bacteria and fungi found on surfaces in closed space systems and can be used to help develop safety measures that meet NASA requirements for deep space human habitation. The results of this study can have significant impact on our understanding of other confined built environments on the Earth such as clean rooms used in the pharmaceutical and medical industries.

RevDate: 2019-04-04

Sessa L, Reddel S, Manno E, et al (2019)

Distinct gut microbiota profile in antiretroviral therapy-treated perinatally HIV-infected patients associated with cardiac and inflammatory biomarkers.

AIDS (London, England), 33(6):1001-1011.

OBJECTIVE: Persistent inflammation and higher risk to develop cardiovascular diseases still represent a major complication for HIV-infected patients despite effective antiretroviral therapy (ART). We investigated the correlation between the gut microbiota profile, markers of inflammation, vascular endothelial activation (VEA) and microbial translocation (MT) in perinatally HIV-infected patients (PHIV) under ART.

DESIGN: Cross-sectional study including 61 ART-treated PHIV (age range 3-30 years old) and 71 age-matched healthy controls. Blood and stool sample were collected at the same time and analyzed for gut microbiota composition and plasma biomarkers.

METHODS: Gut microbiota composition was determined by 16S rRNA targeted-metagenomics. Soluble markers of MT, inflammation and VEA were quantified by ELISA or Luminex assay. Markers of immune activation were analyzed by flow cytometry on CD4 and CD8T cells.

RESULTS: We identified two distinct gut microbiota profiles (groups A and B) among PHIV. No different clinical parameters (age, sex, ethnicity, clinical class), dietary and sexual habits were found between the groups. The group A showed a relative dominance of Akkermansia muciniphila, whereas gut microbiota of group B was characterized by a higher biodiversity. The analysis of soluble markers revealed a significantly higher level of soluble E-selectine (P = 0.0296), intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (P = 0.0028), vascular adhesion molecule-1 (P = 0.0230), IL-6 (P = 0.0247) and soluble CD14 (P = 0.0142) in group A compared with group B.

CONCLUSION: Distinctive gut microbiota profiles are differently associated with inflammation, microbial translocation and VEA. Future studies are needed to understand the role of A. muciniphila and risk to develop cardiovascular diseases in PHIV.

RevDate: 2019-04-10

Brown SM, Chen H, Hao Y, et al (2019)

MGS-Fast: Metagenomic shotgun data fast annotation using microbial gene catalogs.

GigaScience, 8(4):.

BACKGROUND: Current methods used for annotating metagenomics shotgun sequencing (MGS) data rely on a computationally intensive and low-stringency approach of mapping each read to a generic database of proteins or reference microbial genomes.

RESULTS: We developed MGS-Fast, an analysis approach for shotgun whole-genome metagenomic data utilizing Bowtie2 DNA-DNA alignment of reads that is an alternative to using the integrated catalog of reference genes database of well-annotated genes compiled from human microbiome data. This method is rapid and provides high-stringency matches (>90% DNA sequence identity) of the metagenomics reads to genes with annotated functions. We demonstrate the use of this method with data from a study of liver disease and synthetic reads, and Human Microbiome Project shotgun data, to detect differentially abundant Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes gene functions in these experiments. This rapid annotation method is freely available as a Galaxy workflow within a Docker image.

CONCLUSIONS: MGS-Fast can confidently transfer functional annotations from gene databases to metagenomic reads, with speed and accuracy.

RevDate: 2019-04-02

Chernikova D, Yuan I, M Shaker (2019)

Prevention of allergy with diverse and healthy microbiota: an update.

Current opinion in pediatrics [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Microbiota consist of symbiotic microscopic neighbors that interact on and within our bodies in diverse and incompletely understood ways throughout our lifetime. Though various associations with allergic disease have been described, clear effective therapeutic interventions to prevent allergy have been elusive.

RECENT FINDINGS: The human microbiome is influenced by multiple factors, including: mode of infant delivery (vaginal vs. cesarean section), breastfeeding, diet, presence of siblings and pets, exposure to antibiotics and other medications (particularly antacids), lifestyle, and developmental context. Microbial species promoting atopic responses and tolerance have been described. Specific microbiota likely act through distinct metabolic pathways to promote the health of their human hosts, optimally directing the developing immune system away from pro-allergic, Th2-dominated responses to more T-regulatory-influenced behaviors.

SUMMARY: Evidence suggests that specific healthy infant microbiome signatures may influence development of some components of the allergic march of childhood by decreasing atopic dermatitis, asthma, and food allergy. Further understanding of factors that influence healthy microbiota may lead to specific strategies tailored for early intervention and disease prevention.

RevDate: 2019-04-02

Sander MA, Sander MS, Isaac-Renton JL, et al (2019)

The Cutaneous Microbiome: Implications for Dermatology Practice.

Journal of cutaneous medicine and surgery [Epub ahead of print].

The human integument is inhabited by a vast array of microorganisms known collectively as the cutaneous microbiome. As a result of advances in laboratory science, our understanding of the diversity and complexity of the human microbiome is rapidly evolving. In particular, advances in the field of genomics have enabled the study of the cutaneous microbiome with a hitherto unimaginable level of detail, resulting in a maturation of our understanding of cutaneous health and disease. Herein, we review current microbiology concepts and highlight the key features of recent laboratory advances, particularly with respect to genomics. We provide a summary of new findings related to normal skin flora, interactions between host immunity and microbial communities, and microbial relationships with common skin disorders. Finally, we review the implications for dermatologists.

RevDate: 2019-05-07

Sharma A, Buschmann MM, JA Gilbert (2019)

Pharmacomicrobiomics: The Holy Grail to Variability in Drug Response?.

Clinical pharmacology and therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

The human body, with 3.0 × 1013 cells and more than 3.8 × 1013 microorganisms, has nearly a one-to-one ratio of resident microbes to human cells. Initiatives like the Human Microbiome Project, American Gut, and Flemish Gut have identified associations between microbial taxa and human health. The study of interactions between microbiome and pharmaceutical agents, i.e., pharmacomicrobiomics, has revealed an instrumental role of the microbiome in modulating drug response that alters the therapeutic outcomes. In this review, we present our current comprehension of the relationship of the microbiome, host biology, and pharmaceutical agents such as cardiovascular drugs, analgesics, and chemotherapeutic agents to human disease and treatment outcomes. We also discuss the significance of studying diet-gene-drug interactions and further address the key challenges associated with pharmacomicrobiomics. Finally, we examine proposed models employing systems biology for the application of pharmacomicrobiomics and other -omics data, and provide approaches to elucidate microbiome-drug interactions to improve future translation to personalized medicine.

RevDate: 2019-04-30

Hamidi B, Wallace K, Vasu C, et al (2019)

[Formula: see text]-test: robust distance-based multivariate analysis of variance.

Microbiome, 7(1):51 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0659-9.

BACKGROUND: Community-wide analyses provide an essential means for evaluation of the effect of interventions or design variables on the composition of the microbiome. Applications of these analyses are omnipresent in microbiome literature, yet some of their statistical properties have not been tested for robustness towards common features of microbiome data. Recently, it has been reported that PERMANOVA can yield wrong results in the presence of heteroscedasticity and unbalanced sample sizes.

FINDINGS: We develop a method for multivariate analysis of variance, [Formula: see text], based on Welch MANOVA that is robust to heteroscedasticity in the data. We do so by extending a previously reported method that does the same for two-level independent factor variables. Our approach can accommodate multi-level factors, stratification, and multiple post hoc testing scenarios. An R language implementation of the method is available at https://github.com/alekseyenko/WdStar .

CONCLUSION: Our method resolves potential for confounding of location and dispersion effects in multivariate analyses by explicitly accounting for the differences in multivariate dispersion in the data tested. The methods based on [Formula: see text] have general applicability in microbiome and other 'omics data analyses.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Massari F, Mollica V, Di Nunno V, et al (2019)

The Human Microbiota and Prostate Cancer: Friend or Foe?.

Cancers, 11(4): pii:cancers11040459.

The human microbiome is gaining increasing attention in the medical community, as knowledge on its role not only in health but also in disease development and response to therapies is expanding. Furthermore, the connection between the microbiota and cancer, especially the link between the gut microbiota and gastrointestinal tumors, is becoming clearer. The interaction between the microbiota and the response to chemotherapies and, more recently, to immunotherapy has been widely studied, and a connection between a peculiar type of microbiota and a better response to these therapies and a different incidence in toxicities has been hypothesized. As knowledge on the gut microbiota increases, interest in the residing microbial population in other systems of our body is also increasing. Consequently, the urinary microbiota is under evaluation for its possible implications in genitourinary diseases, including cancer. Prostate cancer is the most common cancer in the male population; thus, research regarding its etiology and possible factors correlated to disease progression or the response to specific therapies is thriving. This review has the purpose to recollect the current knowledge on the relationship between the human microbiota and prostate cancer.

RevDate: 2019-05-01

Nava Lara RA, Aguilera-Mendoza L, Brizuela CA, et al (2019)

Heterologous Machine Learning for the Identification of Antimicrobial Activity in Human-Targeted Drugs.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 24(7): pii:molecules24071258.

The emergence of microbes resistant to common antibiotics represent a current treat to human health. It has been recently recognized that non-antibiotic labeled drugs may promote antibiotic-resistance mechanisms in the human microbiome by presenting a secondary antibiotic activity; hence, the development of computer-assisted procedures to identify antibiotic activity in human-targeted compounds may assist in preventing the emergence of resistant microbes. In this regard, it is worth noting that while most antibiotics used to treat human infectious diseases are non-peptidic compounds, most known antimicrobials nowadays are peptides, therefore all computer-based models aimed to predict antimicrobials either use small datasets of non-peptidic compounds rendering predictions with poor reliability or they predict antimicrobial peptides that are not currently used in humans. Here we report a machine-learning-based approach trained to identify gut antimicrobial compounds; a unique aspect of our model is the use of heterologous training sets, in which peptide and non-peptide antimicrobial compounds were used to increase the size of the training data set. Our results show that combining peptide and non-peptide antimicrobial compounds rendered the best classification of gut antimicrobial compounds. Furthermore, this classification model was tested on the latest human-approved drugs expecting to identify antibiotics with broad-spectrum activity and our results show that the model rendered predictions consistent with current knowledge about broad-spectrum antibiotics. Therefore, heterologous machine learning rendered an efficient computational approach to classify antimicrobial compounds.

RevDate: 2019-04-06

Jaja-Chimedza A, Zhang L, Wolff K, et al (2018)

A dietary isothiocyanate-enriched moringa (Moringa oleifera) seed extract improves glucose tolerance in a high-fat-diet mouse model and modulates the gut microbiome.

Journal of functional foods, 47:376-385.

Moringa oleifera (moringa) has been traditionally used for the treatment of diabetes and in water purification. We previously showed that moringa seed extract (MSE), standardized to its primary bioactive isothiocyanate (MIC-1), modulated inflammatory and antioxidant signaling pathways in vitro. To understand the efficacy and mechanisms of action of MSE in vivo, we incorporated MSE into the diets of normal and obese C57Bl/6J male mice fed a standard low-fat diet or a very high-fat diet for 12 wk, respectively. MSE supplementation resulted in reduced body weight, decreased adiposity, improved glucose tolerance, reduced inflammatory gene expression, and increased antioxidant gene expression. 16S rRNA gene sequencing and quantitative PCR of fecal/cecal samples showed major modulation of the gut microbial community and a significantly reduced bacterial load, similar to an antibiotic response. This suggests that MSE improves metabolic health by its intracellular anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities, and/or its antibiotic-like restructuring of the gut microbiota.

RevDate: 2019-04-03

Guo M, Xu E, D Ai (2019)

Inferring Bacterial Infiltration in Primary Colorectal Tumors From Host Whole Genome Sequencing Data.

Frontiers in genetics, 10:213.

Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide with abysmal survival, thus requiring novel therapy strategies. Numerous studies have frequently observed infiltrating bacteria within the primary tumor tissues derived from patients. These studies have implicated the relative abundance of these bacteria as a contributing factor in tumor progression. Infiltrating bacteria are believed to be among the major drivers of tumorigenesis, progression, and metastasis and, hence, promising targets for new treatments. However, measuring their abundance directly remains challenging. One potential approach is to use the unmapped reads of host whole genome sequencing (hWGS) data, which previous studies have considered as contaminants and discarded. Here, we developed rigorous bioinformatics and statistical procedures to identify tumor-infiltrating bacteria associated with colorectal cancer from such whole genome sequencing data. Our approach used the reads of whole genome sequencing data of colon adenocarcinoma tissues not mapped to the human reference genome, including unmapped paired-end read pairs and single-end reads, the mates of which were mapped. We assembled the unmapped read pairs, remapped all those reads to the collection of human microbiome reference, and then computed their relative abundance of microbes by maximum likelihood (ML) estimation. We analyzed and compared the relative abundance and diversity of infiltrating bacteria between primary tumor tissues and associated normal blood samples. Our results showed that primary tumor tissues contained far more diverse total infiltrating bacteria than normal blood samples. The relative abundance of Bacteroides fragilis, Bacteroides dorei, and Fusobacterium nucleatum was significantly higher in primary colorectal tumors. These three bacteria were among the top ten microbes in the primary tumor tissues, yet were rarely found in normal blood samples. As a validation step, most of these bacteria were also closely associated with colorectal cancer in previous studies with alternative approaches. In summary, our approach provides a new analytic technique for investigating the infiltrating bacterial community within tumor tissues. Our novel cloud-based bioinformatics and statistical pipelines to analyze the infiltrating bacteria in colorectal tumors using the unmapped reads of whole genome sequences can be freely accessed from GitHub at https://github.com/gutmicrobes/UMIB.git.

RevDate: 2019-04-03

Reid G, Gadir AA, R Dhir (2019)

Probiotics: Reiterating What They Are and What They Are Not.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:424.

It has been over seventeen years since the scientific definition of probiotics was crafted, along with guidelines ensuring the appropriate use of the term. This definition is now used globally, yet on a consistent basis scientists, media and industry misrepresent probiotics or make generalized statements that illustrate a misunderstanding of their utility and limitations. The rate of discovery of novel organisms with potentially therapeutic benefit for both human and environmental health is progressing at an unprecedented rate. However, the term "probiotic" is often misapplied to describe any microbe with plausible therapeutic utility in the human host. It is argued that strict compliance to the scientific definition of the term "probiotic" and avoidance of generalizations to the whole field of probiotics based upon studies of one product, will help advance the development and validation of microbial therapies, and applications to improve human health.

RevDate: 2019-04-30

van der Veer C, Hertzberger RY, Bruisten SM, et al (2019)

Comparative genomics of human Lactobacillus crispatus isolates reveals genes for glycosylation and glycogen degradation: implications for in vivo dominance of the vaginal microbiota.

Microbiome, 7(1):49 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0667-9.

BACKGROUND: A vaginal microbiota dominated by lactobacilli (particularly Lactobacillus crispatus) is associated with vaginal health, whereas a vaginal microbiota not dominated by lactobacilli is considered dysbiotic. Here we investigated whether L. crispatus strains isolated from the vaginal tract of women with Lactobacillus-dominated vaginal microbiota (LVM) are pheno- or genotypically distinct from L. crispatus strains isolated from vaginal samples with dysbiotic vaginal microbiota (DVM).

RESULTS: We studied 33 L. crispatus strains (n = 16 from LVM; n = 17 from DVM). Comparison of these two groups of strains showed that, although strain differences existed, both groups degraded various carbohydrates, produced similar amounts of organic acids, inhibited Neisseria gonorrhoeae growth, and did not produce biofilms. Comparative genomics analyses of 28 strains (n = 12 LVM; n = 16 DVM) revealed a novel, 3-fragmented glycosyltransferase gene that was more prevalent among strains isolated from DVM. Most L. crispatus strains showed growth on glycogen-supplemented growth media. Strains that showed less-efficient (n = 6) or no (n = 1) growth on glycogen all carried N-terminal deletions (respectively, 29 and 37 amino acid deletions) in a putative pullulanase type I protein.

DISCUSSION: L. crispatus strains isolated from LVM were not phenotypically distinct from L. crispatus strains isolated from DVM; however, the finding that the latter were more likely to carry a 3-fragmented glycosyltransferase gene may indicate a role for cell surface glycoconjugates, which may shape vaginal microbiota-host interactions. Furthermore, the observation that variation in the pullulanase type I gene is associated with growth on glycogen discourages previous claims that L. crispatus cannot directly utilize glycogen.

RevDate: 2019-04-02

Li Z, Lee K, Karagas MR, et al (2018)

Conditional Regression Based on a Multivariate Zero-Inflated Logistic-Normal Model for Microbiome Relative Abundance Data.

Statistics in biosciences, 10(3):587-608.

The human microbiome plays critical roles in human health and has been linked to many diseases. While advanced sequencing technologies can characterize the composition of the microbiome in unprecedented detail, it remains challenging to disentangle the complex interplay between human microbiome and disease risk factors due to the complicated nature of microbiome data. Excessive numbers e f zero values, high dimensionality, the hierarchical phylogenetic tree and compositional structure are compounded and consequently make existing methods inadequate to appropriately address these issues. We propose a multivariate two-part zero-inflated logistic normal (MZILN) model to analyze the association of disease risk factors with individual microbial taxa and overall microbial community composition. This approach can naturally handle excessive numbers e f zeros and the compositional data structure with the discrete part and the logistic-normal part e f the model. For parameter estimation, an estimating equations approach is employed that enables us to address the complex inter-taxa correlation structure induced by the hierarchical phylogenetic tree structure and the compositional data structure. This model is able to incorporate standard regularization approaches to deal with high dimensionality. Simulation shews that our model outperforms existing methods. Our approach is also compared to ethers using the analysis of real microbiome data.

RevDate: 2019-06-05
CmpDate: 2019-06-05

Ames NJ, Barb JJ, Ranucci A, et al (2019)

The oral microbiome of patients undergoing treatment for severe aplastic anemia: a pilot study.

Annals of hematology, 98(6):1351-1365.

The microbiome, an intriguing component of the human body, composed of trillions of microorganisms, has prompted scientific exploration to identify and understand its function and role in health and disease. As associations between microbiome composition, disease, and symptoms accumulate, the future of medicine hinges upon a comprehensive knowledge of these microorganisms for patient care. The oral microbiome may provide valuable and efficient insight for predicting future changes in disease status, infection, or treatment course. The main aim of this pilot study was to characterize the oral microbiome in patients with severe aplastic anemia (SAA) during their therapeutic course. SAA is a hematologic disease characterized by bone marrow failure which if untreated is fatal. Treatment includes either hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) or immunosuppressive therapy (IST). In this study, we examined the oral microbiome composition of 24 patients admitted to the National Institutes of Health (NIH) Clinical Center for experimental SAA treatment. Tongue brushings were collected to assess the effects of treatment on the oral microbiome. Twenty patients received standard IST (equine antithymocyte globulin and cyclosporine) plus eltrombopag. Four patients underwent HSCT. Oral specimens were obtained at three time points during treatment and clinical follow-up. Using a novel approach to 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis encompassing seven hypervariable regions, results demonstrated a predictable decrease in microbial diversity over time among the transplant patients. Linear discriminant analysis or LefSe reported a total of 14 statistically significant taxa (p < 0.05) across time points in the HSCT patients. One-way plots of relative abundance for two bacterial species (Haemophilus parainfluenzae and Rothia mucilaginosa) in the HSCT group, show the differences in abundance between time points. Only one bacterial species (Prevotella histicola) was noted in the IST group with a p value of 0.065. The patients receiving immunosuppressive therapy did not exhibit a clear change in diversity over time; however, patient-specific changes were noted. In addition, we compared our findings to tongue dorsum samples from healthy participants in the Human Microbiome Project (HMP) database and found among HSCT patients, approximately 35% of bacterial identifiers (N = 229) were unique to this study population and were not present in tongue dorsum specimens obtained from the HMP. Among IST-treated patients, 45% (N = 351) were unique to these patients and not identified by the HMP. Although antibiotic use may have likely influenced bacterial composition and diversity, some literature suggests a decreased impact of antimicrobials on the oral microbiome as compared to their effect on the gut microbiome. Future studies with larger sample sizes that focus on the oral microbiome and the effects of antibiotics in an immunosuppressed patient population may help establish these potential associations.

RevDate: 2019-03-28

Shannon MB, Limeira R, Johansen D, et al (2019)

Bladder urinary oxygen tension is correlated with urinary microbiota composition.

International urogynecology journal pii:10.1007/s00192-019-03931-y [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION AND HYPOTHESIS: Presence of microbial communities (microbiota) in an organ system depends on environmental factors, such as oxygen availability. We describe a novel technique to measure bladder urine oxygen tension (BUOT) in ambulatory women and use that technique to compare BUOT values to female urinary microbiota and participant urinary signs and symptoms.

METHODS: Ambulatory female urogynecology patients presenting for clinical care who were willing to undergo transurethral catheterization underwent BUOT determination with a non-invasive flow-through oxygen sensor. To detect urinary microbiota in the bladder, 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed on catheterized urine. Multivariate statistical analyses were performed to examine potential correlations among BUOT, urinary microbiota compositions and clinical variables.

RESULTS: Significant variation in BUOT existed between individuals (range: 0.47-51.5 mmHg; median: 23.1 ± 13.5). Microbiota compositions were associated with BUOT (p = 0.03). BUOT was significantly lower in urines that were nitrite negative on dipstick analysis (p = 0.0001) and in participants who answered yes to having urinary leakage on the validated Urinary Distress Inventory (p = 0.01).

CONCLUSIONS: BUOTs can be measured in ambulatory women. For urogynecology patients, a wide range of values exist. BUOT may be associated with the presence of urinary microbiota and resultant signs and symptoms.

RevDate: 2019-04-30

George A (2019)

Antimicrobial Resistance (AMR) in the Food Chain: Trade, One Health and Codex.

Tropical medicine and infectious disease, 4(1): pii:tropicalmed4010054.

Strategies that take on a One Health approach to addressing antimicrobial resistance (AMR) focused on reducing human use of antimicrobials, but policy-makers now have to grapple with a different set of political, economic, and highly sensitive trade interests less amenable to government direction, to tackle AMR in the food chain. Understanding the importance and influence of the intergovernmental Codex negotiations underway on AMR in the Food Chain is very weak but essential for AMR public policy experts. National and global food producing industries are already under pressure as consumers learn about the use of antimicrobials in food production and more so when the full impact of AMR microorganisms in the food chain and on the human microbiome is better understood. Governments will be expected to respond. Trade-related negotiations on access and use made of antimicrobials is political: the relevance of AMR 'evidence' is already contested and not all food producers or users of antimicrobials in the food chain are prepared to, or capable of, moving at the same pace. In trade negotiations governments defend their interpretation of national interest. Given AMR in the global food chain threatens national interest, both AMR One Health and zoonotic disease experts should understand and participate in all trade-related AMR negotiations to protect One Health priorities. To help facilitate this an overview and analysis of Codex negotiations is provided.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

El-Awady A, de Sousa Rabelo M, Meghil MM, et al (2019)

Polymicrobial synergy within oral biofilm promotes invasion of dendritic cells and survival of consortia members.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 5:11 pii:84.

Years of human microbiome research have confirmed that microbes rarely live or function alone, favoring diverse communities. Yet most experimental host-pathogen studies employ single species models of infection. Here, the influence of three-species oral microbial consortium on growth, virulence, invasion and persistence in dendritic cells (DCs) was examined experimentally in human monocyte-derived dendritic cells (DCs) and in patients with periodontitis (PD). Cooperative biofilm formation by Streptococcus gordonii, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Porphyromonas gingivalis was documented in vitro using growth models and scanning electron microscopy. Analysis of growth rates by species-specific 16s rRNA probes revealed distinct, early advantages to consortium growth for S. gordonii and F. nucleatum with P. gingivalis, while P. gingivalis upregulated its short mfa1 fimbriae, leading to increased invasion of DCs. F. nucleatum was only taken up by DCs when in consortium with P. gingivalis. Mature consortium regressed DC maturation upon uptake, as determined by flow cytometry. Analysis of dental plaques of PD and healthy subjects by 16s rRNA confirmed oral colonization with consortium members, but DC hematogenous spread was limited to P. gingivalis and F. nucleatum. Expression of P. gingivalis mfa1 fimbriae was increased in dental plaques and hematogenous DCs of PD patients. P. gingivalis in the consortium correlated with an adverse clinical response in the gingiva of PD subjects. In conclusion, we have identified polymicrobial synergy in a three-species oral consortium that may have negative consequences for the host, including microbial dissemination and adverse peripheral inflammatory responses.

RevDate: 2019-05-23

Brito IL, Gurry T, Zhao S, et al (2019)

Transmission of human-associated microbiota along family and social networks.

Nature microbiology, 4(6):964-971.

The human microbiome, described as an accessory organ because of the crucial functions it provides, is composed of species that are uniquely found in humans1,2. Yet, surprisingly little is known about the impact of routine interpersonal contacts in shaping microbiome composition. In a relatively 'closed' cohort of 287 people from the Fiji Islands, where common barriers to bacterial transmission are absent, we examine putative bacterial transmission in individuals' gut and oral microbiomes using strain-level data from both core single-nucleotide polymorphisms and flexible genomic regions. We find a weak signal of transmission, defined by the inferred sharing of genotypes, across many organisms that, in aggregate, reveals strong transmission patterns, most notably within households and between spouses. We were unable to determine the directionality of transmission nor whether it was direct. We further find that women harbour strains more closely related to those harboured by their familial and social contacts than men, and that transmission patterns of oral-associated and gut-associated microbiota need not be the same. Using strain-level data alone, we are able to confidently predict a subset of spouses, highlighting the role of shared susceptibilities, behaviours or social interactions that distinguish specific links in the social network.

RevDate: 2019-05-03
CmpDate: 2019-05-03

Leynaert B, Le Moual N, Neukirch C, et al (2019)

[Environmental risk factors for asthma developement].

Presse medicale (Paris, France : 1983), 48(3 Pt 1):262-273.

The prevalence of asthma has increased rapidly since the early 1970s, and only changes in exposure to environmental factors; which go together with changes in lifestyle, are likely to explain such a rapid increase. Exposure to allergens is a risk factor for allergic sensitization, and allergic sensitization is a risk factor for allergic asthma. However, apart from indoor mold exposure as a risk factor for childhood asthma, there is insufficient evidence to conclude that the associations between allergen exposure and asthma development are causal. A new challenge for research is to analyze the huge amount of data derived from the metagenomic characterization of the environmental and human microbiome, to understand the role of interactions between viruses, bacteria and allergens in the development of asthma. It is recognized that prenatal and postnatal exposure to air pollution and maternal smoking increase the risk of developing asthma in children. In adults, the data are scarce and the results remain controversial as regards these exposures and asthma incidence. Further research is needed to appraise the effect of exposure to phenols, phthalates and perfluorinated compounds, which are widespread in the environment and may be associated with asthma, especially in children. Frequent use of chemicals for home cleaning especially in the form of sprays - which is a common practice at the population level - is a risk factor for the development of adult asthma. The domestic use of cleaning products might also be a risk factor for asthma in children exposed at home. The chemicals involved in these relationships are still to be identified. Occupational asthma is a major phenotype of adult asthma. A significant part of these asthma cases might relate to occupational exposure to cleaning products. While there is evidence of associations between diet during pregnancy or during childhood and the risk of developing asthma in children, the data in adults are insufficient. Beyond genetic factors, body composition is influenced by dietary choices and physical activity. Further research is needed to clarify the complex interplay between these nutritional factors and asthma development. The new challenge for research is to decipher the role of all the environmental factors to which the individual is exposed since conception ("exposome") in the development of asthma, using a holistic approach.

RevDate: 2019-03-25

Ahern GJ, Hennessy AA, Ryan CA, et al (2019)

Advances in Infant Formula Science.

Annual review of food science and technology, 10:75-102.

Human milk contains a plethora of nutrients and bioactive components to help nourish the developing neonate and is considered the "gold standard" for early life nutrition-as befits the only food "designed" by evolution to feed human infants. Over the past decade, there is considerable evidence that highlights the "intelligence" contained in milk components that contribute to infant health beyond basic nutrition-in areas such as programming the developing microbiome and immune system and protecting against infection. Such discoveries have led to new opportunities for infant milk formula (IMF) manufacturers to refine nutritional content in order to simulate the functionality of breast milk. These include the addition of specialized protein fractions as well as fatty acid and complex carbohydrate components-all of which have mechanistic supporting evidence in terms of improving the health and nutrition of the infant. Moreover, IMF is the single most important dietary intervention whereby the human microbiome can be influenced at a crucial early stage of development. In this respect, it is expected that the complexity of IMF will continue to increase as we get a greater understanding of how it can modulate microbiota development (including the development of probiotics, prebiotics, and synbiotics) and influence long-term health. This review provides a scientific evaluation of key features of importance to infant nutrition, including differences in milk composition and emerging "humanized" ingredients.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Reddel S, Del Chierico F, Quagliariello A, et al (2019)

Gut microbiota profile in children affected by atopic dermatitis and evaluation of intestinal persistence of a probiotic mixture.

Scientific reports, 9(1):4996 pii:10.1038/s41598-019-41149-6.

Atopic dermatitis (AD) has been hypothesised to be associated with gut microbiota (GM) composition. We performed a comparative study of the GM profile of 19 AD children and 18 healthy individuals aimed at identifying bacterial biomarkers associated with the disease. The effect of probiotic intake (Bifidobacterium breve plus Lactobacillus salivarius) on the modulation of GM and the probiotic persistence in the GM were also evaluated. Faecal samples were analysed by real-time PCR and 16S rRNA targeted metagenomics. Although the probiotics, chosen for this study, did not shape the entire GM profile, we observed the ability of these species to pass through the gastrointestinal tract and to persist (only B. breve) in the GM. Moreover, the GM of patients compared to CTRLs showed a dysbiotic status characterised by an increase of Faecalibacterium, Oscillospira, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides and Sutterella and a reduction of short-chain fatty acid (SCFA)-producing bacteria (i.e., Bifidobacterium, Blautia, Coprococcus, Eubacterium and Propionibacterium). Taken togheter these results show an alteration in AD microbiota composition with the depletion or absence of some species, opening the way to future probiotic intervention studies.

RevDate: 2019-03-21

Nguyen VD, Nguyen TT, Pham TT, et al (2019)

Molecular screening and genetic diversity analysis of anticancer Azurin-encoding and Azurin-like genes in human gut microbiome deduced through cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent studies.

International microbiology : the official journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology pii:10.1007/s10123-019-00070-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Azurin, a bacteriocin produced by a human gut bacterium Pseudomonas aeruginosa, can reveal selectively cytotoxic and induce apoptosis in cancer cells. After overcoming two phase I trials, a functional region of Azurin called p28 has been approved as a drug for the treatment of brain tumor glioma by FDA. The present study aims to improve a screening procedure and assess genetic diversity of Azurin genes in P. aeruginosa and Azurin-like genes in the gut microbiome of a specific population in Vietnam and global populations. Firstly, both cultivation-dependent and cultivation-independent techniques based on genomic and metagenomic DNAs extracted from fecal samples of the healthy specific population were performed and optimized to detect Azurin genes. Secondly, the Azurin gene sequences were analyzed and compared with global populations by using bioinformatics tools. Finally, the screening procedure improved from the first step was applied for screening Azurin-like genes, followed by the protein synthesis and NCI in vitro screening for anticancer activity. As a result, this study has successfully optimized the annealing temperatures to amplify DNAs for screening Azurin genes and applying to Azurin-like genes from human gut microbiota. The novelty of this study is the first of its kind to classify Azurin genes into five different genotypes at a global scale and confirm the potential anticancer activity of three Azurin-like synthetic proteins (Cnazu1, Dlazu11, and Ruazu12). The results contribute to the procedure development applied for screening anticancer proteins from human microbiome and a comprehensive understanding of their therapeutic response at a genetic level.

RevDate: 2019-03-29

Brown EEF, Cooper A, Carrillo C, et al (2019)

Selection of Multidrug-Resistant Bacteria in Medicated Animal Feeds.

Frontiers in microbiology, 10:456.

Exposure to antimicrobial resistant (AMR) bacteria is a major public health issue which may, in part, have roots in food production practices that are conducive to the selection of AMR bacteria ultimately impacting the human microbiome through food consumption. Of particular concern is the prophylactic use of antibiotics in animal husbandry, such as the medication of feeds with sulfonamides and other antibiotics not considered clinically relevant, but which may nonetheless co-select for multi-drug resistant (MDR) bacteria harboring resistance to medically important antibiotics. Using a MDR Klebsiella pneumoniae strain exhibiting resistance to sulfonamides and beta-lactams (including carbapenem) as a model, we examined the ability of non-medicated and commercially medicated (sulfonamide) animal feeds to select for the model strain when inoculated at low levels by measuring its recovery along with key AMR markers, sul1(sulfonamide) and blaKPC-3 (meropenem), under different incubation conditions. When non-medicated feeds were supplemented with defined amounts of sulfadiazine the model strain was significantly enriched after incubation in Mueller Hinton Broth at 37°C overnight, or in same at room temperature for a week, with consistent detection of both the sul1 and blaKPC-3 markers as determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques to screen colony isolates recovered on plating media. Significant recoveries of the inoculated strain and the sul1 and blaKPC-3 markers were observed with one of three commercially medicated (sulfamethazine) feeds tested under various incubation conditions. These results demonstrate that under certain conditions the prophylactic use of so-called non-priority antibiotics in feeds can potentially lead to co-selection of environmental AMR bacteria with resistance to medically important antibiotics, which may have far-reaching implications for human health.

RevDate: 2019-03-21

Ma ZS, Li L, NJ Gotelli (2019)

Diversity-disease relationships and shared species analyses for human microbiome-associated diseases.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-019-0395-y [Epub ahead of print].

Diversity indices have been routinely computed in the study of human microbiome-associated diseases (MADs). However, it is still unclear whether there is a consistent diversity-disease relationship (DDR) for the human MADs, and whether there are consistent differences in the taxonomic composition of microbiomes sampled from healthy versus diseased individuals. Here we reanalyzed raw data and used a meta-analysis to compare the microbiome diversity and composition of healthy versus diseased individuals in 41 comparisons extracted from 27 previously published studies of human MADs. In the DDR analysis, the average effect size across studies did not differ from zero for a comparison of healthy versus diseased individuals. In 30 of 41 comparisons (73%) there was no significant difference in microbiome diversity of healthy versus diseased individuals, or of different disease classes. For the species composition analysis (shared species analysis), the effect sizes were significantly different from zero. In 33 of 41 comparisons (80%), there were fewer OTUs (operational taxonomic units) shared between healthy and diseased individuals than expected by chance, but with 49% (20 of 41 comparisons) statistically significant. These results imply that the taxonomic composition of disease-associated microbiomes is often distinct from that of healthy individuals. Because species composition changes with disease state, some microbiome OTUs may serve as potential diagnostic indicators of disease. However, the overall species diversity of human microbiomes is not a reliable indicator of disease.

RevDate: 2019-05-26

Chen QL, Cui HL, Su JQ, et al (2019)

Antibiotic Resistomes in Plant Microbiomes.

Trends in plant science, 24(6):530-541.

Microorganisms associated with plants may alter the traits of the human microbiome important for human health, but this alteration has largely been overlooked. The plant microbiome is an interface between plants and the environment, and provides many ecosystem functions such as improving nutrient uptake and protecting against biotic and abiotic stress. The plant microbiome also represents a major pathway by which humans are exposed to microbes and genes consumed with food, such as pathogenic bacteria, antibiotic-resistant bacteria, and antibiotic-resistance genes. In this review we highlight the main findings on the composition and function of the plant microbiome, and underline the potential of plant microbiomes in the dissemination of antibiotic resistance via food consumption or direct contact.

RevDate: 2019-06-10

Tovaglieri A, Sontheimer-Phelps A, Geirnaert A, et al (2019)

Species-specific enhancement of enterohemorrhagic E. coli pathogenesis mediated by microbiome metabolites.

Microbiome, 7(1):43 pii:10.1186/s40168-019-0650-5.

BACKGROUND: Species-specific differences in tolerance to infection are exemplified by the high susceptibility of humans to enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli (EHEC) infection, whereas mice are relatively resistant to this pathogen. This intrinsic species-specific difference in EHEC infection limits the translation of murine research to human. Furthermore, studying the mechanisms underlying this differential susceptibility is a difficult problem due to complex in vivo interactions between the host, pathogen, and disparate commensal microbial communities.

RESULTS: We utilize organ-on-a-chip (Organ Chip) microfluidic culture technology to model damage of the human colonic epithelium induced by EHEC infection, and show that epithelial injury is greater when exposed to metabolites derived from the human gut microbiome compared to mouse. Using a multi-omics approach, we discovered four human microbiome metabolites-4-methyl benzoic acid, 3,4-dimethylbenzoic acid, hexanoic acid, and heptanoic acid-that are sufficient to mediate this effect. The active human microbiome metabolites preferentially induce expression of flagellin, a bacterial protein associated with motility of EHEC and increased epithelial injury. Thus, the decreased tolerance to infection observed in humans versus other species may be due in part to the presence of compounds produced by the human intestinal microbiome that actively promote bacterial pathogenicity.

CONCLUSION: Organ-on-chip technology allowed the identification of specific human microbiome metabolites modulating EHEC pathogenesis. These identified metabolites are sufficient to increase susceptibility to EHEC in our human Colon Chip model and they contribute to species-specific tolerance. This work suggests that higher concentrations of these metabolites could be the reason for higher susceptibility to EHEC infection in certain human populations, such as children. Furthermore, this research lays the foundation for therapeutic-modulation of microbe products in order to prevent and treat human bacterial infection.

RevDate: 2019-04-06

LaPierre N, Ju CJ, Zhou G, et al (2019)

MetaPheno: A critical evaluation of deep learning and machine learning in metagenome-based disease prediction.

Methods (San Diego, Calif.) pii:S1046-2023(18)30362-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome plays a number of critical roles, impacting almost every aspect of human health and well-being. Conditions in the microbiome have been linked to a number of significant diseases. Additionally, revolutions in sequencing technology have led to a rapid increase in publicly-available sequencing data. Consequently, there have been growing efforts to predict disease status from metagenomic sequencing data, with a proliferation of new approaches in the last few years. Some of these efforts have explored utilizing a powerful form of machine learning called deep learning, which has been applied successfully in several biological domains. Here, we review some of these methods and the algorithms that they are based on, with a particular focus on deep learning methods. We also perform a deeper analysis of Type 2 Diabetes and obesity datasets that have eluded improved results, using a variety of machine learning and feature extraction methods. We conclude by offering perspectives on study design considerations that may impact results and future directions the field can take to improve results and offer more valuable conclusions. The scripts and extracted features for the analyses conducted in this paper are available via GitHub:https://github.com/nlapier2/metapheno.

RevDate: 2019-05-21

Cohen LJ, Cho JH, Gevers D, et al (2019)

Genetic Factors and the Intestinal Microbiome Guide Development of Microbe-Based Therapies for Inflammatory Bowel Diseases.

Gastroenterology, 156(8):2174-2189.

The intestinal microbiota is a dynamic community of bacteria, fungi, and viruses that mediates mucosal homeostasis and physiology. Imbalances in the microbiome and aberrant immune responses to gut bacteria can disrupt homeostasis and are associated with inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) in humans and colitis in mice. We review genetic variants associated with IBD and their effects on the intestinal microbiome, the immune response, and disease pathogenesis. The intestinal microbiome, which includes microbial antigens, adjuvants, and metabolic products, affects the development and function of the intestinal mucosa, influencing inflammatory responses in the gut. Therefore, strategies to manipulate the microbiome might be used in treatment of IBD. We review microbe-based therapies for IBD and the potential to engineer patients' intestinal microbiota. We discuss how studies of patients with IBD and mouse models have advanced our understanding of the interactions between genetic factors and the gut microbiome, and challenges to the development of microbe-based therapies for IBD.

RevDate: 2019-03-16

Shaw LP, Bassam H, Barnes CP, et al (2019)

Modelling microbiome recovery after antibiotics using a stability landscape framework.

The ISME journal pii:10.1038/s41396-019-0392-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Treatment with antibiotics is one of the most extreme perturbations to the human microbiome. Even standard courses of antibiotics dramatically reduce the microbiome's diversity and can cause transitions to dysbiotic states. Conceptually, this is often described as a 'stability landscape': the microbiome sits in a landscape with multiple stable equilibria, and sufficiently strong perturbations can shift the microbiome from its normal equilibrium to another state. However, this picture is only qualitative and has not been incorporated in previous mathematical models of the effects of antibiotics. Here, we outline a simple quantitative model based on the stability landscape concept and demonstrate its success on real data. Our analytical impulse-response model has minimal assumptions with three parameters. We fit this model in a Bayesian framework to data from a previous study of the year-long effects of short courses of four common antibiotics on the gut and oral microbiomes, allowing us to compare parameters between antibiotics and microbiomes, and further validate our model using data from another study looking at the impact of a combination of last-resort antibiotics on the gut microbiome. Using Bayesian model selection we find support for a long-term transition to an alternative microbiome state after courses of certain antibiotics in both the gut and oral microbiomes. Quantitative stability landscape frameworks are an exciting avenue for future microbiome modelling.

RevDate: 2019-03-27

Douillard FP, WM de Vos (2019)

Biotechnology of health-promoting bacteria.

Biotechnology advances pii:S0734-9750(19)30044-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Over the last decade, there has been an increasing scientific and public interest in bacteria that may positively contribute to human gut health and well-being. This interest is reflected by the ever-increasing number of developed functional food products containing health-promoting bacteria and reaching the market place as well as by the growing revenue and profits of notably bacterial supplements worldwide. Traditionally, the origin of probiotic-marketed bacteria was limited to a rather small number of bacterial species that mostly belong to lactic acid bacteria and bifidobacteria. Intensifying research efforts on the human gut microbiome offered novel insights into the role of human gut microbiota in health and disease, while also providing a deep and increasingly comprehensive understanding of the bacterial communities present in this complex ecosystem and their interactions with the gut-liver-brain axis. This resulted in rational and systematic approaches to select novel health-promoting bacteria or to engineer existing bacteria with enhanced probiotic properties. In parallel, the field of gut microbiomics developed into a fertile framework for the identification, isolation and characterization of a phylogenetically diverse array of health-promoting bacterial species, also called next-generation therapeutic bacteria. The present review will address these developments with specific attention for the selection and improvement of a selected number of health-promoting bacterial species and strains that are extensively studied or hold promise for future food or pharma product development.

RevDate: 2019-04-12

Minot SS (2019)

De novo Assembly Vastly Expands the Known Microbial Universe.

Trends in microbiology, 27(5):385-386.

The study of the human microbiome relies heavily on the genomes of bacterial isolates that can be grown in culture. A recent study (Pasolli et al. Cell 2019;176:649-662) of stool microbiome samples generated over 150 000 microbial genomes without any culture, vastly expanding our knowledge of the biases in existing reference databases.

RevDate: 2019-05-02
CmpDate: 2019-05-02

Perz AI, Giles CB, Brown CA, et al (2019)

MNEMONIC: MetageNomic Experiment Mining to create an OTU Network of Inhabitant Correlations.

BMC bioinformatics, 20(Suppl 2):96 pii:10.1186/s12859-019-2623-x.

BACKGROUND: The number of publicly available metagenomic experiments in various environments has been rapidly growing, empowering the potential to identify similar shifts in species abundance between different experiments. This could be a potentially powerful way to interpret new experiments, by identifying common themes and causes behind changes in species abundance.

RESULTS: We propose a novel framework for comparing microbial shifts between conditions. Using data from one of the largest human metagenome projects to date, the American Gut Project (AGP), we obtain differential abundance vectors for microbes using experimental condition information provided with the AGP metadata, such as patient age, dietary habits, or health status. We show it can be used to identify similar and opposing shifts in microbial species, and infer putative interactions between microbes. Our results show that groups of shifts with similar effects on microbiome can be identified and that similar dietary interventions display similar microbial abundance shifts.

CONCLUSIONS: Without comparison to prior data, it is difficult for experimentalists to know if their observed changes in species abundance have been observed by others, both in their conditions and in others they would never consider comparable. Yet, this can be a very important contextual factor in interpreting the significance of a shift. We've proposed and tested an algorithmic solution to this problem, which also allows for comparing the metagenomic signature shifts between conditions in the existing body of data.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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