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14 Oct 2019 at 01:30
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Bibliography on: Did Mendel Cheat? (related papers)


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 14 Oct 2019 at 01:30 Created: 

Did Mendel Cheat? (related papers)

Created with PubMed® Query: 26450195[PMID] OR 17893069[PMID] OR 2085640[PMID] OR 27578843[PMID] OR 15082535[PMID] OR 15082533[PMID] OR 11353700[PMID] OR 17384156[PMID] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

RevDate: 2019-09-03

Kreplak J, Madoui MA, Cápal P, et al (2019)

A reference genome for pea provides insight into legume genome evolution.

Nature genetics, 51(9):1411-1422.

We report the first annotated chromosome-level reference genome assembly for pea, Gregor Mendel's original genetic model. Phylogenetics and paleogenomics show genomic rearrangements across legumes and suggest a major role for repetitive elements in pea genome evolution. Compared to other sequenced Leguminosae genomes, the pea genome shows intense gene dynamics, most likely associated with genome size expansion when the Fabeae diverged from its sister tribes. During Pisum evolution, translocation and transposition differentially occurred across lineages. This reference sequence will accelerate our understanding of the molecular basis of agronomically important traits and support crop improvement.

RevDate: 2019-09-03

Anonymous (2019)

Mendel for the modern era.

Nature genetics, 51(9):1297.

RevDate: 2019-08-18

Kennedy-Shaffer L (2019)

Before p < 0.05 to Beyond p < 0.05: Using History to Contextualize p-Values and Significance Testing.

The American statistician, 73(Suppl 1):82-90.

As statisticians and scientists consider a world beyond p < 0.05, it is important to not lose sight of how we got to this point. Although significance testing and p-values are often presented as prescriptive procedures, they came about through a process of refinement and extension to other disciplines. Ronald A. Fisher and his contemporaries formalized these methods in the early twentieth century and Fisher's 1925 Statistical Methods for Research Workers brought the techniques to experimentalists in a variety of disciplines. Understanding how these methods arose, spread, and were argued over since then illuminates how p < 0.05 came to be a standard for scientific inference, the advantage it offered at the time, and how it was interpreted. This historical perspective can inform the work of statisticians today by encouraging thoughtful consideration of how their work, including proposed alternatives to the p-value, will be perceived and used by scientists. And it can engage students more fully and encourage critical thinking rather than rote applications of formulae. Incorporating history enables students, practitioners, and statisticians to treat the discipline as an ongoing endeavor, crafted by fallible humans, and provides a deeper understanding of the subject and its consequences for science and society.

RevDate: 2019-10-01

Rodgers JL, Garrison SM, O'Keefe P, et al (2019)

Responding to a 100-Year-Old Challenge from Fisher: A Biometrical Analysis of Adult Height in the NLSY Data Using Only Cousin Pairs.

Behavior genetics, 49(5):444-454.

In 1918, Fisher suggested that his research team had consistently found inflated cousin correlations. He also commented that because a cousin sample with minimal selection bias was not available the cause of the inflation could not be addressed, leaving this inflation as a challenge still to be solved. In the National Longitudinal Survey of Youth (the NLSY79, the NLSY97, and the NLSY-Children/Young Adult datasets), there are thousands of available cousin pairs. Those in the NLSYC/YA are obtained approximately without selection. In this paper, we address Fisher's challenge using these data. Further, we also evaluate the possibility of fitting ACE models using only cousin pairs, including full cousins, half-cousins, and quarter-cousins. To have any chance at success in such a restricted kinship domain requires an available and highly-reliable phenotype; we use adult height in our analysis. Results provide a possible answer to Fisher's challenge, and demonstrate the potential for using cousin pairs in a stand-alone analysis (as well as in combination with other biometrical designs).

RevDate: 2019-08-13

Lewens T (2019)

Neo-Paleyan biology.

Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences, 76:101185.

There is a 'Neo-Paleyan' tradition in British evolutionary theorising, which began with Darwin and continues to the present day. This tradition conceives of adaptation in terms of design, and it often puts natural selection in the role of an ersatz designer. There are significant disanalogies between Paleyan conceptions of design and modern conceptions of adaptation and selection, which help to explain why the neo-Paleyan programme is sometimes treated with hostility. These general disanalogies do not suffice to dismiss the most interesting forms of recent neo-Paleyanism, which draw on theoretical principles such as Fisher's Fundamental Theorem to ground a general approach to what we can call (following Grafen) the 'criterion' of evolutionary design. It is important to distinguish between justifications of this 'criterion' and justifications of approaches to nature which presuppose that natural selection produces good designs.

RevDate: 2019-08-18

Szabó AT, P Poczai (2019)

The emergence of genetics from Festetics' sheep through Mendel's peas to Bateson's chickens.

Journal of genetics, 98(2):.

It is now common knowledge-but also a misbelief-that in 1905 William Bateson coined the term 'genetics' for the first time in his letter to Adam Sedgwick. This important term was already formulated 81 years ago in a paper written by a sheepbreeding noble called Imre (Emmerich) Festetics, who still remains somewhat mysterious even today. The articles written by Festetics summarized the results of a series of lasting and elegant breeding experiments he had conducted on his own property. Selecting the best rams, Festetics had painstakingly crossed and backcrossed his best sheep to reach better wool quality. These experiments later turned out to reveal a better understanding of inheritance outlining genetics as a new branch of natural sciences.

RevDate: 2019-10-01

Deichmann U (2019)

From Gregor Mendel to Eric Davidson: Mathematical Models and Basic Principles in Biology.

Journal of computational biology : a journal of computational molecular cell biology, 26(7):637-652.

Mathematical models have been widespread in biology since its emergence as a modern experimental science in the 19th century. Focusing on models in developmental biology and heredity, this article (1) presents the properties and epistemological basis of pertinent mathematical models in biology from Mendel's model of heredity in the 19th century to Eric Davidson's model of developmental gene regulatory networks in the 21st; (2) shows that the models differ not only in their epistemologies but also in regard to explicitly or implicitly taking into account basic biological principles, in particular those of biological specificity (that became, in part, replaced by genetic information) and genetic causality. The article claims that models disregarding these principles did not impact the direction of biological research in a lasting way, although some of them, such as D'Arcy Thompson's models of biological form, were widely read and admired and others, such as Turing's models of development, stimulated research in other fields. Moreover, it suggests that successful models were not purely mathematical descriptions or simulations of biological phenomena but were based on inductive, as well as hypothetico-deductive, methodology. The recent availability of large amounts of sequencing data and new computational methodology tremendously facilitates system approaches and pattern recognition in many fields of research. Although these new technologies have given rise to claims that correlation is replacing experimentation and causal analysis, the article argues that the inductive and hypothetico-deductive experimental methodologies have remained fundamentally important as long as causal-mechanistic explanations of complex systems are pursued.

RevDate: 2019-08-22

Wang M, S Xu (2019)

Statistics of Mendelian segregation-A mixture model.

Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie, 136(5):341-350.

Mendel's law of segregation explains why genetic variation can be maintained over time. In diploid organisms, an offspring receives one allele from each parent, not just half of the blended genetic material of the parents. Which of the two alleles is received is purely random. This stochastic process generates genetic variation among members of the same family, called Mendelian segregation variance or within-family variance. In statistics, the genetic value of a quantitative trait for an offspring follows a mixture distribution consisting of the four alleles of the two parents, guided by a Mendelian variable from each parent. The mixture model allows us to partition the total genetic variance into between-family and within-family variances. In the absence of inbreeding, the genetic variance splits half to the between-family variance and half to the within-family variance. With inbreeding, however, the between-family variance is increased at the cost of the within-family variance, leading to a net increase of the total genetic variance. This study defines multiple Mendelian variables and develops a mixture model of quantitative genetics. The phenomenon that allelic variance is maintained over time is guided by "the law of conservation of allelic variance" in biology, which is comparable to "the law of conservation of mass" in physics.

RevDate: 2019-05-10

Lessard S, WJ Ewens (2019)

The left-hand side of the Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection: A reply.

Journal of theoretical biology, 472:77-83.

In a recent paper, Grafen (2018) discussed the left-hand side in the equation stating Fisher's (1930, 1958) "Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection" (FTNS). Fisher's original statement of the FTNS is, in effect, "The rate of increase in fitness of any organism is equal to its genetic variance in fitness at that time" with the rate of increase in fitness understood as the one "due to all changes in gene ratios" (Fisher, 1930, p. 35). For purposes of exposition, Grafen (2018) considered what is today called the analogous discrete-time model, and restated the FTNS on p. 181 as "The increase in population [mean fitness] due to changes in gene frequencies [is equal to the] additive genetic variance in fitness [divided by the] mean fitness". Allowing for the fact that Grafen's statement of the FTNS relates to a discrete-time model, his statement is in effect a discrete-time version of Fisher's. It has however been widely accepted for many years, ever since Price's (1972) deep analysis of the FTNS, that Fisher's wording does not correctly describe the content of the FTNS. The same is therefore true of Grafen's statement. The confusion caused by these misstatements is unfortunate and adds to a continuing misunderstanding of the FTNS, whose source can also be found in Fisher's (1941) own explanation. Our purpose is to review the detailed analysis of the calculations leading to the FTNS to clarify the points at issue.

RevDate: 2019-05-20
CmpDate: 2019-05-20

Visscher PM, ME Goddard (2019)

From R.A. Fisher's 1918 Paper to GWAS a Century Later.

Genetics, 211(4):1125-1130.

The genetics and evolution of complex traits, including quantitative traits and disease, have been hotly debated ever since Darwin. A century ago, a paper from R.A. Fisher reconciled Mendelian and biometrical genetics in a landmark contribution that is now accepted as the main foundation stone of the field of quantitative genetics. Here, we give our perspective on Fisher's 1918 paper in the context of how and why it is relevant in today's genome era. We mostly focus on human trait variation, in part because Fisher did so too, but the conclusions are general and extend to other natural populations, and to populations undergoing artificial selection.

RevDate: 2019-03-29
CmpDate: 2019-03-26

Hoßfeld U, Levit GS, E Watts (2019)

100 Years of phenogenetics: Valentin Haecker and his examination of the phenotype.

Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG, 294(2):445-456.

Following the 'rediscovery' of Mendel's work around 1900 the study of genetics grew rapidly and multiple new inheritance theories quickly emerged such as Hugo de Vries' "Mutation Theory" (1901) and the "Boveri-Sutton Chromosome Theory" (1902). Mendel's work also caught the attention of the German geneticist Valentin Haecker, yet he was generally dissatisfied the simplicity of Mendelian genetics as he believed that inheritance and the expression of various characteristics appeared to be much more complex than the proposed "on-off hypotheses". Haecker's primary objection was that Mendelian-based theories still failed to bridge the gap between hereditary units and phenotypic traits. Haecker thus set out to bridge this gap in his research program, which he called Phänogenetik ("phenogenetics"). He outlined his work in a special study "Entwicklungsgeschichtliche Eigenschaftsanalyse (Phänogenetik)" in 1918. 2018 thus marks the 100th anniversary of Haecker's seminal publication, which was devoted to the analysis of the phenotype and highlighted the true complexity of heredity. This article takes a specific look at Haecker and his work, while also illustrating how this often forgotten scientist influenced the field of genetics and other scientists.

RevDate: 2018-12-31
CmpDate: 2018-12-31

Elston RC (2018)

Fisher's influence on me.

Genetic epidemiology, 42(8):849-853.

This is the 100th year anniversary of Fisher's 1918 paper "The correlation between relatives on the supposition of Mendelian inheritance" (Transactions of the Royal Society of Edinburgh 1918, 52 pp 899-438). Fisher's work has had a strong influence on today's genetic epidemiology and this brief autobiographical note highlights a few of the ways his influence on me has affected the field. Although I once took a course of lectures from Fisher, it was mainly his writings that influenced my statistical thinking. Not only did the concept of maximum likelihood appeal to me, but also the concepts of interclass and intraclass correlations, discriminant analysis, and transforming semiquantitative scores to minimize interactions-all topics I first learned about from the 11th edition of his book on Statistical Methods for Research Workers. This, together with a few serendipitous events that shaped my career, had a large influence on me and hence also on the field of genetic epidemiology.

RevDate: 2018-12-21
CmpDate: 2018-12-21

van Dijk PJ, Weissing FJ, THN Ellis (2018)

How Mendel's Interest in Inheritance Grew out of Plant Improvement.

Genetics, 210(2):347-355.

Despite the fact that Gregor Mendel is generally respected as the founder of genetics, little is known about the origin of and motivation for his revolutionary work. No primary sources are known that discuss his work during the period of his pea crossing experiments. Here, we report on two previously unknown interconnected local newspaper articles about Mendel's work that predate his famous Pisum lectures by 4 years. These articles describe Mendel as a plant breeder and a horticulturist. We argue that Mendel's initial interests concerned crop improvement, but that with time he became more interested in fundamental questions about inheritance, fertilization, and natural hybridization.

RevDate: 2019-09-09
CmpDate: 2019-09-09

Choi KR, Ryu JY, SY Lee (2018)

Revisiting Statistical Design and Analysis in Scientific Research.

Small (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany), 14(40):e1802604.

Statistics is essential to design experiments and interpret experimental results. Inappropriate use of the statistical analysis, however, often leads to a wrong conclusion. This concept article revisits basic concepts of statistics and provides a brief guideline of applying the statistical analysis for scientific research from designing experiments to analyzing and presenting the data.

RevDate: 2018-11-19
CmpDate: 2018-11-19

Thompson EA (2018)

From 1949 to 2018: R. A. Fisher's Theory of Junctions.

Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie, 135(5):335-336.

RevDate: 2019-09-12
CmpDate: 2019-09-12

Liu Y (2018)

Darwin and Mendel: The Historical Connection.

Advances in genetics, 102:1-25.

Darwin carried out a host of carefully controlled cross- and self-pollination experiments in a wide variety of plants, and made a significant and imperishable contribution to the knowledge of hybridization. He not only clearly described the phenomenon of what he called prepotency and what we now call dominance or Mendelian inheritance, but also explained it by his Pangenesis. Recent discovery of small RNAs acting as dominance modifiers supports his Pangenesis regarding the control of prepotency by gemmules. Historical studies show that there is striking evidence that Mendel read Darwin's The Origin of Species, which had influenced his paper presented in 1865 and published in 1866. Although Mendel's paper has been considered a classic in the history of genetics, it generated much controversy since its rediscovery. Mendel's position as the father of genetics is being seriously challenged. Darwin's main contribution to genetics was the collection of a tremendous amount of genetic data, and the formulation of a comprehensive genetical theory for their explanation. Over the past 150 years, however, Darwin's legacy to genetics, particularly his Pangenesis, has not been considered seriously by most geneticists. It is proposed that Darwin should have been regarded as one of the most important pioneers in genetics.

RevDate: 2019-05-20
CmpDate: 2019-05-20

Deznabi I, Mobayen M, Jafari N, et al (2018)

An Inference Attack on Genomic Data Using Kinship, Complex Correlations, and Phenotype Information.

IEEE/ACM transactions on computational biology and bioinformatics, 15(4):1333-1343.

Individuals (and their family members) share (partial) genomic data on public platforms. However, using special characteristics of genomic data, background knowledge that can be obtained from the Web, and family relationship between the individuals, it is possible to infer the hidden parts of shared (and unshared) genomes. Existing work in this field considers simple correlations in the genome (as well as Mendel's law and partial genomes of a victim and his family members). In this paper, we improve the existing work on inference attacks on genomic privacy. We mainly consider complex correlations in the genome by using an observable Markov model and recombination model between the haplotypes. We also utilize the phenotype information about the victims. We propose an efficient message passing algorithm to consider all aforementioned background information for the inference. We show that the proposed framework improves inference with significantly less information compared to existing work.

RevDate: 2019-08-21
CmpDate: 2019-08-21

Assimes TL, PS de Vries (2018)

Making the Most out of Mendel's Laws in Complex Coronary Artery Disease.

Journal of the American College of Cardiology, 72(3):311-313.

RevDate: 2018-09-19
CmpDate: 2018-09-19

Endersby J (2018)

A visit to Biotopia: genre, genetics and gardening in the early twentieth century.

British journal for the history of science, 51(3):423-455.

The early decades of the twentieth century were marked by widespread optimism about biology and its ability to improve the world. A major catalyst for this enthusiasm was new theories about inheritance and evolution (particularly Hugo de Vries's mutation theory and Mendel's newly rediscovered ideas). In Britain and the USA particularly, an astonishingly diverse variety of writers (from elite scientists to journalists and writers of fiction) took up the task of interpreting these new biological ideas, using a wide range of genres to help their fellow citizens make sense of biology's promise. From these miscellaneous writings a new and distinctive kind of utopianism emerged - the biotopia. Biotopias offered the dream of a perfect, post-natural world, or the nightmare of violated nature (often in the same text), but above all they conveyed a sense that biology was - for the first time - offering humanity unprecedented control over life. Biotopias often visualized the world as a garden perfected for human use, but this vision was tinged with gendered violence, as it became clear that realizing it entailed dispossessing, or even killing, 'Mother Nature'. Biotopian themes are apparent in journalism, scientific reports and even textbooks, and these non-fiction sources shared many characteristics with intentionally prophetic or utopian fictions. Biotopian themes can be traced back and forth across the porous boundaries between popular and elite writing, showing how biology came to function as public culture. This analysis reveals not only how the historical significance of science is invariably determined outside the scientific world, but also that the ways in which biology was debated during this period continue to characterize today's debates over new biological breakthroughs.

RevDate: 2018-09-24
CmpDate: 2018-09-24

Toro MA, A Mäki-Tanila (2018)

Some intriguing questions on Fisher's ideas about dominance.

Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie, 135(3):149-150.

RevDate: 2018-11-14
CmpDate: 2018-09-24

Elloumi-Zghal H, H Chaabouni Bouhamed (2018)

Genetics and genomic medicine in Tunisia.

Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, 6(2):134-159.

RevDate: 2018-08-29
CmpDate: 2018-08-29

Hill WG (2018)

Contributions to quantitative genetic models by Yule and by Weinberg prior to Fisher 1918.

Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie, 135(2):93-94.

RevDate: 2018-08-08
CmpDate: 2018-08-08

Thorp JM (Jr) (2017)

Contributions and Limits of Epidemiology in Societal Controversy.

Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology, 31(6):493-494.

RevDate: 2019-06-13
CmpDate: 2019-06-11

Button C (2018)

James Cossar Ewart and the Origins of the Animal Breeding Research Department in Edinburgh, 1895-1920.

Journal of the history of biology, 51(3):445-477.

In 1919 the Animal Breeding Research Department was established in Edinburgh. This Department, later renamed the Institute of Animal Genetics, forged an international reputation, eventually becoming the centrepiece of a cluster of new genetics research units and institutions in Edinburgh after the Second World War. Yet despite its significance for institutionalising animal genetics research in the UK, the origins and development of the Department have not received as much scholarly attention as its importance warrants. This paper sheds new light on Edinburgh's place in early British genetics by drawing upon recently catalogued archival sources including the papers of James Cossar Ewart, Regius Professor of Natural History at the University of Edinburgh between 1882 and 1927. Although presently a marginal figure in genetics historiography, Ewart established two sites for experimental animal breeding work between 1895 and 1911 and played a central role in the founding of Britain's first genetics lectureship, also in 1911. These early efforts helped to secure government funding in 1913. However, a combination of the First World War, bureaucratic problems and Ewart's personal ambitions delayed the creation of the Department and the appointment of its director by another six years. This paper charts the institutionalisation of animal breeding and genetics research in Edinburgh within the wider contexts of British genetics and agriculture in the early twentieth century.

RevDate: 2017-10-12

Edwards AWF (2017)

Commentary: On R. A. Fisher's paper 'The causes of human variability', 1918.

International journal of epidemiology pii:4107251 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-12-07

Zhang H, Chen W, K Sun (2017)

Mendelism: New Insights from Gregor Mendel's Lectures in Brno.

Genetics, 207(1):1-8.

Interpretation of Gregor Mendel's work has previously been based on study of his published paper "Experiments in Plant Hybridization." In contrast, the lectures that he gave preceding publication of this work have been largely neglected for more than 150 years. Here, we report on and interpret the content of Mendel's previous two lectures, as they were reported in a local newspaper. We comprehensively reference both the text of his paper and the historical background of his experiments. Our analysis shows that while Mendel had inherited the traditional research program on interspecific hybridization in plants, he introduced the novel method of ratio analysis for representing the variation of unit-characters among offspring of hybrids. His aim was to characterize and explain the developmental features of the distributional pattern of unit-characters in two series of hybrid experiments, using self-crosses and backcrosses with parents. In doing so, he not only answered the question of what the unit-characters were and the nature of their hierarchical classification, but also successfully inferred the numerical principle of unit-character transmission from generation to generation. He also established the nature of the composition and behaviors of reproductive cells from one generation to the next. Here we highlight the evidence from Mendel's lectures, clearly announcing that he had discovered the general law of cross-generation transmission of unit-characters through reproductive cells containing unit-factors. The recovered content of these previous lectures more accurately describes the work he performed with his garden peas than his published paper and shows how he first presented it in Brno. It is thus an invaluable resource for understanding the origin of the science of genetics.

RevDate: 2018-01-31

Shropshire JD, A Rokas (2017)

Correction: Heredity: The gene family that cheats Mendel.

eLife, 6:.

RevDate: 2018-07-02
CmpDate: 2018-07-02

Rosales A (2017)

Theories that narrate the world: Ronald A. Fisher's mass selection and Sewall Wright's shifting balance.

Studies in history and philosophy of science, 62:22-30.

Theories are composed of multiple interacting components. I argue that some theories have narratives as essential components, and that narratives function as integrative devices of the mathematical components of theories. Narratives represent complex processes unfolding in time as a sequence of stages, and hold the mathematical elements together as pieces in the investigation of a given process. I present two case studies from population genetics: R. A. Fisher's "mas selection" theory, and Sewall Wright's shifting balance theory. I apply my analysis to an early episode of the "R. A. Fisher - Sewall Wright controversy."

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-05-18

Portin P, A Wilkins (2017)

The Evolving Definition of the Term "Gene".

Genetics, 205(4):1353-1364.

This paper presents a history of the changing meanings of the term "gene," over more than a century, and a discussion of why this word, so crucial to genetics, needs redefinition today. In this account, the first two phases of 20th century genetics are designated the "classical" and the "neoclassical" periods, and the current molecular-genetic era the "modern period." While the first two stages generated increasing clarity about the nature of the gene, the present period features complexity and confusion. Initially, the term "gene" was coined to denote an abstract "unit of inheritance," to which no specific material attributes were assigned. As the classical and neoclassical periods unfolded, the term became more concrete, first as a dimensionless point on a chromosome, then as a linear segment within a chromosome, and finally as a linear segment in the DNA molecule that encodes a polypeptide chain. This last definition, from the early 1960s, remains the one employed today, but developments since the 1970s have undermined its generality. Indeed, they raise questions about both the utility of the concept of a basic "unit of inheritance" and the long implicit belief that genes are autonomous agents. Here, we review findings that have made the classic molecular definition obsolete and propose a new one based on contemporary knowledge.

RevDate: 2019-01-15
CmpDate: 2017-05-26

van Dijk PJ, TH Ellis (2016)

The Full Breadth of Mendel's Genetics.

Genetics, 204(4):1327-1336.

Gregor Mendel's "Experiments on Plant Hybrids" (1865/1866), published 150 years ago, is without doubt one of the most brilliant works in biology. Curiously, Mendel's later studies on Hieracium (hawkweed) are usually seen as a frustrating failure, because it is assumed that they were intended to confirm the segregation ratios he found in Pisum Had this been his intention, such a confirmation would have failed, since, unknown to Mendel, Hieracium species mostly reproduce by means of clonal seeds (apomixis). Here we show that this assumption arises from a misunderstanding that could be explained by a missing page in Mendel's first letter to Carl Nägeli. Mendel's writings clearly indicate his interest in "constant hybrids," hybrids which do not segregate, and which were "essentially different" from "variable hybrids" such as in Pisum After the Pisum studies, Mendel worked mainly on Hieracium for 7 years where he found constant hybrids and some great surprises. He also continued to explore variable hybrids; both variable and constant hybrids were of interest to Mendel with respect to inheritance and to species evolution. Mendel considered that their similarities and differences might provide deep insights and that their differing behaviors were "individual manifestations of a higher more fundamental law."

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-02-07

Vollmann J, H Buerstmayr (2016)

From phenotype to genotype: celebrating 150 years of Mendelian genetics in plant breeding research.

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik, 129(12):2237-2239.

RevDate: 2017-10-11
CmpDate: 2017-05-29

Lynøe N (2016)

[The N-rays were imagined, but the research was no fraud].

Lakartidningen, 113: pii:EA49.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2018-04-05

Simunek MV, Mielewczik M, Levit GS, et al (2017)

Armin von Tschermak-Seysenegg (1870-1952): Physiologist and Co-'Rediscoverer' of Mendel's laws.

Theory in biosciences = Theorie in den Biowissenschaften, 136(1-2):59-67.

The 'rediscovery' of Mendel's laws in 1900 was a turning point in modern research of heredity/genetics. According to the traditional view, adopted and fostered by many textbooks of genetics, Mendel's principles were presented in the first half of 1900 simultaneously and independently by three biologists (H. de Vries, C. Correns, E. v. Tschermak-Seysenegg). Having thus laid the foundations of further development, the 'rediscovery' continues to attract considerable interest. Since the 1950s, however, serious questions arose concerning both the chronology and specific conceptual achievement of the scientists involved. Not only the independence but also parallelism was analysed in the context of individual research programmes of these three scholars. The youngest of them, Erich v. Tschermak-Seysenegg, was even excluded from the list of 'rediscoverers'. The aim of this paper is to use new archival evidence and approximate the contribution of the physiologist and ophthalmologist Armin von Tschermak-Seysenegg (1870-1952) to the events of 1900 and 1901.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2017-02-08

Hoßfeld U, Jacobsen HJ, Plass C, et al (2017)

150 years of Johann Gregor Mendel's "Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden".

Molecular genetics and genomics : MGG, 292(1):1-3.

RevDate: 2018-01-11
CmpDate: 2018-01-11

Abbott S, DJ Fairbanks (2016)

Experiments on Plant Hybrids by Gregor Mendel.

Genetics, 204(2):407-422.

RevDate: 2019-01-12
CmpDate: 2017-05-23

Fairbanks DJ, S Abbott (2016)

Darwin's Influence on Mendel: Evidence from a New Translation of Mendel's Paper.

Genetics, 204(2):401-405.

Gregor Mendel's classic paper, Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden (Experiments on Plant Hybrids), was published in 1866, hence 2016 is its sesquicentennial. Mendel completed his experiments in 1863 and shortly thereafter began compiling the results and writing his paper, which he presented in meetings of the Natural Science Society in Brünn in February and March of 1865. Mendel owned a personal copy of Darwin's Origin of Species, a German translation published in 1863, and it contains his marginalia. Its publication date indicates that Mendel's study of Darwin's book could have had no influence while he was conducting his experiments but its publication date coincided with the period of time when he was preparing his paper, making it possible that Darwin's writings influenced Mendel's interpretations and theory. Based on this premise, we prepared a Darwinized English translation of Mendel's paper by comparing German terms Mendel employed with the same terms in the German translation of Origin of Species in his possession, then using Darwin's counterpart English words and phrases as much as possible in our translation. We found a substantially higher use of these terms in the final two (10th and 11th) sections of Mendel's paper, particularly in one key paragraph, where Mendel reflects on evolutionary issues, providing strong evidence of Darwin's influence on Mendel.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-02-07

Smýkal P, K Varshney R, K Singh V, et al (2016)

From Mendel's discovery on pea to today's plant genetics and breeding : Commemorating the 150th anniversary of the reading of Mendel's discovery.

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik, 129(12):2267-2280.

KEY MESSAGE: This work discusses several selected topics of plant genetics and breeding in relation to the 150th anniversary of the seminal work of Gregor Johann Mendel. In 2015, we celebrated the 150th anniversary of the presentation of the seminal work of Gregor Johann Mendel. While Darwin's theory of evolution was based on differential survival and differential reproductive success, Mendel's theory of heredity relies on equality and stability throughout all stages of the life cycle. Darwin's concepts were continuous variation and "soft" heredity; Mendel espoused discontinuous variation and "hard" heredity. Thus, the combination of Mendelian genetics with Darwin's theory of natural selection was the process that resulted in the modern synthesis of evolutionary biology. Although biology, genetics, and genomics have been revolutionized in recent years, modern genetics will forever rely on simple principles founded on pea breeding using seven single gene characters. Purposeful use of mutants to study gene function is one of the essential tools of modern genetics. Today, over 100 plant species genomes have been sequenced. Mapping populations and their use in segregation of molecular markers and marker-trait association to map and isolate genes, were developed on the basis of Mendel's work. Genome-wide or genomic selection is a recent approach for the development of improved breeding lines. The analysis of complex traits has been enhanced by high-throughput phenotyping and developments in statistical and modeling methods for the analysis of phenotypic data. Introgression of novel alleles from landraces and wild relatives widens genetic diversity and improves traits; transgenic methodologies allow for the introduction of novel genes from diverse sources, and gene editing approaches offer possibilities to manipulate gene in a precise manner.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-02-07

Bicknell R, Catanach A, Hand M, et al (2016)

Seeds of doubt: Mendel's choice of Hieracium to study inheritance, a case of right plant, wrong trait.

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik, 129(12):2253-2266.

KEY MESSAGE: In this review, we explore Gregor Mendel's hybridization experiments with Hieracium , update current knowledge on apomictic reproduction and describe approaches now being used to develop true-breeding hybrid crops. From our perspective, it is easy to conclude that Gregor Mendel's work on pea was insightful, but his peers clearly did not regard it as being either very convincing or of much importance. One apparent criticism was that his findings only applied to pea. We know from a letter he wrote to Carl von Nägeli, a leading botanist, that he believed he needed to "verify, with other plants, the results obtained with Pisum". For this purpose, Mendel adopted Hieracium subgenus Pilosella, a phenotypically diverse taxon under botanical study at the time. What Mendel could not have known, however, is that the majority of these plants are not sexual plants like pea, but instead are facultatively apomictic. In these forms, the majority of seed arises asexually, and such progeny are, therefore, clones of the maternal parent. Mendel obtained very few hybrids in his Hieracium crosses, yet we calculate that he probably emasculated in excess of 5000 Hieracium florets to even obtain the numbers he did. Despite that effort, he was perplexed by the results, and they ultimately led him to conclude that "the hybrids of Hieracium show a behaviour exactly opposite to those of Pisum". Apomixis is now a topic of intense research interest, and in an ironic twist of history, Hieracium subgenus Pilosella has been developed as a molecular model to study this trait. In this paper, we explore further Mendel's hybridization experiments with Hieracium, update current knowledge on apomictic reproduction and describe approaches now being used to develop true-breeding hybrid crops.

RevDate: 2017-11-08
CmpDate: 2017-07-28

Weeden NF (2016)

Are Mendel's Data Reliable? The Perspective of a Pea Geneticist.

The Journal of heredity, 107(7):635-646.

Mendel's data exhibit remarkable agreement to the ratios he predicted. In this article, alternative explanations for this close agreement (that inheritance in pea does not conform to the standard statistical model, that data were omitted, that ambiguous data were categorized to better match predicted ratios, and that some data were deliberately falsified) are tested using approaches that are designed to distinguish between these alternatives. The possibility that garden pea (Pisum sativum L.) naturally produces segregation ratios more closely matching Mendelian expectations than predicted by statistical models is rejected. Instead the opposite is found to be the case, making Mendel's results even more remarkable. Considerable evidence is introduced that Mendel omitted some of his experimental results, but this alternative cannot adequately explain the low average deviation from expectations that is characteristic of the segregation data he presented. An underlying bias in Mendel's data favoring the predicted ratio is present, but my analysis could not clearly determine whether the bias was caused by misclassifying ambiguous phenotypes or deliberate falsification of the results. A number of Mendel's statements are argued to be unrealistic in terms of practical pea genetics, suggesting that his text does not represent a strictly accurate description of his experimental methods. Mendel's article is probably best regarded as his attempt to present his model in a simple and convincing format with a minimum of additional details that might obscure his message.

RevDate: 2018-02-05
CmpDate: 2018-02-05

Traykov M, I Trenchev (2016)

Mathematical models in genetics.

Genetika, 52(9):1089-1096.

In this study, we present some of the basic ideas of population genetics. The founders of population genetics are R.A. Fisher, S. Wright, and J. B.S. Haldane. They, not only developed almost all the basic theory associated with genetics, but they also initiated multiple experiments in support of their theories. One of the first significant insights, which are a result of the Hardy–Weinberg law, is Mendelian inheritance preserves genetic variation on which the natural selection acts. We will limit to simple models formulated in terms of differential equations. Some of those differential equations are nonlinear and thus emphasize issues such as the stability of the fixed points and time scales on which those equations operate. First, we consider the classic case when selection acts on diploid locus at which wу can get arbitrary number of alleles. Then, we consider summaries that include recombination and selection at multiple loci. Also, we discuss the evolution of quantitative traits. In this case, the theory is formulated in respect of directly measurable quantities. Special cases of this theory have been successfully used for many decades in plants and animals breeding.

RevDate: 2019-03-08
CmpDate: 2018-07-12

Wink K, A Otte (2016)

[Serendipities in medicine].

MMW Fortschritte der Medizin, 158 Suppl 5:14-18.

Coincidences accompany our lives. This paper shows to which extent serendipity plays a role in important discoveries and developments in medicine. These include, among others, Mendel's laws, the determination of the human chromosome number, the discovery of DNA by Watson and Crick, the PAP test, or the discovery of X-rays and radioactivity. But also and especially in pharmacology, there are many examples of serendipity. Some go closely with serendipities in the discovery of bacteriology.

RevDate: 2019-01-11
CmpDate: 2016-08-09

Cohen JI, IG Loskutov (2016)

Exploring the nature of science through courage and purpose: a case study of Nikolai Vavilov and plant biodiversity.

SpringerPlus, 5(1):1159.

INTRODUCTION: Historical biographies facilitate teaching the 'nature of science'. This case study focuses on how Nikolai Vavilov's unrelenting sense of purpose, courage, and charismatic personality was maintained during violent revolutionary change in Russia.

CASE DESCRIPTION: The rediscovery of Gregor Mendel's laws of inheritance provided Vavilov with a scientific foundation for crop improvement, this foundation was later bolstered by Vavilov's personal drive to conserve plant biodiversity. As he advanced theories and pragmatic approaches for genetic improvement and conservation of plants, political leaders in Russian came to reject Mendel's principles and eventually Vavilov's work.

DISCUSSION AND EVALUATION: This rejection occurred because Joseph Stalin was desperate for a quick remedy to the famine and suffering from forced collective agriculture. Vavilov's work continued, modernizing Russian crop research while inspiring other scientists to save seeds stored in the world's first gene bank. Three themes illustrating the nature of science help examine Vavilov's life: explaining natural phenomena, uncompromising human endeavor, and revising scientific knowledge.

CONCLUSIONS: The case study concludes with four questions to stimulate student inquiry and self-guided research. They also deepen student understanding of Vavilov's personal sacrifices to ensure use and conservation of plant biodiversity.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2016-06-27

Torres TT (2016)

Genetics teaching: Carry on celebrating Mendel's legacy.

Nature, 534(7608):475.

RevDate: 2018-12-21
CmpDate: 2017-01-17

Paleček P (2016)

Vítězslav Orel (1926-2015): Gregor Mendel's biographer and the rehabilitation of genetics in the Communist Bloc.

History and philosophy of the life sciences, 38(3):4.

At almost 90 years of age, we have lost the author of the founding historical works on Johann Gregor Mendel. Vítězslav Orel served for almost 30 years as the editor of the journal Folia Mendeliana. His work was beset by the wider problems associated with Mendel's recognition in the Communist Bloc, and by the way in which narratives of the history of science could be co-opted into the service of Cold War and post-Cold War political agendas. Orel played a key role in the organization of the Mendel symposium of 1965 in Brno, and has made a strong contribution to the rehabilitation of genetics generally, and to championing the work of Johann Gregor Mendel in particular. With Jaroslav Kříženecký, he cofounded the Mendelianum in Brno, which for decades has served as an intellectual bridge between the East and West. Orel's involvement with this institution exposed him to dangers both during and after the Cold War.

RevDate: 2017-02-23
CmpDate: 2017-02-23

Gayon J (2016)

From Mendel to epigenetics: History of genetics.

Comptes rendus biologies, 339(7-8):225-230.

The origins of genetics are to be found in Gregor Mendel's memoir on plant hybridization (1865). However, the word 'genetics' was only coined in 1906, to designate the new science of heredity. Founded upon the Mendelian method for analyzing the products of crosses, this science is distinguished by its explicit purpose of being a general 'science of heredity', and by the introduction of totally new biological concepts (in particular those of gene, genotype, and phenotype). In the 1910s, Mendelian genetics fused with the chromosomal theory of inheritance, giving rise to what is still called 'classical genetics'. Within this framework, the gene is simultaneously a unit of function and transmission, a unit of recombination, and of mutation. Until the early 1950s, these concepts of the gene coincided. But when DNA was found to be the material basis of inheritance, this congruence dissolved. Then began the venture of molecular biology, which has never stopped revealing the complexity of the way in which hereditary material functions.

RevDate: 2017-02-23
CmpDate: 2017-02-23

Prunet N, EM Meyerowitz (2016)

Genetics and plant development.

Comptes rendus biologies, 339(7-8):240-246.

There are only three grand theories in biology: the theory of the cell, the theory of the gene, and the theory of evolution. Two of these, the cell and gene theories, originated in the study of plants, with the third resulting in part from botanical considerations as well. Mendel's elucidation of the rules of inheritance was a result of his experiments on peas. The rediscovery of Mendel's work in 1900 was by the botanists de Vries, Correns, and Tschermak. It was only in subsequent years that animals were also shown to have segregation of genetic elements in the exact same manner as had been shown in plants. The story of developmental biology is different - while the development of plants has long been studied, the experimental and genetic approaches to developmental mechanism were developed via experiments on animals, and the importance of genes in development (e.g., Waddington, 1940) and their use for understanding developmental mechanisms came to botanical science much later - as late as the 1980s.

RevDate: 2017-03-21
CmpDate: 2017-03-21

Singh RS (2016)

Science beyond boundary: are premature discoveries things of the past?.

Genome, 59(6):433-437.

Mendel's name more than of any other draws our attention to the personal side in terms of success and failure in science. Mendel lived 19 years after presenting his research findings and died without receiving any recognition for his work. Are premature discoveries things of the past, you may ask? I review the material basis of science in terms of science boundary and field accessibility and analyze the possibility of premature discoveries in different fields of science such as, for example, physics and biology. I conclude that science has reached a stage where progress is being made mostly by pushing the boundary of the known from inside than by leaping across boundaries. As more researchers become engaged in science, and as more publications become open access, on-line, and interactive, the probability of an important discovery remaining buried and going unrecognized would become exceedingly small. Of course, as examples from physics show, a new theory or an important idea can always lie low, unrecognized until it becomes re-discovered and popularized by other researchers. Thus, premature discoveries will become less likely but not forbidden.

RevDate: 2019-01-10
CmpDate: 2016-10-11

Opitz JM, Pavone L, G Corsello (2016)

The power of stories in Pediatrics and Genetics.

Italian journal of pediatrics, 42:35.

On the occasion of the opening ceremony of the 43rd Sicilian Congress of Pediatrics, linked with Italian Society of Pediatrics SIP, SIN, SIMEUP, SIAIP and SINP, held in Catania in November 2015, the Organizing Committee dedicated a tribute to Professor John Opitz and invited him to give a Masters Lecture for the attendees at the Congress. The theme expounded was "Storytelling in Pediatrics and Genetics: Lessons from Aesop and from Mendel". The contribution of John Opitz to the understanding of pediatric clinical disorders and genetic anomalies has been extremely relevant. The interests of Professor John Opitz are linked not only to genetic disorders but also extend to historical medicine, history of the literature and to human evolution. Due to his exceptional talent, combined with his specific interest and basal knowledge in the genetic and pediatric fields, he is widely credited to be one of the best pediatricians in the world.

RevDate: 2016-02-15
CmpDate: 2016-03-18

Sótonyi G (2015)

[Participation of Hungarians in the Elaboration of Principles of Genetics and of Biotehchnology].

Orvostorteneti kozlemenyek, 61(1-4):125-136.

It was in 1983 that Robert Bud, director of The Science Museum in London, made it public that the principles of biotechnology, and the term itself were first put into words by a Hungarian scientist, Károly Ereky (The use of life. A history of biotechnology. Cambridge - New York--Melbourne, Cambridge University Press, 1993). Károly Ereky stated that if raw material is used to produce consumer goods with the help of living organisms, the workflow data can be collected in biotechnology. He phrased the principles of biotechnology in his book published in German in 1919 called Biotechnology, ranking him among the world's greatest (Verlag Paul Parey, Berlin, 1919). In 1918 in Brno, three years before the birth of Mendel, count Imre Festetics formulated his theses in 4 points in his publication "Die genetische Gesetze der Natur" (Oekonomische Neuigkeiten und Verhandlungen. Brünn, 22: 169-170, 1819), using the word 'genetics' for the first time in the world. It was Vitezslav Orel, director of the Mendel Museum in Brno, who brought the attention of the world to this fact in 1989, based on the documents possessed by the Museum. The English scientist J.R. Wood published his new findings in 2001, accord- ing to which Festetics summarized his results in the form of four genetic laws well before Mendel, describing principles of the process of mutation and inheritance. Festetics provided evidence for the improvement of the stock by cross-breeding. He stated Mendel's second law on the importance of selection. He called attention to the priority of internal genetic fac- tors. Hungarians can rightly be proud of Károly Ereky (1878-1952) and count Imre Festetics (1764-1847).

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2017-06-29

Kleinman K (2016)

"Bringing Taxonomy to the Service of Genetics": Edgar Anderson and Introgressive Hybridization.

Journal of the history of biology, 49(4):603-624.

In introgressive hybridization (the repeated backcrossing of hybrids with parental populations), Edgar Anderson found a source for variation upon which natural selection could work. In his 1953 review article "Introgressive Hybridization," he asserted that he was "bringing taxonomy to the service of genetics" whereas distinguished colleagues such as Theodosius Dobzhansky and Ernst Mayr did the precise opposite. His work as a geneticist particularly focused on linkage and recombination and was enriched by collaborations with Missouri Botanical Garden colleagues interested in taxonomy as well as with cytologists C.D. Darlington and Karl Sax. As the culmination of a biosystemtatic research program, Anderson's views challenged the mainstream of the Evolutionary Synthesis.

RevDate: 2016-12-30
CmpDate: 2016-12-13

Mounolou JC (2016)

[In the beginning was the Word].

Medecine sciences : M/S, 32(1):125-126.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2016-09-05

Sun S, Deng D, Wang Z, et al (2016)

A novel er1 allele and the development and validation of its functional marker for breeding pea (Pisum sativum L.) resistance to powdery mildew.

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik, 129(5):909-919.

KEY MESSAGE: A novel er1 allele, er1 -7, conferring pea powdery mildew resistance was characterized by a 10-bp deletion in PsMLO1 cDNA, and its functional marker was developed and validated in pea germplasms. Pea powdery mildew caused by Erysiphe pisi DC is a major disease worldwide. Pea cultivar 'DDR-11' is an elite germplasm resistant to E. pisi. To identify the gene conferring resistance in DDR-11, the susceptible Bawan 6 and resistant DDR-11 cultivars were crossed to produce F1, F2, and F(2:3) populations. The phenotypic segregation patterns in the F2 and F(2:3) populations fit the 3:1 (susceptible:resistant) and 1:2:1 (susceptible homozygotes:heterozygotes:resistant homozygotes) ratios, respectively, indicating that resistance was controlled by a single recessive gene. Analysis of er1-linked markers in the F2 population suggested that the recessive resistance gene in DDR-11 was an er1 allele, which was mapped between markers ScOPE16-1600 and c5DNAmet. To further characterize er1 allele, the cDNA sequences of PsMLO1 from the parents were obtained and a novel er1 allele in DDR-11 was identified and designated as er1-7, which has a 10-bp deletion in position 111-120. The er1-7 allele caused a frame-shift mutation, resulting in a premature termination of translation of PsMLO1 protein. A co-dominant functional marker specific for er1-7 was developed, InDel111-120, which co-segregated with E. pisi resistance in the mapping population. The marker was able to distinguish between pea germplasms with and without the er1-7. Of 161 pea germplasms tested by InDel111-120, seven were detected containing resistance allele er1-7, which was verified by sequencing their PsMLO1 cDNA. Here, a novel er1 allele was characterized and its an ideal functional marker was validated, providing valuable genetic information and a powerful tool for breeding pea resistance to powdery mildew.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2016-01-20

De Castro M (2016)

Johann Gregor Mendel: paragon of experimental science.

Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, 4(1):3-8.

This is a foreword on the life and work of one of the greatest minds of the 20th century, the father of modern genetics, Johann Gregor Mendel.

RevDate: 2016-01-10
CmpDate: 2016-01-07

Richter FC (2015)

Remembering Johann Gregor Mendel: a human, a Catholic priest, an Augustinian monk, and abbot.

Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, 3(6):483-485 pii:MGG3186.

Johann Mendel (Gregor was the name given to him only later by his Augustinian order, Fig. 1) was born on July 20, 1822 to an ethnic German family, Anton and Rosina Mendel (Fig. 2), in Heinzendorf in the Austrian Empire at the Moravian-Silesian border (now Hynčice, Czech Republic).

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2016-01-07

Hart PS, M Muenke (2015)

Foreword to volume 3, issue 6.

Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, 3(6):481-482.

As 2015 draws to a close so too do the many celebrations of the 150th anniversary of Mendel's presentation of his work entitled "Experiments in Plant Hybridization" to the Natural History Society of Brno.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2016-08-11

Rosenberg NA (2016)

Admixture Models and the Breeding Systems of H. S. Jennings: A GENETICS Connection.

Genetics, 202(1):9-13.

RevDate: 2017-01-17
CmpDate: 2017-01-17

Meunier R (2016)

The many lives of experiments: Wilhelm Johannsen, selection, hybridization, and the complex relations of genes and characters.

History and philosophy of the life sciences, 38(1):42-64.

In addition to his experiments on selection in pure lines, Wilhelm Johannsen (1857-1927) performed less well-known hybridisation experiments with beans. This article describes these experiments and discusses Johannsen's motivations and interpretations, in the context of developments in early genetics. I will show that Johannsen first presented the hybridisation experiments as an additional control for his selection experiments. The latter were dedicated to investigating heredity with respect to debates concerning the significance of natural selection of continuous variation for evolution. In the course of the establishment of a Mendelian research program after 1900, the study of heredity gained increasing independence from questions of evolution, and focused more on the modes and mechanisms of heredity. Further to their role as control experiments, Johannsen also saw his hybridisation experiments as contributing to the Mendelian program, by extending the scope of the principles of Mendelian inheritance to quantitative characters. Towards the end of the first decade of genetics, Johannsen revisited his experiments to illustrate the many-many relationship between genes and characters, at a time when that relationship appeared increasingly complex, and the unit-character concept, accordingly, became inadequate. For the philosophy of science, the example shows that experiments can have multiple roles in a research programme, and can be interpreted in the light of questions other than those that motivated the experiments in the first place.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2016-07-28

Liu Y, X Li (2016)

Darwin and Mendel today: a comment on "Limits of imagination: the 150th Anniversary of Mendel's Laws, and why Mendel failed to see the importance of his discovery for Darwin's theory of evolution".

Genome, 59(1):75-77.

We comment on a recent paper by Rama Singh, who concludes that Mendel deserved to be called the father of genetics, and Darwin would not have understood the significance of Mendel's paper had he read it. We argue that Darwin should have been regarded as the father of genetics not only because he was the first to formulate a unifying theory of heredity, variation, and development -- Pangenesis, but also because he clearly described almost all genetical phenomena of fundamental importance, including what he called "prepotency" and what we now call "dominance" or "Mendelian inheritance". The word "gene" evolved from Darwin's imagined "gemmules", instead of Mendel's so-called "factors".

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2018-03-27

Edwards AW (2016)

Analysing nature's experiment: Fisher's inductive theorem of natural selection.

Theoretical population biology, 109:1-5.

The paper by Ewens and Lessard (2015) adds to the progress that has been made in exploring the discrete-generation analytical version of Fisher's Fundamental Theorem of Natural Selection introduced by Ewens (1989). Fisher's continuous-time theorem differs from the version described by Ewens and Lessard by using a different concept of fitness. Ewens and Lessard use the conventional 'viability' concept whereas for Fisher the fitness of a genotype was its relative rate of increase or decrease in the population. The sole purpose of the present paper is to emphasize the alternative inductive nature of Fisher's theorem, as presented by him in 1930, by placing it in the context of his contemporary development of the analysis of variance in agricultural experiments. It is not a general discussion of the theorem itself.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2016-09-09

Lockshin RA (2016)

Programmed cell death 50 (and beyond).

Cell death and differentiation, 23(1):10-17.

In the 50 years since we described cell death as 'programmed,' we have come far, thanks to the efforts of many brilliant researchers, and we now understand the mechanics, the biochemistry, and the genetics of many of the ways in which cells can die. This knowledge gives us the resources to alter the fates of many cells. However, not all cells respond similarly to the same stimulus, in either sensitivity to the stimulus or timing of the response. Cells prevented from dying through one pathway may survive, survive in a crippled state, or die following a different pathway. To fully capitalize on our knowledge of cell death, we need to understand much more about how cells are targeted to die and what aspects of the history, metabolism, or resources available to individual cells determine how each cell reaches and crosses the threshold at which it commits to death.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2016-01-05

Pai-Dhungat JV (2015)

John Gregor Mendel (1822-1884).

The Journal of the Association of Physicians of India, 63(3):60-61.

RevDate: 2015-10-09
CmpDate: 2015-11-03

Radick G (2015)

HISTORY OF SCIENCE. Beyond the "Mendel-Fisher controversy".

Science (New York, N.Y.), 350(6257):159-160.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2016-06-02

Yang T, Fang L, Zhang X, et al (2015)

High-Throughput Development of SSR Markers from Pea (Pisum sativum L.) Based on Next Generation Sequencing of a Purified Chinese Commercial Variety.

PloS one, 10(10):e0139775.

Pea (Pisum sativum L.) is an important food legume globally, and is the plant species that J.G. Mendel used to lay the foundation of modern genetics. However, genomics resources of pea are limited comparing to other crop species. Application of marker assisted selection (MAS) in pea breeding has lagged behind many other crops. Development of a large number of novel and reliable SSR (simple sequence repeat) or microsatellite markers will help both basic and applied genomics research of this crop. The Illumina HiSeq 2500 System was used to uncover 8,899 putative SSR containing sequences, and 3,275 non-redundant primers were designed to amplify these SSRs. Among the 1,644 SSRs that were randomly selected for primer validation, 841 yielded reliable amplifications of detectable polymorphisms among 24 genotypes of cultivated pea (Pisum sativum L.) and wild relatives (P. fulvum Sm.) originated from diverse geographical locations. The dataset indicated that the allele number per locus ranged from 2 to 10, and that the polymorphism information content (PIC) ranged from 0.08 to 0.82 with an average of 0.38. These 1,644 novel SSR markers were also tested for polymorphism between genotypes G0003973 and G0005527. Finally, 33 polymorphic SSR markers were anchored on the genetic linkage map of G0003973 × G0005527 F2 population.

RevDate: 2015-09-26
CmpDate: 2015-12-22

Birchler JA (2015)

Mendel, mechanism, models, marketing, and more.

Cell, 163(1):9-11.

This year marks the 150(th) anniversary of the presentation by Gregor Mendel of his studies of plant hybridization to the Brunn Natural History Society. Their nature and meaning have been discussed many times. However, on this occasion, we reflect on the scientific enterprise and the perception of new discoveries.

RevDate: 2015-09-20
CmpDate: 2015-09-21

Anonymous (2015)

Special issue in honor of John James on the occasion of his 80th birthday.

Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie, 132(2):85-203.

RevDate: 2016-10-20
CmpDate: 2016-07-27

Singh RS (2015)

Limits of imagination: the 150th Anniversary of Mendel's Laws, and why Mendel failed to see the importance of his discovery for Darwin's theory of evolution.

Genome, 58(9):415-421.

Mendel is credited for discovering Laws of Heredity, but his work has come under criticism on three grounds: for possible falsification of data to fit his expectations, for getting undue credit for the laws of heredity without having ideas of segregation and independent assortment, and for being interested in the development of hybrids rather than in the laws of heredity. I present a brief review of these criticisms and conclude that Mendel deserved to be called the father of genetics even if he may not, and most likely did not, have clear ideas of segregation and particulate determiners as we know them now. I argue that neither Mendel understood the evolutionary significance of his findings for the problem of genetic variation, nor would Darwin have understood their significance had he read Mendel's paper. I argue that the limits to imagination, in both cases, came from their mental framework being shaped by existing paradigms-blending inheritance in the case of Darwin, hybrid development in the case of Mendel. Like Einstein, Darwin's natural selection was deterministic; like Niels Bohr, Mendel's Laws were probabilistic-based on random segregation of trait-determining "factors". Unlike Einstein who understood quantum mechanics, Darwin would have been at a loss with Mendel's paper with no guide to turn to. Geniuses in their imaginations are like heat-seeking missiles locked-in with their targets of deep interests and they generally see things in one dimension only. Imagination has limits; unaided imagination is like a bird without wings--it goes nowhere.

RevDate: 2015-08-18
CmpDate: 2015-11-05

Chadov BF, Fedorova NB, EV Chadova (2015)

Conditional mutations in Drosophila melanogaster: On the occasion of the 150th anniversary of G. Mendel's report in Brünn.

Mutation research. Reviews in mutation research, 765:40-55.

The basis for modern genetics was laid by Gregor Mendel. He proposed that traits belonging to the intraspecific variability class be studied. However, individuals of one species possess traits of another class. They are related to intraspecific similarity. Individuals never differ from each other in these traits. By analogy with traits varying within a species and determined by genes, it is conjectured that intraspecific similarity is determined by genes, too. If so, mutations in these genes can be obtained. This paper provides a review of works published in 2000-2014 that: (1) propose breeding methods for detection of mutations in Drosophila melanogaster genes that lead intraspecific similarity; these mutations were called conditional; (2) describe collections of conditional mutations in chromosomes X, 2, and 3 of Drosophila; (3) show unusual features of epigenetic nature in the mutants; and (4) analyze these features of the mutants. Based on the peculiarities of manifestation it is supposed that the recognized conditional mutations occur in genes responsible for intraspecific similarity. The genes presumably belong to the so-called regulatory network of the Drosophila genome. This approach expands the scope of breeding analysis introduced by G. Mendel for heredity studies 150 years ago.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2015-11-05

Dronamraju K (2015)

J.B.S. Haldane as I knew him, with a brief account of his contribution to mutation research.

Mutation research. Reviews in mutation research, 765:1-6.

J.B.S. Haldane made important contributions to several sciences although he did not possess an academic qualification in any branch of science. A classical scholar, who grew up in a scientific household in Oxford, Haldane was taught the principles of scientific experimentation from his childhood by his father, the distinguished physiologist John Scott Haldane. Collaborating with his father, Haldane contributed to respiratory physiology but soon switched to genetics, especially population genetics. He investigated mathematically the dynamics of selection - mutation balance in populations - concluding that it is mutation that determines the course of evolution. Besides genetics, Haldane was noted for his important contributions to enzyme kinetics, origin of life, biometry, cybernetics, cosmology and deep sea diving, among others.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2015-12-02

Gardner A (2015)

More on the genetical theory of multilevel selection.

Journal of evolutionary biology, 28(9):1747-1751.

In my article The genetical theory of multilevel selection, I provided a synthesis of the theory of multilevel selection (MLS) and the theory of natural selection in class-structured populations. I framed this synthesis within Fisher's genetical paradigm, taking a strictly genetical approach to traits and fitness. I showed that this resolves a number of long-standing conceptual problems that have plagued the MLS literature, including the issues of 'aggregate' vs. 'emergent' group traits, 'collective fitness1 ' vs. 'collective fitness2 ' and 'MLS1' vs. 'MLS2 '. In his commentary, Goodnight suggests this theoretical and conceptual synthesis is flawed in several respects. Here, I show this is incorrect, by: reiterating the theoretical and conceptual goals of my synthesis; clarifying that my genetical approach to traits is necessary for a proper analysis of the action of MLS independently of non-Darwinian factors; emphasizing that the Price-Hamilton approach to MLS provides a consistent, useful and conceptually superior theoretical framework; and explaining the role of reproductive value in the study of natural selection in class-structured populations. I also show that Goodnight's contextual analysis treatment of MLS in a class-structured population is mathematically, biologically and conceptually inadequate.

RevDate: 2016-12-30
CmpDate: 2016-12-13

Grote M, M Stadler (2015)

Introduction: Surface Histories.

Science in context, 28(3):311-315.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2016-07-07

Wood RJ (2015)

Darbishire expands his vision of heredity from Mendelian genetics to inherited memory.

Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences, 53:16-39.

The British biologist A.D. Darbishire (1879-1915) responded to the rediscovery in 1900 of Mendel's theory of heredity by testing it experimentally, first in Oxford, then in Manchester and London. He summarised his conclusions in a textbook 'Breeding and the Mendelian Discovery' (1911), in which he questioned whether Mendelism alone could explain all aspects of practical breeding experience. Already he had begun to think about an alternative theory to give greater emphasis to the widely held conviction among breeders regarding the inheritance of characteristics acquired during an individual's life. Redefining heredity in terms of a germ-plasm based biological memory, he used vocabulary drawn partly from sources outside conventional science, including the metaphysical/vitalistic writings of Samuel Butler and Henri Bergson. An evolving hereditary memory fitted well with the conception of breeding as a creative art aimed at greater economic efficiency. For evolution beyond human control he proposed a self-modifying process, claiming it to surpass in efficiency the chancy mechanism of natural selection proposed by Darwin. From his writings, including early chapters of an unfinished book entitled 'An Introduction to a Biology', we consider how he reached these concepts and how they relate to later advances in understanding the genome and the genetic programme.

RevDate: 2015-07-03
CmpDate: 2016-02-09

Nicholas FW, A Mäki-Tanila (2015)

An important anniversary: 150 years since Mendel's laws of inheritance made their first public appearance.

Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie, 132(4):277-280.

RevDate: 2018-12-03
CmpDate: 2017-03-07

Tanghe KB (2015)

Mendel at the sesquicentennial of 'Versuche über Pflanzen-Hybriden' (1865): The root of the biggest legend in the history of science.

Endeavour, 39(2):106-115.

In 1965, Mendel was still celebrated as the undisputed founder of genetics. In the ensuing 50 years, scholars questioned and undermined this traditional interpretation of his experiments with hybrid plants, without, however, managing to replace it: at the sesquicentennial of the presentation of his 'Versuche' (1865), the Moravian friar remains, to a vast majority, the heroic Father of genetics or at least some kind of geneticist. This exceptionally inert myth is nourished by ontological intuitions but can only continue to flourish, thanks to a long-standing conceptual void in the historiography of biology. It is merely a symptom of this more fundamental problem.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2016-04-20

Perbal L (2015)

The case of the gene: Postgenomics between modernity and postmodernity.

EMBO reports, 16(7):777-781.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2015-12-28

Durmaz AA, Karaca E, Demkow U, et al (2015)

Evolution of genetic techniques: past, present, and beyond.

BioMed research international, 2015:461524.

Genetics is the study of heredity, which means the study of genes and factors related to all aspects of genes. The scientific history of genetics began with the works of Gregor Mendel in the mid-19th century. Prior to Mendel, genetics was primarily theoretical whilst, after Mendel, the science of genetics was broadened to include experimental genetics. Developments in all fields of genetics and genetic technology in the first half of the 20th century provided a basis for the later developments. In the second half of the 20th century, the molecular background of genetics has become more understandable. Rapid technological advancements, followed by the completion of Human Genome Project, have contributed a great deal to the knowledge of genetic factors and their impact on human life and diseases. Currently, more than 1800 disease genes have been identified, more than 2000 genetic tests have become available, and in conjunction with this at least 350 biotechnology-based products have been released onto the market. Novel technologies, particularly next generation sequencing, have dramatically accelerated the pace of biological research, while at the same time increasing expectations. In this paper, a brief summary of genetic history with short explanations of most popular genetic techniques is given.

RevDate: 2015-03-31
CmpDate: 2015-09-21

Nicholas FW, Wade CM, Ollivier L, et al (2015)

Quantitative genetics, spread of genes and genetic improvement: papers in honour of John James. Introduction.

Journal of animal breeding and genetics = Zeitschrift fur Tierzuchtung und Zuchtungsbiologie, 132(2):85-88.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2016-01-20

Burstin J, Salloignon P, Chabert-Martinello M, et al (2015)

Genetic diversity and trait genomic prediction in a pea diversity panel.

BMC genomics, 16:105.

BACKGROUND: Pea (Pisum sativum L.), a major pulse crop grown for its protein-rich seeds, is an important component of agroecological cropping systems in diverse regions of the world. New breeding challenges imposed by global climate change and new regulations urge pea breeders to undertake more efficient methods of selection and better take advantage of the large genetic diversity present in the Pisum sativum genepool. Diversity studies conducted so far in pea used Simple Sequence Repeat (SSR) and Retrotransposon Based Insertion Polymorphism (RBIP) markers. Recently, SNP marker panels have been developed that will be useful for genetic diversity assessment and marker-assisted selection.

RESULTS: A collection of diverse pea accessions, including landraces and cultivars of garden, field or fodder peas as well as wild peas was characterised at the molecular level using newly developed SNP markers, as well as SSR markers and RBIP markers. The three types of markers were used to describe the structure of the collection and revealed different pictures of the genetic diversity among the collection. SSR showed the fastest rate of evolution and RBIP the slowest rate of evolution, pointing to their contrasted mode of evolution. SNP markers were then used to predict phenotypes -the date of flowering (BegFlo), the number of seeds per plant (Nseed) and thousand seed weight (TSW)- that were recorded for the collection. Different statistical methods were tested including the LASSO (Least Absolute Shrinkage ans Selection Operator), PLS (Partial Least Squares), SPLS (Sparse Partial Least Squares), Bayes A, Bayes B and GBLUP (Genomic Best Linear Unbiased Prediction) methods and the structure of the collection was taken into account in the prediction. Despite a limited number of 331 markers used for prediction, TSW was reliably predicted.

CONCLUSION: The development of marker assisted selection has not reached its full potential in pea until now. This paper shows that the high-throughput SNP arrays that are being developed will most probably allow for a more efficient selection in this species.

RevDate: 2015-12-14
CmpDate: 2015-12-08

Hand DJ (2015)

From evidence to understanding: a commentary on Fisher (1922) 'On the mathematical foundations of theoretical statistics'.

Philosophical transactions. Series A, Mathematical, physical, and engineering sciences, 373(2039):.

The nature of statistics has changed over time. It was originally concerned with descriptive 'matters of state'--with summarizing population numbers, economic strength and social conditions. But during the course of the twentieth century its aim broadened to include inference--how to use data to shed light on underlying mechanisms, about what might happen in the future, about what would happen if certain actions were taken. Central to this development was Ronald Fisher. Over the course of his life he was responsible for many of the major conceptual advances in statistics. This is particularly illustrated by his 1922 paper, in which he introduced many of the concepts which remain fundamental to our understanding of how to extract meaning from data, right to the present day. It is no exaggeration to say that Fisher's work, as illustrated by the ideas he described and developed in this paper, underlies all modern science, and much more besides. This commentary was written to celebrate the 350th anniversary of the journal Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society.

RevDate: 2015-02-19
CmpDate: 2015-03-04

Matalová A, E Matalová (2015)

Plant genetics: Czech centre marks Mendel anniversary.

Nature, 518(7539):303.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2015-01-28

Opitz JM, DW Bianchi (2015)

MENDEL: Morphologist and Mathematician Founder of Genetics - To Begin a Celebration of the 2015 Sesquicentennial of Mendel's Presentation in 1865 of his Versuche über Pflanzenhybriden.

Molecular genetics & genomic medicine, 3(1):1-7.

RevDate: 2016-10-20
CmpDate: 2015-03-24

Wanjin X, M Morigen (2015)

Understanding the cellular and molecular mechanisms of dominant and recessive inheritance in genetics course.

Yi chuan = Hereditas, 37(1):98-108.

In Mendellian genetics, the dominance and recessiveness are used to describe the functional relationship between two alleles of one gene in a heterozygote. The allele which constitutes a phenotypical character over the other is named dominant and the one functionally masked is called recessive. The definitions thereby led to the creation of Mendel's laws on segregation and independent assortment and subsequent classic genetics. The discrimination of dominance and recessiveness originally is a requirement for Mendel's logical reasoning, but now it should be explained by cellular and molecular principles in the modern genetics. To answer the question raised by students of how the dominance and recessiveness are controlled, we reviewed the recent articles and tried to summarize the cellular and molecular basis of dominant and recessive inheritance. Clearly, understanding the essences of dominant and recessive inheritance requires us to know the dissimilarity of the alleles and their products (RNA and/or proteins), and the way of their function in cells. The alleles spatio-temporally play different roles on offering cells, tissues or organs with discernible phenotypes, namely dominant or recessive. Here, we discuss the changes of allele dominance and recessiveness at the cellular and molecular levels based on the variation of gene structure, gene regulation, function and types of gene products, in order to make students understand gene mutation and function more comprehensively and concretely.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2015-02-10

Fölster S (2014)

[Criticism without evidence, symptomatic of the health care debate].

Lakartidningen, 111(38):1584.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2017-10-30

Visscher PM, NR Wray (2015)

Concepts and Misconceptions about the Polygenic Additive Model Applied to Disease.

Human heredity, 80(4):165-170.

It is nearly one hundred years, since R.A. Fisher published his now famous paper that started the field of quantitative genetics. That paper reconciled Mendelian genetics (as exemplified by Mendel's peas) and the biometrical approach to quantitative traits (as exemplified by the correlation and regression approaches from Galton and Pearson), by showing that a simple model of many genes of small effects, each following Mendel's laws of segregation and inheritance, plus environmental variation could account for the observed resemblance between relatives. In this review, we discuss a number of concepts and misconceptions about the assumptions and limitations of polygenic models of common diseases in human populations.

RevDate: 2014-12-24
CmpDate: 2015-02-10

Teicher A (2014)

Mendel's use of mathematical modelling: ratios, predictions and the appeal to tradition.

History and philosophy of the life sciences, 36(2):187-208.

The seventh section of Gregor Mendel's famous 1866 paper contained a peculiar mathematical model, which predicted the expected ratios between the number of constant and hybrid types, assuming self-pollination continued throughout further generations. This model was significant for Mendel's argumentation and was perceived as inseparable from his entire theory at the time. A close examination of this model reveals that it has several perplexing aspects which have not yet been systematically scrutinized. The paper analyzes those aspects, dispels some common misconceptions regarding the interpretation of the model, and re-evaluates the role of this model for Mendel himself. In light of the resulting analysis, Mendel's position between nineteenth-century hybridist tradition and twentieth-century population genetics is reassessed, and his sophisticated use of mathematics to legitimize his innovative theory is uncovered.

RevDate: 2014-11-15
CmpDate: 2016-09-29

Price AR, RB Daroff (2015)

Historical model for editor and Office of Research Integrity cooperation in handling allegations, investigation, and retraction in a contentious (Abbs) case of research misconduct.

Accountability in research, 22(2):63-80.

Cooperation between a journal editor and the federal Office of Research Integrity (ORI) in addressing investigations of research misconduct, each performing their own responsibilities while keeping each other informed of events and evidence, can be critical to the professional and regulatory resolution of a case. This paper describes the history of one of ORI's most contentious investigations that involved falsification of research on Parkinson's disease patients by James Abbs, Professor of Neurology, University of Wisconsin, published in the journal Neurology, which was handled cooperatively by the authors, who were the chief ORI investigator and the Editor-in-Chief of Neurology, respectively.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2014-10-15

Sarin A, S Jain (2014)

On "standing alongside the patient in his difficulties" or the privileging of the historical.

Indian journal of psychiatry, 56(3):213-214.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2015-09-28

Parolini G (2015)

The emergence of modern statistics in agricultural science: analysis of variance, experimental design and the reshaping of research at Rothamsted Experimental Station, 1919-1933.

Journal of the history of biology, 48(2):301-335.

During the twentieth century statistical methods have transformed research in the experimental and social sciences. Qualitative evidence has largely been replaced by quantitative results and the tools of statistical inference have helped foster a new ideal of objectivity in scientific knowledge. The paper will investigate this transformation by considering the genesis of analysis of variance and experimental design, statistical methods nowadays taught in every elementary course of statistics for the experimental and social sciences. These methods were developed by the mathematician and geneticist R. A. Fisher during the 1920s, while he was working at Rothamsted Experimental Station, where agricultural research was in turn reshaped by Fisher's methods. Analysis of variance and experimental design required new practices and instruments in field and laboratory research, and imposed a redistribution of expertise among statisticians, experimental scientists and the farm staff. On the other hand the use of statistical methods in agricultural science called for a systematization of information management and made computing an activity integral to the experimental research done at Rothamsted, permanently integrating the statisticians' tools and expertise into the station research programme. Fisher's statistical methods did not remain confined within agricultural research and by the end of the 1950s they had come to stay in psychology, sociology, education, chemistry, medicine, engineering, economics, quality control, just to mention a few of the disciplines which adopted them.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2015-07-24

Kirkwood T (2014)

In memoriam Robin Holliday (November 6, 1932-April 9, 2014).

Genetics, 198(1):423-424.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2015-01-14

Roll-Hansen N (2014)

The holist tradition in twentieth century genetics. Wilhelm Johannsen's genotype concept.

The Journal of physiology, 592(11):2431-2438.

The terms 'genotype', 'phenotype' and 'gene' originally had a different meaning from that in the Modern Synthesis. These terms were coined in the first decade of the twentieth century by the Danish plant physiologist Wilhelm Johannsen. His bean selection experiment and his theoretical analysis of the difference between genotype and phenotype were important inputs to the formation of genetics as a well-defined special discipline. This paper shows how Johannsen's holistic genotype theory provided a platform for criticism of narrowly genocentric versions of the chromosome theory of heredity that came to dominate genetics in the middle decades of the twentieth century. Johannsen came to recognize the epoch-making importance of the work done by the Drosophila group, but he continued to insist on the incompleteness of the chromosome theory. Genes of the kind that they mapped on the chromosomes could only give a partial explanation of biological heredity and evolution.

RevDate: 2014-06-14
CmpDate: 2015-02-06

Porter TM (2014)

The curious case of blending inheritance.

Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences, 46:125-132.

For more than a century, geneticists have consistently identified the origins of their science with Gregor Mendel's experiments on peas. Mendelism, they have said, demonstrated at long last that biological inheritance was not, as had so often been supposed, "blending," but particulate. Many historians of biology continue to interpret the conflict of biometricians and Mendelians at the start of the twentieth century in these terms, identifying biometry with the (incorrect) blending mechanism. But this view of blending is history as war by other means. While Francis Galton's contrast between blended and alternate inheritance had become familiar by 1905, he and his interpreters understood the two forms as differing outcomes of breeding, not as rival theories. Only a few biologists in this period went beyond blending as a description of results of breeding to a blending mechanism, and these were not biometricians. Recognizing this, we can see also that statistical methods and models were central to evolutionary genetics right from the start. The evolutionary synthesis, while reshaping their role, did not create it.

RevDate: 2014-06-14
CmpDate: 2015-02-06

Theunissen B (2014)

Practical animal breeding as the key to an integrated view of genetics, eugenics and evolutionary theory: Arend L. Hagedoorn (1885-1953).

Studies in history and philosophy of biological and biomedical sciences, 46:55-64.

In the history of genetics Arend Hagedoorn (1885-1953) is mainly known for the 'Hagedoorn effect', which states that part of the changes in variability that populations undergo over time are due to chance effects. Leaving this contribution aside, Hagedoorn's work has received scarcely any attention from historians. This is mainly due to the fact that Hagedoorn was an expert in animal breeding, a field that historians have only recently begun to explore. His work provides an example of how a prominent geneticist envisaged animal breeding to be reformed by the new science of heredity. Hagedoorn, a pupil of Hugo de Vries, tried to integrate his insights as a Mendelian geneticist and an animal breeding expert in a unified view of heredity, eugenics and evolution. In this paper I aim to elucidate how these fields were connected in Hagedoorn's work.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2015-01-29

Bogdanova VS, Kosterin OE, AK Yadrikhinskiy (2014)

Wild peas vary in their cross-compatibility with cultivated pea (Pisum sativum subsp. sativum L.) depending on alleles of a nuclear-cytoplasmic incompatibility locus.

TAG. Theoretical and applied genetics. Theoretische und angewandte Genetik, 127(5):1163-1172.

KEY MESSAGE: Divergent wild and endemic peas differ in hybrid sterility in reciprocal crosses with cultivated pea depending on alleles of a nuclear 'speciation gene' involved in nuclear-cytoplasmic compatibility.

BACKGROUND: In hybrids between cultivated and wild peas, nuclear-cytoplasmic conflict frequently occurs. One of the nuclear genes involved, Scs1, was earlier mapped on Linkage Group III.

RESULTS: In reciprocal crosses of seven divergent pea accessions with cultivated P. sativum, some alleles of Scs1 manifested incompatibility with an alien cytoplasm as a decrease in pollen fertility to about 50 % in the heterozygotes and lack of some genotypic classes among F2 segregants. Earlier, we defined monophyletic evolutionary lineages A, B, C and D of pea according to allelic state of three markers, from nuclear, plastid and mitochondrial genomes. All tested representatives of wild peas from the lineages A and C exhibited incompatibility due to Scs1 deleterious effects in crosses with testerlines of P. sativum subsp. sativum (the common cultivated pea) at least in one direction. A wild pea from the lineage B and a cultivated pea from the lineage D were compatible with the testerline in both directions. The tested accession of cultivated P. abyssinicum (lineage A) was partially compatible in both directions. The Scs1 alleles of some pea accessions even originating from the same geographic area were remarkably different in their compatibility with cultivated Pisum sativum cytoplasm.

CONCLUSION: Variability of a gene involved in reproductive isolation is of important evolutionary role and nominate Scs1 as a speciation gene.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2015-10-27

Vyas SA, SP Desai (2015)

The Professor and the Student, Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher (1890-1962) and William Sealy Gosset (1876-1937): Careers of two giants in mathematical statistics.

Journal of medical biography, 23(2):98-107.

Sir Ronald Aylmer Fisher and William Sealy Gosset were responsible for laying the foundations of statistical inference. Tests that bear their names are used by students and researchers in a wide variety of scientific disciplines. Similar and different in many respects, their lives and careers are the subject of this essay. They were not teacher and pupil; in fact the student was 14 years older than the professor. Their careers did not require them to interact with one another much but they were aware of one another's work. Although Sir Ronald is assigned the role of the professor, his success as a teacher was impaired by his inability to understand the limitations of his students. Meanwhile Gosset was forced to publish his work under the pseudonym 'Student' in order to make contributions to the field of mathematical statistics. Both men are undisputed giants in the field of statistics and we celebrate their achievements as much as we try to understand their struggles.

RevDate: 2014-06-16
CmpDate: 2015-05-12

Mayo O (2014)

Fisher in Adelaide.

Biometrics, 70(2):266-269.

R. A. Fisher spent much of his final 3 years of life in Adelaide. It was a congenial place to live and work, and he was much in demand as a speaker, in Australia and overseas. It was, however, a difficult time for him because of the sustained criticism of fiducial inference from the early 1950s onwards. The article discusses some of Fisher's work on inference from an Adelaide perspective. It also considers some of the successes arising from this time, in the statistics of field experimentation and in evolutionary genetics. A few personal recollections of Fisher as houseguest are provided. This article is the text of a article presented on August 31, 2012 at the 26th International Biometric Conference, Kobe, Japan.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2014-08-21

Poczai P, Bell N, J Hyvönen (2014)

Imre Festetics and the Sheep Breeders' Society of Moravia: Mendel's Forgotten "Research Network".

PLoS biology, 12(1):e1001772.

Contemporary science thrives on collaborative networks, but these can also be found elsewhere in the history of science in unexpected places. When Mendel turned his attention to inheritance in peas he was not an isolated monk, but rather the latest in a line of Moravian researchers and agriculturalists who had been thinking about inheritance for half a century. Many of the principles of inheritance had already been sketched out by Imre Festetics, a Hungarian sheep breeder active in Brno. Festetics, however, was ultimately hindered by the complex nature of his study traits, aspects of wool quality that we now know to be polygenic. Whether or not Mendel was aware of Festetics’s ideas,both men were products of the same vibrant milieu in 19th-century Moravia that combined theory and agricultural practice to eventually uncover the rules of inheritance.

RevDate: 2015-11-19
CmpDate: 2015-03-30

Clerget-Darpoux F, RC Elston (2013)

Will formal genetics become dispensable?.

Human heredity, 76(2):47-52.

RevDate: 2014-02-04
CmpDate: 2014-10-09

Pogue J, DL Sackett (2014)

Clinician-trialist rounds: 19. Faux pas or fraud? Identifying centers that have fabricated their data in your multi-center trial.

Clinical trials (London, England), 11(1):128-130.

RevDate: 2018-12-02
CmpDate: 2014-05-07

Visscher PM (2013)

Commentary: Height and Mendel's theory: the long and the short of it.

International journal of epidemiology, 42(4):944-945.

RevDate: 2013-09-24
CmpDate: 2014-05-07

Brownlee J (2013)

The inheritance of complex growth forms, such as stature, on Mendel's theory.

International journal of epidemiology, 42(4):932-934.

RevDate: 2018-11-13
CmpDate: 2014-03-25

Stark A, E Seneta (2013)

Wilhelm Weinberg's early contribution to segregation analysis.

Genetics, 195(1):1-6.

Wilhelm Weinberg (1862-1937) is a largely forgotten pioneer of human and medical genetics. His name is linked with that of the English mathematician G. H. Hardy in the Hardy-Weinberg law, pervasive in textbooks on population genetics since it expresses stability over generations of zygote frequencies AA, Aa, aa under random mating. One of Weinberg's signal contributions, in an article whose centenary we celebrate, was to verify that Mendel's segregation law still held in the setting of human heredity, contrary to the then-prevailing view of William Bateson (1861-1926), the leading Mendelian geneticist of the time. Specifically, Weinberg verified that the proportion of recessive offspring genotypes aa in human parental crossings Aa × Aa (that is, the segregation ratio for such a setting) was indeed p=1/4. We focus in a nontechnical way on his procedure, called the simple sib method, and on the heated controversy with Felix Bernstein (1878-1956) in the 1920s and 1930s over work stimulated by Weinberg's article.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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