picture
RJR-logo

About | BLOGS | Portfolio | Misc | Recommended | What's New | What's Hot

About | BLOGS | Portfolio | Misc | Recommended | What's New | What's Hot

icon

Bibliography Options Menu

icon
QUERY RUN:
30 Jun 2022 at 01:46
HITS:
13963
PAGE OPTIONS:
Hide Abstracts   |   Hide Additional Links
NOTE:
Long bibliographies are displayed in blocks of 100 citations at a time. At the end of each block there is an option to load the next block.

Bibliography on: Microbial Ecology

RJR-3x

Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 30 Jun 2022 at 01:46 Created: 

Microbial Ecology

Wikipedia: Microbial Ecology (or environmental microbiology) is the ecology of microorganisms: their relationship with one another and with their environment. It concerns the three major domains of life — Eukaryota, Archaea, and Bacteria — as well as viruses. Microorganisms, by their omnipresence, impact the entire biosphere. Microbial life plays a primary role in regulating biogeochemical systems in virtually all of our planet's environments, including some of the most extreme, from frozen environments and acidic lakes, to hydrothermal vents at the bottom of deepest oceans, and some of the most familiar, such as the human small intestine. As a consequence of the quantitative magnitude of microbial life (Whitman and coworkers calculated 5.0×1030 cells, eight orders of magnitude greater than the number of stars in the observable universe) microbes, by virtue of their biomass alone, constitute a significant carbon sink. Aside from carbon fixation, microorganisms' key collective metabolic processes (including nitrogen fixation, methane metabolism, and sulfur metabolism) control global biogeochemical cycling. The immensity of microorganisms' production is such that, even in the total absence of eukaryotic life, these processes would likely continue unchanged.

Created with PubMed® Query: "microbial ecology" NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

-->

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Van den Wyngaert S, Ganzert L, Seto K, et al (2022)

Seasonality of parasitic and saprotrophic zoosporic fungi: linking sequence data to ecological traits.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Zoosporic fungi of the phylum Chytridiomycota (chytrids) regularly dominate pelagic fungal communities in freshwater and marine environments. Their lifestyles range from obligate parasites to saprophytes. Yet, linking the scarce available sequence data to specific ecological traits or their host ranges constitutes currently a major challenge. We combined 28 S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing with targeted isolation and sequencing approaches, along with cross-infection assays and analysis of chytrid infection prevalence to obtain new insights into chytrid diversity, ecology, and seasonal dynamics in a temperate lake. Parasitic phytoplankton-chytrid and saprotrophic pollen-chytrid interactions made up the majority of zoosporic fungal reads. We explicitly demonstrate the recurrent dominance of parasitic chytrids during frequent diatom blooms and saprotrophic chytrids during pollen rains. Distinct temporal dynamics of diatom-specific parasitic clades suggest mechanisms of coexistence based on niche differentiation and competitive strategies. The molecular and ecological information on chytrids generated in this study will aid further exploration of their spatial and temporal distribution patterns worldwide. To fully exploit the power of environmental sequencing for studies on chytrid ecology and evolution, we emphasize the need to intensify current isolation efforts of chytrids and integrate taxonomic and autecological data into long-term studies and experiments.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Roguet A, Newton RJ, Eren AM, et al (2022)

Guts of the Urban Ecosystem: Microbial Ecology of Sewer Infrastructure.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Microbes have inhabited the oceans and soils for millions of years and are uniquely adapted to their habitat. In contrast, sewer infrastructure in modern cities dates back only ~150 years. Sewer pipes transport human waste and provide a view into public health, but the resident organisms that likely modulate these features are relatively unexplored. Here, we show that the bacterial assemblages sequenced from untreated wastewater in 71 U.S. cities were highly coherent at a fine sequence level, suggesting that urban infrastructure separated by great spatial distances can give rise to strikingly similar communities. Within the overall microbial community structure, temperature had a discernible impact on the distribution patterns of closely related amplicon sequence variants, resulting in warm and cold ecotypes. Two bacterial genera were dominant in most cities regardless of their size or geographic location; on average, Arcobacter accounted for 11% and Acinetobacter 10% of the entire community. Metagenomic analysis of six cities revealed these highly abundant resident organisms carry clinically important antibiotic resistant genes blaCTX-M, blaOXA, and blaTEM. In contrast, human fecal bacteria account for only ~13% of the community; therefore, antibiotic resistance gene inputs from human sources to the sewer system could be comparatively small, which will impact measurement capabilities when monitoring human populations using wastewater. With growing awareness of the metabolic potential of microbes within these vast networks of pipes and the ability to examine the health of human populations, it is timely to increase our understanding of the ecology of these systems. IMPORTANCE Sewer infrastructure is a relatively new habitat comprised of thousands of kilometers of pipes beneath cities. These wastewater conveyance systems contain large reservoirs of microbial biomass with a wide range of metabolic potential and are significant reservoirs of antibiotic resistant organisms; however, we lack an adequate understanding of the ecology or activity of these communities beyond wastewater treatment plants. The striking coherence of the sewer microbiome across the United States demonstrates that the sewer environment is highly selective for a particular microbial community composition. Therefore, results from more in-depth studies or proven engineering controls in one system could be extrapolated more broadly. Understanding the complex ecology of sewer infrastructure is critical for not only improving our ability to treat human waste and increasing the sustainability of our cities but also to create scalable and effective sewage microbial observatories, which are inevitable investments of the future to monitor health in human populations.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Modin O, Fuad N, Abadikhah M, et al (2022)

A relationship between phages and organic carbon in wastewater treatment plant effluents.

Water research X, 16:100146 pii:S2589-9147(22)00016-0.

With stringent effluent requirements and the implementation of new processes for micropollutant removal, it is increasingly important for wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) to understand the factors affecting effluent quality. Phages (viruses infecting prokaryotes) are abundant in the biological treatment processes. They can contribute to organic carbon in the treated effluent both because they are organic in nature and occur in the effluent and because they cause lysis of microorganisms. Today very little is known about the effects of phages on effluent quality. The goal of this study was, therefore, to determine the relationship between phages and organic carbon in WWTP effluents. We also examined the diversity, taxonomy, and host-association of DNA phages using metagenomics. Effluent samples were collected from four WWTPs treating municipal wastewater. Significant differences in both organic carbon and virus-like particle concentrations were observed between the plants and there was a linear relationship between the two parameters. The phage communities were diverse with many members being taxonomically unclassified. Putative hosts were dominated by bacteria known to be abundant in activated sludge systems such as Comamonadaceae. The composition of phages differed between the WWTPs, suggesting that local conditions shape the communities. Overall, our findings suggest that the abundance and composition of phages are related to effluent quality. Thus, there is a need for further research clarifying the association between phage dynamics and WWTP function.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Kothe CI, Mohellibi N, P Renault (2022)

Revealing the microbial heritage of traditional Brazilian cheeses through metagenomics.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 157:111265.

Brazilian artisanal cheeses date from the first Portuguese settlers and evolved via local factors, resulting in unique products that are now part of the patrimony and identity of different Brazilian regions. In this study, we combined several culture-independent approaches, including 16S/ITS metagenetics, assembly- and deep profiling-metagenomics to characterize the originality of the microbiota of five varieties of Brazilian artisanal cheeses from the South and Southeast regions of Brazil. Their core microbiota contained mainly lactic acid bacteria (LAB), of which Lactococcus lactis subsp. lactis was the most frequent, followed by Streptococcus thermophilus in the South region. Moreover, several samples from the Southeast region contained, as dominant LAB, two other food Streptococci belonging to a new species of the salivarius group and S. infantarius. Rinds of samples from the Southeast region were dominated by the halotolerant bacterium Corynebacterium variabile, and the yeasts Diutina catenulata, followed by Debaryomyces hansenii and Kodamaea ohmeri. Rinds from the South region contained mainly LAB due to their short ripening time, and the predominant yeast was D. hansenii. Phylogenomic analysis based on L. lactis metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) showed that most Brazilian strains are closely related and form a different clade from those whose genomes are available at this time, indicating that they belong to a specific group. Lastly, functional analysis showed that S. infantarius acquired a ∼ 26 kb DNA fragment from S. thermophilus starter strains that carry the LacSZ system, allowing fast lactose assimilation, an adaptation advantage for growth in milk. Finally, our study identified several areas of concern, such as the presence of somatic cell DNA and high levels of antibiotic resistance genes in several cheese microbiota, suggesting that milk from diseased animals may still be used occasionally. Overall, the data from this study highlight the potential value of the traditional and artisanal cheese production network in Brazil, and provide a metagenomic-based scheme to help manage this resource safely.

RevDate: 2022-06-28

Sequino G, Valentino V, Villani F, et al (2022)

Omics-based monitoring of microbial dynamics across the food chain for the improvement of food safety and quality.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 157:111242.

The diffusion of high-throughput sequencing has dramatically changed the study of food microbial ecology. Amplicon-based description of the microbial community may be routinary implemented in the food industry to understand how the processing parameters and the raw material quality may affect the microbial community of the final product, as well as how the community changes during the shelf-life. In addition, application of shotgun metagenomics may represent an invaluable resource to understand the functional potential of the microbial community, identifying the presence of spoilage-associated activities or genes related to pathogenesis. Finally, retrieving Metagenome-Assembled Genomes (MAGs) of relevant species may be useful for strain-tracking along the food chain and in case of food poisoning outbreaks. This review gives an overview of the possible applications of sequencing-based approaches in the study of food microbial ecology, highlighting limitations that still prevent the spreading of these techniques to the food industry.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Liu Y, Yang M, Tang L, et al (2022)

TLR4 regulates RORγt+ regulatory T-cell responses and susceptibility to colon inflammation through interaction with Akkermansia muciniphila.

Microbiome, 10(1):98.

BACKGROUND: Well-balanced interactions between gut microbiota and the immune system are essential to prevent chronic intestinal inflammation, as observed in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) functions as a sensor mediating the crosstalk between the intestinal commensal microbiome and host immunity, but the influence of TLR4 on the shaping of intestinal microbiota and immune responses during colon inflammation remains poorly characterized. We investigated whether the different susceptibilities to colitis between wild-type (WT) and TLR4-/- mice were gut microbiota-dependent and aimed to identify the potential immunity modulation mechanism.

METHODS: We performed antibiotic depletion of the microbiota, cohousing experiments, and faecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) in WT and TLR4-/- mice to assess the influence of TLR4 on intestinal microbial ecology. 16S rRNA sequencing was performed to dissect microbial discrepancies, and dysbiosis-associated immune perturbation was investigated by flow cytometry. Akkermansia muciniphila (A. muciniphila)-mediated immune modulation was confirmed through the T-cell transfer colitis model and bone marrow chimaera construction.

RESULTS: TLR4-/- mice experienced enhanced susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis. 16S rRNA sequencing showed notable discrepancy in the gut microbiota between WT and TLR4-/- mice. In particular, A. muciniphila contributed most to distinguishing the two groups. The T-cell transfer colitis model and bone marrow transplantation (BMT) consistently demonstrated that A. muciniphila ameliorated colitis by upregulating RORγt+ Treg cell-mediated immune responses. Mucosal biopsies from human manifested parallel outcomes with colon tissue from WT mice, as evidenced by the positive correlation between TLR4 expression and intestinal A. muciniphila colonization during homeostasis.

CONCLUSIONS: Our results demonstrate a novel protective role of TLR4 against intestinal inflammation, wherein it can modulate A. muciniphila-associated immune responses. These findings provide a new perspective on host-commensal symbiosis, which may be beneficial for developing potential therapeutic strategies. Video abstract.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Piel D, Bruto M, Labreuche Y, et al (2022)

Phage-host coevolution in natural populations.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Coevolution between bacteriophages (phages) and their bacterial hosts occurs through changes in resistance and counter-resistance mechanisms. To assess phage-host evolution in wild populations, we isolated 195 Vibrio crassostreae strains and 243 vibriophages during a 5-month time series from an oyster farm and combined these isolates with existing V. crassostreae and phage isolates. Cross-infection studies of 81,926 host-phage pairs delineated a modular network where phages are best at infecting co-occurring hosts, indicating local adaptation. Successful propagation of phage is restricted by the ability to adsorb to closely related bacteria and further constrained by strain-specific defence systems. These defences are highly diverse and predominantly located on mobile genetic elements, and multiple defences are active within a single genome. We further show that epigenetic and genomic modifications enable phage to adapt to bacterial defences and alter host range. Our findings reveal that the evolution of bacterial defences and phage counter-defences is underpinned by frequent genetic exchanges with, and between, mobile genetic elements.

RevDate: 2022-06-27

Waring B, Gee A, Liang G, et al (2022)

A quantitative analysis of microbial community structure-function relationships in plant litter decay.

iScience, 25(7):104523 pii:S2589-0042(22)00794-5.

Soil microbes play a central role in ecosystem element cycling. Yet a central question in microbial ecology remains unanswered: to what extent does the taxonomic composition of soil microbial communities mediate biogeochemical process rates? In this quantitative review, we explore the mechanisms that lead to variation in the strength of microbial community structure-function relationships over space and time. To evaluate these mechanisms, we conduct a meta-analysis of studies that have monitored the decomposition of sterilized plant litter inoculated with different microbial assemblages. We find that the influence of microbial community composition on litter decay is pervasive and strong, rivalling in magnitude the influence of litter chemistry on decomposition. However, no single environmental or experimental attribute was correlated with variation in the inoculum effect. These results emphasize the need to better understand ecological dynamics within microbial communities, particularly emergent features such as cross-feeding networks, to improve predictions of soil biogeochemical function.

RevDate: 2022-06-26

Zhang K, Hu J, Yang S, et al (2022)

Biodegradation of polyester polyurethane by the marine fungus Cladosporium halotolerans 6UPA1.

Journal of hazardous materials, 437:129406 pii:S0304-3894(22)01199-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Lack of degradability and the accumulation of polymeric wastes increase the risk for the health of the environment. Recently, recycling of polymeric waste materials becomes increasingly important as raw materials for polymer synthesis are in short supply due to the rise in price and supply chain disruptions. As an important polymer, polyurethane (PU) is widely used in modern life, therefore, PU biodegradation is desirable to avoid its accumulation in the environment. In this study, we isolated a fungal strain Cladosporium halotolerans from the deep sea which can grow in mineral medium with a polyester PU (Impranil DLN) as a sole carbon source. Further, we demonstrate that it can degrade up to 80% of Impranil PU after 3 days of incubation at 28 ℃ by breaking the carbonyl groups (1732 cm-1) and C-N-H bonds (1532 cm-1 and 1247 cm-1) as confirmed by Fourier-transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy analysis. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis revealed polyols and alkanes as PU degradation intermediates, indicating the hydrolysis of ester and urethane bonds. Esterase and urease activities were detected in 7 days-old cultures with PU as a carbon source. Transcriptome analysis showed a number of extracellular protein genes coding for enzymes such as cutinase, lipase, peroxidase and hydrophobic surface binding proteins A (HsbA) were expressed when cultivated on Impranil PU. The yeast two-hybrid assay revealed that the hydrophobic surface binding protein ChHsbA1 directly interacts with inducible esterases, ChLip1 (lipase) and ChCut1 (cutinase). Further, the KEGG pathway for "fatty acid degradation" was significantly enriched in Impranil PU inducible genes, indicating that the fungus may use the degradation intermediates to generate energy via this pathway. Taken together, our data indicates secretion of both esterase and hydrophobic surface binding proteins by C. halotolerans plays an important role in Impranil PU absorption and subsequent degradation. Our study provides a mechanistic insight into Impranil PU biodegradation by deep sea fungi and provides the basis for future development of biotechnological PU recycling.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Wang Q, Chen Y, Yang Q, et al (2022)

SR5AL serves as a key regulatory gene in lycopene biosynthesis by Blakeslea trispora.

Microbial cell factories, 21(1):126.

BACKGROUND: Trisporic acids are considered to be key regulators of carotenoid biosynthesis and sexual reproduction in zygomycetes, but the mechanisms underlying this regulation have not been fully elucidated.

RESULTS: In this study, the relationships between trisporic acids and lycopene synthesis were investigated in Blakeslea trispora. The lycopene concentration in single fermentation by the (-) strain with the addition of 24 μg/L trisporic acids was slightly higher than that observed in mated fermentation. After transcriptomic analysis, a steroid 5α-reductase-like gene, known as SR5AL in B. trispora, was first reported. 5α-Reductase inhibitors reduced lycopene biosynthesis and downregulated the expression of sex determination and carotenoid biosynthesis genes. Overexpression of the SR5AL gene upregulated these genes, regardless of whether trisporic acids were added.

CONCLUSION: These findings indicated that the SR5AL gene is a key gene associated with the response to trisporic acids.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Darcy JL, Amend AS, Swift SOI, et al (2022)

specificity: an R package for analysis of feature specificity to environmental and higher dimensional variables, applied to microbiome species data.

Environmental microbiome, 17(1):34.

BACKGROUND: Understanding the factors that influence microbes' environmental distributions is important for determining drivers of microbial community composition. These include environmental variables like temperature and pH, and higher-dimensional variables like geographic distance and host species phylogeny. In microbial ecology, "specificity" is often described in the context of symbiotic or host parasitic interactions, but specificity can be more broadly used to describe the extent to which a species occupies a narrower range of an environmental variable than expected by chance. Using a standardization we describe here, Rao's (Theor Popul Biol, 1982. https://doi.org/10.1016/0040-5809(82)90004-1, Sankhya A, 2010. https://doi.org/10.1007/s13171-010-0016-3) Quadratic Entropy can be conveniently applied to calculate specificity of a feature, such as a species, to many different environmental variables.

RESULTS: We present our R package specificity for performing the above analyses, and apply it to four real-life microbial data sets to demonstrate its application. We found that many fungi within the leaves of native Hawaiian plants had strong specificity to rainfall and elevation, even though these variables showed minimal importance in a previous analysis of fungal beta-diversity. In Antarctic cryoconite holes, our tool revealed that many bacteria have specificity to co-occurring algal community composition. Similarly, in the human gut microbiome, many bacteria showed specificity to the composition of bile acids. Finally, our analysis of the Earth Microbiome Project data set showed that most bacteria show strong ontological specificity to sample type. Our software performed as expected on synthetic data as well.

CONCLUSIONS: specificity is well-suited to analysis of microbiome data, both in synthetic test cases, and across multiple environment types and experimental designs. The analysis and software we present here can reveal patterns in microbial taxa that may not be evident from a community-level perspective. These insights can also be visualized and interactively shared among researchers using specificity's companion package, specificity.shiny.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Leung PM, Daebeler A, Chiri E, et al (2022)

A nitrite-oxidising bacterium constitutively consumes atmospheric hydrogen.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Chemolithoautotrophic nitrite-oxidising bacteria (NOB) of the genus Nitrospira contribute to nitrification in diverse natural environments and engineered systems. Nitrospira are thought to be well-adapted to substrate limitation owing to their high affinity for nitrite and capacity to use alternative energy sources. Here, we demonstrate that the canonical nitrite oxidiser Nitrospira moscoviensis oxidises hydrogen (H2) below atmospheric levels using a high-affinity group 2a nickel-iron hydrogenase [Km(app) = 32 nM]. Atmospheric H2 oxidation occurred under both nitrite-replete and nitrite-deplete conditions, suggesting low-potential electrons derived from H2 oxidation promote nitrite-dependent growth and enable survival during nitrite limitation. Proteomic analyses confirmed the hydrogenase was abundant under both conditions and indicated extensive metabolic changes occur to reduce energy expenditure and growth under nitrite-deplete conditions. Thermodynamic modelling revealed that H2 oxidation theoretically generates higher power yield than nitrite oxidation at low substrate concentrations and significantly contributes to growth at elevated nitrite concentrations. Collectively, this study suggests atmospheric H2 oxidation enhances the growth and survival of NOB amid variability of nitrite supply, extends the phenomenon of atmospheric H2 oxidation to an eighth phylum (Nitrospirota), and reveals unexpected new links between the global hydrogen and nitrogen cycles. Long classified as obligate nitrite oxidisers, our findings suggest H2 may primarily support growth and survival of certain NOB in natural environments.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Akritidou T, Smet C, Akkermans S, et al (2022)

A protocol for the cultivation and monitoring of ileal gut microbiota surrogates.

Journal of applied microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS: This research aimed to develop and validate a cultivation and monitoring protocol that is suitable for a surrogate microbial community that accounts for the gut microbiota of the ileum of the small intestine.

METHODS AND RESULTS: Five bacterial species have been selected as representatives of the ileal gut microbiota and a general anaerobic medium (MS-BHI, as minimally supplemented BHI) has been constructed and validated against BCCM/LGM recommended and commercial media. Moreover, appropriate selective/differential media have been investigated for monitoring each ileal gut microbiota surrogate. Results showed that MS-BHI was highly efficient in displaying individual and collective behavior of the ileal gut microbiota species, when compared with other types of media. Likewise, the selective/differential media managed to identify and describe the behavior of their targeted species.

CONCLUSIONS: MS-BHI renders a highly efficient, inexpensive and easy-to-prepare cultivation and enumeration alternative for the surrogate ileal microbiota species. Additionally, the selective/differential media can identify and quantify the bacteria of the surrogate ileal microbial community.

The selected gut microbiota species can represent an in vitro ileal community, forming the basis for future studies on small intestinal microbiota. MS-BHI and the proposed monitoring protocol can be used as a standard for gut microbiota studies that utilize conventional microbiological techniques.

RevDate: 2022-06-25

Jeon JS, Rybka D, Carreno-Quintero N, et al (2022)

Metabolic signatures of rhizobacteria-induced plant growth promotion.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

Various root-colonizing bacterial species can promote plant growth and trigger systemic resistance against aboveground leaf pathogens and herbivore insects. To date, the underlying metabolic signatures of these rhizobacteria-induced plant phenotypes are poorly understood. To identify core metabolic pathways that are targeted by growth-promoting rhizobacteria, we used combinations of three plant species and three rhizobacterial species and interrogated plant shoot chemistry by untargeted metabolomics. A substantial part (50-64%) of the metabolites detected in plant shoot tissue was differentially affected by the rhizobacteria. Among others, the phenylpropanoid pathway was targeted by the rhizobacteria in each of the three plant species. Differential regulation of the various branches of the phenylpropanoid pathways showed an association with either plant growth promotion or growth reduction. Overall, suppression of flavonoid biosynthesis was associated with growth promotion, while growth reduction showed elevated levels of flavonoids. Subsequent assays with twelve Arabidopsis flavonoid biosynthetic mutants revealed that the proanthocyanidin branch plays an essential role in rhizobacteria-mediated growth promotion. Our study also showed that a number of pharmaceutically and nutritionally relevant metabolites in the plant shoot were significantly increased by rhizobacterial treatment, providing new avenues to use rhizobacteria to tilt plant metabolism towards the biosynthesis of valuable natural plant products. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Mishra S, Wang W, Xia S, et al (2022)

Spatial pattern of functional genes abundance reveals the importance of PhoD gene harboring bacterial community for maintaining plant growth in the tropical forest of Southwestern China.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03960-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The concept of microbial functional genes has added a new dimension in microbial ecology research by improving the model of microbial community-ecosystem functions relationship. However, our knowledge vis-à-vis fine-scale spatial distribution pattern of functional genes and their probable impact on plant community in the hyper-diverse tropical forest ecosystem is very limited. Here, we investigated the spatial pattern of functional genes abundance (NirK, AOA, AOB, and PhoD), identified key influencing factors, and distinguished the key functional group supporting the plant community in a tropical rainforest located in Xishuangbanna. Total 200 soil samples and vegetation data of ~4800 individuals of plants across a 1 ha study area were collected. Our results detected higher spatial variability with a maximum magnitude of abundance for PhoD gene (4.53 × 107 copies) followed by NirK (2.71 × 106 copies), AOA (1.97 × 106 copies), and AOB (7.38 × 104 copies). A strong spatial dependence was observed for PhoD and NirK over the distance of 17 and 18 m, respectively. Interestingly, the N:P stoichiometry played a critical role in structuring the spatial pattern of the most abundant PhoD gene. The significant positive and negative relationship of PhoD with N:P ratio and available phosphorus, respectively, indicated that the P-limiting environment was a driving factor for recruitment of PhoD gene community. The structural equation modeling ascertained the direct positive impact of PhoD on plant biomass and high demand of available P by plants suggesting that the organic phosphorus mineralization process is essential to maintain plant productivity by re-establishing the availability of the most limiting P nutrient. Our preliminary study improves our understanding of how microbial functional genes-environment associations could be used for monitoring soil health and its overall impact on ecosystem multifunctionality. Finally, we intend to conduct the study at a large spatial scale for achieving a holistic view.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Chavez-Rico VS, Bodelier PLE, van Eekert M, et al (2022)

Producing organic amendments: Physicochemical changes in biowaste used in anaerobic digestion, composting, and fermentation.

Waste management (New York, N.Y.), 149:177-185 pii:S0956-053X(22)00306-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Organic amendments (OAs) produced via composting, anaerobic digestion, or lactic acid fermentation, can be used to replenish soil carbon. Not all OAs production technologies preserve C and nutrients in the same way. In this study, we compared the influence of these technologies (i.e., treatments) on C and nutrient preservation and OAs chemical composition after production. We produced compost, digestate, and lactic-acid fermentation product using the same biowaste-resembling model substrate using three reactors under laboratory conditions. We compared the chemical conversions and end-products using mass balances over C, N, and P. Overall results show that losses are minimal under reducing production conditions. Fermentation and digestion conserved 99% and 64% of C; and 93% and 100% of N, respectively. While compost conservation of nutrients was limited to 25% of C and 38% of N. Digestate had the highest concentrations of C, N, and P in the water-soluble phase, enabling their accessibility for soil microbes. Concentrations in the fermentation product were one order of magnitude lower but still higher than in compost. The treatments also influence the final availability of C, N, and P, which could potentially improve the fertilising and soil-improving properties of produced OAs. Our results show that under reducing conditions, losses of C, N, and P can be decreased while increasing OAs applications in terms of sources for soil-microbial development.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Favila N, Madrigal-Trejo D, Legorreta D, et al (2022)

MicNet toolbox: Visualizing and unraveling a microbial network.

PloS one, 17(6):e0259756 pii:PONE-D-21-33972.

Applications of network theory to microbial ecology are an emerging and promising approach to understanding both global and local patterns in the structure and interplay of these microbial communities. In this paper, we present an open-source python toolbox which consists of two modules: on one hand, we introduce a visualization module that incorporates the use of UMAP, a dimensionality reduction technique that focuses on local patterns, and HDBSCAN, a clustering technique based on density; on the other hand, we have included a module that runs an enhanced version of the SparCC code, sustaining larger datasets than before, and we couple the resulting networks with network theory analyses to describe the resulting co-occurrence networks, including several novel analyses, such as structural balance metrics and a proposal to discover the underlying topology of a co-occurrence network. We validated the proposed toolbox on 1) a simple and well described biological network of kombucha, consisting of 48 ASVs, and 2) we validate the improvements of our new version of SparCC. Finally, we showcase the use of the MicNet toolbox on a large dataset from Archean Domes, consisting of more than 2,000 ASVs. Our toolbox is freely available as a github repository (https://github.com/Labevo/MicNetToolbox), and it is accompanied by a web dashboard (http://micnetapplb-1212130533.us-east-1.elb.amazonaws.com) that can be used in a simple and straightforward manner with relative abundance data. This easy-to-use implementation is aimed to microbial ecologists with little to no experience in programming, while the most experienced bioinformatics will also be able to manipulate the source code's functions with ease.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Aguirre Sourrouille Z, Schwarzer S, Lequime S, et al (2022)

The Viral Susceptibility of the Haloferax Species.

Viruses, 14(6): pii:v14061344.

Viruses can infect members of all three domains of life. However, little is known about viruses infecting archaea and the mechanisms that determine their host interactions are poorly understood. Investigations of molecular mechanisms of viral infection rely on genetically accessible virus-host model systems. Euryarchaea belonging to the genus Haloferax are interesting models, as a reliable genetic system and versatile microscopy methods are available. However, only one virus infecting the Haloferax species is currently available. In this study, we tested ~100 haloarchaeal virus isolates for their infectivity on 14 Haloferax strains. From this, we identified 10 virus isolates in total capable of infecting Haloferax strains, which represented myovirus or siphovirus morphotypes. Surprisingly, the only susceptible strain of all 14 tested was Haloferax gibbonsii LR2-5, which serves as an auspicious host for all of these 10 viruses. By applying comparative genomics, we shed light on factors determining the host range of haloarchaeal viruses on Haloferax. We anticipate our study to be a starting point in the study of haloarchaeal virus-host interactions.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Natividad JM, Marsaux B, Rodenas CLG, et al (2022)

Human Milk Oligosaccharides and Lactose Differentially Affect Infant Gut Microbiota and Intestinal Barrier In Vitro.

Nutrients, 14(12): pii:nu14122546.

BACKGROUND: The infant gut microbiota establishes during a critical window of opportunity when metabolic and immune functions are highly susceptible to environmental changes, such as diet. Human milk oligosaccharides (HMOs) for instance are suggested to be beneficial for infant health and gut microbiota. Infant formulas supplemented with the HMOs 2'-fucosyllactose (2'-FL) and lacto-N-neotetraose (LNnT) reduce infant morbidity and medication use and promote beneficial bacteria in the infant gut ecosystem. To further improve infant formula and achieve closer proximity to human milk composition, more complex HMO mixtures could be added. However, we currently lack knowledge about their effects on infants' gut ecosystems.

METHOD: We assessed the effect of lactose, 2'-FL, 2'-FL + LNnT, and a mixture of six HMOs (HMO6: consisting of 2'-FL, LNnT, difucosyllactose, lacto-N-tetraose, 3'- and 6'-sialyllactose) on infant gut microbiota and intestinal barrier integrity using a combination of in vitro models to mimic the microbial ecosystem (baby M-SHIME®) and the intestinal epithelium (Caco-2/HT29-MTX co-culture).

RESULTS: All the tested products had bifidogenic potential and increased SCFA levels; however, only the HMOs' fermented media protected against inflammatory intestinal barrier disruption. 2'-FL/LNnT and HMO6 promoted the highest diversification of OTUs within the Bifidobactericeae family, whereas beneficial butyrate-producers were specifically enriched by HMO6.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest that increased complexity in HMO mixture composition may benefit the infant gut ecosystem, promoting different bifidobacterial communities and protecting the gut barrier against pro-inflammatory imbalances.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Kozień Ł, Gallienne E, Martin O, et al (2022)

PDIA, an Iminosugar Compound with a Wide Biofilm Inhibitory Spectrum Covering Both Gram-Positive and Gram-Negative Human Bacterial Pathogens.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061222.

Many difficult-to-treat human infections related to catheters and other indwelling devices are caused by bacteria residing in biofilms. One of the key properties of microorganisms residing in a biofilm is decreased susceptibility towards antimicrobial agents. Therefore, many different approaches have been researched to destroy or inhibit biofilm production by bacteria. Different iminosugars (IS) were reported to inhibit biofilm formation in S. mutans, S. aureus, and P. aeruginosa. The aim of this study was to look for a spectrum of the activity in one of these IS. The iminosugar PDIA beta-1-C-propyl-1,4-dideoxy-1,4-imino-L-arabinitol was tested in vitro at the same concentration against 30 different strains of the most important Gram-negative and Gram-positive human pathogens looking for their biofilm production and viability at different time intervals. It appeared that PDIA inhibited biofilm production of Enterobacter spp., P. aeruginosa, Enterococcus spp. and S. aureus in 8 h, and Klebsiella spp., Acinetobacter spp. and S.epidermidis in 24 h. PDIA caused no growth inhibition of the tested bacteria at a concentration of 0.9 mM. Our results indicate a broad-spectrum biofilm inhibitory activity of PDIA. which may be the basis for future application studies that will help in control of the associated device and biofilm-related infections caused by a wide spectrum of the causative agents.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Shi Z, Kong Q, Li X, et al (2022)

The Effects of DNA Extraction Kits and Primers on Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Microbial Community in Freshwater Sediments.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061213.

DNA based sequencing technology has revolutionized the field of microbial ecology and environmental studies. However, biases can be introduced at all experimental steps and, thus, affect the interpretation of microbial community. So far, previous studies on the biases introduced from the key steps of DNA extraction and primer sets mainly focused on the bacterial communities in soil or sediment samples, while little is known about the effect on the eukaryotic microbial communities. Here, we studied the effects of three different DNA extraction kits on both prokaryotic and micro-eukaryotic communities by 16S and 18S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing, and further disentangled the influence of primer choice on the micro-eukaryotic communities. Our results showed that the FastDNA SPIN Kit for Soil and DNeasy PowerSoil Kit produced much higher DNA yield with good reproducibility, and observed more eukaryotic OTUs compared to the MinkaGene DNA extraction kit, but all three kits exhibited comparable ability in recovering bacterial alpha diversity. Of the two primer sets, both targeting the V4 region of the 18S rRNA gene, the TAR primer set detected higher number of unique OTUs than the EK primer set, while the EK primer set resulted in longer amplicons and better reproducibility between replicates. Based on our findings, we recommend using the DNeasy PowerSoil Kit with the EK primer set to capture the abundant micro-eukaryotic taxa from freshwater sediment samples. If a more complete picture of the eukaryotic microbial community is desired, the TAR primer set in combination with the FastDNA SPIN Kit is more efficient in this study.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Hossain KS, Amarasena S, S Mayengbam (2022)

B Vitamins and Their Roles in Gut Health.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061168.

B vitamins act as coenzymes in a myriad of cellular reactions. These include energy production, methyl donor generation, neurotransmitter synthesis, and immune functions. Due to the ubiquitous roles of these vitamins, their deficiencies significantly affect the host's metabolism. Recently, novel roles of B vitamins in the homeostasis of gut microbial ecology and intestinal health continue to be unravelled. This review focuses on the functional roles and biosynthesis of B vitamins and how these vitamins influence the growth and proliferation of the gut microbiota. We have identified the gut bacteria that can produce vitamins, and their biosynthetic mechanisms are presented. The effects of B vitamin deficiencies on intestinal morphology, inflammation, and its effects on intestinal disorders are also discussed.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Costa OYA, de Hollander M, Kuramae EE, et al (2022)

PhyloFunDB: A Pipeline to Create and Update Functional Gene Taxonomic Databases.

Microorganisms, 10(6): pii:microorganisms10061093.

The increase in sequencing capacity has amplified the number of taxonomically unclassified sequences in most databases. The classification of such sequences demands phylogenetic tree construction and comparison to currently classified sequences, a process that demands the processing of large amounts of data and use of several different software. Here, we present PhyloFunDB, a pipeline for extracting, processing, and inferring phylogenetic trees from specific functional genes. The goal of our work is to decrease processing time and facilitate the grouping of sequences that can be used for improved taxonomic classification of functional gene datasets.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Micci A, Zhang Q, Chang X, et al (2022)

Histochemical Evidence for Nitrogen-Transfer Endosymbiosis in Non-Photosynthetic Cells of Leaves and Inflorescence Bracts of Angiosperms.

Biology, 11(6): pii:biology11060876.

We used light and confocal microscopy to visualize bacteria in leaf and bract cells of more than 30 species in 18 families of seed plants. Through histochemical analysis, we detected hormones (including ethylene and nitric oxide), superoxide, and nitrogenous chemicals (including nitric oxide and nitrate) around bacteria within plant cells. Bacteria were observed in epidermal cells, various filamentous and glandular trichomes, and other non-photosynthetic cells. Most notably, bacteria showing nitrate formation based on histochemical staining were present in glandular trichomes of some dicots (e.g., Humulus lupulus and Cannabis sativa). Glandular trichome chemistry is hypothesized to function to scavenge oxygen around bacteria and reduce oxidative damage to intracellular bacterial cells. Experiments to assess the differential absorption of isotopic nitrogen into plants suggest the assimilation of nitrogen into actively growing tissues of plants, where bacteria are most active and carbohydrates are more available. The leaf and bract cell endosymbiosis types outlined in this paper have not been previously reported and may be important in facilitating plant growth, development, oxidative stress resistance, and nutrient absorption into plants. It is unknown whether leaf and bract cell endosymbioses are significant in increasing the nitrogen content of plants. From the experiments that we conducted, it is impossible to know whether plant trichomes evolved specifically as organs for nitrogen fixation or if, instead, trichomes are structures in which bacteria easily colonize and where some casual nitrogen transfer may occur between bacteria and plant cells. It is likely that the endosymbioses seen in leaves and bracts are less efficient than those of root nodules of legumes in similar plants. However, the presence of endosymbioses that yield nitrate in plants could confer a reduced need for soil nitrogen and constitute increased nitrogen-use efficiency, even if the actual amount of nitrogen transferred to plant cells is small. More research is needed to evaluate the importance of nitrogen transfer within leaf and bract cells of plants.

RevDate: 2022-06-24

Wang C, Wang L, Ok YS, et al (2022)

Soil plastisphere: Exploration methods, influencing factors, and ecological insights.

Journal of hazardous materials, 430:128503.

Microplastic (MP), an emerging contaminant, is globally prevalent and poses potential environmental threats and ecological risks to both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems. When MPs enter into natural environments, they may serve as artificial substrates for microbial colonization and plastisphere formation, providing new ecological niches for microorganisms. Recent studies of the plastisphere have focused on aquatic ecosystems. However, our understanding of the soil plastisphere e.g. its formation process, microbial ecology, co-transport of organic pollutants and heavy metals, and effects on biogeochemical processes is still very limited. This review summarizes latest methods used to explore the soil plastisphere, assesses the factors influencing the microbial ecology of the soil plastisphere, and sheds light on potential ecological risks caused by the soil plastisphere. The formation and succession of soil plastisphere communities can be driven by MP characteristics and soil environmental factors. The soil plastisphere may affect a series of ecological processes, especially the co-transport of environmental contaminants, biodegradation of MPs, and soil carbon cycling. We aim to narrow the knowledge gap between the soil and aquatic plastisphere, and provide valuable guidance for future research on the soil plastisphere in MP-contaminated soils.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Dey S, Rout AK, Behera BK, et al (2022)

Plastisphere community assemblage of aquatic environment: plastic-microbe interaction, role in degradation and characterization technologies.

Environmental microbiome, 17(1):32.

It is undeniable that plastics are ubiquitous and a threat to global ecosystems. Plastic waste is transformed into microplastics (MPs) through physical and chemical disruption processes within the aquatic environment. MPs are detected in almost every environment due to their worldwide transportability through ocean currents or wind, which allows them to reach even the most remote regions of our planet. MPs colonized by biofilm-forming microbial communities are known as the ''plastisphere". The revelation that this unique substrate can aid microbial dispersal has piqued interest in the ground of microbial ecology. MPs have synergetic effects on the development, transportation, persistence, and ecology of microorganisms. This review summarizes the studies of plastisphere in recent years and the microbial community assemblage (viz. autotrophs, heterotrophs, predators, and pathogens). We also discussed plastic-microbe interactions and the potential sources of plastic degrading microorganisms. Finally, it also focuses on current technologies used to characterize those microbial inhabitants and recommendations for further research.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Legeay J, M Hijri (2022)

A Comprehensive Insight of Current and Future Challenges in Large-Scale Soil Microbiome Analyses.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

In the last decade, various large-scale projects describing soil microbial diversity across large geographical gradients have been undertaken. However, many questions remain unanswered about the best ways to conduct these studies. In this review, we present an overview of the experience gathered during these projects, and of the challenges that future projects will face, such as standardization of protocols and results, considering the temporal variation of microbiomes, and the legal constraints limiting such studies. We also present the arguments for and against the exhaustive description of soil microbiomes. Finally, we look at future developments of soil microbiome studies, notably emphasizing the important role of cultivation techniques.

RevDate: 2022-06-23

Merino N, Jackson TR, Campbell JH, et al (2022)

Subsurface microbial communities as a tool for characterizing regional-scale groundwater flow.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03865-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Subsurface microbial community distribution patterns are influenced by biogeochemical and groundwater fluxes and may inform hydraulic connections along groundwater-flow paths. This study examined the regional-scale microbial community of the Death Valley Regional Flow System and evaluated whether subsurface communities can be used to identify groundwater-flow paths between recharge and discharge areas. Samples were collected from 36 sites in three groundwater basins: Pahute Mesa-Oasis Valley (PMOV), Ash Meadows (AM), and Alkali Flat-Furnace Creek Ranch (AFFCR). Microbial diversity within and between communities varied by location, and communities were separated into two overall groups that affiliated with the AM and PMOV/AFFCR basins. Network analysis revealed patterns between clusters of common microbes that represented groundwaters with similar geochemical conditions and largely corroborated hydraulic connections between recharge and discharge areas. Null model analyses identified deterministic and stochastic ecological processes contributing to microbial community assemblages. Most communities were more different than expected and governed by dispersal limitation, geochemical differences, or undominating processes. However, certain communities from sites located within or near the Nevada National Security Site were more similar than expected and dominated by homogeneous dispersal or selection. Overall, the (dis)similarities between the microbial communities of DVRFS recharge and discharge areas supported previously documented hydraulic connections between: (1) Spring Mountains and Ash Meadows; (2) Frenchman and Yucca Flat and Amargosa Desert; and (3) Amargosa Desert and Death Valley. However, only a portion of the flow path between Pahute Mesa and Oasis Valley could be supported by microbial community analyses, likely due to well-associated artifacts in samples from the two Oasis Valley sites. This study demonstrates the utility of combining microbial data with hydrologic, geologic, and water-chemistry information to comprehensively characterize groundwater systems, highlighting both strengths and limitations of this approach.

RevDate: 2022-06-22

Morris MM, Kimbrel JA, Geng H, et al (2022)

Bacterial Community Assembly, Succession, and Metabolic Function during Outdoor Cultivation of Microchloropsis salina.

mSphere [Epub ahead of print].

Outdoor cultivation of microalgae has promising potential for renewable bioenergy, but there is a knowledge gap on the structure and function of the algal microbiome that coinhabits these ecosystems. Here, we describe the assembly mechanisms, taxonomic structure, and metabolic potential of bacteria associated with Microchloropsis salina cultivated outdoors. Open mesocosms were inoculated with algal cultures that were either free of bacteria or coincubated with one of two different strains of alga-associated bacteria and were sampled across five time points taken over multiple harvesting rounds of a 40-day experiment. Using quantitative analyses of metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), we tracked bacterial community compositional abundance and taxon-specific functional capacity involved in algal-bacterial interactions. One of the inoculated bacteria (Alteromonas sp.) persisted and dispersed across mesocosms, whereas the other inoculated strain (Phaeobacter gallaeciensis) disappeared by day 17 while a taxonomically similar but functionally distinct Phaeobacter strain became established. The inoculated strains were less abundant than 6 numerically dominant newly recruited taxa with functional capacities for mutualistic or saprophytic lifestyles, suggesting a generalist approach to persistence. This includes a highly abundant unclassified Rhodobacteraceae species that fluctuated between 25% and 77% of the total community. Overall, we did not find evidence for priority effects exerted by the distinct inoculum conditions; all mesocosms converged with similar microbial community compositions by the end of the experiment. Instead, we infer that the 15 total populations were retained due to host selection, as they showed high metabolic potential for algal-bacterial interactions such as recycling alga-produced carbon and nitrogen and production of vitamins and secondary metabolites associated with algal growth and senescence, including B vitamins, tropodithietic acid, and roseobacticides. IMPORTANCE Bacteria proliferate in nutrient-rich aquatic environments, including engineered algal biofuel systems, where they remineralize photosynthates, exchange secondary metabolites with algae, and can influence system output of biomass or oil. Despite this, knowledge on the microbial ecology of algal cultivation systems is lacking, and the subject is worthy of investigation. Here, we used metagenomics to characterize the metabolic capacities of the predominant bacteria associated with the biofuel-relevant microalga Microchloropsis salina and to predict testable metabolic interactions between algae and manipulated communities of bacteria. We identified a previously undescribed and uncultivated organism that dominated the community. Collectively, the microbial community may interact with the alga in cultivation via exchange of secondary metabolites which could affect algal success, which we demonstrate as a possible outcome from controlled experiments with metabolically analogous isolates. These findings address the scalability of lab-based algal-bacterial interactions through to cultivation systems and more broadly provide a framework for empirical testing of genome-based metabolic predictions.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Beterams A, Calatayud Arroyo M, De Paepe K, et al (2022)

In vitro triple coculture with gut microbiota from spondyloarthritis patients is characterized by inter-individual differences in inflammatory responses.

Scientific reports, 12(1):10475.

Spondyloarthritis is a group of chronic inflammatory diseases that primarily affects axial or peripheral joints and is frequently associated with inflammation at non-articular sites. The disease is multifactorial, involving genetics, immunity and environmental factors, including the gut microbiota. In vivo, microbiome contributions are difficult to assess due to the multifactorial disease complexity. In a proof-of-concept approach, we therefore used a triple coculture model of immune-like, goblet and epithelial cells to investigate whether we could detect a differential impact from spondyloarthritis- vs. healthy-derived gut microbiota on host cell response. Despite their phylogenetic resemblance, flow cytometry-based phenotypic clustering revealed human-derived gut microbiota from healthy origin to cluster together and apart from spondyloarthritis donors. At host level, mucus production was higher upon exposure to healthy microbiota. Pro-inflammatory cytokine responses displayed more inter-individual variability in spondyloarthritis than in healthy donors. Interestingly, the high dominance in the initial sample of one patient of Prevotella, a genus previously linked to spondyloarthritis, resulted in the most differential host response upon 16 h host-microbe coincubation. While future research should further focus on inter-individual variability by using gut microbiota from a large cohort of patients, this study underscores the importance of the gut microbiota during the SpA disease course.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

Khuntia HK, Paliwal A, Kumar DR, et al (2022)

Review on solid-state anaerobic digestion of lignocellulosic biomass and organic solid waste.

Environmental monitoring and assessment, 194(7):514.

Sustainable management of organic solid wastes especially the municipal solid waste (MSW) is essential for the realization of various sustainable development goals (SDGs). Resource recovery centric waste processing technologies generate valorizable products to meet the operations and maintenance (O&M) costs while reducing the GHG emissions. Solid-state anaerobic digestion (SSAD) of organic solid wastes is a biomethanation process performed at a relatively higher total solids (TS) loading in the range of 10-45%. SSAD overcomes various limitations posed by conventional anaerobic slurry digesters such as higher degradable matter per unit volume of the bioreactor resulting in a smaller footprint, low freshwater consumption, low wastewater generation, simple upstream and downstream processes, relatively lower operation, and maintenance costs. This review elucidates the recent developments and critical assessment of different aspects of SSAD, such as bioreactor design, operational strategy, process performances, mass balance, microbial ecology, applications, and mathematical models. A critical assessment revealed that the operating scale of SSAD varies between 1000 and 100,000 ts/year at organic loading rate (OLR) of 2-15 g volatile solids (VS)/L·day. The SSAD experiences process failures due to the formation of volatile fatty acids (VFAs), biogas pockets and clogging of the digestate outlet. Acclimatization of microbes accelerates the startup phase, steady-state performances, and the enrichment of syntrophic microbes with 10-50 times greater population of cellulolytic and xylanolytic microbes in thermophilic SSAD over mesophilic SSAD. Experimental limitations in the accurate determination of rate constants and the oversimplification of biochemical reactions result in an inaccurate prediction by the models.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Chang J, van Veen JA, Tian C, et al (2022)

A review on the impact of domestication of the rhizosphere of grain crops and a perspective on the potential role of the rhizosphere microbial community for sustainable rice crop production.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03803-7 [Epub ahead of print].

The rhizosphere-associated microbiome impacts plant performance and tolerance to abiotic and biotic stresses. Despite increasing recognition of the enormous functional role of the rhizomicrobiome on the survival of wild plant species growing under harsh environmental conditions, such as nutrient, water, temperature, and pathogen stresses, the utilization of the rhizosphere microbial community in domesticated rice production systems has been limited. Better insight into how this role of the rhizomicrobiome for the performance and survival of wild plants has been changed during domestication and development of present domesticated crops, may help to assess the potential of the rhizomicrobial community to improve the sustainable production of these crops. Here, we review the current knowledge of the effect of domestication on the microbial rhizosphere community of rice and other crops by comparing its diversity, structure, and function in wild versus domesticated species. We also examine the existing information on the impact of the plant on their physico-chemical environment. We propose that a holobiont approach should be explored in future studies by combining detailed analysis of the dynamics of the physicochemical microenvironment surrounding roots to systematically investigate the microenvironment-plant-rhizomicrobe interactions during rice domestication, and suggest focusing on the use of beneficial microbes (arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and Nitrogen fixers), denitrifiers and methane consumers to improve the sustainable production of rice.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Paddock KJ, Finke DL, Kim KS, et al (2022)

Patterns of Microbiome Composition Vary Across Spatial Scales in a Specialist Insect.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:898744.

Microbial communities associated with animals vary based on both intrinsic and extrinsic factors. Of many possible determinants affecting microbiome composition, host phylogeny, host diet, and local environment are the most important. How these factors interact across spatial scales is not well understood. Here, we seek to identify the main influences on microbiome composition in a specialist insect, the western corn rootworm (WCR; Diabrotica virgifera virgifera), by analyzing the bacterial communities of adults collected from their obligate host plant, corn (Zea mays), across several geographic locations and comparing the patterns in communities to its congeneric species, the northern corn rootworm (NCR; Diabrotica barberi). We found that bacterial communities of WCR and NCR shared a portion of their bacterial communities even when collected from disparate locations. However, within each species, the location of collection significantly influenced the composition of their microbiome. Correlations of geographic distance between sites with WCR bacterial community composition revealed different patterns at different spatial scales. Community similarity decreased with increased geographic distance at smaller spatial scales (~25 km between the nearest sites). At broad spatial scales (>200 km), community composition was not correlated with distances between sites, but instead reflected the historical invasion path of WCR across the United States. These results suggest bacterial communities are structured directly by dispersal dynamics at small, regional spatial scales, while landscape-level genetic or environmental differences may drive community composition across broad spatial scales in this specialist insect.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Rocha ADL, Ferrari RG, Pereira WE, et al (2022)

Revisiting the Biological Behavior of Salmonella enterica in Hydric Resources: A Meta-Analysis Study Addressing the Critical Role of Environmental Water on Food Safety and Public Health.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:802625.

The increasing number of studies reporting the presence of Salmonella in environmental water sources suggests that it is beyond incidental findings originated from sparse fecal contamination events. However, there is no consensus on the occurrence of Salmonella as its relative serovar representation across non-recycled water sources. We conducted a meta-analysis of proportions by fitting a random-effects model using the restricted maximum-likelihood estimator to obtain the weighted average proportion and between-study variance associated with the occurrence of Salmonella in water sources. Moreover, meta-regression and non-parametric supervised machine learning method were performed to predict the effect of moderators on the frequency of Salmonella in non-recycled water sources. Three sequential steps (identification of information sources, screening and eligibility) were performed to obtain a preliminary selection from identified abstracts and article titles. Questions related to the frequency of Salmonella in aquatic environments, as well as putative differences in the relative frequencies of the reported Salmonella serovars and the role of potential variable moderators (sample source, country, and sample volume) were formulated according to the population, intervention, comparison, and outcome method (PICO). The results were reported according to the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Review and Meta-Analyzes statement (PRISMA). A total of 26 eligible papers reporting 148 different Salmonella serovars were retrieved. According to our model, the Salmonella frequency in non-recycled water sources was 0.19 [CI: 0.14; 0.25]. The source of water was identified as the most import variable affecting the frequency of Salmonella, estimated as 0.31 and 0.17% for surface and groundwater, respectively. There was a higher frequency of Salmonella in countries with lower human development index (HDI). Small volume samples of surface water resulted in lower detectable Salmonella frequencies both in high and low HDI regions. Relative frequencies of the 148 serovars were significantly affected only by HDI and volume. Considering that serovars representation can also be affected by water sample volume, efforts toward the standardization of water samplings for monitoring purposes should be considered. Further approaches such as metagenomics could provide more comprehensive insights about the microbial ecology of fresh water and its importance for the quality and safety of agricultural products.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Egenriether S, Sanford R, Yang WH, et al (2022)

Nitrogen Cycling Microbial Diversity and Operational Taxonomic Unit Clustering: When to Prioritize Accuracy Over Speed.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:730340.

Background: Assessments of the soil microbiome provide valuable insight to ecosystem function due to the integral role microorganisms play in biogeochemical cycling of carbon and nutrients. For example, treatment effects on nitrogen cycling functional groups are often presented alongside one another to demonstrate how agricultural management practices affect various nitrogen cycling processes. However, the functional groups commonly evaluated in nitrogen cycling microbiome studies range from phylogenetically narrow (e.g., N-fixation, nitrification) to broad [e.g., denitrification, dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA)]. The bioinformatics methods used in such studies were developed for 16S rRNA gene sequence data, and how these tools perform across functional genes of different phylogenetic diversity has not been established. For example, an OTU clustering method that can accurately characterize sequences harboring comparatively little diversity may not accurately resolve the diversity within a gene comprised of a large number of clades. This study uses two nitrogen cycling genes, nifH, a gene which segregates into only three distinct clades, and nrfA, a gene which is comprised of at least eighteen clades, to investigate differences which may arise when using heuristic OTU clustering (abundance-based greedy clustering, AGC) vs. true hierarchical OTU clustering (Matthews Correlation Coefficient optimizing algorithm, Opti-MCC). Detection of treatment differences for each gene were evaluated to demonstrate how conclusions drawn from a given dataset may differ depending on clustering method used.

Results: The heuristic and hierarchical methods performed comparably for the more conserved gene, nifH. The hierarchical method outperformed the heuristic method for the more diverse gene, nrfA; this included both the ability to detect treatment differences using PERMANOVA, as well as higher resolution in taxonomic classification. The difference in performance between the two methods may be traced to the AGC method's preferential assignment of sequences to the most abundant OTUs: when analysis was limited to only the largest 100 OTUs, results from the AGC-assembled OTU table more closely resembled those of the Opti-MCC OTU table. Additionally, both AGC and Opti-MCC OTU tables detected comparable treatment differences using the rank-based ANOSIM test. This demonstrates that treatment differences were preserved using both clustering methods but were structured differently within the OTU tables produced using each method.

Conclusion: For questions which can be answered using tests agnostic to clustering method (e.g., ANOSIM), or for genes of relatively low phylogenetic diversity (e.g., nifH), most upstream processing methods should lead to similar conclusions from downstream analyses. For studies involving more diverse genes, however, care should be exercised to choose methods that ensure accurate clustering for all genes. This will mitigate the risk of introducing Type II errors by allowing for detection of comparable treatment differences for all genes assessed, rather than disproportionately detecting treatment differences in only low-diversity genes.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Kong Z, H Liu (2022)

Modification of Rhizosphere Microbial Communities: A Possible Mechanism of Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria Enhancing Plant Growth and Fitness.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:920813.

Plant beneficial bacteria, defined as plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPR), play a crucial role in plants' growth, stress tolerance and disease prevention. In association with the rhizosphere of plants, PGPR facilitate plant growth and development either directly or indirectly through multiple mechanisms, including increasing available mineral nutrients, moderating phytohormone levels and acting as biocontrol agents of phytopathogens. It is generally accepted that the effectiveness of PGPR inoculants is associated with their ability to colonize, survive and persist, as well as the complex network of interactions in the rhizosphere. Despite the promising plant growth promotion results commonly reported and mostly attributed to phytohormones or other organic compounds produced by PGPR inoculants, little information is available on the potential mechanisms underlying such positive effects via modifying rhizosphere microbial community and soil functionality. In this review, we overviewed the effects of PGPR inoculants on rhizosphere microbial ecology and soil function, hypothesizing that PGPR may indirectly promote plant growth and health via modifying the composition and functioning of rhizosphere microbial community, and highlighting the further directions for investigating the role of PGPR in rhizosphere from an ecological perspective.

RevDate: 2022-06-18

Grote M (2022)

Microbes before microbiology: Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg and Berlin's infusoria.

Endeavour pii:S0160-9327(22)00015-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Naturalist Christian Gottfried Ehrenberg pioneered research on living and fossil infusoria (including protists and bacteria) since the 1830s by collecting samples from all over the world, thus describing numerous microbes and discussing their effects for the planet and for humankind. This article introduces Ehrenberg as a natural historian of microbes and situates his work in the nineteenth century life sciences with respect to debates about cell theory, evolution, and concepts of disease. I argue that in spite of occurring before these major conceptual innovations of the life sciences, Ehrenberg's work on the diversity of microbes found in earth or air is more exciting than historiography has made it appear so far, especially in light of today's ecological microbiology.

RevDate: 2022-06-21

DeVilbiss SE, Steele MK, Brown BL, et al (2022)

Stream bacterial diversity peaks at intermediate freshwater salinity and varies by salt type.

The Science of the total environment, 840:156690 pii:S0048-9697(22)03787-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Anthropogenic freshwater salinization is an emerging and widespread water quality stressor that increases salt concentrations of freshwater, where specific upland land-uses produce distinct ionic profiles. In-situ studies find salinization in disturbed landscapes is correlated with declines in stream bacterial diversity, but cannot isolate the effects of salinization from multiple co-occurring stressors. By manipulating salt concentration and type in controlled microcosm studies, we identified direct and complex effects of freshwater salinization on bacterial diversity in the absence of other stressors common in field studies using chloride salts. Changes in both salt concentration and cation produced distinct bacterial communities. Bacterial richness, or the total number of amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) detected, increased at conductivities as low as 350 μS cm-1, which is opposite the observations from field studies. Richness remained elevated at conductivities as high as 1500 μS cm-1 in communities exposed to a mixture of Ca, Mg, and K chloride salts, but decreased in communities exposed to NaCl, revealing a classic subsidy-stress response. Exposure to different chloride salts at the same conductivity resulted in distinct bacterial community structure, further supporting that salt type modulates responses of bacterial communities to freshwater salinization. Community variability peaked at 125-350 μS cm-1 and was more similar at lower and upper conductivities suggesting possible shifts in deterministic vs. stochastic assembly mechanisms across freshwater salinity gradients. Based on these results, we hypothesize that modest freshwater salinization (125-350 μS cm-1) lessens hypo-osmotic stress, reducing the importance of salinity as an environmental filter at intermediate freshwater ranges but effects of higher salinities at the upper freshwater range differ based on salt type. Our results also support previous findings that ~300 μS cm-1 is a biological effect concentration and effective salt management strategies may need to consider variable effects of different salt types associated with land-use.

RevDate: 2022-06-20

Kazmi SSUH, Uroosa , Warren A, et al (2022)

Corrigendum to "Insights into the ecotoxicity of nitrofurazone in marine ecosystems based on body-size spectra of periphytic ciliates" [Mar. Pollut. Bull. 174 (2022) 113217 1-8].

RevDate: 2022-06-18

Lau NS, Ting SY, Sam KK, et al (2022)

Correction to: Comparative Analyses of Scylla olivacea Gut Microbiota Composition and Function Suggest the Capacity for Polyunsaturated Fatty Acid Biosynthesis.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Sandy M, Bui TI, Abá KS, et al (2022)

Plant Host Traits Mediated by Foliar Fungal Symbionts and Secondary Metabolites.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Fungal symbionts living inside plant leaves ("endophytes") can vary from beneficial to parasitic, but the mechanisms by which the fungi affect the plant host phenotype remain poorly understood. Chemical interactions are likely the proximal mechanism of interaction between foliar endophytes and the plant, as individual fungal strains are often exploited for their diverse secondary metabolite production. Here, we go beyond single strains to examine commonalities in how 16 fungal endophytes shift plant phenotypic traits such as growth and physiology, and how those relate to plant metabolomics profiles. We inoculated individual fungi on switchgrass, Panicum virgatum L. This created a limited range of plant growth and physiology (2-370% of fungus-free controls on average), but effects of most fungi overlapped, indicating functional similarities in unstressed conditions. Overall plant metabolomics profiles included almost 2000 metabolites, which were broadly correlated with plant traits across all the fungal treatments. Terpenoid-rich samples were associated with larger, more physiologically active plants and phenolic-rich samples were associated with smaller, less active plants. Only 47 metabolites were enriched in plants inoculated with fungi relative to fungus-free controls, and of these, Lasso regression identified 12 metabolites that explained from 14 to 43% of plant trait variation. Fungal long-chain fatty acids and sterol precursors were positively associated with plant photosynthesis, conductance, and shoot biomass, but negatively associated with survival. The phytohormone gibberellin, in contrast, was negatively associated with plant physiology and biomass. These results can inform ongoing efforts to develop metabolites as crop management tools, either by direct application or via breeding, by identifying how associations with more beneficial components of the microbiome may be affected.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Guseva K, Darcy S, Simon E, et al (2022)

From diversity to complexity: Microbial networks in soils.

Soil biology & biochemistry, 169:108604.

Network analysis has been used for many years in ecological research to analyze organismal associations, for example in food webs, plant-plant or plant-animal interactions. Although network analysis is widely applied in microbial ecology, only recently has it entered the realms of soil microbial ecology, shown by a rapid rise in studies applying co-occurrence analysis to soil microbial communities. While this application offers great potential for deeper insights into the ecological structure of soil microbial ecosystems, it also brings new challenges related to the specific characteristics of soil datasets and the type of ecological questions that can be addressed. In this Perspectives Paper we assess the challenges of applying network analysis to soil microbial ecology due to the small-scale heterogeneity of the soil environment and the nature of soil microbial datasets. We review the different approaches of network construction that are commonly applied to soil microbial datasets and discuss their features and limitations. Using a test dataset of microbial communities from two depths of a forest soil, we demonstrate how different experimental designs and network constructing algorithms affect the structure of the resulting networks, and how this in turn may influence ecological conclusions. We will also reveal how assumptions of the construction method, methods of preparing the dataset, and definitions of thresholds affect the network structure. Finally, we discuss the particular questions in soil microbial ecology that can be approached by analyzing and interpreting specific network properties. Targeting these network properties in a meaningful way will allow applying this technique not in merely descriptive, but in hypothesis-driven research. Analysing microbial networks in soils opens a window to a better understanding of the complexity of microbial communities. However, this approach is unfortunately often used to draw conclusions which are far beyond the scientific evidence it can provide, which has damaged its reputation for soil microbial analysis. In this Perspectives Paper, we would like to sharpen the view for the real potential of microbial co-occurrence analysis in soils, and at the same time raise awareness regarding its limitations and the many ways how it can be misused or misinterpreted.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Jiang Y, Luo J, Huang D, et al (2022)

Machine Learning Advances in Microbiology: A Review of Methods and Applications.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:925454.

Microorganisms play an important role in natural material and elemental cycles. Many common and general biology research techniques rely on microorganisms. Machine learning has been gradually integrated with multiple fields of study. Machine learning, including deep learning, aims to use mathematical insights to optimize variational functions to aid microbiology using various types of available data to help humans organize and apply collective knowledge of various research objects in a systematic and scaled manner. Classification and prediction have become the main achievements in the development of microbial community research in the direction of computational biology. This review summarizes the application and development of machine learning and deep learning in the field of microbiology and shows and compares the advantages and disadvantages of different algorithm tools in four fields: microbiome and taxonomy, microbial ecology, pathogen and epidemiology, and drug discovery.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

You J, Zhang H, Zhu H, et al (2022)

Microbial Community, Fermentation Quality, and in vitro Degradability of Ensiling Caragana With Lactic Acid Bacteria and Rice Bran.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:804429.

This study aimed to assess the effects of microbial inoculants and growth stage on fermentation quality, microbial community, and in vitro degradability of Caragana silage from different varieties. Caragana intermedia (CI) and Caragana korshinskii (CK) harvested at the budding (BU) and blooming (BL) stages were used as raw materials to prepare silage, respectively. The silages at each growth stage were treated for ensiling alone (control), with 5% rice bran (RB), a combination of RB with commercial Lactobacillus plantarum (RB + LP), and a combination of RB with a selected strain Lactobacillus plantarum L694 (RB + L694). The results showed that the crude protein (CP) content of CI was higher than that of CK, and delay in harvest resulted in greater CP content in Caragana at BL stage. After 60 days of fermentation, the concentrations of lactic acid (LA) in the RB + L694 treatments were higher than those in control treatments (p < 0.05), while the pH, concentrations of NH3-N, neutral detergent fiber with the addition of α-amylase (aNDF) were lower than those in control treatments (p < 0.05). RB + L694 treatments could decrease acid detergent fiber (ADF) content except in CIBL. In CK silages, adding RB + L694 could reduce bacterial diversity and richness (p < 0.05). Compared with the control, RB + L694 treatment contained higher Lactobacillus and Enterobacter (p < 0.05). In vitro NDF and DM degradability (IVNDFD and IVDMD) was mostly affected by growth period, and additive RB + l694 treatment had higher IVDMD and lower IVNDFD than other treatments (p < 0.05). Consequently, the varieties, growth stages, and additives could influence the fermentation process, while the blooming stage should be selected in both Caragana. Furthermore, the results showed that RB and L. plantarum could exert a positive effect on fermentation quality of Caragana silage by shifting bacterial community composition, and RB + L694 treatments outperformed other additives.

RevDate: 2022-06-17

Bannon C, Rapp I, EM Bertrand (2022)

Community Interaction Co-limitation: Nutrient Limitation in a Marine Microbial Community Context.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:846890.

The simultaneous limitation of productivity by two or more nutrients, commonly referred to as nutrient co-limitation, affects microbial communities throughout the marine environment and is of profound importance because of its impacts on various biogeochemical cycles. Multiple types of co-limitation have been described, enabling distinctions based on the hypothesized mechanisms of co-limitation at a biochemical level. These definitions usually pertain to individuals and do not explicitly, or even implicitly, consider complex ecological dynamics found within a microbial community. However, limiting and co-limiting nutrients can be produced in situ by a subset of microbial community members, suggesting that interactions within communities can underpin co-limitation. To address this, we propose a new category of nutrient co-limitation, community interaction co-limitation (CIC). During CIC, one part of the community is limited by one nutrient, which results in the insufficient production or transformation of a biologically produced nutrient that is required by another part of the community, often primary producers. Using cobalamin (vitamin B12) and nitrogen fixation as our models, we outline three different ways CIC can arise based on current literature and discuss CIC's role in biogeochemical cycles. Accounting for the inherent and complex roles microbial community interactions play in generating this type of co-limitation requires an expanded toolset - beyond the traditional approaches used to identify and study other types of co-limitation. We propose incorporating processes and theories well-known in microbial ecology and evolution to provide meaningful insight into the controls of community-based feedback loops and mechanisms that give rise to CIC in the environment. Finally, we highlight the data gaps that limit our understanding of CIC mechanisms and suggest methods to overcome these and further identify causes and consequences of CIC. By providing this framework for understanding and identifying CIC, we enable systematic examination of the impacts this co-limitation can have on current and future marine biogeochemical processes.

RevDate: 2022-06-20
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Oyserman BO, Flores SS, Griffioen T, et al (2022)

Disentangling the genetic basis of rhizosphere microbiome assembly in tomato.

Nature communications, 13(1):3228.

Microbiomes play a pivotal role in plant growth and health, but the genetic factors involved in microbiome assembly remain largely elusive. Here, we map the molecular features of the rhizosphere microbiome as quantitative traits of a diverse hybrid population of wild and domesticated tomato. Gene content analysis of prioritized tomato quantitative trait loci suggests a genetic basis for differential recruitment of various rhizobacterial lineages, including a Streptomyces-associated 6.31 Mbp region harboring tomato domestication sweeps and encoding, among others, the iron regulator FIT and the water channel aquaporin SlTIP2.3. Within metagenome-assembled genomes of root-associated Streptomyces and Cellvibrio, we identify bacterial genes involved in metabolism of plant polysaccharides, iron, sulfur, trehalose, and vitamins, whose genetic variation associates with specific tomato QTLs. By integrating 'microbiomics' and quantitative plant genetics, we pinpoint putative plant and reciprocal rhizobacterial traits underlying microbiome assembly, thereby providing a first step towards plant-microbiome breeding programs.

RevDate: 2022-06-20
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Werbin ZR, Hackos B, Lopez-Nava J, et al (2021)

The National Ecological Observatory Network's soil metagenomes: assembly and basic analysis.

F1000Research, 10:299.

The largest dataset of soil metagenomes has recently been released by the National Ecological Observatory Network (NEON), which performs annual shotgun sequencing of soils at 47 sites across the United States. NEON serves as a valuable educational resource, thanks to its open data and programming tutorials, but there is currently no introductory tutorial for accessing and analyzing the soil shotgun metagenomic dataset. Here, we describe methods for processing raw soil metagenome sequencing reads using a bioinformatics pipeline tailored to the high complexity and diversity of the soil microbiome. We describe the rationale, necessary resources, and implementation of steps such as cleaning raw reads, taxonomic classification, assembly into contigs or genomes, annotation of predicted genes using custom protein databases, and exporting data for downstream analysis. The workflow presented here aims to increase the accessibility of NEON's shotgun metagenome data, which can provide important clues about soil microbial communities and their ecological roles.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Song L, Wang Y, Zhang R, et al (2022)

Microbial Mediation of Carbon, Nitrogen, and Sulfur Cycles During Solid Waste Decomposition.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Landfills are a unique "terrestrial ecosystem" and serve as a significant carbon sink. Microorganisms convert biodegradable substances in municipal solid waste (MSW) to CH4, CO2, and microbial biomass, consisting of the carbon cycling in landfills. Microbial-mediated N and S cycles are also the important biogeochemical process during MSW decomposition, resulting in N2O and H2S emission, respectively. Meanwhile, microbial-mediated N and S cycles affect carbon cycling. How microbial community structure and function respond to C, N, and S cycling during solid waste decomposition, however, are not well-characterized. Here, we show the response of bacterial and archaeal community structure and functions to C, N, and S cycling during solid waste decomposition in a long-term (265 days) operation laboratory-scale bioreactor through 16S rRNA-based pyrosequencing and metagenomics analysis. Bacterial and archaeal community composition varied during solid waste decomposition. Aerobic respiration was the main pathway for CO2 emission, while anaerobic C fixation was the main pathway in carbon fixation. Methanogenesis and denitrification increased during solid waste decomposition, suggesting increasing CH4 and N2O emission. In contract, fermentation decreased along solid waste decomposition. Interestingly, Clostridiales were abundant and showed potential for several pathways in C, N, and S cycling. Archaea were involved in many pathways of C and N cycles. There is a shift between bacteria and archaea involvement in N2 fixation along solid waste decomposition that bacteria Clostridiales and Bacteroidales were initially dominant and then Methanosarcinales increased and became dominant in methanogenic phase. These results provide extensive microbial mediation of C, N, and S cycling profiles during solid waste decomposition.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

García-Sánchez JC, Arredondo-Centeno J, Segovia-Ramírez MG, et al (2022)

Factors Influencing Bacterial and Fungal Skin Communities of Montane Salamanders of Central Mexico.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Host microbial communities are increasingly seen as an important component of host health. In amphibians, the first land vertebrates that are threatened by a fungal skin disease globally, our understanding of the factors influencing the microbiome of amphibian skin remains incomplete because recent studies have focused almost exclusively on bacteria, and little information exists on fungal communities associated with wild amphibian species. In this study, we describe the effects of host phylogeny, climate, geographic distance, and infection with a fungal pathogen on the composition and structure of bacterial and fungal communities in seven tropical salamander species that occur in the Trans-Mexican Volcanic Belt of Central Mexico. We find that host phylogenetic relatedness is correlated with bacterial community composition while a composite climatic variable of temperature seasonality and precipitation is significantly associated with fungal community composition. We also estimated co-occurrence networks for bacterial and fungal taxa and found differences in the degree of connectivity and the distribution of negative associations between the two networks. Our results suggest that different factors may be responsible for structuring the bacterial and fungal communities of amphibian skin and that the inclusion of fungi in future studies could shed light on important functional interactions within the microbiome.

RevDate: 2022-06-20
CmpDate: 2022-06-20

Antosiak A, Šulčius S, Malec P, et al (2022)

Cyanophage infections reduce photosynthetic activity and expression of CO2 fixation genes in the freshwater bloom-forming cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae.

Harmful algae, 116:102215.

Cyanobacteria play a significant role in ecosystem functioning as photosynthetic and CO2 fixing microorganisms. Whether and to what extent cyanophages alter these carbon and energy cycles in their cyanobacterial hosts is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated changes in photosynthetic activity (PSII), expression of genes associated with the light phase of photosynthesis (psbA, petA, ndhK) and carbon metabolism (rbcL, zwf) as well as intracellular ATP and NADHP concentrations in freshwater bloom-forming filamentous cyanobacterium Aphanizomenon flos-aquae infected by cyanophage vB_AphaS-CL131. We found that PSII activity and expression level of rbcL genes, indicating potential for CO2 fixation, had decreased in response to cyanophage adsorption and DNA injection. During the period of viral DNA replication and assembly, PSII performance and gene expression remained at this decreased level and did not change significantly, indicating lack of transcriptional shutdown by the cyanophage. Combined, these observations suggest that although there is little to no interference between cyanophage DNA replication, host transcription and cellular metabolism, A. flos-aquae underwent a physiological state-shift toward lower efficiency of carbon and energy cycling. This further suggest potential cascading effect for co-occurring non-infected members of the microbial community.

RevDate: 2022-06-16

Purkamo L, Dochartaigh BÓ, MacDonald A, et al (2022)

Following the flow - microbial ecology in surface- and groundwaters in the glacial forefield of a rapidly retreating glacier in Iceland.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The retreat of glaciers in response to climate change has major impacts on the hydrology and ecosystems of glacier forefield catchments. Microbes are key players in ecosystem functionality, supporting the supply of ecosystem services that glacier systems provide. The interaction between surface and groundwaters in glacier forefields has only recently gained much attention, and how these interactions influence the microbiology is still unclear. Here, we identify the microbial communities in groundwater from shallow (<15m deep) boreholes in a glacial forefield floodplain ('sandur') aquifer at different distances from the rapidly retreating Virkisjökull glacier, Iceland, and with varying hydraulic connectivity with the glacial meltwater river that flows over the sandur. Groundwater communities are shown to differ from those in nearby glacial and non-glacial surface water communities. Groundwater-meltwater interactions and groundwater flow dynamics affect the microbial community structure, leading to different microbial communities at different sampling points in the glacier forefield. Groundwater communities differ from those in nearby glacial and non-glacial surface waters. Functional potential for microbial nitrogen and methane cycling was detected, although the functional gene copy numbers of specific groups were low. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-06-15
CmpDate: 2022-06-15

Cui G, Liu Z, Xu W, et al (2022)

Metagenomic exploration of antibiotic resistance genes and their hosts in aquaculture waters of the semi-closed Dongshan Bay (China).

The Science of the total environment, 838(Pt 1):155784.

In marine environments, increasing occurrence and numbers of microbial Antibiotic Resistance Gene (ARG) subtypes, especially of new beta-lactamases, have received lots of attention in recent years. Updated databases with novel developed tools provide new opportunities to obtain more comprehensive ARG profiles as well as ARG-carrying hosts. Yet, ARGs in human-associated marine aquaculture environments, e.g. in China, remains largely unknown. Using metagenomic data, we revealed high numbers of Multi-drug Resistance, beta-lactamase and aminoglycoside genes throughout the year. Thereby, Alpha- and Gamma-proteobacteria were assigned to the majority of beta-lactamase-carrying hosts. From Metagenome-assembled genomes, three blaF-like beta-lactamases (91.7-94.7% identity with beta-lactamase from Mycobacterium fortuitum (blaF)) were exclusively observed in an unclassified Mycobacterium genus. Notably, other new beta-lactamases, VMB-1-like (n = 3) (58.5-67.4% identity to Vibrio metallo-beta-lactamase 1 (VMB-1)), were found in Gammaproteobacteria. Additionally, 175 Multi-drug Resistant Organisms possessed at least 3 ARG subtypes, and seven of the potentially pathogenic genera (n = 17) were assigned to Gammaproteobacteria. These results, together with high-risk ARGs (e.g. tetM, dfrA14 and dfrA17), provide hosts and new beta-lactamases of ARGs in Chinese coastal aquaculture.

RevDate: 2022-06-15

Honeyman AS, Fegel TS, Peel HF, et al (2022)

Statistical Learning and Uncommon Soil Microbiota Explain Biogeochemical Responses after Wildfire.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Wildfires are a perennial event globally, and the biogeochemical underpinnings of soil responses at relevant spatial and temporal scales are unclear. Soil biogeochemical processes regulate plant growth and nutrient losses that affect water quality, yet the response of soil after variable intensity fire is difficult to explain and predict. To address this issue, we examined two wildfires in Colorado, United States, across the first and second postfire years and leveraged statistical learning (SL) to predict and explain biogeochemical responses. We found that SL predicts biogeochemical responses in soil after wildfire with surprising accuracy. Of the 13 biogeochemical analytes analyzed in this study, 9 are best explained with a hybrid microbiome + biogeochemical SL model. Biogeochemical-only models best explain 3 features, and 1 feature is explained equally well with the hybrid and biogeochemical-only models. In some cases, microbiome-only SL models are also effective (such as predicting NH4+). Whenever a microbiome component is employed, selected features always involve uncommon soil microbiota (i.e., the "rare biosphere" [existing at <1% mean relative abundance]). Here, we demonstrate that SL paired with DNA sequence and biogeochemical data predicts environmental features in postfire soils, although this approach could likely be applied to any biogeochemical system. IMPORTANCE Soil biogeochemical processes are critical to plant growth and water quality and are substantially disturbed by wildfire. However, soil responses to fire are difficult to predict. To address this issue, we developed a large environmental data set that tracks postfire changes in soil and used statistical learning (SL) to build models that exploit complex data to make predictions about biogeochemical responses. Here, we show that SL depends upon uncommon microbiota in soil (the "rare biosphere") to make surprisingly accurate predictions about soil biogeochemical responses to wildfire. Using SL to explain variation in a natively chaotic environmental system is mechanism independent. Likely, the approach that we describe for combining SL with microbiome and biogeochemical parameters has practical applications across a range of issues in the environmental sciences where predicting responses would be useful.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Vignale FA, Bernal Rey D, Pardo AM, et al (2022)

Spatial and Seasonal Variations in the Bacterial Community of an Anthropogenic Impacted Urban Stream.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Environmental changes and human activities can alter the structure and diversity of aquatic microbial communities. In this work, we analyzed the bacterial community dynamics of an urban stream to understand how these factors affect the composition of river microbial communities. Samples were taken from a stream situated in Buenos Aires, Argentina, which flows through residential, peri-urban horticultural, and industrial areas. For sampling, two stations were selected: one influenced by a series of industrial waste treatment plants and horticultural farms (PL), and the other influenced by residential areas (R). Microbial communities were analyzed by sequence analysis of 16S rRNA gene amplicons along an annual cycle. PL samples showed high nutrient content compared with R samples. The diversity and richness of the R site were more affected by seasonality than those of the PL site. At the amplicon sequence variants level, beta diversity analysis showed a differentiation between cool-season (fall and winter) and warm-season (spring and summer) samples, as well as between PL and R sites. This demonstrated that there is spatial and temporal heterogeneity in the composition of the bacterial community, which should be considered if a bioremediation strategy is applied. The taxonomic composition analysis also revealed a differential seasonal cycle of phototrophs and chemoheterotrophs between the sampling sites, as well as different taxa associated with each sampling site. This analysis, combined with a comparative analysis of global rivers, allowed us to determine the genera Arcobacter, Simplicispira, Vogesella, and Sphingomonas as potential bioindicators of anthropogenic disturbance.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Chen H, Pan Y, Zhou Q, et al (2022)

METTL3 inhibits anti-tumor immunity by targeting m6A-BHLHE41-CXCL1/CXCR2 axis to promote colorectal cancer.

Gastroenterology pii:S0016-5085(22)00629-1 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND & AIMS: N6-Methyladenosine (m6A) is the most prevalent RNA modification and recognized as an important epitranscriptomic mechanism in colorectal cancer (CRC). We aim to exploit whether and how tumor-intrinsic m6A modification drove by methyltransferase like 3 (METTL3) can dictate the immune landscape of CRC.

METHODS: Mettl3 knockout mice, CD34+ humanized mice and different syngeneic mice models were employed. Immune cells composition and cytokines level were analyzed by flow cytometry and Cytokine 23-Plex immunoassay, respectively. M6A-seq and RNA-seq were performed to identify downstream targets and pathways of METTL3. Human CRC specimens (n=176) were used to evaluate correlation between METTL3 expression and myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) infiltration.

RESULTS: We demonstrated that silencing of METTL3 in CRC cells reduced MDSCs accumulation to sustain activation and proliferation of CD4+ and CD8+ T cell, and eventually suppressed CRC in ApcMin/+Mettl3+/- mice, CD34+ humanized mice and syngeneic mice models. Mechanistically, METTL3 activated m6A-BHLHE41-CXCL1 axis by analysis of m6A-seq, RNA-seq and cytokines arrays. METTL3 promoted BHLHE41 expression in m6A-dependent manner, which subsequently induced CXCL1 transcription to enhance MDSC migration in vitro. However, the effect was negligible upon BHLHE41 depletion, CXCL1 protein or CXCR2 inhibitor SB265610 administration, inferring that METTL3 promotes MDSC migration via BHLHE41-CXCL1/CXCR2. Consistently, depletion of MDSCs by anti-Gr1 antibody or SB265610 blocked tumor-promoting effect of METTL3 in vivo. Importantly, targeting METTL3 by METTL3-sgRNA or specific inhibitor potentiated the effect of anti-PD1 treatment.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study identifies METTL3 as a potential therapeutic target for CRC immunotherapy whose inhibition reverses immune suppression through m6A-BHLHE41-CXCL1 axis. METTL3 inhibition plus anti-PD-1 treatment show promising antitumor efficacy against CRC.

RevDate: 2022-06-14

Deng Z, Hou K, Valencak TG, et al (2022)

AI-2/LuxS Quorum Sensing System Promotes Biofilm Formation of Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG and Enhances the Resistance to Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli in Germ-Free Zebrafish.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

The LuxS enzyme plays a key role in both quorum sensing (QS) and the regulation of bacterial growth. It catalyzes the production of autoinducer-2 (AI-2) signaling molecule, which is a component of the methyl cycle and methionine metabolism. This study aimed at investigating the differences between the Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) wild-type strain (WT) and its luxS mutant (ΔluxS) during biofilm formation and when resisting to inflammation caused by Enterotoxigenic Escherichia coli (ETEC) in germ-free zebrafish. Our results suggest that in the absence of luxS when LGG was knocked out, biofilm formation, extracellular polysaccharide secretion and adhesion were all compromised. Addition of synthetic AI-2 indeed rescued, at least partially, the deficiencies observed in the mutant strain. The colonizing and immunomodulatory function in WT versus ΔluxS mutants were further studied in a germ-free zebrafish model. The concentration of AI-2 signaling molecules decreased sharply in zebrafish infected with the ΔluxS. At the same time, compared with the ΔluxS, the wild-type strain could colonize the germ-free zebrafish more effectively. Our transcriptome results suggest that genes involved in immunity, signal transduction, and cell adhesion were downregulated in zebrafish infected with ΔluxS and WT. In the WT, the immune system of germ-free zebrafish was activated more effectively through the MAPK and NF-κB pathway, and its ability to fight the infection against ETEC was increased. Together, our results demonstrate that the AI-2/LuxS system plays an important role in biofilm formation to improve LGG and alleviate inflammation caused by ETEC in germ-free zebrafish. IMPORTANCE Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG is a widely used probiotic to improve host intestinal health, promote growth, reduce diarrhea, and modulate immunity. In recent years, the bacterial quorum sensing system has attracted much attention; however, there has not been much research on the effect of the LuxS/AI-2 quorum sensing system of Lactobacillus on bacteriostasis, microbial ecology balance, and immune regulation in intestine. In this study, we used germ-free zebrafish as an animal model to compare the differences between wild-type and luxS mutant strains. We showed how AI-2/LuxS QS affects the release of AI-2 and how QS regulates the colonization, EPS synthesis and biofilm formation of LGG. This study provides an idea for the targeted regulation of animal intestinal health with probiotics by controlling bacteria quorum sensing system.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Wu L, Zhang Y, Guo X, et al (2022)

Reduction of microbial diversity in grassland soil is driven by long-term climate warming.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Anthropogenic climate change threatens ecosystem functioning. Soil biodiversity is essential for maintaining the health of terrestrial systems, but how climate change affects the richness and abundance of soil microbial communities remains unresolved. We examined the effects of warming, altered precipitation and annual biomass removal on grassland soil bacterial, fungal and protistan communities over 7 years to determine how these representative climate changes impact microbial biodiversity and ecosystem functioning. We show that experimental warming and the concomitant reductions in soil moisture play a predominant role in shaping microbial biodiversity by decreasing the richness of bacteria (9.6%), fungi (14.5%) and protists (7.5%). Our results also show positive associations between microbial biodiversity and ecosystem functional processes, such as gross primary productivity and microbial biomass. We conclude that the detrimental effects of biodiversity loss might be more severe in a warmer world.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Paredes GF, Viehboeck T, Markert S, et al (2022)

Differential regulation of degradation and immune pathways underlies adaptation of the ectosymbiotic nematode Laxus oneistus to oxic-anoxic interfaces.

Scientific reports, 12(1):9725.

Eukaryotes may experience oxygen deprivation under both physiological and pathological conditions. Because oxygen shortage leads to a reduction in cellular energy production, all eukaryotes studied so far conserve energy by suppressing their metabolism. However, the molecular physiology of animals that naturally and repeatedly experience anoxia is underexplored. One such animal is the marine nematode Laxus oneistus. It thrives, invariably coated by its sulfur-oxidizing symbiont Candidatus Thiosymbion oneisti, in anoxic sulfidic or hypoxic sand. Here, transcriptomics and proteomics showed that, whether in anoxia or not, L. oneistus mostly expressed genes involved in ubiquitination, energy generation, oxidative stress response, immune response, development, and translation. Importantly, ubiquitination genes were also highly expressed when the nematode was subjected to anoxic sulfidic conditions, together with genes involved in autophagy, detoxification and ribosome biogenesis. We hypothesize that these degradation pathways were induced to recycle damaged cellular components (mitochondria) and misfolded proteins into nutrients. Remarkably, when L. oneistus was subjected to anoxic sulfidic conditions, lectin and mucin genes were also upregulated, potentially to promote the attachment of its thiotrophic symbiont. Furthermore, the nematode appeared to survive oxygen deprivation by using an alternative electron carrier (rhodoquinone) and acceptor (fumarate), to rewire the electron transfer chain. On the other hand, under hypoxia, genes involved in costly processes (e.g., amino acid biosynthesis, development, feeding, mating) were upregulated, together with the worm's Toll-like innate immunity pathway and several immune effectors (e.g., bactericidal/permeability-increasing proteins, fungicides). In conclusion, we hypothesize that, in anoxic sulfidic sand, L. oneistus upregulates degradation processes, rewires the oxidative phosphorylation and reinforces its coat of bacterial sulfur-oxidizers. In upper sand layers, instead, it appears to produce broad-range antimicrobials and to exploit oxygen for biosynthesis and development.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Ayeni KI, Berry D, Wisgrill L, et al (2022)

Early-life chemical exposome and gut microbiome development: African research perspectives within a global environmental health context.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(22)00120-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiome of neonates, infants, and toddlers (NITs) is very dynamic, and only begins to stabilize towards the third year of life. Within this period, exposure to xenobiotics may perturb the gut environment, thereby driving or contributing to microbial dysbiosis, which may negatively impact health into adulthood. Despite exposure of NITs globally, but especially in Africa, to copious amounts and types of xenobiotics - such as mycotoxins, pesticide residues, and heavy metals - little is known about their influence on the early-life microbiome or their effects on acute or long-term health. Within the African context, the influence of fermented foods, herbal mixtures, and the delivery environment on the early-life microbiome are often neglected, despite being potentially important factors that influence the microbiome. Consequently, data on in-depth understanding of the microbiome-exposome interactions is lacking in African cohorts. Collecting and evaluating such data is important because exposome-induced gut dysbiosis could potentially favor disease progression.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Kazmi SSUH, Uroosa , Xu H, et al (2022)

Corrigendum to "An approach to determining the nitrofurazone-induced toxic dynamics for ecotoxicity assessment using protozoan periphytons in marine ecosystems" [Mar. Pollut. Bull. 175 (2022) 113329 1-7].

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Maciá-Vicente JG, Bai B, Qi R, et al (2022)

Nutrient Availability Does Not Affect Community Assembly in Root-Associated Fungi but Determines Fungal Effects on Plant Growth.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Nonmycorrhizal root-colonizing fungi are key determinants of plant growth, driving processes ranging from pathogenesis to stress alleviation. Evidence suggests that they might also facilitate host access to soil nutrients in a mycorrhiza-like manner, but the extent of their direct contribution to plant nutrition is unknown. To study how widespread such capacity is across root-colonizing fungi, we surveyed soils in nutrient-limiting habitats using plant baits to look for fungal community changes in response to nutrient conditions. We established a fungal culture collection and used Arabidopsis thaliana inoculation bioassays to assess the ability of fungi to facilitate host's growth in the presence of organic nutrients unavailable to plants. Plant baits captured a representation of fungal communities extant in natural habitats and showed that nutrient limitation has little influence on community assembly. Arabidopsis thaliana inoculated with 31 phylogenetically diverse fungi exhibited a consistent fungus-driven growth promotion when supplied with organic nutrients compared to untreated plants. However, direct phosphorus measurement and RNA-seq data did not support enhanced nutrient uptake but rather that growth effects may result from changes in the plant's immune response to colonization. The widespread and consistent host responses to fungal colonization suggest that distinct, locally adapted nonmycorrhizal fungi affect plant performance across habitats. IMPORTANCE Recent studies have shown that root-associated fungi that do not engage in classical mycorrhizal associations can facilitate the hosts' access to nutrients in a mycorrhiza-like manner. However, the generality of this capacity remains to be tested. Root-associated fungi are frequently deemed major determinants of plant diversity and performance, but in the vast majority of cases their ecological roles in nature remain unknown. Assessing how these plant symbionts affect plant productivity, diversity, and fitness is important to understanding how plant communities function. Recent years have seen important advances in the understanding of the main drivers of the diversity and structure of plant microbiomes, but a major challenge is still linking community properties with function. This study contributes to the understanding of the cryptic function of root-associated fungi by testing their ability to participate in a specific process: nutrient acquisition by plants.

RevDate: 2022-06-13

Karl CM, Vidakovic A, Pjevac P, et al (2022)

Individual Sweet Taste Perception Influences Salivary Characteristics After Orosensory Stimulation With Sucrose and Noncaloric Sweeteners.

Frontiers in nutrition, 9:831726.

Emerging evidence points to a major role of salivary flow and viscoelastic properties in taste perception and mouthfeel. It has been proposed that sweet-tasting compounds influence salivary characteristics. However, whether perceived differences in the sensory properties of structurally diverse sweet-tasting compounds contribute to salivary flow and saliva viscoelasticity as part of mouthfeel and overall sweet taste perception remains to be clarified. In this study, we hypothesized that the sensory diversity of sweeteners would differentially change salivary characteristics in response to oral sweet taste stimulation. Therefore, we investigated salivary flow and saliva viscoelasticity from 21 healthy test subjects after orosensory stimulation with sucrose, rebaudioside M (RebM), sucralose, and neohesperidin dihydrochalcone (NHDC) in a crossover design and considered the basal level of selected influencing factors, including the basal oral microbiome. All test compounds enhanced the salivary flow rate by up to 1.51 ± 0.12 g/min for RebM compared to 1.10 ± 0.09 g/min for water within the 1st min after stimulation. The increase in flow rate was moderately correlated with the individually perceived sweet taste (r = 0.3, p < 0.01) but did not differ between the test compounds. The complex viscosity of saliva was not affected by the test compounds, but the analysis of covariance showed that it was associated (p < 0.05) with mucin 5B (Muc5B) concentration. The oral microbiome was of typical composition and diversity but was strongly individual-dependent (permutational analysis of variance (PERMANOVA): R 2 = 0.76, p < 0.001) and was not associated with changes in salivary characteristics. In conclusion, this study indicates an impact of individual sweet taste impressions on the flow rate without measurable changes in the complex viscosity of saliva, which may contribute to the overall taste perception and mouthfeel of sweet-tasting compounds.

RevDate: 2022-06-12

Kazmi SSUH, Uroosa , Xu H, et al (2022)

Corrigendum to "A community-based approach to analyzing the ecotoxicity of nitrofurazone using periphytic protozoa" [Mar. Pollut. Bull. 175 (2022) 113165 1-6].

RevDate: 2022-06-11

Mills JG, Selway CA, Thomas T, et al (2022)

Schoolyard Biodiversity Determines Short-Term Recovery of Disturbed Skin Microbiota in Children.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Creating biodiverse urban habitat has been proposed, with growing empirical support, as an intervention for increasing human microbial diversity and reducing associated diseases. However, ecological understanding of urban biodiversity interventions on human skin microbiota remains limited. Here, we experimentally test the hypotheses that disturbed skin microbiota recover better in outdoor schoolyard environments and that greater biodiversity provides a greater response. Repeating the experiment three times, we disturbed skin microbiota of fifty-seven healthy 10-to-11-year-old students with a skin swab (i.e., cleaning), then exposed them to one school environment-either a 'classroom' (n = 20), 'sports field' (n = 14), or biodiverse 'forest' (n = 23)-for 45 min. Another skin swab followed the exposure to compare 'before' and 'after' microbial communities. After 45 min, the disturbance immediately followed by outdoor exposure, especially the 'forest', had an enriching and diversifying effect on skin microbiota, while 'classroom' exposure homogenised inter-personal variability. Each effect compounded over consecutive days indicating longer-term exposure outcomes. The experimental disturbance also reduced the core skin microbiota, and only outdoor environments were able to replenish lost species richness to core membership (n species > 50% prevalent). Overall, we find that environmental setting, especially including biodiversity, is important in human microbiota recovery periods and that the outdoors provide resilience to skin communities. This work also has implications for the inclusion of short periods of outside or forest exposure in school scheduling. Future investigations of the health impacts of permanent urban biodiversity interventions are needed.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Morata A, Arroyo T, Bañuelos MA, et al (2022)

Wine yeast selection in the Iberian Peninsula: Saccharomyces and non-Saccharomyces as drivers of innovation in Spanish and Portuguese wine industries.

Critical reviews in food science and nutrition [Epub ahead of print].

Yeast selection for the wine industry in Spain started in 1950 for the understanding of the microbial ecology, and for the selection of optimal strains to improve the performance of alcoholic fermentation and the overall wine quality. This process has been strongly developed over the last 30 years, firstly on Saccharomyces cerevisiae, and, lately, with intense activity on non-Saccharomyces. Several thousand yeast strains have been isolated, identified and tested to select those with better performance and/or specific technological properties. The present review proposes a global survey of this massive ex-situ preservation of eukaryotic microorganisms, a reservoir of biotechnological solutions for the wine sector, overviewing relevant screenings that led to the selection of strains from 12 genera and 22 species of oenological significance. In the first part, the attention goes to the selection programmes related to relevant wine-producing areas (i.e. Douro, Extremadura, Galicia, La Mancha and Uclés, Ribera del Duero, Rioja, Sherry area, and Valencia). In the second part, the focus shifted on specific non-Saccharomyces genera/species selected from different Spanish and Portuguese regions, exploited to enhance particular attributes of the wines. A fil rouge of the dissertation is the design of tailored biotechnological solutions for wines typical of given geographic areas.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Sterling JJ, Sakihara TS, Brannock PM, et al (2022)

Primary microbial succession in the anchialine ecosystem.

Integrative and comparative biology pii:6605282 [Epub ahead of print].

When new land is created, initial microbial colonization lays the foundation for further ecological succession of plant and animal communities. Primary microbial succession of new aquatic habitats formed during volcanic activity has received little attention. The anchialine ecosystem, which includes coastal ponds in young lava flows, offers an opportunity to examine this process. Here, we characterized microbial communities of anchialine habitats in Hawaii that were created during volcanic eruptions in 2018. Benthic samples from three habitats were collected ∼2 years after their formation and at later time points spanning ∼1 year. Sequence profiling (16S and 18S) of prokaryotic and eukaryotic communities was used to test whether communities were similar to those from older, established anchialine habitats, and if community structure changed over time. Results show that microbial communities from the new habitats were unlike any from established anchialine microbial communities, having higher proportions of Planctomycetota and Chloroflexi but lower proportions of green algae. Each new habitat also harbored its own unique community relative to other habitats. While community composition in each habitat underwent statistically significant changes over time, they remained distinctive from established anchialine habitats. New habitats also had highly elevated temperatures compared to other habitats. These results suggest idiosyncratic microbial consortia form during early succession of Hawaiian anchialine habitats. Future monitoring will reveal whether the early communities described here remain stable after temperatures decline and macro-organisms become more abundant, or if microbial communities will continue to change and eventually resemble those of established habitats. This work is a key first step in examining primary volcanic succession in aquatic habitats and suggests young anchialine habitats may warrant special conservation status.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Barcoto MO, A Rodrigues (2022)

Lessons From Insect Fungiculture: From Microbial Ecology to Plastics Degradation.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:812143.

Anthropogenic activities have extensively transformed the biosphere by extracting and disposing of resources, crossing boundaries of planetary threat while causing a global crisis of waste overload. Despite fundamental differences regarding structure and recalcitrance, lignocellulose and plastic polymers share physical-chemical properties to some extent, that include carbon skeletons with similar chemical bonds, hydrophobic properties, amorphous and crystalline regions. Microbial strategies for metabolizing recalcitrant polymers have been selected and optimized through evolution, thus understanding natural processes for lignocellulose modification could aid the challenge of dealing with the recalcitrant human-made polymers spread worldwide. We propose to look for inspiration in the charismatic fungal-growing insects to understand multipartite degradation of plant polymers. Independently evolved in diverse insect lineages, fungiculture embraces passive or active fungal cultivation for food, protection, and structural purposes. We consider there is much to learn from these symbioses, in special from the community-level degradation of recalcitrant biomass and defensive metabolites. Microbial plant-degrading systems at the core of insect fungicultures could be promising candidates for degrading synthetic plastics. Here, we first compare the degradation of lignocellulose and plastic polymers, with emphasis in the overlapping microbial players and enzymatic activities between these processes. Second, we review the literature on diverse insect fungiculture systems, focusing on features that, while supporting insects' ecology and evolution, could also be applied in biotechnological processes. Third, taking lessons from these microbial communities, we suggest multidisciplinary strategies to identify microbial degraders, degrading enzymes and pathways, as well as microbial interactions and interdependencies. Spanning from multiomics to spectroscopy, microscopy, stable isotopes probing, enrichment microcosmos, and synthetic communities, these strategies would allow for a systemic understanding of the fungiculture ecology, driving to application possibilities. Detailing how the metabolic landscape is entangled to achieve ecological success could inspire sustainable efforts for mitigating the current environmental crisis.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Andreu-Sánchez S, Aubert G, Ripoll-Cladellas A, et al (2022)

Genetic, parental and lifestyle factors influence telomere length.

Communications biology, 5(1):565.

The average length of telomere repeats (TL) declines with age and is considered to be a marker of biological ageing. Here, we measured TL in six blood cell types from 1046 individuals using the clinically validated Flow-FISH method. We identified remarkable cell-type-specific variations in TL. Host genetics, environmental, parental and intrinsic factors such as sex, parental age, and smoking are associated to variations in TL. By analysing the genome-wide methylation patterns, we identified that the association of maternal, but not paternal, age to TL is mediated by epigenetics. Single-cell RNA-sequencing data for 62 participants revealed differential gene expression in T-cells. Genes negatively associated with TL were enriched for pathways related to translation and nonsense-mediated decay. Altogether, this study addresses cell-type-specific differences in telomere biology and its relation to cell-type-specific gene expression and highlights how perinatal factors play a role in determining TL, on top of genetics and lifestyle.

RevDate: 2022-06-10

Willson AM, Trugman AT, Powers JS, et al (2022)

Climate and hydraulic traits interact to set thresholds for liana viability.

Nature communications, 13(1):3332.

Lianas, or woody vines, and trees dominate the canopy of tropical forests and comprise the majority of tropical aboveground carbon storage. These growth forms respond differently to contemporary variation in climate and resource availability, but their responses to future climate change are poorly understood because there are very few predictive ecosystem models representing lianas. We compile a database of liana functional traits (846 species) and use it to parameterize a mechanistic model of liana-tree competition. The substantial difference between liana and tree hydraulic conductivity represents a critical source of inter-growth form variation. Here, we show that lianas are many times more sensitive to drying atmospheric conditions than trees as a result of this trait difference. Further, we use our competition model and projections of tropical hydroclimate based on Representative Concentration Pathway 4.5 to show that lianas are more susceptible to reaching a hydraulic threshold for viability by 2100.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Kim HJ, Kim JH, Han S, et al (2022)

Compositional alteration of the nasal microbiome and Staphylococcus aureus-characterized dysbiosis in the nasal mucosa of patients with allergic rhinitis.

Clinical and experimental otorhinolaryngology pii:ceo.2021.01928 [Epub ahead of print].

Objectives: Host-microbial commensalism can shape the innate immune responses in the nasal mucosa, and the microbial characteristics of the nasal mucus directly impact the mechanisms of initial allergic responses in the nasal epithelium. We sought to determine alterations of the microbial composition in the nasal mucus of patients with allergic rhinitis (AR) and to elucidate the interplay between dysbiosis of the nasal microbiome and allergic inflammation.

Methods: A total of 364,923 high-quality bacterial 16S ribosomal RNA-encoding gene sequence reads from 104 samples from the middle turbinate mucosa of healthy participants and patients with AR was obtained and analyzed using the Quantitative Insights into Microbial Ecology pipeline.

Results: We analyzed the microbiota in samples of nasal mucus from patients with AR (n = 42) and clinically healthy participants (n = 30). Proteobacteria (Ralstonia genus) and Actinobacteria (Propionibacterium genus) phyla were predominant in the nasal mucus of healthy subjects, whereas the Firmicutes (Staphylococcus genus) phylum was significantly abundant in the nasal mucus of patients with AR. Especially, Ralstonia genus were significantly dominant in the clinically healthy subjects. Additional pyrosequencing data from 32 subjects (healthy participants: N=15, AR patients: N=17) revealed a greater abundance of Staphylococcus epidermidis, Corynebacterium accolens, and Nocardia coeliaca, accounting for 41.55% of mapped sequences in the nasal mucus of healthy participants. The dysbiosis of nasal microbiome was more pronounced and Staphylococcus aureus exhibited the greatest abundance (37.69%) in the presence of microbial distribution in the nasal mucus of patients with AR depending on the positive response to house dust mites and patient age and height.

Conclusion: This study revealed alterations in the nasal microbiome that occur in the nasal mucus of patients with AR at the levels of microbial genera and species. S. aureus-dominant dysbiosis was distinctive in the nasal mucus of patients with AR, suggesting a role of host-microbial commensalism in allergic inflammation.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Wu K, Tizzani R, Zweers H, et al (2022)

Removal processes of individual and a mixture of organic micropollutants in the presence of Scenedesmus obliquus.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03623-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Organic micropollutants (OMPs) need to be removed from wastewater as they can negatively affect aquatic organisms. It has been demonstrated that microalgae-based technologies are efficient in removing OMPs from wastewater. In this study, the removal processes and kinetics of six persistent OMPs (diclofenac, clarithromycin, benzotriazole, metoprolol, carbamazepine and mecoprop) were studied during cultivation of Scenedesmus obliquus in batch mode. These OMPs were added as individual compounds and in a mixture. Short experiments (8 days) were performed to avoid masking of OMP removal processes by light and nutrient limitation. The results show that diclofenac, clarithromycin, and benzotriazole were mainly removed by photodegradation (diclofenac), biodegradation (benzotriazole), or a combination of these two processes (clarithromycin). Peroxidase was involved in intracellular and extracellular biodegradation when benzotriazole was present as individual compound. Carbamazepine, metoprolol and mecoprop showed no biodegradation or photodegradation, and neglectable removal (<5%) by bioadsorption and bioaccumulation. Using an OMP mixture had an adverse effect on the photodegradation of clarithromycin and diclofenac, with reduced first-order kinetic constants compared to the individual compounds. Benzotriazole biodegradation was inhibited by the presence of the OMP mixture. This indicates that the presence of OMPs inhibits the photodegradation and biodegradation of some individual OMPs. These results will improve our understanding of removal processes of individual and mixtures of OMPs by microalgae-based technologies for wastewater treatment.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Ahmad M, Imtiaz M, Shoib Nawaz M, et al (2022)

What Did We Learn From Current Progress in Heat Stress Tolerance in Plants? Can Microbes Be a Solution?.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:794782.

Temperature is a significant parameter in agriculture since it controls seed germination and plant growth. Global warming has resulted in an irregular rise in temperature posing a serious threat to the agricultural production around the world. A slight increase in temperature acts as stress and exert an overall negative impact on different developmental stages including plant phenology, development, cellular activities, gene expression, anatomical features, the functional and structural orientation of leaves, twigs, roots, and shoots. These impacts ultimately decrease the biomass, affect reproductive process, decrease flowering and fruiting and significant yield losses. Plants have inherent mechanisms to cope with different stressors including heat which may vary depending upon the type of plant species, duration and degree of the heat stress. Plants initially adapt avoidance and then tolerance strategies to combat heat stress. The tolerance pathway involves ion transporter, osmoprotectants, antioxidants, heat shock protein which help the plants to survive under heat stress. To develop heat-tolerant plants using above-mentioned strategies requires a lot of time, expertise, and resources. On contrary, plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) is a cost-effective, time-saving, and user-friendly approach to support and enhance agricultural production under a range of environmental conditions including stresses. PGPR produce and regulate various phytohormones, enzymes, and metabolites that help plant to maintain growth under heat stress. They form biofilm, decrease abscisic acid, stimulate root development, enhance heat shock proteins, deamination of ACC enzyme, and nutrient availability especially nitrogen and phosphorous. Despite extensive work done on plant heat stress tolerance in general, very few comprehensive reviews are available on the subject especially the role of microbes for plant heat tolerance. This article reviews the current studies on the retaliation, adaptation, and tolerance to heat stress at the cellular, organellar, and whole plant levels, explains different approaches, and sheds light on how microbes can help to induce heat stress tolerance in plants.

RevDate: 2022-06-09

Lai P, Nguyen L, Okin D, et al (2022)

Metagenomic assessment of gut microbial communities and risk of severe COVID-19.

Research square.

The gut microbiome is a critical modulator of host immunity and is linked to the immune response to respiratory viral infections. However, few studies have gone beyond describing broad compositional alterations in severe COVID-19, defined as acute respiratory or other organ failure. We profiled 127 hospitalized patients with COVID-19 (n=79 with severe COVID-19 and 48 with moderate) who collectively provided 241 stool samples from April 2020 to May 2021 to identify links between COVID-19 severity and gut microbial taxa, their biochemical pathways, and stool metabolites. 48 species were associated with severe disease after accounting for antibiotic use, age, sex, and various comorbidities. These included significant in-hospital depletions of Fusicatenibacter saccharivorans and Roseburia hominis, each previously linked to post-acute COVID syndrome or "long COVID", suggesting these microbes may serve as early biomarkers for the eventual development of long COVID. A random forest classifier achieved excellent performance when tasked with predicting whether stool was obtained from patients with severe vs. moderate COVID-19. Dedicated network analyses demonstrated fragile microbial ecology in severe disease, characterized by fracturing of clusters and reduced negative selection. We also observed shifts in predicted stool metabolite pools, implicating perturbed bile acid metabolism in severe disease. Here, we show that the gut microbiome differentiates individuals with a more severe disease course after infection with COVID-19 and offer several tractable and biologically plausible mechanisms through which gut microbial communities may influence COVID-19 disease course. Further studies are needed to validate these observations to better leverage the gut microbiome as a potential biomarker for disease severity and as a target for therapeutic intervention.

RevDate: 2022-06-08

Suarez C, Sedlacek CJ, Gustavsson DJI, et al (2022)

Disturbance-based management of ecosystem services and disservices in partial nitritation-anammox biofilms.

NPJ biofilms and microbiomes, 8(1):47.

The resistance and resilience provided by functional redundancy, a common feature of microbial communities, is not always advantageous. An example is nitrite oxidation in partial nitritation-anammox (PNA) reactors designed for nitrogen removal in wastewater treatment, where suppression of nitrite oxidizers like Nitrospira is sought. In these ecosystems, biofilms provide microhabitats with oxygen gradients, allowing the coexistence of aerobic and anaerobic bacteria. We designed a disturbance experiment where PNA biofilms, treating water from a high-rate activated sludge process, were constantly or intermittently exposed to anaerobic sidestream wastewater, which has been proposed to inhibit nitrite oxidizers. With increasing sidestream exposure we observed decreased abundance, alpha-diversity, functional versatility, and hence functional redundancy, among Nitrospira in the PNA biofilms, while the opposite patterns were observed for anammox bacteria within Brocadia. At the same time, species turnover was observed for aerobic ammonia-oxidizing Nitrosomonas populations. The different exposure regimens were associated with metagenomic assembled genomes of Nitrosomonas, Nitrospira, and Brocadia, encoding genes related to N-cycling, substrate usage, and osmotic stress response, possibly explaining the three different patterns by niche differentiation. These findings imply that disturbances can be used to manage the functional redundancy of biofilm microbiomes in a desirable direction, which should be considered when designing operational strategies for wastewater treatment.

RevDate: 2022-06-08

Jammer A, Akhtar SS, Amby DB, et al (2022)

Enzyme activity profiling for physiological phenotyping within functional phenomics: plant growth and stress responses.

Journal of experimental botany pii:6604352 [Epub ahead of print].

High-throughput profiling of key enzyme activities of carbon, nitrogen, and antioxidant metabolism is emerging as a valuable approach to integrate cell physiological phenotyping into a holistic functional phenomics approach. However, the analyses of the large datasets generated by this method represent a bottleneck, often keeping researchers from exploiting the full potential of their studies. We address these limitations through the exemplary application of a set of data evaluation and visualisation tools within a case study. This includes the introduction of multivariate statistical analyses which can easily be implemented in similar studies, allowing researchers to extract more valuable information to identify enzymatic biosignatures. Through a literature meta-analysis, we demonstrate how enzyme activity profiling has already provided functional information on the mechanisms regulating plant development and response mechanisms to abiotic stress and pathogen attack. The high robustness of the distinct enzymatic biosignatures observed during developmental processes and under stress conditions underpins the enormous potential of enzyme activity profiling for future applications both in basic and applied research. Enzyme activity profiling will complement molecular -omics approaches to contribute to the mechanistic understanding required to narrow the genotype-to-phenotype knowledge gap and to identify predictive biomarkers for plant breeding to develop climate-resilient crops.

RevDate: 2022-06-07

Catania T, Li Y, Winzer T, et al (2022)

A functionally conserved STORR gene fusion in Papaver species that diverged 16.8 million years ago.

Nature communications, 13(1):3150.

The STORR gene fusion event is considered essential for the evolution of the promorphinan/morphinan subclass of benzylisoquinoline alkaloids (BIAs) in opium poppy as the resulting bi-modular protein performs the isomerization of (S)- to (R)-reticuline essential for their biosynthesis. Here, we show that of the 12 Papaver species analysed those containing the STORR gene fusion also contain promorphinans/morphinans with one important exception. P. californicum encodes a functionally conserved STORR but does not produce promorphinans/morphinans. We also show that the gene fusion event occurred only once, between 16.8-24.1 million years ago before the separation of P. californicum from other Clade 2 Papaver species. The most abundant BIA in P. californicum is (R)-glaucine, a member of the aporphine subclass of BIAs, raising the possibility that STORR, once evolved, contributes to the biosynthesis of more than just the promorphinan/morphinan subclass of BIAs in the Papaveraceae.

RevDate: 2022-06-07

Adedayo AA, Babalola OO, Prigent-Combaret C, et al (2022)

The application of plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in Solanum lycopersicum production in the agricultural system: a review.

PeerJ, 10:e13405 pii:13405.

Food safety is a significant challenge worldwide, from plantation to cultivation, especially for perishable products such as tomatoes. New eco-friendly strategies are needed, and beneficial microorganisms might be a sustainable solution. This study demonstrates bacteria activity in the tomato plant rhizosphere. Further, it investigates the rhizobacteria's structure, function, and diversity in soil. Rhizobacteria that promote the growth and development of tomato plants are referred to as plant growth-promoting bacteria (PGPR). They form a series of associations with plants and other organisms in the soil through a mutualistic relationship where both parties benefit from living together. It implies the antagonistic activities of the rhizobacteria to deter pathogens from invading tomato plants through their roots. Some PGPR are regarded as biological control agents that hinder the development of spoilage organisms and can act as an alternative for agricultural chemicals that may be detrimental to the health of humans, animals, and some of the beneficial microbes in the rhizosphere soil. These bacteria also help tomato plants acquire essential nutrients like potassium (K), magnesium (Mg), phosphorus (P), and nitrogen (N). Some rhizobacteria may offer a solution to low tomato production and help tackle food insecurity and farming problems. In this review, an overview of soil-inhabiting rhizobacteria focused on improving the sustainable production of Solanum lycopersicum.

RevDate: 2022-06-07

Green GBH, Williams MB, Chehade SB, et al (2022)

High-throughput amplicon sequencing datasets of the metacommunity DNA of the gut microbiota of Zebrafish Danio rerio fed diets with differential quantities of protein and fat contents.

Data in brief, 42:108313 pii:S2352-3409(22)00515-7.

In this paper, we present high-throughput amplicon sequence (HTS) datasets of the gut microbiota of male and female Zebrafish Danio rerio fed diets consisting of sub-optimal and above-optimal quantities of proteins and fats. The HTS datasets were generated using an Illumina MiSeq targeting the V4 hypervariable segment of the 16S rRNA gene. The raw sequence reads were quality checked, demultiplexed into FASTQ files, denoised using DADA2 (q2-dada2 denoise-paired), and subsampled. Taxonomic ids were then assigned to amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) against the silva-138-99-nb-classifier for taxonomic output using the Quantitative Insights Into Microbial Ecology (QIIME2 v2021.4). The resultant taxa list was generated at the phylum level to confirm the applicability of the HTS dataset using the "qiime taxa collapse" command. These HTS datasets of the metagenome can be accessed through the BioSample Submission Portal (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/bioproject/) under the BioProject IDs PRJNA772302 and PRJNA772305.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Berlanga-Clavero MV, Molina-Santiago C, Caraballo-Rodríguez AM, et al (2022)

Bacillus subtilis biofilm matrix components target seed oil bodies to promote growth and anti-fungal resistance in melon.

Nature microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Beneficial microorganisms are used to stimulate the germination of seeds; however, their growth-promoting mechanisms remain largely unexplored. Bacillus subtilis is commonly found in association with different plant organs, providing protection against pathogens or stimulating plant growth. We report that application of B. subtilis to melon seeds results in genetic and physiological responses in seeds that alter the metabolic and developmental status in 5-d and 1-month-old plants upon germination. We analysed mutants in different components of the extracellular matrix of B. subtilis biofilms in interaction with seeds and found cooperation in bacterial colonization of seed storage tissues and growth promotion. Combining confocal microscopy with fluorogenic probes, we found that two specific components of the extracellular matrix, amyloid protein TasA and fengycin, differentially increased the concentrations of reactive oxygen species inside seeds. Further, using electron and fluorescence microscopy and metabolomics, we showed that both TasA and fengycin targeted the oil bodies in the seed endosperm, resulting in specific changes in lipid metabolism and accumulation of glutathione-related molecules. In turn, this results in two different plant growth developmental programmes: TasA and fengycin stimulate the development of radicles, and fengycin alone stimulate the growth of adult plants and resistance in the phylloplane to the fungus Botrytis cinerea. Understanding mechanisms of bacterial growth promotion will enable the design of bespoke growth promotion strains.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Van Le A, Straub D, Planer-Friedrich B, et al (2022)

Microbial communities contribute to the elimination of As, Fe, Mn, and NH4+ from groundwater in household sand filters.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03593-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Household sand filters (SFs) are widely applied to remove iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), arsenic (As), and ammonium (NH4+) from groundwater in the Red River delta, Vietnam. Processes in the filters probably include a combination of biotic and abiotic reactions. However, there is limited information on the microbial communities treating varied groundwater compositions and on whether biological oxidation of Fe(II), Mn(II), As(III), and NH4+ contributes to the overall performance of SFs. We therefore analyzed the removal efficiencies, as well as the microbial communities and their potential activities, of SFs fed by groundwater with varying compositions from low (3.3 μg L-1) to high (600 μg L-1) As concentrations. The results revealed that Fe(II)-, Mn(II)-, NH4+-, and NO2--oxidizing microorganisms were prevalent and contributed to the performance of SFs. Additionally, groundwater composition was responsible for the differences among the present microbial communities. We found i) microaerophilic Fe(II) oxidation by Sideroxydans in all SFs, with the highest abundance in SFs fed by low-As and high-Fe groundwater, ii) Hyphomicropbiaceae as the main Mn(II)-oxidizers in all SFs, iii) As sequestration on formed Fe and Mn (oxyhydr)oxide minerals, iv) nitrification by ammonium-oxidizing archaea (AOA) followed by nitrite-oxidizing bacteria (NOB), and v) unexpectedly, the presence of a substantial amount of methane monooxygenase genes (pmoA), suggesting microbial methane oxidation taking place in SFs. Overall, our study revealed diverse microbial communities in SFs used for purifying arsenic-contaminated groundwater and our data indicate an important contribution of microbial activities to the key functional processes in SFs.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Boezen D, Ali G, Wang M, et al (2022)

Empirical estimates of the mutation rate for an alphabaculovirus.

PLoS genetics, 18(6):e1009806 pii:PGENETICS-D-21-01205 [Epub ahead of print].

Mutation rates are of key importance for understanding evolutionary processes and predicting their outcomes. Empirical mutation rate estimates are available for a number of RNA viruses, but few are available for DNA viruses, which tend to have larger genomes. Whilst some viruses have very high mutation rates, lower mutation rates are expected for viruses with large genomes to ensure genome integrity. Alphabaculoviruses are insect viruses with large genomes and often have high levels of polymorphism, suggesting high mutation rates despite evidence of proofreading activity by the replication machinery. Here, we report an empirical estimate of the mutation rate per base per strand copying (s/n/r) of Autographa californica multiple nucleopolyhedrovirus (AcMNPV). To avoid biases due to selection, we analyzed mutations that occurred in a stable, non-functional genomic insert after five serial passages in Spodoptera exigua larvae. Our results highlight that viral demography and the stringency of mutation calling affect mutation rate estimates, and that using a population genetic simulation model to make inferences can mitigate the impact of these processes on estimates of mutation rate. We estimated a mutation rate of μ = 1×10-7 s/n/r when applying the most stringent criteria for mutation calling, and estimates of up to μ = 5×10-7 s/n/r when relaxing these criteria. The rates at which different classes of mutations accumulate provide good evidence for neutrality of mutations occurring within the inserted region. We therefore present a robust approach for mutation rate estimation for viruses with stable genomes, and strong evidence of a much lower alphabaculovirus mutation rate than supposed based on the high levels of polymorphism observed.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Sun J, Li S, Fan C, et al (2022)

N-Acetylglucosamine Promotes Tomato Plant Growth by Shaping the Community Structure and Metabolism of the Rhizosphere Microbiome.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Communication between plants and microorganisms is vital because it influences their growth, development, defense, propagation, and metabolism in achieving maximal fitness. N-acetylglucosamine (N-GlcNAc), the building block of bacterial and fungal cell walls, was first reported to promote tomato plant growth via stimulation of microorganisms typically known to dominate the tomato root rhizosphere, such as members of Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria. Using KEGG pathway analysis of the rhizosphere microbial operational taxonomic units, the streptomycin biosynthesis pathway was enriched in the presence of N-GlcNAc. The biosynthesis of 3-hydroxy-2-butanone (acetoin) and 2,3-butanediol, two foremost types of plant growth promotion-related volatile organic compounds, were activated in both Bacillus subtilis and Streptomyces thermocarboxydus strains when they were cocultured with N-GlcNAc. In addition, the application of N-GlcNAc increased indole-3-acetic acid production in a dose-dependent manner in strains of Bacillus cereus, Proteus mirabilis, Pseudomonas putida, and S. thermocarboxydus that were isolated from an N-GlcNAc-treated tomato rhizosphere. Overall, this study found that N-GlcNAc could function as microbial signaling molecules to shape the community structure and metabolism of the rhizosphere microbiome, thereby regulating plant growth and development and preventing plant disease through complementary plant-microbe interactions. IMPORTANCE While the benefits of using plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria (PGPRs) to enhance crop production have been recognized and studied extensively under laboratory conditions, the success of their application in the field varies immensely. More fundamentally explicit processes of positive, plant-PGPRs interactions are needed. The utilization of organic amendments, such as chitin and its derivatives, is one of the most economical and practical options for improving soil and substrate quality as well as plant growth and resilience. In this study, we observed that the chitin monomer N-GlcNAc, a key microbial signaling molecule produced through interactions between chitin, soil microbes, and the plants, positively shaped the community structure and metabolism of the rhizosphere microbiome of tomatoes. Our findings also provide a new direction for enhancing the benefits and stability of PGPRs in the field.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Yu Y, van der Zwaag M, Wedman JJ, et al (2022)

Coenzyme A precursors flow from mother to zygote and from microbiome to host.

Molecular cell pii:S1097-2765(22)00440-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Coenzyme A (CoA) is essential for metabolism and protein acetylation. Current knowledge holds that each cell obtains CoA exclusively through biosynthesis via the canonical five-step pathway, starting with pantothenate uptake. However, recent studies have suggested the presence of additional CoA-generating mechanisms, indicating a more complex system for CoA homeostasis. Here, we uncovered pathways for CoA generation through inter-organismal flows of CoA precursors. Using traceable compounds and fruit flies with a genetic block in CoA biosynthesis, we demonstrate that progeny survive embryonal and early larval development by obtaining CoA precursors from maternal sources. Later in life, the microbiome can provide the essential CoA building blocks to the host, enabling continuation of normal development. A flow of stable, long-lasting CoA precursors between living organisms is revealed. This indicates the presence of complex strategies to maintain CoA homeostasis.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Schmid K, Reis-Filho JA, Loiola M, et al (2022)

Habitat-specific fish fauna responses to different management regimes in the largest coral reef complex in the South Atlantic.

Marine environmental research, 178:105661 pii:S0141-1136(22)00106-4 [Epub ahead of print].

While marine protected areas (MPAs) are increasing worldwide, it is still needed to assess the effectiveness of those already consolidated. Methods and ecological assessments to understanding integrated and habitat-specific management regimes are still scarce and insufficient for policy implications and biodiversity conservation. Through Baited Remote Underwater Video (BRUV), we used fish assemblages as proxy of ecological and managerial status in two reef habitat types along three protection levels at Abrolhos Bank - the largest and most biodiverse coral reef complex of the South Atlantic. We found completely distinct responses in the fish fauna between the top (shallow) and bottom (deep) habitats of the unique "chapeirões" pinnacle reef formations. In the most protected zone (no-take), higher richness and abundance of commercial fish and more diverse trophic structure was observed. Particularly, large (sharks and groupers) and small carnivores (snappers) were more abundant and distributed more homogeneously over both reef habitats in the strictly enforced no-take zone. Abundance of these top-predators decreased from the low enforcement no-take zone to the multiple use area, where they were often absent while their typical preys (primary and secondary consumers) were thriving, notably in the top habitats. These outcomes highlight the importance to focus investigations not selectively on a single habitat type or depth zone in order to properly assess MPA effectiveness. Consequently, the monitoring and protection of fish species supported by marine spatial planning may benefit from an improved understanding of ecological functioning provided by MPA performance.

RevDate: 2022-06-06

Pensky J, Fisher AT, Gorski G, et al (2022)

Enhanced cycling of nitrogen and metals during rapid infiltration: Implications for managed recharge.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)03536-7 [Epub ahead of print].

We present results from a series of plot-scale field experiments to quantify physical infiltration dynamics and the influence of adding a carbon-rich, permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for the cycling of nitrogen and associated trace metals during rapid infiltration for managed aquifer recharge (MAR). Recent studies suggest that adding a bio-available carbon source to soils can enhance denitrification rates and associated N load reduction during moderate-to-rapid infiltration (≤1 m/day). We examined the potential for N removal during faster infiltration (>1 m/day), through coarse and carbon-poor soils, and how adding a carbon-rich PRB (wood chips) affects subsurface redox conditions and trace metal mobilization. During rapid infiltration, plots amended with a carbon-rich PRB generally demonstrated modest increases in subsurface loads of dissolved organic carbon, nitrite, manganese and iron, decreases in loads of nitrate and ammonium, and variable changes in arsenic. These trends differed considerably from those seen during infiltration through native soil without a carbon-rich PRB. Use of a carbon-rich soil amendment increased the fraction of dissolved N species that was removed at equivalent inflowing N loads. There is evidence that N removal took place primarily via denitrification. Shifts in microbial ecology following infiltration in all of the plots included increases in the relative abundances of microbes in the families Comamonadaceae, Pseudomonadaceae, Methylophilaceae, Rhodocyclaceae and Sphingomonadaceae, all of which contain genera capable of carrying out denitrification. These results, in combination with studies that have tested other soil types, flow rates, and system scales, show how water quality can be improved during infiltration for managed recharge, even during rapid infiltration, with a carbon-rich soil amendment.

RevDate: 2022-06-07

Chiriac MC, Bulzu PA, Andrei AS, et al (2022)

Ecogenomics sheds light on diverse lifestyle strategies in freshwater CPR.

Microbiome, 10(1):84.

BACKGROUND: The increased use of metagenomics and single-cell genomics led to the discovery of organisms from phyla with no cultivated representatives and proposed new microbial lineages such as the candidate phyla radiation (CPR or Patescibacteria). These bacteria have peculiar ribosomal structures, reduced metabolic capacities, small genome, and cell sizes, and a general host-associated lifestyle was proposed for the radiation. So far, most CPR genomes were obtained from groundwaters; however, their diversity, abundance, and role in surface freshwaters is largely unexplored. Here, we attempt to close these knowledge gaps by deep metagenomic sequencing of 119 samples of 17 different freshwater lakes located in Europe and Asia. Moreover, we applied Fluorescence in situ Hybridization followed by Catalyzed Reporter Deposition (CARD-FISH) for a first visualization of distinct CPR lineages in freshwater samples.

RESULTS: A total of 174 dereplicated metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) of diverse CPR lineages were recovered from the investigated lakes, with a higher prevalence from hypolimnion samples (162 MAGs). They have reduced genomes (median size 1 Mbp) and were generally found in low abundances (0.02-14.36 coverage/Gb) and with estimated slow replication rates. The analysis of genomic traits and CARD-FISH results showed that the radiation is an eclectic group in terms of metabolic capabilities and potential lifestyles, ranging from what appear to be free-living lineages to host- or particle-associated groups. Although some complexes of the electron transport chain were present in the CPR MAGs, together with ion-pumping rhodopsins and heliorhodopsins, we believe that they most probably adopt a fermentative metabolism. Terminal oxidases might function in O2 scavenging, while heliorhodopsins could be involved in mitigation against oxidative stress.

CONCLUSIONS: A high diversity of CPR MAGs was recovered, and distinct CPR lineages did not seem to be limited to lakes with specific trophic states. Their reduced metabolic capacities resemble the ones described for genomes in groundwater and animal-associated samples, apart from Gracilibacteria that possesses more complete metabolic pathways. Even though this radiation is mostly host-associated, we also observed organisms from different clades (ABY1, Paceibacteria, Saccharimonadia) that appear to be unattached to any other organisms or were associated with 'lake snow' particles (ABY1, Gracilibacteria), suggesting a broad range of potential life-strategies in this phylum. Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-06-06
CmpDate: 2022-06-06

Morelli G, Patuzzi I, Losasso C, et al (2022)

Characterization of intestinal microbiota in normal weight and overweight Border Collie and Labrador Retriever dogs.

Scientific reports, 12(1):9199.

Obesity in dogs is an emerging issue that affects canine health and well-being. Its development is ascribed to several factors, including genetic predisposition and dietary management, and recent evidence suggests that intestinal microbiota may be involved as well. Previous works have shown obesity to be linked to significant changes in gut microbiota composition in humans and mice, but only limited information is available on the role played by canine gut microbiota. The aim of this exploratory study was to investigate whether composition of canine faecal microbiota may be influenced by overweight condition and breed. All the enrolled companion dogs were young adults, intact, healthy, and fed commercial extruded pet food; none had received antibiotics, probiotics or immunosuppressant drugs in the previous six months. Labrador Retriever (LR) and Border Collie (BC) were chosen as reference breeds and Body Condition Score (BCS) on a 9-point scale as reference method for evaluating body fat. The faecal microbial communities of 15 lean (BCS 4-5/9; 7 LRs and 8 BCs) and 14 overweight (BCS > 5/9; 8 LRs and 6 BCs) family dogs were analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing. Moreover, for each dog, the daily intake of energy (kcal/d) and dietary macronutrients (g/d) were calculated according to an accurate feeding history collection. Firmicutes and Bacteroidetes resulted the predominant phyla (51.5 ± 10.0% and 33.4 ± 8.5%, respectively) in all dogs. Bioinformatic and statistical analysis revealed that no bacterial taxon differed significantly based on body condition, except for genus Allisonella (p < 0.05); BC gut microbiota was richer (p < 0.05) in bacteria belonging to phyla Actinobacteria (family Coriobacteriaceae in particular) and Firmicutes (Allobaculum and Roseburia genera). No remarkable differences were recorded either for diversity indices (i.e., alpha diversity, p > 0.10) or for divergence within the sample set (i.e., beta diversity, p > 0.05). PERMANOVA tests performed on single factors demonstrated the tendency of dietary protein to influence the recruited dogs' microbiota beta-diversity at amplicon sequence variant level (p = 0.08). In conclusion, the faecal microbiota of dogs involved in this exploratory study showed no major variations based on body condition. However, our findings suggested that certain bacterial taxa previously acknowledged in obesity-related studies may be detected in dissimilar amounts depending on canine breed.

RevDate: 2022-06-06
CmpDate: 2022-06-06

de la Fuente Cantó C, Diouf MN, Ndour PMS, et al (2022)

Genetic control of rhizosheath formation in pearl millet.

Scientific reports, 12(1):9205.

The rhizosheath, the layer of soil that adheres strongly to roots, influences water and nutrients acquisition. Pearl millet is a cereal crop that plays a major role for food security in arid regions of sub-Saharan Africa and India. We previously showed that root-adhering soil mass is a heritable trait in pearl millet and that it correlates with changes in rhizosphere microbiota structure and functions. Here, we studied the correlation between root-adhering soil mass and root hair development, root architecture, and symbiosis with arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi and we analysed the genetic control of this trait using genome wide association (GWAS) combined with bulk segregant analysis and gene expression studies. Root-adhering soil mass was weakly correlated only to root hairs traits in pearl millet. Twelve QTLs for rhizosheath formation were identified by GWAS. Bulk segregant analysis on a biparental population validated five of these QTLs. Combining genetics with a comparison of global gene expression in the root tip of contrasted inbred lines revealed candidate genes that might control rhizosheath formation in pearl millet. Our study indicates that rhizosheath formation is under complex genetic control in pearl millet and suggests that it is mainly regulated by root exudation.

RevDate: 2022-06-02

Monroy S, Larrañaga A, Martínez A, et al (2022)

Temperature Sensitivity of Microbial Litter Decomposition in Freshwaters: Role of Leaf Litter Quality and Environmental Characteristics.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Ongoing global warming is expected to alter temperature-dependent processes. Nevertheless, how co-occurring local drivers will influence temperature sensitivity of plant litter decomposition in lotic ecosystems remains uncertain. Here, we examined the temperature sensitivity of microbial-mediated decomposition, microbial respiration, fungal biomass and leaf nutrients of two plant species varying in litter quality. We also assessed whether the type of microbial community and stream water characteristics influence such responses to temperature. We incubated alder (Alnus glutinosa) and eucalypt (Eucalyptus globulus) litter discs in three streams differing in autumn-winter water temperature (range 4.6-8.9 °C). Simultaneously, in laboratory microcosms, litter discs microbially conditioned in these streams were incubated at 5, 10 and 15 °C with water from the conditioning stream and with a water control from an additional stream. Both in the field and in the laboratory, higher temperatures enhanced litter decomposition rates, except for eucalypt in the field. Leaf quality modified the response of decomposition to temperature in the field, with eucalypt leaf litter showing a lower increase, whereas it did not in the laboratory. The origin of microbial community only affected the decomposition rates in the laboratory, but it did not modify the response to temperature. Water quality only defined the phosphorus content of the leaf litter or the fungal biomass, but it did not modify the response to temperature. Our results suggest that the acceleration in decomposition by global warming will be shaped by local factors, mainly by leaf litter quality, in headwater streams.

RevDate: 2022-06-03

Meena M, Yadav G, Sonigra P, et al (2022)

Multifarious Responses of Forest Soil Microbial Community Toward Climate Change.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Forest soils are a pressing subject of worldwide research owing to the several roles of forests such as carbon sinks. Currently, the living soil ecosystem has become dreadful as a consequence of several anthropogenic activities including climate change. Climate change continues to transform the living soil ecosystem as well as the soil microbiome of planet Earth. The majority of studies have aimed to decipher the role of forest soil bacteria and fungi to understand and predict the impact of climate change on soil microbiome community structure and their ecosystem in the environment. In forest soils, microorganisms live in diverse habitats with specific behavior, comprising bulk soil, rhizosphere, litter, and deadwood habitats, where their communities are influenced by biotic interactions and nutrient accessibility. Soil microbiome also drives multiple crucial steps in the nutrient biogeochemical cycles (carbon, nitrogen, phosphorous, and sulfur cycles). Soil microbes help in the nitrogen cycle through nitrogen fixation during the nitrogen cycle and maintain the concentration of nitrogen in the atmosphere. Soil microorganisms in forest soils respond to various effects of climate change, for instance, global warming, elevated level of CO2, drought, anthropogenic nitrogen deposition, increased precipitation, and flood. As the major burning issue of the globe, researchers are facing the major challenges to study soil microbiome. This review sheds light on the current scenario of knowledge about the effect of climate change on living soil ecosystems in various climate-sensitive soil ecosystems and the consequences for vegetation-soil-climate feedbacks.

RevDate: 2022-06-03

Wang Y, Tian L, Sun L, et al (2022)

Gut Microbes in Immunoglobulin A Nephropathy and Their Potential Therapeutic Applications.

Frontiers in medicine, 9:823267.

Microbial ecosystem consists of a complex community of bacterial interactions and its host microenvironment (tissue, cell, metabolite). Because the interaction between gut microbiota and host involves many diseases and seriously affects human health, the study of the interaction mechanism between gut microbiota and host has attracted great attention. The gut microbiome is made up of 100 trillion bacteria that have both beneficial and adverse effects on human health. The development of IgA Nephropathy results in changes in the intestinal microbial ecosystem that affect host physiology and health. Similarly, changes in intestinal microbiota also affect the development of IgA Nephropathy. Thus, the gut microbiome represents a novel therapeutic target for improving the outcome of IgA Nephropathy, including hematuria symptoms and disease progression. In this review, we summarize the effect of intestinal microbiota on IgA Nephropathy in recent years and it has been clarified that the intestinal microbiota has a great influence on the pathogenesis and treatment of IgA Nephropathy.

RevDate: 2022-06-02

Behairi S, Baha N, Barakat M, et al (2022)

Bacterial diversity and community structure in the rhizosphere of the halophyte Halocnemum strobilaceum in an Algerian arid saline soil.

Extremophiles : life under extreme conditions, 26(2):18.

Hypersaline ecosystems host a particular microbiota, which can be specifically recruited by halophytes. In order to broaden our knowledge of hypersaline ecosystems, an in natura study was conducted on the microbiota associated with the halophyte Halocnemum strobilaceum from alkaline-saline arid soil in Algeria. We collected and identified a total of 414 strains isolated from root tissues (RT), root-adhering soil (RAS), non-adhering rhizospheric soil (NARS) and bulk soil (BS) using different NaCl concentrations. Our data showed that halophilic and halotolerant bacterial isolates in BS and the rhizosphere belonged to 32 genera distributed in Proteobacteria (49%), Firmicutes (36%), Actinobacteria (14%) and Bacteroidetes (1%). Bacterial population size and species diversity were greatly increased in the rhizosphere (factor 100). The reservoir of diversity in BS was dominated by the genera Bacillus and Halomonas. Bacillus/Halomonas ratio decreased with the proximity to the roots from 2.2 in BS to 0.3 at the root surface. Salt screening of the strains showed that species belonging to nine genera were able to grow up to 5.1 M NaCl. Thus, we found that H. strobilaceum exerted a strong effect on the diversity of the recruited microbiota with an affinity strongly attributed to the genus Halomonas.

RevDate: 2022-06-02

Lürling M, Mucci M, GB Douglas (2022)

Response to "Risk of Collapse in Water Quality in the Guandu River (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil)" by Bacha et al., Published Online 23 August 2021, Microbial Ecology, 10.1007/s00248-021-01,839-z.

RevDate: 2022-06-02

Smercina DN, Kim YM, Lipton MS, et al (2022)

Bulk and Spatially Resolved Extracellular Metabolome of Free-Living Nitrogen Fixation.

Applied and environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Soil nitrogen (N) transformations constrain terrestrial net primary productivity and are driven by the activity of soil microorganisms. Free-living N fixation (FLNF) is an important soil N transformation and key N input to terrestrial systems, but the forms of N contributed to soil by FLNF are poorly understood. To address this knowledge gap, a focus on microorganisms and microbial scale processes is needed that links N-fixing bacteria and their contributed N sources to FLNF process rates. However, studying the activity of soil microorganisms in situ poses inherent challenges, including differences in sampling scale between microorganism and process rates, which can be addressed with culture-based studies and an emphasis on microbial-scale measurements. Culture conditions can differ significantly from soil conditions, so it also important that such studies include multiple culture conditions like liquid and solid media as proxies for soil environments like soil pore water and soil aggregate surfaces. Here we characterized extracellular N-containing metabolites produced by two common, diazotrophic soil bacteria in liquid and solid media, with or without N, across two sampling scales (bulk via GC-MS and spatially resolved via MALDI mass spec imaging). We found extracellular production of inorganic and organic N during FLNF, indicating terrestrial N contributions from FLNF occur in multiple forms not only as ammonium as previously thought. Extracellular metabolite profiles differed between liquid and solid media supporting previous work indicating environmental structure influences microbial function. Metabolite profiles also differed between sampling scales underscoring the need to quantify microbial scale conditions to accurately interpret microbial function. IMPORTANCE Free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria contribute significantly to terrestrial nitrogen availability; however, the forms of nitrogen contributed by this process are poorly understood. This is in part because of inherent challenges to studying soil microorganisms in situ, such as vast differences in scale between microorganism and ecosystem and complexities of the soil system (e.g., opacity, chemical complexity). Thus, upscaling important ecosystem processes driven by soil microorganisms, like free-living nitrogen fixation, requires microbial-scale measurements in controlled systems. Our work generated bulk and spatially resolved measurements of nitrogen released during free-living nitrogen fixation under two contrasting growth conditions analogous to soil pores and aggregates. This work allowed us to determine that diverse forms of nitrogen are likely contributed to terrestrial systems by free-living nitrogen bacteria. We also demonstrated that microbial habitat (e.g., liquid versus solid media) alters microbial activity and that measurement of microbial activity is altered by sampling scale (e.g., bulk versus spatially resolved) highlighting the critical importance of quantifying microbial-scale processes to upscaling of ecosystem function.

RevDate: 2022-06-02

Huang R, Shen L, Yu H, et al (2022)

Evaluation of rain-shelter cultivation mode effects on microbial diversity during Cabernet Sauvignon (Vitis vinifera L.) maturation in Jingyang, Shaanxi, China.

Food research international (Ottawa, Ont.), 156:111165.

Rainfall particularly under continental climates with monsoonal tendency impacts the vineyard microbial niches during grapevine growth. With microbial community shifts, vine traits (grape flavor and yield) cultivated/protected under rain-shelter may ultimately be altered. Such cultivation may influence microflora dynamics via meteorological parameter variations, however this is unclear yet. Here, we used Cabernet Sauvignon, a prevalent red cultivar among wine growing regions, to evaluate the effects of the rain-shelter cultivation on the microorganism diversity. We found that average air temperature under rain-shelter conditions was 2-3 °C higher than the non-covered group, while air humidity the maximum reduction was 5.79% (p < 0.05). After grape setting stage, similar trends were observed on soil temperature (increased) and humidity (lowered) under the treatments (p < 0.05). UV and precipitation of rain-shelter treatment were less by a total of 72% and 96%, respectively (p < 0.05). The rain-shelter management presented lower fungal and bacterial OTUs. The fungal alpha diversity on leaves and branches under rain-shelter was lower (p < 0.05) than the control as the grape ripeness, with Ascomycota, Mycosphaerella and Cladosporium as the principal fungi. Our results revealed that the fungal microbiota patterns were differentiated by the cultivations from setting stage to the entire véraison and then tended to be similar at harvesting. Only branch fungal patterns were observed asymmetrically at all stages. Meanwhile, bacterial diversity and distribution varied on colonization locations where Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were the primary bacteria phyla. Bacterial community structures overlapped at harvest, while the differences were observed between two cultivations at other stages, excluding grape berry. The rain-shelter cultivation reduced the abundance of Alternaria and Colletotrichum that may adversely affect grapevine health. Multivariate statistical analysis suggested that the effect of vineyard microclimate on microbiota distribution and succession were influenced by cultivation modes and grapevine developmental stages. This research provides evidence to address the dynamics of microbial ecology from vineyard to grape under rain-shelter cultivation, and its benefits as a sustainable vineyard management.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Ren Z, Ma K, Jia X, et al (2022)

Metagenomics Unveils Microbial Diversity and Their Biogeochemical Roles in Water and Sediment of Thermokarst Lakes in the Yellow River Source Area.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Thermokarst lakes have long been recognized as biogeochemical hotspots, especially as sources of greenhouse gases. On the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau, thermokarst lakes are experiencing extensive changes due to faster warming. For a deep understanding of internal lake biogeochemical processes, we applied metagenomic analyses to investigate the microbial diversity and their biogeochemical roles in sediment and water of thermokarst lakes in the Yellow River Source Area (YRSA). Sediment microbial communities (SMCs) had lower species and gene richness than water microbial communities (WMCs). Bacteria were the most abundant component in both SMCs and WMCs with significantly different abundant genera. The functional analyses showed that both SMCs and WMCs had low potential in methanogenesis but strong in aerobic respiration, nitrogen assimilation, exopolyphosphatase, glycerophosphodiester phosphodiesterases, and polyphosphate kinase. Moreover, SMCs were enriched in genes involved in anaerobic carbon fixation, aerobic carbon fixation, fermentation, most nitrogen metabolism pathways, dissimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfide oxidation, polysulfide reduction, 2-phosphonopropionate transporter, and phosphate regulation. WMCs were enriched in genes involved in assimilatory sulfate reduction, sulfur mineralization, phosphonoacetate hydrolase, and phosphonate transport. Functional potentials suggest the differences of greenhouse gas emission, nutrient cycling, and living strategies between SMCs and WMCs. This study provides insight into the main biogeochemical processes and their properties in thermokarst lakes in YRSA, improving our understanding of the roles and fates of these lakes in a warming world.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Ma M, Chen X, Li S, et al (2022)

Composition and Diversity of Gut Bacterial Community in Different Life Stages of a Leaf Beetle Gastrolina depressa.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Insect gut bacteria have a significant impact on host biology, which has a favorable or negative impact on insect fitness. The walnut leaf beetle (Gastrolina depressa) is a notorious pest in China, causing severe damage to Juglandaceae trees including Juglans regia and Pterocarya rhoifolia. To date, however, we know surprisingly little about the gut microbiota of G. depressa. This study used a high-throughput sequencing platform to investigate the gut bacterial community of G. depressa throughout its life cycle, including the 1st, 2nd, and 3rd instar larvae, as well as male, female, and pre-pregnant female adults. Our results showed that the diversity of the gut bacterial community in larvae was generally higher than that in adults, and young larvae (1st and 2nd larvae) possessed the most diversified and abundant community. Principal coordinate analysis results showed that the gut microbiota of adults cluster together, which is independent of the 1st and 2nd instar larvae. The main phyla were Proteobacteria and Firmicutes in the microbial community of G. depressa, while the dominant genera were Enterobacter, Rosenbergiella, Erwinia, Pseudomonas, and Lactococcus. The gut bacteria of G. depressa were mostly enriched in metabolic pathways (carbohydrate metabolism and amino acid metabolism) as revealed by functional prediction. This study contributes to a better knowledge of G. depressa's gut microbiota and its potential interactions with the host insect, facilitating the development of a microbial-based pest management strategy.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Doniger T, Kerfahi D, Wachtel C, et al (2022)

Plant Gender Affects Soil Fungal Microbiota Associated with Welwitschia mirabilis, an Unusual Desert Gymnosperm.

Microbial ecology [Epub ahead of print].

In a recent study, we found a distinct soil bacterial community associated with male and female plants of the desert gymnosperm Welwitschia mirabilis. In this subsequent study, we also found that the soil fungal community associated with Welwitschia differs between male and female plants, and between unvegetated areas and the soil under plants. Site location, pH, and soil moisture also had an important influence on the composition of the fungal community. A number of Ascomycota and Chytrid species were found to be distinct indicators of male and female plants, respectively, but there was no overall difference at the phylum level or in terms of diversity. The unvegetated areas between plants also differed in terms of several Ascomycota OTUs. Network connectivity of the fungal communities was found to be higher under both male and female Welwitschia plants than in unvegetated control areas. As with the bacterial community, it is unclear what processes produce the gender-distinct fungal community, and also the more general plant-associated community, and also what the effects on the biology of the plants are. One possibility behind the gender-related difference in fungal community is that there are differences in the production of pollen or nectar between the two plant genders, affecting the below-ground soil community.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Zhi W, Song W, Abdi Saed Y, et al (2022)

Fecal Capsule as a Therapeutic Strategy in IgA Nephropathy: A Brief Report.

Frontiers in medicine, 9:914250.

In this brief report, we reported an IgA nephropathy (IgAN) patient who presented in November 2020 with an acute exacerbation with massive proteinuria and diarrhea. He had the earliest onset in 2018 when his IgAN was diagnosed by renal biopsy. He has been treated with active ACEI/ARB drugs for more than 90 days, intermittent steroid therapy, combined with anti-infective therapy. Although his acute symptoms resolved with each episode, he became increasingly severe as the interval between episodes shortened. Accordingly, the immunosuppressive drugs were administered under the KDIGO guidelines and related guidelines. However, the patient and his family refused this treatment. We pondered over the possible pathogenesis of IgAN, and after a full discussion with the patient and his family, FMT was administered to him after obtaining his informed consent. During the FMT procedure, one healthy volunteer (the doctor himself) also took the FMT capsules. In the end, the patient's urine protein dropped significantly and even turned negative after treatment. Neither the patient nor the healthy volunteer experienced any serious adverse effects during the use of the capsules and the subsequent 6-month follow-up period. We also used metagenomic sequencing to analyze the intestinal flora of patients before and after treatment, and a gradual increase stood out in the abundance of the patient's intestinal flora after drug administration.

RevDate: 2022-06-01

Yang I, Claussen H, Arthur RA, et al (2022)

Subgingival Microbiome in Pregnancy and a Potential Relationship to Early Term Birth.

Frontiers in cellular and infection microbiology, 12:873683.

Background: Periodontal disease in pregnancy is considered a risk factor for adverse birth outcomes. Periodontal disease has a microbial etiology, however, the current state of knowledge about the subgingival microbiome in pregnancy is not well understood.

Objective: To characterize the structure and diversity of the subgingival microbiome in early and late pregnancy and explore relationships between the subgingival microbiome and preterm birth among pregnant Black women.

Methods: This longitudinal descriptive study used 16S rRNA sequencing to profile the subgingival microbiome of 59 Black women and describe microbial ecology using alpha and beta diversity metrics. We also compared microbiome features across early (8-14 weeks) and late (24-30 weeks) gestation overall and according to gestational age at birth outcomes (spontaneous preterm, spontaneous early term, full term).

Results: In this sample of Black pregnant women, the top twenty bacterial taxa represented in the subgingival microbiome included a spectrum representative of various stages of biofilm progression leading to periodontal disease, including known periopathogens Porphyromonas gingivalis and Tannerella forsythia. Other organisms associated with periodontal disease reflected in the subgingival microbiome included several Prevotella spp., and Campylobacter spp. Measures of alpha or beta diversity did not distinguish the subgingival microbiome of women according to early/late gestation or full term/spontaneous preterm birth; however, alpha diversity differences in late pregnancy between women who spontaneously delivered early term and women who delivered full term were identified. Several taxa were also identified as being differentially abundant according to early/late gestation, and full term/spontaneous early term births.

Conclusions: Although the composition of the subgingival microbiome is shifted toward complexes associated with periodontal disease, the diversity of the microbiome remains stable throughout pregnancy. Several taxa were identified as being associated with spontaneous early term birth. Two, in particular, are promising targets of further investigation. Depletion of the oral commensal Lautropia mirabilis in early pregnancy and elevated levels of Prevotella melaninogenica in late pregnancy were both associated with spontaneous early term birth.

LOAD NEXT 100 CITATIONS

RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

Support this website:
Order from Amazon
We will earn a commission.

This book covers the ecological activities of microbes in the biosphere with an emphasis on microbial interactions within their environments and communities In thirteen concise and timely chapters, Microbial Ecology presents a broad overview of this rapidly growing field, explaining the basic principles in an easy-to-follow manner. Using an integrative approach, it comprehensively covers traditional issues in ecology as well as cutting-edge content at the intersection of ecology, microbiology,

963 Red Tail Lane
Bellingham, WA 98226

206-300-3443

E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )