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30 Mar 2023 at 01:49
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Bibliography on: Microbial Ecology


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 30 Mar 2023 at 01:49 Created: 

Microbial Ecology

Wikipedia: Microbial Ecology (or environmental microbiology) is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life — Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria — as well as viruses. Microorganisms, by their omnipresence, impact the entire biosphere. Microbial life plays a primary role in regulating biogeochemical systems in virtually all of our planet's environments, including some of the most extreme, from frozen environments and acidic lakes, to hydrothermal vents at the bottom of deepest oceans, and some of the most familiar, such as the human small intestine. As a consequence of the quantitative magnitude of microbial life (Whitman and coworkers calculated 5.0×1030 cells, eight orders of magnitude greater than the number of stars in the observable universe) microbes, by virtue of their biomass alone, constitute a significant carbon sink. Aside from carbon fixation, microorganisms' key collective metabolic processes (including nitrogen fixation, methane metabolism, and sulfur metabolism) control global biogeochemical cycling. The immensity of microorganisms' production is such that, even in the total absence of eukaryotic life, these processes would likely continue unchanged.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "microbial ecology" ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-03-29

Goswami V, Deepika S, Chandra R, et al (2023)

Arbuscular mycorrhizas accelerate the degradation of colour containing organic pollutants present in distillery spent wash leachates.

Journal of hazardous materials, 452:131291 pii:S0304-3894(23)00573-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Distillery spent wash (DSW) from molasses-based distilleries is being used as a low-cost alternative to chemical fertilizers in countries like India and Brazil. However, using DSW as a fertilizer substitute causes organic pollutant leaching, including melanoidins and caramel colourants that turn bodies of water dark brown. This study investigated the arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) mediated degradation of organic pollutants in DSW. Mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal Sorghum bicolor were grown in microcosms for 16 weeks. The plants were fertilized with either raw DSW or Hoagland solution. Leachates draining from the microcosms after fertilization were collected three times in 30-day intervals. Each 30-day collection was preceded by two fertilizations. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry comparative analyses of raw DSW with leachates of the third collection from mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal microcosms was made. Sixty-five and 42 complex organic compounds were detected in raw DSW and leachate collected from the non-mycorrhizal pots respectively. Only 26 compounds were detected in leachate collected from mycorrhizal pots. Absent from leachate of the mycorrhizal pots were: colour-containing organic compounds diacetone alcohol; 3-amino-2-cyano-6-methyl-6,7-dihydrothieno[2,3-b]pyrazine S-oxide; cyclohexane; 1,2-benzenedicarboxylic acid, butyl 8-methylnonyl ester; 2-pyrrolidinone; and acetic acid, dodecyl ester present in raw DSW. The results indicate that AM fungi can degrade organic pollutants in DSW.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Messaoudi Y, Smichi N, Allaf T, et al (2023)

Instant Controlled Pressure-Drop (DIC) for Volatile Compound Extraction and Bioethanol Production from Empty Aleppo Pinecones and Eucalyptus Chips: Process Optimization and Statistical Modeling.

Applied biochemistry and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Several plant species contain volatile compounds extracted as "essential oils" through different technologies. After essential oil extraction, the residual solid is a lignocellulosic solid waste. This work proposes the instant controlled pressure-drop (DIC) technology to autovaporize volatile compounds and modify the lignocellulosic matrix. Indeed, DIC technology is a thermomechanical process based on short-time/high-temperature and pressure pretreatment. It enhances the saccharification and fermentation process (SSF) for bioethanol production. A 3-variable design of experiments optimized the DIC processing parameters to reach 100% efficiency (EE) of volatile compound extraction using response surface methodology (RSM). Eucalyptus chips presented 50 volatile identified compounds after 7 min of DIC treatment. 1,8-Cineole, β-phellandrene, aromadendrene, eudesmol, and spathulenol are the most important volatile compounds. The empty Aleppo pinecones delivered 32 volatile compounds in 5 min of DIC treatment, the most important of which were caryophyllene, nortricyclene, verbenol, and camphor. After the autovaporization extraction stage, solid fraction residues were hydrolyzed and fermented in the same stirred bioreactor, using SSF strategy for 72 h at 37 °C. The highest bioethanol yields reached 73.9% and 54.82% (g per 100 g DM) from eucalyptus chip and empty Aleppo pinecone, respectively.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Coats ER, Appel FJ, Guho N, et al (2023)

Interrogating the Performance and Microbial Ecology of an EBPR/Post-Anoxic Denitrification Process at Bench and Pilot Scales.

Water environment research : a research publication of the Water Environment Federation [Epub ahead of print].

Research focused on interrogating post-anoxic enhanced biological phosphorus removal (EBPR) at bench and pilot scale. Average bench-scale effluent ranged from 0.33-1.4 mgP/L, 0.35-3.7 mgNH3 -N/L, and 1.1-3.9 mgNOx -N/L. Comparatively, the pilot achieved effluent (50[th] percentile/average) of 0.13/0.2 mgP/L, 9.7/8.2 mgNH3 -N/L, and 0.38/3.3 mgNOx -N/L under dynamic influent and environmental conditions. For EBPR process monitoring, P:C ratio data indicated 0.2-0.4 molP/molC will result in stable EBPR; related, a target design influent volatile fatty acid (VFA):P ratio would exceed 15 mgCOD/mgP. Post-anoxic EBPR enriched for Nitrobacter spp. at 1.70-20.27%, with Parcubacteria also dominating; the former is putatively associated with nitritation and the latter is a putative fermenting heterotrophic organism. Post-anoxic specific denitrification rates (20°C) ranged from 0.70-3.10 mgN/gVSS-hr; there was a strong correlation (R[2] =0.94) between the SDNR and %Parcubacteria for systems operated at a 20 d SRT. These results suggest carbon substrate potentially generated by this putative fermenter may enhance post-anoxic EBPR.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Masigol H, Grossart HP, Taheri SR, et al (2023)

Utilization of Low Molecular Weight Carbon Sources by Fungi and Saprolegniales: Implications for Their Ecology and Taxonomy.

Microorganisms, 11(3): pii:microorganisms11030782.

Contributions of fungal and oomycete communities to freshwater carbon cycling have received increasing attention in the past years. It has been shown that fungi and oomycetes constitute key players in the organic matter cycling of freshwater ecosystems. Therefore, studying their interactions with dissolved organic matter is crucial for understanding the aquatic carbon cycle. Therefore, we studied the consumption rates of various carbon sources using 17 fungal and 8 oomycete strains recovered from various freshwater ecosystems using EcoPlate™ and FF MicroPlate™ approaches. Furthermore, phylogenetic relationships between strains were determined via single and multigene phylogenetic analyses of the internal transcribed spacer regions. Our results indicated that the studied fungal and oomycete strains could be distinguished based on their carbon utilization patterns, as indicated by their phylogenetic distance. Thereby, some carbon sources had a higher discriminative strength to categorize the studied strains and thus were applied in a polyphasic approach. We concluded that studying the catabolic potential enables a better understanding of taxonomic relationships and ecological roles of fungal vs. oomycete strains.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Nayduch D, Neupane S, Pickens V, et al (2023)

House Flies Are Underappreciated Yet Important Reservoirs and Vectors of Microbial Threats to Animal and Human Health.

Microorganisms, 11(3): pii:microorganisms11030583.

House flies are well recognized as filth-associated organisms and public nuisances. House flies create sanitation issues when they bridge the gap between microbe-rich breeding environments and animal/human habitations. Numerous scientific surveys have demonstrated that house flies harbor bacterial pathogens that pose a threat to humans and animals. More extensive and informative surveys incorporating next-generation sequencing technologies have shown that house fly carriage of pathogens and harmful genetic elements, such as antimicrobial resistance genes, is more widespread and dangerous than previously thought. Further, there is a strong body of research confirming that flies not only harbor but also transmit viable, and presumably infectious, bacterial pathogens. Some pathogens replicate and persist in the fly, permitting prolonged shedding and dissemination. Finally, although the drivers still have yet to be firmly determined, the potential range of dissemination of flies and their associated pathogens can be extensive. Despite this evidence, the house flies' role as reservoirs, disseminators, and true, yet facultative, vectors for pathogens have been greatly underestimated and underappreciated. In this review, we present key studies that bolster the house fly's role both an important player in microbial ecology and population biology and as transmitters of microbial threats to animal and human health.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Veas-Mattheos K, Almendras K, Pezoa M, et al (2023)

High Andean Steppes of Southern Chile Contain Little-Explored Peltigera Lichen Symbionts.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(3): pii:jof9030372.

Peltigera lichens can colonize extreme habitats, such as high-elevation ecosystems, but their biodiversity is still largely unknown in these environments, especially in the southern hemi- sphere. We assessed the genetic diversity of mycobionts and cyanobionts of 60 Peltigera lichens collected in three high Andean steppes of southern Chile using LSU, β-tubulin, COR3 and ITS loci for mycobionts, and SSU and rbcLX loci for cyanobionts. We obtained 240 sequences for the different mycobiont markers and 118 for the cyanobiont markers, including the first report of β-tubulin sequences of P. patagonica through modifying a previously designed primer. Phylogenetic analyses, ITS scrutiny and variability of haplotypes were used to compare the sequences with those previously reported. We found seven mycobiont species and eleven cyanobiont haplotypes, including considerable novel symbionts. This was reflected by ~30% of mycobionts and ~20% of cyanobionts haplotypes that yielded less than 99% BLASTn sequence identity, 15 new sequences of the ITS1-HR, and a putative new Peltigera species associated with 3 Nostoc haplotypes not previously reported. Our results suggest that high Andean steppe ecosystems are habitats of unknown or little-explored lichen species and thus valuable environments to enhance our understanding of global Peltigera biodiversity.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Hkiri N, Olicón-Hernández DR, Pozo C, et al (2023)

Simultaneous Heavy Metal-Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbon Removal by Native Tunisian Fungal Species.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(3): pii:jof9030299.

Multi-contamination by organic pollutants and toxic metals is common in anthropogenic and industrial environments. In this study, the five fungal strains Chaetomium jodhpurense (MH667651.1), Chaetomium maderasense (MH665977.1), Paraconiothyrium variabile (MH667653.1), Emmia lacerata, and Phoma betae (MH667655.1), previously isolated in Tunisia, were investigated for the simultaneous removal and detoxification of phenanthrene (PHE) and benzo[a]anthracene (BAA), as well as heavy metals (HMs) (Cu, Zn, Pb and Ag) in Kirk's media. The removal was analysed using HPLC, ultra-high performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to a QToF mass spectrometer, transmission electron microscopy, and toxicology was assessed using phytotoxicity (Lepidium sativum seeds) and Microtox[®] (Allivibrio fisherii) assays. The PHE and BAA degradation rates, in free HMs cultures, reached 78.8% and 70.7%, respectively. However, the addition of HMs considerably affected the BAA degradation rate. The highest degradation rates were associated with the significant production of manganese-peroxidase, lignin peroxidase, and unspecific peroxygenase. The Zn and Cu removal efficacy was considerably higher with live cells than dead cells. Transmission electron microscopy confirmed the involvement of both bioaccumulation and biosorption processes in fungal HM removal. The environmental toxicological assays proved that simultaneous PAH and HM removal was accompanied by detoxification. The metabolites produced during co-treatment were not toxic for plant tissues, and the acute toxicity was reduced. The obtained results indicate that the tested fungi can be applied in the remediation of sites simultaneously contaminated with PAHs and HMs.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Lindner C, Looijesteijn E, Dijck HV, et al (2023)

Infant Fecal Fermentations with Galacto-Oligosaccharides and 2'-Fucosyllactose Show Differential Bifidobacterium longum Stimulation at Subspecies Level.

Children (Basel, Switzerland), 10(3): pii:children10030430.

The objective of the current study was to evaluate the potential of 2'-FL and GOS, individually and combined, in beneficially modulating the microbial composition of infant and toddler (12-18 months) feces using the micro-Matrix bioreactor. In addition, the impacts of GOS and 2'-FL, individually and combined, on the outgrowth of fecal bifidobacteria at (sub)species level was investigated using the baby M-SHIME[®] model. For young toddlers, significant increases in the genera Bifidobacterium, Veillonella, and Streptococcus, and decreases in Enterobacteriaceae, Clostridium XIVa, and Roseburia were observed in all supplemented fermentations. In addition, GOS, and combinations of GOS and 2'-FL, increased Collinsella and decreased Salmonella, whereas 2'-FL, and combined GOS and 2'-FL, decreased Dorea. Alpha diversity increased significantly in infants with GOS and/or 2'-FL, as well as the relative abundances of the genera Veillonella and Akkermansia with 2'-FL, and Lactobacillus with GOS. Combinations of GOS and 2'-FL significantly stimulated Veillonella, Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium, and Streptococcus. In all supplemented fermentations, Proteobacteria decreased, with the most profound decreases accomplished by the combination of GOS and 2'-FL. When zooming in on the different (sub)species of Bifidobacterium, GOS and 2'-FL were shown to be complementary in stimulating breast-fed infant-associated subspecies of Bifidobacterium longum in a dose-dependent manner: GOS stimulated Bifidobacterium longum subsp. longum, whereas 2'-FL supported outgrowth of Bifidobacterium longum subsp. infantis.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Peruzzo A, Vascellari M, Massaro A, et al (2023)

Giardia duodenalis Colonization Slightly Affects Gut Microbiota and Hematological Parameters in Clinically Healthy Dogs.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 13(6): pii:ani13060958.

Giardia duodenalis (Giardia) is a worldwide cause of acute diarrheal disease both in humans and animals. The primary aim of this study was to investigate possible variations in gut microbiota in a population of asymptomatic dogs (n = 31), naturally infected or not by Giardia. Gut microbiota and the hematological, biochemical, and fecal parameters related to intestinal function were investigated. Giardia infection was associated with a significant shift of beta diversity, showing a relevant reduction of Gammaproteobacteria and an increase of Fusobacteria in male-positive dogs if compared with negatives. A significant imbalance of different bacterial taxa, with particular reference to the Erysipelotrichales, Lactobacillales, Clostridiales, and Burkholderiales orders, was observed, with the first two being higher in Giardia-positive dogs. Giardia-positive males displayed significantly higher values of cCRP than negative males as well as positive females, supporting the presence of a pro-inflammatory state. Taken together, these results indicate that the presence of Giardia does not substantially modify the microbial ecology of the intestine nor the hematological markers of disease. Thus treatments against Giardia should be considered with caution in asymptomatic subjects.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Perestrelo S, Amaro A, Brouwer MSM, et al (2023)

Building an International One Health Strain Level Database to Characterise the Epidemiology of AMR Threats: ESBL-AmpC Producing E. coli as An Example-Challenges and Perspectives.

Antibiotics (Basel, Switzerland), 12(3): pii:antibiotics12030552.

Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is one of the top public health threats nowadays. Among the most important AMR pathogens, Escherichia coli resistant to extended spectrum cephalosporins (ESC-EC) is a perfect example of the One Health problem due to its global distribution in animal, human, and environmental sources and its resistant phenotype, derived from the carriage of plasmid-borne extended-spectrum and AmpC β-lactamases, which limits the choice of effective antimicrobial therapies. The epidemiology of ESC-EC infection is complex as a result of the multiple possible sources involved in its transmission, and its study would require databases ideally comprising information from animal (livestock, companion, wildlife), human, and environmental sources. Here, we present the steps taken to assemble a database with phenotypic and genetic information on 10,763 ESC-EC isolates retrieved from multiple sources provided by 13 partners located in eight European countries, in the frame of the DiSCoVeR Joint Research project funded by the One Health European Joint Programme (OH-EJP), along with its strengths and limitations. This database represents a first step to help in the assessment of different geographical and temporal trends and transmission dynamics in animals and humans. The work performed highlights aspects that should be considered in future international efforts, such as the one presented here.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Horsch CCA, Antunes PM, Fahey C, et al (2023)

Trait-based assembly of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungal communities determines soil carbon formation and retention.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

Fungi are crucial for soil organic carbon (SOC) formation, especially for the more persistent mineral-associated organic C (MAOC) pool. Yet, evidence for this often overlooks arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) communities and how their composition and traits impact SOC accumulation. We grew sudangrass with AMF communities representing different traits conserved at the family-level: 1) competitors, from the Gigasporaceae family; 2) ruderals, from the Glomeraceae family; or 3) both families combined. We labeled sudangrass with [13] C-CO2 to assess AMF contributions to SOC, impacts on SOC priming, and fungal biomass persistence in MAOC. Single-family AMF communities decreased total SOC by 13.8%, likely due to fungal priming. Despite net SOC losses, all AMF communities contributed fungal C to soil but only the Glomeraceae community initially contributed to MAOC. After a month of decomposition, both the Glomeraceae and mixed-family communities contributed to MAOC formation. Plant phosphorus uptake, but not hyphal chemistry, was positively related to AMF soil C and MAOC accumulation. AMF contribution to MAOC is dependent on the specific traits of the AMF community and related to phosphorus uptake. These findings provide insight into how variations in AMF community composition and traits, and thus processes like environmental filtering of AMF, may impact SOC accumulation.

RevDate: 2023-03-28

Carter KA, Fodor AA, Balkus JE, et al (2023)

Vaginal Microbiome Metagenome Inference Accuracy: Differential Measurement Error according to Community Composition.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Several studies have compared metagenome inference performance in different human body sites; however, none specifically reported on the vaginal microbiome. Findings from other body sites cannot easily be generalized to the vaginal microbiome due to unique features of vaginal microbial ecology, and investigators seeking to use metagenome inference in vaginal microbiome research are "flying blind" with respect to potential bias these methods may introduce into analyses. We compared the performance of PICRUSt2 and Tax4Fun2 using paired 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and whole-metagenome sequencing data from vaginal samples from 72 pregnant individuals enrolled in the Pregnancy, Infection, and Nutrition (PIN) cohort. Participants were selected from those with known birth outcomes and adequate 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing data in a case-control design. Cases experienced early preterm birth (<32 weeks of gestation), and controls experienced term birth (37 to 41 weeks of gestation). PICRUSt2 and Tax4Fun2 performed modestly overall (median Spearman correlation coefficients between observed and predicted KEGG ortholog [KO] relative abundances of 0.20 and 0.22, respectively). Both methods performed best among Lactobacillus crispatus-dominated vaginal microbiotas (median Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.24 and 0.25, respectively) and worst among Lactobacillus iners-dominated microbiotas (median Spearman correlation coefficients of 0.06 and 0.11, respectively). The same pattern was observed when evaluating correlations between univariable hypothesis test P values generated with observed and predicted metagenome data. Differential metagenome inference performance across vaginal microbiota community types can be considered differential measurement error, which often causes differential misclassification. As such, metagenome inference will introduce hard-to-predict bias (toward or away from the null) in vaginal microbiome research. IMPORTANCE Compared to taxonomic composition, the functional potential within a bacterial community is more relevant to establishing mechanistic understandings and causal relationships between the microbiome and health outcomes. Metagenome inference attempts to bridge the gap between 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and whole-metagenome sequencing by predicting a microbiome's gene content based on its taxonomic composition and annotated genome sequences of its members. Metagenome inference methods have been evaluated primarily among gut samples, where they appear to perform fairly well. Here, we show that metagenome inference performance is markedly worse for the vaginal microbiome and that performance varies across common vaginal microbiome community types. Because these community types are associated with sexual and reproductive outcomes, differential metagenome inference performance will bias vaginal microbiome studies, obscuring relationships of interest. Results from such studies should be interpreted with substantial caution and the understanding that they may over- or underestimate associations with metagenome content.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Xu Z, Chen J, Li Y, et al (2023)

High Microeukaryotic Diversity in the Cold-Seep Sediment.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Microeukaryotic diversity, community structure, and their regulating mechanisms remain largely unclear in chemosynthetic ecosystems. Here, using high-throughput sequencing data of 18S rRNA genes, we explored microeukaryotic communities from the Haima cold seep in the northern South China Sea. We compared three distinct habitats: active, less active, and non-seep regions, with vertical layers (0-25 cm) from sediment cores. The results showed that seep regions harbored more abundant and diverse parasitic microeukaryotes (e.g., Apicomplexa and Syndiniales) as indicator species, compared to nearby non-seep region. Microeukaryotic community heterogeneity was larger between habitats than within habitat, and greatly increased when considering molecular phylogeny, suggesting the local diversification in cold-seep sediments. Microeukaryotic α-diversity at cold seeps was positively increased by metazoan richness and dispersal rate of microeukaryotes, while its β-diversity was promoted by heterogeneous selection mainly from metazoan communities (as potential hosts). Their combined effects led to the significant higher γ-diversity (i.e., total diversity in a region) at cold seeps than non-seep regions, suggesting cold-seep sediment as a hotspot for microeukaryotic diversity. Our study highlights the importance of microeukaryotic parasitism in cold-seep sediment and has implications for the roles of cold seep in maintaining and promoting marine biodiversity.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Lemke M, R DeSalle (2023)

The Role of Microbial Genomics in Restoration Ecology: An Introduction.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Munley JA, Nagpal R, Hanson NC, et al (2023)

Chronic mesenteric ischemia-induced intestinal dysbiosis resolved after revascularization.

Journal of vascular surgery cases and innovative techniques, 9(2):101084.

OBJECTIVE: Chronic mesenteric ischemia (CMI) is a debilitating condition arising from intestinal malperfusion from mesenteric artery stenosis or occlusion. Mesenteric revascularization has been the standard of care but can result in substantial morbidity and mortality. Most of the perioperative morbidity has been secondary to postoperative multiple organ dysfunction, potentially from ischemia-reperfusion injury. The intestinal microbiome is a dense community of microorganisms in the gastrointestinal tract that help regulate pathways ranging from nutritional metabolism to the immune response. We hypothesized that patients with CMI will have microbiome perturbations that contribute to this inflammatory response and could potentially normalize in the postoperative period.

METHODS: We performed a prospective study of patients with CMI who had undergone mesenteric bypass and/or stenting from 2019 to 2020. Stool samples were collected at three time points: preoperatively at the clinic, perioperatively within 14 days after surgery, and postoperatively at the clinic at >30 days after revascularization. Stool samples from healthy controls were used for comparison. The microbiome was measured using 16S rRNA sequencing on an Illumina-MiSeq sequence platform and analyzed using the QIIME2 (quantitative insights into microbial ecology 2)-DADA2 bioinformatics pipeline with the Silva database. Beta-diversity was analyzed using a principal coordinates analysis and permutational analysis of variance. Alpha-diversity (microbial richness and evenness) was compared using the nonparametric Mann-Whitney U test. Microbial taxa unique to CMI patients vs controls were identified using linear discriminatory analysis effect size analysis. P < .05 was considered statistically significant.

RESULTS: Eight patients with CMI had undergone mesenteric revascularization (25% men; average age, 71 years). Nine healthy controls were also analyzed (78% men; average age, 55 years). Bacterial alpha-diversity (number of operational taxonomic units) was dramatically reduced preoperatively compared with that of the controls (P = .03). However, revascularization partially restored the species richness and evenness in the perioperative and postoperative phases. Beta-diversity was only different between the perioperative and postoperative groups (P = .03). Further analyses revealed increased abundance of Bacteroidetes and Clostridia taxa preoperatively and perioperatively compared with the controls, which was reduced during the postoperative period.

CONCLUSIONS: The results from the present study have shown that patients with CMI have intestinal dysbiosis that resolves after revascularization. The intestinal dysbiosis is characterized by the loss of alpha-diversity, which is restored perioperatively and maintained postoperatively. This microbiome restoration demonstrates the importance of intestinal perfusion to sustain gut homeostasis and suggests that microbiome modulation could be a possible intervention to ameliorate acute and subacute postoperative outcomes in these patients.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Abdullahi IN, Juárez-Fernández G, Höfle U, et al (2023)

Staphylococcus aureus Carriage in the Nasotracheal Cavities of White Stork Nestlings (Ciconia ciconia) in Spain: Genetic Diversity, Resistomes and Virulence Factors.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The molecular ecology of Staphylococcus aureus in migratory birds (such as white storks) is necessary to understand their relevance in the "One Health" ecosystems. This study determined the nasotracheal carriage rates of S. aureus from white storks in Southern Spain and genetically characterized the within-host diversity. A collection of 67 S. aureus strains, previously obtained from 87 white stork nestlings (52 nasal and 85 tracheal samples) fed by their parents with food foraged in natural and landfill habitats, were tested for their antimicrobial resistance (AMR) phenotypes. Moreover, the AMR genotypes, immune evasion cluster (IEC), virulence genes and the detection of CC398 lineage were studied by PCR. The spa types and multilocus-sequencing-typing (MLST) were also determined by PCR and sequencing. Staphylococcus aureus carriage was found in 31% of storks (36.5%/11.9% in nasal/tracheal samples). All isolates were methicillin-susceptible (MSSA) and 8.8% of them were also susceptible to all tested antibiotics. The AMR phenotype/percentage/genes detected were as follows: penicillin/79.1%/blaZ; erythromycin-clindamycin-inducible/19.1%/ermA, ermT; tetracycline/11.9%/tetK; clindamycin/4.5%/lnuA and ciprofloxacin/4.5%. Twenty-one different spa types, including 2 new ones (t7778-ST15-CC15 and t18009-ST26-CC25), were detected and ascribed to 11 clonal complexes (CCs). MSSA-CC398 (8.2%), MSSA-CC15 (7.1%) and MSSA-ST291 (5.9%) were the most prevalent lineages in storks. Moreover, tst-positive (MSSA-CC22-t223 and MSSA-CC30-t1654), eta-positive (MSSA-CC9-t209) and etb-positive strains (MSSA-CC45-t015) were detected in four storks. The 18.5% of storks harboured distinct MSSA strains (with different lineages and/or AMR genes). Nestlings of storks foraging in landfills (10 CCs) had more diverse S. aureus strains than those of parents foraging in natural habitats (3 CCs). Low level of AMR was demonstrated among S. aureus strains. The predominance of MSSA-CC398 (an emergent clade) and toxigenic MSSA strains in stork nestlings highlight the need for continuous surveillance of S. aureus in wild birds.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Kavagutti VS, Chiriac MC, Ghai R, et al (2023)

Isolation of phages infecting the abundant freshwater Actinobacteriota order 'Ca. Nanopelagicales'.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Low-GC Actinobacteriota of the order 'Ca. Nanopelagicales' (also known as acI or hgcI clade) are abundant in freshwaters around the globe. Extensive predation pressure by phages has been assumed to be the reason for their high levels of microdiversity. So far, however, only a few metagenome-assembled phages have been proposed to infect them and no phages have been isolated. Taking advantage of recent advances in the cultivation of 'Ca. Nanopelagicales' we isolated a novel species of its genus 'Ca. Planktophila'. Using this isolate as bait, we cultivated the first two phages infecting this abundant bacterial order. Both genomes contained a whiB-like transcription factor and a RNA polymerase sigma-70 factor, which might aid in manipulating their host's metabolism. Both phages encoded a glycosyltransferase and one an anti-restriction protein, potential means to evade degradation of their DNA by nucleases present in the host genome. The two phage genomes shared only 6% of their genome with their closest relatives, with whom they form a previously uncultured family of actinophages within the Caudoviricetes. Read recruitment analyses against globally distributed metagenomes revealed the endemic distribution of this group of phages infecting 'Ca. Nanopelagicales'. The recruitment pattern against metagenomes from the isolation site and the modular distribution of shared genes between the two phages indicate high levels of horizontal gene transfer, likely mirroring the microdiversity of their host in the evolutionary arms race between host and phage.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Campos EVR, Pereira ADES, Aleksieienko I, et al (2023)

Encapsulated plant growth regulators and associative microorganisms: nature-based solutions to mitigate the effects of climate change on plants.

Plant science : an international journal of experimental plant biology pii:S0168-9452(23)00105-X [Epub ahead of print].

Over the past decades, the atmospheric CO2 concentration and global average temperature have been increasing, and this trend is projected to soon become more severe. This scenario of climate change intensifies abiotic stress factors (such as drought, flooding, salinity, and ultraviolet radiation) that threaten forest and associated ecosystems as well as crop production. These factors can negatively affect plant growth and development with a consequent reduction in plant biomass accumulation and yield, in addition to increasing plant susceptibility to biotic stresses. Recently, biostimulants have become a hotspot as an effective and sustainable alternative to alleviate the negative effects of stresses on plants. However, the majority of biostimulants have poor stability under environmental conditions, which leads to premature degradation, shortening their biological activity. To solve these bottlenecks, micro- and nano-based formulations containing biostimulant molecules and/or microorganisms are gaining attention, as they demonstrate several advantages over their conventional formulations. In this review, we focus on the encapsulation of plant growth regulators and plant associative microorganisms as a strategy to boost their application for plant protection against abiotic stresses. We also address the potential limitations and challenges faced for the implementation of this technology, as well as possibilities regarding future research.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Wang B, Xiao L, Xu A, et al (2023)

Silicon fertilization enhances the resistance of tobacco plants to combined Cd and Pb contamination: Physiological and microbial mechanisms.

Ecotoxicology and environmental safety, 255:114816 pii:S0147-6513(23)00320-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Remediation of soil contaminated with cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) is critical for tobacco production. Silicon (Si) fertilizer can relieve heavy metal stress and promote plant growth, however, it remains unknown whether fertilization with Si can mitigate the effects of Cd and Pb on tobacco growth and alter microbial community composition in polluted soils. Here we assessed the effect of two organic (OSiFA, OSiFB) and one mineral Si fertilizer (MSiF) on Cd and Pb accumulation in tobacco plants, together with responses in plant biomass, physiological parameters and soil bacterial communities in pot experiments. Results showed that Si fertilizer relieved Cd and Pb stress on tobacco, thereby promoting plant growth: Si fertilizer reduced available Cd and Pb in the soil by 37.3 % and 28.6 %, respectively, and decreased Cd and Pb contents in the plant tissue by 42.0-55.5 % and 17.2-25.6 %, resulting in increased plant biomass by 13.0-30.5 %. Fertilization with Si alleviated oxidative damage by decreasing malondialdehyde content and increasing peroxidase and ascorbate peroxidase content. In addition, Si fertilization increased photosynthesis, chlorophyll and carotenoid content. Microbial community structure was also affected by Si fertilization. Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the dominant phylum in the Cd and Pb contaminated soils, but Si fertilization reduced the abundance of Actinobacteria. Si fertilization also altered microbial metabolic pathways associated with heavy metal resistance. Together, our results suggest that both organic and mineral Si fertilizers can promote tobacco growth by relieving plant physiological stress and favoring a heavy metal tolerant soil microbial community.

RevDate: 2023-03-25

Kapinusova G, Lopez Marin MA, O Uhlik (2023)

Reaching unreachables: Obstacles and successes of microbial cultivation and their reasons.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1089630.

In terms of the number and diversity of living units, the prokaryotic empire is the most represented form of life on Earth, and yet it is still to a significant degree shrouded in darkness. This microbial "dark matter" hides a great deal of potential in terms of phylogenetically or metabolically diverse microorganisms, and thus it is important to acquire them in pure culture. However, do we know what microorganisms really need for their growth, and what the obstacles are to the cultivation of previously unidentified taxa? Here we review common and sometimes unexpected requirements of environmental microorganisms, especially soil-harbored bacteria, needed for their replication and cultivation. These requirements include resuscitation stimuli, physical and chemical factors aiding cultivation, growth factors, and co-cultivation in a laboratory and natural microbial neighborhood.

RevDate: 2023-03-24

Bjerg JJ, Lustermans JJM, Marshall IPG, et al (2023)

Cable bacteria with electric connection to oxygen attract flocks of diverse bacteria.

Nature communications, 14(1):1614.

Cable bacteria are centimeter-long filamentous bacteria that conduct electrons via internal wires, thus coupling sulfide oxidation in deeper, anoxic sediment with oxygen reduction in surface sediment. This activity induces geochemical changes in the sediment, and other bacterial groups appear to benefit from the electrical connection to oxygen. Here, we report that diverse bacteria swim in a tight flock around the anoxic part of oxygen-respiring cable bacteria and disperse immediately when the connection to oxygen is disrupted (by cutting the cable bacteria with a laser). Raman microscopy shows that flocking bacteria are more oxidized when closer to the cable bacteria, but physical contact seems to be rare and brief, which suggests potential transfer of electrons via unidentified soluble intermediates. Metagenomic analysis indicates that most of the flocking bacteria appear to be aerobes, including organotrophs, sulfide oxidizers, and possibly iron oxidizers, which might transfer electrons to cable bacteria for respiration. The association and close interaction with such diverse partners might explain how oxygen via cable bacteria can affect microbial communities and processes far into anoxic environments.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Zhang X, Chen L, Wang Y, et al (2023)

Plantations thinning: A meta-analysis of consequences for soil properties and microbial functions.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01510-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Thinning is a widely-used management practice to reduce tree competition and improve wood production and quality in forest plantations. Thinning affects the soil ecosystem by changing the microclimate and plant growth, as well as litter inputs above and belowground, with all the resulting consequences for microbial communities and functions. Although many case studies have been carried out, a comprehensive understanding of the thinning effects on soil properties and microbial communities and functions in plantations remains to be explored. In this study, a meta-analysis was performed on 533 paired observations based on 90 peer-reviewed articles to evaluate the general responses of soil (mainly 0-20 cm depth) physicochemical properties, microbial biomass and community structure, and enzyme activities to thinning. Results showed that thinning increased soil temperature (13 %), moisture (8.0 %), electric conductivity (13 %), and the contents of total nitrogen (TN, 4.1 %), dissolved organic carbon (DOC, 9.7 %), nitrate N (NO3[-]-N, 27 %) and available phosphorous (22 %). For microbial properties, thinning decreased the fungi to bacteria ratio (F:B, -28 %) and the gram-positive bacteria to gram-negative bacteria ratio (G+:G-, -12 %), while increased microbial biomass C (7.1 %), microbial respiration (13 %), and nutrient-cycle related enzyme activities, including phenol oxidase (14 %), cellobiohydrolase (21 %), urease (10 %), and acid phosphatase (9 %). In particular, moderate thinning (30-60 % intensity) has higher conservation benefits for soil C and nutrients than light and heavy intensity, thus being recommended as the optimal thinning activity. This meta-analysis suggests that thinning consistently altered soil properties, shifted microbial community compositions from K- to-r strategist dominance, and stimulated microbial activities. These results are essential for optimizing plantation thinning management and provide evidence for applying the macro-ecology theory to ecosystem disturbance in soil microbial ecology.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Goswami P, P Bhadury (2023)

First record of an Anthropocene marker plastiglomerate in Andaman Island, India.

Marine pollution bulletin, 190:114802 pii:S0025-326X(23)00233-3 [Epub ahead of print].

One of the most significant environmental issues confronting our world is plastic trash, which is of particular concern to the marine environment. The sedimentary record of the planet may likely one day contain a horizon of plastic that can be potentially identified as an Anthropocene marker. Here we report the presence of 'plastiglomerate' from coastal habitats located in the Aves Island, Andaman Sea, India. This novel form of plastic pollution forms with the incineration of plastic litter in the environment and then mixing of organic/inorganic composite materials in the molten plastic matrix. The plastic pollutants were collected from the Aves Island beach during marine litter surveys. Micro-Raman (μ-Raman) spectroscopy was used to evaluate and confirm all putative plastic forms. Plastiglomerates were made of a polyethylene (PE) and polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix with inclusions of rock and sand. Therefore, our research offers new insight into the intricate process of plastiglomerates formation.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Bourne ME, Gloder G, Weldegergis BT, et al (2023)

Parasitism causes changes in caterpillar odours and associated bacterial communities with consequences for host-location by a hyperparasitoid.

PLoS pathogens, 19(3):e1011262 pii:PPATHOGENS-D-22-01701 [Epub ahead of print].

Microorganisms living in and on macroorganisms may produce microbial volatile compounds (mVOCs) that characterise organismal odours. The mVOCs might thereby provide a reliable cue to carnivorous enemies in locating their host or prey. Parasitism by parasitoid wasps might alter the microbiome of their caterpillar host, affecting organismal odours and interactions with insects of higher trophic levels such as hyperparasitoids. Hyperparasitoids parasitise larvae or pupae of parasitoids, which are often concealed or inconspicuous. Odours of parasitised caterpillars aid them to locate their host, but the origin of these odours and its relationship to the caterpillar microbiome are unknown. Here, we analysed the odours and microbiome of the large cabbage white caterpillar Pieris brassicae in relation to parasitism by its endoparasitoid Cotesia glomerata. We identified how bacterial presence in and on the caterpillars is correlated with caterpillar odours and tested the attractiveness of parasitised and unparasitised caterpillars to the hyperparasitoid Baryscapus galactopus. We manipulated the presence of the external microbiome and the transient internal microbiome of caterpillars to identify the microbial origin of odours. We found that parasitism by C. glomerata led to the production of five characteristic volatile products and significantly affected the internal and external microbiome of the caterpillar, which were both found to have a significant correlation with caterpillar odours. The preference of the hyperparasitoid was correlated with the presence of the external microbiome. Likely, the changes in external microbiome and body odour after parasitism were driven by the resident internal microbiome of caterpillars, where the bacterium Wolbachia sp. was only present after parasitism. Micro-injection of Wolbachia in unparasitised caterpillars increased hyperparasitoid attraction to the caterpillars compared to untreated caterpillars, while no differences were found compared to parasitised caterpillars. In conclusion, our results indicate that host-parasite interactions can affect multi-trophic interactions and hyperparasitoid olfaction through alterations of the microbiome.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Hammerle F, Quirós-Guerrero L, Wolfender JL, et al (2023)

Highlighting the Phototherapeutical Potential of Fungal Pigments in Various Fruiting Body Extracts with Informed Feature-Based Molecular Networking.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Fungal pigments are characterized by a diverse set of chemical backbones, some of which present photosensitizer-like structures. From the genus Cortinarius, for example, several biologically active photosensitizers have been identified leading to the hypothesis that photoactivity might be a more general phenomenon in the kingdom Fungi. This paper aims at testing the hypothesis. Forty-eight fruiting body-forming species producing pigments from all four major biosynthetic pathways (i.e., shikimate-chorismate, acetate-malonate, mevalonate, and nitrogen heterocycles) were selected and submitted to a workflow combining in vitro chemical and biological experiments with state-of-the-art metabolomics. Fungal extracts were profiled by high-resolution mass spectrometry and subsequently explored by spectral organization through feature-based molecular networking (FBMN), including advanced metabolite dereplication techniques. Additionally, the photochemical properties (i.e., light-dependent production of singlet oxygen), the phenolic content, and the (photo)cytotoxic activity of the extracts were studied. Different levels of photoactivity were found in species from all four metabolic groups, indicating that light-dependent effects are common among fungal pigments. In particular, extracts containing pigments from the acetate-malonate pathway, e.g., extracts from Bulgaria inquinans, Daldinia concentrica, and Cortinarius spp., were not only efficient producers of singlet oxygen but also exhibited photocytotoxicity against three different cancer cell lines. This study explores the distribution of photobiological traits in fruiting body forming fungi and highlights new sources for phototherapeutics.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Kauai F, Mortier F, Milosavljevic S, et al (2023)

Neutral processes underlying the macro eco-evolutionary dynamics of mixed-ploidy systems.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 290(1995):20222456.

Polyploidy, i.e. the occurrence of multiple sets of chromosomes, is regarded as an important phenomenon in plant ecology and evolution, with all flowering plants likely having a polyploid ancestry. Owing to genome shock, minority cytotype exclusion and reduced fertility, polyploids emerging in diploid populations are expected to face significant challenges to successful establishment. Their establishment and persistence are often explained by possible fitness or niche differences that would relieve the competitive pressure with diploid progenitors. Experimental evidence for such advantages is, however, not unambiguous, and considerable niche overlap exists among most polyploid species and their diploid counterparts. Here, we develop a neutral spatially explicit eco-evolutionary model to understand whether neutral processes can explain the eco-evolutionary patterns of polyploids. We present a general mechanism for polyploid establishment by showing that sexually reproducing organisms assemble in space in an iterative manner, reducing frequency-dependent mating disadvantages and overcoming potential reduced fertility issues. Moreover, we construct a mechanistic theoretical framework that allows us to understand the long-term evolution of mixed-ploidy populations and show that our model is remarkably consistent with recent phylogenomic estimates of species extinctions in the Brassicaceae family.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Jones KR, Hughey MC, LK Belden (2023)

Colonization order of bacterial isolates on treefrog embryos impacts microbiome structure in tadpoles.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 290(1995):20230308.

Priority effects, or impacts of colonization order, may have lasting influence on ecological community composition. The embryonic microbiome is subject to stochasticity in colonization order of bacteria. Stochasticity may be especially impactful for embryos developing in bacteria-rich environments, such as the embryos of many amphibians. To determine if priority effects experienced as embryos impacted bacterial community composition in newly hatched tadpoles, we selectively inoculated the embryos of laboratory-raised hourglass treefrogs, Dendropsophus ebraccatus, with bacteria initially isolated from the skin of wild D. ebraccatus adults over 2 days. First, embryos were inoculated with two bacteria in alternating sequences. Next, we evaluated the outcomes of priority effects in an in vitro co-culture assay absent of host factors. We then performed a second embryo experiment, inoculating embryos with one of three bacteria on the first day and a community of five target bacteria on the second. Through 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, we observed relative abundance shifts in tadpole bacteria communities due to priority effects. Our results suggest that the initial bacterial source pools of embryos shape bacterial communities at later life stages; however, the magnitude of those changes is dependent on the host environment and the identity of bacterial colonists.

RevDate: 2023-03-22

Snyder GM, Passaretti CL, MP Stevens (2023)

Hospital approaches to universal masking after public health "unmasking" guidance.

Infection control and hospital epidemiology pii:S0899823X23000090 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Trebuch LM, Sohier J, Altenburg S, et al (2023)

Enhancing phosphorus removal of photogranules by incorporating polyphosphate accumulating organisms.

Water research, 235:119748 pii:S0043-1354(23)00183-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Photogranules are a novel wastewater treatment technology that can utilize the sun's energy to treat water with lower energy input and have great potential for nutrient recovery applications. They have been proven to efficiently remove nitrogen and carbon but show lower conversion rates for phosphorus compared to established treatment systems, such as aerobic granular sludge. In this study, we successfully introduced polyphosphate accumulating organisms (PAOs) to an established photogranular culture. We operated photobioreactors in sequencing batch mode with six cycles per day and alternating anaerobic (dark) and aerobic (light) phases. We were able to increase phosphorus removal/recovery by 6 times from 5.4 to 30 mg/L/d while maintaining similar nitrogen and carbon removal compared to photogranules without PAOs. To maintain PAOs activity, alternating anaerobic feast and aerobic famine conditions were required. In future applications, where aerobic conditions are dependent on in-situ oxygenation via photosynthesis, the process will rely on sunlight availability. Therefore, we investigated the feasibility of the process under diurnal cycles with a 12-h anaerobic phase during nighttime and six short cycles during the 12 h daytime. The 12-h anaerobic phase had no adverse effect on the PAOs and phototrophs. Due to the extension of one anaerobic phase to 12 h the six aerobic phases were shortened by 47% and consequently decreased the light hours per day. This resulted in a decrease of phototrophs, which reduced nitrogen removal and biomass productivity up to 30%. Finally, we discuss and suggest strategies to apply PAO-enriched photogranules at large-scale.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Kop LFM, Koch H, Spieck E, et al (2023)

Complete Genome Sequence of Nitrospina watsonii 347, Isolated from the Black Sea.

Microbiology resource announcements [Epub ahead of print].

Here, we present the complete genome sequence of Nitrospina watsonii 347, a nitrite-oxidizing bacterium isolated from the Black Sea at a depth of 100 m. The genome has a length of 3,011,914 bp with 2,895 predicted coding sequences. Its predicted metabolism is similar to that of Nitrospina gracilis with differences in defense against reactive oxygen species.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Durán-Viseras A, Sánchez-Porro C, Viver T, et al (2023)

Discovery of the Streamlined Haloarchaeon Halorutilus salinus, Comprising a New Order Widespread in Hypersaline Environments across the World.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

The class Halobacteria is one of the most diverse groups within the Euryarchaeota phylum, whose members are ubiquitously distributed in hypersaline environments, where they often constitute the major population. Here, we report the discovery and isolation of a new halophilic archaeon, strain F3-133[T] exhibiting ≤86.3% 16S rRNA gene identity to any previously cultivated archaeon, and, thus, representing a new order. Analysis of available 16S rRNA gene amplicon and metagenomic data sets showed that the new isolate represents an abundant group in intermediate-to-high salinity ecosystems and is widely distributed across the world. The isolate presents a streamlined genome, which probably accounts for its ecological success in nature and its fastidious growth in culture. The predominant osmoprotection mechanism appears to be the typical salt-in strategy used by other haloarchaea. Furthermore, the genome contains the complete gene set for nucleotide monophosphate degradation pathway through archaeal RuBisCO, being within the first halophilic archaea representatives reported to code this enzyme. Genomic comparisons with previously described representatives of the phylum Euryarchaeota were consistent with the 16S rRNA gene data in supporting that our isolate represents a novel order within the class Halobacteria for which we propose the names Halorutilales ord. nov., Halorutilaceae fam. nov., Halorutilus gen. nov. and Halorutilus salinus sp. nov. IMPORTANCE The discovery of the new halophilic archaeon, Halorutilus salinus, representing a novel order, family, genus, and species within the class Halobacteria and phylum Euryarchaeota clearly enables insights into the microbial dark matter, expanding the current taxonomical knowledge of this group of archaea. The in-depth comparative genomic analysis performed on this new taxon revealed one of the first known examples of an Halobacteria representative coding the archaeal RuBisCO gene and with a streamlined genome, being ecologically successful in nature and explaining its previous non-isolation. Altogether, this research brings light into the understanding of the physiology of the Halobacteria class members, their ecological distribution, and capacity to thrive in hypersaline environments.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Diener C, SM Gibbons (2023)

More is Different: Metabolic Modeling of Diverse Microbial Communities.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial consortia drive essential processes, ranging from nitrogen fixation in soils to providing metabolic breakdown products to animal hosts. However, it is challenging to translate the composition of microbial consortia into their emergent functional capacities. Community-scale metabolic models hold the potential to simulate the outputs of complex microbial communities in a given environmental context, but there is currently no consensus for what the fitness function of an entire community should look like in the presence of ecological interactions and whether community-wide growth operates close to a maximum. Transitioning from single-taxon genome-scale metabolic models to multitaxon models implies a growth cone without a well-specified growth rate solution for individual taxa. Here, we argue that dynamic approaches naturally overcome these limitations, but they come at the cost of being computationally expensive. Furthermore, we show how two nondynamic, steady-state approaches approximate dynamic trajectories and pick ecologically relevant solutions from the community growth cone with improved computational scalability.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Logroño W, Kleinsteuber S, Kretzschmar J, et al (2023)

The microbiology of Power-to-X applications.

FEMS microbiology reviews pii:7081308 [Epub ahead of print].

Power-to-X (P2X) technologies will play a more important role in the conversion of electric power to storable energy carriers, commodity chemicals and even food and feed. Among the different P2X technologies, microbial components form cornerstones of individual process steps. This review comprehensively presents the state-of-the-art of different P2X technologies from a microbiological standpoint. We are focusing on microbial conversions of hydrogen from water electrolysis to methane, other chemicals and proteins. We present the microbial toolbox needed to gain access to these products of interest, assess its current status and research needs, and discuss potential future developments that are needed to turn todays P2X concepts into tomorrow's technologies.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Malard LA, Bergk-Pinto B, Layton R, et al (2023)

Snow Microorganisms Colonise Arctic Soils Following Snow Melt.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Arctic soils are constantly subjected to microbial invasion from either airborne, marine, or animal sources, which may impact local microbial communities and ecosystem functioning. However, in winter, Arctic soils are isolated from outside sources other than snow, which is the sole source of microorganisms. Successful colonisation of soil by snow microorganisms depends on the ability to survive and compete of both, the invading and resident community. Using shallow shotgun metagenome sequencing and amplicon sequencing, this study monitored snow and soil microbial communities throughout snow melt to investigate the colonisation process of Arctic soils. Microbial colonisation likely occurred as all the characteristics of successful colonisation were observed. The colonising microorganisms originating from the snow were already adapted to the local environmental conditions and were subsequently subjected to many similar conditions in the Arctic soil. Furthermore, competition-related genes (e.g. motility and virulence) increased in snow samples as the snow melted. Overall, one hundred potentially successful colonisers were identified in the soil and, thus, demonstrated the deposition and growth of snow microorganisms in soils during melt.

RevDate: 2023-03-20

Kalantzis D, Daskaloudis I, Lacoere T, et al (2023)

Granular activated carbon stimulates biogas production in pilot-scale anaerobic digester treating agro-industrial wastewater.

Bioresource technology, 376:128908 pii:S0960-8524(23)00334-6 [Epub ahead of print].

This work examines the continuous addition (5 g/L) of conductive granular activated carbon (GAC) in an integrated pilot-scale unit containing an anaerobic digester (180 L) and an aerobic submerged membrane bioreactor (1600 L) connected in series for the treatment of agro-industrial wastewater. Biogas production increased by 32 % after the addition of GAC. Methanosaeta was the dominant methanogen in the digester, and its relative abundance increased after the addition of GAC. The final effluent after post-treatment with the aerobic membrane bioreactor had a total solids content <0.01 g/L and a chemical oxygen demand between 120 and 150 mg/L. A simple cost analysis showed that GAC addition is potentially profitable, but alternatives ways of retaining the GAC in the system need to be found. Overall, this study provides useful scientific data for the possible application of GAC in full-scale biogas projects.

RevDate: 2023-03-19

Runde J, Veseli I, Fogarty EC, et al (2023)

Transient Suppression of Bacterial Populations Associated with Gut Health is Critical in Success of Exclusive Enteral Nutrition for Children with Crohn's Disease.

Journal of Crohn's & colitis pii:7080705 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Exclusive enteral nutrition [EEN] is a dietary intervention to induce clinical remission in children with active luminal Crohn's disease [CD]. While changes in the gut microbial communities have been implicated in achieving this remission, a precise understanding of the role of microbial ecology in the restoration of gut homeostasis is lacking.

METHODS: Here we reconstructed genomes from the gut metagenomes of 12 paediatric subjects who were sampled before, during and after EEN. We then classified each microbial population into distinct 'phenotypes' or patterns of response based on changes in their relative abundances throughout the therapy on a per-individual basis.

RESULTS: Our data show that children achieving clinical remission during therapy were enriched with microbial populations that were either suppressed or that demonstrated a transient bloom as a function of EEN. In contrast, this ecosystem-level response was not observed in cases of EEN failure. Further analysis revealed that populations that were suppressed during EEN were significantly more prevalent in healthy children and adults across the globe compared with those that bloomed ephemerally during the therapy.

CONCLUSIONS: These observations taken together suggest that successful outcomes of EEN are marked by a temporary emergence of microbial populations that are rare in healthy individuals, and a concomitant reduction in microbes that are commonly associated with gut homeostasis. Our work is a first attempt to highlight individual-specific, complex environmental factors that influence microbial response in EEN. This model offers a novel, alternative viewpoint to traditional taxonomic strategies used to characterize associations with health and disease states.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Harsonowati W, Rahayuningsih S, Yuniarti E, et al (2023)

Bacterial Metal-Scavengers Newly Isolated from Indonesian Gold Mine-Impacted Area: Bacillus altitudinis MIM12 as Novel Tools for Bio-Transformation of Mercury.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Selikat river, located in the north part of Bengkulu Province, Indonesia, has critical environmental and ecological issues of contamination by mercury due to artisanal small-scale gold mining (ASGM) activities. The present study focused on the identification and bioremediation efficiency of the mercury-resistant bacteria (MRB) isolated from ASGM-impacted areas in Lebong Tambang village, Bengkulu Province, and analyzed their merA gene function in transforming Hg[2+] to Hg[0]. Thirty-four MRB isolates were isolated, and four out of the 34 isolates exhibited not only the highest degree of resistance to Hg (up to 200 ppm) but also to cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), and lead (Pb). Further analysis shows that all four selected isolates harbor a merA operon-encoded mercuric ion (Hg[2+]) reductase enzyme, with the Hg bioremediation efficiency varying from 71.60 to 91.30%. Additionally, the bioremediation efficiency for Cd, Cr, Cu, and Pb ranged from 54.36 to 98.37%. Among the 34, two isolates identified as Bacillus altitudinis possess effective and superior multi-metal degrading capacity up to 91.30% for Hg, 98.07% for Cu, and 54.36% for Cr. A pilot-scale study exhibited significant in situ bioremediation of Hg from gold mine tailings of 82.10 and 95.16% at 4- and 8-day intervals, respectively. Interestingly, translated nucleotide blast against bacteria and Bacilli merA sequence databases suggested that B. altitudinis harbor merA gene is the first case among Bacilli with the possibility exhibits a novel mechanism of bioremediation, considering our new finding. This study is the first to report the structural and functional Hg-resistant bacterial diversity of unexplored ASGM-impacted areas, emphasizing their biotechnological potential as novel tools for the biological transformation and adsorption of mercury and other toxic metals.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Zhang Y, Liu F, Liang H, et al (2023)

Correction to: Mediative Mechanism of Freezing/Thawing on Greenhouse Gas Emissions in an Inland Saline Alkaline Wetland: a Metagenomic Analysis.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Doulidis PG, Galler AI, Hausmann B, et al (2023)

Gut microbiome signatures of Yorkshire Terrier enteropathy during disease and remission.

Scientific reports, 13(1):4337.

The role of the gut microbiome in developing Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) in humans and dogs has received attention in recent years. Evidence suggests that IBD is associated with alterations in gut microbial composition, but further research is needed in veterinary medicine. The impact of IBD treatment on the gut microbiome needs to be better understood, especially in a breed-specific form of IBD in Yorkshire Terriers known as Yorkshire Terrier Enteropathy (YTE). This study aimed to investigate the difference in gut microbiome composition between YTE dogs during disease and remission and healthy Yorkshire Terriers. Our results showed a significant increase in specific taxa such as Clostridium sensu stricto 1, Escherichia-Shigella, and Streptococcus, and a decrease in Bacteroides, Prevotella, Alloprevotella, and Phascolarctobacterium in YTE dogs compared to healthy controls. No significant difference was found between the microbiome of dogs in remission and those with active disease, suggesting that the gut microbiome is affected beyond clinical recovery.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Zayed N, Figueiredo J, Van Holm W, et al (2023)

Mode of killing determines the necrotrophic response of oral bacteria.

Journal of oral microbiology, 15(1):2184930.

BACKGROUND: Bacteria respond to changes in their environment, such as nutrient depletion and antimicrobials exposure. Antimicrobials result not only in bacterial death, but also have a hand in determining species abundances and ecology of the oral biofilms. Proximity of dead bacterial cells to living ones is an important environmental change or stress factor. Dead bacteria represent high concentrations of nutrients, such as proteins, lipids, sugars, and nucleic acids. Living bacteria can use these biomasses as a nutrients source, which is termed necrotrophy.

AIM: This study investigates the effect of exposing living oral bacteria (planktonic and biofilms) to their dead siblings after being killed by heat or hydrogen peroxide.

RESULTS: Tested bacterial species showed different responses towards the dead cells, depending on the mode of killing, the nutritional value of the culture media, and the the dead cells density. The multispecies oral biofilms showed different responses towards the supplementation of dead cells during biofilm development, while matured biofilms were more resilient.

CONCLUSION: This study indicates that dead bacteria resulting from antiseptics use may imbalance the nutrient availability in the oral cavity, resulting in overgrowth of opportunistic species, and hence ecological changes in oral communities, or introducing new bacterial phenotypes.

RevDate: 2023-03-17

Rachid CTCC, Balieiro FC, Peixoto RS, et al (2023)

Mycobiome structure does not affect field litter decomposition in Eucalyptus and Acacia plantations.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1106422.

Mixed tree plantations have been studied because of their potential to improve biomass production, ecosystem diversity, and soil quality. One example is a mixture of Eucalyptus and Acacia trees, which is a promising strategy to improve microbial diversity and nutrient cycling in soil. We examined how a mixture of these species may influence the biochemical attributes and fungal community associated with leaf litter, and the effects on litter decomposition. We studied the litter from pure and mixed plantations, evaluating the effects of plant material and incubation site on the mycobiome and decomposition rate using litterbags incubated in situ. Our central hypothesis was litter fungal community would change according to incubation site, and it would interfere in litter decomposition rate. Both the plant material and the incubation locale significantly affected the litter decomposition. The origin of the litter was the main modulator of the mycobiome, with distinct communities from one plant species to another. The community changed with the incubation time but the incubation site did not influence the mycobiome community. Our data showed that litter and soil did not share the main elements of the community. Contrary to our hypothesis, the microbial community structure and diversity lacked any association with the decomposition rate. The differences in the decomposition pattern are explained basically as a function of the exchange of nitrogen compounds between the litter.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Correa F, Luise D, Negrini C, et al (2023)

Effect of two milk supplements and two ways of administration on growth performance, welfare and fecal microbial ecology of suckling piglets.

Frontiers in veterinary science, 10:1050414.

INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of two MS formulas, DanMilk™ (AB Neo, Denmark) (MS1) and Neopigg[®] RescueMilk (Provimi, Netherlands) (MS2) administered manually and to compare two ways of administration (manual vs automatic) of MS1 on growth performance, health, fecal microbial profile, behavior, and skin lesions of piglets during suckling and post-weaning.

METHODS: Forty litters (528 piglets) were divided into 4 groups: 1) Control group receiving no MS (CON); 2) MS1 administered automatically (A-MS1); 3) MS1 administered manually (Ma-MS1) 4) MS2 administered manually (Ma-MS2). All groups had access to sow milk and creep feed. On day 5 after birth (d0), litters were equalized (13.2 piglets/litter ± 0.8 SD), thereafter no cross-fostering was allowed. Piglets were weighed at day 5 after birth (d0), at the end of milk supplementation (d14), at weaning (d21 of the trial, 26 days of age) and ten days post-weaning (d31). Piglet welfare was assessed using behavioral and lesion measures at d4 and d10. Feces were collected at d14 and d21.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: During the suckling period, A-MS1 had lowest mortality (p < 0.05), while Ma-MS1 had lower mortality compared with CON and Ma-MS2 (p < 0.05). Negative social behavior at d4, was more frequent in MS groups (A-MS1, Ma-MS1, Ma-MS2) compared to CON group (p = 0.03). Growth performance and lesion prevalence were not affected by MS provision. During lactation, Ma-MS2 group had a higher percentage of piglets not eating during suckling at d18 compared with Ma-MS1 (p = 0.03). MS1 increased microbial diversity compared with CON at d14 (Chao1, p = 0.02; Shannon, p = 0.03) and compared with CON (Shannon, p < 0.05; InvSimpson, p = 0.01) and Ma-MS2 (Chao1, p < 0.05; Shannon, p = 0.05, InvSimpson p = 0.01) at d21. Groups that received MS1 were characterized by genera producing short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), i.e., Lachnospiraceae (A-MS1) and Oscillospiraceae (Ma-MS1). MS composition and availability can contribute to reduce piglet's mortality during the suckling phase and can also affect intestinal microbiota by favoring the presence of SCFAs producing bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-03-15

Schada von Borzyskowski L (2023)

Taking Synthetic Biology to the Seas - From Blue Chassis Organisms to Marine Aquaforming.

Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology [Epub ahead of print].

Oceans cover 71% of Earth's surface and are home to hundreds of thousands of species, many of which are microbial. Knowledge about marine microbes has strongly increased in the past decades due to global sampling expeditions and hundreds of detailed studies on marine microbial ecology, physiology, and biogeochemistry. However, the translation of this knowledge into biotechnological applications or synthetic biology approaches using marine microbes has been limited so far. This review highlights key examples of marine bacteria in synthetic biology and metabolic engineering, and outlines possible future work based on the emerging marine chassis organisms Vibrio natriegens and Halomonas bluephagenesis. Furthermore, the valorization of algal polysaccharides by genetically enhanced microbes is presented as an example for the opportunities and challenges associated with blue biotechnology. Finally, new roles for marine synthetic biology in tackling pressing global challenges, including climate change and marine pollution, are discussed.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Anand U, Pal T, Yadav N, et al (2023)

Current Scenario and Future Prospects of Endophytic Microbes: Promising Candidates for Abiotic and Biotic Stress Management for Agricultural and Environmental Sustainability.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Globally, substantial research into endophytic microbes is being conducted to increase agricultural and environmental sustainability. Endophytic microbes such as bacteria, actinomycetes, and fungi inhabit ubiquitously within the tissues of all plant species without causing any harm or disease. Endophytes form symbiotic relationships with diverse plant species and can regulate numerous host functions, including resistance to abiotic and biotic stresses, growth and development, and stimulating immune systems. Moreover, plant endophytes play a dominant role in nutrient cycling, biodegradation, and bioremediation, and are widely used in many industries. Endophytes have a stronger predisposition for enhancing mineral and metal solubility by cells through the secretion of organic acids with low molecular weight and metal-specific ligands (such as siderophores) that alter soil pH and boost binding activity. Finally, endophytes synthesize various bioactive compounds with high competence that are promising candidates for new drugs, antibiotics, and medicines. Bioprospecting of endophytic novel secondary metabolites has given momentum to sustainable agriculture for combating environmental stresses. Biotechnological interventions with the aid of endophytes played a pivotal role in crop improvement to mitigate biotic and abiotic stress conditions like drought, salinity, xenobiotic compounds, and heavy metals. Identification of putative genes from endophytes conferring resistance and tolerance to crop diseases, apart from those involved in the accumulation and degradation of contaminants, could open new avenues in agricultural research and development. Furthermore, a detailed molecular and biochemical understanding of endophyte entry and colonization strategy in the host would better help in manipulating crop productivity under changing climatic conditions. Therefore, the present review highlights current research trends based on the SCOPUS database, potential biotechnological interventions of endophytic microorganisms in combating environmental stresses influencing crop productivity, future opportunities of endophytes in improving plant stress tolerance, and their contribution to sustainable remediation of hazardous environmental contaminants.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Hadjirin NF, van Tonder AJ, Blane B, et al (2023)

Dissemination of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales in Ireland from 2012 to 2017: a retrospective genomic surveillance study.

Microbial genomics, 9(3):.

The spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacterales (CPE) is of major public health concern. The transmission dynamics of CPE in hospitals, particularly at the national level, are not well understood. Here, we describe a retrospective nationwide genomic surveillance study of CPE in Ireland between 2012 and 2017. We sequenced 746 national surveillance CPE samples obtained between 2012 and 2017. After clustering the sequences, we used thresholds based on pairwise SNPs, and reported within-host diversity along with epidemiological data to infer recent putative transmissions. All clusters in circulating clones, derived from high-resolution phylogenies, of a species (Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Klebsiella oxytoca, Enterobacter cloacae, Enterobacter hormaechei and Citrobacter freundii) were individually examined for evidence of transmission. Antimicrobial resistance trends over time were also assessed. We identified 352 putative transmission events in six species including widespread and frequent transmissions in three species. We detected putative outbreaks in 4/6 species with three hospitals experiencing prolonged outbreaks. The bla OXA-48 gene was the main cause of carbapenem resistance in Ireland in almost all species. An expansion in the number of sequence types carrying bla OXA-48 was an additional cause of the increasing prevalence of carbapenemase-producing K. pneumoniae and E. coli.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Elhalis H, Chin XH, Y Chow (2023)

Soybean fermentation: Microbial ecology and starter culture technology.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

Fermented soybean products, including Soya sauce, Tempeh, Miso, and Natto have been consumed for decades, mainly in Asian countries. Beans are processed using either solid-state fermentation, submerged fermentation, or a sequential of both methods. Traditional ways are still used to conduct the fermentation processes, which, depending on the fermented products, might take a few days or even years to complete. Diverse microorganisms were detected during fermentation in various processes with Bacillus species or filamentous fungi being the two main dominant functional groups. Microbial activities were essential to increase the bean's digestibility, nutritional value, and sensory quality, as well as lower its antinutritive factors. The scientific understanding of fermentation microbial communities, their enzymes, and their metabolic activities, however, still requires further development. The use of a starter culture is crucial, to control the fermentation process and ensure product consistency. A broad understanding of the spontaneous fermentation ecology, biochemistry, and the current starter culture technology is essential to facilitate further improvement and meet the needs of the current extending and sustainable economy. This review covers what is currently known about these aspects and reveals the limited available information, along with the possible directions for future starter culture design in soybean fermentation.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Freixa A, Ortiz-Rivero J, S Sabater (2023)

Artificial substrata to assess ecological and ecotoxicological responses in river biofilms: Use and recommendations.

MethodsX, 10:102089.

River biofilms are biological consortia of autotrophs and heterotrophs colonizing most solid surfaces in rivers. Biofilm composition and biomass differ according to the environmental conditions, having different characteristics between systems and even between river habitats. Artificial substrata (AS) are an alternative for in situ or laboratory experiments to handle the natural variability of biofilms. However, specific research goals may require decisions on colonization time or type of substrata. Substrata properties (i.e., texture, roughness, hydrophobicity) and the colonization period and site are selective factors of biofilm characteristics. Here we describe the uses of artificial substrata in the assessment of ecological and ecotoxicological responses and propose a decision tree for the best use of artificial substrata in river biofilm studies. We propose departing from the purpose of the study to define the necessity of obtaining a realistic biofilm community, from which it may be defined the colonization time, the colonization site, and the type of artificial substratum. Having a simple or mature biofilm community should guide our decisions on the colonization time and type of substrata to be selected for the best use of AS in biofilm studies. Tests involving contaminants should avoid adsorbing materials while those ecologically oriented may use any AS mimicking those substrata occurring in the streambed.•We review the utilization of different artificial substrata to colonize biofilm in river ecology and ecotoxicology.•We propose a decision tree to guide on selecting the appropriate artificial substrata and colonization site and duration.•Type of artificial substrata (material, size, shape...) and colonization duration are to be decided according to the specific purpose of the study.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Rožman M, Lekunberri I, Grgić I, et al (2023)

Effects of combining flow intermittency and exposure to emerging contaminants on the composition and metabolic response of streambed biofilm bacterial communities.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01434-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Freshwater ecosystems are characterised by the co-occurrence of stressors that simultaneously affect the biota. Among these, flow intermittency and chemical pollution severely impair the diversity and functioning of streambed bacterial communities. Using an artificial streams mesocosm facility, this study examined how desiccation and pollution caused by emerging contaminants affect the composition of stream biofilm bacterial communities, their metabolic profiles, and interactions with their environment. Through integrative analysis of the composition of biofilm communities, characterization of their metabolome and composition of the dissolved organic matter, we found strong genotype-to-phenotype interconnections. The strongest correlation was found between the composition and metabolism of the bacterial community, both of which were influenced by incubation time and desiccation. Unexpectedly, no effect of the emerging contaminants was observed, which was due to the low concentration of the emerging contaminants and the dominant impact of desiccation. However, biofilm bacterial communities modified the chemical composition of their environment under the effect of pollution. Considering the tentatively identified classes of metabolites, we hypothesised that the biofilm response to desiccation was mainly intracellular while the response to chemical pollution was extracellular. The present study demonstrates that metabolite and dissolved organic matter profiling may be effectively integrated with compositional analysis of stream biofilm communities to yield a more complete picture of changes in response to stressors.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Bouchachi N, Obernosterer I, Carpaneto Bastos C, et al (2023)

Effects of Phosphorus Limitation on the Bioavailability of DOM Released by Marine Heterotrophic Prokaryotes.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Heterotrophic prokaryotes (HP) contribute largely to dissolved organic matter (DOM) processing in the ocean, but they also release diverse organic substances. The bioavailability of DOM released by HP under varying environmental conditions has not been fully elucidated. In this study, we investigated the bioavailability of DOM released by a single bacterial strain (Sphingopyxis alaskensis) and 2 natural HP communities grown under P-replete and P-limited conditions. The released DOM (HP-DOM) was used as a substrate for natural HP communities at a coastal site in the Northwestern Mediterranean Sea. We followed changes in HP growth, enzymatic activity, diversity, and community composition together with the consumption of HP-DOM fluorescence (FDOM). HP-DOM produced under P-replete and P-limited conditions promoted significant growth in all incubations. No clear differences in HP-DOM lability released under P-repletion and P-limitation were evidenced based on the HP growth, and P-limitation was not demonstrated to decrease HP-DOM lability. However, HP-DOM supported the growth of diverse HP communities, and P-driven differences in HP-DOM quality were selected for different indicator taxa in the degrading communities. The humic-like fluorescence, commonly considered recalcitrant, was consumed during the incubations when this peak was initially dominating the FDOM pool, and this consumption coincided with higher alkaline phosphatase activity. Taken together, our findings emphasize that HP-DOM lability is dependent on both DOM quality, which is shaped by P availability, and the composition of the consumer community.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Oswin HP, Haddrell AE, Hughes C, et al (2023)

Oxidative Stress Contributes to Bacterial Airborne Loss of Viability.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

While the airborne decay of bacterial viability has been observed for decades, an understanding of the mechanisms driving the decay has remained elusive. The airborne transport of bacteria is often a key step in their life cycle and as such, characterizing the mechanisms driving the airborne decay of bacteria is an essential step toward a more complete understanding of microbial ecology. Using the Controlled Electrodynamic Levitation and Extraction of Bioaerosols onto a Substrate (CELEBS), it was possible to systematically evaluate the impact of different physicochemical and environmental parameters on the survival of Escherichia coli in airborne droplets of Luria Bertani broth. Rather than osmotic stress driving the viability loss, as was initially considered, oxidative stress was found to play a key role. As the droplets evaporate and equilibrate with the surrounding environment, the surface-to-volume ratio increases, which in turn increased the formation of reactive oxygen species in the droplet. These reactive oxygen species appear to play a key role in driving the airborne loss of viability of E. coli. IMPORTANCE The airborne transport of bacteria has a wide range of impacts, from disease transmission to cloud formation. By understanding the factors that influence the airborne stability of bacteria, we can better understand these processes. However, while we have known for several decades that airborne bacteria undergo a gradual loss of viability, we have not previously identified the mechanisms driving this process. In this work, we discovered that oxygen surrounding an airborne droplet facilitates the formation of reactive oxygen species within the droplet, which then gradually damage and kill bacteria within the droplet. This discovery indicates that adaptations to help bacteria deal with oxidative stress may also aid their airborne survival and be essential adaptations for bacterial airborne pathogens. Understanding the adaptations bacteria need to survive in airborne droplets could eventually lead to the development of novel antimicrobials designed to inhibit their airborne survival, helping to prevent the transmission of disease.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Meng H, Peng Y, Li P, et al (2023)

Global trends in research of high-throughput sequencing technology associated with chronic wounds from 2002 to 2022: A bibliometric and visualized study.

Frontiers in surgery, 10:1089203.

BACKGROUND: Chronic wounds are a complex medical problem. With the difficulty of skin healing, the microbial ecology of chronic wounds is an essential factor affecting wound healing. High-throughput sequencing (HTS) technology is a vital method to reveal the microbiome diversity and population structure of chronic wounds.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this paper was to delineate the scientific output characteristics, research trends, hotspots and frontiers of HTS technologies related to chronic wounds globally over the past 20 years.

METHODS: We searched the Web of Science Core Collection (WoSCC) database for articles published between 2002 and 2022 and their full record information. The Bibliometrix software package was used to analyze bibliometric indicators and VOSviewer visualization analysis results.

RESULTS: Ultimately, a total of 449 original articles were reviewed, and the results showed that the number of annual publications (Nps) about HTS associated with chronic wounds has steadily increased over the last 20 years. The United States and China produce the most articles and have the highest H-index, while the United States and England have the largest number of citations (Nc) in this field. The University of California, Wound Repair and Regeneration and National Institutes of Health Nih United States were the most published institutions, journals and fund resources, respectively. The global research could be divided into 3 clusters as follows: microbial infection of chronic wounds, the healing process of wounds and microscopic processes, skin repair mechanism stimulated by antimicrobial peptides and oxidative stress. In recent years, "wound healing", "infections", "expression", "inflammation", "chronic wounds", "identification" and "bacteria" "angiogenesis", "biofilms" and "diabetes" were the most frequently used keywords. In addition, research on "prevalence", "gene expression", "inflammation" and "infection" has recently become a hotspot.

CONCLUSIONS: This paper compares the research hotspots and directions in this field globally from the perspectives of countries, institutions and authors, analyzes the trend of international cooperation, and reveals the future development direction of the field and research hotspots of great scientific research value. Through this paper, we can further explore the value of HTS technology in chronic wounds to better solve the problem of chronic wounds.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Polk C, Sampson M, Fairman RT, et al (2023)

Evaluation of a health system's implementation of a monkeypox care model under the RE-AIM framework.

Therapeutic advances in infectious disease, 10:20499361231158463.

OBJECTIVE: Emerging infectious diseases challenge healthcare systems to implement new models of care. We aim to evaluate the rapid implementation of a new care model for monkeypox in our health system.

DESIGN: This is a retrospective case series evaluation under the Reach, Effectiveness, Adoption, Implementation, and Maintenance (RE-AIM) framework of implementation of a testing and care model for monkeypox in a large, integrated health system.

METHODS: Atrium Health implemented education of providers, testing protocols, and management of potential monkeypox cases using electronic health record (EHR) data capabilities, telehealth, and collaboration between multiple disciplines. The first 4 weeks of care model implementation were evaluated under the RE-AIM framework.

RESULTS: One hundred fifty-three patients were tested for monkeypox by 117 unique providers at urgent care, emergency departments, and infectious disease clinics in our healthcare system between 18 July 2022 and 14 August 2022. Fifty-eight monkeypox cases were identified, compared with 198 cases in the state during the time period, a disproportionate number compared with the health system service area, and 52 patients were assessed for need for tecovirimat treatment. The number of tests performed and providers sending tests increased during the study period.

CONCLUSION: Implementation of a dedicated care model leveraging EHR data support, telehealth, and cross-disciplinary collaboration led to more effective identification and management of emerging infectious diseases and is important for public health.

PLAIN LANGUAGE SUMMARY: Impact of care model implementation on monkeypox New infectious diseases challenge health systems to implement new care practices. Our health system responded to this challenge by implementing a care model for education, testing, and clinical care of monkeypox patients. We analyzed results from implementing the model. We were able to identify a disproportionate number of monkeypox cases compared with the rest of our state by using our model to educate medical providers, encourage testing, and ensure patients had access to best disease care. Implementation of care models for testing and management of new diseases will improve patient care and public health.

RevDate: 2023-03-13

Niu T, Xu Y, Chen J, et al (2023)

Bacterial taxonomic and functional profiles from Bohai Sea to northern Yellow Sea.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1139950.

Microbial distribution patterns are the result of a combination of biotic and abiotic factors, which are the core issues in microbial ecology research. To better understand the biogeographic pattern of bacteria in water environments from the Bohai Sea to the northern Yellow Sea, the effects of environmental factors, and spatial distance on the structure of bacterial communities in marine water were investigated using high-throughput sequencing technology based on 16S rRNA genes. The results showed that Proteobacteria, Bacteroidetes, Actinobacteri, Desulfobacterota, and Bdellovibrionota were the dominant phyla in the study area. A clear spatial pattern in the bacterial community was observed, and environmental factors, including salinity, nutrient concentration, carbon content, total phosphorus, dissolved oxygen, and seawater turbidity emerged as the central environmental factors regulating the variation in bacterial communities. In addition, the study provides direct evidence of the existence of dispersal limitation in this strongly connected marine ecological system. Therefore, these results revealed that the variation in bacterial community characteristics was attributed to environmental selection, accompanied by the regulation of stochastic diffusion. The network analysis demonstrated a nonrandom co-occurrence pattern in the microbial communities with distinct spatial distribution characteristics. It is implied that the biogeography patterns of bacterial community may also be associated with the characteristics of co-occurrence characterize among bacterial species. Furthermore, the PICRUSt analysis indicated a clear spatial distribution of functional characteristics in bacterial communities. This functional variation was significantly modulated by the environmental characteristics of seawater but uncoupled from the taxonomic characteristics of bacterial communities (e.g., diversity characteristics, community structure, and co-occurrence relationships). Together, this findings represent a significant advance in linking seawater to the mechanisms underlying bacterial biogeographic patterns and community assembly, co-occurrence patterns, and ecological functions, providing new insights for identifying the microbial ecology as well as the biogeochemical cycle in the marine environment.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Stanhope J, P Weinstein (2023)

Exposure to environmental microbiota may modulate gut microbial ecology and the immune system.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Cahill N, Hooban B, Fitzhenry K, et al (2023)

First reported detection of the mobile colistin resistance genes, mcr-8 and mcr-9, in the Irish environment.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01265-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The emergence and dissemination of mobile colistin resistance (mcr) genes across the globe poses a significant threat to public health, as colistin remains one of the last line treatment options for multi-drug resistant infections. Environmental samples (157 water and 157 wastewater) were collected in Ireland between 2018 and 2020. Samples collected were assessed for the presence of antimicrobial resistant bacteria using Brilliance ESBL, Brilliance CRE, mSuperCARBA and McConkey agar containing a ciprofloxacin disc. All water and integrated constructed wetland influent and effluent samples were filtered and enriched in buffered peptone water prior to culture, while wastewater samples were cultured directly. Isolates collected were identified via MALDI-TOF, were tested for susceptibility to 16 antimicrobials, including colistin, and subsequently underwent whole genome sequencing. Overall, eight mcr positive Enterobacterales (one mcr-8 and seven mcr-9) were recovered from six samples (freshwater (n = 2), healthcare facility wastewater (n = 2), wastewater treatment plant influent (n = 1) and integrated constructed wetland influent (piggery farm waste) (n = 1)). While the mcr-8 positive K. pneumoniae displayed resistance to colistin, all seven mcr-9 harbouring Enterobacterales remained susceptible. All isolates demonstrated multi-drug resistance and through whole genome sequencing analysis, were found to harbour a wide variety of antimicrobial resistance genes i.e., 30 ± 4.1 (10-61), including the carbapenemases, blaOXA-48 (n = 2) and blaNDM-1 (n = 1), which were harboured by three of the isolates. The mcr genes were located on IncHI2, IncFIIK and IncI1-like plasmids. The findings of this study highlight potential sources and reservoirs of mcr genes in the environment and illustrate the need for further research to gain a better understanding of the role the environment plays in the persistence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Ongena S, de Walle AV, Mosquera-Romero S, et al (2023)

Comparison of MBR and MBBR followed by UV or electrochemical disinfection for decentralized greywater treatment.

Water research, 235:119818 pii:S0043-1354(23)00253-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Greywater is an attractive source for water reuse at the household or building level, particularly for non-potable applications. Two greywater treatment approaches are membrane bioreactors (MBR) and moving bed biofilm reactors (MBBR), yet, their performance has not been compared so far within their respective treatment flowsheets, including post-disinfection. Two lab-scale treatment trains were operated on synthetic greywater: a) MBR with either polymeric (chlorinated polyethylene, C-PE, 165 days) or ceramic (silicon carbide, SiC, 199 days) membranes coupled with UV disinfection; and b) single-stage (66 days) or two-stage (124 days) MBBR coupled with an electrochemical cell (EC) for in-situ disinfectant generation. Water quality was constantly monitored, and Escherichia coli log removals were assessed through spike tests. Under low-flux operation of the MBR (<8 L·m [-] [2]·h [-] [1]), the SiC membranes delayed the onset of membrane fouling and needed less frequent cleaning compared to C-PE membranes. Both treatment systems met most water quality requirements for unrestricted greywater reuse, at a 10-fold lower reactor volume for the MBR than the MBBR. However, neither the MBR nor the two-staged MBBR allowed adequate nitrogen removal, and the MBBR did not consistently meet effluent chemical oxygen demand and turbidity requirements. Both EC and UV provided non-detectable E. coli concentrations in the effluent. Although the EC provided residual disinfection, scaling and fouling decreased its energetic and disinfection performance over time, making it less efficient than UV disinfection. Several outlines to improve the performance of both treatment trains and disinfection processes are proposed, thus, allowing a fit-for-use approach that leverages the advantages of the respective treatment trains. Results from this investigation will assist in elucidating the most efficient, robust, and low-maintenance technology and configurations for small-scale greywater treatment for reuse.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Song L (2023)

Toward Understanding Microbial Ecology to Restore a Degraded Ecosystem.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 20(5): pii:ijerph20054647.

The microbial community plays an important role in maintaining human health, addressing climate change, maintaining environmental quality, etc. High-throughput sequencing leads to the discovery and identification of more microbial community composition and function in diverse ecosystems. Microbiome therapeutics such as fecal microbiota transplantation for human health and bioaugmentation for activated sludge restoration have drawn great attention. However, microbiome therapeutics cannot secure the success of microbiome transplantation. This paper begins with a view on fecal microbiota transplantation and bioaugmentation and is followed by a parallel analysis of these two microbial therapeutic strategies. Accordingly, the microbial ecology mechanisms behind them were discussed. Finally, future research on microbiota transplantation was proposed. Successful application of both microbial therapeutics for human disease and bioremediation for contaminated environments relies on a better understanding of the microbial "entangled bank" and microbial ecology of these environments.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Pous N, Bañeras L, Corvini PF, et al (2023)

Direct ammonium oxidation to nitrogen gas (Dirammox) in Alcaligenes strain HO-1: The electrode role.

Environmental science and ecotechnology, 15:100253.

It has been recently suggested that Alcaligenes use a previously unknown pathway to convert ammonium into dinitrogen gas (Dirammox) via hydroxylamine (NH2OH). This fact alone already implies a significant decrease in the aeration requirements for the process, but the process would still be dependent on external aeration. This work studied the potential use of a polarised electrode as an electron acceptor for ammonium oxidation using the recently described Alcaligenes strain HO-1 as a model heterotrophic nitrifier. Results indicated that Alcaligenes strain HO-1 requires aeration for metabolism, a requirement that cannot be replaced for a polarised electrode alone. However, concomitant elimination of succinate and ammonium was observed when operating a previously grown Alcaligenes strain HO-1 culture in the presence of a polarised electrode and without aeration. The usage of a polarised electrode together with aeration did not increase the succinate nor the nitrogen removal rates observed with aeration alone. However, current density generation was observed along a feeding batch test representing an electron share of 3% of the ammonium removed in the presence of aeration and 16% without aeration. Additional tests suggested that hydroxylamine oxidation to dinitrogen gas could have a relevant role in the electron discharge onto the anode. Therefore, the presence of a polarised electrode supported the metabolic functions of Alcaligenes strain HO-1 on the simultaneous oxidation of succinate and ammonium.

RevDate: 2023-03-10
CmpDate: 2023-03-10

Álvarez-Pérez S, de Vega C, Vanoirbeek K, et al (2023)

Phylogenomic analysis of the genus Rosenbergiella and description of Rosenbergiella gaditana sp. nov., Rosenbergiella metrosideri sp. nov., Rosenbergiella epipactidis subsp. epipactidis subsp. nov., Rosenbergiella epipactidis subsp. californiensis subsp. nov., Rosenbergiella epipactidis subsp. japonicus subsp. nov., Rosenbergiella nectarea subsp. nectarea subsp. nov. and Rosenbergiella nectarea subsp. apis subsp. nov., isolated from floral nectar and insects.

International journal of systematic and evolutionary microbiology, 73(3):.

The genus Rosenbergiella is one of the most frequent bacterial inhabitants of flowers and a usual member of the insect microbiota worldwide. To date, there is only one publicly available Rosenbergiella genome, corresponding to the type strain of Rosenbergiella nectarea (8N4[T]), which precludes a detailed analysis of intra-genus phylogenetic relationships. In this study, we obtained draft genomes of the type strains of the other Rosenbergiella species validly published to date (R. australiborealis, R. collisarenosi and R. epipactidis) and 23 additional isolates of flower and insect origin. Isolate S61[T], retrieved from the nectar of an Antirrhinum sp. flower collected in southern Spain, displayed low average nucleotide identity (ANI) and in silico DNA-DNA hybridization (isDDH) values when compared with other Rosenbergiella members (≤86.5 and ≤29.8 %, respectively). Similarly, isolate JB07[T], which was obtained from the floral nectar of Metrosideros polymorpha plants in Hawaii (USA) had ≤95.7 % ANI and ≤64.1 % isDDH with other Rosenbergiella isolates. Therefore, our results support the description of two new Rosenbergiella species for which we propose the names Rosenbergiella gaditana sp. nov. (type strain: S61[T]=NCCB 100789[T]=DSM 111181[T]) and Rosenbergiella metrosideri sp. nov. (JB07[T]=NCCB 100888[T]=LMG 32616[T]). Additionally, some R. epipactidis and R. nectarea isolates showed isDDH values<79 % with other conspecific isolates, which suggests that these species include subspecies for which we propose the names Rosenbergiella epipactidis subsp. epipactidis subsp. nov. (S256[T]=CECT 8502[T]=LMG 27956[T]), Rosenbergiella epipactidis subsp. californiensis subsp. nov. (FR72[T]=NCCB 100898[T]=LMG 32786[T]), Rosenbergiella epipactidis subsp. japonicus subsp. nov. (K24[T]=NCCB 100924[T]=LMG 32785[T]), Rosenbergiella nectarea subsp. nectarea subsp. nov. (8N4[T] = DSM 24150[T] = LMG 26121[T]) and Rosenbergiella nectarea subsp. apis subsp. nov. (B1A[T]=NCCB 100810[T]= DSM 111763[T]), respectively. Finally, we present the first phylogenomic analysis of the genus Rosenbergiella and update the formal description of the species R. australiborealis, R. collisarenosi, R. epipactidis and R. nectarea based on new genomic and phenotypic information.

RevDate: 2023-03-08

Bourceau OM, Ferdelman T, Lavik G, et al (2023)

Simultaneous sulfate and nitrate reduction in coastal sediments.

ISME communications, 3(1):17.

The oscillating redox conditions that characterize coastal sandy sediments foster microbial communities capable of respiring oxygen and nitrate simultaneously, thereby increasing the potential for organic matter remineralization, nitrogen (N)-loss and emissions of the greenhouse gas nitrous oxide. It is unknown to what extent these conditions also lead to overlaps between dissimilatory nitrate and sulfate respiration. Here, we show that sulfate and nitrate respiration co-occur in the surface sediments of an intertidal sand flat. Furthermore, we found strong correlations between dissimilatory nitrite reduction to ammonium (DNRA) and sulfate reduction rates. Until now, the nitrogen and sulfur cycles were assumed to be mainly linked in marine sediments by the activity of nitrate-reducing sulfide oxidisers. However, transcriptomic analyses revealed that the functional marker gene for DNRA (nrfA) was more associated with microorganisms known to reduce sulfate rather than oxidise sulfide. Our results suggest that when nitrate is supplied to the sediment community upon tidal inundation, part of the sulfate reducing community may switch respiratory strategy to DNRA. Therefore increases in sulfate reduction rate in-situ may result in enhanced DNRA and reduced denitrification rates. Intriguingly, the shift from denitrification to DNRA did not influence the amount of N2O produced by the denitrifying community. Our results imply that microorganisms classically considered as sulfate reducers control the potential for DNRA within coastal sediments when redox conditions oscillate and therefore retain ammonium that would otherwise be removed by denitrification, exacerbating eutrophication.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Rohwer RR, Hale RJ, Vander Zanden MJ, et al (2023)

Species invasions shift microbial phenology in a two-decade freshwater time series.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(11):e2211796120.

Invasive species impart abrupt changes on ecosystems, but their impacts on microbial communities are often overlooked. We paired a 20 y freshwater microbial community time series with zooplankton and phytoplankton counts, rich environmental data, and a 6 y cyanotoxin time series. We observed strong microbial phenological patterns that were disrupted by the invasions of spiny water flea (Bythotrephes cederströmii) and zebra mussels (Dreissena polymorpha). First, we detected shifts in Cyanobacteria phenology. After the spiny water flea invasion, Cyanobacteria dominance crept earlier into clearwater; and after the zebra mussel invasion, Cyanobacteria abundance crept even earlier into the diatom-dominated spring. During summer, the spiny water flea invasion sparked a cascade of shifting diversity where zooplankton diversity decreased and Cyanobacteria diversity increased. Second, we detected shifts in cyanotoxin phenology. After the zebra mussel invasion, microcystin increased in early summer and the duration of toxin production increased by over a month. Third, we observed shifts in heterotrophic bacteria phenology. The Bacteroidota phylum and members of the acI Nanopelagicales lineage were differentially more abundant. The proportion of the bacterial community that changed differed by season; spring and clearwater communities changed most following the spiny water flea invasion that lessened clearwater intensity, while summer communities changed least following the zebra mussel invasion despite the shifts in Cyanobacteria diversity and toxicity. A modeling framework identified the invasions as primary drivers of the observed phenological changes. These long-term invasion-mediated shifts in microbial phenology demonstrate the interconnectedness of microbes with the broader food web and their susceptibility to long-term environmental change.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Chen L, Wang G, Teng M, et al (2023)

Non-gene-editing microbiome engineering of spontaneous food fermentation microbiota-Limitation control, design control, and integration.

Comprehensive reviews in food science and food safety [Epub ahead of print].

Non-gene-editing microbiome engineering (NgeME) is the rational design and control of natural microbial consortia to perform desired functions. Traditional NgeME approaches use selected environmental variables to force natural microbial consortia to perform the desired functions. Spontaneous food fermentation, the oldest kind of traditional NgeME, transforms foods into various fermented products using natural microbial networks. In traditional NgeME, spontaneous food fermentation microbiotas (SFFMs) are typically formed and controlled manually by the establishment of limiting factors in small batches with little mechanization. However, limitation control generally leads to trade-offs between efficiency and the quality of fermentation. Modern NgeME approaches based on synthetic microbial ecology have been developed using designed microbial communities to explore assembly mechanisms and target functional enhancement of SFFMs. This has greatly improved our understanding of microbiota control, but such approaches still have shortcomings compared to traditional NgeME. Here, we comprehensively describe research on mechanisms and control strategies for SFFMs based on traditional and modern NgeME. We discuss the ecological and engineering principles of the two approaches to enhance the understanding of how best to control SFFM. We also review recent applied and theoretical research on modern NgeME and propose an integrated in vitro synthetic microbiota model to bridge gaps between limitation control and design control for SFFM.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Anand S, Hallsworth JE, Timmis J, et al (2023)

Weaponising microbes for peace.

There is much human disadvantage and unmet need in the world, including deficits in basic resources and services considered to be human rights, such as drinking water, sanitation and hygiene, healthy nutrition, access to basic healthcare, and a clean environment. Furthermore, there are substantive asymmetries in the distribution of key resources among peoples. These deficits and asymmetries can lead to local and regional crises among peoples competing for limited resources, which, in turn, can become sources of discontent and conflict. Such conflicts have the potential to escalate into regional wars and even lead to global instability. Ergo: in addition to moral and ethical imperatives to level up, to ensure that all peoples have basic resources and services essential for healthy living and to reduce inequalities, all nations have a self-interest to pursue with determination all available avenues to promote peace through reducing sources of conflicts in the world. Microorganisms and pertinent microbial technologies have unique and exceptional abilities to provide, or contribute to the provision of, basic resources and services that are lacking in many parts of the world, and thereby address key deficits that might constitute sources of conflict. However, the deployment of such technologies to this end is seriously underexploited. Here, we highlight some of the key available and emerging technologies that demand greater consideration and exploitation in endeavours to eliminate unnecessary deprivations, enable healthy lives of all and remove preventable grounds for competition over limited resources that can escalate into conflicts in the world. We exhort central actors: microbiologists, funding agencies and philanthropic organisations, politicians worldwide and international governmental and non-governmental organisations, to engage - in full partnership - with all relevant stakeholders, to 'weaponise' microbes and microbial technologies to fight resource deficits and asymmetries, in particular among the most vulnerable populations, and thereby create humanitarian conditions more conducive to harmony and peace.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Lyng M, ÁT Kovács (2023)

Frenemies of the soil: Bacillus and Pseudomonas interspecies interactions.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(23)00050-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Bacillus and Pseudomonas ubiquitously occur in natural environments and are two of the most intensively studied bacterial genera in the soil. They are often coisolated from environmental samples, and as a result, several studies have experimentally cocultured bacilli and pseudomonads to obtain emergent properties. Even so, the general interaction between members of these genera is virtually unknown. In the past decade, data on interspecies interactions between natural isolates of Bacillus and Pseudomonas has become more detailed, and now, molecular studies permit mapping of the mechanisms behind their pairwise ecology. This review addresses the current knowledge about microbe-microbe interactions between strains of Bacillus and Pseudomonas and discusses how we can attempt to generalize the interaction on a taxonomic and molecular level.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Barnett SE, Egan R, Foster B, et al (2023)

Genomic Features Predict Bacterial Life History Strategies in Soil, as Identified by Metagenomic Stable Isotope Probing.

mBio [Epub ahead of print].

Bacteria catalyze the formation and destruction of soil organic matter, but the bacterial dynamics in soil that govern carbon (C) cycling are not well understood. Life history strategies explain the complex dynamics of bacterial populations and activities based on trade-offs in energy allocation to growth, resource acquisition, and survival. Such trade-offs influence the fate of soil C, but their genomic basis remains poorly characterized. We used multisubstrate metagenomic DNA stable isotope probing to link genomic features of bacteria to their C acquisition and growth dynamics. We identify several genomic features associated with patterns of bacterial C acquisition and growth, notably genomic investment in resource acquisition and regulatory flexibility. Moreover, we identify genomic trade-offs defined by numbers of transcription factors, membrane transporters, and secreted products, which match predictions from life history theory. We further show that genomic investment in resource acquisition and regulatory flexibility can predict bacterial ecological strategies in soil. IMPORTANCE Soil microbes are major players in the global carbon cycle, yet we still have little understanding of how the carbon cycle operates in soil communities. A major limitation is that carbon metabolism lacks discrete functional genes that define carbon transformations. Instead, carbon transformations are governed by anabolic processes associated with growth, resource acquisition, and survival. We use metagenomic stable isotope probing to link genome information to microbial growth and carbon assimilation dynamics as they occur in soil. From these data, we identify genomic traits that can predict bacterial ecological strategies which define bacterial interactions with soil carbon.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Ge W, Ren Y, Dong C, et al (2023)

New perspective: Symbiotic pattern and assembly mechanism of Cantharellus cibarius-associated bacteria.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1074468.

Cantharellus cibarius, an ectomycorrhizal fungus belonging to the Basidiomycetes, has significant medicinal and edible value, economic importance, and ecological benefits. However, C. cibarius remains incapable of artificial cultivation, which is thought to be due to the presence of bacteria. Therefore, much research has focused on the relationship between C. cibarius and bacteria, but rare bacteria are frequently overlooked, and symbiotic pattern and assembly mechanism of the bacterial community associated with C. cibarius remain unknown. In this study, the assembly mechanism and driving factors of both abundant and rare bacterial communities of C. cibarius were revealed by the null model. The symbiotic pattern of the bacterial community was examined using a co-occurrence network. Metabolic functions and phenotypes of the abundant and rare bacteria were compared using METAGENassist2, and the impacts of abiotic variables on the diversity of abundant and rare bacteria were examined using partial least squares path modeling. In the fruiting body and mycosphere of C. cibarius, there was a higher proportion of specialist bacteria compared with generalist bacteria. Dispersal limitation dominated the assembly of abundant and rare bacterial communities in the fruiting body and mycosphere. However, pH, 1-octen-3-ol, and total phosphorus of the fruiting body were the main driving factors of bacterial community assembly in the fruiting body, while available nitrogen and total phosphorus of the soil affected the assembly process of the bacterial community in the mycosphere. Furthermore, bacterial co-occurrence patterns in the mycosphere may be more complex compared with those in the fruiting body. Unlike the specific potential functions of abundant bacteria, rare bacteria may provide supplementary or unique metabolic pathways (such as sulfite oxidizer and sulfur reducer) to enhance the ecological function of C. cibarius. Notably, while volatile organic compounds can reduce mycosphere bacterial diversity, they can increase fruiting body bacterial diversity. Findings from this study further, our understanding of C. cibarius-associated microbial ecology.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Melcher M, Hodgskiss LH, Mardini MA, et al (2023)

Analysis of biomass productivity and physiology of Nitrososphaera viennensis grown in continuous culture.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1076342.

Microbial ammonia oxidation is the first and usually rate limiting step in nitrification and is therefore an important step in the global nitrogen cycle. Ammonia-oxidizing archaea (AOA) play an important role in nitrification. Here, we report a comprehensive analysis of biomass productivity and the physiological response of Nitrososphaera viennensis to different ammonium and carbon dioxide (CO2) concentrations aiming to understand the interplay between ammonia oxidation and CO2 fixation of N. viennensis. The experiments were performed in closed batch in serum bottles as well as in batch, fed-batch, and continuous culture in bioreactors. A reduced specific growth rate (μ) of N. viennensis was observed in batch systems in bioreactors. By increasing CO2 gassing μ could be increased to rates comparable to that of closed batch systems. Furthermore, at a high dilution rate (D) in continuous culture (≥ 0.7 of μmax) the biomass to ammonium yield (Y(X/NH3)) increased up to 81.7% compared to batch cultures. In continuous culture, biofilm formation at higher D prevented the determination of D crit. Due to changes in Y(X/NH3) and due to biofilm, nitrite concentration becomes an unreliable proxy for the cell number in continuous cultures at D towards μmax. Furthermore, the obscure nature of the archaeal ammonia oxidation prevents an interpretation in the context of Monod kinetics and thus the determination of K S. Our findings indicate that the physiological response of N. viennensis might be regulated with different enzymatic make-ups, according to the ammonium catalysis rate. We reveal novel insights into the physiology of N. viennensis that are important for biomass production and the biomass yield of AOA. Moreover, our study has implications to the field of archaea biology and microbial ecology by showing that bioprocess technology and quantitative analysis can be applied to decipher environmental factors affecting the physiology and productivity of AOA.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Tadrent N, Dedeine F, V Hervé (2022)

SnakeMAGs: a simple, efficient, flexible and scalable workflow to reconstruct prokaryotic genomes from metagenomes.

F1000Research, 11:1522.

Background: Over the last decade, we have observed in microbial ecology a transition from gene-centric to genome-centric analyses. Indeed, the advent of metagenomics combined with binning methods, single-cell genome sequencing as well as high-throughput cultivation methods have contributed to the continuing and exponential increase of available prokaryotic genomes, which in turn has favored the exploration of microbial metabolisms. In the case of metagenomics, data processing, from raw reads to genome reconstruction, involves various steps and software which can represent a major technical obstacle. Methods: To overcome this challenge, we developed SnakeMAGs, a simple workflow that can process Illumina data, from raw reads to metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) classification and relative abundance estimate. It integrates state-of-the-art bioinformatic tools to sequentially perform: quality control of the reads (illumina-utils, Trimmomatic), host sequence removal (optional step, using Bowtie2), assembly (MEGAHIT), binning (MetaBAT2), quality filtering of the bins (CheckM), classification of the MAGs (GTDB-Tk) and estimate of their relative abundance (CoverM). Developed with the popular Snakemake workflow management system, it can be deployed on various architectures, from single to multicore and from workstation to computer clusters and grids. It is also flexible since users can easily change parameters and/or add new rules. Results: Using termite gut metagenomic datasets, we showed that SnakeMAGs is slower but allowed the recovery of more MAGs encompassing more diverse phyla compared to another similar workflow named ATLAS. Conclusions: Overall, it should make the reconstruction of MAGs more accessible to microbiologists. SnakeMAGs as well as test files and an extended tutorial are available at https://github.com/Nachida08/SnakeMAGs.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Zhang H, Xing D, Wu Y, et al (2022)

Editorial: Microbial ecology and function of the aquatic systems.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1109221.

RevDate: 2023-03-06

Rifkin RF, Vikram S, Alcorta J, et al (2023)

Rickettsia felis DNA recovered from a child who lived in southern Africa 2000 years ago.

Communications biology, 6(1):240.

The Stone Age record of South Africa provides some of the earliest evidence for the biological and cultural origins of Homo sapiens. While there is extensive genomic evidence for the selection of polymorphisms in response to pathogen-pressure in sub-Saharan Africa, e.g., the sickle cell trait which provides protection against malaria, there is inadequate direct human genomic evidence for ancient human-pathogen infection in the region. Here, we analysed shotgun metagenome libraries derived from the sequencing of a Later Stone Age hunter-gatherer child who lived near Ballito Bay, South Africa, c. 2000 years ago. This resulted in the identification of ancient DNA sequence reads homologous to Rickettsia felis, the causative agent of typhus-like flea-borne rickettsioses, and the reconstruction of an ancient R. felis genome.

RevDate: 2023-03-03

Zeng X, Cao Y, Wang L, et al (2023)

Viability and transcriptional responses of multidrug resistant E. coli to chromium stress.

Environmental pollution (Barking, Essex : 1987) pii:S0269-7491(23)00348-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The viability of multidrug resistant (MDR) bacteria in environment is critical for the spread of antimicrobial resistance. In this study, two Escherichia coli strains, MDR LM13 and susceptible ATCC25922, were used to elucidate differences in their viability and transcriptional responses to hexavalent chromium (Cr(VI)) stress. The results show that the viability of LM13 was notably higher than that of ATCC25922 under 2-20 mg/L Cr(VI) exposure with bacteriostatic rates of 3.1%-57%, respectively, for LM13 and 0.9%-93.1%, respectively, for ATCC25922. The levels of reactive oxygen species and superoxide dismutase in ATCC25922 were much higher than those in LM13 under Cr(VI) exposure. Additionally, 514 and 765 differentially expressed genes were identified from the transcriptomes of the two strains (log2|FC| > 1, p < 0.05). Among them, 134 up-regulated genes were enriched in LM13 in response to external pressure, but only 48 genes were annotated in ATCC25922. Furthermore, the expression levels of antibiotic resistance genes, insertion sequences, DNA and RNA methyltransferases, and toxin-antitoxin systems were generally higher in LM13 than in ATCC25922. This work shows that MDR LM13 has a stronger viability under Cr(VI) stress, and therefore may promote the dissemination of MDR bacteria in environment.

RevDate: 2023-03-04

Lin J, Yu D, Pan R, et al (2023)

Improved YOLOX-Tiny network for detection of tobacco brown spot disease.

Frontiers in plant science, 14:1135105.

INTRODUCTION: Tobacco brown spot disease caused by Alternaria fungal species is a major threat to tobacco growth and yield. Thus, accurate and rapid detection of tobacco brown spot disease is vital for disease prevention and chemical pesticide inputs.

METHODS: Here, we propose an improved YOLOX-Tiny network, named YOLO-Tobacco, for the detection of tobacco brown spot disease under open-field scenarios. Aiming to excavate valuable disease features and enhance the integration of different levels of features, thereby improving the ability to detect dense disease spots at different scales, we introduced hierarchical mixed-scale units (HMUs) in the neck network for information interaction and feature refinement between channels. Furthermore, in order to enhance the detection of small disease spots and the robustness of the network, we also introduced convolutional block attention modules (CBAMs) into the neck network.

RESULTS: As a result, the YOLO-Tobacco network achieved an average precision (AP) of 80.56% on the test set. The AP was 3.22%, 8.99%, and 12.03% higher than that obtained by the classic lightweight detection networks YOLOX-Tiny network, YOLOv5-S network, and YOLOv4-Tiny network, respectively. In addition, the YOLO-Tobacco network also had a fast detection speed of 69 frames per second (FPS).

DISCUSSION: Therefore, the YOLO-Tobacco network satisfies both the advantages of high detection accuracy and fast detection speed. It will likely have a positive impact on early monitoring, disease control, and quality assessment in diseased tobacco plants.

RevDate: 2023-03-02

Keuschnig C, Vogel TM, Barbaro E, et al (2023)

Selection processes of Arctic seasonal glacier snowpack bacterial communities.

Microbiome, 11(1):35.

BACKGROUND: Arctic snowpack microbial communities are continually subject to dynamic chemical and microbial input from the atmosphere. As such, the factors that contribute to structuring their microbial communities are complex and have yet to be completely resolved. These snowpack communities can be used to evaluate whether they fit niche-based or neutral assembly theories.

METHODS: We sampled snow from 22 glacier sites on 7 glaciers across Svalbard in April during the maximum snow accumulation period and prior to the melt period to evaluate the factors that drive snowpack metataxonomy. These snowpacks were seasonal, accumulating in early winter on bare ice and firn and completely melting out in autumn. Using a Bayesian fitting strategy to evaluate Hubbell's Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity at multiple sites, we tested for neutrality and defined immigration rates at different taxonomic levels. Bacterial abundance and diversity were measured and the amount of potential ice-nucleating bacteria was calculated. The chemical composition (anions, cations, organic acids) and particulate impurity load (elemental and organic carbon) of the winter and spring snowpack were also characterized. We used these data in addition to geographical information to assess possible niche-based effects on snow microbial communities using multivariate and variable partitioning analysis.

RESULTS: While certain taxonomic signals were found to fit the neutral assembly model, clear evidence of niche-based selection was observed at most sites. Inorganic chemistry was not linked directly to diversity, but helped to identify predominant colonization sources and predict microbial abundance, which was tightly linked to sea spray. Organic acids were the most significant predictors of microbial diversity. At low organic acid concentrations, the snow microbial structure represented the seeding community closely, and evolved away from it at higher organic acid concentrations, with concomitant increases in bacterial numbers.

CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that environmental selection plays a significant role in structuring snow microbial communities and that future studies should focus on activity and growth. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2023-03-02

Ma X, Ding J, Ren H, et al (2023)

Distinguishable Influence of the Delivery Mode, Feeding Pattern, and Infant Sex on Dynamic Alterations in the Intestinal Microbiota in the First Year of Life.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The delivery mode, the feeding pattern and infant sex significantly influence the development of the infant gut flora. However, the extent to which these factors contribute to the establishment of the gut microbiota at different stages has rarely been studied. The factors that play a dominant role in determining microbial colonization of the infant gut at specific time points are unknown. The purpose of this study was to assess the different contributions of the delivery mode, the feeding pattern and infant sex to the composition of the infant gut microbiome. Here, 213 fecal samples from 55 infants at five ages (0, 1, 3, 6, and 12 months postpartum) were collected, and the composition of the gut microbiota via 16S rRNA sequencing was analyzed. The results showed that the average relative abundances of four genera, Bifidobacterium, Bacteroides, Parabacteroides, and Phascolarctobacterium, were increased in vaginally delivered infants versus cesarean section-delivered infants, while those of ten genera, such as Salmonella and Enterobacter, were reduced. The relative proportions of Anaerococcus and Peptostreptococcaceae were higher in exclusive breastfeeding than in combined feeding, while those of Coriobacteriaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Erysipelotrichaceae were lower. The average relative abundances of two genera, Alistipes and Anaeroglobus, were increased in male infants compared with female infants, whereas those of the phyla Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were reduced. During the first year of life, the average UniFrac distances revealed that the individual difference in the gut microbial composition in vaginally delivered infants was greater than that in cesarean section-delivered infants (P < 0.001) and that infants who received combined feeding had greater individual microbiota differences than exclusively breastfed infants (P < 0.01). The delivery mode, infant sex, and the feeding pattern were the dominant factors determining colonization of the infant gut microbiota at 0 months, from 1 to 6 months, and at 12 months postpartum, respectively. This study demonstrated for the first time that infant sex accounted for the dominant contribution to infant gut microbial development from 1 to 6 months postpartum. More broadly, this study effectively established the extent to which the delivery mode, the feeding pattern and infant sex contribute to the development of the gut microbiota at various time points during the first year of life.

RevDate: 2023-03-02

Lopes LD, Futrell SL, Bergmeyer E, et al (2023)

Root exudate concentrations of indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) affect maize rhizobacterial communities at specific developmental stages.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7067259 [Epub ahead of print].

Root exudates shape the rhizosphere microbiome, but little is known about which specific compounds in root exudates are important. Here we investigated the impacts of the plant-synthesized phytohormones indole-3-acetic acid (IAA) and abscisic acid (ABA) exuded by roots on the maize rhizobacterial communities. To identify maize genotypes that differed in the root exudate concentrations of IAA and ABA we screened hundreds of inbred lines using a semi-hydroponic system. Twelve genotypes with variable exudate concentrations of IAA and ABA were selected for a replicated field experiment. Bulk soil, rhizosphere and root endosphere samples were collected at two vegetative and one reproductive maize developmental stage. IAA and ABA concentration in rhizosphere samples were quantified by LC-MS. The bacterial communities were analyzed by V4 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing. Results indicated that IAA and ABA concentration in root exudates significantly affected the rhizobacterial communities at specific developmental stages. ABA impacted the rhizosphere bacterial communities at later developmental stages, while IAA affected the rhizobacterial communities at the vegetative stages. This study contributed to our knowledge about the influence that specific root exudate compounds have on the rhizobiome composition, showing that the phytohormones IAA and ABA exuded by roots have a role in the plant-microbiome interactions.

RevDate: 2023-03-02

Mandal A, Ghosh A, Saha R, et al (2023)

Seasonal variability of modern benthic foraminifera assemblages in a mangrove ecosystem from northeast coastal Bay of Bengal.

Marine pollution bulletin, 188:114679.

Benthic foraminifera assemblages, nutrient dynamics of surface and porewater from 10 intertidal sites spanning over two years (2019-2020) covering two major estuaries in Sundarbans mangrove were evaluated to understand role of seasonal precipitation and primary production (driven by eddy nutrients) with a focus on standing crop. Benthic foraminifera abundance ranged between 280 individuals/10 cc in pre-monsoon (2019), 415 individuals/10 cc in post-monsoon 2019 and 630 individuals/10 cc in post-monsoon (2020). Standing crop was highest in post-monsoon coinciding with eddy nutrients driven stoichiometry and increase in abundance of large diatom cells. Calcareous and agglutinated foraminifer taxa Ammonia sp.1, Quinqueloculina seminulum, Entzia macrescens and Textularia sp. respectively were frequent. Entzia macrescens was found in dense mangrove vegetation sites; exhibited strong relationship with sediment texture and pore water total organic carbon. One of the major findings is mangroves with pneumatophores improves oxygen availability in sediment and leads to an increase in standing crop.

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Pinheiro Y, Faria da Mota F, Peixoto RS, et al (2023)

A thermophilic chemolithoautotrophic bacterial consortium suggests a mutual relationship between bacteria in extreme oligotrophic environments.

Communications biology, 6(1):230.

A thermophilic, chemolithoautotrophic, and aerobic microbial consortium (termed carbonitroflex) growing in a nutrient-poor medium and an atmosphere containing N2, O2, CO2, and CO is investigated as a model to expand our understanding of extreme biological systems. Here we show that the consortium is dominated by Carbonactinospora thermoautotrophica (strain StC), followed by Sphaerobacter thermophilus, Chelatococcus spp., and Geobacillus spp. Metagenomic analysis of the consortium reveals a mutual relationship among bacteria, with C. thermoautotrophica StC exhibiting carboxydotrophy and carbon-dioxide storage capacity. C. thermoautotrophica StC, Chelatococcus spp., and S. thermophilus harbor genes encoding CO dehydrogenase and formate oxidase. No pure cultures were obtained under the original growth conditions, indicating that a tightly regulated interactive metabolism might be required for group survival and growth in this extreme oligotrophic system. The breadwinner hypothesis is proposed to explain the metabolic flux model and highlight the vital role of C. thermoautotrophica StC (the sole keystone species and primary carbon producer) in the survival of all consortium members. Our data may contribute to the investigation of complex interactions in extreme environments, exemplifying the interconnections and dependency within microbial communities.

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Ouradou A, Veillette M, Cayouette AB, et al (2023)

Effect of odor treatment systems on bioaerosol microbial concentration and diversity from wastewater treatment plants.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)01035-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Biofiltration, activated carbon and chemical water washing are technologies used for odor control treatment in wastewater treatment plants. These systems may also influence the airborne microbial load in treated air. The study objectives were to 1) evaluate the capacity of three odor control system technologies to reduce the airborne concentration of total bacteria, Legionella, L. pneumophila, non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) and Cladosporium in winter and summer seasons and 2) to describe the microbial ecology of the biofiltration system and evaluate its impact on treated air microbial diversity. A reduction of the total bacterial concentration up to 25 times was observed after odor treatment. Quantification by qPCR revealed the presence of Legionella spp. in all air samples ranging between 26 and 1140 GC/m[3], while L. pneumophila was not detected except for three samples below the limit of quantification. A significant increase of up to 25-fold of Legionella spp. was noticed at the outlet of two of the three treatment systems. NTM were ubiquitously detected before air treatment (up to 2500 GC/m[3]) and were significantly reduced by all 3 systems (up to 13-fold). Cladosporium was measured at low concentrations for each system (< 190 GC/m[3]), with 68 % of the air samples below the limit of detection. Biodiversity results revealed that biofiltration system is an active process that adapts to air pollutants over time. Legionella spp. were detected in significant abundance in the air once treated in winter (up to 27 %). Nevertheless, the abundance of protozoan hosts low and does not explain the multiplication of Legionella spp. The season remains the most influential factor shaping biodiversity. In summer only, air biofiltration caused a significant enrichment of the biodiversity. Although odor control technologies are not designed for bacterial mitigation, findings from this study suggest their potential to reduce the abundance of some genera harboring pathogenic species.

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Martins SJ, Pasche JM, Silva HA, et al (2023)

The Use of Synthetic Microbial Communities (SynComs) to Improve Plant Health.

Phytopathology [Epub ahead of print].

Despite the numerous benefits plants receive from probiotics, maintaining consistent results across applications is still a challenge. Cultivation-independent methods associated with reduced sequencing costs have considerably improved the overall understanding of microbial ecology in the plant environment. As a result, now it is possible to engineer a consortium of microbes aiming for improved plant health. Such synthetic microbial communities (SynComs) contain carefully chosen microbial species to produce the desired microbiome function. Microbial biofilm formation, production of secondary metabolites and ability to induce plant resistance are some of the microbial traits to take into consideration when designing SynComs. Plant-associated microbial communities are not assembled randomly. Ecological theories suggest that these communities have a defined phylogenetic organization structured by general community assembly rules. Using machine learning, we can study these rules and target microbial functions that generate desired plant phenotypes. Well-structured assemblages are more likely to lead to a stable SynCom that thrives under environmental stressors, as compared to the classical selection of single microbial activities or taxonomy. However, ensuring microbial colonization and long-term plant phenotype stability are still some of the challenges to overcome with SynComs, as the synthetic community may change over time with microbial horizontal gene transfer and retained mutations. Here, we explored the advances made in SynCom research regarding plant health focusing on bacteria, as they are the most dominant microbial form compared with other members of the microbiome and the most commonly found in SynCom studies.

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Senabio JA, de Campos Pereira F, Pietro-Souza W, et al (2023)

Enhanced mercury phytoremediation by Pseudomonodictys pantanalensis sp. nov. A73 and Westerdykella aquatica P71.

Brazilian journal of microbiology : [publication of the Brazilian Society for Microbiology] [Epub ahead of print].

Mercury is a non-essential and toxic metal that induces toxicity in most organisms, but endophytic fungi can develop survival strategies to tolerate and respond to metal contaminants and other environmental stressors. The present study demonstrated the potential of mercury-resistant endophytic fungi in phytoremediation. We examined the functional traits involved in plant growth promotion, phytotoxicity mitigation, and mercury phytoremediation in seven fungi strains. The endophytic isolates synthesized the phytohormone indole-3-acetic acid, secreted siderophores, and solubilized phosphate in vitro. Inoculation of maize (Zea mays) plants with endophytes increased plant growth attributes by up to 76.25%. The endophytic fungi stimulated mercury uptake from the substrate and promoted its accumulation in plant tissues (t test, p < 0.05), preferentially in the roots, which thereby mitigated the impacts of metal phytotoxicity. Westerdykella aquatica P71 and the newly identified species Pseudomonodictys pantanalensis nov. A73 were the isolates that presented the best phytoremediation potential. Assembling and annotation of P. pantanalensis A73 and W. aquatica P71 genomes resulted in genome sizes of 45.7 and 31.8 Mb that encoded 17,774 and 11,240 protein-coding genes, respectively. Some clusters of genes detected were involved in the synthesis of secondary metabolites such as dimethylcoprogen (NRPS) and melanin (T1PKS), which are metal chelators with antioxidant activity; mercury resistance (merA and merR1); oxidative stress (PRX1 and TRX1); and plant growth promotion (trpS and iscU). Therefore, both fungi species are potential tools for the bioremediation of mercury-contaminated soils due to their ability to reduce phytotoxicity and assist phytoremediation.

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Hernandez-Becerra N, Cliffe L, Xiu W, et al (2023)

New microbiological insights from the Bowland shale highlight heterogeneity of the hydraulically fractured shale microbiome.

Environmental microbiome, 18(1):14.

BACKGROUND: Hydraulically fractured shales offer a window into the deep biosphere, where hydraulic fracturing creates new microbial ecosystems kilometers beneath the surface of the Earth. Studying the microbial communities from flowback fluids that are assumed to inhabit these environments provides insights into their ecophysiology, and in particular their ability to survive in these extreme environments as well as their influence on site operation e.g. via problematic biofouling processes and/or biocorrosion. Over the past decade, research on fractured shale microbiology has focused on wells in North America, with a few additional reported studies conducted in China. To extend the knowledge in this area, we characterized the geochemistry and microbial ecology of two exploratory shale gas wells in the Bowland Shale, UK. We then employed a meta-analysis approach to compare geochemical and 16S rRNA gene sequencing data from our study site with previously published research from geographically distinct formations spanning China, Canada and the USA.

RESULTS: Our findings revealed that fluids recovered from exploratory wells in the Bowland are characterized by moderate salinity and high microbial diversity. The microbial community was dominated by lineages known to degrade hydrocarbons, including members of Shewanellaceae, Marinobacteraceae, Halomonadaceae and Pseudomonadaceae. Moreover, UK fractured shale communities lacked the usually dominant Halanaerobium lineages. From our meta-analysis, we infer that chloride concentrations play a dominant role in controlling microbial community composition. Spatio-temporal trends were also apparent, with different shale formations giving rise to communities of distinct diversity and composition.

CONCLUSIONS: These findings highlight an unexpected level of compositional heterogeneity across fractured shale formations, which is not only relevant to inform management practices but also provides insight into the ability of diverse microbial consortia to tolerate the extreme conditions characteristic of the engineered deep subsurface.

RevDate: 2023-03-01
CmpDate: 2023-03-01

Dart E, Fuhrman JA, NA Ahlgren (2023)

Diverse Marine T4-like Cyanophage Communities Are Primarily Comprised of Low-Abundance Species Including Species with Distinct Seasonal, Persistent, Occasional, or Sporadic Dynamics.

Viruses, 15(2):.

Cyanophages exert important top-down controls on their cyanobacteria hosts; however, concurrent analysis of both phage and host populations is needed to better assess phage-host interaction models. We analyzed picocyanobacteria Prochlorococcus and Synechococcus and T4-like cyanophage communities in Pacific Ocean surface waters using five years of monthly viral and cellular fraction metagenomes. Cyanophage communities contained thousands of mostly low-abundance (<2% relative abundance) species with varying temporal dynamics, categorized as seasonally recurring or non-seasonal and occurring persistently, occasionally, or sporadically (detected in ≥85%, 15-85%, or <15% of samples, respectively). Viromes contained mostly seasonal and persistent phages (~40% each), while cellular fraction metagenomes had mostly sporadic species (~50%), reflecting that these sample sets capture different steps of the infection cycle-virions from prior infections or within currently infected cells, respectively. Two groups of seasonal phages correlated to Synechococcus or Prochlorococcus were abundant in spring/summer or fall/winter, respectively. Cyanophages likely have a strong influence on the host community structure, as their communities explained up to 32% of host community variation. These results support how both seasonally recurrent and apparent stochastic processes, likely determined by host availability and different host-range strategies among phages, are critical to phage-host interactions and dynamics, consistent with both the Kill-the-Winner and the Bank models.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Spescha A, Zwyssig M, Hess Hermida M, et al (2023)

When Competitors Join Forces: Consortia of Entomopathogenic Microorganisms Increase Killing Speed and Mortality in Leaf- and Root-Feeding Insect Hosts.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Combining different biocontrol agents (BCA) is an approach to increase efficacy and reliability of biological control. If several BCA are applied together, they have to be compatible and ideally work together. We studied the interaction of a previously selected BCA consortium of entomopathogenic pseudomonads (Pseudomonas chlororaphis), nematodes (Steinernema feltiae associated with Xenorhabdus bovienii), and fungi (Metarhizium brunneum). We monitored the infection course in a leaf- (Pieris brassicae) and a root-feeding (Diabrotica balteata) pest insect after simultaneous application of the three BCA as well as their interactions inside the larvae in a laboratory setting. The triple combination caused the highest mortality and increased killing speed compared to single applications against both pests. Improved efficacy against P. brassicae was mainly caused by the pseudomonad-nematode combination, whereas the nematode-fungus combination accelerated killing of D. balteata. Co-monitoring of the three BCA and the nematode-associated Xenorhabdus symbionts revealed that the four organisms are able to co-infect the same larva. However, with advancing decay of the cadaver there is increasing competition and cadaver colonization is clearly dominated by the pseudomonads, which are known for their high competitivity in the plant rhizosphere. Altogether, the combination of the three BCA increased killing efficacy against a Coleopteran and a Lepidopteran pest which indicates that this consortium could be applied successfully against a variety of insect pests.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Rawat J, Kumar V, Ahlawat P, et al (2023)

Current Trends on the Effects of Metal-Based Nanoparticles on Microbial Ecology.

Applied biochemistry and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

The growing field of nanotechnology and its many applications have led to the irregular release of nanoparticles (NPs), with unintended effects on the environment and continued contamination of water bodies. Metallic NPs are used more frequently in extreme environmental conditions due to their higher efficiency, which attracts more attention in various applications. Due to improper pre-treatment of biosolids, inefficient wastewater treatment practices, and other unregulated agricultural practices continue to contaminate the environment. In particular, the uncontrolled use of NPs in various industrial applications has led to damage to the microbial flora and caused irreplaceable damage to animals and plants. This study focuses on the effect of different doses, types, and compositions of NP on the ecosystem. The review also mentions the impact of various metallic NPs on microbial ecology, their interactions with microorganisms, ecotoxicity studies, and dosage evaluation of the NPs, mainly focused on the review article. However, further research is still needed to understand the complexity of interactions between NPs and microbes in soil and aquatic ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Morales-Rodríguez M, Paniagua-García L, Narayanan J, et al (2023)

Insulin‑like growth factor axis: A potential nanotherapy target for resistant cervical cancer tumors (Review).

Oncology letters, 25(3):128.

Cervical cancer is among the most frequently occurring neoplasms worldwide, and it particularly affects individuals in developing countries. Factors such as the low quality of screening tests, the high incidence of locally advanced cancer stages and the intrinsic resistance of certain tumors are the main causes of failure in the treatment of this neoplasm. Due to advances in the understanding of carcinogenic mechanisms and bioengineering research, advanced biological nanomaterials have been manufactured. The insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system comprises multiple growth factor receptors, including IGF receptor 1. These receptors are activated by binding to their respective growth factor ligands, IGF-1 and IGF-2, and insulin, and play an important role in the development, maintenance, progression, survival and treatment resistance of cervical cancer. In the present review, the role of the IGF system in cervical cancer and three nanotechnological applications that use elements of this system are described, namely Trap decoys, magnetic iron oxide nanoparticles and protein nanotubes. Their use in the treatment of resistant cervical cancer tumors is also discussed.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Parente E, Zotta T, Giavalisco M, et al (2023)

Metataxonomic insights in the distribution of Lactobacillaceae in foods and food environments.

International journal of food microbiology, 391-393:110124 pii:S0168-1605(23)00040-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Members of the family Lactobacillaceae, which now includes species formerly belonging to the genera Lactobacillus and Pediococcus, but also Leuconostocaceae, are of foremost importance in food fermentations and spoilage, but also as components of animal and human microbiota and as potentially pathogenic microorganisms. Knowledge of the ecological distribution of a given species and genus is important, among other things, for the inclusion in lists of microorganisms with a Qualified Presumption of Safety or with beneficial use. The objective of this work is to use the data in FoodMicrobionet database to obtain quantitative insights (in terms of both abundance and prevalence) on the distribution of these bacteria in foods and food environments. We first explored the reliability of taxonomic assignments using the SILVA v138.1 reference database with full length and partial sequences of the 16S rRNA gene for type strain sequences. Full length 16S rRNA gene sequences allow a reasonably good classification at the genus and species level in phylogenetic trees but shorter sequences (V1-V3, V3-V4, V4) perform much worse, with type strains of many species sharing identical V4 and V3-V4 sequences. Taxonomic assignment at the genus level of 16S rRNA genes sequences and the SILVA v138.1 reference database can be done for almost all genera of the family Lactobacillaceae with a high degree of confidence for full length sequences, and with a satisfactory level of accuracy for the V1-V3 regions. Results for the V3-V4 and V4 region are still acceptable but significantly worse. Taxonomic assignment at the species level for sequences for the V1-V3, V3-V4, V4 regions of the 16S rRNA gene of members of the family Lactobacillaceae is hardly possible and, even for full length sequences, and only 49.9 % of the type strain sequences can be unambiguously assigned to species. We then used the FoodMicrobionet database to evaluate the prevalence and abundance of Lactobacillaceae in food samples and in food related environments. Generalist and specialist genera were clearly evident. The ecological distribution of several genera was confirmed and insights on the distribution and potential origin of rare genera (Dellaglioa, Holzapfelia, Schleiferilactobacillus) were obtained. We also found that combining Amplicon Sequence Variants from different studies is indeed possible, but provides little additional information, even when strict criteria are used for the filtering of sequences.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Bai S, Zhang J, Qi X, et al (2023)

Changes of In Situ Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Communities in the Upper Sanya River to the Sea over a Nine-Hour Period.

Microorganisms, 11(2): pii:microorganisms11020536.

The transition areas of riverine, estuarine, and marine environments are particularly valuable for the research of microbial ecology, biogeochemical processes, and other physical-chemical studies. Although a large number of microbial-related studies have been conducted within such systems, the vast majority of sampling have been conducted over a large span of time and distance, which may lead to separate batches of samples receiving interference from different factors, thus increasing or decreasing the variability between samples to some extent. In this study, a new in situ filtration system was used to collect membrane samples from six different sampling sites along the Sanya River, from upstream freshwater to the sea, over a nine-hour period. We used high-throughput sequencing of 16S and 18S rRNA genes to analyze the diversity and composition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities. The results showed that the structures of these communities varied according to the different sampling sites. The α-diversity of the prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities both decreased gradually along the downstream course. The structural composition of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities changed continuously with the direction of river flow; for example, the relative abundances of Rhodobacteraceae and Flavobacteriaceae increased with distance downstream, while Sporichthyaceae and Comamonadaceae decreased. Some prokaryotic taxa, such as Phycisphaeraceae and Chromobacteriaceae, were present nearly exclusively in pure freshwater environments, while some additional prokaryotic taxa, including the SAR86 clade, Clade I, AEGEAN-169 marine group, and Actinomarinaceae, were barely present in pure freshwater environments. The eukaryotic communities were mainly composed of the Chlorellales X, Chlamydomonadales X, Sphaeropleales X, Trebouxiophyceae XX, Annelida XX, and Heteroconchia. The prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities were split into abundant, common, and rare communities for NCM analysis, respectively, and the results showed that assembly of the rare community assembly was more impacted by stochastic processes and less restricted by species dispersal than that of abundant and common microbial communities for both prokaryotes and eukaryotes. Overall, this study provides a valuable reference and new perspectives on microbial ecology during the transition from freshwater rivers to estuaries and the sea.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Zhao RZ, Zhang WJ, Zhao ZF, et al (2023)

Determinants and Assembly Mechanism of Bacterial Community Structure in Ningxia Section of the Yellow River.

Microorganisms, 11(2): pii:microorganisms11020496.

The Yellow River is a valuable resource in the Ningxia Hui Autonomous Region and plays a vital role in local human activities and biodiversity. Bacteria are a crucial component of river ecosystems, but the driving factors and assembly mechanisms of bacterial community structure in this region remain unclear. Herein, we documented the bacterial community composition, determinants, co-occurrence pattern, and assembly mechanism for surface water and sediment. In comparison to sediment, the bacterioplankton community showed significant seasonal variation, as well as less diversity and abundance. The network topology parameters indicated that the sediment bacterial network was more stable than water, but the bacterioplankton network had higher connectivity. In this lotic ecosystem, CODMn, Chl a, and pH affected the structure of the bacterioplankton community, while TP was the primary factor influencing the structure of the sediment bacterial community. The combined results of the neutral community model and the phylogenetic null model indicate that Bacterial communities in both habitats were mainly affected by stochastic processes, with ecological processes dominated by ecological drift for bacterioplankton and dispersal limitation for sediment bacteria. These results provide essential insights into future research on microbial ecology, environmental monitoring, and classified management in the Ningxia section of the Yellow River.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Zwarycz AS, DE Whitworth (2023)

Myxobacterial Predation: A Standardised Lawn Predation Assay Highlights Strains with Unusually Efficient Predatory Activity.

Microorganisms, 11(2): pii:microorganisms11020398.

Myxobacteria prey upon a broad range of microorganisms. Lawn assays are commonly used to quantify myxobacterial predation-myxobacterial suspensions are spotted onto prey lawns, and monitored via spot expansion. The diversity in motility behaviours of myxobacterial strains and differing assay protocols in myxobacteriology laboratories led us to develop a highly-specified assay, which was applied to 28 myxobacterial strains preying on seven phytopathogenic prey species. Generally, prey organisms showed no qualitative differences in their susceptibility/resistance to myxobacterial predation. For most myxobacteria, prey did not stimulate, and in ~50% of cases actively hindered colony expansion. Only ~25% of predator/prey strain combinations exhibited greater colony expansion than in the absence of nutrients. The activity of predatory strains against different prey correlated, implying effective predators may have relatively non-specific predation mechanisms (e.g., broad specificity proteases/lipases), but no correlation was observed between predatory activity and phylogeny. Predation on dead (but intact) or lysed prey cells gave greater colony expansion than on live prey. Occasional strains grew substantially faster on dead compared to lysed cells, or vice-versa. Such differences in accessing nutrients from live, dead and lysed cells indicates there are strain-specific differences in the efficiencies/machineries of prey killing and nutrient acquisition, which has important implications for the ecology of myxobacterial predators and their prey.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Pradeep Ram AS, T Sime-Ngando (2023)

Differential Effects of Viruses on the Growth Efficiency of Freshwater Bacterioplankton in Eutrophic Relative to Non-Eutrophic Lakes.

Microorganisms, 11(2): pii:microorganisms11020384.

In aquatic environments, the consensus of viral impact on bacterial carbon metabolism with the nutrient environment as an important axis is limited. Henceforth, we explored the viral regulation of carbon-based bacterial growth efficiency (BGE) in a set of freshwater systems from French Massif Central, which were broadly classified based on two trophic statuses: eutrophic and non-eutrophic lakes. Comparative analysis showed that microbial abundances (viruses and bacteria) were 3-fold higher in eutrophic compared with non-eutrophic lakes, and so were bacterial production and viral lytic infection. The observed variability in BGE (10-60%) was explained by the uncoupling between bacterial respiration and production. Viruses through selective lysis of susceptible host communities had an antagonistic impact on BGE in the eutrophic lakes, whereas the release of substrates via viral shunt exerted a synergistic influence on the carbon metabolism of non-targeted host populations in non-eutrophic lakes. The decisive effect of the two individual processes (i.e., lysis and substrate release) on BGE was supported by regressions of bacterial abundance as a function of bacterial production, which is considered as a proxy of top-down processes. The role of viruses through their negative impact via mortality and positive impact via substrate supply can eventually have implications on carbon transfer through bacterioplankton in freshwaters.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Adedayo AA, OO Babalola (2023)

Fungi That Promote Plant Growth in the Rhizosphere Boost Crop Growth.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(2): pii:jof9020239.

The fungi species dwelling in the rhizosphere of crop plants, revealing functions that endeavor sustainability of the plants, are commonly referred to as 'plant-growth-promoting fungi' (PGPF). They are biotic inducers that provide benefits and carry out important functions in agricultural sustainability. The problem encountered in the agricultural system nowadays is how to meet population demand based on crop yield and protection without putting the environment and human and animal health at risk based on crop production. PGPF including Trichoderma spp., Gliocladium virens, Penicillium digitatum, Aspergillus flavus, Actinomucor elegans, Podospora bulbillosa, Arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, etc., have proven their ecofriendly nature to ameliorate the production of crops by improving the growth of the shoots and roots of crop plants, the germination of seeds, the production of chlorophyll for photosynthesis, and the abundant production of crops. PGPF's potential mode of action is as follows: the mineralization of the major and minor elements required to support plants' growth and productivity. In addition, PGPF produce phytohormones, induced resistance, and defense-related enzymes to inhibit or eradicate the invasion of pathogenic microbes, in other words, to help the plants while encountering stress. This review portrays the potential of PGPF as an effective bioagent to facilitate and promote crop production, plant growth, resistance to disease invasion, and various abiotic stresses.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Wang J, Qin S, Fan R, et al (2023)

Plant Growth Promotion and Biocontrol of Leaf Blight Caused by Nigrospora sphaerica on Passion Fruit by Endophytic Bacillus subtilis Strain GUCC4.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(2): pii:jof9020132.

Passion fruit (Passiflora edulis Sims) is widely cultivated in tropic and sub-tropic regions for the production of fruit, flowers, cosmetics, and for pharmacological applications. Its high economic, nutritional, and medical values elicit the market demand, and the growing areas are rapidly increasing. Leaf blight caused by Nigrospora sphaerica is a new and emerging disease of passion fruit in Guizhou, in southwest China, where the unique karst mountainous landscape and climate conditions are considered potential areas of expansion for passion fruit production. Bacillus species are the most common biocontrol and plant-growth-promotion bacteria (PGPB) resources in agricultural systems. However, little is known about the endophytic existence of Bacillus spp. in the passion fruit phyllosphere as well as their potential as biocontrol agents and PGPB. In this study, 44 endophytic strains were isolated from 15 healthy passion fruit leaves, obtained from Guangxi province, China. Through purification and molecular identification, 42 of the isolates were ascribed to Bacillus species. Their inhibitory activity against N. sphaerica was tested in vitro. Eleven endophytic Bacillus spp. strains inhibited the pathogen by >65%. All of them produced biocontrol- and plant-growth-promotion-related metabolites, including indole-3-acetic acid (IAA), protease, cellulase, phosphatase, and solubilized phosphate. Furthermore, the plant growth promotion traits of the above 11 endophytic Bacillus strains were tested on passion fruit seedlings. One isolate, coded B. subtilis GUCC4, significantly increased passion fruit stem diameter, plant height, leaf length, leaf surface, fresh weight, and dry weight. In addition, B. subtilis GUCC4 reduced the proline content, which indicated its potential to positively regulate passion fruit biochemical properties and resulted in plant growth promotion effects. Finally, the biocontrol efficiencies of B. subtilis GUCC4 against N. sphaerica were determined in vivo under greenhouse conditions. Similarly to the fungicide mancozeb and to a commercial B. subtilis-based biofungicide, B. subtilis GUCC4 significantly reduced disease severity. These results suggest that B. subtilis GUCC4 has great potential as a biological control agent and as PGPB on passion fruit.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Alsayed AR, Abed A, Khader HA, et al (2023)

Molecular Accounting and Profiling of Human Respiratory Microbial Communities: Toward Precision Medicine by Targeting the Respiratory Microbiome for Disease Diagnosis and Treatment.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(4): pii:ijms24044086.

The wide diversity of microbiota at the genera and species levels across sites and individuals is related to various causes and the observed differences between individuals. Efforts are underway to further understand and characterize the human-associated microbiota and its microbiome. Using 16S rDNA as a genetic marker for bacterial identification improved the detection and profiling of qualitative and quantitative changes within a bacterial population. In this light, this review provides a comprehensive overview of the basic concepts and clinical applications of the respiratory microbiome, alongside an in-depth explanation of the molecular targets and the potential relationship between the respiratory microbiome and respiratory disease pathogenesis. The paucity of robust evidence supporting the correlation between the respiratory microbiome and disease pathogenesis is currently the main challenge for not considering the microbiome as a novel druggable target for therapeutic intervention. Therefore, further studies are needed, especially prospective studies, to identify other drivers of microbiome diversity and to better understand the changes in the lung microbiome along with the potential association with disease and medications. Thus, finding a therapeutic target and unfolding its clinical significance would be crucial.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Deng Q, Liu H, Lu Q, et al (2023)

Silicon Application for the Modulation of Rhizosphere Soil Bacterial Community Structures and Metabolite Profiles in Peanut under Ralstonia solanacearum Inoculation.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(4): pii:ijms24043268.

Silicon (Si) has been shown to promote peanut growth and yield, but whether Si can enhance the resistance against peanut bacterial wilt (PBW) caused by Ralstonia solanacearum, identified as a soil-borne pathogen, is still unclear. A question regarding whether Si enhances the resistance of PBW is still unclear. Here, an in vitro R. solanacearum inoculation experiment was conducted to study the effects of Si application on the disease severity and phenotype of peanuts, as well as the microbial ecology of the rhizosphere. Results revealed that Si treatment significantly reduced the disease rate, with a decrement PBW severity of 37.50% as compared to non-Si treatment. The soil available Si (ASi) significantly increased by 13.62-44.87%, and catalase activity improved by 3.01-3.10%, which displayed obvious discrimination between non-Si and Si treatments. Furthermore, the rhizosphere soil bacterial community structures and metabolite profiles dramatically changed under Si treatment. Three significantly changed bacterial taxa were observed, which showed significant abundance under Si treatment, whereas the genus Ralstonia genus was significantly suppressed by Si. Similarly, nine differential metabolites were identified to involve into unsaturated fatty acids via a biosynthesis pathway. Significant correlations were also displayed between soil physiochemical properties and enzymes, the bacterial community, and the differential metabolites by pairwise comparisons. Overall, this study reports that Si application mediated the evolution of soil physicochemical properties, the bacterial community, and metabolite profiles in the soil rhizosphere, which significantly affects the colonization of the Ralstonia genus and provides a new theoretical basis for Si application in PBW prevention.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Cruz-Rubio JM, Riva A, Cybulska J, et al (2023)

Neutral and Pectic Heteropolysaccharides Isolated from Opuntia joconostle Mucilage: Composition, Molecular Dimensions and Prebiotic Potential.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(4): pii:ijms24043208.

Opuntia joconostle is a semi-wild cactus cultivated for its fruit. However, the cladodes are often discarded, wasting the potentially useful mucilage in them. The mucilage is composed primarily of heteropolysaccharides, characterized by their molar mass distribution, monosaccharide composition, structural features (by vibrational spectroscopy, FT IR, and atomic force microscopy, AFM), and fermentability by known saccharolytic commensal members of the gut microbiota. After fractionation with ion exchange chromatography, four polysaccharides were found: one neutral (composed mainly of galactose, arabinose, and xylose) and three acidic, with a galacturonic acid content from 10 to 35%mol. Their average molar masses ranged from 1.8 × 10[5] to 2.8 × 10[5] g·mol[-1]. Distinct structural features such as galactan, arabinan, xylan, and galacturonan motifs were present in the FT IR spectra. The intra- and intermolecular interactions of the polysaccharides, and their effect on the aggregation behavior, were shown by AFM. The composition and structural features of these polysaccharides were reflected in their prebiotic potential. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria were not able to utilize them, whereas members of Bacteroidetes showed utilization capacity. The obtained data suggest a high economic potential for this Opuntia species, with potential uses such as animal feed in arid areas, precise prebiotic, and symbiotic formulations, or as the carbon skeleton source in a green refinery. Our methodology can be used to evaluate the saccharides as the phenotype of interest, helping to guide the breeding strategy.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Morris N, Alldred M, Zarnoch C, et al (2023)

Estuarine Sediment Microbiomes from a Chronosequence of Restored Urban Salt Marshes.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Salt marshes play an important role in the global nutrient cycle. The sediments in these systems harbor diverse and complex bacterial communities possessing metabolic capacities that provide ecosystem services such as nutrient cycling and removal. On the East Coast of the USA, salt marshes have been experiencing degradation due to anthropogenic stressors. Salt marsh islands within Jamaica Bay, New York City (USA), are surrounded by a large highly urbanized watershed and have declined in area. Restoration efforts have been enacted to reduce further loss, but little is known about how microbial communities develop following restoration activities, or how processes such as nitrogen cycling are impacted. Sediment samples were collected at two sampling depths from five salt marsh islands to characterize the bacterial communities found in marsh sediment including a post-restoration chronosequence of 3-12 years. We used 16s rRNA amplicon sequencing to define alpha and beta diversity, taxonomic composition, and predicted metabolic profile of each sediment sample. We found significant differences in alpha diversity between sampling depths, and significant differences in beta diversity, taxonomic composition, and predicted metabolic capacity among the five sampling locations. The youngest restored site and the degraded natural sampling site exhibited the most distinct communities among the five sites. Our findings suggest that while the salt marsh islands are located in close proximity to each other, they harbor distinct bacterial communities that can be correlated with post-restoration age, marsh health, and other environmental factors such as availability of organic carbon. IMPORTANCE: Salt marshes play a critical role in the global nutrient cycle due to sediment bacteria and their metabolic capacities. Many East Coast salt marshes have experienced significant degradation over recent decades, thought largely to be due to anthropogenic stressors such as nitrogen loading, urban development, and sea-level rise. Salt marsh islands in Jamaica Bay (Queens/Brooklyn NY) are exposed to high water column nitrogen due to wastewater effluent. Several receding marsh islands have been subjected to restoration efforts to mitigate this loss. Little is known about the effect marsh restoration has on bacterial communities, their metabolic capacity, or how they develop post-restoration. Here, we describe the bacterial communities found in marsh islands including a post-restoration chronosequence of 3-12 years and one degraded marsh island that remains unrestored. We found distinct communities at marsh sites, despite their geographic proximity. Differences in diversity and community composition were consistent with changes in organic carbon availability that occur during marsh development, and may result in differences in ecosystem function among sites.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Lemke M, R DeSalle (2023)

The Next Generation of Microbial Ecology and Its Importance in Environmental Sustainability.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Collectively, we have been reviewers for microbial ecology, genetics and genomics studies that include environmental DNA (eDNA), microbiome studies, and whole bacterial genome biology for Microbial Ecology and other journals for about three decades. Here, we wish to point out trends and point to areas of study that readers, especially those moving into the next generation of microbial ecology research, might learn and consider. In this communication, we are not saying the work currently being accomplished in microbial ecology and restoration biology is inadequate. What we are saying is that a significant milestone in microbial ecology has been reached, and approaches that may have been overlooked or were unable to be completed before should be reconsidered in moving forward into a new more ecological era where restoration of the ecological trajectory of systems has become critical. It is our hope that this introduction, along with the papers that make up this special issue, will address the sense of immediacy and focus needed to move into the next generation of microbial ecology study.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Thiele S, Vader A, L Øvreås (2023)

The mystery of the ice cold rose-Microbiome of an Arctic winter frost flower.

MicrobiologyOpen, 12(1):e1345.

Under very cold conditions, delicate ice-crystal structures called frost flowers emerge on the surface of newly formed sea ice. These understudied, ephemeral structures include saline brine, organic material, inorganic nutrients, and bacterial and archaeal communities in their brine channels. Hitherto, only a few frost flowers have been studied during spring and these have been reported to be dominated by Rhizobia or members of the SAR11 clade. Here we report on the microbiome of frost flowers sampled during the winter and polar night in the Barents Sea. There was a distinct difference in community profile between the extracted DNA and RNA, but both were dominated by members of the SAR11 clade (78% relative abundance and 41.5% relative activity). The data further suggested the abundance and activity of Cand. Nitrosopumilus, Nitrospinia, and Nitrosomonas. Combined with the inference of marker genes based on the 16S rRNA gene data, this indicates that sulfur and nitrogen cycling are likely the major metabolism in these ephemeral structures.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Bogdan DF, Baricz AI, Chiciudean I, et al (2023)

Diversity, distribution and organic substrates preferences of microbial communities of a low anthropic activity cave in North-Western Romania.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:962452.

INTRODUCTION: Karst caves are characterized by relatively constant temperature, lack of light, high humidity, and low nutrients availability. The diversity and functionality of the microorganisms dwelling in caves micro-habitats are yet underexplored. Therefore, in-depth investigations of these ecosystems aid in enlarging our understanding of the microbial interactions and microbially driven biogeochemical cycles. Here, we aimed at evaluating the diversity, abundance, distribution, and organic substrate preferences of microbial communities from Peștera cu Apă din Valea Leșului (Leșu Cave) located in the Apuseni Mountains (North-Western Romania).

MATERIALS AND METHODS: To achieve this goal, we employed 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing and community-level physiological profiling (CLPP) paralleled by the assessment of environmental parameters of cave sediments and water.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Pseudomonadota (synonym Proteobacteria) was the most prevalent phylum detected across all samples whereas the abundance detected at order level varied among sites and between water and sediment samples. Despite the general similarity at the phylum-level in Leșu Cave across the sampled area, the results obtained in this study suggest that specific sites drive bacterial community at the order-level, perhaps sustaining the enrichment of unique bacterial populations due to microenvironmental conditions. For most of the dominant orders the distribution pattern showed a positive correlation with C-sources such as putrescine, γ-amino butyric acid, and D-malic acid, while particular cases were positively correlated with polymers (Tween 40, Tween 80 and α-cyclodextrin), carbohydrates (α-D-lactose, i-erythritol, D-mannitol) and most of the carboxylic and ketonic acids. Physicochemical analysis reveals that sediments are geochemically distinct, with increased concentration of Ca, Fe, Al, Mg, Na and K, whereas water showed low nitrate concentration. Our PCA indicated the clustering of different dominant orders with Mg, As, P, Fe, and Cr. This information serves as a starting point for further studies in elucidating the links between the taxonomic and functional diversity of subterranean microbial communities.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Shao K, Zhang L, Ba T, et al (2023)

Bacterial community composition of the sediment in Sayram Lake, an alpine lake in the arid northwest of China.

BMC microbiology, 23(1):47.

Sediment bacterial communities play a critical role in biogeochemical cycling in alpine lake ecosystems. However, little is known about the sediment microbial communities in these lakes. In this study, the bacterial community composition (BCC) and their relationships with environmental factors of the sediment in Sayram Lake, the largest alpine and cold-water inland lake, China was analyzed using Illumina MiSeq sequencing. In total, we obtained 618,271 high quality sequences. The results showed that the bacterial communities with 30 phyla and 546 genera, were spread out among the 5 furface sediment samples, respectively. The communities were dominated by Proteobacteria, Acidobacteria, Planctomycetes, Gemmatimonadetes, Chloroflexi, Actinobacteria, Verrucomicrobia and Bacteroidetes, accounting for 48.15 ± 8.10%, 11.23 ± 3.10%, 8.42 ± 2.15%, 8.37 ± 2.26%, 7.40 ± 3.05%, 5.62 ± 1.25%, 4.18 ± 2.12% and 2.24 ± 1.10% of the total reads, respectively. At the genus level, the communities were dominated by Aquabacterium, Pseudomonas, Woeseia, MND1, Ignavibacterium and Truepera, accounting for 7.89% ± 8.24%, 2.32% ± 1.05%, 2.14% ± 0.94%, 2% ± 1.22%, 0.94% ± 0.14% and 0.80% ± 0.14% of the total reads, respectively. Statistical analyses showed the similarity of the sediment bacterial communities at our field sites was considerably low, far below 35%, and total organic carbon (TOC) was the dominant environmental factor affecting the spatial changes of BCC in the sediment. Thus, this study greatly improving our understanding of the microbial ecology of alpine lake in the arid and semi-arid ecosystems today so seriously threatened.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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This book covers the ecological activities of microbes in the biosphere with an emphasis on microbial interactions within their environments and communities In thirteen concise and timely chapters, Microbial Ecology presents a broad overview of this rapidly growing field, explaining the basic principles in an easy-to-follow manner. Using an integrative approach, it comprehensively covers traditional issues in ecology as well as cutting-edge content at the intersection of ecology, microbiology,

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )