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Bibliography on: Human Microbiome

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 22 Oct 2020 at 01:48 Created: 

Human Microbiome

The human microbiome is the set of all microbes that live on or in humans. Together, a human body and its associated microbiomes constitute a human holobiont. Although a human holobiont is mostly mammal by weight, by cell count it is mostly microbial. The number of microbial genes in the associated microbiomes far outnumber the number of human genes in the human genome. Just as humans (and other multicellular eukaryotes) evolved in the constant presence of gravity, so they also evolved in the constant presence of microbes. Consequently, nearly every aspect of human biology has evolved to deal with, and to take advantage of, the existence of associated microbiota. In some cases, the absence of a "normal microbiome" can cause disease, which can be treated by the transplant of a correct microbiome from a healthy donor. For example, fecal transplants are an effective treatment for chronic diarrhea from over abundant Clostridium difficile bacteria in the gut.

Created with PubMed® Query: "human microbiome" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2020-10-21

Del Chierico F, Grassini P, Quagliariello A, et al (2020)

The impact of intestinal microbiota on weight loss in Parkinson's disease patients: a pilot study.

Future microbiology, 15:1393-1404.

Background: There is increasing evidence of the association between microbiome dysfunction and Parkinson's disease (PD). Moreover, some PD patients suffer from unintentional weight loss (WL) which may precede the motor manifestations of the disease. Materials & methods: Gut microbiota profiling by 16S rRNA gene sequencing was performed in PD patients with an unintended WL, in steady weight patients (non-WL [NWL]) and in matched normal subjects. KEGG functional predictions were carried out. Results: Microbiota profiles revealed a dissimilarity between WL and NWL. Moreover, WL pathways were characterized by fatty acid biosynthesis, while NWL by inflammation pathways. Conclusion: The gut microbiota could participate in weight alteration observed in PD by the presence of bacteria involved in weight gain and inflammation, or conversely by bacteria implicated in energy expenditure.

RevDate: 2020-10-21

Deschamps C, Fournier E, Uriot O, et al (2020)

Comparative methods for fecal sample storage to preserve gut microbial structure and function in an in vitro model of the human colon.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology pii:10.1007/s00253-020-10959-4 [Epub ahead of print].

In vitro gut models, such as the mucosal artificial colon (M-ARCOL), provide timely and cost-efficient alternatives to in vivo assays allowing mechanistic studies to better understand the role of human microbiome in health and disease. Using such models inoculated with human fecal samples may require a critical step of stool storage. The effects of preservation methods on microbial structure and function in in vitro gut models have been poorly investigated. This study aimed to assess the impact of three commonly used preserving methods, compared with fresh fecal samples used as a control, on the kinetics of lumen and mucus-associated microbiota colonization in the M-ARCOL model. Feces from two healthy donors were frozen 48 h at - 80 °C with or without cryoprotectant (10% glycerol) or lyophilized with maltodextrin and trehalose prior to inoculation of four parallel bioreactors (e.g., fresh stool, raw stool stored at - 80 °C, stool stored at - 80 °C with glycerol and lyophilized stool). Microbiota composition and diversity (qPCR and 16S metabarcoding) as well as metabolic activity (gases and short chain fatty acids) were monitored throughout the fermentation process (9 days). All the preservative treatments allowed the maintaining inside the M-ARCOL of a complex and functional microbiota, but considering stabilization time of microbial profiles and activities (and not technical constraints associated with the supply of frozen material), our results highlighted 48 h freezing at - 80 °C without cryoprotectant as the most efficient method. These results will help scientists to determine the most accurate method for fecal storage prior to inoculation of in vitro gut microbiome models. KEY POINTS: • In vitro ARCOL model reproduces luminal and mucosal human microbiome. • Short-term storage of fecal sample influences microbial stabilization and activity. • 48 h freezing at - 80°C: most efficient method to preserve microbial ecosystem. • Scientific and technical requirements: influencers of preservation method.

RevDate: 2020-10-20

Sternes PR, Martin TM, Paley M, et al (2020)

HLA-A alleles including HLA-A29 affect the composition of the gut microbiome: a potential clue to the pathogenesis of birdshot retinochoroidopathy.

Scientific reports, 10(1):17636 pii:10.1038/s41598-020-74751-0.

Birdshot retinochoroidopathy occurs exclusively in individuals who are HLA-A29 positive. The mechanism to account for this association is unknown. The gut microbiome has been causally implicated in many immune-mediated diseases. We hypothesized that HLA-A29 would affect the composition of the gut microbiome, leading to a dysbiosis and immune-mediated eye disease. Fecal and intestinal biopsy samples were obtained from 107 healthy individuals from Portland, Oregon environs, 10 of whom were HLA-A29 positive, undergoing routine colonoscopy. Bacterial profiling was achieved via 16S rRNA metabarcoding. Publicly available whole meta-genome sequencing data from the Human Microbiome Project (HMP), consisting of 298 healthy controls mostly of US origin, were also interrogated. PERMANOVA and sparse partial least squares discriminant analysis (sPLSDA) demonstrated that subjects who were HLA-A29 positive differed in bacterial species composition (beta diversity) compared to HLA-A29 negative subjects in both the Portland (p = 0.019) and HMP cohorts (p = 0.0002). The Portland and HMP cohorts evidenced different subsets of bacterial species associated with HLA-A29 status, likely due to differences in the metagenomic techniques employed. The functional composition of the HMP cohort did not differ overall (p = 0.14) between HLA-A29 positive and negative subjects, although some distinct pathways such as heparan sulfate biosynthesis showed differences. As we and others have shown for various HLA alleles, the HLA allotype impacts the composition of the microbiome. We hypothesize that HLA-A29 may predispose chorioretinitis via an altered gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Wenger K, Pendleton C, Xie XJ, et al (2020)

Factors associated with the counts of selected oral microorganisms in nursing home residents.

Special care in dentistry : official publication of the American Association of Hospital Dentists, the Academy of Dentistry for the Handicapped, and the American Society for Geriatric Dentistry [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE/AIM: To analyze potential factors associated with levels of selected oral pathogens, as well as total aerobic bacterial species, among nursing home residents.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Nursing home residents were divided into three groups (G1 included people with teeth but no dentures, G2 included people with teeth and dentures, and G3 included people with no teeth and with dentures). All participants had microbiological samples collected from their oral cavity and dentures. Counts of total aerobic bacterial species, Porphyromonas gingivalis, Fusobacterium nucleatum, Actinomyces viscosus, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans, and Candida albicans were compared among groups using the Wilcoxon rank sum test. A multivariate analysis was also performed to control other available covariates.

RESULTS: Bivariate analysis revealed significant differences among the groups, and multivariate analysis showed that sex, the presence of natural teeth, denture wearing, oral hygiene indices, and systemic health conditions were associated with bacterial and Candida albicans log counts.

CONCLUSIONS: Presence of natural teeth and denture wearing, as well as oral hygiene, sex and systemic health conditions were associated with bacterial and Candida albicans log counts among nursing home residents.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

De Souza ALPB (2020)

Finding the hot spot: identifying immune sensitive gastrointestinal tumors.

Translational gastroenterology and hepatology, 5:48 pii:tgh-05-2019.12.11.

Although researchers have been trying to harness the immune system for over 100 years, the advent of immune checkpoint blockers (ICB) marks an era of significant clinical outcomes in various metastatic solid tumors, characterized by complete and durable responses. ICBs are monoclonal antibodies that target either of a pair of transmembrane molecules in tumors or T-cells involved in immune evasion. Currently 2 ICBs targeting the checkpoint program death 1 (PD-1), nivolumab and pembrolizumab, and one cytotoxic lymphocyte antigen-4 (CTLA-4) inhibitor (ipilimumab) are approved in gastrointestinal malignancies. We review herein the current evidence on predictive biomarkers for ICB response in gastrointestinal tumors. A review of literature based on the National Cancer Institute list of FDA-approved drugs for neoplasms and FDA-approved therapies at the FDA website was performed. An initial literature review was based on the American Association for Clinical Research meeting 2019, the American Society of Clinical Oncology meeting 2019 and the European Society of Medical Oncology 2019 proceedings. A systematic search of PubMed was performed involving MeSH browser terms such as biomarkers, immunotherapy, gastrointestinal diseases and neoplasms. When appropriate, American and British terms were used in the search. The most relevant predictor of response to ICBs is microsatellite instability (MSI) and the data is strongest for colorectal cancer. At least 3 prospective trials show evidence of PD-L1 as a predictive biomarker for ICB response in gastroesophageal malignancies. At least one prospective trial has described tumor mutational burden high (TMB-H), independent of MSI, as predictive of response in anal and biliary tract carcinomas. DNA Polymerase Epsilon (POLE) or delta (POL-D) mutations have been implicated in a subset of MSS colorectal cancer with TMB-H but this biomarker requires prospective validation. There is evolving data based on retrospective observations that gene alterations predicting acquired resistance and hyper-progression. Ongoing clinical research is assessing the role of the human microbiome and RNA-editing complex mutations as predictive biomarkers of response to ICBs. MSI has the strongest predictive power among current biomarkers for ICB response in gastrointestinal cancers. Data continue to accumulate from ongoing clinical trials and new biomarkers are emerging from pre-clinical studies, suggesting that drug combinations targeting pathways complimentary to the PD-1/PD-L1 axis inhibition will define a robust field of clinical research.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Flores Bueso Y, Walker SP, M Tangney (2020)

Characterization of FFPE-induced bacterial DNA damage and development of a repair method.

Biology methods & protocols, 5(1):bpaa015 pii:bpaa015.

Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) specimens have huge potential as source material in the field of human microbiome research. However, the effects of FFPE processing on bacterial DNA remain uncharacterized. Any effects are relevant for microbiome studies, where DNA template is often minimal and sequences studied are not limited to one genome. As such, we aimed to both characterize this FFPE-induced bacterial DNA damage and develop strategies to reduce and repair this damage. Our analyses indicate that bacterial FFPE DNA is highly fragmented, a poor template for PCR, crosslinked and bears sequence artefacts derived predominantly from oxidative DNA damage. Two strategies to reduce this damage were devised - an optimized decrosslinking procedure reducing sequence artefacts generated by high-temperature incubation, and secondly, an in vitro reconstitution of the base excision repair pathway. As evidenced by whole genome sequencing, treatment with these strategies significantly increased fragment length, reduced the appearance of sequence artefacts and improved the sequencing readability of bacterial and mammalian FFPE DNA. This study provides a new understanding of the condition of bacterial DNA in FFPE specimens and how this impacts downstream analyses, in addition to a strategy to improve the sequencing quality of bacterial and possibly mammalian FFPE DNA.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Kirichenko TV, Markina YV, Sukhorukov VN, et al (2020)

A Novel Insight at Atherogenesis: The Role of Microbiome.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 8:586189.

There is an important task of current medicine to identify mechanisms and new markers of subclinical atherosclerosis in order to develop early targets for the diagnosis and treatment of this disease, since it causes such widespread diseases as myocardial infarction, stroke, sudden death, and other common reasons of disability and mortality in developed countries. In recent years, studies of the human microbiome in different fields of medicine have become increasingly popular; there is evidence from numerous studies of the significant contribution of microbiome in different steps of atherogenesis. This review attempted to determine the current status of the databases PubMed and Scopus (until May, 2020) to highlight current ideas on the potential role of microbiome and its metabolites in atherosclerosis development, its mechanisms of action in lipids metabolism, endothelial dysfunction, inflammatory pathways, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Results of clinical studies elucidating the relationship of microbiome with subclinical atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease considered in this article demonstrate strong association of microbiome composition and its metabolites with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Data on microbiome impact in atherogenesis open a wide perspective to develop new diagnostic and therapeutic approaches, but further comprehensive studies are necessary.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Rackaityte E, SV Lynch (2020)

The human microbiome in the 21st century.

Nature communications, 11(1):5256 pii:10.1038/s41467-020-18983-8.

RevDate: 2020-10-19

Castañeda S, Muñoz M, Villamizar X, et al (2020)

Microbiota characterization in Blastocystis-colonized and Blastocystis-free school-age children from Colombia.

Parasites & vectors, 13(1):521 pii:10.1186/s13071-020-04392-9.

BACKGROUND: Blastocystis is a protist that lives in the intestinal tract of a variety of hosts, including humans. It is still unclear how Blastocystis causes disease, which presents an ongoing challenge for researchers. Despite the controversial findings on the association between Blastocystis and clinical digestive manifestations, there is currently no consensus as to whether this protozoan actually behaves as a pathogen in humans. Furthermore, the relationship between Blastocystis and the intestinal microbiota composition is not yet clear. For that reason, the aim of this study was to identify if colonization by Blastocystis is related to changes in the diversity and relative abundance of bacterial communities, compared with those of Blastocystis-free individuals in a group of Colombian children.

METHODS: We took stool samples from 57 school-aged children attending a daycare institution in Popayán (Southwest Colombia). Whole DNA was extracted and examined by 16S-rRNA amplicon-based sequencing. Blastocystis was detected by real time PCR and other intestinal parasites were detected by microscopy. We evaluated if Blastocystis was associated with host variables and the diversity and abundance of microbial communities.

RESULTS: The composition of the intestinal bacterial community was not significantly different between Blastocystis-free and Blastocystis-colonized children. Despite this, we observed a higher microbial richness in the intestines of children colonized by Blastocystis, which could, therefore, be considered a benefit to intestinal health. The phylum Firmicutes was the predominant taxonomic unit in both groups analyzed. In Blastocystis-free individuals, there was a higher proportion of Bacteroidetes; similarly, in children colonized by Blastocystis, there was a higher relative abundance of the phylum Proteobacteria; however, no statistically significant differences were found between the comparison groups.

CONCLUSIONS: The presence of Blastocystis showed a decrease in Bacteroides, and an increase in the relative abundance of the genus Faecalibacterium. It was also evident that the presence of Blastocystis was unrelated to dysbiosis at the intestinal level; on the contrary, its presence did not show statistically differences in the intestinal microbiota composition. Nevertheless, we believe that Blastocystis plays a role in the ecology of the intestinal microbiota through its interaction with other microbial components.

RevDate: 2020-10-16

Tan HY, YC Toh (2020)

What can microfluidics do for human microbiome research?.

Biomicrofluidics, 14(5):051303 pii:5.0012185.

Dysregulation of the human microbiome has been linked to various disease states, which has galvanized the efforts to modulate human health through microbiomes. Currently, human microbiome research is going through several phases to identify the constituent components of the microbiome, associate microbiome changes with physiological and pathological states, understand causative relationships, and finally translate this knowledge into therapeutics and diagnostics. The convergence of microfluidic technologies with molecular and cell profiling, microbiology, and tissue engineering can potentially be applied to these different phases of microbiome research to overcome the existing challenges faced by conventional approaches. The goal of this paper is to discuss and highlight the opportunities of applying different microfluidic technologies to specific areas of microbiome research as well as unique challenges that microfluidics must overcome when working with microbiome-relevant biological materials, e.g., micro-organisms, host tissues, and fluids. We will discuss the applicability of integrated microfluidic systems for processing biological samples for genomic sequencing analyses. For functional analysis of the microbiota, we will cover state-of-the-art microfluidic devices for microbiota cultivation and functional measurements. Finally, we highlight the use of organs-on-chips to model various microbiome-host tissue interactions. We envision that microfluidic technologies may hold great promise in advancing the knowledge on the interplay between microbiome and human health, as well as its eventual translation into microbiome-based diagnostics and therapeutics.

RevDate: 2020-10-15

Eller CH, RT Raines (2020)

Antimicrobial Synergy of a Ribonuclease and a Peptide Secreted by Human Cells.

ACS infectious diseases [Epub ahead of print].

LL-37 is a secretory peptide that has antimicrobial activity. Ribonuclease 1 (RNase 1) is a secretory enzyme that is not cytotoxic. We find that human LL-37 and human RNase 1 can act synergistically to kill Gram-negative bacterial cells. In the presence of nontoxic concentrations of LL-37, RNase 1 is toxic to Escherichia coli cells at picomolar levels. Using wild-type RNase 1 and an inactive variant labeled with a fluorophore, we observe the adherence of RNase 1 to E. coli cells and its cellular entry in the presence of LL-37. These data suggest a natural means of modulating the human microbiome via the cooperation of an endogenous peptide (37 residues) and small enzyme (128 residues).

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Reichhardt MP, Messing M, Andersson S, et al (2020)

Intestinal SALSA/dmbt1 levels are decreased in prematurely born infants.

Scandinavian journal of immunology [Epub ahead of print].

The first months of life represent a crucial time period for an infant. Alongside establishing the early microbiome, the mucosal immunological homeostasis is being developed. Both processes may be perturbed in prematurely born infants. The glycoprotein SALSA plays a role in mucosal inflammation and microbial clearance. It is one of the most abundant molecules on the intestinal mucosal surfaces in early life. SALSA binds to many types of microbes and host defense molecules like IgA, C1q and collectin molecules. We here describe the development in fecal SALSA levels during the first three months of life. During these 90 days the median SALSA level in full-term babies decreased from 1100 μg/ml (range 49 - 17000 μg/ml) to 450 μg/ml (range 33 - 1000 μg/ml). Lower levels of SALSA were observed in prematurely born infants in the same time period. Our novel observation thus indicates an impact of prematurity on an important component of the infant intestinal immune system. Changes in SALSA in early life may have an effect on the early establishment of the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Kenney T, Gao J, H Gu (2020)

Application of OU processes to modelling temporal dynamics of the human microbiome, and calculating optimal sampling schemes.

BMC bioinformatics, 21(1):450 pii:10.1186/s12859-020-03747-4.

BACKGROUND: The vast majority of microbiome research so far has focused on the structure of the microbiome at a single time-point. There have been several studies that measure the microbiome from a particular environment over time. A few models have been developed by extending time series models to accomodate specific features in microbiome data to address questions of stability and interactions of the microbime time series. Most research has observed the stability and mean reversion for some microbiomes. However, little has been done to study the mean reversion rates of these stable microbes and how sampling frequencies are related to such conclusions. In this paper, we begin to rectify this situation. We analyse two widely studied microbial time series data sets on four healthy individuals. We choose to study healthy individuals because we are interested in the baseline temporal dynamics of the microbiome.

RESULTS: For this analysis, we focus on the temporal dynamics of individual genera, absorbing all interactions in a stochastic term. We use a simple stochastic differential equation model to assess the following three questions. (1) Does the microbiome exhibit temporal continuity? (2) Does the microbiome have a stable state? (3) To better understand the temporal dynamics, how frequently should data be sampled in future studies? We find that a simple Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model which incorporates both temporal continuity and reversion to a stable state fits the data for almost every genus better than a Brownian motion model that contains only temporal continuity. The Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model also fits the data better than modelling separate time points as independent. Under the Ornstein-Uhlenbeck model, we calculate the variance of the estimated mean reversion rate (the speed with which each genus returns to its stable state). Based on this calculation, we are able to determine the optimal sample schemes for studying temporal dynamics.

CONCLUSIONS: There is evidence of temporal continuity for most genera; there is clear evidence of a stable state; and the optimal sampling frequency for studying temporal dynamics is in the range of one sample every 0.8-3.2 days.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Gao H, Sun T, Yang F, et al (2020)

The Pathogenic Effects of Fusobacterium nucleatum on the Proliferation, Osteogenic Differentiation, and Transcriptome of Osteoblasts.

Frontiers in cell and developmental biology, 8:807.

As one of the most common oral diseases, periodontitis is closely correlated with tooth loss in middle-aged and elderly people. Fusobacterium nucleatum (F. nucleatum) contributes to periodontitis, but the evidence in alveolar bone loss is still unclear. In this study, cytological experiments and transcriptome analyses were performed to characterize the biological process abnormalities and the molecular changes of F. nucleatum-stimulated osteoblasts. F. nucleatum could inhibit cell proliferation, promote cell apoptosis, and elevate pro-inflammatory cytokine production of osteoblasts, and it also inhibited osteoblast differentiation and mineralized nodule formation and decreased the expression of osteogenetic genes and proteins. Whole-transcriptome analyses identified a total of 235 transcripts that were differentially expressed in all six time points, most of which were inflammation-related genes. The genes, Ccl2, Ccl20, Csf1, Cx3cl1, Cxcl1, Cxcl3, Il6, Birc3, Map3k8, Nos2, Nfkb2, Tnfrsf1b, and Vcam1, played core roles in a PPI network, and interacted closely with other ones in the infection. In addition, 133 osteogenesis-related differential expression genes (DEGs) were time-serially dynamically changed in a short time-series expression miner (STEM) analysis, which were enriched in multiple cancer-related pathways. The core dynamic DEGs (Mnda, Cyp1b1, Comp, Phex, Mmp3, Tnfrsf1b, Fbln5, and Nfkb2) had been reported to be closely related to the development and metastasis in tumor and cancer progress. This study is the first to evaluate the long-term interaction of F. nucleatum on osteoblasts, which might increase the risk of cell carcinogenesis of normal osteoblasts, and provides new insight into the pathogenesis of bacterial-induced bone destruction.

RevDate: 2020-10-12

Vernocchi P, Marini F, Capuani G, et al (2020)

Fused Omics Data Models Reveal Gut Microbiome Signatures Specific of Inactive Stage of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Pediatric Patients.

Microorganisms, 8(10): pii:microorganisms8101540.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in children. Herein, we evaluated the relationship between the gut microbiome (GM) and disease phenotype by an integrated omics fused approach. In a multicenter, observational cohort study, stools from Italian JIA patients were collected at baseline, active, and inactive disease stages, and their GM compared to healthy controls (CTRLs). The microbiota metabolome was analyzed to detect volatile- and non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs); the data were fused with operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 16S RNA targeted-metagenomics and classified by chemometric models. Non-VOCs did not characterize JIA patients nor JIA activity stages compared to CTRLs. The core of VOCs, (Ethanol, Methyl-isobutyl-ketone, 2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone and Phenol) characterized patients at baseline and inactive disease stages, while the OTUs represented by Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiacea discriminated between JIA inactive stage and CTRLs. No differences were highlighted amongst JIA activity stages. Finally, the fused data discriminated inactive and baseline stages versus CTRLs, based on the contribution of the invariant core of VOCs while Ruminococcaceae concurred for the inactive stage versus CTRLs comparison. In conclusion, the GM signatures enabled to distinguish the inactive disease stage from CTRLs.

RevDate: 2020-10-08

Shi HL, Lan YH, Hu ZC, et al (2020)

Microecology research: a new target for the prevention of asthma.

Chinese medical journal [Epub ahead of print].

The incidence and prevalence of asthma have increased remarkably in recent years. There are lots of factors contributing to the occurrence and development of asthma. With the improvement of sequencing technology, it has been found that the microbiome plays an important role in the formation of asthma in early life. The roles of the microbial environment and human microbiome in the occurrence and development of asthma have attracted more and more attention. The environmental microbiome influences the occurrence of asthma by shaping the human microbiome. The specific mechanism may be related to the immune regulation of Toll-like receptors and T cells (special Tregs). Intestinal microbiome is formed and changed by regulating diet and lifestyle in early life, which may affect the development and maturation of the pulmonary immune system through the intestinal-pulmonary axis. It is well-recognized that both environmental microbiomes and human microbiomes can influence the onset of asthma. This review aims to summarize the recent advances in the research of microbiome, its relationship with asthma, and the possible mechanism of the microbiome in the occurrence and development of asthma. The research of the microbial environment and human microbiome may provide a new target for the prevention of asthma in children who have high-risk factors to allergy. However, further study of "when and how" to regulate microbiome is still needed.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Kozik AJ (2020)

mSphere of Influence: Frameshift-a Vision for Human Microbiome Research.

mSphere, 5(5):.

Ariangela J. Kozik studies the respiratory microbiome as it relates to asthma. In this mSphere of Influence article, she reflects on how two papers, "Time's up to adopt a biopsychosocial model to address racial and ethnic disparities in asthma outcomes" (E. C. Matsui, A. S. Adamson, and R. D. Peng, Allergy Clin Immunol 143:2024-2025, 2019, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jaci.2019.03.015) and "Health disparities and the microbiome" (K. Findley, D. R. Williams, E. A. Grice, and V. L. Bonham, Trends Microbiol 24:847-850, 2016, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2016.08.001), shape her approach to human microbiome research.

RevDate: 2020-10-06

Santacroce L, Charitos IA, Ballini A, et al (2020)

The Human Respiratory System and its Microbiome at a Glimpse.

Biology, 9(10): pii:biology9100318.

The recent COVID-19 pandemic promoted efforts to better understand the organization of the respiratory microbiome and its evolution from birth to adulthood and how it interacts with external pathogens and the host immune system. This review aims to deepen understanding of the essential physiological functions of the resident microbiome of the respiratory system on human health and diseases. First, the general characteristics of the normal microbiota in the different anatomical sites of the airways have been reported in relation to some factors such as the effect of age, diet and others on its composition and stability. Second, we analyze in detail the functions and composition and the correct functionality of the microbiome in the light of current knowledge. Several studies suggest the importance of preserving the micro-ecosystem of commensal, symbiotic and pathogenic microbes of the respiratory system, and, more recently, its relationship with the intestinal microbiome, and how it also leads to the maintenance of human health, has become better understood.

RevDate: 2020-10-06

Durack J, CT Christophersen (2020)

Human Respiratory and Gut Microbiomes-Do They Really Contribute to Respiratory Health?.

Frontiers in pediatrics, 8:528.

Human gastrointestinal and respiratory tracts are colonized by diverse polymicrobial communities shortly after birth, which are continuously molded by environmental exposure. The development of the resident microbiota in early life is a critical factor in the maturation of a healthy immune system. Disturbances to the intricate relationship between environmental exposure and maturation of the infant microbiome have been increasingly identified as a potential contributor to a range of childhood diseases. This review details recent evidence that implicates the contribution of gut and airway microbiome to pediatric respiratory health.

RevDate: 2020-10-05

Jacobson DK, Honap TP, Monroe C, et al (2020)

Functional diversity of microbial ecologies estimated from ancient human coprolites and dental calculus.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 375(1812):20190586.

Human microbiome studies are increasingly incorporating macroecological approaches, such as community assembly, network analysis and functional redundancy to more fully characterize the microbiome. Such analyses have not been applied to ancient human microbiomes, preventing insights into human microbiome evolution. We address this issue by analysing published ancient microbiome datasets: coprolites from Rio Zape (n = 7; 700 CE Mexico) and historic dental calculus (n = 44; 1770-1855 CE, UK), as well as two novel dental calculus datasets: Maya (n = 7; 170 BCE-885 CE, Belize) and Nuragic Sardinians (n = 11; 1400-850 BCE, Italy). Periodontitis-associated bacteria (Treponema denticola, Fusobacterium nucleatum and Eubacterium saphenum) were identified as keystone taxa in the dental calculus datasets. Coprolite keystone taxa included known short-chain fatty acid producers (Eubacterium biforme, Phascolarctobacterium succinatutens) and potentially disease-associated bacteria (Escherichia, Brachyspira). Overlap in ecological profiles between ancient and modern microbiomes was indicated by similarity in functional response diversity profiles between contemporary hunter-gatherers and ancient coprolites, as well as parallels between ancient Maya, historic UK, and modern Spanish dental calculus; however, the ancient Nuragic dental calculus shows a distinct ecological structure. We detected key ecological signatures from ancient microbiome data, paving the way to expand understanding of human microbiome evolution. This article is part of the theme issue 'Insights into health and disease from ancient biomolecules'.

RevDate: 2020-10-05

Schnorr SL (2020)

The soil in our microbial DNA informs about environmental interfaces across host and subsistence modalities.

Philosophical transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological sciences, 375(1812):20190577.

In this study, I use microbiome datasets from global soil samples and diverse hosts to learn whether soil microbial taxa are found in host microbiomes, and whether these observations fit the narrative that environmental interaction influences human microbiomes. A major motivation for conducting host-associated microbiome research is to contribute towards understanding how the environment may influence host physiology. The microbial molecular network is considered a key vector by which environmental traits may be transmitted to the host. Research on human evolution seeks evidence that can inform about the living experiences of human ancestors. This objective is substantially enhanced by recent work on ancient biomolecules from preserved microbial tissues, such as dental calculus, faecal sediments and whole coprolites. A challenge yet is to distinguish authentic biomolecules from environmental contaminants deposited contemporaneously, primarily from soil. However, we do not have sound expectations about the soil microbial elements arriving to host-associated microbiomes in a modern context. One assumption in human microbiome research is that proximity to the natural environment should affect biodiversity or impart genetic elements. I present evidence supporting the assumption that environmental soil taxa are found among host-associated gut taxa, which can recapitulate the surrounding host habitat ecotype. Soil taxa found in gut microbiomes relate to a set of universal 'core' taxa for all soil ecotypes, demonstrating that widespread host organisms may experience a consistent pattern of external environmental cues, perhaps critical for development. Observed differentiation of soil feature diversity, abundance and composition among human communities, great apes and invertebrate hosts also indicates that lifestyle patterns are inferable from an environmental signal that is retrievable from gut microbiome amplicon data. This article is part of the theme issue 'Insights into health and disease from ancient biomolecules'.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Wan X, Hendrix H, Skurnik M, et al (2020)

Phage-based target discovery and its exploitation towards novel antibacterial molecules.

Current opinion in biotechnology, 68:1-7 pii:S0958-1669(20)30122-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The deeply intertwined evolutionary history between bacteriophages and bacteria has endowed phages with highly specific mechanisms to hijack bacterial cell metabolism for their propagation. Here, we present a comprehensive, phage-driven strategy to reveal novel antibacterial targets by the exploitation of phage-bacteria interactions. This strategy will enable the design of small molecules, which mimic the inhibitory phage proteins, and allow the subsequent hit-to-lead development of these antimicrobial compounds. This proposed small molecule approach is distinct from phage therapy and phage enzyme-based antimicrobials and may produce a more sustainable generation of new antibiotics that exploit novel bacterial targets and act in a pathogen-specific manner.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Bhar S, Edelmann MJ, MK Jones (2020)

Characterization and proteomic analysis of outer membrane vesicles from a commensal microbe, Enterobacter cloacae.

Journal of proteomics, 231:103994 pii:S1874-3919(20)30362-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Outer membrane vesicles (OMVs) are membrane-enclosed spherical entities released by gram-negative bacteria and are important for bacterial survival under stress conditions. There have been numerous studies on OMVs released by gram-negative pathogenic bacteria, but an understanding of the functions and characteristics of the OMVs produced by commensal microbes is still lacking. Enterobacter cloacae is a gram-negative commensal bacterium present in the human gut microbiome, but this organism can also function as an opportunistic pathogen. Understanding the OMV-mediated communication route between bacteria-bacteria or bacteria-host is essential for the determination of the biological functions of the commensal bacterium in the gut and delineating between benign and virulent characteristics. In this study, we have described a proteome of E. cloacae OMVs, which are membrane vesicles in a size range of 20-300 nm. Proteomic analysis showed the presence of membrane-bound proteins, including transporters, receptors, signaling molecules, and protein channels. The physical and proteomic analyses also indicate this bacterium uses two mechanisms for OMV production. This study is one of the few existing descriptions of the proteomic profile of OMVs generated by a commensal Proteobacteria, and the first report of OMVs produced by E. cloacae. SIGNIFICANCE: This study prioritizes the importance of understanding the vesicular proteome of the human commensal bacterium, Enterobacter cloacae. We demonstrate for the first time that the gram-negative bacterium E. cloacae ATCC 13047 produces outer membrane vesicles (OMVs). The proteomic analysis showed enrichment of membrane-bound proteins in these vesicles. Understanding the cargo proteins of OMVs will help in exploring the physiological and functional role of these vesicles in the human microbiome and how they assist in the conversion of a bacterium from commensal to pathogen under certain conditions. While EM images reveal vesicles budding from the bacterial surface, the presence of cytoplasmic proteins and genomic DNA within the OMVs indicate that explosive cell lysis is an additional mechanism of biogenesis for these OMVs along with outer membrane blebbing. This research encourages future work on characterizing membrane vesicles produced by commensal bacterial and investigating their role in cell to cell communication.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Rajeev R, Prathiviraj R, Kiran GS, et al (2020)

Zoonotic evolution and implications of microbiome in viral transmission and infection.

Virus research, 290:198175 pii:S0168-1702(20)31082-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The outbreak and spread of new strains of coronavirus (SARS-CoV-2) remain a global threat with increasing cases in affected countries. The evolutionary tree of SARS-CoV-2 revealed that Porcine Reproductive and Respiratory Syndrome virus 2, which belongs to the Beta arterivirus genus from the Arteriviridae family is possibly the most ancient ancestral origin of SARS-CoV-2 and other Coronaviridae. This review focuses on phylogenomic distribution and evolutionary lineage of zoonotic viral cross-species transmission of the Coronaviridae family and the implications of bat microbiome in zoonotic viral transmission and infection. The review also casts light on the role of the human microbiome in predicting and controlling viral infections. The significance of microbiome-mediated interventions in the treatment of viral infections is also discussed. Finally, the importance of synthetic viruses in the study of viral evolution and transmission is highlighted.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Korpela K, Helve O, Kolho KL, et al (2020)

Maternal Fecal Microbiota Transplantation in Cesarean-Born Infants Rapidly Restores Normal Gut Microbial Development: A Proof-of-Concept Study.

Cell pii:S0092-8674(20)31089-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Infants born by vaginal delivery are colonized with maternal fecal microbes. Cesarean section (CS) birth disturbs mother-to-neonate transmission. In this study (NCT03568734), we evaluated whether disturbed intestinal microbiota development could be restored in term CS-born infants by postnatal, orally delivered fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). We recruited 17 mothers, of whom seven were selected after careful screening. Their infants received a diluted fecal sample from their own mothers, taken 3 weeks prior to delivery. All seven infants had an uneventful clinical course during the 3-month follow-up and showed no adverse effects. The temporal development of the fecal microbiota composition of FMT-treated CS-born infants no longer resembled that of untreated CS-born infants but showed significant similarity to that of vaginally born infants. This proof-of-concept study demonstrates that the intestinal microbiota of CS-born infants can be restored postnatally by maternal FMT. However, this should only be done after careful clinical and microbiological screening.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Shetty SA, Boeren S, Bui TPN, et al (2020)

Unravelling lactate-acetate and sugar conversion into butyrate by intestinal Anaerobutyricum and Anaerostipes species by comparative proteogenomics.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The d- and l-forms of lactate are important fermentation metabolites produced by intestinal bacteria but are found to negatively affect mucosal barrier function and human health. Both enantiomers of lactate can be converted with acetate into the presumed beneficial butyrate by a phylogenetically related group of anaerobes, including Anaerobutyricum and Anaerostipes spp. This is a low energy yielding process with a partially unknown pathway in Anaerobutyricum and Anaerostipes spp. and hence, we sought to address this via a comparative genomics, proteomics and physiology approach. We compared growth of Anaerobutyricum soehngenii on lactate with that on sucrose and sorbitol. Comparative proteomics revealed complete pathway of butyrate formation from sucrose, sorbitol and lactate. Notably, a gene cluster, lctABCDEF was abundantly expressed when grown on lactate. This gene cluster encodes a lactate dehydrogenase (lctD), electron transport proteins A and B (lctCB), nickel-dependent racemase (lctE), lactate permease (lctF) and short-chain acyl-CoA dehydrogenase (lctG). Investigation of available genomes of intestinal bacteria revealed this new gene cluster to be highly conserved in only Anaerobutyricum and Anaerostipes spp. Present study demonstrates that A. soehngenii and several related Anaerobutyricum and Anaerostipes spp. are highly adapted for a lifestyle involving lactate plus acetate utilization in the human intestinal tract.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Ottman N, Barrientos-Somarribas M, Fyhrquist N, et al (2020)

Microbial and transcriptional differences elucidate atopic dermatitis heterogeneity across skin sites.

Allergy [Epub ahead of print].

It is well established that different sites in healthy human skin are colonized by distinct microbial communities due to different physiological conditions. However, few studies have explored microbial heterogeneity between skin sites in diseased skin, such as atopic dermatitis (AD) lesions. To address this issue, we carried out deep analysis of the microbiome and transcriptome in the skin of a large cohort of AD patients and healthy volunteers, comparing two physiologically different sites: upper back and posterior thigh. Microbiome samples and biopsies were obtained from both lesional and non-lesional skin to identify changes related to the disease process. Transcriptome analysis revealed distinct disease-related gene expression profiles depending on anatomical location, with keratinization dominating the transcriptomic signatures in posterior thigh, and lipid metabolism in the upper back. Moreover, we show that relative abundance of Staphylococcus aureus is associated with disease severity in the posterior thigh, but not in the upper back. Our results suggest that AD may select for similar microbes in different anatomical locations - an 'AD-like microbiome', but distinct microbial dynamics can still be observed when comparing posterior thigh to upper back. This study highlights the importance of considering the variability across skin sites when studying the development of skin inflammation.

RevDate: 2020-10-13
CmpDate: 2020-10-13

Johnson MDL (2020)

mSphere Highlights Black In Microbiology Week.

mSphere, 5(5):.

The inaugural Black In Microbiology Week (#BlackInMicro) is 28 September 2020 through 4 October 2020. Its mission is to "showcase the presence and accomplishments of Black microbiologists from around the globe, connect Black microbiologists with one another and foster a sense of community among them, and provide a forum for the discussion of racial disparities in microbiology and its subfields." Participation in this event will happen primarily over Twitter through the hashtag #BlackInMicro and over Zoom through registration on the website https://blackinmicrobiology.org/ An additional mission of Black In Microbiology Week is to amplify black scientists. Today, mSphere does this by presenting two mSphere of Influence commentaries from Black In Microbiology co-lead organizers Ariangela J. Kozik ("mSphere of Influence: frameshift-a vision for human microbiome research" [mSphere 5:e00944-20, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00944-20]) and Kishana Taylor ("mSphere of Influence: that's racist-COVID-19, biological determinism, and the limits of hypotheses" [mSphere 5:e00945-20, 2020, https://doi.org/10.1128/mSphere.00945-20]).

RevDate: 2020-10-03

Soverini M, Rampelli S, Turroni S, et al (2020)

Do the human gut metagenomic species possess the minimal set of core functionalities necessary for life?.

BMC genomics, 21(1):678.

BACKGROUND: Advances in bioinformatics recently allowed for the recovery of 'metagenomes assembled genomes' from human microbiome studies carried on with shotgun sequencing techniques. Such approach is used as a mean to discover new unclassified metagenomic species, putative biological entities having distinct metabolic traits.

RESULTS: In the present analysis we compare 400 genomes from isolates available on NCBI database and 10,000 human gut metagenomic species, screening all of them for the presence of a minimal set of core functionalities necessary, but not sufficient, for life. As a result, the metagenome-assembled genomes resulted systematically depleted in genes encoding for essential functions apparently needed to support autonomous bacterial life.

CONCLUSIONS: The relevant degree of lacking core functionalities that we observed in metagenome-assembled genomes raises some concerns about the effective completeness of metagenome-assembled genomes, suggesting caution in extrapolating biological information about their metabolic propensity and ecology in a complex environment like the human gastrointestinal tract.

RevDate: 2020-09-30

Lang S, Brandau S, Marchesi JR, et al (2020)

[The microbiome in head and neck tumors-initial findings and outlook].

HNO pii:10.1007/s00106-020-00950-w [Epub ahead of print].

Technical progress in molecular biology has allowed for a more detailed analysis of the composition of the human microbiome in recent years. Inter- and intraindividual differences in microbiome composition have been demonstrated, which in part correlate with the occurrence of certain diseases. For some of the so-called oncomicrobes, a direct relationship between their effect on the host organism and carcinogenesis has been demonstrated, predominantly for gastrointestinal cancers. Initial results for head and neck cancer show inter- and intraindividual differences in the local microbiota of the tumor environment, with certain bacterial strains over- or underrepresented. Our results confirm these findings, e.g., by showing a relative abundance of fusobacteria in tumor tissue while streptococci were relatively reduced. Currently available results show a high degree of inter- and intraindividual variation, thus requiring larger patient cohorts for functional analyses.

RevDate: 2020-10-03

Schmidt V, Enav H, Spector TD, et al (2020)

Strain-Level Analysis of Bifidobacterium spp. from Gut Microbiomes of Adults with Differing Lactase Persistence Genotypes.

mSystems, 5(5):.

One of the strongest associations between human genetics and the gut microbiome is a greater relative abundance of Bifidobacterium in adults with lactase gene (LCT) single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with lactase nonpersistence (GG genotypes), versus lactase persistence (AA/AG genotypes). To gain a finer-grained phylogenetic resolution of this association, we interrogated 1,680 16S rRNA libraries and 245 metagenomes from gut microbiomes of adults with various lactase persistence genotypes. We further employed a novel genome-capture-based enrichment of Bifidobacterium DNA from a subset of these metagenomes, including monozygotic (MZ) twin pairs, each sampled 2 or 3 times. B. adolescentis and B. longum were the most abundant Bifidobacterium species regardless of host LCT genotype. LCT genotypes could not be discriminated based on relative abundances of Bifidobacterium species or Bifidobacterium community structure. Three distinct metagenomic analysis methods of Bifidobacterium-enriched DNA revealed intraindividual temporal stability of B. longum, B. adolescentis, and B. bifidum strains against the background of a changeable microbiome. Two of our three methods also observed greater strain sharing within MZ twin pairs than within unrelated individuals for B. adolescentis, while no method revealed an effect of host LCT genotype on Bifidobacterium strain composition. Our results support a "rising tide lifts all boats" model for the dominant bifidobacteria in the adult gut: their higher abundance in lactase-nonpersistent than in lactase-persistent individuals results from an expansion at the genus level. Bifidobacterium species are known to be transmitted from mother to child and stable within individuals in infancy and childhood: our results extend this stability into adulthood.IMPORTANCE When humans domesticated animals, some adapted genetically to digest milk into adulthood (lactase persistence). The gut microbiomes of people with lactase-persistent genotypes (AA or AG) differ from those with lactase-nonpersistent genotypes (GG) by containing fewer bacteria belonging to the bifidobacteria, a group which contains beneficial species. Here, we asked if the gut microbiomes of adults with GG and AA/AG genotypes differ in the species of bifidobacteria present. In particular, we used a novel technique which allowed us to compare bifidobacteria in adults at the strain level, without the traditional need for culturing. Our results show that the GG genotype enhances the abundance of bifidobacteria regardless of species. We also noted that a person's specific strains are recoverable several years later, and twins can share the same ones. Given that bifidobacteria are inherited from mother to child, strain stability over time in adulthood suggests long-term, multigenerational inheritance.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Ervin SM, Simpson JB, Gibbs ME, et al (2020)

Structural Insights into Endobiotic Reactivation by Human Gut Microbiome-Encoded Sulfatases.

Biochemistry, 59(40):3939-3950.

Phase II drug metabolism inactivates xenobiotics and endobiotics through the addition of either a glucuronic acid or sulfate moiety prior to excretion, often via the gastrointestinal tract. While the human gut microbial β-glucuronidase enzymes that reactivate glucuronide conjugates in the intestines are becoming well characterized and even controlled by targeted inhibitors, the sulfatases encoded by the human gut microbiome have not been comprehensively examined. Gut microbial sulfatases are poised to reactivate xenobiotics and endobiotics, which are then capable of undergoing enterohepatic recirculation or exerting local effects on the gut epithelium. Here, using protein structure-guided methods, we identify 728 distinct microbiome-encoded sulfatase proteins from the 4.8 million unique proteins present in the Human Microbiome Project Stool Sample database and 1766 gut microbial sulfatases from the 9.9 million sequences in the Integrated Gene Catalogue. We purify a representative set of these sulfatases, elucidate crystal structures, and pinpoint unique structural motifs essential to endobiotic sulfate processing. Gut microbial sulfatases differentially process sulfated forms of the neurotransmitters serotonin and dopamine, and the hormones melatonin, estrone, dehydroepiandrosterone, and thyroxine in a manner dependent both on variabilities in active site architecture and on markedly distinct oligomeric states. Taken together, these data provide initial insights into the structural and functional diversity of gut microbial sulfatases, providing a path toward defining the roles these enzymes play in health and disease.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Ternák G, Berényi K, Sümegi A, et al (2020)

Antibiotic Consumption Patterns in European Countries May Be Associated with the Incidence of Major Carcinomas.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 9(10): pii:antibiotics9100643.

The possible role of the altered intestinal microbiome in the development of malignancies has been raised recently in several publications. Among external factors, antibiotics are considered to be the most important agent capable of producing dysbiosis in the gut flora, either temporally or permanently. The human microbiome has several beneficial effects in terms of maintaining appropriate human health, but its alteration has been implicated in the development of many illnesses. Our basic aim was to explore a possible relationship between the consumption of different antibiotic classes and the incidence of the most common cancer types (male, female) in European countries. A database of the average, yearly antibiotic consumption (1997-2018) has been developed and the consumption figures were compared to the eight, most frequent cancer incidence calculated for 2018 in 30 European countries. Pearson correlation has indicated different degrees of positive (supportive) and negative (inhibitor) significant associations between antibiotic consumption figures and cancer prevalence. It has been observed that certain antibiotic classes with positive correlation probably augment the incidence of certain cancer types, while others, with negative correlation, may show some inhibitory effect. The relatively higher or lower consumption pattern of different classes of antibiotics could be related to certain cancer prevalence figures in different European countries. Our results indicated that countries with relatively high consumption of narrow-spectrum penicillin (J01CE, J01CF) and tetracycline (J01A), like certain Scandinavian countries, showed a higher incidence of female colorectal cancer, female lung cancer, melanoma, breast, prostate and uterus corpus cancer. Countries with relatively higher consumption of broad-spectrum penicillin (J01CA, J01CR) and some broad-spectrum antibiotics (J01D, J01F, J01M), like Greece, Hungary, Slovakia, France, etc. showed a higher incidence rate of male lung cancer and male bladder cancer. The higher incidence rate of different cancer types showed association with the higher consumption of antibiotics with "augmenting" properties and with less consumption of antibiotics with "inhibitory" properties.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Quagliariello A, Del Chierico F, Reddel S, et al (2020)

Fecal Microbiota Transplant in Two Ulcerative Colitis Pediatric Cases: Gut Microbiota and Clinical Course Correlations.

Microorganisms, 8(10): pii:microorganisms8101486.

Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) is a promising strategy in the management of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The clinical effects of this practice are still largely unknown and unpredictable. In this study, two children affected by mild and moderate ulcerative colitis (UC), were pre- and post-FMT monitored for clinical conditions and gut bacterial ecology. Microbiota profiling relied on receipts' time-point profiles, donors and control cohorts' baseline descriptions. After FMT, the improvement of clinical conditions was recorded for both patients. After 12 months, the mild UC patient was in clinical remission, while the moderate UC patient, after 12 weeks, had a clinical worsening. Ecological analyses highlighted an increase in microbiota richness and phylogenetic distance after FMT. This increase was mainly due to Collinsella aerofaciens and Eubacterium biforme, inherited by respective donors. Moreover, a decrease of Proteus and Blautia producta, and the increment of Parabacteroides, Mogibacteriaceae, Bacteroides eggerthi, Bacteroides plebeius, Ruminococcus bromii, and BBacteroidesovatus were associated with remission of the patient's condition. FMT results in a long-term response in mild UC, while in the moderate form there is probably need for multiple FMT administrations. FMT leads to a decrease in potential pathogens and an increase in microorganisms correlated to remission status.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Ha CWY, Martin A, Sepich-Poore GD, et al (2020)

Translocation of Viable Gut Microbiota to Mesenteric Adipose Drives Formation of Creeping Fat in Humans.

Cell [Epub ahead of print].

A mysterious feature of Crohn's disease (CD) is the extra-intestinal manifestation of "creeping fat" (CrF), defined as expansion of mesenteric adipose tissue around the inflamed and fibrotic intestine. In the current study, we explore whether microbial translocation in CD serves as a central cue for CrF development. We discovered a subset of mucosal-associated gut bacteria that consistently translocated and remained viable in CrF in CD ileal surgical resections, and identified Clostridium innocuum as a signature of this consortium with strain variation between mucosal and adipose isolates, suggesting preference for lipid-rich environments. Single-cell RNA sequencing characterized CrF as both pro-fibrotic and pro-adipogenic with a rich milieu of activated immune cells responding to microbial stimuli, which we confirm in gnotobiotic mice colonized with C. innocuum. Ex vivo validation of expression patterns suggests C. innocuum stimulates tissue remodeling via M2 macrophages, leading to an adipose tissue barrier that serves to prevent systemic dissemination of bacteria.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Schwartz DJ, Langdon AE, G Dantas (2020)

Understanding the impact of antibiotic perturbation on the human microbiome.

Genome medicine, 12(1):82.

The human gut microbiome is a dynamic collection of bacteria, archaea, fungi, and viruses that performs essential functions for immune development, pathogen colonization resistance, and food metabolism. Perturbation of the gut microbiome's ecological balance, commonly by antibiotics, can cause and exacerbate diseases. To predict and successfully rescue such perturbations, first, we must understand the underlying taxonomic and functional dynamics of the microbiome as it changes throughout infancy, childhood, and adulthood. We offer an overview of the healthy gut bacterial architecture over these life stages and comment on vulnerability to short and long courses of antibiotics. Second, the resilience of the microbiome after antibiotic perturbation depends on key characteristics, such as the nature, timing, duration, and spectrum of a course of antibiotics, as well as microbiome modulatory factors such as age, travel, underlying illness, antibiotic resistance pattern, and diet. In this review, we discuss acute and chronic antibiotic perturbations to the microbiome and resistome in the context of microbiome stability and dynamics. We specifically discuss key taxonomic and resistance gene changes that accompany antibiotic treatment of neonates, children, and adults. Restoration of a healthy gut microbial ecosystem after routine antibiotics will require rationally managed exposure to specific antibiotics and microbes. To that end, we review the use of fecal microbiota transplantation and probiotics to direct recolonization of the gut ecosystem. We conclude with our perspectives on how best to assess, predict, and aid recovery of the microbiome after antibiotic perturbation.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Marazzato M, Zicari AM, Aleandri M, et al (2020)

16S Metagenomics Reveals Dysbiosis of Nasal Core Microbiota in Children With Chronic Nasal Inflammation: Role of Adenoid Hypertrophy and Allergic Rhinitis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:458.

Allergic rhinitis (AR) and adenoid hypertrophy (AH) are, in children, the main cause of partial or complete upper airway obstruction and reduction in airflow. However, limited data exist about the impact of the increased resistance to airflow, on the nasal microbial composition of children with AR end AH. Allergic rhinitis (AR) as well as adenoid hypertrophy (AH), represent extremely common pathologies in this population. Their known inflammatory obstruction is amplified when both pathologies coexist. In our study, the microbiota of anterior nares of 75 pediatric subjects with AR, AH or both conditions, was explored by 16S rRNA-based metagenomic approach. Our data show for the first time, that in children, the inflammatory state is associated to similar changes in the microbiota composition of AR and AH subjects respect to the healthy condition. Together with such alterations, we observed a reduced variability in the between-subject biodiversity on the other hand, these same alterations resulted amplified by the nasal obstruction that could constitute a secondary risk factor for dysbiosis. Significant differences in the relative abundance of specific microbial groups were found between diseased phenotypes and the controls. Most of these taxa belonged to a stable and quantitatively dominating component of the nasal microbiota and showed marked potentials in discriminating the controls from diseased subjects. A pauperization of the nasal microbial network was observed in diseased status in respect to the number of involved taxa and connectivity. Finally, while stable co-occurrence relationships were observed within both control- and diseases-associated microbial groups, only negative correlations were present between them, suggesting that microbial subgroups potentially act as maintainer of the eubiosis state in the nasal ecosystem. In the nasal ecosystem, inflammation-associated shifts seem to impact the more intimate component of the microbiota rather than representing the mere loss of microbial diversity. The discriminatory potential showed by differentially abundant taxa provide a starting point for future research with the potential to improve patient outcomes. Overall, our results underline the association of AH and AR with the impairment of the microbial interplay leading to unbalanced ecosystems.

RevDate: 2020-10-06

Son JW, Shoaie S, S Lee (2020)

Systems Biology: A Multi-Omics Integration Approach to Metabolism and the Microbiome.

Endocrinology and metabolism (Seoul, Korea), 35(3):507-514.

The complex and dynamic nature of human physiology, as exemplified by metabolism, has often been overlooked due to the lack of quantitative and systems approaches. Recently, systems biology approaches have pushed the boundaries of our current understanding of complex biochemical, physiological, and environmental interactions, enabling proactive medicine in the near future. From this perspective, we review how state-of-the-art computational modelling of human metabolism, i.e., genome-scale metabolic modelling, could be used to identify the metabolic footprints of diseases, to guide the design of personalized treatments, and to estimate the microbiome contributions to host metabolism. These state-of-the-art models can serve as a scaffold for integrating multi-omics data, thereby enabling the identification of signatures of dysregulated metabolism by systems approaches. For example, increased plasma mannose levels due to decreased uptake in the liver have been identified as a potential biomarker of early insulin resistance by multi-omics approaches. In addition, we also review the emerging axis of human physiology and the human microbiome, discussing its contribution to host metabolism and quantitative approaches to study its variations in individuals.

RevDate: 2020-09-27

Wright ML (2020)

Exploring the vaginal bacteriophage frontier.

BJOG : an international journal of obstetrics and gynaecology [Epub ahead of print].

Research evaluating the vaginal microbiome during pregnancy has largely focused on bacteria, although the most abundant component of the human microbiome are bacteriophages (phages). Phages, viruses that infect bacteria, have largely been neglected in vaginal microbiome research, largely due to limitations in isolating and characterizing phages from clinical samples.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Daisley BA, Pitek AP, Chmiel JA, et al (2020)

Lactobacillus spp. attenuate antibiotic-induced immune and microbiota dysregulation in honey bees.

Communications biology, 3(1):534 pii:10.1038/s42003-020-01259-8.

Widespread antibiotic usage in apiculture contributes substantially to the global dissemination of antimicrobial resistance and has the potential to negatively influence bacterial symbionts of honey bees (Apis mellifera). Here, we show that routine antibiotic administration with oxytetracycline selectively increased tetB (efflux pump resistance gene) abundance in the gut microbiota of adult workers while concurrently depleting several key symbionts known to regulate immune function and nutrient metabolism such as Frischella perrera and Lactobacillus Firm-5 strains. These microbial changes were functionally characterized by decreased capped brood counts (marker of hive nutritional status and productivity) and reduced antimicrobial capacity of adult hemolymph (indicator of immune competence). Importantly, combination therapy with three immunostimulatory Lactobacillus strains could mitigate antibiotic-associated microbiota dysbiosis and immune deficits in adult workers, as well as maximize the intended benefit of oxytetracycline by suppressing larval pathogen loads to near-undetectable levels. We conclude that microbial-based therapeutics may offer a simple but effective solution to reduce honey bee disease burden, environmental xenobiotic exposure, and spread of antimicrobial resistance.

RevDate: 2020-09-25

Gail MH, Wan Y, J Shi (2020)

Power of Microbiome Beta-Diversity Analyses Based on Standard Reference Samples.

American journal of epidemiology pii:5911564 [Epub ahead of print].

A simple method to analyze microbiome beta-diversity computes mean beta-diversity distances from a test sample to standard reference samples. We used reference stool and nasal samples from the Human Microbiome Project and regressed an outcome on mean distances (2df-test) or additionally on squares and cross-product of mean distances (5df-test). We compared the power of 2df- and 5df-tests to the microbiome regression-based kernel association test (MiRKAT). In simulations, MiRKAT had moderately greater power than the 2df-test for discriminating skin versus saliva and skin versus nasal samples, but differences were negligible for skin versus stool and stool versus nasal samples. The 2df-test had slightly greater power than MiRKAT for Dirichlet-Multinomial samples. In associating body mass index with beta-diversity in stool samples from the American Gut Project, the 5df-test yielded smaller p-values than MiRKAT for most taxonomic levels and beta-diversity measures. Unlike procedures like MiRKAT that are based on the beta-diversity matrix, mean distances to reference samples can be analyzed with standard statistical tools and shared or meta-analyzed without sharing primary DNA data. Our data indicate that standard reference tests have comparable power to MiRKAT (and to permutational multivariate analysis of variance), but more simulations and applications are needed to confirm this.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Kim GH, Rosiana S, Kirienko NV, et al (2020)

A Simple Nematode Infection Model for Studying Candida albicans Pathogenesis.

Current protocols in microbiology, 59(1):e114.

Candida albicans is an opportunistic fungal pathogen and a model organism to study fungal pathogenesis. It exists as a harmless commensal organism and member of the healthy human microbiome, but can cause life-threatening mucosal and systemic infections. A model host to study C. albicans infection and pathogenesis is the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. C. elegans is frequently used as a model host to study microbial-host interactions because it can be infected by many human pathogens and there are also close morphological resemblances between the intestinal cells of C. elegans and mammals, where C. albicans infections can occur. This article outlines a detailed methodology for exploiting C. elegans as a host to study C. albicans infection, including a C. elegans egg preparation protocol and an agar-based C. elegans killing protocol to monitor fungal virulence. These protocols can additionally be used to study C. albicans genetic mutants in order to further our understanding of the genes involved in pathogenesis and virulence in C. albicans and the mechanisms of host-microbe interactions. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC. Basic Protocol 1: Preparation of Caenorhabditis elegans eggs Support Protocol 1: Freezing and recovering Caenorhabditis elegans Support Protocol 2: Making superfood agar and OP50 plates Basic Protocol 2: Caenorhabditis elegans/Candida albicans agar killing assay Support Protocol 3: Constructing a worm pick.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Rasinkangas P, Tytgat HLP, Ritari J, et al (2020)

Characterization of Highly Mucus-Adherent Non-GMO Derivatives of Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG.

Frontiers in bioengineering and biotechnology, 8:1024.

Lacticaseibacillus rhamnosus GG is one of the best studied lactic acid bacteria in the context of probiotic effects. L. rhamnosus GG has been shown to prevent diarrhea in children and adults and has been implicated to have mitigating or preventive effects in several disorders connected to microbiota dysbiosis. The probiotic effects are largely attributed to its adhesive heterotrimeric sortase-dependent pili, encoded by the spaCBA-srtC1 gene cluster. Indeed, the strain-specific SpaCBA pili have been shown to contribute to adherence, biofilm formation and host signaling. In this work we set out to generate non-GMO derivatives of L. rhamnosus GG that adhere stronger to mucus compared to the wild-type strain using chemical mutagenesis. We selected 13 derivatives that showed an increased mucus-adherent phenotype. Deep shotgun resequencing of the strains enabled division of the strains into three classes, two of which revealed SNPs (single nucleotide polymorphisms) in the spaA and spaC genes encoding the shaft and tip adhesive pilins, respectively. Strikingly, the other class derivatives demonstrated less clear genotype - phenotype relationships, illustrating that pili biogenesis and structure is also affected by other processes. Further characterization of the different classes of derivatives was performed by PacBio SMRT sequencing and RNAseq analysis, which resulted in the identification of molecular candidates driving pilin biosynthesis and functionality. In conclusion, we report on the generation and characterization of three classes of strongly adherent L. rhamnosus GG derivatives that show an increase in adhesion to mucus. These are of special interest as they provide a window on processes and genes driving piliation and its control in L. rhamnosus GG and offer a variety of non-GMO derivatives of this key probiotic strain that are applicable in food products.

RevDate: 2020-10-13
CmpDate: 2020-10-13

Daisley BA, Chanyi RM, Abdur-Rashid K, et al (2020)

Abiraterone acetate preferentially enriches for the gut commensal Akkermansia muciniphila in castrate-resistant prostate cancer patients.

Nature communications, 11(1):4822.

Abiraterone acetate (AA) is an inhibitor of androgen biosynthesis, though this cannot fully explain its efficacy against androgen-independent prostate cancer. Here, we demonstrate that androgen deprivation therapy depletes androgen-utilizing Corynebacterium spp. in prostate cancer patients and that oral AA further enriches for the health-associated commensal, Akkermansia muciniphila. Functional inferencing elucidates a coinciding increase in bacterial biosynthesis of vitamin K2 (an inhibitor of androgen dependent and independent tumor growth). These results are highly reproducible in a host-free gut model, excluding the possibility of immune involvement. Further investigation reveals that AA is metabolized by bacteria in vitro and that breakdown components selectively impact growth. We conclude that A. muciniphila is a key regulator of AA-mediated restructuring of microbial communities, and that this species may affect treatment response in castrate-resistant cohorts. Ongoing initiatives aimed at modulating the colonic microbiota of cancer patients may consider targeted delivery of poorly absorbed selective bacterial growth agents.

RevDate: 2020-09-25

Balty C, Guillot A, Fradale L, et al (2020)

Biosynthesis of the sactipeptide Ruminococcin C by the human microbiome: Mechanistic insights into thioether bond formation by radical SAM enzymes.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:RA120.015371 [Epub ahead of print].

Despite its major importance in human health, the metabolic potential of the human gut microbiota is still poorly understood. We have recently shown that biosynthesis of Ruminococcin C (RumC), a novel ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptide (RiPP) produced by the commensal bacterium Ruminococcus gnavus, requires two radical SAM enzymes (RumMC1 and RumMC2) catalyzing the formation of four Cα-thioether bridges. These bridges, which are essential for RumC's antibiotic properties against human pathogens such as Clostridium perfringens, define two hairpin domains giving this sactipeptide (sulfur-to-α-carbon thioether-containing peptide) an unusual architecture among natural products. We report here the biochemical and spectroscopic characterizations of RumMC2. EPR spectroscopy and mutagenesis data support that RumMC2 is a member of the large family of SPASM-domain radical SAM enzymes characterized by the presence of three [4Fe-4S] clusters. We also demonstrate that this enzyme initiates its reaction by Cα H-atom abstraction and is able to catalyze the formation of non-natural thioether bonds in engineered peptide substrates. Unexpectedly, our data support the formation of a ketoimine rather than an α,β-dehydro-amino acid intermediate during Cα-thioether bridge LC-MS/MS fragmentation. Finally, we explored the roles of the leader peptide and of the RiPP precursor peptide recognition element (RRE), present in myriad RiPP-modifying enzymes. Collectively, our data support a more complex role for the RRE and the core peptide for the installation of post-translational modifications in RiPPs than previously anticipated and suggest a possible reaction intermediate for thioether bond formation.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

AlShahrani I, Hosmani J, AlShahrani A, et al (2020)

High altitude as a possible factor for dysbiosis of salivary microbiome in orthodontic patients.

Archives of oral biology, 119:104917 pii:S0003-9969(20)30295-8 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: External stressors such as high altitude and low oxygen are known to affect the human microbiome, and in light of the increased occurrence of dental caries and periodontitis in orthodontic patients, the effect of high altitude and the altered oral environment in orthodontic patients on the oral salivary microbiome was researched.

MATERIALS & METHODS: 31 orthodontic patients from high altitude, Aseer region and 25 orthodontic patients, residing at sea level, as controls were included. DNA isolation was done from the saliva collected from the study participants. V3 area of 16s RNA was targeted by universal primers through PCR to decipher the salivary microbiome in both the groups.

RESULTS: A total of 11 genera belonging to 4 phyla of bacteria were identified in both groups. The most abundant microbiome at the phylum level was: Firmicutes, Bacteroidetes Proteobacteria, and Cyanobacteria. The salivary microbiome was more diverse in sea level controls compared to that of the orthodontic patients at high altitude wherein the presence of only two main phyla: Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were seen. The controls revealed Firmicutes, Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes and Cyanobacteria.

CONCLUSIONS: The findings of the study suggest that the biodiversity of the salivary microbiome is severely perturbed under the cumulative influences of high altitude and presence of fixed orthodontic appliance. Under these circumstances, a strict and meticulous oral hygiene regimen should be recommended and followed to avoid harmful effects on the periodontal tissues.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Kim B, Cho EJ, Yoon JH, et al (2020)

Pathway-Based Integrative Analysis of Metabolome and Microbiome Data from Hepatocellular Carcinoma and Liver Cirrhosis Patients.

Cancers, 12(9): pii:cancers12092705.

Aberrations of the human microbiome are associated with diverse liver diseases, including hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Even if we can associate specific microbes with particular diseases, it is difficult to know mechanistically how the microbe contributes to the pathophysiology. Here, we sought to reveal the functional potential of the HCC-associated microbiome with the human metabolome which is known to play a role in connecting host phenotype to microbiome function. To utilize both microbiome and metabolomic data sets, we propose an innovative, pathway-based analysis, Hierarchical structural Component Model for pathway analysis of Microbiome and Metabolome (HisCoM-MnM), for integrating microbiome and metabolomic data. In particular, we used pathway information to integrate these two omics data sets, thus providing insight into biological interactions between different biological layers, with regard to the host's phenotype. The application of HisCoM-MnM to data sets from 103 and 97 patients with HCC and liver cirrhosis (LC), respectively, showed that this approach could identify HCC-related pathways related to cancer metabolic reprogramming, in addition to the significant metabolome and metagenome that make up those pathways.

RevDate: 2020-09-23

Morar N, JA Skorburg (2020)

Why We Never Eat Alone: The Overlooked Role of Microbes and Partners in Obesity Debates in Bioethics.

Journal of bioethical inquiry pii:10.1007/s11673-020-10047-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Debates about obesity in bioethics tend to unfold in predictable epicycles between individual choices and behaviours (e.g., restraint, diet, exercise) and the oppressive socio-economic structures constraining them (e.g., food deserts, advertising). Here, we argue that recent work from two cutting-edge research programmes in microbiology and social psychology can advance this conceptual stalemate in the literature. We begin in section 1 by discussing two promising lines of obesity research involving the human microbiome and relationship partners. Then, in section 2, we show how this research has made viable novel strategies for fighting obesity, including microbial therapies and dyad-level interventions. Finally, in section 3, we consider objections to our account and conclude by arguing that attention to the most immediate features of our biological and social environment offers a middle ground solution, while also raising important new issues for bioethicists.

RevDate: 2020-09-22

Sainz T, Delgado J, Méndez-Echevarría A, et al (2020)

The clinical relevance of the microbiome when managing paediatric infectious diseases.

Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992) [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years, the field of infectious diseases has been hit by the overwhelming amount of information generated while the human microbiome is being disentangled. Based on the interaction between the microbiota and the immune system, the implications regarding infectious diseases are probably major and remain a challenge. This review was conceived as a comprehensive tool to provide an overview of the available evidence regarding the influence of the microbiome on infectious diseases in children. We present the main findings aroused from microbiome research in prevention, diagnosis and treatment of infectious disease under a pediatric perspective, to inform clinicians of the potential relevance of microbiome-related knowledge for translation to clinical practice. CONCLUSION: The evidence shown in this review highlights the numerous research gaps ahead and supports the need to move forward to integrating the so-called microbiome thinking into our routine clinical practice.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Sun X, Li M, Xia L, et al (2020)

Alteration of salivary microbiome in periodontitis with or without type-2 diabetes mellitus and metformin treatment.

Scientific reports, 10(1):15363.

We aimed to explore the effects of type-2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and hypoglycemic therapy on the salivary microbiome in periodontitis patients and identify the potential salivary micro-biomarker for the early warning of T2DM. Saliva samples were collected from healthy individuals (Health), periodontitis patients (P), T2DM patients, periodontitis patients with T2DM (DAP), and DAP patients treated with Metformin (Met). Samples were determined by16S rRNA gene sequencing. 29 phyla, 322 genera, and 333 species of salivary microbiome were annotated. Compared to the Health group, the P and DAP group showed a significantly higher diversity of saliva microbiota, while the T2DM and Met group had no significant difference in microbial abundance but showed a trend of increasing diversity. Other than well-known periodontitis-inducing pathogens, the proportion of Prevotella copri, Alloprevotella rava, and Ralstonia pickettii, etc. were also significantly increased in periodontitis patients with or without T2DM. After effective glycemic control, the abundance of Prevotella copri, Alloprevotella rava, Ralstonia pickettii, etc. decreased in periodontitis patients with companion T2DM. The accuracies of the classification models in differentiating Health-vs.-P, DAP-vs.-P, and T2DM-vs.-P were 100%, 96.3%, and 98.1%, respectively. Hypoglycemic therapy could reconstruct the saliva microbiota and hence improve the localized conditions of diabetes patients with periodontitis.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Pinto D, Trink A, Sorbellini E, et al (2020)

'Omics' approaches for studying the microbiome in Alopecia areata.

Journal of investigative medicine : the official publication of the American Federation for Clinical Research, 68(7):1292-1294.

Nowadays, the involvement of the microbiome in human health and many human diseases, including that strictly related to the scalphas been brought to the light. Indeed, more recently, authors highlighted the presence of a significant microbial shift both in nonscarring (Androgenetic alopecia and Alopecia areata) and scarring Alopecias. The advent of novel technologies together with the effort of many scientists in the microbiome field could provide in the nearest future a clearest framework about the strict relationship between human healthiness and symbiotic microorganism resident on different ecosystem of our body. In this view, the use of Omics approaches has to be considered as no longer negligible when studying the microbiome implication in human health and disease.

RevDate: 2020-09-22

Ormseth MJ, Wu Q, Zhao S, et al (2020)

Circulating microbial small RNAs are altered in patients with rheumatoid arthritis.

Annals of the rheumatic diseases pii:annrheumdis-2020-217589 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To determine if plasma microbial small RNAs (sRNAs) are altered in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) compared with control subjects, associated with RA disease-related features, and altered by disease-modifying antirheumatic drugs (DMARDs).

METHODS: sRNA sequencing was performed on plasma from 165 patients with RA and 90 matched controls and a separate cohort of 70 patients with RA before and after starting a DMARD. Genome alignments for RA-associated bacteria, representative bacterial and fungal human microbiome genomes and environmental bacteria were performed. Microbial genome counts and individual sRNAs were compared across groups and correlated with disease features. False discovery rate was set at 0.05.

RESULTS: Genome counts of Lactobacillus salivarius, Anaerobaculum hydrogeniformans, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Paenisporosarcina spp, Facklamia hominis, Sphingobacterium spiritivorum, Lentibacillus amyloliquefaciens, Geobacillus spp, and Pseudomonas fluorescens were significantly decreased in the plasma of RA compared with control subjects. Three microbial transfer RNA-derived sRNAs were increased in RA versus controls and inversely associated with disease activity. Higher total microbial sRNA reads were associated with lower disease activity in RA. Baseline total microbial sRNAs were threefold higher among patients who improved with DMARD versus those who did not but did not change significantly after 6 months of treatment.

CONCLUSION: Plasma microbial sRNA composition is altered in RA versus control subjects and associated with some measures of RA disease activity. DMARD treatment does not alter microbial sRNA abundance or composition, but increased abundance of microbial sRNAs at baseline was associated with disease activity improvement at 6 months.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Belkova N, Klimenko E, Vilson N, et al (2020)

Metagenome datasets from women with polycystic ovary syndrome from Irkutsk, Eastern Siberia, Russia.

Data in brief, 32:106137.

For the metagenomic characterization of potential taxonomic and functional diversity of microorganisms associated with polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) in women, we surveyed five women with PCOS and collected samples of feces, saliva, and serum. After quality processing, we have obtained from 915,594 to 3,880,379 reads; these 16,693 sequences had ribosomal RNA genes, 2,091,990 sequences contained predicted proteins with known functions, and 3,750,261 sequences had predicted proteins with unknown functions. Host DNA accounted for ca. 0.03% and less in datasets of fecal samples, from 1.41 to 24.94% in saliva samples; the remaining sequences were attributed to archaeal, bacterial, or viral DNA. In serum, from 38.18 to 75.77% were characterized as fragments of the human genome, but the remaining sequences were unidentified. Among microbes, a total of one archaeal and eight bacterial phyla were revealed. Viral DNA was detected in several fecal and one saliva sample and was classified as C2likevirus, Flavivirus, and Streptococcus bacteriophage. The metagenome sequence data were deposited at NCBI SRA as BioProject No. PRJNA625611.

RevDate: 2020-09-17

Yang J, Moon HE, Park HW, et al (2020)

Brain tumor diagnostic model and dietary effect based on extracellular vesicle microbiome data in serum.

Experimental & molecular medicine pii:10.1038/s12276-020-00501-x [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiome has been recently associated with human health and disease. Brain tumors (BTs) are a particularly difficult condition to directly link to the microbiome, as microorganisms cannot generally cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). However, some nanosized extracellular vesicles (EVs) released from microorganisms can cross the BBB and enter the brain. Therefore, we conducted metagenomic analysis of microbial EVs in both serum (152 BT patients and 198 healthy controls (HC)) and brain tissue (5 BT patients and 5 HC) samples based on the V3-V4 regions of 16S rDNA. We then developed diagnostic models through logistic regression and machine learning algorithms using serum EV metagenomic data to assess the ability of various dietary supplements to reduce BT risk in vivo. Models incorporating the stepwise method and the linear discriminant analysis effect size (LEfSe) method yielded 12 and 29 significant genera as potential biomarkers, respectively. Models using the selected biomarkers yielded areas under the curves (AUCs) >0.93, and the model using machine learning resulted in an AUC of 0.99. In addition, Dialister and [Eubacterium] rectale were significantly lower in both blood and tissue samples of BT patients than in those of HCs. In vivo tests showed that BT risk was decreased through the addition of sorghum, brown rice oil, and garlic but conversely increased by the addition of bellflower and pear. In conclusion, serum EV metagenomics shows promise as a rich data source for highly accurate detection of BT risk, and several foods have potential for mitigating BT risk.

RevDate: 2020-10-01
CmpDate: 2020-09-28

Domingues CPF, Rebelo JS, Dionisio F, et al (2020)

The Social Distancing Imposed To Contain COVID-19 Can Affect Our Microbiome: a Double-Edged Sword in Human Health.

mSphere, 5(5):.

Hygienic measures imposed to control the spread of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) and contain COVID-19 have proven effective in controlling the pandemic. In this article, we argue that these measures could impact the human microbiome in two different and disparate ways, acting as a double-edged sword in human health. New lines of research have shown that the diversity of human intestinal and oropharyngeal microbiomes can shape pulmonary viral infection progression. Here, we suggest that the disruption in microbial sharing, as it is associated with dysbiosis (loss of bacterial diversity associated with an imbalance of the microbiota with deleterious consequences for the host), may worsen the prognosis of COVID-19 disease. In addition, social detachment can also decrease the rate of transmission of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. Therefore, it seems crucial to perform new studies combining the pandemic control of COVID-19 with the diversity of the human microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Guerrini V, Louza FA, G Rosone (2020)

Metagenomic analysis through the extended Burrows-Wheeler transform.

BMC bioinformatics, 21(Suppl 8):299.

BACKGROUND: The development of Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) has had a major impact on the study of genetic sequences. Among problems that researchers in the field have to face, one of the most challenging is the taxonomic classification of metagenomic reads, i.e., identifying the microorganisms that are present in a sample collected directly from the environment. The analysis of environmental samples (metagenomes) are particularly important to figure out the microbial composition of different ecosystems and it is used in a wide variety of fields: for instance, metagenomic studies in agriculture can help understanding the interactions between plants and microbes, or in ecology, they can provide valuable insights into the functions of environmental communities.

RESULTS: In this paper, we describe a new lightweight alignment-free and assembly-free framework for metagenomic classification that compares each unknown sequence in the sample to a collection of known genomes. We take advantage of the combinatorial properties of an extension of the Burrows-Wheeler transform, and we sequentially scan the required data structures, so that we can analyze unknown sequences of large collections using little internal memory. The tool LiME (Lightweight Metagenomics via eBWT) is available at https://github.com/veronicaguerrini/LiME .

CONCLUSIONS: In order to assess the reliability of our approach, we run several experiments on NGS data from two simulated metagenomes among those provided in benchmarking analysis and on a real metagenome from the Human Microbiome Project. The experiment results on the simulated data show that LiME is competitive with the widely used taxonomic classifiers. It achieves high levels of precision and specificity - e.g. 99.9% of the positive control reads are correctly assigned and the percentage of classified reads of the negative control is less than 0.01% - while keeping a high sensitivity. On the real metagenome, we show that LiME is able to deliver classification results comparable to that of MagicBlast. Overall, the experiments confirm the effectiveness of our method and its high accuracy even in negative control samples.

RevDate: 2020-10-02
CmpDate: 2020-09-30

Gupta VK, Kim M, Bakshi U, et al (2020)

A predictive index for health status using species-level gut microbiome profiling.

Nature communications, 11(1):4635.

Providing insight into one's health status from a gut microbiome sample is an important clinical goal in current human microbiome research. Herein, we introduce the Gut Microbiome Health Index (GMHI), a biologically-interpretable mathematical formula for predicting the likelihood of disease independent of the clinical diagnosis. GMHI is formulated upon 50 microbial species associated with healthy gut ecosystems. These species are identified through a multi-study, integrative analysis on 4347 human stool metagenomes from 34 published studies across healthy and 12 different nonhealthy conditions, i.e., disease or abnormal bodyweight. When demonstrated on our population-scale meta-dataset, GMHI is the most robust and consistent predictor of disease presence (or absence) compared to α-diversity indices. Validation on 679 samples from 9 additional studies results in a balanced accuracy of 73.7% in distinguishing healthy from non-healthy groups. Our findings suggest that gut taxonomic signatures can predict health status, and highlight how data sharing efforts can provide broadly applicable discoveries.

RevDate: 2020-09-15
CmpDate: 2020-09-15

Blanchet L, Vitale R, van Vorstenbosch R, et al (2020)

Constructing bi-plots for random forest: Tutorial.

Analytica chimica acta, 1131:146-155.

Current technological developments have allowed for a significant increase and availability of data. Consequently, this has opened enormous opportunities for the machine learning and data science field, translating into the development of new algorithms in a wide range of applications in medical, biomedical, daily-life, and national security areas. Ensemble techniques are among the pillars of the machine learning field, and they can be defined as approaches in which multiple, complex, independent/uncorrelated, predictive models are subsequently combined by either averaging or voting to yield a higher model performance. Random forest (RF), a popular ensemble method, has been successfully applied in various domains due to its ability to build predictive models with high certainty and little necessity of model optimization. RF provides both a predictive model and an estimation of the variable importance. However, the estimation of the variable importance is based on thousands of trees, and therefore, it does not specify which variable is important for which sample group. The present study demonstrates an approach based on the pseudo-sample principle that allows for construction of bi-plots (i.e. spin plots) associated with RF models. The pseudo-sample principle for RF. is explained and demonstrated by using two simulated datasets, and three different types of real data, which include political sciences, food chemistry and the human microbiome data. The pseudo-sample bi-plots, associated with RF and its unsupervised version, allow for a versatile visualization of multivariate models, and the variable importance and the relation among them.

RevDate: 2020-09-17

Golovko G, Kamil K, Albayrak L, et al (2020)

Identification of multidimensional Boolean patterns in microbial communities.

Microbiome, 8(1):131.

BACKGROUND: Identification of complex multidimensional interaction patterns within microbial communities is the key to understand, modulate, and design beneficial microbiomes. Every community has members that fulfill an essential function affecting multiple other community members through secondary metabolism. Since microbial community members are often simultaneously involved in multiple relations, not all interaction patterns for such microorganisms are expected to exhibit a visually uninterrupted pattern. As a result, such relations cannot be detected using traditional correlation, mutual information, principal coordinate analysis, or covariation-based network inference approaches.

RESULTS: We present a novel pattern-specific method to quantify the strength and estimate the statistical significance of two-dimensional co-presence, co-exclusion, and one-way relation patterns between abundance profiles of two organisms as well as extend this approach to allow search and visualize three-, four-, and higher dimensional patterns. The proposed approach has been tested using 2380 microbiome samples from the Human Microbiome Project resulting in body site-specific networks of statistically significant 2D patterns as well as revealed the presence of 3D patterns in the Human Microbiome Project data.

CONCLUSIONS: The presented study suggested that search for Boolean patterns in the microbial abundance data needs to be pattern specific. The reported presence of multidimensional patterns (which cannot be reduced to a combination of two-dimensional patterns) suggests that multidimensional (multi-organism) relations may play important roles in the organization of microbial communities, and their detection (and appropriate visualization) may lead to a deeper understanding of the organization and dynamics of microbial communities. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2020-09-21

Mars RAT, Yang Y, Ward T, et al (2020)

Longitudinal Multi-omics Reveals Subset-Specific Mechanisms Underlying Irritable Bowel Syndrome.

Cell, 182(6):1460-1473.e17.

The gut microbiome has been implicated in multiple human chronic gastrointestinal (GI) disorders. Determining its mechanistic role in disease has been difficult due to apparent disconnects between animal and human studies and lack of an integrated multi-omics view of disease-specific physiological changes. We integrated longitudinal multi-omics data from the gut microbiome, metabolome, host epigenome, and transcriptome in the context of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) host physiology. We identified IBS subtype-specific and symptom-related variation in microbial composition and function. A subset of identified changes in microbial metabolites correspond to host physiological mechanisms that are relevant to IBS. By integrating multiple data layers, we identified purine metabolism as a novel host-microbial metabolic pathway in IBS with translational potential. Our study highlights the importance of longitudinal sampling and integrating complementary multi-omics data to identify functional mechanisms that can serve as therapeutic targets in a comprehensive treatment strategy for chronic GI diseases. VIDEO ABSTRACT.

RevDate: 2020-10-07

Taddese R, Garza DR, Ruiter LN, et al (2020)

Growth rate alterations of human colorectal cancer cells by 157 gut bacteria.

Gut microbes, 12(1):1-20.

Several bacteria in the human gut microbiome have been associated with colorectal cancer (CRC) by high-throughput screens. In some cases, molecular mechanisms have been elucidated that drive tumorigenesis, including bacterial membrane proteins or secreted molecules that interact with the human cancer cells. For most gut bacteria, however, it remains unknown if they enhance or inhibit cancer cell growth. Here, we screened bacteria-free supernatants (secretomes) and inactivated cells of over 150 cultured bacterial strains for their effects on cell growth. We observed family-level and strain-level effects that often differed between bacterial cells and secretomes, suggesting that different molecular mechanisms are at play. Secretomes of Bacteroidaceae, Enterobacteriaceae, and Erysipelotrichaceae bacteria enhanced cell growth, while most Fusobacteriaceae cells and secretomes inhibited growth, contrasting prior findings. In some bacteria, the presence of specific functional genes was associated with cell growth rates, including the virulence genes TcdA, TcdB in Clostridiales and FadA in Fusobacteriaceae, which both inhibited growth. Bacteroidaceae cells that enhanced growth were enriched for genes of the cobalamin synthesis pathway, while Fusobacteriaceae cells that inhibit growth were enriched for genes of the ethanolamine utilization pathway. Together, our results reveal how different gut bacteria have wide-ranging effects on cell growth, contribute a better understanding of the effects of the gut microbiome on host cells, and provide a valuable resource for identifying candidate target genes for potential microbiome-based diagnostics and treatment strategies.

RevDate: 2020-09-11

Koponen A, Pan G, Kivelä AM, et al (2020)

ORP2, a cholesterol transporter, regulates angiogenic signaling in endothelial cells.

FASEB journal : official publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology [Epub ahead of print].

Oxysterol-binding protein-related protein 2 (ORP2), a cholesterol-PI(4,5)P2 countercurrent transporter, was recently identified as a novel regulator of plasma membrane (PM) cholesterol and PI(4,5)P2 content in HeLa cells. Here, we investigate the role of ORP2 in endothelial cell (EC) cholesterol and PI(4,5)P2 distribution, angiogenic signaling, and angiogenesis. We show that ORP2 knock-down modifies the distribution of cholesterol accessible to a D4H probe, between late endosomes and the PM. Depletion of ORP2 from ECs inhibits their angiogenic tube formation capacity, alters the gene expression of angiogenic signaling pathways such as VEGFR2, Akt, mTOR, eNOS, and Notch, and reduces EC migration, proliferation, and cell viability. We show that ORP2 regulates the integrity of VEGFR2 at the PM in a cholesterol-dependent manner, the depletion of ORP2 resulting in proteolytic cleavage by matrix metalloproteinases, and reduced activity of VEGFR2 and its downstream signaling. We demonstrate that ORP2 depletion increases the PM PI(4,5)P2 coincident with altered F-actin morphology, and reduces both VEGFR2 and cholesterol in buoyant raft membranes. Moreover, ORP2 knock-down suppresses the expression of the lipid raft-associated proteins VE-cadherin and caveolin-1. Analysis of the retinal microvasculature in ORP2 knock-out mice generated during this study demonstrates the subtle alterations of morphology characterized by reduced vessel length and increased density of tip cells and perpendicular sprouts. Gene expression changes in the retina suggest disturbance of sterol homeostasis, downregulation of VE-cadherin, and a putative disturbance of Notch signaling. Our data identifies ORP2 as a novel regulator of EC cholesterol and PI(4,5)P2 homeostasis and cholesterol-dependent angiogenic signaling.

RevDate: 2020-09-11

Feng Q, Lan X, Ji X, et al (2020)

Time series analysis of microbiome and metabolome at multiple body sites in steady long-term isolation confinement.

RevDate: 2020-09-10

Sharma A, SH Im (2020)

Special issue on the human microbiome: from symbiosis to therapy.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Al KF, Daisley BA, Chanyi RM, et al (2020)

Oxalate-Degrading Bacillus subtilis Mitigates Urolithiasis in a Drosophila melanogaster Model.

mSphere, 5(5):.

Kidney stones affect nearly 10% of the population in North America and are associated with high morbidity and recurrence, yet novel prevention strategies are lacking. Recent evidence suggests that the human gut microbiota can influence the development of nephrolithiasis, although clinical trials have been limited and inconclusive in determining the potential for microbially based interventions. Here, we used an established Drosophila melanogaster model of urolithiasis as a high-throughput screening platform for evaluation of the therapeutic potential of oxalate-degrading bacteria in calcium oxalate (CaOx) nephrolithiasis. The results demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis 168 (BS168) is a promising candidate based on its preferential growth in high oxalate concentrations, its ability to stably colonize the D. melanogaster intestinal tract for as long as 5 days, and its prevention of oxalate-induced microbiota dysbiosis. Single-dose BS168 supplementation exerted beneficial effects on D. melanogaster for as long as 14 days, decreasing stone burden in dissected Malpighian tubules and fecal excreta while increasing survival and behavioral markers of health over those of nonsupplemented lithogenic controls. These findings were complemented by in vitro experiments using the established MDCK renal cell line, which demonstrated that BS168 pretreatment prevented increased CaOx crystal adhesion and aggregation. Taking our results together, this study supports the notion that BS168 can functionally reduce CaOx stone burden in vivo through its capacity for oxalate degradation. Given the favorable safety profile of many B. subtilis strains already used as digestive aids and in fermented foods, these findings suggest that BS168 could represent a novel therapeutic adjunct to reduce the incidence of recurrent CaOx nephrolithiasis in high-risk patients.IMPORTANCE Kidney stone disease is a morbid condition that is increasing in prevalence, with few nonsurgical treatment options. The majority of stones are composed of calcium oxalate. Unlike humans, some microbes can break down oxalate, suggesting that microbial therapeutics may provide a novel treatment for kidney stone patients. This study demonstrated that Bacillus subtilis 168 (BS168) decreased stone burden, improved health, and complemented the microbiota in a Drosophila melanogaster urolithiasis model, while not exacerbating calcium oxalate aggregation or adhesion to renal cells in vitro These results identify this bacterium as a candidate for ameliorating stone formation; given that other strains of B. subtilis are components of fermented foods and are used as probiotics for digestive health, strain 168 warrants testing in humans. With the severe burden that recurrent kidney stone disease imposes on patients and the health care system, this microbial therapeutic approach could provide an inexpensive therapeutic adjunct.

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Giangaspero A, Barlaam A, Pane S, et al (2020)

Accidental Nasal Myiasis Caused by Megaselia rufipes (Diptera: Phoridae) in a Child.

Journal of medical entomology pii:5903216 [Epub ahead of print].

A case of a nasal myiasis in a 3-yr-old Italian girl who was referred to Bambino Gesù Hospital in Rome, Italy, is reported. Larvae discharged with the nasal mucus were microscopically identified as Megaselia spp.; DNA barcoding analysis showed that they belonged to the 'scuttle fly' species Megaselia rufipes (Meigen). Based on the patient's history, she became infected when she played outside. This is the first report of myiasis in humans due to M. rufipes (Diptera: Phoridae).

RevDate: 2020-09-09

Federici S, Nobs SP, E Elinav (2020)

Phages and their potential to modulate the microbiome and immunity.

Cellular & molecular immunology pii:10.1038/s41423-020-00532-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteriophages (hence termed phages) are viruses that target bacteria and have long been considered as potential future treatments against antibiotic-resistant bacterial infection. However, the molecular nature of phage interactions with bacteria and the human host has remained elusive for decades, limiting their therapeutic application. While many phages and their functional repertoires remain unknown, the advent of next-generation sequencing has increasingly enabled researchers to decode new lytic and lysogenic mechanisms by which they attack and destroy bacteria. Furthermore, the last decade has witnessed a renewed interest in the utilization of phages as therapeutic vectors and as a means of targeting pathogenic or commensal bacteria or inducing immunomodulation. Importantly, the narrow host range, immense antibacterial repertoire, and ease of manipulating phages may potentially allow for their use as targeted modulators of pathogenic, commensal and pathobiont members of the microbiome, thereby impacting mammalian physiology and immunity along mucosal surfaces in health and in microbiome-associated diseases. In this review, we aim to highlight recent advances in phage biology and how a mechanistic understanding of phage-bacteria-host interactions may facilitate the development of novel phage-based therapeutics. We provide an overview of the challenges of the therapeutic use of phages and how these could be addressed for future use of phages as specific modulators of the human microbiome in a variety of infectious and noncommunicable human diseases.

RevDate: 2020-10-13
CmpDate: 2020-10-13

Chen B, W Xu (2020)

Generalized estimating equation modeling on correlated microbiome sequencing data with longitudinal measures.

PLoS computational biology, 16(9):e1008108.

Existing models for assessing microbiome sequencing such as operational taxonomic units (OTUs) can only test predictors' effects on OTUs. There is limited work on how to estimate the correlations between multiple OTUs and incorporate such relationship into models to evaluate longitudinal OTU measures. We propose a novel approach to estimate OTU correlations based on their taxonomic structure, and apply such correlation structure in Generalized Estimating Equations (GEE) models to estimate both predictors' effects and OTU correlations. We develop a two-part Microbiome Taxonomic Longitudinal Correlation (MTLC) model for multivariate zero-inflated OTU outcomes based on the GEE framework. In addition, longitudinal and other types of repeated OTU measures are integrated in the MTLC model. Extensive simulations have been conducted to evaluate the performance of the MTLC method. Compared with the existing methods, the MTLC method shows robust and consistent estimation, and improved statistical power for testing predictors' effects. Lastly we demonstrate our proposed method by implementing it into a real human microbiome study to evaluate the obesity on twins.

RevDate: 2020-09-05

Reyes-Gibby CC, Wang J, Zhang L, et al (2020)

Oral microbiome and onset of oral mucositis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

Cancer [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Oral mucositis (OM) is a debilitating sequela for patients treated for squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC). This study investigated whether oral microbial features before treatment or during treatment are associated with the time to onset of severe OM in patients with HNSCC.

METHODS: This was a cohort study of newly diagnosed patients with locoregional HNSCC who received chemotherapy with or without radiotherapy from April 2016 to September 2017. OM was based on the National Cancer Institute's Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events, version 4.0. The oral microbiome was characterized on the basis of the 16S ribosomal RNA V4 region with the Illumina platform. A mixture cure model was used to generate hazard ratios for the onset of severe OM.

RESULTS: Eighty-six percent of the patients developed OM (n = 57 [33 nonsevere cases and 24 severe cases]) with a median time to onset of OM of 21 days. With adjustments for age, sex, and smoking status, genera abundance was associated with the hazard for the onset of severe OM as follows: 1) at the baseline (n = 66), Cardiobacterium (P = .03) and Granulicatella (P = .04); 2) immediately before the development of OM (n = 57), Prevotella (P = .03), Fusobacterium (P = .03), and Streptococcus (P = .01); and 3) immediately before the development of severe OM (n = 24), Megasphaera (P = .0001) and Cardiobacterium (P = .03). There were no differences in α-diversity between the baseline samples and Human Microbiome Project data.

CONCLUSIONS: Changes in the abundance of genera over the course of treatment were associated with the onset of severe OM. The mechanism and therapeutic implications of these findings need to be investigated in future studies.

RevDate: 2020-09-05

García MG, Pérez-Cárceles MD, Osuna E, et al (2020)

The impact of the human microbiome in forensic sciences: A systematic review.

Applied and environmental microbiology pii:AEM.01451-20 [Epub ahead of print].

Numerous studies relate differences in microbial communities to human health and disease, however little is known about microbial changes that occur post mortem or the possible applications of microbiome analysis in the field of forensic science. The aim of this review was study the microbiome and its applications in forensic sciences, to determine the main lines of investigation that are emerging, as well as its possible contributions in the forensic field. A systematic review of the human microbiome in relation to forensic science was carried out following PRISMA guidelines. This study throws light on the role of microbiome research in the postmortem interval during the process of decomposition; identifying death caused by drowning or sudden death; locating the geographical location of death; establishing a connection between human microbiome and personal items, sexual contact, and the identification of individuals. Actinomycetaceae, Bacteroidaceae, Alcaligenaceae and Bacilli play an important role in determining the postmortem interval. Aeromonas can be used to determine the cause of death, and Corynebacterium or Helicobacter pylori to ascertain personal identity or geographical location. Several studies point to a promising future for microbiome analysis in the different fields of forensic science, opening up an important new area of research.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Suojanen LU, Ahola AJ, Kupila S, et al (2020)

Effectiveness of a web-based real-life weight management program: Study design, methods, and participants' baseline characteristics.

Contemporary clinical trials communications, 19:100638.

Obesity is an important public health concern with limited effective treatment options. Internet-based technologies offer a cost-effective means to treat obesity. However, most of the online programs have been of short duration, have focused on a limited number of treatment modalities, and have not utilized the potential of coaching as part of the intervention. In this paper, we present the design, methods and participants' baseline characteristics in a real-life internet-based weight management program. Healthy Weight Coaching (HWC) is a 12-month web-based intervention for the management of obesity. The program is based on the Acceptance and Commitment Therapy and includes themes important for weight loss, including diet, physical activity, psychological factors, and sleep. In addition to the automated, interactive program, a personal coach is allocated to each participant. The participants are nationally enrolled through referrals from primary care, occupational health, hospitals, and private health care units. Adult individuals with BMI ≥25 kg/m2 without severe complications are included. On a weekly basis, participants submit their weight logs, training sessions, and lifestyle targets to the internet portal and are scheduled to have online discussions with their coaches 26 times over the course of a year. Questionnaires on lifestyle, diet, physical activity, psychological factors, sleep, and quality of life are completed at baseline, 3, 6, 9, and 12 months, and thereafter yearly until 5 years. Additionally, log data on the use of the service and discussions with the coach are collected. The main outcome is weight change from baseline to 12 months. Recruitment to the HWC is ongoing. Baseline data of the participants recruited between Oct 2016 and Mar 2019 (n = 1189) are provided. This research will bring insight into how internet-based technologies can be implemented in the virtual management of obesity.

Trial registration: The trial is registered at clinicaltrials.cov (Clinical Trials Identifier NCT04019249).

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Katongole P, Sande OJ, Joloba M, et al (2020)

The human microbiome and its link in prostate cancer risk and pathogenesis.

Infectious agents and cancer, 15:53.

There is growing evidence of the microbiome's role in human health and disease since the human microbiome project. The microbiome plays a vital role in influencing cancer risk and pathogenesis. Several studies indicate microbial pathogens to account for over 15-20% of all cancers. Furthermore, the interaction of the microbiota, especially the gut microbiota in influencing response to chemotherapy, immunotherapy, and radiotherapy remains an area of active research. Certain microbial species have been linked to the improved clinical outcome when on different cancer therapies. The recent discovery of the urinary microbiome has enabled the study to understand its connection to genitourinary malignancies, especially prostate cancer. Prostate cancer is the second most common cancer in males worldwide. Therefore research into understanding the factors and mechanisms associated with prostate cancer etiology, pathogenesis, and disease progression is of utmost importance. In this review, we explore the current literature concerning the link between the gut and urinary microbiome and prostate cancer risk and pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Jiang Q, Kainulainen V, Stamatova I, et al (2020)

Mouthwash Effects on LGG-Integrated Experimental Oral Biofilms.

Dentistry journal, 8(3): pii:dj8030096.

In order to investigate the effects of mouthwashes on oral biofilms with probiotics, we compared in biofilms the susceptibility to mouthwashes of probiotic Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) and oral pathogens Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus sanguinis, and Candida albicans. We also evaluated these pathogens' susceptibility to the mouthwashes and their recovery after mouthwash-rinsing in biofilms with/without LGG. First, 1-day-/3-day-old LGG-integrated multi-species biofilms were exposed for 1 min to mouthwashes containing chlorhexidine, essential oils, or amine fluoride/stannous fluoride. Cells were plate-counted and relative survival rates (RSRs) of LGG and pathogens calculated. Second, 1-day-/3-day-old multispecies biofilms with and without LGG were exposed for 1 min to mouthwashes; cells were plate-counted and the pathogens' RSRs were calculated. Third, 1-day-old biofilms were treated for 1 min with mouthwashes. Cells were plate-counted immediately and after 2-day cultivation. Recovery rates of pathogens were calculated and compared between biofilms with/without LGG. Live/Dead® staining served for structural analyses. Our results showed that RSRs of LGG were insignificantly smaller than those of pathogens in both 1-day and 3-day biofilms. No significant differences appeared in pathogens' RSRs and recovery rates after treatment between biofilms with/without LGG. To conclude, biofilm LGG was susceptible to the mouthwashes; but biofilm LGG altered neither the mouthwash effects on oral pathogens nor affected their recovery.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Odogwu NM, Olayemi OO, AO Omigbodun (2020)

The vaginal microbiome of sub-Saharan African women: revealing important gaps in the era of next-generation sequencing.

PeerJ, 8:e9684.

Accurate characterization of the vaginal microbiome remains a fundamental goal of the Human Microbiome project (HMP). For over a decade, this goal has been made possible deploying high-throughput next generation sequencing technologies (NGS), which indeed has revolutionized medical research and enabled large-scale genomic studies. The 16S rRNA marker-gene survey is the most commonly explored approach for vaginal microbial community studies. With this approach, prior studies have elucidated substantial variations in the vaginal microbiome of women from different ethnicities. This review provides a comprehensive account of studies that have deployed this approach to describe the vaginal microbiota of African women in health and disease. On the basis of published data, the few studies reported from the African population are mainly in non-pregnant post pubertal women and calls for more detailed studies in pregnant and postnatal cohorts. We provide insight on the use of more sophisticated cutting-edge technologies in characterizing the vaginal microbiome. These technologies offer high-resolution detection of vaginal microbiome variations and community functional capabilities, which can shed light into several discrepancies observed in the vaginal microbiota of African women in an African population versus women of African descent in the diaspora.

RevDate: 2020-09-21
CmpDate: 2020-09-21

Halley A, Leonetti A, Gregori A, et al (2020)

The Role of the Microbiome in Cancer and Therapy Efficacy: Focus on Lung Cancer.

Anticancer research, 40(9):4807-4818.

The microbiome is extremely important for human health; more recently its role in the context of cancer became clear. Microbial effects range from enhancing cancer immunity and cancer therapy efficacy, to promoting cancer progression and inhibiting treatment efficacy. These broad implications led researchers to investigate these specific interactions, as well as how modification of the microbiome can improve cancer survival and treatment efficacy. While these interactions are better established for cancers such as gastric cancer, they are far less understood in others. As non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) makes up the majority of lung cancer cases, and is among the top causes of cancer deaths worldwide, understanding the mechanisms by which the microbiome may impact progression and treatment is crucial to improve patient survival and treatment response. A literature review was conducted to reveal the crosslink between human microbiome and lung cancer. This includes immune priming, induction of pro- or anti-tumor response, and the local effects of intra-tumoral microbiota. Overall, this is a complex multifactorial relationship, and there are broad implications as to how this knowledge can improve cancer treatment. Solutions include manipulation of the microbiome using probiotics, bacterial vaccines and antibiotics. Bacteria biomarkers may also be used as a diagnostic tool.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Ristori MV, Mortera SL, Marzano V, et al (2020)

Proteomics and Metabolomics Approaches towards a Functional Insight onto AUTISM Spectrum Disorders: Phenotype Stratification and Biomarker Discovery.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(17):.

Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) are neurodevelopmental disorders characterized by behavioral alterations and currently affect about 1% of children. Significant genetic factors and mechanisms underline the causation of ASD. Indeed, many affected individuals are diagnosed with chromosomal abnormalities, submicroscopic deletions or duplications, single-gene disorders or variants. However, a range of metabolic abnormalities has been highlighted in many patients, by identifying biofluid metabolome and proteome profiles potentially usable as ASD biomarkers. Indeed, next-generation sequencing and other omics platforms, including proteomics and metabolomics, have uncovered early age disease biomarkers which may lead to novel diagnostic tools and treatment targets that may vary from patient to patient depending on the specific genomic and other omics findings. The progressive identification of new proteins and metabolites acting as biomarker candidates, combined with patient genetic and clinical data and environmental factors, including microbiota, would bring us towards advanced clinical decision support systems (CDSSs) assisted by machine learning models for advanced ASD-personalized medicine. Herein, we will discuss novel computational solutions to evaluate new proteome and metabolome ASD biomarker candidates, in terms of their recurrence in the reviewed literature and laboratory medicine feasibility. Moreover, the way to exploit CDSS, performed by artificial intelligence, is presented as an effective tool to integrate omics data to electronic health/medical records (EHR/EMR), hopefully acting as added value in the near future for the clinical management of ASD.

RevDate: 2020-09-02

Neckovic A, A H van Oorschot R, Szkuta B, et al (2020)

Challenges in Human Skin Microbial Profiling for Forensic Science: A Review.

Genes, 11(9): pii:genes11091015.

The human microbiome is comprised of the microbes that live on and within an individual, as well as immediately surrounding them. Microbial profiling may have forensic utility in the identification or association of individuals with criminal activities, using microbial signatures derived from a personal microbiome. This review highlights some important aspects of recent studies, many of which have revealed issues involving the effect of contamination of microbial samples from both technical and environmental sources and their impacts on microbiome research and the potential forensic applications of microbial profiling. It is imperative that these challenges be discussed and evaluated within a forensic context to better understand the future directions and potential applications of microbial profiling for human identification. It is necessary that the limitations identified be resolved prior to the adoption of microbial profiling, or, at a minimum, acknowledged by those applying this new approach.

RevDate: 2020-09-01

Martino C, Shenhav L, Marotz CA, et al (2020)

Context-aware dimensionality reduction deconvolutes gut microbial community dynamics.

Nature biotechnology pii:10.1038/s41587-020-0660-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The translational power of human microbiome studies is limited by high interindividual variation. We describe a dimensionality reduction tool, compositional tensor factorization (CTF), that incorporates information from the same host across multiple samples to reveal patterns driving differences in microbial composition across phenotypes. CTF identifies robust patterns in sparse compositional datasets, allowing for the detection of microbial changes associated with specific phenotypes that are reproducible across datasets.

RevDate: 2020-09-03

Kostopoulos I, Elzinga J, Ottman N, et al (2020)

Akkermansia muciniphila uses human milk oligosaccharides to thrive in the early life conditions in vitro.

Scientific reports, 10(1):14330.

Akkermansia muciniphila is a well-studied anaerobic bacterium specialized in mucus degradation and associated with human health. Because of the structural resemblance of mucus glycans and free human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs), we studied the ability of A. muciniphila to utilize human milk oligosaccharides. We found that A. muciniphila was able to grow on human milk and degrade HMOs. Analyses of the proteome of A. muciniphila indicated that key-glycan degrading enzymes were expressed when the bacterium was grown on human milk. Our results display the functionality of the key-glycan degrading enzymes (α-L-fucosidases, β-galactosidases, exo-α-sialidases and β-acetylhexosaminidases) to degrade the HMO-structures 2'-FL, LNT, lactose, and LNT2. The hydrolysation of the host-derived glycan structures allows A. muciniphila to promote syntrophy with other beneficial bacteria, contributing in that way to a microbial ecological network in the gut. Thus, the capacity of A. muciniphila to utilize human milk will enable its survival in the early life intestine and colonization of the mucosal layer in early life, warranting later life mucosal and metabolic health.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Ruokolainen L, Fyhrquist N, Laatikainen T, et al (2020)

Immune-microbiota interaction in Finnish and Russian Karelia young people with high and low allergy prevalence.

Clinical and experimental allergy : journal of the British Society for Allergy and Clinical Immunology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: After the Second World War, the population living in the Karelian region was strictly divided by the "iron curtain" between Finland and Russia. This resulted in different lifestyle, standard of living, and exposure to the environment. Allergic manifestations and sensitization to common allergens have been much more common on the Finnish compared to the Russian side.

OBJECTIVE: The remarkable allergy disparity in the Finnish and Russian Karelia calls for immunological explanations.

METHODS: Young people, aged 15-20 years, in the Finnish (n = 69) and Russian (n = 75) Karelia were studied. The impact of genetic variation on the phenotype was studied by a genome-wide association analysis. Differences in gene expression (transcriptome) were explored from the blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) and related to skin and nasal epithelium microbiota and sensitization.

RESULTS: The genotype differences between the Finnish and Russian populations did not explain the allergy gap. The network of gene expression and skin and nasal microbiota was richer and more diverse in the Russian subjects. When the function of 261 differentially expressed genes was explored, innate immunity pathways were suppressed among Russians compared to Finns. Differences in the gene expression paralleled the microbiota disparity. High Acinetobacter abundance in Russians correlated with suppression of innate immune response. High-total IgE was associated with enhanced anti-viral response in the Finnish but not in the Russian subjects.

Young populations living in the Finnish and Russian Karelia show marked differences in genome-wide gene expression and host contrasting skin and nasal epithelium microbiota. The rich gene-microbe network in Russians seems to result in a better-balanced innate immunity and associates with low allergy prevalence.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Miossec MJ, Valenzuela SL, Pérez-Losada M, et al (2020)

Evaluation of computational methods for human microbiome analysis using simulated data.

PeerJ, 8:e9688.

Background: Our understanding of the composition, function, and health implications of human microbiota has been advanced by high-throughput sequencing and the development of new genomic analyses. However, trade-offs among alternative strategies for the acquisition and analysis of sequence data remain understudied.

Methods: We assessed eight popular taxonomic profiling pipelines; MetaPhlAn2, metaMix, PathoScope 2.0, Sigma, Kraken, ConStrains, Centrifuge and Taxator-tk, against a battery of metagenomic datasets simulated from real data. The metagenomic datasets were modeled on 426 complete or permanent draft genomes stored in the Human Oral Microbiome Database and were designed to simulate various experimental conditions, both in the design of a putative experiment; read length (75-1,000 bp reads), sequence depth (100K-10M), and in metagenomic composition; number of species present (10, 100, 426), species distribution. The sensitivity and specificity of each of the pipelines under various scenarios were measured. We also estimated the relative root mean square error and average relative error to assess the abundance estimates produced by different methods. Additional datasets were generated for five of the pipelines to simulate the presence within a metagenome of an unreferenced species, closely related to other referenced species. Additional datasets were also generated in order to measure computational time on datasets of ever-increasing sequencing depth (up to 6 × 107).

Results: Testing of eight pipelines against 144 simulated metagenomic datasets initially produced 1,104 discrete results. Pipelines using a marker gene strategy; MetaPhlAn2 and ConStrains, were overall less sensitive, than other pipelines; with the notable exception of Taxator-tk. This difference in sensitivity was largely made up in terms of runtime, significantly lower than more sensitive pipelines that rely on whole-genome alignments such as PathoScope2.0. However, pipelines that used strategies to speed-up alignment between genomic references and metagenomic reads, such as kmerization, were able to combine both high sensitivity and low run time, as is the case with Kraken and Centrifuge. Absent species genomes in the database mostly led to assignment of reads to the most closely related species available in all pipelines. Our results therefore suggest that taxonomic profilers that use kmerization have largely superseded those that use gene markers, coupling low run times with high sensitivity and specificity. Taxonomic profilers using more time-consuming read reassignment, such as PathoScope 2.0, provided the most sensitive profiles under common metagenomic sequencing scenarios. All the results described and discussed in this paper can be visualized using the dedicated R Shiny application (https://github.com/microgenomics/HumanMicrobiomeAnalysis). All of our datasets, pipelines and results are made available through the GitHub repository for future benchmarking.

RevDate: 2020-09-25

Fidel PL, Moyes D, Samaranayake L, et al (2020)

Interplay between oral immunity in HIV and the microbiome.

Oral diseases, 26 Suppl 1:59-68.

This Basic Science Workshop addressed the oral microbiome. At the 7th World Workshop on Oral Health & Disease in HIV/AIDS in India in 2014, some aspects of the human microbiome were discussed, and research questions formulated. Since that time, there have been major advances in technology, which have stimulated a number of publications on many aspects of the human microbiome, including the oral cavity. This workshop aimed to summarize current understanding of the "normal" microbiome of the oral cavity compared to that during HIV infection, and how oral immune factors and other clinical variables alter or control the oral microbiome. An important question is whether successful treatment with anti-retroviral therapy, which leads to a significant drop in viral loads and immune reconstitution, is associated with any change or recovery of the oral microbiome. Additionally, the workshop addressed the issue of which parameters are most appropriate/correct to evaluate the oral microbiome and how clinically relevant are shifts/changes in the oral microbiome. The workshop evaluated current knowledge in five research areas related to five basic questions and identified further topics where further research is required.

RevDate: 2020-10-13

Bilen M (2020)

Strategies and advancements in human microbiome description and the importance of culturomics.

Microbial pathogenesis, 149:104460 pii:S0882-4010(20)30826-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The human microbiota gained a big interest among the scientific community with numerous studies being performed to better understand its role in health and diseases. Even with all the success achieved in studying the bacterial populations at the different body sites and its interaction among each other and with the host, some links remain missing and might have therapeutic benefits. In this review, we summarize the main means used for bacterial identification, human microbiota description and the role of culturomics in leading the way towards the development of new bacterio-therapeutic approaches.

RevDate: 2020-08-28

Lahtinen P, Jalanka J, Hartikainen A, et al (2020)

Letter: faecal microbiota transplantation for irritable bowel syndrome-room for improvement. Authors' reply.

Alimentary pharmacology & therapeutics, 52(5):925-926.

RevDate: 2020-09-30

Griffiths JC, De Vries J, McBurney MI, et al (2020)

Measuring health promotion: translating science into policy.

European journal of nutrition, 59(Suppl 2):11-23.

Commonly, it is the end of life when our health is deteriorating, that many will make drastic lifestyle changes to improve their quality of life. However, it is increasingly recognized that bringing good health-promoting behaviors into practice as early in life as possible has the most significant impact across the maximal healthspan. The WHO has brought clarity to health promotion over the last fifteen years, always centering on language relating to a process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their physical, mental and social health. A good healthspan is not just freedom from morbidity and mortality, it is that joie de vivre ("joy of living") that should accompany every day of our lifespan. Therefore, health promotion includes not only the health sector, but also needs individual commitment to achieve that target of a healthspan aligned with the lifespan. This paper explores health promotion and health literacy, and how to design appropriate nutritional studies to characterize contributors to a positive health outcome, the role the human microbiome plays in promoting health and addressing and alleviating morbidity and diseases, and finally how to characterize phenotypic flexibility and a physiologic resilience that we must maintain as our structural and functional systems are bombarded with the insults and perturbations of life.

RevDate: 2020-08-28

Khazaei T, Williams RL, Bogatyrev SR, et al (2020)

Metabolic multistability and hysteresis in a model aerobe-anaerobe microbiome community.

Science advances, 6(33):eaba0353.

Major changes in the microbiome are associated with health and disease. Some microbiome states persist despite seemingly unfavorable conditions, such as the proliferation of aerobe-anaerobe communities in oxygen-exposed environments in wound infections or small intestinal bacterial overgrowth. Mechanisms underlying transitions into and persistence of these states remain unclear. Using two microbial taxa relevant to the human microbiome, we combine genome-scale mathematical modeling, bioreactor experiments, transcriptomics, and dynamical systems theory to show that multistability and hysteresis (MSH) is a mechanism describing the shift from an aerobe-dominated state to a resilient, paradoxically persistent aerobe-anaerobe state. We examine the impact of changing oxygen and nutrient regimes and identify changes in metabolism and gene expression that lead to MSH and associated multi-stable states. In such systems, conceptual causation-correlation connections break and MSH must be used for analysis. Using MSH to analyze microbiome dynamics will improve our conceptual understanding of stability of microbiome states and transitions between states.

RevDate: 2020-08-28

Wagner Mackenzie B, West AG, Waite DW, et al (2020)

A Novel Description of the Human Sinus Archaeome During Health and Chronic Rhinosinusitis.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 10:398.

Human microbiome studies remain focused on bacteria, as they comprise the dominant component of the microbiota. Recent advances in sequencing technology and optimization of amplicon sequencing protocols have allowed the description of other members of the microbiome, including eukaryotes (fungi) and, most recently, archaea. There are no known human-associated archaeal pathogens. Their diversity and contribution to health and chronic respiratory diseases, such as chronic rhinosinusitis (CRS), are unknown. Patients with CRS suffer from long-term sinus infections, and while the microbiota is hypothesized to play a role in its pathogenesis, the exact mechanism is poorly understood. In this cross-sectional study, we applied a recently optimized protocol to describe the prevalence, diversity and abundance of archaea in swab samples from the middle meatus of 60 individuals with and without CRS. A nested PCR approach was used to amplify the archaeal 16S rRNA gene for sequencing, and bacterial and archaeal load (also based on 16S rRNA genes) were estimated using Droplet Digital™ PCR (ddPCR). A total of 16 archaeal amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) from the phyla Euryarchaeota and Thaumarchaeota were identified. Archaeal ASVs were detected in 7/60 individuals, independent of disease state, whereas bacterial ASVs were detected in 60/60. Bacteria were also significantly more abundant than archaea. The ddPCR method was more sensitive than amplicon sequencing at detecting archaeal DNA in samples. Phylogenetic trees were constructed to visualize the evolutionary relationships between archaeal ASVs, isolates and clones. ASVs were placed into phylogenetic clades containing an apparent paucity of human-associated reference sequences, revealing how little studied the human archaeome is. This is the largest study to date to examine the human respiratory-associated archaeome, and provides the first insights into the prevalence, diversity and abundance of archaea in the human sinuses.

RevDate: 2020-09-24

Bushin LB, Covington BC, Rued BE, et al (2020)

Discovery and Biosynthesis of Streptosactin, a Sactipeptide with an Alternative Topology Encoded by Commensal Bacteria in the Human Microbiome.

Journal of the American Chemical Society, 142(38):16265-16275.

Mammalian microbiomes encode thousands of biosynthetic gene clusters (BGCs) and represent a new frontier in natural product research. We recently found an abundance of quorum sensing-regulated BGCs in mammalian microbiome streptococci that code for ribosomally synthesized and post-translationally modified peptides (RiPPs) and contain one or more radical S-adenosylmethionine (RaS) enzymes, a versatile superfamily known to catalyze some of the most unusual reactions in biology. In the current work, we target a widespread group of streptococcal RiPP BGCs and elucidate both the reaction carried out by its encoded RaS enzyme and identify its peptide natural product, which we name streptosactin. Streptosactin is the first sactipeptide identified from Streptococcus spp.; it contains two sequential four amino acid sactionine macrocycles, an unusual topology for this compound family. Bioactivity assays reveal potent but narrow-spectrum activity against the producing strain and its closest relatives that carry the same BGC, suggesting streptosactin may be a long-suspected fratricidal agent of Streptococcus thermophilus. Our results highlight mammalian streptococci as a rich source of unusual enzymatic chemistries and bioactive natural products.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Li WZ, Stirling K, Yang JJ, et al (2020)

Gut microbiota and diabetes: From correlation to causality and mechanism.

World journal of diabetes, 11(7):293-308.

In this review, we summarize the recent microbiome studies related to diabetes disease and discuss the key findings that show the early emerging potential causal roles for diabetes. On a global scale, diabetes causes a significant negative impact to the health status of human populations. This review covers type 1 diabetes and type 2 diabetes. We examine promising studies which lead to a better understanding of the potential mechanism of microbiota in diabetes diseases. It appears that the human oral and gut microbiota are deeply interdigitated with diabetes. It is that simple. Recent studies of the human microbiome are capturing the attention of scientists and healthcare practitioners worldwide by focusing on the interplay of gut microbiome and diabetes. These studies focus on the role and the potential impact of intestinal microflora in diabetes. We paint a clear picture of how strongly microbes are linked and associated, both positively and negatively, with the fundamental and essential parts of diabetes in humans. The microflora seems to have an endless capacity to impact and transform diabetes. We conclude that there is clear and growing evidence of a close relationship between the microbiota and diabetes and this is worthy of future investments and research efforts.

RevDate: 2020-10-01

Jalanka J, Cheng J, Hiippala K, et al (2020)

Colonic Mucosal Microbiota and Association of Bacterial Taxa with the Expression of Host Antimicrobial Peptides in Pediatric Ulcerative Colitis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 21(17):.

Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD), are chronic debilitating disorders of unknown etiology. Over 200 genetic risk loci are associated with IBD, highlighting a key role for immunological and epithelial barrier functions. Environmental factors account for the growing incidence of IBD, and microbiota are considered as an important contributor. Microbiota dysbiosis can lead to a loss of tolerogenic immune effects and initiate or exacerbate inflammation. We aimed to study colonic mucosal microbiota and the expression of selected host genes in pediatric UC. We used high-throughput 16S rDNA sequencing to profile microbiota in colonic biopsies of pediatric UC patients (n = 26) and non-IBD controls (n = 27). The expression of 13 genes, including five for antimicrobial peptides, in parallel biopsies was assessed with qRT-PCR. The composition of microbiota between UC and non-IBD differed significantly (PCoA, p = 0.001). UC children had a decrease in Bacteroidetes and an increase in several family-level taxa including Peptostreptococcaceae and Enterobacteriaceae, which correlated negatively with the expression of antimicrobial peptides REG3G and DEFB1, respectively. Enterobacteriaceae correlated positively with the expression siderophore binding protein LCN2 and Betaproteobacteria negatively with DEFB4A expression. The results indicate that reciprocal interaction of epithelial microbiota and defense mechanisms play a role in UC.

RevDate: 2020-09-17
CmpDate: 2020-09-17

Nurgaziyev M, Sergazy S, Chulenbayeva L, et al (2020)

THE EFFECTS OF ANTIBIOTICS ON THE GUT MICROBIOME AND THE IMMUNE SYSTEM (Review).

Georgian medical news.

Antibiotic resistance and its impact on human microbiome remains a global public health concern. Studies have shown that treatment with antibiotics leads to dramatic changes in composition and function of gut microbiome. This review focuses on the association between antibiotics use and its impact on gut microbiome of adults and children, gut microbiota metabolic interactions and presents the current understanding of the link between human gut microbiome and immune system.

RevDate: 2020-10-06

Dong M, Li L, Chen M, et al (2020)

Predictive analysis methods for human microbiome data with application to Parkinson's disease.

PloS one, 15(8):e0237779.

Microbiome data consists of operational taxonomic unit (OTU) counts characterized by zero-inflation, over-dispersion, and grouping structure among samples. Currently, statistical testing methods are commonly performed to identify OTUs that are associated with a phenotype. The limitations of statistical testing methods include that the validity of p-values/q-values depend sensitively on the correctness of models and that the statistical significance does not necessarily imply predictivity. Predictive analysis using methods such as LASSO is an alternative approach for identifying associated OTUs and for measuring the predictability of the phenotype variable with OTUs and other covariate variables. We investigate three strategies of performing predictive analysis: (1) LASSO: fitting a LASSO multinomial logistic regression model to all OTU counts with specific transformation; (2) screening+GLM: screening OTUs with q-values returned by fitting a GLMM to each OTU, then fitting a GLM model using a subset of selected OTUs; (3) screening+LASSO: fitting a LASSO to a subset of OTUs selected with GLMM. We have conducted empirical studies using three simulation datasets generated using Dirichlet-multinomial models and a real gut microbiome data related to Parkinson's disease to investigate the performance of the three strategies for predictive analysis. Our simulation studies show that the predictive performance of LASSO with appropriate variable transformation works remarkably well on zero-inflated data. Our results of real data analysis show that Parkinson's disease can be predicted based on selected OTUs after the binary transformation, age, and sex with high accuracy (Error Rate = 0.199, AUC = 0.872, AUPRC = 0.912). These results provide strong evidences of the relationship between Parkinson's disease and the gut microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-10-02

Kurian SM, Gordon S, Barrick B, et al (2020)

Feasibility and Comparison Study of Fecal Sample Collection Methods in Healthy Volunteers and Solid Organ Transplant Recipients Using 16S rRNA and Metagenomics Approaches.

Biopreservation and biobanking, 18(5):425-440.

The human microbiome encompasses a variety of microorganisms that change dynamically and are in close contact with the body. The microbiome influences health and homeostasis, as well as the immune system, and any significant change in this equilibrium (dysbiosis) triggers both acute and chronic health conditions. Microbiome research has surged, in part, due to advanced sequencing technologies enabling rapid, accurate, and cost-effective identification of the microbiome. A major prerequisite for stool sample collection to study the gut microbiome in longitudinal prospective studies requires standardized protocols that can be easily replicated. However, there are still significant bottlenecks to stool specimen collection that contribute to low patient retention rates in microbiome studies. These barriers are further exacerbated in solid organ transplant recipients where diarrhea is estimated to occur in up to half the patient population. We sought to test two relatively easy sample collection methods (fecal swab and wipes) and compare them to the more cumbersome "gold" standard collection method (scoop) using two different sequencing technologies (16S ribosomal RNA sequencing and shotgun metagenomics). Our comparison of the collection methods shows that both the swabs and the wipes are comparable to the scoop method in terms of bacterial abundance and diversity. The swabs, however, were closer in representation to the scoop and were easier to collect and process compared to the wipes. Potential contamination of the swab and the wipe samples by abundant skin commensals was low in our analysis. Comparison of the two sequencing technologies showed that they were complementary, and that 16S sequencing provided enough coverage to detect and differentiate between bacterial species identified in the collected samples. Our pilot study demonstrates that alternative collection methods for stool sampling are a viable option in clinical applications, such as organ transplant studies. The use of these methods may result in better patient retention recruitment rates in serial microbiome studies.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Nava Lara RA, Beltrán JA, Brizuela CA, et al (2020)

Relevant Features of Polypharmacologic Human-Target Antimicrobials Discovered by Machine-Learning Techniques.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 13(9): pii:ph13090204.

Polypharmacologic human-targeted antimicrobials (polyHAM) are potentially useful in the treatment of complex human diseases where the microbiome is important (e.g., diabetes, hypertension). We previously reported a machine-learning approach to identify polyHAM from FDA-approved human targeted drugs using a heterologous approach (training with peptides and non-peptide compounds). Here we discover that polyHAM are more likely to be found among antimicrobials displaying a broad-spectrum antibiotic activity and that topological, but not chemical features, are most informative to classify this activity. A heterologous machine-learning approach was trained with broad-spectrum antimicrobials and tested with human metabolites; these metabolites were labeled as antimicrobials or non-antimicrobials based on a naïve text-mining approach. Human metabolites are not commonly recognized as antimicrobials yet circulate in the human body where microbes are found and our heterologous model was able to classify those with antimicrobial activity. These results provide the basis to develop applications aimed to design human diets that purposely alter metabolic compounds proportions as a way to control human microbiome.

RevDate: 2020-08-24

Sharma AK (2020)

Special Issue: Mining human microbiome bringing newer paradigms to anticancer therapeutics.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Cafiero C, Re A, Pisconti S, et al (2020)

Dysbiosis in intestinal microbiome linked to fecal blood determined by direct hybridization.

3 Biotech, 10(8):358.

The important physiological and pathophysiological roles of intestinal human microbiome (HMB) in human health have been emerging, owing to the access to molecular biology techniques. Herein we evaluated, for the first time, the intestinal HMB through direct hybridization approach using n-counter flex DX technology which bypasses the amplification procedure currently applied by other technologies to study the human microbiome. To this purpose, a clinical study was carried out on fecal samples, recruiting both healthy volunteers (N-FOB) and subjects positive for occult blood (P-FOB). A relevant custom panel of 79 16S rRNA target gene was engineered and 32 of them displayed a variation between the two clusters of subjects. Our findings revealed that bacteria belonging to Proteobacteria have higher distribution in P-FOB describing dysbiosis. Similarly, Bacteroidetes and Firmicutes phylum display high distribution in P-FOB. Of interest, the presence of Clostridium difficile that belongs to Firmicutes phylum displayed about 70% of low presence in N-FOB compared to P-FOB subjects. Only one bacterium belonging to the Actinobacteria phylum, the Bifidobacterium bifidum, was present.

RevDate: 2020-10-08

Britton GJ, Contijoch EJ, Spindler MP, et al (2020)

Defined microbiota transplant restores Th17/RORγt+ regulatory T cell balance in mice colonized with inflammatory bowel disease microbiotas.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 117(35):21536-21545.

The building evidence for the contribution of microbiota to human disease has spurred an effort to develop therapies that target the gut microbiota. This is particularly evident in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs), where clinical trials of fecal microbiota transplantation have shown some efficacy. To aid the development of novel microbiota-targeted therapies and to better understand the biology underpinning such treatments, we have used gnotobiotic mice to model microbiota manipulations in the context of microbiotas from humans with inflammatory bowel disease. Mice colonized with IBD donor-derived microbiotas exhibit a stereotypical set of phenotypes, characterized by abundant mucosal Th17 cells, a deficit in the tolerogenic RORγt+ regulatory T (Treg) cell subset, and susceptibility to disease in colitis models. Transplanting healthy donor-derived microbiotas into mice colonized with human IBD microbiotas led to induction of RORγt+ Treg cells, which was associated with an increase in the density of the microbiotas following transplant. Microbiota transplant reduced gut Th17 cells in mice colonized with a microbiota from a donor with Crohn's disease. By culturing strains from this microbiota and screening them in vivo, we identified a specific strain that potently induces Th17 cells. Microbiota transplants reduced the relative abundance of this strain in the gut microbiota, which was correlated with a reduction in Th17 cells and protection from colitis.

RevDate: 2020-09-28

Lamont EI, Hendrickson EL, McLean JS, et al (2020)

Complete Genome Sequence of Strain BB001, a Novel Epibiont Bacterium from the Candidate Phylum Saccharibacteria (TM7).

Microbiology resource announcements, 9(34):.

Strain BB001 is cultivated from the human oral cavity on its basibiont bacterial host Actinomyces sp. It is an ultrasmall bacterium with a reduced genome that grows obligately on its bacterial host. BB001 is the first member of human microbiome taxon 957.

RevDate: 2020-09-02

Yan R, Murphy M, Genoni A, et al (2020)

Does Fibre-fix provided to people with irritable bowel syndrome who are consuming a low FODMAP diet improve their gut health, gut microbiome, sleep and mental health? A double-blinded, randomised controlled trial.

BMJ open gastroenterology, 7(1):.

INTRODUCTION: A diet low in fermentable oligosaccharides, disaccharides, monosaccharides and polyols (FODMAP) is an effective way to reduce gut symptoms in people with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). This diet reduces the intake of fermentable fibres, leading to changes of the gut microbiota and insufficient fermentation in the large bowel, resulting in reduced production of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), such as butyrate, which has unfavourable implications for gut health, sleep and mental health. This study will examine the effect of Fibre-fix, a supplement containing a mix of dietary fibres, on the human gut microbiome composition, fermentative capacity, sleep, quality of life (QOL) and mental health of people with IBS who consume a low FODMAP diet (LFD).

METHODS AND ANALYSIS: A randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled, study design is proposed to examine whether Fibre-fix added to an existing LFD may help modulate gastrointestinal function, improve markers of sleep, mental health and promote QOL in patients with IBS. Participants will provide stool and blood samples, daily bowel symptoms diaries and 3-day diet records. Additionally, they will complete validated questionnaires relating to FODMAP intake, sleep, mental health and QOL before and after a 3-week intervention. Gut health will be assessed via faecal microbiome composition, faecal pH and SCFA levels. Alteration of sleep will be recorded using an actigraphy device worn by all participants over the whole study. Multivariate analysis will be used to examine the gut microbiome and repeated measures Analysis of variance (ANOVA) will be used for dependent variables from questionnaires related to bowel symptoms, stool type, sleep, mental health and QOL to assess the differences between intervention and control groups after adjustment for confounding variables.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethics approval was obtained from the Human Research Ethics Committee of Edith Cowan University (2019-00619-YAN). Results will be disseminated in peer-review journal publications, and conference presentations. Participants will be provided with a summary of findings once the study is completed. If Fibre-fix is shown to result in favourable changes in gut microbial composition, SCFA production, sleep and mental well-being without exacerbating symptoms, this will provide additional dietary management options for those with IBS following an LFD.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ACTRN12620000032954.

RevDate: 2020-08-22

Vidanaarachchi R, Shaw M, Tang SL, et al (2020)

IMPARO: inferring microbial interactions through parameter optimisation.

BMC molecular and cell biology, 21(Suppl 1):34.

BACKGROUND: Microbial Interaction Networks (MINs) provide important information for understanding bacterial communities. MINs can be inferred by examining microbial abundance profiles. Abundance profiles are often interpreted with the Lotka Volterra model in research. However existing research fails to consider a biologically meaningful underlying mathematical model for MINs or to address the possibility of multiple solutions.

RESULTS: In this paper we present IMPARO, a method for inferring microbial interactions through parameter optimisation. We use biologically meaningful models for both the abundance profile, as well as the MIN. We show how multiple MINs could be inferred with similar reconstructed abundance profile accuracy, and argue that a unique solution is not always satisfactory. Using our method, we successfully inferred clear interactions in the gut microbiome which have been previously observed in in-vitro experiments.

CONCLUSIONS: IMPARO was used to successfully infer microbial interactions in human microbiome samples as well as in a varied set of simulated data. The work also highlights the importance of considering multiple solutions for MINs.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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