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22 Apr 2024 at 01:47
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Bibliography on: Long Covid: Review Papers


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 22 Apr 2024 at 01:47 Created: 

Long Covid: Review Papers

Wikipedia: Long Covid refers to a group of health problems persisting or developing after an initial COVID-19 infection. Symptoms can last weeks, months or years and are often debilitating. Long COVID is characterised by a large number of symptoms, which sometimes disappear and reappear. Commonly reported symptoms of long COVID are fatigue, memory problems, shortness of breath, and sleep disorder. Many other symptoms can also be present, including headaches, loss of smell or taste, muscle weakness, fever, and cognitive dysfunction and problems with mental health. Symptoms often get worse after mental or physical effort, a process called post-exertional malaise. The causes of long COVID are not yet fully understood. Hypotheses include lasting damage to organs and blood vessels, problems with blood clotting, neurological dysfunction, persistent virus or a reactivation of latent viruses and autoimmunity. Diagnosis of long COVID is based on suspected or confirmed COVID-19 infection, symptoms and by excluding alternative diagnoses. Estimates of the prevalence of long COVID vary based on definition, population studied, time period studied, and methodology, generally ranging between 5% and 50%. Prevalence is less after vaccination.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( "long covid" AND review[SB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-04-19

Zhao J, Xia F, Jiao X, et al (2024)

Long COVID and its association with neurodegenerative diseases: pathogenesis, neuroimaging, and treatment.

Frontiers in neurology, 15:1367974.

Corona Virus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2), has presented unprecedented challenges to the world. Changes after acute COVID-19 have had a significant impact on patients with neurodegenerative diseases. This study aims to explore the mechanism of neurodegenerative diseases by examining the main pathways of central nervous system infection of SARS-CoV-2. Research has indicated that chronic inflammation and abnormal immune response are the primary factors leading to neuronal damage and long-term consequences of COVID-19. In some COVID-19 patients, the concurrent inflammatory response leads to increased release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which may significantly impact the prognosis. Molecular imaging can accurately assess the severity of neurodegenerative diseases in patients with COVID-19 after the acute phase. Furthermore, the use of FDG-PET is advocated to quantify the relationship between neuroinflammation and psychiatric and cognitive symptoms in patients who have recovered from COVID-19. Future development should focus on aggressive post-infection control of inflammation and the development of targeted therapies that target ACE2 receptors, ERK1/2, and Ca[2+].

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Kane AS, Godfrey M, Noval Rivas M, et al (2024)

The Spectrum of Postacute Sequelae of COVID-19 in Children: From MIS-C to Long COVID.

Annual review of virology [Epub ahead of print].

The effects of SARS-CoV-2 infection on children continue to evolve following the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic. Although life-threatening multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) has become rare, long-standing symptoms stemming from persistent immune activation beyond the resolution of acute SARS-CoV-2 infection contribute to major health sequelae and continue to pose an economic burden. Shared pathophysiologic mechanisms place MIS-C and long COVID within a vast spectrum of postinfectious conditions characterized by intestinal dysbiosis, increased gut permeability, and varying degrees of immune dysregulation. Insights obtained from MIS-C will help shape our understanding of the more indolent and prevalent postacute sequelae of COVID and ultimately guide efforts to improve diagnosis and management of postinfectious complications of SARS-CoV-2 infection in children.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Chan JF, Yuan S, Chu H, et al (2024)

COVID-19 drug discovery and treatment options.

Nature reviews. Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) has caused substantial morbidity and mortality, and serious social and economic disruptions worldwide. Unvaccinated or incompletely vaccinated older individuals with underlying diseases are especially prone to severe disease. In patients with non-fatal disease, long COVID affecting multiple body systems may persist for months. Unlike SARS-CoV and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus, which have either been mitigated or remained geographically restricted, SARS-CoV-2 has disseminated globally and is likely to continue circulating in humans with possible emergence of new variants that may render vaccines less effective. Thus, safe, effective and readily available COVID-19 therapeutics are urgently needed. In this Review, we summarize the major drug discovery approaches, preclinical antiviral evaluation models, representative virus-targeting and host-targeting therapeutic options, and key therapeutics currently in clinical use for COVID-19. Preparedness against future coronavirus pandemics relies not only on effective vaccines but also on broad-spectrum antivirals targeting conserved viral components or universal host targets, and new therapeutics that can precisely modulate the immune response during infection.

RevDate: 2024-04-15
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Chagas LDS, CA Serfaty (2024)

The Influence of Microglia on Neuroplasticity and Long-Term Cognitive Sequelae in Long COVID: Impacts on Brain Development and Beyond.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(7):.

Microglial cells, the immune cells of the central nervous system, are key elements regulating brain development and brain health. These cells are fully responsive to stressors, microenvironmental alterations and are actively involved in the construction of neural circuits in children and the ability to undergo full experience-dependent plasticity in adults. Since neuroinflammation is a known key element in the pathogenesis of COVID-19, one might expect the dysregulation of microglial function to severely impact both functional and structural plasticity, leading to the cognitive sequelae that appear in the pathogenesis of Long COVID. Therefore, understanding this complex scenario is mandatory for establishing the possible molecular mechanisms related to these symptoms. In the present review, we will discuss Long COVID and its association with reduced levels of BDNF, altered crosstalk between circulating immune cells and microglia, increased levels of inflammasomes, cytokines and chemokines, as well as the alterations in signaling pathways that impact neural synaptic remodeling and plasticity, such as fractalkines, the complement system, the expression of SIRPα and CD47 molecules and altered matrix remodeling. Together, these complex mechanisms may help us understand consequences of Long COVID for brain development and its association with altered brain plasticity, impacting learning disabilities, neurodevelopmental disorders, as well as cognitive decline in adults.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Membrilla JA, Caronna E, Trigo-López J, et al (2021)

Persistent headache after COVID-19: Pathophysioloy, clinic and treatment.

Neurology perspectives, 1:S31-S36.

SARS-CoV-2 is the virus responsible for the COVID-19 pandemic. The acute infection is characterised not only by respiratory symptoms, but also by multiple systemic manifestations, including neurological symptoms. Among these, headache is a frequent complaint. As the pandemic progresses and the population of patients recovering from COVID-19 grows, it is becoming apparent that the headache present in the acute stage of the infection may persist for an indeterminate period, becoming a major problem for the patient and potentially leading to disability. In this review we describe the pathophysiological and clinical aspects of persistent headache after COVID-19 based on the information currently available in the literature and the authors' clinical experience.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Makhluf H, Madany H, K Kim (2024)

Long COVID: Long-Term Impact of SARS-CoV2.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 14(7): pii:diagnostics14070711.

Four years post-pandemic, SARS-CoV-2 continues to affect many lives across the globe. An estimated 65 million people suffer from long COVID, a term used to encapsulate the post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infections that affect multiple organ systems. Known symptoms include chronic fatigue syndrome, brain fog, cardiovascular issues, autoimmunity, dysautonomia, and clotting due to inflammation. Herein, we review long COVID symptoms, the proposed theories behind the pathology, diagnostics, treatments, and the clinical trials underway to explore treatments for viral persistence, autonomic and cognitive dysfunctions, sleep disturbances, fatigue, and exercise intolerance.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Jiao T, Huang Y, Sun H, et al (2024)

Research progress of post-acute sequelae after SARS-CoV-2 infection.

Cell death & disease, 15(4):257.

SARS-CoV-2 has spread rapidly worldwide and infected hundreds of millions of people worldwide. With the increasing number of COVID-19 patients discharged from hospitals, the emergence of its associated complications, sequelae, has become a new global health crisis secondary to acute infection. For the time being, such complications and sequelae are collectively called "Post-acute sequelae after SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC)", also referred to as "long COVID" syndrome. Similar to the acute infection period of COVID-19, there is also heterogeneity in PASC. This article reviews the various long-term complications and sequelae observed in multiple organ systems caused by COVID-19, pathophysiological mechanisms, diagnosis, and treatment of PASC, aiming to raise awareness of PASC and optimize management strategies.

RevDate: 2024-04-12
CmpDate: 2024-04-12

Srivastava A, Nalroad Sundararaj S, Bhatia J, et al (2024)

Understanding long COVID myocarditis: A comprehensive review.

Cytokine, 178:156584.

Infectious diseases are a cause of major concern in this twenty-first century. There have been reports of various outbreaks like severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) in 2003, swine flu in 2009, Zika virus disease in 2015, and Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS) in 2012, since the start of this millennium. In addition to these outbreaks, the latest infectious disease to result in an outbreak is the SARS-CoV-2 infection. A viral infection recognized as a respiratory illness at the time of emergence, SARS-CoV-2 has wreaked havoc worldwide because of its long-lasting implications like heart failure, sepsis, organ failure, etc., and its significant impact on the global economy. Besides the acute illness, it also leads to symptoms months later which is called long COVID or post-COVID-19 condition. Due to its ever-increasing prevalence, it has been a significant challenge to treat the affected individuals and manage the complications as well. Myocarditis, a long-term complication of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an inflammatory condition involving the myocardium of the heart, which could even be fatal in the long term in cases of progression to ventricular dysfunction and heart failure. Thus, it is imperative to diagnose early and treat this condition in the affected individuals. At present, there are numerous studies which are in progress, investigating patients with COVID-19-related myocarditis and the treatment strategies. This review focuses primarily on myocarditis, a life-threatening complication of COVID-19 illness, and endeavors to elucidate the pathogenesis, biomarkers, and management of long COVID myocarditis along with pipeline drugs in detail.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Barilaite E, Watson H, MB Hocaoglu (2024)

Understanding Patient-Reported Outcome Measures Used in Adult Survivors Experiencing Long-Term Effects After COVID-19 Infection: A Rapid Review.

Journal of patient-centered research and reviews, 11(1):36-50.

PURPOSE: Patient-reported outcome measures (PROMs) are used in individuals experiencing long-term effects from COVID-19 infection, or Long COVID, to evaluate the quality of life and functional status of these individuals. However, little is known about which PROMs are being utilised and the psychometric properties of these PROMs. Our purpose was thus to explore which PROMs are used in Long COVID patients and to discuss the psychometric properties of the PROMs.

METHODS: For this rapid review, a systematic literature search was performed in the PubMed, Embase, and CINAHL databases. The found studies were screened using the PRISMA flowchart. We then performed study quality appraisal and assessed the psychometric properties of the found PROMs.

RESULTS: Per the systematic literature search and after removal of duplicates, 157 publications were identified for individual screening. After screening and eligibility assessment, 74 articles were selected for our review. In total, 74 PROMs were used and primarily comprised quality of life, fatigue, breathlessness, mental health, and smell/taste issues in COVID "long haulers." Five studies used newly developed, COVID-19-specific PROMs. We assessed the psychometric properties of the 10 most-used PROMs. The majority were found to be reliable and valid instruments. EQ-5D-5L was the most popular and highly rated PROM.

CONCLUSIONS: We assessed PROMs used in Long COVID patients and evaluated their psychometric properties. EQ-5D-5L was the most favourably rated PROM. PROMs addressing mental health issues are crucial in managing anxiety and depression in Long COVID patients. New COVID-specific PROMs assess functional status and smell/taste perception and show great utilisation potential in olfactory training at COVID smell clinics. However, many reviewed PROMs currently lack sufficient analysis of their psychometric properties. Therefore, future research needs to examine these measures.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Kikinis Z, Castañeyra-Perdomo A, González-Mora JL, et al (2024)

Investigating the structural network underlying brain-immune interactions using combined histopathology and neuroimaging: a critical review for its relevance in acute and long COVID-19.

Frontiers in psychiatry, 15:1337888.

Current views on immunity support the idea that immunity extends beyond defense functions and is tightly intertwined with several other fields of biology such as virology, microbiology, physiology and ecology. It is also critical for our understanding of autoimmunity and cancer, two topics of great biological relevance and for critical public health considerations such as disease prevention and treatment. Central to this review, the immune system is known to interact intimately with the nervous system and has been recently hypothesized to be involved not only in autonomic and limbic bio-behaviors but also in cognitive function. Herein we review the structural architecture of the brain network involved in immune response. Furthermore, we elaborate upon the implications of inflammatory processes affecting brain-immune interactions as reported recently in pathological conditions due to SARS-Cov-2 virus infection, namely in acute and post-acute COVID-19. Moreover, we discuss how current neuroimaging techniques combined with ad hoc clinical autopsies and histopathological analyses could critically affect the validity of clinical translation in studies of human brain-immune interactions using neuroimaging. Advances in our understanding of brain-immune interactions are expected to translate into novel therapeutic avenues in a vast array of domains including cancer, autoimmune diseases or viral infections such as in acute and post-acute or Long COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-04-06

Peng Z, Zheng Y, Yang Z, et al (2024)

Acupressure: a possible therapeutic strategy for anxiety related to COVID-19: a meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials.

Frontiers in medicine, 11:1341072.

BACKGROUND: From the end of 2019 to December 2023, the world grappled with the COVID-19 pandemic. The scope and ultimate repercussions of the pandemic on global health and well-being remained uncertain, ushering in a wave of fear, anxiety, and worry. This resulted in many individuals succumbing to fear and despair. Acupoint massage emerged as a safe and effective alternative therapy for anxiety relief. However, its efficacy was yet to be extensively backed by evidence-based medicine. This study aimed to enhance the clinical effectiveness of acupoint massage and extend its benefits to a wider population. It undertakes a systematic review of the existing randomized controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the impact of acupoint massage on anxiety treatment, discussing its potential benefits and implications. This research aims to furnish robust evidence supporting anxiety treatment strategies for patients afflicted with COVID-19 disease and spark new approaches to anxiety management.

OBJECTIVES: This study evaluates the evidence derived from randomised controlled trials (RCTs), quantifies the impact of acupressure on anxiety manifestations within the general population, and proposes viable supplementary intervention strategies for managing COVID-19 related anxiety.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: This review included RCTs published between February 2014 and July 2023, that compared the effects of acupressure with sham control in alleviating anxiety symptomatology as the outcome measure. The studies were sourced from the multiple databases, including CINAHL, EBM Reviews, Embase, Medline, PsycINFO, Scopus and Web of Science. A meta-analysis was performed on the eligible studies, and an overall effect size was computed specifically for the anxiety outcome. The Cochrane Collaboration Bias Risk Assessment Tool (RevMan V5.4) was employed to assess bias risk, data integration, meta-analysis, and subgroup analysis. The mean difference, standard mean deviation, and binary data were used to represent continuous outcomes.

RESULTS: Of 1,110 studies of potential relevance, 39 met the criteria for inclusion in the meta-analysis. The majority of the studies reported a positive effect of acupressure in assuaging anticipatory anxiety about treatment. Eighteen studies were evaluated using the STAI scale. The acupressure procedures were thoroughly documented, and studies exhibited a low risk of bias. The cumulative results of the 18 trials showcased a more substantial reduction in anxiety in the acupressure group compared to controls (SMD = -5.39, 95% CI -5.61 to -5.17, p < 0.01). A subsequent subgroup analysis, based on different interventions in the control group, demonstrated improvement in anxiety levels with sham acupressure in improving changes in anxiety levels (SMD -1.61, 95% CI: -2.34 to -0.87, p < 0.0001), and blank controls (SMD -0.92, 95% CI: -2.37 to 0.53, p = 0.22).

CONCLUSION: In the clinical research of traditional Chinese medicine treatment of anxiety, acupressure demonstrated effectiveness in providing instant relief from anxiety related to multiple diseases with a medium effect size. Considering the increasing incidence of anxiety caused by long COVID, the widespread application of acupressure appears feasible. However, the results were inconsistent regarding improvements on physiological indicators, calling for more stringent reporting procedures, including allocation concealment, to solidify the findings.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Jiang Y, RE Sadun (2024)

What the SARS-CoV-2 Pandemic Has Taught Us About Immunosuppression, Vaccinations, and Immune Dysregulation: The Rheumatology Experience.

Current allergy and asthma reports [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review reflects on the impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the field of rheumatology, emphasizing resulting insights related to the risks of viral infections in immunosuppressed patients, vaccine immunogenicity in immunocompromised patients, and immune dysregulation in the setting of viral infection.

RECENT FINDINGS: During the pandemic, global patient registries provided real-time insights into the risk factors associated with severe COVID-19 outcomes in rheumatology patients. Updated evidence-based recommendations from the American College of Rheumatology (ACR) guided rheumatology practice during a time of considerable uncertainty. Studies on COVID-19 vaccines in immunocompromised populations enhanced our understanding of specific immunosuppressive therapies on vaccine efficacy. The immune dysregulation seen in severe COVID-19 underscored a role for immunomodulation in this and other severe infections. Furthermore, novel post-infectious conditions, namely multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C) and Long COVID, reshaped our understanding of post-viral syndromes and revealed novel pathological mechanisms. Lessons from the COVID-19 pandemic demonstrate the power of collaborative research. The scientific revelations from this dreadful time will, nonetheless, benefit the practice of rheumatology for years to come.

RevDate: 2024-04-04

Gallorini M, Carradori S, Panieri E, et al (2024)

Modulation of NRF2: Biological Dualism in Cancer, Targets and Possible Therapeutic Applications.

Antioxidants & redox signaling, 40(10-12):636-662.

Significance: The nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (NRF2)-Kelch-like ECH-associated protein 1 (KEAP1) system is a master regulator of redox homeostasis and cell adaptation to a variety of exogenous and endogenous stressors. Accumulating evidence from the last decade indicates that the impairment of the redox balance leads to oxidative stress (OS), a common alteration occurring in many human acute and chronic inflammatory diseases, such as cancer, diabetes, neurodegeneration, and metabolic disorders, and aging. Recent Advances: Being located at the intersection of crucial signaling pathways, NRF2 can influence several cellular functions, which extend beyond the maintenance of the redox balance and include cellular metabolism, proteostasis, mitochondrial function and inflammation. For this reason, there is a growing interest in the pharmacologic manipulation of NRF2 for therapeutic purposes, which requires the accurate knowledge of the cell context and the specific time frame both of NRF2 activation and inhibition. This appears to be an important prerequisite and reflects the extreme complexity of the NRF2 signaling, characterized by an intrinsic dualism that mediates beneficial or detrimental effects even in the same biological process. Critical Issues: Of crucial importance will be to understand whether the NRF2 activity modulation might be exploited to exert beneficial outcomes in patients suffering from pathological conditions, in which the OS and the deregulation of inflammatory processes play a crucial role. Future Directions: In this review, we discuss the dual involvement of NRF2 in aging, neurodegeneration, metabolic diseases, long-COVID-19, and carcinogenesis and we present an overview of the most recent therapeutic modulators of NRF2, particularly emphasizing on those selected for clinical trials. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 40, 636-662.

RevDate: 2024-04-03
CmpDate: 2024-04-03

Nlandu Y, Tannor EK, Bafemika T, et al (2024)

Kidney damage associated with COVID-19: from the acute to the chronic phase.

Renal failure, 46(1):2316885.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-COV-2) infection is well established as a systemic disease including kidney damage. The entry point into the renal cell remains the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE-2) receptor and the spectrum of renal lesions is broad, with a clear predominance of structural and functional tubular lesions. The most common form of glomerular injury is collapsing glomerulopathy (CG), which is strongly associated with apolipoprotein L1(APOL-1) risk variants. These acute lesions, which are secondary to the direct or indirect effects of SARS-CoV-2, can progress to chronicity and are specific to long COVID-19 in the absence of any other cause. Residual inflammation associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection, in addition to acute kidney injury (AKI) as a transitional state with or without severe histological lesions, may be responsible for greater kidney function decline in mild-to-moderate COVID-19. This review discusses the evidence for renal histological markers of chronicity in COVID-19 patients and triggers of low-grade inflammation that may explain the decline in kidney function in the post-COVID-19 period.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Faghy PMA, Ashton DRE, McNeils MR, et al (2024)

Attenuating Post-exertional Malaise in Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome and Long-COVID: Is Blood Lactate Monitoring the Answer?.

Current problems in cardiology pii:S0146-2806(24)00193-2 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Chen DY, Huang PI, KT Tang (2024)

Characteristics of long COVID in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Rheumatology advances in practice, 8(2):rkae027 pii:rkae027.

OBJECTIVES: Numerous cases of long coronavirus disease (long COVID) have been reported in patients with autoimmune rheumatic diseases (ARDs). Despite the reviews on clinical manifestations of long COVID in the general population, systematic reviews on ARD patients are scarce. Herein, we conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis on the prevalence and characteristics of long COVID in ARD patients.

METHODS: We searched the literature in PubMed and Embase as of 27 December 2022. Cohort, cross-sectional and case-control studies relevant to long COVID in ARD patients were collected. Stratification based on the severity of COVID infection and subtypes of rheumatic diseases [systemic autoimmune rheumatic disease (SARD) vs non-autoimmune rheumatic disease (NARD)] was also undertaken. A random-effects model was used in the meta-analysis.

RESULTS: A total of 15 relevant studies were identified from the literature. The prevalence of long COVID was 56% (95% CI 34, 76) in 2995 patients. Hospitalized COVID patients had a higher proportion of long COVID than non-hospitalized patients. The prevalence of long COVID was similar between SARD and NARD patients. In terms of symptoms, fatigue, arthralgia and pain were commonly reported in long COVID patients with ARDs.

CONCLUSION: The characteristics of long COVID in ARD patients are generally similar to those in the general population despite a higher prevalence and a higher proportion of arthralgia and pain.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Naidu AS, Wang CK, Rao P, et al (2024)

Precision nutrition to reset virus-induced human metabolic reprogramming and dysregulation (HMRD) in long-COVID.

NPJ science of food, 8(1):19.

SARS-CoV-2, the etiological agent of COVID-19, is devoid of any metabolic capacity; therefore, it is critical for the viral pathogen to hijack host cellular metabolic machinery for its replication and propagation. This single-stranded RNA virus with a 29.9 kb genome encodes 14 open reading frames (ORFs) and initiates a plethora of virus-host protein-protein interactions in the human body. These extensive viral protein interactions with host-specific cellular targets could trigger severe human metabolic reprogramming/dysregulation (HMRD), a rewiring of sugar-, amino acid-, lipid-, and nucleotide-metabolism(s), as well as altered or impaired bioenergetics, immune dysfunction, and redox imbalance in the body. In the infectious process, the viral pathogen hijacks two major human receptors, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE)-2 and/or neuropilin (NRP)-1, for initial adhesion to cell surface; then utilizes two major host proteases, TMPRSS2 and/or furin, to gain cellular entry; and finally employs an endosomal enzyme, cathepsin L (CTSL) for fusogenic release of its viral genome. The virus-induced HMRD results in 5 possible infectious outcomes: asymptomatic, mild, moderate, severe to fatal episodes; while the symptomatic acute COVID-19 condition could manifest into 3 clinical phases: (i) hypoxia and hypoxemia (Warburg effect), (ii) hyperferritinemia ('cytokine storm'), and (iii) thrombocytosis (coagulopathy). The mean incubation period for COVID-19 onset was estimated to be 5.1 days, and most cases develop symptoms after 14 days. The mean viral clearance times were 24, 30, and 39 days for acute, severe, and ICU-admitted COVID-19 patients, respectively. However, about 25-70% of virus-free COVID-19 survivors continue to sustain virus-induced HMRD and exhibit a wide range of symptoms that are persistent, exacerbated, or new 'onset' clinical incidents, collectively termed as post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) or long COVID. PASC patients experience several debilitating clinical condition(s) with >200 different and overlapping symptoms that may last for weeks to months. Chronic PASC is a cumulative outcome of at least 10 different HMRD-related pathophysiological mechanisms involving both virus-derived virulence factors and a multitude of innate host responses. Based on HMRD and virus-free clinical impairments of different human organs/systems, PASC patients can be categorized into 4 different clusters or sub-phenotypes: sub-phenotype-1 (33.8%) with cardiac and renal manifestations; sub-phenotype-2 (32.8%) with respiratory, sleep and anxiety disorders; sub-phenotype-3 (23.4%) with skeleto-muscular and nervous disorders; and sub-phenotype-4 (10.1%) with digestive and pulmonary dysfunctions. This narrative review elucidates the effects of viral hijack on host cellular machinery during SARS-CoV-2 infection, ensuing detrimental effect(s) of virus-induced HMRD on human metabolism, consequential symptomatic clinical implications, and damage to multiple organ systems; as well as chronic pathophysiological sequelae in virus-free PASC patients. We have also provided a few evidence-based, human randomized controlled trial (RCT)-tested, precision nutrients to reset HMRD for health recovery of PASC patients.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Bocquet-Garçon A (2024)

Impact of the SARS-CoV-2 Spike Protein on the Innate Immune System: A Review.

Cureus, 16(3):e57008.

The Spike protein enables the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection by binding to multiple receptors, including the angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2). Scientific studies also indicate that Spike is involved in severe forms of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), "long-haul COVID diseases" - also known as "long COVID syndromes" or "post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection" (PACS) - or, recently, in adverse reactions to lipid nanoparticle-messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) vaccines or other anti-COVID19 products. Numerous mutations, notably within the subunit 1 of Spike (S1), prevent neutralization by antibodies, but more generally, the virus has developed numerous strategies to avoid immune system surveillance, especially type-I interferons (IFN-I). Meanwhile, a "hyperinflammatory" state, named "cytokine storm," sets in. However, what role does the Spike protein play in the immune escape mechanisms? Can its inflammatory activities affect IFN-I? Does Spike block IFN-I or hijack them for the virus benefits? What are the other potential consequences? This article was written to provide an up-to-date and more general overview of the impact of the Spike protein on the innate immune system and its effectors at the molecular level.

RevDate: 2024-03-29
CmpDate: 2024-03-29

Giovanetti M, Pannella G, Altomare A, et al (2024)

Exploring the Interplay between COVID-19 and Gut Health: The Potential Role of Prebiotics and Probiotics in Immune Support.

Viruses, 16(3):.

The COVID-19 pandemic has profoundly impacted global health, leading to extensive research focused on developing strategies to enhance outbreak response and mitigate the disease's severity. In the aftermath of the pandemic, attention has shifted towards understanding and addressing long-term health implications, particularly in individuals experiencing persistent symptoms, known as long COVID. Research into potential interventions to alleviate long COVID symptoms has intensified, with a focus on strategies to support immune function and mitigate inflammation. One area of interest is the gut microbiota, which plays a crucial role in regulating immune responses and maintaining overall health. Prebiotics and probiotics, known for their ability to modulate the gut microbiota, have emerged as potential therapeutic agents in bolstering immune function and reducing inflammation. This review delves into the intricate relationship between long COVID, the gut microbiota, and immune function, with a specific focus on the role of prebiotics and probiotics. We examine the immune response to long COVID, emphasizing the importance of inflammation and immune regulation in the persistence of symptoms. The potential of probiotics in modulating immune responses, including their mechanisms in combating viral infections such as COVID-19, is discussed in detail. Clinical evidence supporting the use of probiotics in managing long COVID symptoms is summarized, highlighting their role as adjunctive therapy in addressing various aspects of SARS-CoV-2 infection and its aftermath.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Ricardi C, Barachini S, Consoli G, et al (2024)

Beta-Caryophyllene, a Cannabinoid Receptor Type 2 Selective Agonist, in Emotional and Cognitive Disorders.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(6): pii:ijms25063203.

Mental disorders account for one of the most prevalent categories of the burden of disease worldwide, with depression expected to be the largest contributor by 2030, closely followed by anxiety. The COVID-19 pandemic possibly exacerbated these challenges, especially amongst adolescents, who experienced isolation, disrupted routines, and limited healthcare access. Notably, the pandemic has been associated with long-term neurological effects known as "long-COVID", characterized by both cognitive and psychopathological symptoms. In general, psychiatric disorders, including those related to long-COVID, are supposed to be due to widespread inflammation leading to neuroinflammation. Recently, the endocannabinoid system (ECS) emerged as a potential target for addressing depression and anxiety pathophysiology. Specifically, natural or synthetic cannabinoids, able to selectively interact with cannabinoid type-2 receptor (CB2R), recently revealed new therapeutic potential in neuropsychiatric disorders with limited or absent psychotropic activity. Among the most promising natural CB2R ligands, the bicyclic sesquiterpene β-caryophyllene (BCP) has emerged as an excellent anti-inflammatory and antioxidant therapeutic agent. This review underscores BCP's immunomodulatory and anti-inflammatory properties, highlighting its therapeutic potential for the management of depression and anxiety.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Sweis JJG, Alnaimat F, Esparza V, et al (2024)

From Acute Infection to Prolonged Health Consequences: Understanding Health Disparities and Economic Implications in Long COVID Worldwide.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 21(3): pii:ijerph21030325.

The COVID-19 pandemic has resulted in a growing number of patients experiencing persistent symptoms and physiological changes after recovering from acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, known as Long COVID. Long COVID is characterized by recurring symptoms and inflammation across multiple organ systems. Diagnosis can be challenging, influenced by factors like demographics, comorbidities, and immune responses. Long COVID impacts various organ systems and can have neuropsychological effects. Health disparities, particularly related to race, contribute to a higher burden of infection and ongoing symptoms in minority populations. Managing Long COVID entails addressing a spectrum of symptoms that encompass physical, cognitive, and psychological aspects. The recovery period for patients with Long COVID can vary significantly, influenced by factors like the severity of the disease, hospitalization, comorbidities, and age. Currently, there are no universally effective treatments, although certain interventions show promise, necessitating further research. Self-management and rehabilitation programs can provide relief, but more research is needed to establish their effectiveness. Preventive measures such as vaccination and the use of antiviral medications and metformin. It is imperative to conduct further research to develop evidence-based guidelines and gain a better understanding of the long-term implications of COVID-19. Long COVID could have substantial economic impact on the labor market, productivity, healthcare expenditures, and overall economic growth. To address the challenges patients with long-term complications face, there is a focus on strategies like promoting telework and flexible work arrangements to accommodate diverse symptoms, particularly chronic fatigue and other Long COVID effects. In conclusion, this review emphasizes the multifaceted complexity of Long COVID and the ongoing need to address its potential long-term health and economic impacts.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Lazar M, Sandulescu M, Barbu EC, et al (2024)

The Role of Cytokines and Molecular Pathways in Lung Fibrosis Following SARS-CoV-2 Infection: A Physiopathologic (Re)view.

Biomedicines, 12(3): pii:biomedicines12030639.

SARS-CoV-2 infection is a significant health concern that needs to be addressed not only during the initial phase of infection but also after hospitalization. This is the consequence of the various pathologies associated with long COVID-19, which are still being studied and researched. Lung fibrosis is an important complication after COVID-19, found in up to 71% of patients after discharge. Our research is based on scientific articles indexed in PubMed; in the selection process, we used the following keywords: "lung fibrosis", "fibrosis mediators", "fibrosis predictors", "COVID-19", "SARS-CoV-2 infection", and "long COVID-19". In this narrative review, we aimed to discuss the current understanding of the mechanisms of initiation and progression of post-COVID-19 lung fibrosis (PC-19-LF) and the risk factors for its occurrence. The pathogenesis of pulmonary fibrosis involves various mediators such as TGF-β, legumain, osteopontin, IL-4, IL-6, IL-13, IL-17, TNF-α, Gal-1, Gal-3, PDGF, and FGFR-1. The key cellular effectors involved in COVID-19 lung fibrosis are macrophages, epithelial alveolar cells, neutrophils, and fibroblasts. The main fibrosis pathways in SARS-CoV-2 infection include hypoxemia-induced fibrosis, macrophage-induced fibrosis, and viral-fibroblast interaction-induced fibrosis.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Bhattacharya M, Chatterjee S, Saxena S, et al (2024)

Current landscape of long COVID clinical trials.

International immunopharmacology, 132:111930 pii:S1567-5769(24)00448-X [Epub ahead of print].

Long COVID was reported as a multi-systemic condition after the infection of SARS-CoV-2, and more than 65 million people are suffering from this disease. It has been noted that around 10% of severe SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals are suffering from the enduring effects of long COVID. The symptoms of long COVID have also been noted in several mild or asymptomatic SARS-CoV-2 infected individuals. While limited reports on clinical trials investigating new therapeutics for long COVID exist, there is an abundance of scattered information available regarding these trials. This review explores the extensive literature search, and complete clinical trial database search to map the current status of long COVID clinical trials worldwide. The study listed about 110 long COVID clinical trials. In addition to conducting extensive long COVID clinical trials, we have comprehensively presented an overview of the condition, its symptoms, notable manifestations, associated clinical trials, the unique challenges it poses, and our recommendations for addressing long COVID.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Agouridis AP, Mastori-Kourmpani C, Antoniou P, et al (2024)

Beau's Lines and COVID-19; A Systematic Review on Their Association.

Pathogens (Basel, Switzerland), 13(3): pii:pathogens13030265.

BACKGROUND: Beau's lines are transverse grooves in the nail plate that result from transient interruption of the growth of the proximal nail matrix after severe disease. The aim of this study is to systematically report all evidence on the association of Beau's lines with COVID-19 infection or vaccination against COVID-19.

METHODS: PubMed and Scopus databases were searched up to January 2024 for articles reporting Beau's lines associated with COVID-19 infection or vaccination for COVID-19.

PROSPERO ID: CRD42024496830.

RESULTS: PubMed search identified 299 records while Scopus search identified 18 records. After screening the bibliography, nine studies including 35 cases were included in our systematic review. The studies were reported from different areas around the world. Included studies documented Beau's lines following COVID-19 vaccination (two studies) or after COVID-19 infection (seven studies). High variability was recorded in onset and resolution times among included cases, averaging 3 months and 6 months after COVID-19 infection, respectively. In the two studies reporting Beau's lines after vaccination, onset was at 7 days and 6 weeks and resolution occurred after 8 and 17 weeks, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: To the best of our knowledge, this is the first systematic review reporting the association of Beau's lines with COVID-19 infection and vaccination. Severe immune response can result in the formation of these nail disorders. Of importance, Beau's lines represent a potential indicator of prior severe COVID-19 infection or vaccination for COVID-19, as well as a sign of long COVID-19 syndrome.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Babar M, Jamil H, Mehta N, et al (2024)

Short- and Long-Term Chest-CT Findings after Recovery from COVID-19: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 14(6): pii:diagnostics14060621.

While ground-glass opacity, consolidation, and fibrosis in the lungs are some of the hallmarks of acute SAR-CoV-2 infection, it remains unclear whether these pulmonary radiological findings would resolve after acute symptoms have subsided. We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to evaluate chest computed tomography (CT) abnormalities stratified by COVID-19 disease severity and multiple timepoints post-infection. PubMed/MEDLINE was searched for relevant articles until 23 May 2023. Studies with COVID-19-recovered patients and follow-up chest CT at least 12 months post-infection were included. CT findings were evaluated at short-term (1-6 months) and long-term (12-24 months) follow-ups and by disease severity (severe and non-severe). A generalized linear mixed-effects model with random effects was used to estimate event rates for CT findings. A total of 2517 studies were identified, of which 43 met the inclusion (N = 8858 patients). Fibrotic-like changes had the highest event rate at short-term (0.44 [0.3-0.59]) and long-term (0.38 [0.23-0.56]) follow-ups. A meta-regression showed that over time the event rates decreased for any abnormality (β = -0.137, p = 0.002), ground-glass opacities (β = -0.169, p < 0.001), increased for honeycombing (β = 0.075, p = 0.03), and did not change for fibrotic-like changes, bronchiectasis, reticulation, and interlobular septal thickening (p > 0.05 for all). The severe subgroup had significantly higher rates of any abnormalities (p < 0.001), bronchiectasis (p = 0.02), fibrotic-like changes (p = 0.03), and reticulation (p < 0.001) at long-term follow-ups when compared to the non-severe subgroup. In conclusion, significant CT abnormalities remained up to 2 years post-COVID-19, especially in patients with severe disease. Long-lasting pulmonary abnormalities post-SARS-CoV-2 infection signal a future public health concern, necessitating extended monitoring, rehabilitation, survivor support, vaccination, and ongoing research for targeted therapies.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Kemerley A, Gupta A, Thirunavukkarasu M, et al (2024)

COVID-19 Associated Cardiovascular Disease-Risks, Prevention and Management: Heart at Risk Due to COVID-19.

Current issues in molecular biology, 46(3):1904-1920 pii:cimb46030124.

The SARS-CoV-2 (Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome Coronavirus-2) virus and the resulting COVID-19 pandemic have had devastating and lasting impact on the global population. Although the main target of the disease is the respiratory tract, clinical outcomes, and research have also shown significant effects of infection on other organ systems. Of interest in this review is the effect of the virus on the cardiovascular system. Complications, including hyperinflammatory syndrome, myocarditis, and cardiac failure, have been documented in the context of COVID-19 infection. These complications ultimately contribute to worse patient outcomes, especially in patients with pre-existing conditions such as hypertension, diabetes, or cardiovascular disease (CVD). Importantly and interestingly, reports have demonstrated that COVID-19 also causes myocardial injury in adults without pre-existing conditions and contributes to systemic complications in pediatric populations, such as the development of multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children (MIS-C). Although there is still a debate over the exact mechanisms by which such complications arise, understanding the potential paths by which the virus can influence the cardiovascular system to create an inflammatory environment may clarify how SARS-CoV-2 interacts with human physiology. In addition to describing the mechanisms of disease propagation and patient presentation, this review discusses the diagnostic findings and treatment strategies and the evolution of management for patients presenting with cardiovascular complications, focusing on disease treatment and prevention.

RevDate: 2024-03-25

Seo JW, Kim SE, Kim Y, et al (2024)

Updated Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of long COVID.

Infection & chemotherapy pii:56.e11 [Epub ahead of print].

"Long COVID" is a term used to describe a condition when the symptoms and signs associated with coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) persist for more than three months among patients infected with COVID-19; this condition has been reported globally and poses a serious public health issue. Long COVID can manifest in various forms, highlighting the need for appropriate evaluation and management by experts from various fields. However, due to the lack of clear clinical definitions, pathophysiology, diagnostic methods, and treatment protocols, it is necessary to develop the best standard clinical guidelines based on the scientific evidence reported to date. We developed this clinical guideline for diagnosing and treating long COVID by analyzing the latest research data collected from the start of the COVID-19 pandemic until June 2023, along with the consensus of expert opinions. This guideline provides recommendations for diagnosis and treatment that can be applied in clinical practice, based on a total of 32 key questions related to patients with long COVID. The evaluation of patients with long COVID should be comprehensive, including medical history, physical examination, blood tests, imaging studies, and functional tests. To reduce the risk of developing long COVID, vaccination and antiviral treatment during the acute phase are recommended. This guideline will be revised when there is a reasonable need for updates based on the availability of new knowledge on the diagnosis and treatment of long COVID.

RevDate: 2024-03-26
CmpDate: 2024-03-18

Seylanova N, Chernyavskaya A, Degtyareva N, et al (2024)

Core outcome measurement set for research and clinical practice in post-COVID-19 condition (long COVID) in children and young people: an international Delphi consensus study "PC-COS Children".

The European respiratory journal, 63(3):.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic substantially impacted different age groups, with children and young people not exempted. Many have experienced enduring health consequences. Presently, there is no consensus on the health outcomes to assess in children and young people with post-COVID-19 condition. Furthermore, it is unclear which measurement instruments are appropriate for use in research and clinical management of children and young people with post-COVID-19. To address these unmet needs, we conducted a consensus study, aiming to develop a core outcome set (COS) and an associated core outcome measurement set (COMS) for evaluating post-COVID-19 condition in children and young people. Our methodology comprised of two phases. In phase 1 (to create a COS), we performed an extensive literature review and categorisation of outcomes, and prioritised those outcomes in a two-round online modified Delphi process followed by a consensus meeting. In phase 2 (to create the COMS), we performed another modified Delphi consensus process to evaluate measurement instruments for previously defined core outcomes from phase 1, followed by an online consensus workshop to finalise recommendations regarding the most appropriate instruments for each core outcome. In phase 1, 214 participants from 37 countries participated, with 154 (72%) contributing to both Delphi rounds. The subsequent online consensus meeting resulted in a final COS which encompassed seven critical outcomes: fatigue; post-exertion symptoms; work/occupational and study changes; as well as functional changes, symptoms, and conditions relating to cardiovascular, neuro-cognitive, gastrointestinal and physical outcomes. In phase 2, 11 international experts were involved in a modified Delphi process, selecting measurement instruments for a subsequent online consensus workshop where 30 voting participants discussed and independently scored the selected instruments. As a result of this consensus process, four instruments met a priori consensus criteria for inclusion: PedsQL multidimensional fatigue scale for "fatigue"; PedsQL gastrointestinal symptom scales for "gastrointestinal"; PedsQL cognitive functioning scale for "neurocognitive" and EQ-5D for "physical functioning". Despite proposing outcome measurement instruments for the remaining three core outcomes ("cardiovascular", "post-exertional malaise", "work/occupational and study changes"), a consensus was not achieved. Our international, consensus-based initiative presents a robust framework for evaluating post-COVID-19 condition in children and young people in research and clinical practice via a rigorously defined COS and associated COMS. It will aid in the uniform measurement and reporting of relevant health outcomes worldwide.

RevDate: 2024-03-25
CmpDate: 2024-03-25

Kavanagh KT, Cormier LE, Pontus C, et al (2024)

Long COVID's Impact on Patients, Workers, & Society: A review.

Medicine, 103(12):e37502.

The incidence of long COVID in adult survivors of an acute SARS-CoV-2 infection is approximately 11%. Of those afflicted, 26% have difficulty with day-to-day activities. The majority of long COIVD cases occur after mild or asymptomatic acute infection. Children can spread SARS-CoV-2 infections and can also develop long-term neurological, endocrine (type I diabetes), and immunological sequelae. Immunological hypofunction is exemplified by the recent large outbreaks of respiratory syncytial virus and streptococcal infections. Neurological manifestations are associated with anatomical brain damage demonstrated on brain scans and autopsy studies. The prefrontal cortex is particularly susceptible. Common symptoms include brain fog, memory loss, executive dysfunction, and personality changes. The impact on society has been profound. Fewer than half of previously employed adults who develop long COVID are working full-time, and 42% of patients reported food insecurity and 20% reported difficulties paying rent. Vaccination not only helps prevent severe COVID-19, but numerous studies have found beneficial effects in preventing and mitigating long COVID. There is also evidence that vaccination after an acute infection can lessen the symptoms of long COVID. Physical and occupational therapy can also help patients regain function, but the approach must be "low and slow." Too much physical or mental activity can result in post-exertional malaise and set back the recovery process by days or weeks. The complexity of long COVID presentations coupled with rampant organized disinformation, have caused significant segments of the public to ignore sound public health advice. Further research is needed regarding treatment and effective public communication.

RevDate: 2024-03-22

Gonjilashvili A, S Tatishvili (2024)

The interplay between Sars-Cov-2 infection related cardiovascular diseases and depression. Common mechanisms, shared symptoms.

American heart journal plus : cardiology research and practice, 38:100364.

In 2020 the World Health organization announced a pandemic due to the outbreak of the Coronavirus disease 19. Pneumonia was the most common manifestation of the Sars-Cov-2 infection, however, clinical papers describe Sars-Cov-2 associated cardiovascular pathologies, such as ACS, myopericarditis, cardiomyopathies, dysrhythmias, as leading causes of increased morbidity and mortality. The short and long term prognosis of Sars-Cov-2-related cardiovascular diseases was defined not only by the disease severity itself but also by associated conditions and complications, among which mental health issues (stress, depression and anxiety) have a negative impact. The interplay between Sars-Cov-2 infection, cardiovascular disease and depression may be explained by hyperinflammation, unhealthy lifestyle and inter-organ communication, mediated by extracellular vesicles (EV) and non-coding MicroRNA (miRNA). The long Covid syndrome is characterized with orthostatic hypotension, impaired cardiac and cerebral perfusion, postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome (POTS), syncope, chest pain, dyspnea, palpitation, chronic fatigue syndrome, 'brain fog', memory, cognitive and sleep difficulties, depression and anxiety. From a clinical point of view these symptoms may be considered as common symptoms representing not only a cardiac but also a neurological/psychiatric problem. Consequently assessment of these symptoms are of paramount importance. Due to their complexity, management of these patients requires multidisciplinary care.

RevDate: 2024-03-20

Khullar V, Lemmon B, Acar O, et al (2024)

Does COVID-19 cause or worsen LUT dysfunction, what are the mechanisms and possible treatments? ICI-RS 2023.

Neurourology and urodynamics [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) causes coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and produced a worldwide pandemic in 2020. There have been 770,875,433 confirmed cases and 6,959,316 attributed deaths worldwide until September 19, 2023. The virus can also affect the lower urinary tract (LUT) leading to bladder inflammation and producing lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) in both the acute and chronic phases of disease.

METHODS: At the 2023 meeting of the International Consultation on Incontinence-Research Society (ICI-RS), the literature relating to COVID-19 and bladder dysfunction was reviewed. The LUTS reported, as well as the pathophysiology of these bladder symptoms, were the subject of considerable discussion. A number of different topics were discussed including lower LUTS reported in COVID-19, how SARS-CoV-2 may infect and affect the urinary tract, and proposed mechanisms for how viral infection result in new, worsened, and in some persisting LUTS.

CONCLUSIONS: The workshop discussed the interaction between the virus and the immune system, covering current evidence supporting theories underlying the causes of acute and chronic LUTS related to COVID-19 infection. Research questions for further investigation were suggested and identified.

RevDate: 2024-03-20
CmpDate: 2024-03-20

Gheorghita R, Soldanescu I, Lobiuc A, et al (2024)

The knowns and unknowns of long COVID-19: from mechanisms to therapeutical approaches.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1344086.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic caused by SARS-CoV-2 has been defined as the greatest global health and socioeconomic crisis of modern times. While most people recover after being infected with the virus, a significant proportion of them continue to experience health issues weeks, months and even years after acute infection with SARS-CoV-2. This persistence of clinical symptoms in infected individuals for at least three months after the onset of the disease or the emergence of new symptoms lasting more than two months, without any other explanation and alternative diagnosis have been named long COVID, long-haul COVID, post-COVID-19 conditions, chronic COVID, or post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 (PASC). Long COVID has been characterized as a constellation of symptoms and disorders that vary widely in their manifestations. Further, the mechanisms underlying long COVID are not fully understood, which hamper efficient treatment options. This review describes predictors and the most common symptoms related to long COVID's effects on the central and peripheral nervous system and other organs and tissues. Furthermore, the transcriptional markers, molecular signaling pathways and risk factors for long COVID, such as sex, age, pre-existing condition, hospitalization during acute phase of COVID-19, vaccination, and lifestyle are presented. Finally, recommendations for patient rehabilitation and disease management, as well as alternative therapeutical approaches to long COVID sequelae are discussed. Understanding the complexity of this disease, its symptoms across multiple organ systems and overlapping pathologies and its possible mechanisms are paramount in developing diagnostic tools and treatments.

RevDate: 2024-03-20
CmpDate: 2024-03-20

Barker KK, Whooley O, Madden EF, et al (2024)

The long tail of COVID and the tale of long COVID: Diagnostic construction and the management of ignorance.

Sociology of health & illness, 46(S1):189-207.

We bring together insights from the sociology of diagnosis and the sociology of ignorance to examine the early diagnostic unfolding of 'Long COVID' (LC). Originally described by patient activists, researchers set out to ponder its unwieldy clinical boundaries. Using a scoping review method in tandem with qualitative content analytic techniques, we analyse medicine's initial struggles to construct a LC diagnosis. Paying attention to the dynamics of ignorance, we highlight three consequential conceptual manoeuvres in the early classifications of LC: causal agnosticism concerning the relationship between COVID-19 and LC, evasion of lumping LC with similar conditions; and the predictable splitting off of medically explainable cases from the LC designation. These manoeuvres are not maleficent, inept or unreasonable. They are practical but impactful responses to the classificatory dilemmas present in the construction of diagnoses amidst ignorance. Although there are unique aspects to LC, we suggest that its early fate is nevertheless emblematic of medicine's diagnostic standardisation processes more generally. To varying degrees, diagnoses are ignorance management strategies; they create a pathway through the uncertainty at the core of disease realities. However, while diagnoses circumscribe some types of ignorance, they produce others through the creation of blind spots and paths not taken.

RevDate: 2024-03-19

Mostafa RH, A Moustafa (2024)

Beyond acute infection: molecular mechanisms underpinning cardiovascular complications in long COVID.

Frontiers in cardiovascular medicine, 11:1268571.

SARS-CoV-2, responsible for the global COVID-19 pandemic, has manifested significant cardiovascular implications for the infected population. These cardiovascular repercussions not only linger beyond the initial phase of illness but have also been observed in individuals who remain asymptomatic. This extended and pervasive impact is often called the post-acute COVID-19 syndrome (PACS) or "Long COVID". With the number of confirmed global cases approaching an alarming 756 million, the multifaceted challenges of Long COVID are undeniable. These challenges span from individual health complications to considerable burdens on worldwide healthcare systems. Our review comprehensively examines the complications of the persistent cardiovascular complications associated with COVID-19. Furthermore, we shed light on emerging therapeutic strategies that promise to manage and possibly mitigate these complications. We also introduce and discuss the profound concerns regarding the potential transgenerational repercussions of SARS-CoV-2, emphasizing the need for a proactive and informed approach to future research and clinical practice.

RevDate: 2024-03-18

Qiu Y, Mo C, Chen L, et al (2024)

Alterations in microbiota of patients with COVID-19: implications for therapeutic interventions.

MedComm, 5(4):e513.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) recently caused a global pandemic, resulting in more than 702 million people being infected and over 6.9 million deaths. Patients with coronavirus disease (COVID-19) may suffer from diarrhea, sleep disorders, depression, and even cognitive impairment, which is associated with long COVID during recovery. However, there remains no consensus on effective treatment methods. Studies have found that patients with COVID-19 have alterations in microbiota and their metabolites, particularly in the gut, which may be involved in the regulation of immune responses. Consumption of probiotics may alleviate the discomfort caused by inflammation and oxidative stress. However, the pathophysiological process underlying the alleviation of COVID-19-related symptoms and complications by targeting the microbiota remains unclear. In the current study, we summarize the latest research and evidence on the COVID-19 pandemic, together with symptoms of SARS-CoV-2 and vaccine use, with a focus on the relationship between microbiota alterations and COVID-19-related symptoms and vaccine use. This work provides evidence that probiotic-based interventions may improve COVID-19 symptoms by regulating gut microbiota and systemic immunity. Probiotics may also be used as adjuvants to improve vaccine efficacy.

RevDate: 2024-03-14

Pietrangelo T, Cagnin S, Bondi D, et al (2024)

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome from current evidence to new diagnostic perspectives through skeletal muscle and metabolic disturbances.

Acta physiologica (Oxford, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a demanding medical condition for patients and society. It has raised much more public awareness after the COVID-19 pandemic since ME/CFS and long-COVID patients share many clinical symptoms such as debilitating chronic fatigue. However, unlike long COVID, the etiopathology of ME/CFS remains a mystery despite several decades' research. This review moves from pathophysiology of ME/CFS through the compelling evidence and most interesting hypotheses. It focuses on the pathophysiology of skeletal muscle by proposing the hypothesis that skeletal muscle tissue offers novel opportunities for diagnosis and treatment of this syndrome and that new evidence can help resolve the long-standing debate on terminology.

RevDate: 2024-03-14

Bohmwald K, Diethelm-Varela B, Rodríguez-Guilarte L, et al (2024)

Pathophysiological, immunological, and inflammatory features of long COVID.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1341600.

The COVID-19 pandemic continues to cause severe global disruption, resulting in significant excess mortality, overwhelming healthcare systems, and imposing substantial social and economic burdens on nations. While most of the attention and therapeutic efforts have concentrated on the acute phase of the disease, a notable proportion of survivors experience persistent symptoms post-infection clearance. This diverse set of symptoms, loosely categorized as long COVID, presents a potential additional public health crisis. It is estimated that 1 in 5 COVID-19 survivors exhibit clinical manifestations consistent with long COVID. Despite this prevalence, the mechanisms and pathophysiology of long COVID remain poorly understood. Alarmingly, evidence suggests that a significant proportion of cases within this clinical condition develop debilitating or disabling symptoms. Hence, urgent priority should be given to further studies on this condition to equip global public health systems for its management. This review provides an overview of available information on this emerging clinical condition, focusing on the affected individuals' epidemiology, pathophysiological mechanisms, and immunological and inflammatory profiles.

RevDate: 2024-03-14
CmpDate: 2024-03-14

Smith MM, J Melrose (2024)

Lumican, a Multifunctional Cell Instructive Biomarker Proteoglycan Has Novel Roles as a Marker of the Hypercoagulative State of Long Covid Disease.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(5):.

This study has reviewed the many roles of lumican as a biomarker of tissue pathology in health and disease. Lumican is a structure regulatory proteoglycan of collagen-rich tissues, with cell instructive properties through interactions with a number of cell surface receptors in tissue repair, thereby regulating cell proliferation, differentiation, inflammation and the innate and humoral immune systems to combat infection. The exponential increase in publications in the last decade dealing with lumican testify to its role as a pleiotropic biomarker regulatory protein. Recent findings show lumican has novel roles as a biomarker of the hypercoagulative state that occurs in SARS CoV-2 infections; thus, it may also prove useful in the delineation of the complex tissue changes that characterize COVID-19 disease. Lumican may be useful as a prognostic and diagnostic biomarker of long COVID disease and its sequelae.

RevDate: 2024-03-13
CmpDate: 2024-03-13

Collins CP, Longo DL, WJ Murphy (2024)

The immunobiology of SARS-CoV-2 infection and vaccine responses: potential influences of cross-reactive memory responses and aging on efficacy and off-target effects.

Frontiers in immunology, 15:1345499.

Immune responses to both SARS-CoV-2 infection and its associated vaccines have been highly variable within the general population. The increasing evidence of long-lasting symptoms after resolution of infection, called post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) or "Long COVID," suggests that immune-mediated mechanisms are at play. Closely related endemic common human coronaviruses (hCoV) can induce pre-existing and potentially cross-reactive immunity, which can then affect primary SARS-CoV-2 infection, as well as vaccination responses. The influence of pre-existing immunity from these hCoVs, as well as responses generated from original CoV2 strains or vaccines on the development of new high-affinity responses to CoV2 antigenic viral variants, needs to be better understood given the need for continuous vaccine adaptation and application in the population. Due in part to thymic involution, normal aging is associated with reduced naïve T cell compartments and impaired primary antigen responsiveness, resulting in a reliance on the pre-existing cross-reactive memory cell pool which may be of lower affinity, restricted in diversity, or of shorter duration. These effects can also be mediated by the presence of down-regulatory anti-idiotype responses which also increase in aging. Given the tremendous heterogeneity of clinical data, utilization of preclinical models offers the greatest ability to assess immune responses under a controlled setting. These models should now involve prior antigen/viral exposure combined with incorporation of modifying factors such as age on immune responses and effects. This will also allow for mechanistic dissection and understanding of the different immune pathways involved in both SARS-CoV-2 pathogen and potential vaccine responses over time and how pre-existing memory responses, including potential anti-idiotype responses, can affect efficacy as well as potential off-target effects in different tissues as well as modeling PASC.

RevDate: 2024-03-12

Agoston DV (2024)

Traumatic Brain Injury in the Long-COVID Era.

Neurotrauma reports, 5(1):81-94.

Major determinants of the biological background or reserve, such as age, biological sex, comorbidities (diabetes, hypertension, obesity, etc.), and medications (e.g., anticoagulants), are known to affect outcome after traumatic brain injury (TBI). With the unparalleled data richness of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19; ∼375,000 and counting!) as well as the chronic form, long-COVID, also called post-acute sequelae SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), publications (∼30,000 and counting) covering virtually every aspect of the diseases, pathomechanisms, biomarkers, disease phases, symptomatology, etc., have provided a unique opportunity to better understand and appreciate the holistic nature of diseases, interconnectivity between organ systems, and importance of biological background in modifying disease trajectories and affecting outcomes. Such a holistic approach is badly needed to better understand TBI-induced conditions in their totality. Here, I briefly review what is known about long-COVID/PASC, its underlying-suspected-pathologies, the pathobiological changes induced by TBI, in other words, the TBI endophenotypes, discuss the intersection of long-COVID/PASC and TBI-induced pathobiologies, and how by considering some of the known factors affecting the person's biological background and the inclusion of mechanistic molecular biomarkers can help to improve the clinical management of TBI patients.

RevDate: 2024-03-11

Tariq M, Mahak F, Kumar R, et al (2024)

Unmasking the long-term effects: unravelling neuropsychiatric and neurological consequences of COVID-19.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 86(3):1490-1495.

The COVID-19 pandemic has not only burdened healthcare systems but has also led to a new emerging medical enigma that is post-COVID-19 syndrome or "long COVID." Characterized by persistent symptoms that extend beyond the acute phase of the illness, long COVID has rapidly become a public health concern with ambiguous neurological and neuropsychiatric dimensions. This narrative review aims at synthesizing available research to decode the long-term impacts of COVID-19 on neurological and mental health. Drawing from a multitude of studies, this review synthesizes evidence on various neuropsychiatric and neurological symptoms, including cognitive deficits, mood disorders, and more. The narrative delves into potential pathogenic mechanisms, hoping to fill existing research gaps and offering directions for future inquiry. The objective is not just academic; it has immediate real-world implications. Understanding these long-term effects is crucial for developing effective treatments and interventions, thereby better serving the millions of individuals living with these lingering symptoms. As healthcare systems continue to grapple with the fallout from the pandemic, this review provides much-needed context and insights into an area that demands urgent research and action.

RevDate: 2024-03-10

van der Knaap N, Ariës MJH, van der Horst ICC, et al (2024)

On the merits and potential of advanced neuroimaging techniques in COVID-19: A scoping review.

NeuroImage. Clinical, 42:103589 pii:S2213-1582(24)00028-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Many Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) patients are suffering from long-term neuropsychological sequelae. These patients may benefit from a better understanding of the underlying neuropathophysiological mechanisms and identification of potential biomarkers and treatment targets. Structural clinical neuroimaging techniques have limited ability to visualize subtle cerebral abnormalities and to investigate brain function. This scoping review assesses the merits and potential of advanced neuroimaging techniques in COVID-19 using literature including advanced neuroimaging or postmortem analyses in adult COVID-19 patients published from the start of the pandemic until December 2023. Findings were summarized according to distinct categories of reported cerebral abnormalities revealed by different imaging techniques. Although no unified COVID-19-specific pattern could be subtracted, a broad range of cerebral abnormalities were revealed by advanced neuroimaging (likely attributable to hypoxic, vascular, and inflammatory pathology), even in absence of structural clinical imaging findings. These abnormalities are validated by postmortem examinations. This scoping review emphasizes the added value of advanced neuroimaging compared to structural clinical imaging and highlights implications for brain functioning and long-term consequences in COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-03-10

Faghy MA, Duncan R, Hume E, et al (2024)

Developing effective strategies to optimize physical activity and cardiorespiratory fitness in the long Covid population- The need for caution and objective assessment.

Progress in cardiovascular diseases pii:S0033-0620(24)00039-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The Post Covid-19 Condition (commonly known as Long Covid) has been defined by the World Health Organisation as occurring in individuals with a history of probable or confirmed SARS CoV 2 infection, usually within 3 months from the onset of acute Covid-19 infection with symptoms that last for at least two months which cannot be explained by an alternative diagnosis. Long Covid is associated with over two hundred recognised symptoms and affects tens of millions of people worldwide. Widely reported reductions in quality of life(QoL) and functional status are caused by extremely sensitive and cyclical symptom profiles that are augmented following exposure to physical, emotional, orthostatic, and cognitive stimuli. This manifestation prevents millions of people from engaging in routine activities of daily living (ADLs) and has important health and well-being, social and economic impacts. Post-exertional symptom exacerbation (PESE) (also known as post-exertional malaise) is an exacerbation in the severity of fatigue and other symptoms following physical, emotional, orthostatic and cognitive tasks. Typically, this will occur 24-72 h after "over-exertion" and can persist for several days and even weeks. It is a hallmark symptom of Long Covid with a reported prevalence of 86%. The debilitating nature of PESE prevents patients from engaging in physical activity which impacts functional status and QoL. In this review, the authors present an update to the literature relating to PESE in Long Covid and make the case for evidence-based guidelines that support the design and implementation of safe rehabilitation approaches for people with Long Covid. This review also considers the role of objective monitoring to quantify a patient's response to external stimuli which can be used to support the safe management of Long Covid and inform decisions relating to engagement with any stimuli that could prompt an exacerbation of symptoms.

RevDate: 2024-03-09

Peluso MJ, Abdel-Mohsen M, Henrich TJ, et al (2024)

Systems analysis of innate and adaptive immunity in Long COVID.

Seminars in immunology, 72:101873 pii:S1044-5323(24)00011-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, significant progress has been made in developing effective preventive and therapeutic strategies against severe acute SARS-CoV-2 infection. However, the management of Long COVID (LC), an infection-associated chronic condition that has been estimated to affect 5-20% of individuals following SARS-CoV-2 infection, remains challenging due to our limited understanding of its mechanisms. Although LC is a heterogeneous disease that is likely to have several subtypes, immune system disturbances appear common across many cases. The extent to which these immune perturbations contribute to LC symptoms, however, is not entirely clear. Recent advancements in multi-omics technologies, capable of detailed, cell-level analysis, have provided valuable insights into the immune perturbations associated with LC. Although these studies are largely descriptive in nature, they are the crucial first step towards a deeper understanding of the condition and the immune system's role in its development, progression, and resolution. In this review, we summarize the current understanding of immune perturbations in LC, covering both innate and adaptive immune responses, and the cytokines and analytes involved. We explore whether these findings support or challenge the primary hypotheses about LC's underlying mechanisms. We also discuss the crosstalk between various immune system components and how it can be disrupted in LC. Finally, we emphasize the need for more tissue- and subtype-focused analyses of LC, and for enhanced collaborative efforts to analyze common specimens from large cohorts, including those undergoing therapeutic interventions. These collective efforts are vital to unravel the fundaments of this new disease, and could also shed light on the prevention and treatment of the larger family of chronic illnesses linked to other microbial infections.

RevDate: 2024-03-09

Gómez Bravo R, Infanti A, Billieux J, et al (2023)

The psychological syndrome associated with Long-COVID: A study protocol.

Frontiers in epidemiology, 3:1193369.

INTRODUCTION: Chronic post-viral syndromes, including Long-COVID, are characterized by a range of persistent symptoms that occur following a viral infection. Psychological symptoms are prevalent in Long-COVID patients and can have a significant impact on their quality of life. However, the specific patterns of psychological symptoms, their associations with physical symptoms, and the factors predicting their severity remain poorly understood.

AIMS: This study aims to explore and systematically assess psychological symptoms in Long-COVID, to identify syndrome clusters based on these symptoms, to examine their relationship with physical symptoms, and to investigate the influence of pandemic-related variables.

METHODS: Descriptive, cross-sectional study with data collected through an online questionnaire across several EU countries, from February 2020 to December 2022. Participants were recruited using public relations, the social media and information campaigns directed at the public and health professionals using snowball sampling.

RESULTS: The findings will allow to phenotype Long-COVID related psychological symptom clusters based on self-reports. facilitating improved assessment and treatment approaches.

CONCLUSIONS: The results will provide important knowledge for the public health management of the public healh management of Long COVID. The findings will contribute to a better understanding of the psychological symptoms associated with Long-COVID and the development of specific treatment guidelines for psychological burden associated with Long-COVID, thereby supporting management strategies to combat the after-effects of the COVID-19 pandemic, enhancing their overall well-being and quality of life.

RevDate: 2024-03-08

Zhang J, Kuang T, X Liu (2024)

Advances in researches on long coronavirus disease in children: a narrative review.

Translational pediatrics, 13(2):318-328.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: In the context of the global pandemic of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), more than 700 million infections and millions of deaths have occurred in countries around the world. Currently, two main sequelae of this disease are considered to occur in children, namely, multi-system inflammatory syndrome in children and long COVID. Among these two, the incidence of long COVID is higher and its impact on the population is more extensive, which is the focus of us. However, due to the lack of relevant studies and the limitations of most studies, the studies on sequelae of COVID-19 infection lag behind those of adults, but they have begun to attract the attention of some clinicians and researchers. We aim to summarize the current knowledge of long COVID in children, helping pediatricians and researchers to better understand this disease and providing guidance on research and clinical treatment of it.

METHODS: We reviewed all the studies on "long COVID", pediatric, children, adolescent, post-COVID syndrome in PubMed published after 2019.

KEY CONTENT AND FINDINGS: This review summarizes the latest researches on epidemiology, pathogenesis, clinical manifestations, prevention and treatment of long COVID in children. Based on the existing research data, we summarized and analyzed the characteristics of long COVID in children, discovering the means to decipher the diagnosis of COVID-19 in children and some potential therapeutic treatments.

CONCLUSIONS: We aim to summarize existing research on long COVID in children and help pediatricians and government agencies quickly understand the disease so that it can be used for clinical diagnosis, treatment and prevention in the population. In addition, providing a research basis for further researches on the cellular and even molecular level to explain the occurrence and development of diseases, and has a guiding role for future research direction.

RevDate: 2024-03-08

Katz AA, Wainwright S, Kelly MP, et al (2024)

Hyperbaric oxygen effectively addresses the pathophysiology of long COVID: clinical review.

Frontiers in medicine, 11:1354088.

BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization defines long COVID as "the continuation or development of new symptoms 3 months after the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection, with these symptoms lasting for at least 2 months with no other explanation." Estimations of approximately 50 million individuals suffer from long COVID, reporting low health-related quality of life. Patients develop ongoing persistent symptoms that continue for more than 12 weeks that are not explained by another alternative diagnosis. To date, no current therapeutics are effective in treating the underlying pathophysiology of long COVID.

DISCUSSION: A comprehensive literature search using PubMed and Google Scholar was conducted and all available articles from November 2021 to January 2024 containing keywords long covid and hyperbaric oxygen were reviewed. These published studies, including case series and randomized trials, demonstrate that utilizing Hyperbaric Oxygen Therapy (HBO) provided significant improvement in patients with long COVID.

CONCLUSION: A large cohort of patients suffer from long COVID or post-COVID-19 syndrome after recovery from their acute infection with no effective treatment options. HBO is a safe treatment and may provide benefit for this population and should continue to be researched for adjunctive treatment of long COVID.

RevDate: 2024-03-06

van der Feltz-Cornelis C, Turk F, Sweetman J, et al (2024)

Prevalence of mental health conditions and brain fog in people with long COVID: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

General hospital psychiatry, 88:10-22 pii:S0163-8343(24)00039-2 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Long COVID can include impaired cognition ('brain fog'; a term encompassing multiple symptoms) and mental health conditions. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to estimate their prevalence and to explore relevant factors associated with the incidence of impaired cognition and mental health conditions.

METHODS: Searches were conducted in Medline and PsycINFO to cover the start of the pandemic until August 2023. Included studies reported prevalence of mental health conditions and brain fog in adults with long COVID after clinically-diagnosed or PCR-confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection.

FINDINGS: 17 studies were included, reporting 41,249 long COVID patients. Across all timepoints (3-24 months), the combined prevalence of mental health conditions and brain fog was 20·4% (95% CI 11·1%-34·4%), being lower among those previously hospitalised than in community-managed patients(19·5 vs 29·7% respectively; p = 0·047). The odds of mental health conditions and brain fog increased over time and when validated instruments were used. Odds of brain fog significantly decreased with increasing vaccination rates (p = ·000).

CONCLUSIONS: Given the increasing prevalence of mental health conditions and brain fog over time, preventive interventions and treatments are needed. Research is needed to explore underlying mechanisms that could inform further research in development of effective treatments. The reduced risk of brain fog associated with vaccination emphasizes the need for ongoing vaccination programs.

RevDate: 2024-03-06

Verma A, Manojkumar A, Dhasmana A, et al (2024)

Recurring SARS-CoV-2 variants: an update on post-pandemic, co-infections and immune response.

Nanotheranostics, 8(2):247-269.

The post-pandemic era following the global spread of the SARS-CoV-2 virus has brought about persistent concerns regarding recurring coinfections. While significant strides in genome mapping, diagnostics, and vaccine development have controlled the pandemic and reduced fatalities, ongoing virus mutations necessitate a deeper exploration of the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 mutations and the host's immune response. Various vaccines, including RNA-based ones like Pfizer and Moderna, viral vector vaccines like Johnson & Johnson and AstraZeneca, and protein subunit vaccines like Novavax, have played critical roles in mitigating the impact of COVID-19. Understanding their strengths and limitations is crucial for tailoring future vaccines to specific variants and individual needs. The intricate relationship between SARS-CoV-2 mutations and the immune response remains a focus of intense research, providing insights into personalized treatment strategies and long-term effects like long-COVID. This article offers an overview of the post-pandemic landscape, highlighting emerging variants, summarizing vaccine platforms, and delving into immunological responses and the phenomenon of long-COVID. By presenting clinical findings, it aims to contribute to the ongoing understanding of COVID-19's progression in the aftermath of the pandemic.

RevDate: 2024-03-05

Annesley SJ, Missailidis D, Heng B, et al (2024)

Unravelling shared mechanisms: insights from recent ME/CFS research to illuminate long COVID pathologies.

Trends in molecular medicine pii:S1471-4914(24)00028-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) is a debilitating chronic illness often triggered by an initiating acute event, mainly viral infections. The transition from acute to chronic disease remains unknown, but interest in this phenomenon has escalated since the COVID-19 pandemic and the post-COVID-19 illness, termed 'long COVID' (LC). Both ME/CFS and LC share many clinical similarities. Here, we present recent findings in ME/CFS research focussing on proposed disease pathologies shared with LC. Understanding these disease pathologies and how they influence each other is key to developing effective therapeutics and diagnostic tests. Given that ME/CFS typically has a longer disease duration compared with LC, with symptoms and pathologies evolving over time, ME/CFS may provide insights into the future progression of LC.

RevDate: 2024-03-03

Ordaya EE, RR Razonable (2024)

Emerging anti-spike monoclonal antibodies against SARS-CoV-2.

Expert opinion on biological therapy [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Anti-spike monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) were previously authorized for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19 in immunocompromised patients. However, they are no longer authorized in the US due to their lack of neutralizing activity against current circulating SARS-CoV-2 Omicron variants.

AREAS COVERED: We summarized the available data on emergent mAbs in the early stages of clinical development. Consistent with data on prior mAbs, these novel agents have been well tolerated and demonstrated a good safety profile in early clinical trials. Additionally, many of them have been engineered to ensure prolonged half-life and combined with other mAbs to overcome the potential for emerging resistant mutants. Interestingly, one of these agents has been evaluated using an inhaled route of administration, and another agent is being evaluated for preventing long COVID.

EXPERT OPINION: Although the available data of novel mAbs holds promise, we anticipate that these agents will face similar challenges as encountered by prior authorized agents, which is the continued evolution of SARS-CoV-2 and the emergence of new escape mutations. Strategies to potentially mitigate this are discussed. Based on prior successful experience, immunocompromised patients will certainly benefit from the utilization of mAbs for the prevention and treatment of COVID-19; thus, we need to design potential interventions to ensure the sustained activity of these agents.

RevDate: 2024-03-04
CmpDate: 2024-03-04

Rao S, Gross RS, Mohandas S, et al (2024)

Postacute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 in Children.

Pediatrics, 153(3):.

The coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic has caused significant medical, social, and economic impacts globally, both in the short and long term. Although most individuals recover within a few days or weeks from an acute infection, some experience longer lasting effects. Data regarding the postacute sequelae of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 infection (PASC) in children, or long COVID, are only just emerging in the literature. These symptoms and conditions may reflect persistent symptoms from acute infection (eg, cough, headaches, fatigue, and loss of taste and smell), new symptoms like dizziness, or exacerbation of underlying conditions. Children may develop conditions de novo, including postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, autoimmune conditions and multisystem inflammatory syndrome in children. This state-of-the-art narrative review provides a summary of our current knowledge about PASC in children, including prevalence, epidemiology, risk factors, clinical characteristics, underlying mechanisms, and functional outcomes, as well as a conceptual framework for PASC based on the current National Institutes of Health definition. We highlight the pediatric components of the National Institutes of Health-funded Researching COVID to Enhance Recovery Initiative, which seeks to characterize the natural history, mechanisms, and long-term health effects of PASC in children and young adults to inform future treatment and prevention efforts. These initiatives include electronic health record cohorts, which offer rapid assessments at scale with geographical and demographic diversity, as well as longitudinal prospective observational cohorts, to estimate disease burden, illness trajectory, pathobiology, and clinical manifestations and outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-03-03

Powell AA, Dowell AC, Moss P, et al (2024)

Current state of COVID-19 in children: 4 years on.

The Journal of infection pii:S0163-4453(24)00068-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Children have been disproportionately affected by the COVID-19 pandemic. Despite evidence of a very low risk of severe disease, children were subjected to extensive lockdown, restriction and mitigation measures, including school closures, to control the rapid spread of SARS-CoV-2 in most parts of the world. In this review we summarise the UK experience of COVID-19 in children four years into the largest and longest pandemic of this century. We address the risks of SARS-CoV-2 infection, immunity, transmission, severity and outcomes in children. We also assess the implementation, uptake, effectiveness and impact of COVID-19 vaccination, as well as the emergence, evolution and near disappearance of PIMS-TS (paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2) and current understanding of long COVID in children. This review consolidates current knowledge on childhood COVID-19 and emphasises the importance of continued research and the need for research-driven public health actions and policy decisions, especially in the context of new variants and future vaccines.

RevDate: 2024-03-01

Banerjee A (2024)

Disparities by social determinants of health: links between Long COVID and cardiovascular disease.

The Canadian journal of cardiology pii:S0828-282X(24)00182-X [Epub ahead of print].

Long COVID has been defined by World Health Organization as "continuation or development of new symptoms 3 months after the initial SARS-CoV-2 infection, with these symptoms lasting for at least 2 months with no other explanation". Cardiovascular disease is implicated as a risk factor, concomitant condition and consequence of Long COVID. As well as heterogeneity in definition, presentation and likely underlying pathophysiology of Long COVID, disparities by social determinants of health, extensively studied and described in cardiovascular disease, have been observed in three ways. First, underlying long-term conditions, such as cardiovascular disease and its risk factors, are associated with incidence and severity of Long COVID, and previously described socioeconomic disparities in these factors are important in exacerbating disparities in Long COVID. Second, socioeconomic disparities in management of COVID-19 may themselves lead to distal disparities in Long COVID. Third, there are socioeconomic disparities in the way that Long COVID is diagnosed, managed and prevented. Together, factors such as age, sex, deprivation and ethnicity have far-reaching implications in this new post-viral syndrome across its management spectrum. There are similarities and differences compared with disparities for cardiovascular disease. Some of these disparities are in fact, inequalities, i.e. rather than simply observed variations, they represent injustices with costs to individuals, communities and economies. In this review of current literature, I consider opportunities to prevent, or at least, attenuate these socioeconomic disparities in Long COVID and cardiovascular disease, with special challenges for research, clinical practice, public health and policy in a new disease which is evolving.

RevDate: 2024-03-02

Leonel JW, Ciurleo GCV, Formiga AM, et al (2024)

Long COVID: neurological manifestations - an updated narrative review.

Dementia & neuropsychologia, 18:e20230076.

Infection with the SARS-CoV-2 virus can lead to neurological symptoms in the acute phase and in the Long COVID phase. These symptoms usually involve cognition, sleep, smell disorders, psychiatric manifestations, headache and others. This condition is more commonly described in young adults and women. This symptomatology can follow severe or mild cases of the disease. The importance of this issue resides in the high prevalence of neurological symptoms in the Long COVID phase, which entails significant morbidity in this population. In addition, such a condition is associated with high health care costs, with some estimates hovering around 3.7 trillion US dollars. In this review, we will sequentially describe the current knowledge about the most prevalent neurological symptoms in Long COVID, as well as their pathophysiology and possible biomarkers.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Johnston R, Sonnappa S, Goddings AL, et al (2024)

A review of post COVID syndrome pathophysiology, clinical presentation and management in children and young people.

Paediatric respiratory reviews pii:S1526-0542(24)00003-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Post Covid Syndrome (PCS) is a complex multi-system disorder with a spectrum of presentations. Severity ranges from mild to very severe with variable duration of illness and recovery. This paper discusses the difficulties defining and describing PCS. We review the current understanding of PCS, epidemiology, and predisposing factors. We consider potential mechanisms including viral persistence, clotting dysfunction and immunity. We review presentation and diagnosis and finally consider management strategies including addressing symptom burden, rehabilitation, and novel therapies.

RevDate: 2024-02-29

Mattioli LB, Frosini M, Corazza I, et al (2024)

Long COVID-19 gastrointestinal related disorders and traditional Chinese medicine: A network target-based approach.

Phytotherapy research : PTR [Epub ahead of print].

The significant number of individuals impacted by the pandemic makes prolonged symptoms after COVID-19 a matter of considerable concern. These are numerous and affect multiple organ systems. According to the World Health Organization (WHO), prolonged gastrointestinal issues are a crucial part of post-COVID-19 syndrome. The resulting disruption of homeostasis underscores the need for a therapeutic approach based on compounds that can simultaneously affect more than one target/node. The present review aimed to check for nutraceuticals possessing multiple molecular mechanisms helpful in relieving Long COVID-19-specific gastrointestinal symptoms. Specific plants used in Keywords Chinese Medicine (TCM) expected to be included in the WHO Global Medical Compendium were selected based on the following criteria: (1) they are widely used in the Western world as natural remedies and complementary medicine adjuvants; (2) their import and trade are regulated by specific laws that ensure quality and safety (3) have the potential to be beneficial in alleviating intestinal issues associated with Long COVID-19. Searches were performed in PubMed, Elsevier, Google Scholar, Scopus, Science Direct, and ResearchGate up to 2023. Cinnamomum cassia, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Magnolia officinalis, Poria cocos, Salvia miltiorrhiza, Scutellaria baicalensis, and Zingiber officinalis were identified as the most promising for their potential impact on inflammation and oxidative stress. Based on the molecular mechanisms of the phytocomplexes and isolated compounds of the considered plants, their clinical use may lead to benefits in gastrointestinal diseases associated with Long COVID-19, thanks to a multiorgan and multitarget approach.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Faghy MA, Dalton C, Duncan R, et al (2024)

Using cardiorespiratory fitness assessment to identify pathophysiology in long COVID - Best practice approaches.

Progress in cardiovascular diseases pii:S0033-0620(24)00027-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Cardio-respiratory fitness (CRF) is well-established in the clinical domains as an integrative measure of the body's physiological capability and capacity to transport and utilise oxygen during controlled bouts of physical exertion. Long COVID is associated with >200 different symptoms and is estimated to affect ~150 million people worldwide. The most widely reported impact is reduced quality of life and functional status due to highly sensitive and cyclical symptoms that manifest and are augmented following exposure to physical, emotional, orthostatic, and cognitive stimuli, more commonly known as post-exertional symptom exacerbation (PESE) which prevents millions from engaging in routine daily activities. The use of cardiopulmonary exercise testing (CPET) is commonplace in the assessment of integrated physiology; CPET will undoubtedly play an integral role in furthering the pathophysiology and mechanistic knowledge that will inform bespoke Long COVID treatment and management strategies. An inherent risk of previous attempts to utilise CPET protocols in patients with chronic disease is that these are compounded by PESE and have induced a worsening of symptoms for patients that can last for days or weeks. To do this effectively and to meet the global need, the complex multi-system pathophysiology of Long COVID must be considered to ensure the design and implementation of research that is both safe for participants and capable of advancing mechanistic understanding.

RevDate: 2024-02-29
CmpDate: 2024-02-29

Lui KO, Ma Z, S Dimmeler (2024)

SARS-CoV-2 induced vascular endothelial dysfunction: direct or indirect effects?.

Cardiovascular research, 120(1):34-43.

Clinical evidence reveals that manifestations of endothelial dysfunction are widely observed in COVID-19 and long-COVID patients. However, whether these detrimental effects are caused by direct infection of the endothelium or are indirectly mediated by systemic inflammation has been a matter of debate. It has been well acknowledged that endothelial cells (ECs) of the cardiovascular system ubiquitously express the SARS-CoV-2 entry receptor angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), yet accumulating evidence suggests that it is more predominantly expressed by pericytes and vascular smooth muscle cells of the mammalian blood vessel. Besides, replicative infection of ECs by SARS-CoV-2 has yet to be demonstrated both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we review latest research on endothelial ACE2 expression in different vascular beds, and the heterogeneity in various EC subsets with differential ACE2 expression in response to SARS-CoV-2. We also discuss ACE2-independent alternative mechanisms underlying endothelial activation in COVID-19, and the clinical manifestations of SARS-CoV-2-induced endothelial dysfunction. Altogether, understanding ACE2-dependent and ACE2-independent mechanisms driving SARS-CoV-2-induced vascular dysfunction would shed light on strategies of more effective therapies targeting cardiovascular complications associated with COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Faghy MA, Tatler A, Chidley C, et al (2024)

The physiologic benefits of optimizing cardiorespiratory fitness and physical activity - From the cell to systems level in a post-pandemic world.

Progress in cardiovascular diseases pii:S0033-0620(24)00028-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Cardiovascular (CV) disease (CVD) is a leading cause of premature death and hospitalization which places a significant strain on health services and economies around the World. Evidence from decades of empirical and observational research demonstrates clear associations between physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) which can offset the risk of mortality and increase life expectancy and the quality of life in patients. Whilst well documented, the narrative of increased CRF remained pertinent during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic, where individuals with lower levels of CRF had more than double the risk of dying from COVID-19 compared to those with a moderate or high CRF. The need to better understand the mechanisms associated with COVID-19 and those that continue to be affected with persistent symptoms following infection (Long COVID), and CV health is key if we are to be able to effectively target the use of CRF and PA to improve the lives of those suffering its afflictions. Whilst there is a long way to go to optimise PA and CRF for improved health at a population level, particularly in a post-pandemic world, increasing the understanding using a cellular-to-systems approach, we hope to provide further insight into the benefits of engaging in PA.

RevDate: 2024-02-28

Xiao J, Luo Y, Li Y, et al (2024)

The characteristics of BCR-CDR3 repertoire in COVID-19 patients and SARS-CoV-2 vaccinated volunteers.

Journal of medical virology, 96(3):e29488.

The global COVID-19 pandemic has caused more than 1 billion infections, and numerous SARS-CoV-2 vaccines developed rapidly have been administered over 10 billion doses. The world is continuously concerned about the cytokine storms induced by the interaction between SARS-CoV-2 and host, long COVID, breakthrough infections postvaccination, and the impact of SARS-CoV-2 variants. BCR-CDR3 repertoire serves as a molecular target for monitoring the antiviral response "trace" of B cells, evaluating the effects, mechanisms, and memory abilities of individual responses to B cells, and has been successfully applied in analyzing the infection mechanisms, vaccine improvement, and neutralizing antibodies preparation of influenza virus, HIV, MERS, and Ebola virus. Based on research on BCR-CDR3 repertoire of COVID-19 patients and volunteers who received different SARS-CoV-2 vaccines in multiple laboratories worldwide, we focus on analyzing the characteristics and changes of BCR-CDR3 repertoire, such as diversity, clonality, V&J genes usage and pairing, SHM, CSR, shared CDR3 clones, as well as the summary on BCR sequences targeting virus-specific epitopes in the preparation and application research of SARS-CoV-2 potential therapeutic monoclonal antibodies. This review provides comparative data and new research schemes for studying the possible mechanisms of differences in B cell response between SARS-CoV-2 infection or vaccination, and supplies a foundation for improving vaccines after SARS-CoV-2 mutations and potential antibody therapy for infected individuals.

RevDate: 2024-02-27

Assiri AM, Alamaa T, Elenezi F, et al (2024)

Unveiling the Clinical Spectrum of Post-COVID-19 Conditions: Assessment and Recommended Strategies.

Cureus, 16(1):e52827.

SARS-CoV-2 caused the pandemic of the rapidly evolving COVID-19. As of December 6, 2023, there were 765,152,854 COVID-19-recovering cases. Long-term consequences known as "long COVID" and "post-COVID-19 conditions" (PCCs) or "post-acute COVID-19 syndrome" are being reported more frequently in a subset of recovering patients. Systemic, neuropsychiatric, cardio-respiratory, and gastrointestinal symptoms are the most prevalent. The management of PCCs poses unique challenges due to the lack of official guidelines and the complex nature of the illness. This abstract highlights key principles derived from recent reviews and expert recommendations to provide healthcare professionals with a comprehensive approach to manage post-COVID-19 patients. Preventive medicine plays a crucial role in managing PCCs. While no specific medications are available for treatment, preventive measures such as COVID-19 vaccination, adherence to precautionary measures, regular consultations with medical professionals, monitoring symptoms and progress, and seeking information on symptom management are essential to assist patients in their recovery and improve their quality of life. Medical management requires transparent goal-setting and collaborative decision-making based on the patient's symptoms, comorbidities, and treatment objectives. Treatment plans for post-COVID-19 patients should focus on patient education, using registries and calendars to track symptoms and triggers, providing support and reassurance, and offering holistic support through peer networks and supportive psychotherapy techniques. Symptomatic and rehabilitative care, including well-established symptom management techniques, physical rehabilitation programs, and addressing mental health and well-being, are vital components of post-COVID-19 management. Lifestyle factors such as stress reduction, nutrition, and sleep should be incorporated into managing underlying medical conditions in post-COVID-19 patients. Regular follow-up visits and referrals to specialists are recommended to monitor the patient's progress and address specific organ system involvement or additional care needs. In summary, for the effective management of PCCs, a holistic approach should include preventive measures, patient education, supportive psychotherapy, symptomatic and rehabilitative care, medical management, counseling on lifestyle elements, and appropriate follow-up plans. However, it is crucial to stay updated with evolving guidelines and recommendations from healthcare authorities to provide the most effective and evidence-based care to post-COVID-19 patients.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Man MA, Rosca D, Bratosin F, et al (2024)

Impact of Pre-Infection COVID-19 Vaccination on the Incidence and Severity of Post-COVID Syndrome: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Vaccines, 12(2):.

This systematic review critically evaluated the impact of a pre-infection COVID-19 vaccination on the incidence and severity of post-COVID-19 syndrome and aimed to assess the potential protective effect across different vaccines and patient demographics. This study hypothesized that vaccination before infection substantially reduces the risk and severity of post-COVID-19 syndrome. In October 2023, a comprehensive literature search was conducted across three databases, PubMed, Embase, and Scopus, focusing on studies published up to that date. Utilizing a wide array of keywords, the search strategy adhered to the PRISMA guidelines and was registered in the Open Science Framework. The inclusion criteria comprised studies focusing on patients with a breakthrough SARS-CoV-2 infection who developed post-COVID-19 syndrome. We included a total of 13 articles that met the inclusion criteria, analyzing more than 10 million patients with a mean age of 50.6 years, showing that the incidence of intensive care unit (ICU) admissions post-vaccination was as low as 2.4%, with a significant reduction in mortality risk (OR 0.66, 95% CI 0.58-0.74). The prevalence of post-COVID-19 syndrome symptoms was lower in vaccinated individuals (9.5%) compared to unvaccinated (14.6%), with a notable decrease in activity-limiting symptoms (adjusted OR 0.59, 95% CI 0.48-0.73). Vaccinated patients also showed a quicker recovery and return to work (HR 1.37, 95% CI 1.04-1.79). The pooled odds ratio of 0.77 indicates that vaccination is associated with a 23% reduction in the risk of developing post-COVID-19 syndrome (95% CI 0.75-0.79). Despite the protective effects observed, a substantial heterogeneity among the studies was noted. In conclusion, a pre-infection COVID-19 vaccination is associated with a significant reduction in the risk and severity of post-COVID-19 syndrome. However, the observed heterogeneity across studies suggests a need for further research with standardized methods to fully comprehend vaccine efficacy against long COVID.

RevDate: 2024-02-26
CmpDate: 2024-02-26

Rana P, Patial S, Soni V, et al (2024)

"Long COVID" and Its Impact on The Environment: Emerging Concerns and Perspectives.

Environmental management, 73(3):471-480.

The COVID-19 pandemic has caused unprecedented global health and economic crises. The emergence of long COVID-19 has raised concerns about the interplay between SARS-CoV-2 infections, climate change, and the environment. In this context, a concise analysis of the potential long-term effects of the COVID-19 epidemic along with the awareness aboutenvironmental issues are realized. While COVID-19 effects in the short-term have reduced environmental air pollutants and pressures, CO2 emissions are projected to increase as the economy recovers and growth rates return to pre-COVID-19 levels. This review discusses the systematic effects of both the short-term and long-term effects of the pandemic on the clean energy revolution and environmental issues. This article also discusses opportunities to achieve long-term environmental benefits and emphasizes the importance of future policies in promoting global environmental sustainability. Future directions for growth and recovery are presented to cope with long COVID-19 epidemic along with the critical findings focussing on various aspects: waste management, air quality improvement.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Parzen-Johnson S, BZ Katz (2024)

Navigating the Spectrum of Two Pediatric COVID-19 Complications: Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome in Children and Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 Infection.

Journal of clinical medicine, 13(4):.

PURPOSE: This review summarizes the current scope of understanding associated with two common post-infectious complications associated with COVID-19 infection: Multi-System Inflammatory Syndrome in Children (MIS-C) and Post-Acute Sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC). It identifies current gaps in the knowledge and issues that may limit the ability to fill these gaps. This review provides a framework to drive continued research.

METHODS: A comprehensive review of the current literature was performed, identifying seminal articles describing the emergence of MIS-C and PASC, and works from the literature focused on the clinical implications and pathophysiologic understanding of these disorders.

FINDINGS: Although pediatric patients experienced few severe cases of acute COVID-19 infection, the burden of disease from post-infectious sequelae is substantial. Mortality is low, but morbidity is significant. There are still numerous unknowns about the pathophysiology of both MIS-C and PASC; however, with widespread immunity developing after increased vaccination and prior infection, it may be difficult to perform adequate prospective studies to answer pathophysiologic questions. Long-term sequalae of MIS-C seem to be minimal whereas, by definition, PASC is an ongoing problem and may be severe.

IMPLICATIONS: The rapid sharing of information regarding novel conditions such as MIS-C and PASC are key to interventions related to future post-infectious sequelae outside of those stemming from COVID-19. Although MIS-C seems unlikely to return as a clinical condition in substantial numbers, there is still significant learning that can be gleaned from existing patients about general aspects of epidemiology, equity, and pathophysiology. There is significant morbidity associated with PASC and additional resources need to be dedicated to determining appropriate and effective therapies moving forward.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Liu S, Zhong M, Wu H, et al (2024)

Potential Beneficial Effects of Naringin and Naringenin on Long COVID-A Review of the Literature.

Microorganisms, 12(2): pii:microorganisms12020332.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) caused a severe epidemic due to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2). Recent studies have found that patients do not completely recover from acute infections, but instead, suffer from a variety of post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, known as long COVID. The effects of long COVID can be far-reaching, with a duration of up to six months and a range of symptoms such as cognitive dysfunction, immune dysregulation, microbiota dysbiosis, myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome, myocarditis, pulmonary fibrosis, cough, diabetes, pain, reproductive dysfunction, and thrombus formation. However, recent studies have shown that naringenin and naringin have palliative effects on various COVID-19 sequelae. Flavonoids such as naringin and naringenin, commonly found in fruits and vegetables, have various positive effects, including reducing inflammation, preventing viral infections, and providing antioxidants. This article discusses the molecular mechanisms and clinical effects of naringin and naringenin on treating the above diseases. It proposes them as potential drugs for the treatment of long COVID, and it can be inferred that naringin and naringenin exhibit potential as extended long COVID medications, in the future likely serving as nutraceuticals or clinical supplements for the comprehensive alleviation of the various manifestations of COVID-19 complications.

RevDate: 2024-02-24

Nakane S, Koike H, Hayashi T, et al (2024)

Autoimmune Autonomic Neuropathy: From Pathogenesis to Diagnosis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(4): pii:ijms25042296.

Autoimmune autonomic ganglionopathy (AAG) is a disease of autonomic failure caused by ganglionic acetylcholine receptor (gAChR) autoantibodies. Although the detection of autoantibodies is important for distinguishing the disease from other neuropathies that present with autonomic dysfunction, other factors are important for accurate diagnosis. Here, we provide a comprehensive review of the clinical features of AAG, highlighting differences in clinical course, clinical presentation, and laboratory findings from other neuropathies presenting with autonomic symptoms. The first step in diagnosing AAG is careful history taking, which should reveal whether the mode of onset is acute or chronic, followed by an examination of the time course of disease progression, including the presentation of autonomic and extra-autonomic symptoms. AAG is a neuropathy that should be differentiated from other neuropathies when the patient presents with autonomic dysfunction. Immune-mediated neuropathies, such as acute autonomic sensory neuropathy, are sometimes difficult to differentiate, and therefore, differences in clinical and laboratory findings should be well understood. Other non-neuropathic conditions, such as postural orthostatic tachycardia syndrome, chronic fatigue syndrome, and long COVID, also present with symptoms similar to those of AAG. Although often challenging, efforts should be made to differentiate among the disease candidates.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Pszczołowska M, Walczak K, Misków W, et al (2024)

Molecular cross-talk between long COVID-19 and Alzheimer's disease.

GeroScience [Epub ahead of print].

The long COVID (coronavirus disease), a multisystemic condition following severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection, is one of the widespread problems. Some of its symptoms affect the nervous system and resemble symptoms of Alzheimer's disease (AD)-a neurodegenerative condition caused by the accumulation of amyloid beta and hyperphosphorylation of tau proteins. Multiple studies have found dependence between these two conditions. Patients with Alzheimer's disease have a greater risk of SARS-CoV-2 infection due to increased levels of angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2), and the infection itself promotes amyloid beta generation which enhances the risk of AD. Also, the molecular pathways are alike-misregulations in folate-mediated one-carbon metabolism, a deficit of Cq10, and disease-associated microglia. Medical imaging in both of these diseases shows a decrease in the volume of gray matter, global brain size reduction, and hypometabolism in the parahippocampal gyrus, thalamus, and cingulate cortex. In some studies, a similar approach to applied medication can be seen, including the use of amino adamantanes and phenolic compounds of rosemary. The significance of these connections and their possible application in medical practice still needs further study but there is a possibility that they will help to better understand long COVID.

RevDate: 2024-02-24
CmpDate: 2024-02-24

Fyffe I, Sorensen J, Carroll S, et al (2023)

Long COVID in long-term care: a rapid realist review.

BMJ open, 13(12):e076186.

OBJECTIVES: The goals of this rapid realist review were to ask: (a) what are the key mechanisms that drive successful interventions for long COVID in long-term care (LTC) and (b) what are the critical contexts that determine whether the mechanisms produce the intended outcomes?

DESIGN: Rapid realist review.

DATA SOURCES: Medline, CINAHL, Embase, PsycINFO and Web of Science for peer-reviewed literature and Google for grey literature were searched up to 23 February 2023.

ELIGIBILITY CRITERIA: We included sources focused on interventions, persons in LTC, long COVID or post-acute phase at least 4 weeks following initial COVID-19 infection and ones that had a connection with source materials.

DATA EXTRACTION AND SYNTHESIS: Three independent reviewers searched, screened and coded studies. Two independent moderators resolved conflicts. A data extraction tool organised relevant data into context-mechanism-outcome configurations using realist methodology. Twenty-one sources provided 51 intervention data excerpts used to develop our programme theory. Synthesised findings were presented to a reference group and expert panel for confirmatory purposes.

RESULTS: Fifteen peer-reviewed articles and six grey literature sources were eligible for inclusion. Eleven context-mechanism-outcome configurations identify those contextual factors and underlying mechanisms associated with desired outcomes, such as clinical care processes and policies that ensure timely access to requisite resources for quality care delivery, and resident-centred assessments and care planning to address resident preferences and needs. The underlying mechanisms associated with enhanced outcomes for LTC long COVID survivors were: awareness, accountability, vigilance and empathetic listening.

CONCLUSIONS: Although the LTC sector struggles with organisational capacity issues, they should be aware that comprehensively assessing and monitoring COVID-19 survivors and providing timely interventions to those with long COVID is imperative. This is due to the greater care needs of residents with long COVID, and coordinated efficient care is required to optimise their quality of life.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Nederlof RA, de la Garza MA, J Bakker (2024)

Perspectives on SARS-CoV-2 Cases in Zoological Institutions.

Veterinary sciences, 11(2): pii:vetsci11020078.

Severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infections in a zoological institution were initially reported in March 2020. Since then, at least 94 peer-reviewed cases have been reported in zoos worldwide. Among the affected animals, nonhuman primates, carnivores, and artiodactyls appear to be most susceptible to infection, with the Felidae family accounting for the largest number of reported cases. Clinical symptoms tend to be mild across taxa; although, certain species exhibit increased susceptibility to disease. A variety of diagnostic tools are available, allowing for initial diagnostics and for the monitoring of infectious risk. Whilst supportive therapy proves sufficient in most cases, monoclonal antibody therapy has emerged as a promising additional treatment option. Effective transmission of SARS-CoV-2 in some species raises concerns over potential spillover and the formation of reservoirs. The occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in a variety of animal species may contribute to the emergence of variants of concern due to altered viral evolutionary constraints. Consequently, this review emphasizes the need for effective biosecurity measures and surveillance strategies to prevent and control SARS-CoV-2 infections in zoological institutions.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Taieb A, Nassim BHS, Asma G, et al (2024)

The Growing Understanding of the Pituitary Implication in the Pathogenesis of Long COVID-19 Syndrome: A Narrative Review.

Advances in respiratory medicine, 92(1):96-109 pii:arm92010013.

Long COVID-19, also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection, is a condition where individuals who have recovered from the acute phase of COVID-19 continue to experience a range of symptoms for weeks or even months afterward. While it was initially thought to primarily affect the respiratory system, it has become clear that Long COVID-19 can involve various organs and systems, including the endocrine system, which includes the pituitary gland. In the context of Long COVID-19, there is a growing understanding of the potential implications for the pituitary gland. The virus can directly affect the pituitary gland, leading to abnormalities in hormone production and regulation. This can result in symptoms such as fatigue, changes in appetite, and mood disturbances. Long COVID-19, the persistent and often debilitating condition following acute COVID-19 infection, may be explained by deficiencies in ACTH and Growth hormone production from the pituitary gland. Corticotropin insufficiency can result in the dysregulation of the body's stress response and can lead to prolonged feelings of stress, fatigue, and mood disturbances in Long COVID-19 patients. Simultaneously, somatotropin insufficiency can affect growth, muscle function, and energy metabolism, potentially causing symptoms such as muscle weakness, exercise intolerance, and changes in body composition. Recently, some authors have suggested the involvement of the pituitary gland in Post COVID-19 Syndrome. The exact mechanisms of viral action on infected cells remain under discussion, but inflammatory and autoimmune mechanisms are primarily implicated. The aim of our study will be to review the main pituitary complications following COVID-19 infection. Moreover, we will explain the possible involvement of the pituitary gland in the persistence of Post COVID-19 Syndrome.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Daniels K, Mourad J, B Bonnechère (2024)

Exploring the Use of Mobile Health for the Rehabilitation of Long COVID Patients: A Scoping Review.

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 12(4): pii:healthcare12040451.

The COVID-19 pandemic has led to a substantial revolution in the incorporation of digital solutions in healthcare. This systematic review investigates the enduring physical and psychological consequences individuals experience up to two years post-recovery. Additionally, it focuses on examining the influence of mHealth interventions on these effects. Significantly, 41.7% of survivors experience lingering symptoms that have not been addressed, while 14.1% encounter difficulties in returning to work. The presence of anxiety, compromised respiratory functioning, and persistent symptoms highlight the immediate requirement for specific therapies. Telehealth, particularly telerehabilitation, presents itself as a possible way to address these difficulties. The study thoroughly examines 10 studies encompassing 749 COVID-19 patients, investigating the efficacy of telerehabilitation therapies in addressing various health markers. Telerehabilitation-based breathing exercises yield substantial enhancements in functional performance, dyspnea, and overall well-being. The results emphasize the potential of telerehabilitation to have a favorable effect on patient outcomes; however, more research is needed to strengthen the existing evidence base, as one of the most important limitations is the limited number of trials and the evaluation of varied therapies. This analysis highlights the significance of digital solutions in post-COVID care and calls for ongoing research to improve the comprehension and implementation of telehealth interventions in a swiftly changing healthcare environment.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Leão Batista Simões J, Webler Eichler S, Raitz Siqueira ML, et al (2024)

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis in Long-COVID Scenario and the Therapeutic Potential of the Purinergic System in Neuromodulation.

Brain sciences, 14(2): pii:brainsci14020180.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) involves the degeneration of motor neurons and debilitating and possibly fatal symptoms. The COVID-19 pandemic directly affected the quality of life of this group, and the SARS-CoV-2 infection accelerated the present neuroinflammatory process. Furthermore, studies indicate that the infection may have led to the development of the pathology. Thus, the scenario after this pandemic presents "long-lasting COVID" as a disease that affects people who have been infected. From this perspective, studying the pathophysiology behind ALS associated with SARS-CoV-2 infection and possible supporting therapies becomes necessary when we understand the impact on the quality of life of these patients. Thus, the purinergic system was trained to demonstrate how its modulation can add to the treatment, reduce disease progression, and result in better prognoses. From our studies, we highlight the P2X7, P2X4, and A2AR receptors and how their activity can directly influence the ALS pathway.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Adler BL, Chung T, Rowe PC, et al (2024)

Dysautonomia following Lyme disease: a key component of post-treatment Lyme disease syndrome?.

Frontiers in neurology, 15:1344862.

Dysautonomia, or dysfunction of the autonomic nervous system (ANS), may occur following an infectious insult and can result in a variety of debilitating, widespread, and often poorly recognized symptoms. Dysautonomia is now widely accepted as a complication of COVID-19 and is an important component of Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC or long COVID). PASC shares many overlapping clinical features with other infection-associated chronic illnesses including Myalgic Encephalomyelitis/Chronic Fatigue Syndrome (ME/CFS) and Post-Treatment Lyme Disease Syndrome (PTLDS), suggesting that they may share common underlying mechanisms including autonomic dysfunction. Despite the recognition of this complication of Lyme disease in the care of patients with PTLD, there has been a scarcity of research in this field and dysautonomia has not yet been established as a complication of Lyme disease in the medical literature. In this review, we discuss the evidence implicating Borrelia burgdorferi as a cause of dysautonomia and the related symptoms, propose potential pathogenic mechanisms given our knowledge of Lyme disease and mechanisms of PASC and ME/CFS, and discuss the diagnostic evaluation and treatments of dysautonomia. We also outline gaps in the literature and priorities for future research.

RevDate: 2024-02-23

Martínez-Pozas O, Meléndez-Oliva E, Rolando LM, et al (2024)

The pulmonary rehabilitation effect on long covid-19 syndrome: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Physiotherapy research international : the journal for researchers and clinicians in physical therapy, 29(2):e2077.

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis aims to evaluate the efficacy of pulmonary rehabilitation (PR) in improving dyspnea, fatigue, physical activity, quality of life, anxiety and depression in patients with Long COVID-19 (LC). The impact of PR on LC and a comparison of face-to-face and telerehabilitation approaches was explored.

METHODS: This systematic review and meta-analysis followed PRISMA guidelines and was registered in PROSPERO. A literature search included PubMed, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library until January 2023. No language filters were applied. Randomized controlled trials, non-randomized controlled trials, and observational studies were included. The risk of bias was assessed using appropriate tools. Descriptive analysis and meta-analysis were performed. Forest plots presented results. Statistical analyses were conducted using the Metafor Package in R v.3.4.2.

RESULTS/FINDINGS: This systematic review and meta-analysis included 16 studies on PR in LC patients. A total of 1027 adults were included. The studies varied in design, with seven observational studies, three quasi-experimental studies, and six randomized controlled trials. Dyspnea, physical function, quality of life, psychological state, and fatigue were assessed as outcomes. The review found that pulmonary rehabilitation had a significant positive effect on dyspnea, physical function, quality of life (both global and physical domain), anxiety, and depression. However, the effect on fatigue was not significant. Heterogeneity was observed in some analyses, and publication bias was found in certain outcomes. Age and study design were identified as potential moderators. Both face-to-face and telerehabilitation interventions improved the studied outcomes, with only differences in the physical domain of quality of life favoring the face-to-face group.

PR improved dyspnea, physical function, quality of life, and psychological state in LC patients, but not fatigue. Face-to-face and telerehabilitation have similar effects, except for physical quality of life.

RevDate: 2024-02-23
CmpDate: 2024-02-23

Lammers N, Beese F, Hoebel J, et al (2024)

Social Inequalities in Long-Term Health Effects After COVID-19-A Scoping Review.

International journal of public health, 69:1606739.

Objectives: We aimed to map and synthesize evidence about social inequalities in long-term health effects after COVID-19 (LTHE), often referred to as "long COVID" or "post-COVID-19 conditions." Methods: We conducted a scoping review of peer-reviewed articles by searching the databases Embase and Scopus. According to predefined inclusion criteria, titles/abstracts and full texts were screened for eligibility. Additionally, reference lists of all included studies were hand-searched for eligible studies. This study followed the PRISMA guidelines for scoping reviews. Results: Nineteen articles were included. LTHE were analysed according to ethnicity, education, income, employment and deprivation indices. The studies varied significantly in their definitions of LTHE. Eighty-two analyses showed no statistically significant associations. At least 12 studies had a high risk of type II errors. Only studies associating deprivation indices and long COVID tended to show a higher prevalence of LTHE in deprived areas. Conclusion: Although some studies indicated social inequalities in LTHE, evidence was generally weak and inconclusive. Further studies with larger sample sizes specifically designed to detect social inequalities regarding LTHE are needed to inform future healthcare planning and public health policies.

RevDate: 2024-02-22
CmpDate: 2024-02-22

Valencia I, Lumpuy-Castillo J, Magalhaes G, et al (2024)

Mechanisms of endothelial activation, hypercoagulation and thrombosis in COVID-19: a link with diabetes mellitus.

Cardiovascular diabetology, 23(1):75.

Early since the onset of the COVID-19 pandemic, the medical and scientific community were aware of extra respiratory actions of SARS-CoV-2 infection. Endothelitis, hypercoagulation, and hypofibrinolysis were identified in COVID-19 patients as subsequent responses of endothelial dysfunction. Activation of the endothelial barrier may increase the severity of the disease and contribute to long-COVID syndrome and post-COVID sequelae. Besides, it may cause alterations in primary, secondary, and tertiary hemostasis. Importantly, these responses have been highly decisive in the evolution of infected patients also diagnosed with diabetes mellitus (DM), who showed previous endothelial dysfunction. In this review, we provide an overview of the potential triggers of endothelial activation related to COVID-19 and COVID-19 under diabetic milieu. Several mechanisms are induced by both the viral particle itself and by the subsequent immune-defensive response (i.e., NF-κB/NLRP3 inflammasome pathway, vasoactive peptides, cytokine storm, NETosis, activation of the complement system). Alterations in coagulation mediators such as factor VIII, fibrin, tissue factor, the von Willebrand factor: ADAMST-13 ratio, and the kallikrein-kinin or plasminogen-plasmin systems have been reported. Moreover, an imbalance of thrombotic and thrombolytic (tPA, PAI-I, fibrinogen) factors favors hypercoagulation and hypofibrinolysis. In the context of DM, these mechanisms can be exacerbated leading to higher loss of hemostasis. However, a series of therapeutic strategies targeting the activated endothelium such as specific antibodies or inhibitors against thrombin, key cytokines, factor X, complement system, the kallikrein-kinin system or NETosis, might represent new opportunities to address this hypercoagulable state present in COVID-19 and DM. Antidiabetics may also ameliorate endothelial dysfunction, inflammation, and platelet aggregation. By improving the microvascular pathology in COVID-19 and post-COVID subjects, the associated comorbidities and the risk of mortality could be reduced.

RevDate: 2024-02-20

Ribeiro J, Caldeira D, H Dores (2024)

Long-term manifestations of COVID-19 in athletes: a narrative review.

The Physician and sportsmedicine [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Long COVID is a condition where symptoms or complications persist beyond 3 months after COVID-19 infection. Although most athletes experience mild symptoms, those involved in sports with higher cardiovascular demands can develop long COVID, which can negatively impact sports performance. This narrative review aimed to analyze the long COVID in athletes, especially cardiovascular effects; to alert medical and sporting community for the clinical aftermaths of COVID-19, focusing on physical activity; to discuss the potential return to play strategies for these athletes.

METHODS: An electronic search in Pubmed database for articles published between January/2020 and February/2023 was performed including athletic populations with COVID-19, emphasizing long-term complications, especially the cardiovascular effects.

RESULTS AND CONCLUSIONS: While severe cardiac complications are rare, athletes with long COVID often experience symptoms such as fatigue, dyspnea, palpitations, and exercise intolerance. To manage athletes with long COVID, individualized and structured return-to-play programs with the involvement of multidisciplinary teams are crucial. This underscores the importance of recognizing long COVID in athletes, raising awareness of its potential impacts, and implementing strategies to ensure a safe return to play.

RevDate: 2024-02-20
CmpDate: 2024-02-20

Maybin JA, Watters M, Rowley B, et al (2024)

COVID-19 and abnormal uterine bleeding: potential associations and mechanisms.

Clinical science (London, England : 1979), 138(4):153-171.

The impact of COVID-19 on menstruation has received a high level of public and media interest. Despite this, uncertainty exists about the advice that women and people who menstruate should receive in relation to the expected impact of SARS-CoV-2 infection, long COVID or COVID-19 vaccination on menstruation. Furthermore, the mechanisms leading to these reported menstrual changes are poorly understood. This review evaluates the published literature on COVID-19 and its impact on menstrual bleeding, discussing the strengths and limitations of these studies. We present evidence consistent with SARS-CoV-2 infection and long COVID having an association with changes in menstrual bleeding parameters and that the impact of COVID vaccination on menstruation appears less significant. An overview of menstrual physiology and known causes of abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB) is provided before discussing potential mechanisms which may underpin the menstrual disturbance reported with COVID-19, highlighting areas for future scientific study. Finally, consideration is given to the effect that menstruation may have on COVID-19, including the impact of the ovarian sex hormones on acute COVID-19 severity and susceptibility and reported variation in long COVID symptoms across the menstrual cycle. Understanding the current evidence and addressing gaps in our knowledge in this area are essential to inform public health policy, direct the treatment of menstrual disturbance and facilitate development of new therapies, which may reduce the severity of COVID-19 and improve quality of life for those experiencing long COVID.

RevDate: 2024-02-17

Fernández-de-Las-Peñas C, Torres-Macho J, Macasaet R, et al (2024)

Presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in COVID-19 survivors with post-COVID symptoms: a systematic review of the literature.

Clinical chemistry and laboratory medicine [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Viral persistence is one of the main hypotheses explaining the presence of post-COVID symptoms. This systematic review investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma, stool, urine, and nasal/oral swab samples in individuals with post-COVID symptomatology.

CONTENT: MEDLINE, CINAHL, PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science databases, as well as medRxiv/bioRxiv preprint servers were searched up to November 25th, 2023. Articles investigating the persistence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma, stool, urine or nasal/oral swab samples in patients with post-COVID symptoms were included. Methodological quality was assessed using the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale or Cochrane's Risk of Bias (Rob) tool.

SUMMARY: From 322 studies identified, six studies met all inclusion criteria. The sample included 678 COVID-19 survivors (52 % female, aged from 29 to 66 years). The methodological quality was moderate in 88 % of the studies (n=5/6). Three papers investigated the presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA in plasma, three studies in nasal/oral swabs, two studies in stool samples, one in urine and one in saliva. The follow-up was shorter than two months (<60 days after) in 66 % of the studies (n=4/6). The prevalence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA ranged from 5 to 59 % in patients with post-COVID symptoms the first two months after infection, depending on the sample tested, however, SARS-CoV-2 RNA was also identified in COVID-19 survivors without post-COVID symptoms (one study).

OUTLOOK: Available evidence can suggest the presence of persistent SARS-CoV-2 RNA in post-COVID patients in the short term, although the biases within the studies do not permit us to make firm assumptions. The association between post-COVID symptoms and SARS-CoV-2 RNA in the samples tested is also conflicting. The lack of comparative group without post-COVID symptoms limits the generalizability of viral persistence in post-COVID-19 condition.

RevDate: 2024-02-13

Eltayeb A, Al-Sarraj F, Alharbi M, et al (2024)

Intrinsic factors behind long COVID: IV. Hypothetical roles of the SARS-CoV-2 nucleocapsid protein and its liquid-liquid phase separation.

Journal of cellular biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

When the SARS-CoV-2 virus infects humans, it leads to a condition called COVID-19 that has a wide spectrum of clinical manifestations, from no symptoms to acute respiratory distress syndrome. The virus initiates damage by attaching to the ACE-2 protein on the surface of endothelial cells that line the blood vessels and using these cells as hosts for replication. Reactive oxygen species levels are increased during viral replication, which leads to oxidative stress. About three-fifths (~60%) of the people who get infected with the virus eradicate it from their body after 28 days and recover their normal activity. However, a large fraction (~40%) of the people who are infected with the virus suffer from various symptoms (anosmia and/or ageusia, fatigue, cough, myalgia, cognitive impairment, insomnia, dyspnea, and tachycardia) beyond 12 weeks and are diagnosed with a syndrome called long COVID. Long-term clinical studies in a group of people who contracted SARS-CoV-2 have been contrasted with a noninfected matched group of people. A subset of infected people can be distinguished by a set of cytokine markers to have persistent, low-grade inflammation and often self-report two or more bothersome symptoms. No medication can alleviate their symptoms efficiently. Coronavirus nucleocapsid proteins have been investigated extensively as potential drug targets due to their key roles in virus replication, among which is their ability to bind their respective genomic RNAs for incorporation into emerging virions. This review highlights basic studies of the nucleocapsid protein and its ability to undergo liquid-liquid phase separation. We hypothesize that this ability of the nucleocapsid protein for phase separation may contribute to long COVID. This hypothesis unlocks new investigation angles and could potentially open novel avenues for a better understanding of long COVID and treating this condition.

RevDate: 2024-02-12

Lui DTW, Lee CH, Woo YC, et al (2024)

Thyroid dysfunction in COVID-19.

Nature reviews. Endocrinology [Epub ahead of print].

The COVID-19 pandemic has affected over 772 million people globally. While lung damage is the major contributor to the morbidity and mortality of this disease, the involvement of multiple organs, including the endocrine glands, has been reported. This Review aims to provide an updated summary of evidence regarding COVID-19 and thyroid dysfunction, incorporating highlights of recent advances in the field, particularly in relation to long COVID and COVID-19 vaccination. Since subacute thyroiditis following COVID-19 was first reported in May 2020, thyroid dysfunction associated with COVID-19 has been increasingly recognized, secondary to direct and indirect effects on the hypothalamic-pituitary-thyroid axis. Here, we summarize the epidemiological evidence, pattern and clinical course of thyroid dysfunction following COVID-19 and examine radiological, molecular and histological evidence of thyroid involvement in SARS-CoV-2 infection. Beyond acute SARS-CoV-2 infection, it is also timely to examine the course and implication of thyroid dysfunction in the context of long COVID owing to the large population of survivors of COVID-19 worldwide. This Review also analyses the latest evidence on the relationship between the therapeutics and vaccination for COVID-19 and thyroid dysfunction. To conclude, evidence-based practice recommendations for thyroid function testing during and following COVID-19 and concerning COVID-19 vaccination are proposed.

RevDate: 2024-02-10

Bielecka E, Sielatycki P, Pietraszko P, et al (2024)

Elevated Arterial Blood Pressure as a Delayed Complication Following COVID-19-A Narrative Review.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(3): pii:ijms25031837.

Arterial hypertension is one of the most common and significant cardiovascular risk factors. There are many well-known and identified risk factors for its development. In recent times, there has been growing concern about the potential impact of COVID-19 on the cardiovascular system and its relation to arterial hypertension. Various theories have been developed that suggest a connection between COVID-19 and elevated blood pressure. However, the precise link between SARS-CoV-2 infection and the long-term risk of developing hypertension remains insufficiently explored. Therefore, the primary objective of our study was to investigate the influence of COVID-19 infection on blood pressure elevation and the subsequent risk of developing arterial hypertension over an extended period. To accomplish this, we conducted a thorough search review of relevant papers in the PubMed and SCOPUS databases up to 3 September 2023. Our analysis encompassed a total of 30 eligible articles. Out of the 30 papers we reviewed, 19 of them provided substantial evidence showing a heightened risk of developing arterial hypertension following COVID-19 infection. Eight of the studies showed that blood pressure values increased after the infection, while three of the qualified studies did not report any notable impact of COVID-19 on blood pressure levels. The precise mechanism behind the development of hypertension after COVID-19 remains unclear, but it is suggested that endothelial injury and dysfunction of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system may be contributory. Additionally, changes in blood pressure following COVID-19 infection could be linked to lifestyle alterations that often occur alongside the illness. Our findings emphasize the pressing requirement for thorough research into the relationship between COVID-19 and hypertension. These insights are essential for the development of effective prevention and management approaches for individuals who have experienced COVID-19 infection.

RevDate: 2024-02-10

Negrut N, Menegas G, Kampioti S, et al (2024)

The Multisystem Impact of Long COVID: A Comprehensive Review.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 14(3): pii:diagnostics14030244.

(1) Background: COVID-19 was responsible for the latest pandemic, shaking and reshaping healthcare systems worldwide. Its late clinical manifestations make it linger in medical memory as a debilitating illness over extended periods. (2) Methods: the recent literature was systematically analyzed to categorize and examine the symptomatology and pathophysiology of Long COVID across various bodily systems, including pulmonary, cardiovascular, gastrointestinal, neuropsychiatric, dermatological, renal, hematological, and endocrinological aspects. (3) Results: The review outlines the diverse clinical manifestations of Long COVID across multiple systems, emphasizing its complexity and challenges in diagnosis and treatment. Factors such as pre-existing conditions, initial COVID-19 severity, vaccination status, gender, and age were identified as influential in the manifestation and persistence of Long COVID symptoms. This condition is highlighted as a debilitating disease capable of enduring over an extended period and presenting new symptoms over time. (4) Conclusions: Long COVID emerges as a condition with intricate multi-systemic involvement, complicating its diagnosis and treatment. The findings underscore the necessity for a nuanced understanding of its diverse manifestations to effectively manage and address the evolving nature of this condition over time.

RevDate: 2024-02-09

Bronowicka-Szydełko A, Gostomska-Pampuch K, Kuzan A, et al (2024)

Effect of advanced glycation end-products in a wide range of medical problems including COVID-19.

Advances in medical sciences, 69(1):36-50 pii:S1896-1126(24)00003-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Glycation is a physiological process that determines the aging of the organism, while in states of metabolic disorders it is significantly intensified. High concentrations of compounds such as reducing sugars or reactive aldehydes derived from lipid oxidation, occurring for example in diabetes, atherosclerosis, dyslipidemia, obesity or metabolic syndrome, lead to increased glycation of proteins, lipids and nucleic acids. The level of advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) in the body depends on rapidity of their production and the rate of their removal by the urinary system. AGEs, accumulated in the extracellular matrix of the blood vessels and other organs, cause irreversible changes in the biochemical and biomechanical properties of tissues. As a consequence, micro- and macroangiopathies appear in the system, and may contribute to the organ failure, like kidneys and heart. Elevated levels of AGEs also increase the risk of Alzheimer's disease and various cancers. In this paper, we propose a new classification due to modified amino acid residues: arginyl-AGEs, monolysyl-AGEs and lysyl-arginyl-AGEs and dilysyl-AGEs. Furthermore, we describe in detail the effect of AGEs on the pathogenesis of metabolic and old age diseases, such as diabetic complications, atherosclerosis and neurodegenerative diseases. We summarize the currently available data on the diagnostic value of AGEs and present the AGEs as a therapeutic goal in a wide range of medical problems, including SARS-CoV-2 infection and so-called long COVID.

RevDate: 2024-02-09
CmpDate: 2024-02-09

Lempesis IG, Georgakopoulou VE, Reiter RJ, et al (2024)

A mid‑pandemic night's dream: Melatonin, from harbinger of anti‑inflammation to mitochondrial savior in acute and long COVID‑19 (Review).

International journal of molecular medicine, 53(3):.

Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID‑19), a systemic illness caused by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome 2 (SARS‑CoV‑2), has triggered a worldwide pandemic with symptoms ranging from asymptomatic to chronic, affecting practically every organ. Melatonin, an ancient antioxidant found in all living organisms, has been suggested as a safe and effective therapeutic option for the treatment of SARS‑CoV‑2 infection due to its good safety characteristics and broad‑spectrum antiviral medication properties. Melatonin is essential in various metabolic pathways and governs physiological processes, such as the sleep‑wake cycle and circadian rhythms. It exhibits oncostatic, anti‑inflammatory, antioxidant and anti‑aging properties, exhibiting promise for use in the treatment of numerous disorders, including COVID‑19. The preventive and therapeutic effects of melatonin have been widely explored in a number of conditions and have been well‑established in experimental ischemia/reperfusion investigations, particularly in coronary heart disease and stroke. Clinical research evaluating the use of melatonin in COVID‑19 has shown various improved outcomes, including reduced hospitalization durations; however, the trials are small. Melatonin can alleviate mitochondrial dysfunction in COVID‑19, improve immune cell function and provide antioxidant properties. However, its therapeutic potential remains underexplored due to funding limitations and thus further investigations are required.

RevDate: 2024-02-07
CmpDate: 2024-02-07

Laskowski NM, Brandt G, G Paslakis (2024)

[Gender Inequalities of the COVID-19 Pandemic: A Synthesis of Systematic Reviews with a Focus on Sexual and Gender Minorities].

Psychotherapie, Psychosomatik, medizinische Psychologie, 74(2):57-69.

OBJECTIVE: From the very beginning of the COVID-19 pandemic, gender was shown to play a significant role in how people were affected by it, while aspects related to sexual and gender minorities (SGM) have been rather understudied. The aim of this review was to synthesize systematic reviews and meta-analyses that explicitly addressed the impact of gender within the context of the pandemic, with a focus on SGM.

METHODS: We based the narrative synthesis of results on a literature search of PubMed. We included systematic reviews and meta-analyses as of 2019 with an identifiable gender comparison or SGM reference and a specified clinical outcome.

RESULTS: The search yielded 2 658 hits; 29 systematic reviews were included for content synthesis. Of these, we identified 23 systematic reviews with gender comparisons and 8 related to SGM. Men showed higher prevalence, severity, and mortality of COVID-19 compared with women, but the psychological consequences of the COVID-19 pandemic affected women more compared with men. Evidence suggests that women are at higher risk for Long-COVID-19. SGM experienced increased mental health problems during the COVID-19 pandemic compared to the general population.

DISCUSSION: It appears that biological and social risks led to differential susceptibility to infection and manifestation of COVID-19 disease and also accounted for differences in mortality between men and women. Insights on prevalence, disease burden, and mortality among SGM during the COVID-19 pandemic are lacking. This suggests an underrepresentation of SGM in COVID-19-related research. Despite the abundance of COVID-19 publications, gender effects have not often been explicitly and adequately studied.

CONCLUSION: Future studies should examine gender differences and needs and concerns of SGM in mental disorders and further understudied entities like Long-COVID-19, to gain insights and help to provide preventive measures and adequate treatments for all, for potential future pandemics as well.

RevDate: 2024-02-07
CmpDate: 2024-02-07

Skok M (2024)

The role of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in post-acute sequelae of covid-19.

The international journal of biochemistry & cell biology, 168:106519.

Post-Acute Sequelae of COVID-19 or Long COVID becomes evident some weeks to months following acute COVID-19. Symptoms include cognitive impairment and varying degrees of memory loss with no definitive etiologies or efficacious therapies forthcoming even after four years of the SARS-Cov2 pandemic virus. The aim of this review is to demonstrate the important role of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors in both acute COVID-19 and Long COVID. Evidence presented implicates immune mechanisms stimulated by SARS-Cov-2 S-protein fragment 674-685 that possesses homology with α7-specific ligands. Cognitive dysfunctions observed in Long COVID patients may be derived from anti-idiotypic α7-specific antibodies stimulated by (674-685)-specific antibodies. Therapeutic interventions capable of neutralizing these antibodies and restoring full functions of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors appear to be of paramount importance in post-acute sequelae of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-02-07
CmpDate: 2024-02-07

Shetty AJ, Banerjee M, Prasad TN, et al (2024)

Do vitamin D levels or supplementation play A role in COVID-19 outcomes?-a narrative review.

Annals of palliative medicine, 13(1):162-177.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Hypovitaminosis D has been proposed as a risk factor for increased susceptibility to severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus-2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection and severe outcomes in coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). Likewise, vitamin D supplementation has been proposed as an effective means for preventing and improving clinical outcomes in COVID-19. Nevertheless, available data are markedly inconsistent and contradictory. Considering the heterogeneity in the available clinical evidence, we planned to undertake a narrative review and provide a precise summary of the role of vitamin D in COVID-19.

METHODS: PubMed/MEDLINE database was searched from inception till September 30, 2023 using appropriate MeSH terms. The initial search revealed 900 results. Thereafter, titles and abstracts were scanned and commentaries, letters, and editorials were excluded. Relevant observational studies and clinical trials/randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were full-text assessed and pertinent data were extracted for this narrative review.

KEY CONTENT AND FINDINGS: Data from observational and ecological studies suggest that hypovitaminosis D is associated with a higher risk of acquiring COVID-19. Similarly, evidence support a negative association between 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and COVID-19 severity, nevertheless, causality remains to be established. With regard to vitamin D supplementation and COVID-19-related health outcomes, data from observational studies and RCTs are contradictory. Even in moderate-to-severe/severe COVID-19, vitamin D supplementation has not been shown to be beneficial. Besides, data suggest that vitamin D levels might alter COVID-19 vaccine efficacy and be associated with long COVID.

CONCLUSIONS: Vitamin D deficiency is linked to an increased risk of acquiring SARS-CoV-2 infection and poor COVID-19 prognosis, however, available evidence with regard to improved clinical outcomes with vitamin D supplementation is inconsistent.

RevDate: 2024-02-02

Ahmad E, Ahmed S, Ahmad B, et al (2024)

Long COVID-19 and primary care: Challenges, management and recommendations.

Semergen, 50(3):102188 pii:S1138-3593(23)00268-X [Epub ahead of print].

Long COVID-19, also known as post-acute sequelae of SARS-CoV-2 infection (PASC), is characterized by persistent symptoms after COVID-19 onset. This article explores the challenges, management strategies, and recommendations for addressing long COVID-19 in primary care settings. The epidemiology of long COVID-19 reveals significant variability, with a substantial portion of COVID-19 survivors experiencing post-acute symptoms. Pathophysiological mechanisms include viral persistence, endothelial dysfunction, autoimmunity, neurological dysregulation, and gastrointestinal dysbiosis. Multiple risk factors, including age, sex, pre-existing comorbidities, smoking, BMI, and acute COVID-19 severity, influence the development of long COVID-19. Effective management requires proactive measures such as vaccination, identification of high-risk populations, public awareness, and post-infection vaccination. Collaboration of primary care physicians with specialists is essential for holistic and individualized patient care. This article underscores the role of primary care physicians in diagnosing, managing, and mitigating the long-term effects of COVID-19.

RevDate: 2024-01-31

Kelleni MT (2024)

Repurposing metformin to manage idiopathic or long COVID Tinnitus: self-report adopting a pathophysiological and pharmacological approach.

Inflammopharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic tinnitus is a common neurological disorder that affects millions of patients globally with no available successful pharmacotherapy. It can be extremely bothersome to some patients to the extent that it occasionally qualifies as a disability that can hinder them from leading a normal life. In this short communication, the author discusses how he suffered from idiopathic tinnitus and how he managed to adopt a combined pathophysiological and pharmacological approach to the reason for the first time in the medical literature that low-dose metformin might be safely and effectively repurposed to manage at least a subset of tinnitus patients while discussing the potential role of adenosine receptor agonists as potential future tinnitus therapeutics.

RevDate: 2024-01-29

Çulha Y, Büyükyılmaz F, MG Çulha (2024)

The effect of long-term COVID-19 on aetiological factors related to nocturia.

Journal of clinical nursing [Epub ahead of print].

AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: This study was conducted to examine the possible aetiology of nocturia in patients with long-term COVID-19.

BACKGROUND: Physical and neuropsychiatric symptoms, an increase in overactive bladder symptoms, especially from urinary system complaints, has been reported in patients with COVID-19, 10-14 weeks after the illness.

DESIGN: A descriptive design.

METHODS: The study consisted of 70 patients who had experienced COVID-19, had nocturia, and were followed in the State Hospital between April and July 2022. Data were collected using a patient information form, the 'TANGO' nocturia screening tool, and the Visual Analog Scale. This study was created in accordance with the STROBE Statement Checklist.

RESULTS: When the nocturia effects of long-term COVID-19 were examined it was determined that the urinary tract was the 'priority' aetiological condition. It was observed that there was a significant difference between the aetiological factor groups in terms of the mean age of the patients and the number of nocturia (p < .05). According to post-hoc analysis, the mean age of patients with a dominant cardio-metabolic factor was found to be significantly younger (p < .05). In addition, when comparing the number of nocturia according to the aetiological factors of the patients, it was observed that the number of nocturia was significantly frequent in the patients with a dominant sleep factor (p < .05).

CONCLUSIONS: It was found that the urinary tract aetiological factor was dominant in patients with long-term COVID-19 and nocturia, patients with a dominant cardiovascular aetiological factor were younger, and that the number of nocturia was higher in patients with a dominant sleep factor.

Identification of the early signs and symptoms and underlying causes of nocturia in individuals with post-COVID-19 syndrome will enable nurses and health professionals to guide the early identification of different underlying problems, as well as the implementation of approaches to treat and eliminate nocturia.

The patients contributed to the study by agreeing to participate in the evaluation of nocturia complaints after COVID-19 infection.

RevDate: 2024-01-29
CmpDate: 2024-01-29

Álvarez-Santacruz C, Tyrkalska SD, S Candel (2024)

The Microbiota in Long COVID.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(2):.

Interest in the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has progressively decreased lately, mainly due to the great effectivity of vaccines. Furthermore, no new severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) variants able to circumvent the protection of these vaccines, while presenting high transmissibility and/or lethality, have appeared. However, long COVID has emerged as a huge threat to human health and economy globally. The human microbiota plays an important role in health and disease, participating in the modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses. Thus, multiple studies have found that the nasopharyngeal microbiota is altered in COVID-19 patients, with these changes associated with the onset and/or severity of the disease. Nevertheless, although dysbiosis has also been reported in long COVID patients, mainly in the gut, little is known about the possible involvement of the microbiota in the development of this disease. Therefore, in this work, we aim to fill this gap in the knowledge by discussing and comparing the most relevant studies that have been published in this field up to this point. Hence, we discuss that the relevance of long COVID has probably been underestimated, and that the available data suggest that the microbiota could be playing a pivotal role on the pathogenesis of the disease. Further research to elucidate the involvement of the microbiota in long COVID will be essential to explore new therapeutic strategies based on manipulation of the microbiota.

RevDate: 2024-01-26

Toepfner N, Brinkmann F, Augustin S, et al (2024)

Long COVID in pediatrics-epidemiology, diagnosis, and management.

European journal of pediatrics [Epub ahead of print].

This review summarizes current knowledge on post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) and post-COVID-19 condition (PCC) in children and adolescents. A literature review was performed to synthesize information from clinical studies, expert opinions, and guidelines. PASC also termed Long COVID - at any age comprise a plethora of unspecific symptoms present later than 4 weeks after confirmed or probable infection with severe respiratory syndrome corona virus type 2 (SARS-CoV-2), without another medical explanation. PCC in children and adolescents was defined by the WHO as PASC occurring within 3 months of acute coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), lasting at least 2 months, and limiting daily activities. Pediatric PASC mostly manifest after mild courses of COVID-19 and in the majority of cases remit after few months. However, symptoms can last for more than 1 year and may result in significant disability. Frequent symptoms include fatigue, exertion intolerance, and anxiety. Some patients present with postural tachycardia syndrome (PoTS), and a small number of cases fulfill the clinical criteria of myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). To date, no diagnostic marker has been established, and differential diagnostics remains challenging. Therapeutic approaches include appropriate self-management as well as the palliation of symptoms by non-pharmaceutical and pharmaceutical strategies. Conclusion: PASC in pediatrics present with heterogenous severity and duration. A stepped, interdisciplinary, and individualized approach is essential for appropriate clinical management. Current health care structures have to be adapted, and research was extended to meet the medical and psychosocial needs of young people with PASC or similar conditions. What is Known: • Post-acute sequelae of coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) (PASC) - also termed Long COVID - in children and adolescents can lead to activity limitation and reduced quality of life. • PASC belongs to a large group of similar post-acute infection syndromes (PAIS). Specific biomarkers and causal treatment options are not yet available. What is New: • In February 2023, a case definition for post COVID-19 condition (PCC) in children and adolescents was provided by the World Health Organization (WHO), indicating PASC with duration of at least 2 months and limitation of daily activities. PCC can present as myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS). • Interdisciplinary collaborations are necessary and have been established worldwide to offer harmonized, multimodal approaches to diagnosis and management of PASC/PCC in children and adolescents.

RevDate: 2024-01-26

Suárez D, Pascual E, JR Soravilla (2024)

[Long covid and disability].

Semergen, 50(2):102189 pii:S1138-3593(23)00269-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Long covid is a health problem that will entail a high hidden cost attributable to the pandemic years after it because it affects the work capacity of many workers. Given the millions of covid-19 cases worldwide and current research showing that one in 7covid-19 patients remain symptomatic at 12 weeks, the number of long covid patients is likely to be substantial. Long covid is characterized by heterogeneous sequelae that often affect multiple systems, organs with an impact on the functioning and capacity of the worker. Workers with long covid symptoms can return to their occupation but this involves a complex individualized approach to the impact of symptoms on work, adjustments and modifications to the workplace. Patients with long covid typically report prolonged multisystem involvement and signicant disability. The psychological cost to the worker must also be addressed. A survey by the Community of Madrid (CCOO, SATSE, CSIF, AMYTS) in 2022 reveals that 24.5% of those affected by long covid were sick for more than 12 months; 30% of those affected by persistent covid need and adaption to their workplace. In Spain, more than 10million people infected with SARS-CoV-2 have been reported since the pandemic began, so it is estimated that there could be one million people with persistent covid. In 2021 alone there were more than 2.6 million sick leave due to covid-19 in Spain, the average duration of which was 10 days. One hundred million people around the world suffer from persistent covid, but few countries officially count them, nor do they help those affected with employment. In advanced countries, like the United States, long covid is treated as a disability,and the number of people with disabilities working or looking for work increased by 1.36 million, an increase of 23%, between January 2021 and January 2022. In the United Kingdom, some 200,000 people are not working or are not looking for work due to long-term health problems attributable to long covid, since the pandemic began.

RevDate: 2024-01-29
CmpDate: 2024-01-29

León-Moreno LC, Reza-Zaldívar EE, Hernández-Sapiéns MA, et al (2023)

Mesenchymal Stem Cell-Based Therapies in the Post-Acute Neurological COVID Syndrome: Current Landscape and Opportunities.

Biomolecules, 14(1):.

One of the main concerns related to SARS-CoV-2 infection is the symptoms that could be developed by survivors, known as long COVID, a syndrome characterized by persistent symptoms beyond the acute phase of the infection. This syndrome has emerged as a complex and debilitating condition with a diverse range of manifestations affecting multiple organ systems. It is increasingly recognized for affecting the Central Nervous System, in which one of the most prevalent manifestations is cognitive impairment. The search for effective therapeutic interventions has led to growing interest in Mesenchymal Stem Cell (MSC)-based therapies due to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and tissue regenerative properties. This review provides a comprehensive analysis of the current understanding and potential applications of MSC-based interventions in the context of post-acute neurological COVID-19 syndrome, exploring the underlying mechanisms by which MSCs exert their effects on neuroinflammation, neuroprotection, and neural tissue repair. Moreover, we discuss the challenges and considerations specific to employing MSC-based therapies, including optimal delivery methods, and functional treatment enhancements.

RevDate: 2024-01-27

Ahmad I, Amelio A, Merla A, et al (2023)

A survey on the role of artificial intelligence in managing Long COVID.

Frontiers in artificial intelligence, 6:1292466.

In the last years, several techniques of artificial intelligence have been applied to data from COVID-19. In addition to the symptoms related to COVID-19, many individuals with SARS-CoV-2 infection have described various long-lasting symptoms, now termed Long COVID. In this context, artificial intelligence techniques have been utilized to analyze data from Long COVID patients in order to assist doctors and alleviate the considerable strain on care and rehabilitation facilities. In this paper, we explore the impact of the machine learning methodologies that have been applied to analyze the many aspects of Long COVID syndrome, from clinical presentation through diagnosis. We also include the text mining techniques used to extract insights and trends from large amounts of text data related to Long COVID. Finally, we critically compare the various approaches and outline the work that has to be done to create a robust artificial intelligence approach for efficient diagnosis and treatment of Long COVID.

RevDate: 2024-01-26

Schaefer J, D Khanna (2023)

Nutritional and Wellness Strategies for Neurological and Psychiatric Recovery From Post-COVID Syndrome and Post-acute Sequelae of COVID-19.

Cureus, 15(12):e51076.

The post-COVID syndrome was officially recognized as a disability under the Americans with Disabilities Act, indicating that this syndrome has made a significant impact on our populace. Also, post-acute sequelae of COVID-19 (PASC) is a term that describes the long-term health problems that some people experience after being infected with the virus that causes COVID-19. These problems can last for weeks, months, or even years, and can affect various parts of the body, such as the heart, lungs, brain, and blood vessels. This narrative review paper utilized the PubMed database to explore the pathophysiology of post-COVID syndrome's neurological and psychiatric symptoms and PASC and make therapeutic connections to the known mechanisms of various nutritional, supplemental, and wellness approaches. Searches were queried on the PubMed database between March 29 and April 16, 2022, using the phrases "long-covid," "post-COVID syndrome," "Vitamin D covid," "vitamin C covid," "omega-3 covid," "kynurenine covid," "whole-body hyperthermia," "mushrooms immunity," "n-acetyl cysteine covid," "mushrooms cognition," "sugar consumption inflammation," and "covid microbiome." Articles were screened for their relevance to the discussion of post-COVID syndrome's neurological and psychiatric pathophysiology at the discretion of the principal researcher. There were no limitations regarding publication years, but articles from 2005 to April 2022 were cited. Micro-ischemic disease, neuropathy, autoimmune processes, mast-cell activation, and impaired blood-brain barriers have all been implicated in the pathological processes of this syndrome with varying degrees of supportive evidence. The common denominators, however, are inflammation and oxidative stress. Therefore, a beneficial approach to dealing with the complications of post-COVID syndrome would be to reduce the exacerbations of these common denominators with lifestyle and nutritional changes. Replenishing nutritional deficiencies, supplementing with N-acetylcysteine, decreasing consumption of refined sugars, preventing dysbiosis of the microbiome, performing exercises, increasing dietary intake of mushrooms, utilizing beneficial herbs such as rosemary, and increasing the core body temperature through whole-body hyperthermia seem to show potential for efficacy in this pursuit. Considering the safety and evidence-based connections of the therapies explored for dealing with the post-Covid syndrome, it could be of great benefit and of little harm to our patients to include these considerations in formulating post-Covid treatment plans.

RevDate: 2024-01-29
CmpDate: 2024-01-24

Panagiotides NG, Poledniczek M, Andreas M, et al (2024)

Myocardial Oedema as a Consequence of Viral Infection and Persistence-A Narrative Review with Focus on COVID-19 and Post COVID Sequelae.

Viruses, 16(1):.

Microvascular integrity is a critical factor in myocardial fluid homeostasis. The subtle equilibrium between capillary filtration and lymphatic fluid removal is disturbed during pathological processes leading to inflammation, but also in hypoxia or due to alterations in vascular perfusion and coagulability. The degradation of the glycocalyx as the main component of the endothelial filtration barrier as well as pericyte disintegration results in the accumulation of interstitial and intracellular water. Moreover, lymphatic dysfunction evokes an increase in metabolic waste products, cytokines and inflammatory cells in the interstitial space contributing to myocardial oedema formation. This leads to myocardial stiffness and impaired contractility, eventually resulting in cardiomyocyte apoptosis, myocardial remodelling and fibrosis. The following article reviews pathophysiological inflammatory processes leading to myocardial oedema including myocarditis, ischaemia-reperfusion injury and viral infections with a special focus on the pathomechanisms evoked by severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) infection. In addition, clinical implications including potential long-term effects due to viral persistence (long COVID), as well as treatment options, are discussed.

RevDate: 2024-01-29
CmpDate: 2024-01-24

Len JS, Koh CWT, KR Chan (2023)

The Functional Roles of MDSCs in Severe COVID-19 Pathogenesis.

Viruses, 16(1):.

Severe COVID-19 is a major cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, especially among those with co-morbidities, the elderly, and the immunocompromised. However, the molecular determinants critical for severe COVID-19 progression remain to be fully elucidated. Meta-analyses of transcriptomic RNAseq and single-cell sequencing datasets comparing severe and mild COVID-19 patients have demonstrated that the early expansion of myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) could be a key feature of severe COVID-19 progression. Besides serving as potential early prognostic biomarkers for severe COVID-19 progression, several studies have also indicated the functional roles of MDSCs in severe COVID-19 pathogenesis and possibly even long COVID. Given the potential links between MDSCs and severe COVID-19, we examine the existing literature summarizing the characteristics of MDSCs, provide evidence of MDSCs in facilitating severe COVID-19 pathogenesis, and discuss the potential therapeutic avenues that can be explored to reduce the risk and burden of severe COVID-19. We also provide a web app where users can visualize the temporal changes in specific genes or MDSC-related gene sets during severe COVID-19 progression and disease resolution, based on our previous study.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Although new treatments and vaccines have greatly reduced the acute threat of covid-19, many people who contract the disease find themselves with a persistent set of symptoms that are at best uncomfortable and at worst debilitating — long covid. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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