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Bibliography on: Brain-Computer Interface

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 22 Apr 2024 at 01:38 Created: 

Brain-Computer Interface

Wikipedia: A brain–computer interface (BCI), sometimes called a neural control interface (NCI), mind–machine interface (MMI), direct neural interface (DNI), or brain–machine interface (BMI), is a direct communication pathway between an enhanced or wired brain and an external device. BCIs are often directed at researching, mapping, assisting, augmenting, or repairing human cognitive or sensory-motor functions. Research on BCIs began in the 1970s at the University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) under a grant from the National Science Foundation, followed by a contract from DARPA. The papers published after this research also mark the first appearance of the expression brain–computer interface in scientific literature. BCI-effected sensory input: Due to the cortical plasticity of the brain, signals from implanted prostheses can, after adaptation, be handled by the brain like natural sensor or effector channels. Following years of animal experimentation, the first neuroprosthetic devices implanted in humans appeared in the mid-1990s. BCI-effected motor output: When artificial intelligence is used to decode neural activity, then send that decoded information to some kind of effector device, BCIs have the potential to restore communication to people who have lost the ability to move or speak. To date, the focus has largely been on motor skills such as reaching or grasping. However, in May of 2021 a study showed that an AI/BCI system could be use to translate thoughts about handwriting into the output of legible characters at a usable rate (90 characters per minute with 94% accuracy).

Created with PubMed® Query: (bci OR (brain-computer OR brain-machine OR mind-machine OR neural-control interface) NOT 26799652[PMID] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2024-04-17
CmpDate: 2024-04-17

Wang Z, Xiang L, R Zhang (2024)

P300 intention recognition based on phase lag index (PLI)-rich-club brain functional network.

The Review of scientific instruments, 95(4):.

Brain-computer interface (BCI) technology based on P300 signals has a broad application prospect in the assessment and diagnosis of clinical diseases and game control. The paper of selecting key electrodes to realize a wearable intention recognition system has become a hotspot for scholars at home and abroad. In this paper, based on the rich-club phenomenon that exists in the process of intention generation, a phase lag index (PLI)-rich-club-based intention recognition method for P300 is proposed. The rich-club structure is a network consisting of electrodes that are highly connected with other electrodes in the process of P300 generation. To construct the rich-club network, this paper uses PLI to construct the brain functional network, calculates rich-club coefficients of the network in the range of k degrees, initially identifies rich-club nodes based on the feature of node degree, and then performs a descending order of betweenness centrality and identifies the nodes with larger betweenness centrality as the specific rich-club nodes, extracts the non-linear features and frequency domain features of Rich-club nodes, and finally uses support vector machine for classification. The experimental results show that the range of rich-club coefficients is smaller with intent compared to that without intent. Validation was performed on the BCI Competition III dataset by reducing the number of channels to 17 and 16 for subject A and subject B, with recognition quasi-departure rates of 96.93% and 94.93%, respectively, and on the BCI Competition II dataset by reducing the number of channels to 17 for subjects, with a recognition accuracy of 95.50%.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Barmpas K, Panagakis Y, Zoumpourlis G, et al (2024)

A causal perspective on brainwave modeling for brain-computer interfaces.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

Machine learning models have opened up enormous opportunities in the field of Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs). Despite their great success, they usually face severe limitations when they are employed in real-life applications outside a controlled laboratory setting. Mixing causal reasoning, identifying causal relationships between variables of interest, with brainwave modeling can change one's viewpoint on some of these major challenges which can be found in various stages in the machine learning pipeline, ranging from data collection and data pre-processing to training methods and techniques. In this work, we employ causal reasoning and present a framework aiming to breakdown and analyze important challenges of brainwave modeling for BCIs. Furthermore, we present how general machine learning practices as well as brainwave-specific techniques can be utilized and solve some of these identified challenges. And finally, we discuss appropriate evaluation schemes in order to measure these techniques' performance and efficiently compare them with other methods that will be developed in the future.

RevDate: 2024-04-18

Bergsman KC, EH Chudler (2021)

Adapting a Neural Engineering Summer Camp for High School Students to a Fully Online Experience.

Biomedical engineering education, 1(1):37-42.

The COVID-19 pandemic and its resulting health and safety concerns caused the cancellation of many engineering education opportunities for high school students. To expose high school students to the field of neural engineering and encourage them to pursue academic pathways in biomedical engineering, the Center for Neurotechnology (CNT) at the University of Washington converted an in-person summer camp to a fully online program (Virtual REACH Program, VRP) offering both synchronous and asynchronous resources. The VRP is a five-day online program that focuses on a different daily theme (neuroscience, brain-computer interfaces, electrical stimulation, neuroethics, career/academic pathways). Each day, the VRP starts with a live videoconference meeting (lecture and interactive discussion) with a CNT faculty member. The online lectures are supported by at-home learning resources (e.g., text, videos, activities, quizzes) embedded within a digital book created using the Pressbook platform. An online bulletin board (Padlet) is also used by students to share artifacts and build community. Program evaluation will be conducted by an external evaluator. A summative survey will collect information on participants' experiences in the VRP and will help inform future iterations of the program. Although significant time was required to create a digital book, the VRP will reach a larger audience than the prior in-person program and resulted in the creation of learning tools that can be used in the future.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Pang M, Wang H, Huang J, et al (2024)

Multi-Scale Masked Autoencoders for Cross-Session Emotion Recognition.

IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

Affective brain-computer interfaces (aBCIs) have garnered widespread applications, with remarkable advancements in utilizing electroencephalogram (EEG) technology for emotion recognition. However, the time-consuming process of annotating EEG data, inherent individual differences, non-stationary characteristics of EEG data, and noise artifacts in EEG data collection pose formidable challenges in developing subject-specific cross-session emotion recognition models. To simultaneously address these challenges, we propose a unified pre-training framework based on multi-scale masked autoencoders (MSMAE), which utilizes large-scale unlabeled EEG signals from multiple subjects and sessions to extract noise-robust, subject-invariant, and temporal-invariant features. We subsequently fine-tune the obtained generalized features with only a small amount of labeled data from a specific subject for personalization and enable cross-session emotion recognition. Our framework emphasizes: 1) Multi-scale representation to capture diverse aspects of EEG signals, obtaining comprehensive information; 2) An improved masking mechanism for robust channel-level representation learning, addressing missing channel issues while preserving inter-channel relationships; and 3) Invariance learning for regional correlations in spatial-level representation, minimizing inter-subject and inter-session variances. Under these elaborate designs, the proposed MSMAE exhibits a remarkable ability to decode emotional states from a different session of EEG data during the testing phase. Extensive experiments conducted on the two publicly available datasets, i.e., SEED and SEED-IV, demonstrate that the proposed MSMAE consistently achieves stable results and outperforms competitive baseline methods in cross-session emotion recognition.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Di Gregorio MF, Der C, Bravo-Torres S, et al (2024)

Active Bone Conduction Implant and Adhesive Bone Conduction Device: A Comparison of Audiological Performance and Subjective Satisfaction.

International archives of otorhinolaryngology, 28(2):e332-e338.

Introduction Atresia of the external auditory canal affects 1 in every 10 thousand to 20 thousand live births, with a much higher prevalence in Latin America, at 5 to 21 out of every 10 thousand newborns. The treatment involves esthetic and functional aspects. Regarding the functional treatment, there are surgical and nonsurgical alternatives like spectacle frames and rigid and softband systems. Active transcutaneous bone conduction implants (BCIs) achieve good sound transmission and directly stimulate the bone. Objective To assess the audiological performance and subjective satisfaction of children implanted with an active transcutaneous BCI for more than one year and to compare the outcomes with a nonsurgical adhesive bone conduction device (aBCD) in the same users. Methods The present is a prospective, multicentric study. The audiological performance was evaluated at 1, 6, and 12 months postactivation, and after a 1-month trial with the nonsurgical device. Results Ten patients completed all tests. The 4-frequency pure-tone average (4PTA) in the unaided condition was of 65 dB HL, which improved significantly to 20 dB HL after using the BCI for 12 months. The speech recognition in quiet in the unaided condition was of 33% on average, which improved significantly, to 99% with the BCI, and to 91% with the aBCD. Conclusion The aBCD demonstrated sufficient hearing improvement and subjective satisfaction; thus, it is a good solution for hearing rehabilitation if surgery is not desired or not possible. If surgery is an option, the BCI is the superior device in terms of hearing outcomes, particularly background noise and subjective satisfaction.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Kong L, Wang H, Yan N, et al (2024)

Effect of antipsychotics and mood stabilisers on metabolism in bipolar disorder: a network meta-analysis of randomised-controlled trials.

EClinicalMedicine, 71:102581.

BACKGROUND: Antipsychotics and mood stabilisers are gathering attention for the disturbance of metabolism. This network meta-analysis aims to evaluate and rank the metabolic effects of the commonly used antipsychotics and mood stabilisers in treating bipolar disorder (BD).

METHODS: Registries including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, Ovid, and Google Scholar were searched before February 15th, 2024, for randomised controlled trials (RCTs) applying antipsychotics or mood stabilisers for BD treatment. The observed outcomes were twelve metabolic indicators. The data were extracted by two reviewers independently, and confirmed by another four reviewers and a corresponding author. The above six reviewers all participated in data analyses. Data extraction was based on PRISMA guidelines, and quality assessment was conducted according to the Cochrane Handbook. Use a random effects model for data pooling. The PROSPERO registration number is CRD42023466669.

FINDINGS: Together, 5421 records were identified, and 41 publications with 11,678 complete-trial participants were confirmed eligible. After eliminating possible sensitivity, risperidone ranked 1st in elevating fasting serum glucose (SUCRA = 90.7%) and serum insulin (SUCRA = 96.6%). Lurasidone was most likely to elevate HbA1c (SUCRA = 82.1%). Olanzapine ranked 1st in elevating serum TC (SUCRA = 93.3%), TG (SUCRA = 89.6%), and LDL (SUCRA = 94.7%). Lamotrigine ranked 1st in reducing HDL (SUCRA = 82.6%). Amisulpride ranked 1st in elevating body weight (SUCRA = 100.0%). For subgroup analyses, quetiapine is more likely to affect indicators of glucose metabolism among male adult patients with bipolar mania, while long-term lurasidone tended to affect glucose metabolism among female patients with bipolar depression. Among patients under 18, divalproex tended to affect glucose metabolism, with lithium affecting lipid metabolism. In addition, most observed antipsychotics performed higher response and remission rates than placebo, and displayed a similar dropout rate with placebo, while no between-group significance of rate was observed among mood stabilisers.

INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggest that overall, antipsychotics are effective in treating BD, while they are also more likely to disturb metabolism than mood stabilisers. Attention should be paid to individual applicability in clinical practice. The results put forward evidence-based information and clinical inspiration for drug compatibility and further research of the BD mechanism.

FUNDING: The National Key Research and Development Program of China (2023YFC2506200), and the Research Project of Jinan Microecological Biomedicine Shandong Laboratory (No. JNL-2023001B).

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Sharma D, Lupkin SM, VB McGinty (2024)

Orbitofrontal high-gamma reflects spike-dissociable value and decision mechanisms.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology.

The orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) plays a crucial role in value-based decision-making. While previous research has focused on spiking activity in OFC neurons, the role of OFC local field potentials (LFPs) in decision-making remains unclear. LFPs are important because they can reflect synaptic and subthreshold activity not directly coupled to spiking, and because they are potential targets for less invasive forms of brain-machine interface (BMI). We recorded LFPs and spiking activity using multi-channel vertical probes while monkeys performed a two-option value-based decision-making task. We compared the value- and decision-coding properties of high-gamma range LFPs (HG, 50-150 Hz) to the coding properties of spiking multi-unit activity (MUA) recorded concurrently on the same electrodes. Results show that HG and MUA both represent the values of decision targets, and that their representations have similar temporal profiles in a trial. However, we also identified value-coding properties of HG that were dissociable from the concurrently-measured MUA. On average across channels, HG amplitude increased monotonically with value, whereas the average value encoding in MUA was net neutral. HG also encoded a signal consistent with a comparison between the values of the two targets, a signal which was much weaker in MUA. In individual channels, HG was better able to predict choice outcomes than MUA; however, when simultaneously recorded channels were combined in population-based decoder, MUA provided more accurate predictions than HG. Interestingly, HG value representations were accentuated in channels in or near shallow cortical layers, suggesting a dissociation between neuronal sources of HG and MUA. In summary, we find that HG signals are dissociable from MUA with respect to cognitive variables encoded in prefrontal cortex, evident in the monotonic encoding of value, stronger encoding of value comparisons, and more accurate predictions about behavior. High-frequency LFPs may therefore be a viable - or even preferable - target for BMIs to assist cognitive function, opening the possibility for less invasive access to mental contents that would otherwise be observable only with spike-based measures.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Qiao Y, Mu J, Xie J, et al (2024)

Music emotion recognition based on temporal convolutional attention network using EEG.

Frontiers in human neuroscience, 18:1324897.

Music is one of the primary ways to evoke human emotions. However, the feeling of music is subjective, making it difficult to determine which emotions music triggers in a given individual. In order to correctly identify emotional problems caused by different types of music, we first created an electroencephalogram (EEG) data set stimulated by four different types of music (fear, happiness, calm, and sadness). Secondly, the differential entropy features of EEG were extracted, and then the emotion recognition model CNN-SA-BiLSTM was established to extract the temporal features of EEG, and the recognition performance of the model was improved by using the global perception ability of the self-attention mechanism. The effectiveness of the model was further verified by the ablation experiment. The classification accuracy of this method in the valence and arousal dimensions is 93.45% and 96.36%, respectively. By applying our method to a publicly available EEG dataset DEAP, we evaluated the generalization and reliability of our method. In addition, we further investigate the effects of different EEG bands and multi-band combinations on music emotion recognition, and the results confirm relevant neuroscience studies. Compared with other representative music emotion recognition works, this method has better classification performance, and provides a promising framework for the future research of emotion recognition system based on brain computer interface.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Zhang Y, Zheng Y, Ni P, et al (2024)

New role of platelets in schizophrenia: predicting drug response.

General psychiatry, 37(2):e101347.

BACKGROUND: Elevated platelet count (PLTc) is associated with first-episode schizophrenia and adverse outcomes in individuals with precursory psychosis. However, the impact of antipsychotic medications on PLTc and its association with symptom improvement remain unclear.

AIMS: We aimed to investigate changes in PLTc levels following antipsychotic treatment and assess whether PLTc can predict antipsychotic responses and metabolic changes after accounting for other related variables.

METHODS: A total of 2985 patients with schizophrenia were randomised into seven groups. Each group received one of seven antipsychotic treatments and was assessed at 2, 4 and 6 weeks. Clinical symptoms were evaluated using the positive and negative syndrome scale (PANSS). Additionally, we measured blood cell counts and metabolic parameters, such as blood lipids. Repeated measures analysis of variance was used to examine the effect of antipsychotics on PLTc changes, while structural equation modelling was used to assess the predictive value of PLTc on PANSS changes.

RESULTS: PLTc significantly increased in patients treated with aripiprazole (F=6.00, p=0.003), ziprasidone (F=7.10, p<0.001) and haloperidol (F=3.59, p=0.029). It exhibited a positive association with white blood cell count and metabolic indicators. Higher baseline PLTc was observed in non-responders, particularly in those defined by the PANSS-negative subscale. In the structural equation model, PLTc, white blood cell count and a latent metabolic variable predicted the rate of change in the PANSS-negative subscale scores. Moreover, higher baseline PLTc was observed in individuals with less metabolic change, although this association was no longer significant after accounting for baseline metabolic values.

CONCLUSIONS: Platelet parameters, specifically PLTc, are influenced by antipsychotic treatment and could potentially elevate the risk of venous thromboembolism in patients with schizophrenia. Elevated PLTc levels and associated factors may impede symptom improvement by promoting inflammation. Given PLTc's easy measurement and clinical relevance, it warrants increased attention from psychiatrists.

TRIAL REGISTRATION NUMBER: ChiCTR-TRC-10000934.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Lei D, Dong C, Guo H, et al (2024)

A fused multi-subfrequency bands and CBAM SSVEP-BCI classification method based on convolutional neural network.

Scientific reports, 14(1):8616.

For the brain-computer interface (BCI) system based on steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), it is difficult to obtain satisfactory classification performance for short-time window SSVEP signals by traditional methods. In this paper, a fused multi-subfrequency bands and convolutional block attention module (CBAM) classification method based on convolutional neural network (CBAM-CNN) is proposed for discerning SSVEP-BCI tasks. This method extracts multi-subfrequency bands SSVEP signals as the initial input of the network model, and then carries out feature fusion on all feature inputs. In addition, CBAM is embedded in both parts of the initial input and feature fusion for adaptive feature refinement. To verify the effectiveness of the proposed method, this study uses the datasets of Inner Mongolia University of Technology (IMUT) and Tsinghua University (THU) to evaluate the performance of the proposed method. The experimental results show that the highest accuracy of CBAM-CNN reaches 0.9813 percentage point (pp). Within 0.1-2 s time window, the accuracy of CBAM-CNN is 0.0201-0.5388 (pp) higher than that of CNN, CCA-CWT-SVM, CCA-SVM, CCA-GNB, FBCCA, and CCA. Especially in the short-time window range of 0.1-1 s, the performance advantage of CBAM-CNN is more significant. The maximum information transmission rate (ITR) of CBAM-CNN is 503.87 bit/min, which is 227.53 bit/min-503.41 bit/min higher than the above six EEG decoding methods. The study further results show that CBAM-CNN has potential application value in SSVEP decoding.

RevDate: 2024-04-14

Huang T, Guo X, Huang X, et al (2024)

Input-output specific orchestration of aversive valence in lateral habenula during stress dynamics.

Journal of Zhejiang University. Science. B [Epub ahead of print].

Stress has been considered as a major risk factor for depressive disorders, triggering depression onset via inducing persistent dysfunctions in specialized brain regions and neural circuits. Among various regions across the brain, the lateral habenula (LHb) serves as a critical hub for processing aversive information during the dynamic process of stress accumulation, thus having been implicated in the pathogenesis of depression. LHb neurons integrate aversive valence conveyed by distinct upstream inputs, many of which selectively innervate the medial part (LHbM) or lateral part (LHbL) of LHb. LHb subregions also separately assign aversive valence via dissociable projections to the downstream targets in the midbrain which provides feedback loops. Despite these strides, the spatiotemporal dynamics of LHb-centric neural circuits remain elusive during the progression of depression-like state under stress. In this review, we attempt to describe a framework in which LHb orchestrates aversive valence via the input-output specific neuronal architecture. Notably, a physiological form of Hebbian plasticity in LHb under multiple stressors has been unveiled to incubate neuronal hyperactivity in an input-specific manner, which causally encodes chronic stress experience and drives depression onset. Collectively, the recent progress and future efforts in elucidating LHb circuits shed light on early interventions and circuit-specific antidepressant therapies.

RevDate: 2024-04-16
CmpDate: 2024-04-16

Qi X, Yu X, Wei L, et al (2024)

Novel α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) potentiator LT-102: A promising therapeutic agent for treating cognitive impairment associated with schizophrenia.

CNS neuroscience & therapeutics, 30(4):e14713.

AIMS: We aimed to evaluate the potential of a novel selective α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazole-propionic acid receptor (AMPAR) potentiator, LT-102, in treating cognitive impairments associated with schizophrenia (CIAS) and elucidating its mechanism of action.

METHODS: The activity of LT-102 was examined by Ca[2+] influx assays and patch-clamp in rat primary hippocampal neurons. The structure of the complex was determined by X-ray crystallography. The selectivity of LT-102 was evaluated by hERG tail current recording and kinase-inhibition assays. The electrophysiological characterization of LT-102 was characterized by patch-clamp recording in mouse hippocampal slices. The expression and phosphorylation levels of proteins were examined by Western blotting. Cognitive function was assessed using the Morris water maze and novel object recognition tests.

RESULTS: LT-102 is a novel and selective AMPAR potentiator with little agonistic effect, which binds to the allosteric site formed by the intradimer interface of AMPAR's GluA2 subunit. Treatment with LT-102 facilitated long-term potentiation in mouse hippocampal slices and reversed cognitive deficits in a phencyclidine-induced mouse model. Additionally, LT-102 treatment increased the protein level of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and the phosphorylation of GluA1 in primary neurons and hippocampal tissues.

CONCLUSION: We conclude that LT-102 ameliorates cognitive impairments in a phencyclidine-induced model of schizophrenia by enhancing synaptic function, which could make it a potential therapeutic candidate for CIAS.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

He X, Li W, H Ma (2024)

Orchestrating neuronal activity-dependent translation via the integrated stress response protein GADD34.

Trends in neurosciences pii:S0166-2236(24)00058-4 [Epub ahead of print].

In a recent study, Oliveira and colleagues revealed how growth arrest and DNA damage-inducible protein 34 (GADD34), an effector of the integrated stress response, initiates the translation of synaptic plasticity-related mRNAs following brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) stimulation. This work suggests that GADD34 may link transcriptional products with translation control upon neuronal activation, illuminating how protein synthesis is orchestrated in neuronal plasticity.

RevDate: 2024-04-15

Knozowski P, Nowakowski JJ, Stawicka AM, et al (2024)

Effect of Management of Grassland on Prey Availability and Physiological Condition of Nestling of Red-Backed Shrike Lanius collurio.

Animals : an open access journal from MDPI, 14(7):.

The study aimed to determine the influence of grassland management on the potential food base of the red-backed shrike Lanius collurio and the condition of chicks in the population inhabiting semi-natural grasslands in the Narew floodplain. The grassland area was divided into three groups: extensively used meadows, intensively used meadows fertilised with mineral fertilisers, and intensively used meadows fertilised with liquid manure, and selected environmental factors that may influence food availability were determined. Using Barber traps, 1825 samples containing 53,739 arthropods were collected, and the diversity, abundance, and proportion of large arthropods in the samples were analysed depending on the grassland use type. In the bird population, the condition of the chicks was characterised by the BCI (Body Condition Index) and haematological parameters (glucose level, haemoglobin level, haematocrit, and H:L ratio). The diversity of arthropods was highest in extensively used meadows. Still, the mean abundance and proportion of arthropods over 1 cm in length differed significantly for Orthoptera, Hymenoptera, Arachne, and Carabidae between grassland use types, with the highest proportion of large arthropods and the highest abundance recorded in manure-fertilised meadows. The highest Body Condition Indexes and blood glucose levels of nestlings indicating good nestling nutrition were recorded in nests of birds associated with extensive land use. The H:L ratio as an indicator of the physiological condition of nestlings was high on manure-fertilised and extensively managed meadows, indicating stress factors associated with these environments. This suggests that consideration should be given to the effects of chemicals, such as pesticides or drug residues, that may come from slurry poured onto fields on the fitness of red-backed shrike chicks.

RevDate: 2024-04-15
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Clemente L, La Rocca M, Paparella G, et al (2024)

Exploring Aesthetic Perception in Impaired Aging: A Multimodal Brain-Computer Interface Study.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 24(7):.

In the field of neuroscience, brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are used to connect the human brain with external devices, providing insights into the neural mechanisms underlying cognitive processes, including aesthetic perception. Non-invasive BCIs, such as EEG and fNIRS, are critical for studying central nervous system activity and understanding how individuals with cognitive deficits process and respond to aesthetic stimuli. This study assessed twenty participants who were divided into control and impaired aging (AI) groups based on MMSE scores. EEG and fNIRS were used to measure their neurophysiological responses to aesthetic stimuli that varied in pleasantness and dynamism. Significant differences were identified between the groups in P300 amplitude and late positive potential (LPP), with controls showing greater reactivity. AI subjects showed an increase in oxyhemoglobin in response to pleasurable stimuli, suggesting hemodynamic compensation. This study highlights the effectiveness of multimodal BCIs in identifying the neural basis of aesthetic appreciation and impaired aging. Despite its limitations, such as sample size and the subjective nature of aesthetic appreciation, this research lays the groundwork for cognitive rehabilitation tailored to aesthetic perception, improving the comprehension of cognitive disorders through integrated BCI methodologies.

RevDate: 2024-04-16

Zeng J, Zhang Y, Xiang Y, et al (2023)

Optimizing multi-domain hematologic biomarkers and clinical features for the differential diagnosis of unipolar depression and bipolar depression.

Npj mental health research, 2(1):4.

There is a lack of objective features for the differential diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar depression, especially those that are readily available in practical settings. We investigated whether clinical features of disease course, biomarkers from complete blood count, and blood biochemical markers could accurately classify unipolar and bipolar depression using machine learning methods. This retrospective study included 1160 eligible patients (918 with unipolar depression and 242 with bipolar depression). Patient data were randomly split into training (85%) and open test (15%) sets 1000 times, and the average performance was reported. XGBoost achieved the optimal open-test performance using selected biomarkers and clinical features-AUC 0.889, sensitivity 0.831, specificity 0.839, and accuracy 0.863. The importance of features for differential diagnosis was measured using SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) values. The most informative features include (1) clinical features of disease duration and age of onset, (2) biochemical markers of albumin, low density lipoprotein (LDL), and potassium, and (3) complete blood count-derived biomarkers of white blood cell count (WBC), platelet-to-lymphocyte ratio (PLR), and monocytes (MONO). Overall, onset features and hematologic biomarkers appear to be reliable information that can be readily obtained in clinical settings to facilitate the differential diagnosis of unipolar and bipolar depression.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Wang Y, Wang X, Wang L, et al (2024)

Dynamic prediction of goal location by coordinated representation of prefrontal-hippocampal theta sequences.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(24)00372-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Prefrontal (PFC) and hippocampal (HPC) sequences of neuronal firing modulated by theta rhythms could represent upcoming choices during spatial memory-guided decision-making. How the PFC-HPC network dynamically coordinates theta sequences to predict specific goal locations and how it is interrupted in memory impairments induced by amyloid beta (Aβ) remain unclear. Here, we detected theta sequences of firing activities of PFC neurons and HPC place cells during goal-directed spatial memory tasks. We found that PFC ensembles exhibited predictive representation of the specific goal location since the starting phase of memory retrieval, earlier than the hippocampus. High predictive accuracy of PFC theta sequences existed during successful memory retrieval and positively correlated with memory performance. Coordinated PFC-HPC sequences showed PFC-dominant prediction of goal locations during successful memory retrieval. Furthermore, we found that theta sequences of both regions still existed under Aβ accumulation, whereas their predictive representation of goal locations was weakened with disrupted spatial representation of HPC place cells and PFC neurons. These findings highlight the essential role of coordinated PFC-HPC sequences in successful memory retrieval of a precise goal location.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Inguscio BMS, Cartocci G, Sciaraffa N, et al (2024)

Two are better than one: Differences in cortical EEG patterns during auditory and visual verbal working memory processing between Unilateral and Bilateral Cochlear Implanted children.

Hearing research, 446:109007 pii:S0378-5955(24)00060-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Despite the proven effectiveness of cochlear implant (CI) in the hearing restoration of deaf or hard-of-hearing (DHH) children, to date, extreme variability in verbal working memory (VWM) abilities is observed in both unilateral and bilateral CI user children (CIs). Although clinical experience has long observed deficits in this fundamental executive function in CIs, the cause to date is still unknown. Here, we have set out to investigate differences in brain functioning regarding the impact of monaural and binaural listening in CIs compared with normal hearing (NH) peers during a three-level difficulty n-back task undertaken in two sensory modalities (auditory and visual). The objective of this pioneering study was to identify electroencephalographic (EEG) marker pattern differences in visual and auditory VWM performances in CIs compared to NH peers and possible differences between unilateral cochlear implant (UCI) and bilateral cochlear implant (BCI) users. The main results revealed differences in theta and gamma EEG bands. Compared with hearing controls and BCIs, UCIs showed hypoactivation of theta in the frontal area during the most complex condition of the auditory task and a correlation of the same activation with VWM performance. Hypoactivation in theta was also observed, again for UCIs, in the left hemisphere when compared to BCIs and in the gamma band in UCIs compared to both BCIs and NHs. For the latter two, a correlation was found between left hemispheric gamma oscillation and performance in the audio task. These findings, discussed in the light of recent research, suggest that unilateral CI is deficient in supporting auditory VWM in DHH. At the same time, bilateral CI would allow the DHH child to approach the VWM benchmark for NH children. The present study suggests the possible effectiveness of EEG in supporting, through a targeted approach, the diagnosis and rehabilitation of VWM in DHH children.

RevDate: 2024-04-15
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Abbasi A, Rangwani R, Bowen DW, et al (2024)

Cortico-cerebellar coordination facilitates neuroprosthetic control.

Science advances, 10(15):eadm8246.

Temporally coordinated neural activity is central to nervous system function and purposeful behavior. Still, there is a paucity of evidence demonstrating how this coordinated activity within cortical and subcortical regions governs behavior. We investigated this between the primary motor (M1) and contralateral cerebellar cortex as rats learned a neuroprosthetic/brain-machine interface (BMI) task. In neuroprosthetic task, actuator movements are causally linked to M1 "direct" neurons that drive the decoder for successful task execution. However, it is unknown how task-related M1 activity interacts with the cerebellum. We observed a notable 3 to 6 hertz coherence that emerged between these regions' local field potentials (LFPs) with learning that also modulated task-related spiking. We identified robust task-related indirect modulation in the cerebellum, which developed a preferential relationship with M1 task-related activity. Inhibiting cerebellar cortical and deep nuclei activity through optogenetics led to performance impairments in M1-driven neuroprosthetic control. Together, these results demonstrate that cerebellar influence is necessary for M1-driven neuroprosthetic control.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Kong D, Chen Y, Wang L, et al (2024)

Adoption of Rehabilitation Climbing Wall Combined with Brain-computer Fusion Interface in Adolescent Idiopathic Scoliosis.

Alternative therapies in health and medicine pii:AT10512 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: As the adoption of brain-computer interface (BCI) technology in rehabilitation training is gradually maturing, the rehabilitation climbing walls combined with BCI technology are applied in adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) adoption research.

METHODS: From January 2022 to January 2023, a total of 100 AIS patients were assigned into a control group (group C, rehabilitation climbing wall training) and an observation group (group B, rehabilitation climbing wall training based on BCI technology) equally and randomly. The therapeutic effects of the patients were analyzed, including the Cobb angle, waist range of motion, and quality of life.

RESULTS: The Cobb angles of all patients after three months of treatment were obviously smaller than those preoperatively, and the Cobb angle of patients in group B was smaller than that of group C. The improvement rate of the Cobb angle of patients in group B was substantially superior to that in group C (95%CI 17.8-42.6, P = .034). Moreover, patients in groups C and B had more extensive waist flexion, tension, and left ranges. Suitable lateral regions after three months of treatment than before and lower lumbar dysfunction scores, and group B was significantly better than group C (95%CI 20.3-35.4, P = .042). After three months of treatment, all patients' general condition, physical pain, physiological function, and mental health scores were higher than those preoperatively, and the scores in group B were substantially superior to those in group C (95%CI 51.3-84.2, P = .022). Furthermore, the total effective rate of patients in group B after three months was markedly superior to that in group C (96% vs. 82%) (95%CI 79.3-97.2, P = .014).

CONCLUSION: The results of the study suggest that the rehabilitation climbing wall training method combined with brain-computer interface (BCI) technology has significant therapeutic effects on adolescent idiopathic scoliosis (AIS) patients. The intervention was found to effectively reduce the Cobb angle, increase the lumbar range of motion, improve lumbar function, and enhance the quality of life of the patients. These findings indicate that the adoption of rehabilitation climbing walls combined with BCI technology can be clinically valuable in the treatment of AIS. This approach holds promise in improving the rehabilitation outcomes for AIS patients, providing a non-invasive alternative to surgical interventions.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Xu S, Xiao X, Manshaii F, et al (2024)

Injectable Fluorescent Neural Interfaces for Cell-Specific Stimulating and Imaging.

Nano letters [Epub ahead of print].

Building on current explorations in chronic optical neural interfaces, it is essential to address the risk of photothermal damage in traditional optogenetics. By focusing on calcium fluorescence for imaging rather than stimulation, injectable fluorescent neural interfaces significantly minimize photothermal damage and improve the accuracy of neuronal imaging. Key advancements including the use of injectable microelectronics for targeted electrical stimulation and their integration with cell-specific genetically encoded calcium indicators have been discussed. These injectable electronics that allow for post-treatment retrieval offer a minimally invasive solution, enhancing both usability and reliability. Furthermore, the integration of genetically encoded fluorescent calcium indicators with injectable bioelectronics enables precise neuronal recording and imaging of individual neurons. This shift not only minimizes risks such as photothermal conversion but also boosts safety, specificity, and effectiveness of neural imaging. Embracing these advancements represents a significant leap forward in biomedical engineering and neuroscience, paving the way for advanced brain-machine interfaces.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Jeong CH, Lim H, Lee J, et al (2024)

Attentional state-synchronous peripheral electrical stimulation during action observation induced distinct modulation of corticospinal plasticity after stroke.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 18:1373589.

INTRODUCTION: Brain computer interface-based action observation (BCI-AO) is a promising technique in detecting the user's cortical state of visual attention and providing feedback to assist rehabilitation. Peripheral nerve electrical stimulation (PES) is a conventional method used to enhance outcomes in upper extremity function by increasing activation in the motor cortex. In this study, we examined the effects of different pairings of peripheral nerve electrical stimulation (PES) during BCI-AO tasks and their impact on corticospinal plasticity.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Our innovative BCI-AO interventions decoded user's attentive watching during task completion. This process involved providing rewarding visual cues while simultaneously activating afferent pathways through PES. Fifteen stroke patients were included in the analysis. All patients underwent a 15 min BCI-AO program under four different experimental conditions: BCI-AO without PES, BCI-AO with continuous PES, BCI-AO with triggered PES, and BCI-AO with reverse PES application. PES was applied at the ulnar nerve of the wrist at an intensity equivalent to 120% of the sensory threshold and a frequency of 50 Hz. The experiment was conducted randomly at least 3 days apart. To assess corticospinal and peripheral nerve excitability, we compared pre and post-task (post 0, post 20 min) parameters of motor evoked potential and F waves under the four conditions in the muscle of the affected hand.

RESULTS: The findings indicated that corticospinal excitability in the affected hemisphere was higher when PES was synchronously applied with AO training, using BCI during a state of attentive watching. In contrast, there was no effect on corticospinal activation when PES was applied continuously or in the reverse manner. This paradigm promoted corticospinal plasticity for up to 20 min after task completion. Importantly, the effect was more evident in patients over 65 years of age.

CONCLUSION: The results showed that task-driven corticospinal plasticity was higher when PES was applied synchronously with a highly attentive brain state during the action observation task, compared to continuous or asynchronous application. This study provides insight into how optimized BCI technologies dependent on brain state used in conjunction with other rehabilitation training could enhance treatment-induced neural plasticity.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Xue Q, Song Y, Wu H, et al (2024)

Graph neural network based on brain inspired forward-forward mechanism for motor imagery classification in brain-computer interfaces.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 18:1309594.

INTRODUCTION: Within the development of brain-computer interface (BCI) systems, it is crucial to consider the impact of brain network dynamics and neural signal transmission mechanisms on electroencephalogram-based motor imagery (MI-EEG) tasks. However, conventional deep learning (DL) methods cannot reflect the topological relationship among electrodes, thereby hindering the effective decoding of brain activity.

METHODS: Inspired by the concept of brain neuronal forward-forward (F-F) mechanism, a novel DL framework based on Graph Neural Network combined forward-forward mechanism (F-FGCN) is presented. F-FGCN framework aims to enhance EEG signal decoding performance by applying functional topological relationships and signal propagation mechanism. The fusion process involves converting the multi-channel EEG into a sequence of signals and constructing a network grounded on the Pearson correlation coeffcient, effectively representing the associations between channels. Our model initially pre-trains the Graph Convolutional Network (GCN), and fine-tunes the output layer to obtain the feature vector. Moreover, the F-F model is used for advanced feature extraction and classification.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Achievement of F-FGCN is assessed on the PhysioNet dataset for a four-class categorization, compared with various classical and state-of-the-art models. The learned features of the F-FGCN substantially amplify the performance of downstream classifiers, achieving the highest accuracy of 96.11% and 82.37% at the subject and group levels, respectively. Experimental results affirm the potency of FFGCN in enhancing EEG decoding performance, thus paving the way for BCI applications.

RevDate: 2024-04-13

Liu L, Li J, Ouyang R, et al (2024)

Multimodal brain-controlled system for rehabilitation training: Combining asynchronous online brain-computer interface and exoskeleton.

Journal of neuroscience methods, 406:110132 pii:S0165-0270(24)00077-3 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Traditional therapist-based rehabilitation training for patients with movement impairment is laborious and expensive. In order to reduce the cost and improve the treatment effect of rehabilitation, many methods based on human-computer interaction (HCI) technology have been proposed, such as robot-assisted therapy and functional electrical stimulation (FES). However, due to the lack of active participation of brain, these methods have limited effects on the promotion of damaged nerve remodeling.

NEW METHOD: Based on the neurofeedback training provided by the combination of brain-computer interface (BCI) and exoskeleton, this paper proposes a multimodal brain-controlled active rehabilitation system to help improve limb function. The joint control mode of steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP) and motor imagery (MI) is adopted to achieve self-paced control and thus maximize the degree of brain involvement, and a requirement selection function based on SSVEP design is added to facilitate communication with aphasia patients.

In addition, the Transformer is introduced as the MI decoder in the asynchronous online BCI to improve the global perception of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals and maintain the sensitivity and efficiency of the system.

RESULTS: In two multi-task online experiments for left hand, right hand, foot and idle states, subject achieves 91.25% and 92.50% best accuracy, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Compared with previous studies, this paper aims to establish a high-performance and low-latency brain-controlled rehabilitation system, and provide an independent and autonomous control mode of the brain, so as to improve the effect of neural remodeling. The performance of the proposed method is evaluated through offline and online experiments.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Shi X, She Q, Fang F, et al (2024)

Enhancing cross-subject EEG emotion recognition through multi-source manifold metric transfer learning.

Computers in biology and medicine, 174:108445 pii:S0010-4825(24)00529-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Transfer learning (TL) has demonstrated its efficacy in addressing the cross-subject domain adaptation challenges in affective brain-computer interfaces (aBCI). However, previous TL methods usually use a stationary distance, such as Euclidean distance, to quantify the distribution dissimilarity between two domains, overlooking the inherent links among similar samples, potentially leading to suboptimal feature mapping. In this study, we introduced a novel algorithm called multi-source manifold metric transfer learning (MSMMTL) to enhance the efficacy of conventional TL. Specifically, we first selected the source domain based on Mahalanobis distance to enhance the quality of the source domains and then used manifold feature mapping approach to map the source and target domains on the Grassmann manifold to mitigate data drift between domains. In this newly established shared space, we optimized the Mahalanobis metric by maximizing the inter-class distances while minimizing the intra-class distances in the target domain. Recognizing that significant distribution discrepancies might persist across different domains even on the manifold, to ensure similar distributions between the source and target domains, we further imposed constraints on both domains under the Mahalanobis metric. This approach aims to reduce distributional disparities and enhance the electroencephalogram (EEG) emotion recognition performance. In cross-subject experiments, the MSMMTL model exhibits average classification accuracies of 88.83 % and 65.04 % for SEED and DEAP, respectively, underscoring the superiority of our proposed MSMMTL over other state-of-the-art methods. MSMMTL can effectively solve the problem of individual differences in EEG-based affective computing.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

De Rubis G, Paudel KR, Yeung S, et al (2024)

18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid-loaded polymeric nanoparticles attenuate cigarette smoke-induced markers of impaired antiviral response in vitro.

Pathology, research and practice, 257:155295 pii:S0344-0338(24)00206-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Tobacco smoking is a leading cause of preventable mortality, and it is the major contributor to diseases such as COPD and lung cancer. Cigarette smoke compromises the pulmonary antiviral immune response, increasing susceptibility to viral infections. There is currently no therapy that specifically addresses the problem of impaired antiviral response in cigarette smokers and COPD patients, highlighting the necessity to develop novel treatment strategies. 18-β-glycyrrhetinic acid (18-β-gly) is a phytoceutical derived from licorice with promising anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiviral activities whose clinical application is hampered by poor solubility. This study explores the therapeutic potential of an advanced drug delivery system encapsulating 18-β-gly in poly lactic-co-glycolic acid (PLGA) nanoparticles in addressing the impaired antiviral immunity observed in smokers and COPD patients. Exposure of BCi-NS1.1 human bronchial epithelial cells to cigarette smoke extract (CSE) resulted in reduced expression of critical antiviral chemokines (IP-10, I-TAC, MIP-1α/1β), mimicking what happens in smokers and COPD patients. Treatment with 18-β-gly-PLGA nanoparticles partially restored the expression of these chemokines, demonstrating promising therapeutic impact. The nanoparticles increased IP-10, I-TAC, and MIP-1α/1β levels, exhibiting potential in attenuating the negative effects of cigarette smoke on the antiviral response. This study provides a novel approach to address the impaired antiviral immune response in vulnerable populations, offering a foundation for further investigations and potential therapeutic interventions. Further studies, including a comprehensive in vitro characterization and in vivo testing, are warranted to validate the therapeutic efficacy of 18-β-gly-PLGA nanoparticles in respiratory disorders associated with compromised antiviral immunity.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Wang Z, Hu H, Zhou T, et al (2024)

Average Time Consumption Per Character - a Practical Performance Metric for Generic Synchronous BCI Spellers.

IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The information transfer rate (ITR) is widely accepted as a performance metric for generic brain-computer interface (BCI) spellers, while it is noticeable that the communication speed given by ITR is actually an upper bound which however can never be reached in real systems. A new performance metric is therefore needed.

METHODS: In this paper, a new metric named average time consumption per character (ATCPC) is proposed. It quantifies how long it takes on average to type one character using a typical synchronous BCI speller. To analytically derive ATCPC, the real typing process is modelled with a random walk on a graph. Misclassification and backspace are carefully characterized. A close-form formula of ATCPC is obtained through computing the hitting time of the random walk. The new metric is validated through simulated typing experiments and compared with ITR.

RESULTS: Firstly, the formula and simulation show a good consistency. Secondly, ITR always tends to overestimate the communication speed, while ATCPC is more realistic.

CONCLUSION: The proposed ATCPC metric is valid.

SIGNIFICANCE: ATCPC is a qualified substitute for ITR. ATCPC also reveals the great potential of keyboard optimization to further enhance the performance of BCI spellers, which was hardly investigated before.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Waisberg E, Ong J, AG Lee (2024)

Ethical Considerations of Neuralink and Brain-Computer Interfaces: Balancing Innovation and Responsibility.

Neuralink is a neurotechnology company founded by Elon Musk in 2016, which has been quietly developing revolutionary technology allowing for ultra-high precision bidirectional communication between external devices and the brain. In this paper, we explore the multifaceted ethical considerations surrounding neural interfaces, analyzing potential societal impacts, risks, and call for a need for responsible innovation. Despite the technological, medical, medicolegal, and ethical challenges ahead, neural interface technology remains extremely promising and has the potential to create a new era of medicine.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Anger JT, Case LK, Baranowski AP, et al (2024)

Pain mechanisms in the transgender individual: a review.

Frontiers in pain research (Lausanne, Switzerland), 5:1241015.

SPECIFIC AIM: Provide an overview of the literature addressing major areas pertinent to pain in transgender persons and to identify areas of primary relevance for future research.

METHODS: A team of scholars that have previously published on different areas of related research met periodically though zoom conferencing between April 2021 and February 2023 to discuss relevant literature with the goal of providing an overview on the incidence, phenotype, and mechanisms of pain in transgender patients. Review sections were written after gathering information from systematic literature searches of published or publicly available electronic literature to be compiled for publication as part of a topical series on gender and pain in the Frontiers in Pain Research.

RESULTS: While transgender individuals represent a significant and increasingly visible component of the population, many researchers and clinicians are not well informed about the diversity in gender identity, physiology, hormonal status, and gender-affirming medical procedures utilized by transgender and other gender diverse patients. Transgender and cisgender people present with many of the same medical concerns, but research and treatment of these medical needs must reflect an appreciation of how differences in sex, gender, gender-affirming medical procedures, and minoritized status impact pain.

CONCLUSIONS: While significant advances have occurred in our appreciation of pain, the review indicates the need to support more targeted research on treatment and prevention of pain in transgender individuals. This is particularly relevant both for gender-affirming medical interventions and related medical care. Of particular importance is the need for large long-term follow-up studies to ascertain best practices for such procedures. A multi-disciplinary approach with personalized interventions is of particular importance to move forward.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Li H, Li H, Ma L, et al (2024)

Revealing brain's cognitive process deeply: a study of the consistent EEG patterns of audio-visual perceptual holistic.

Frontiers in human neuroscience, 18:1377233.

INTRODUCTION: To investigate the brain's cognitive process and perceptual holistic, we have developed a novel method that focuses on the informational attributes of stimuli.

METHODS: We recorded EEG signals during visual and auditory perceptual cognition experiments and conducted ERP analyses to observe specific positive and negative components occurring after 400ms during both visual and auditory perceptual processes. These ERP components represent the brain's perceptual holistic processing activities, which we have named Information-Related Potentials (IRPs). We combined IRPs with machine learning methods to decode cognitive processes in the brain.

RESULTS: Our experimental results indicate that IRPs can better characterize information processing, particularly perceptual holism. Additionally, we conducted a brain network analysis and found that visual and auditory perceptual holistic processing share consistent neural pathways.

DISCUSSION: Our efforts not only demonstrate the specificity, significance, and reliability of IRPs but also reveal their great potential for future brain mechanism research and BCI applications.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Chen Y, Wang F, Li T, et al (2024)

Several inaccurate or erroneous conceptions and misleading propaganda about brain-computer interfaces.

Frontiers in human neuroscience, 18:1391550.

Brain-computer interface (BCI) is a revolutionizing human-computer interaction, which has potential applications for specific individuals or groups in specific scenarios. Extensive research has been conducted on the principles and implementation methods of BCI, and efforts are currently being made to bridge the gap from research to real-world applications. However, there are inaccurate or erroneous conceptions about BCI among some members of the public, and certain media outlets, as well as some BCI researchers, developers, manufacturers, and regulators, propagate misleading or overhyped claims about BCI technology. Therefore, this article summarizes the several misconceptions and misleading propaganda about BCI, including BCI being capable of "mind-controlled," "controlling brain," "mind reading," and the ability to "download" or "upload" information from or to the brain using BCI, among others. Finally, the limitations (shortcomings) and limits (boundaries) of BCI, as well as the necessity of conducting research aimed at countering BCI systems are discussed, and several suggestions are offered to reduce misconceptions and misleading claims about BCI.

RevDate: 2024-04-12
CmpDate: 2024-04-12

Gancio J, Masoller C, G Tirabassi (2024)

Permutation entropy analysis of EEG signals for distinguishing eyes-open and eyes-closed brain states: Comparison of different approaches.

Chaos (Woodbury, N.Y.), 34(4):.

Developing reliable methodologies to decode brain state information from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is an open challenge, crucial to implementing EEG-based brain-computer interfaces (BCIs). For example, signal processing methods that identify brain states could allow motor-impaired patients to communicate via non-invasive, EEG-based BCIs. In this work, we focus on the problem of distinguishing between the states of eyes closed (EC) and eyes open (EO), employing quantities based on permutation entropy (PE). An advantage of PE analysis is that it uses symbols (ordinal patterns) defined by the ordering of the data points (disregarding the actual values), hence providing robustness to noise and outliers due to motion artifacts. However, we show that for the analysis of multichannel EEG recordings, the performance of PE in discriminating the EO and EC states depends on the symbols' definition and how their probabilities are estimated. Here, we study the performance of PE-based features for EC/EO state classification in a dataset of N=107 subjects with one-minute 64-channel EEG recordings in each state. We analyze features obtained from patterns encoding temporal or spatial information, and we compare different approaches to estimate their probabilities (by averaging over time, over channels, or by "pooling"). We find that some PE-based features provide about 75% classification accuracy, comparable to the performance of features extracted with other statistical analysis techniques. Our work highlights the limitations of PE methods in distinguishing the eyes' state, but, at the same time, it points to the possibility that subject-specific training could overcome these limitations.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Li D, Wang X, Dou M, et al (2024)

Multi-stimulus Least-squares Transformation with Online Adaptation Scheme to Reduce Calibration Effort for SSVEP-based BCIs.

IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

UNLABELLED: Steady-state visual evoked potential (SSVEP), one of the most popular electroencephalography (EEG)-based brain-computer interface (BCI) paradigms, can achieve high performance using calibration-based recognition algorithms. As calibration-based recognition algorithms are time-consuming to collect calibration data, the least-squares transformation (LST) has been used to reduce the calibration effort for SSVEP-based BCI. However, the transformation matrices constructed by current LST methods are not precise enough, resulting in large differences between the transformed data and the real data of the target subject. This ultimately leads to the constructed spatial filters and reference templates not being effective enough. To address these issues, this paper proposes multi-stimulus LST with online adaptation scheme (ms-LST-OA).

METHODS: The proposed ms-LST-OA consists of two parts. Firstly, to improve the precision of the transformation matrices, we propose the multi-stimulus LST (ms-LST) using cross-stimulus learning scheme as the cross-subject data transformation method. The ms-LST uses the data from neighboring stimuli to construct a higher precision transformation matrix for each stimulus to reduce the differences between transformed data and real data. Secondly, to further optimize the constructed spatial filters and reference templates, we use an online adaptation scheme to learn more features of the EEG signals of the target subject through an iterative process trial-by-trial.

RESULTS: ms-LST-OA performance was measured for three datasets (Benchmark Dataset, BETA Dataset, and UCSD Dataset). Using few calibration data, the ITR of ms-LST-OA achieved 210.01±10.10 bits/min, 172.31±7.26 bits/min, and 139.04±14.90 bits/min for all three datasets, respectively.

CONCLUSION: Using ms-LST-OA can reduce calibration effort for SSVEP-based BCIs.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Qin K, Xu R, Li S, et al (2024)

A Time Local Weighted Transformation Recognition Framework for Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials based Brain Computer Interfaces.

IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

Canonical correlation analysis (CCA), Multivariate synchronization index (MSI), and their extended methods have been widely used for target recognition in Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) based on Steady State Visual Evoked Potentials (SSVEP), and covariance calculation is an important process for these algorithms. Some studies have proved that embedding time-local information into the covariance can optimize the recognition effect of the above algorithms. However, the optimization effect can only be observed from the recognition results and the improvement principle of time-local information cannot be explained. Therefore, we propose a time-local weighted transformation (TT) recognition framework that directly embeds the time-local information into the electroencephalography signal through weighted transformation. The influence mechanism of time-local information on the SSVEP signal can then be observed in the frequency domain. Low-frequency noise is suppressed on the premise of sacrificing part of the SSVEP fundamental frequency energy, the harmonic energy of SSVEP is enhanced at the cost of introducing a small amount of high-frequency noise. The experimental results show that the TT recognition framework can significantly improve the recognition ability of the algorithms and the separability of extracted features. Its enhancement effect is significantly better than the traditional time-local covariance extraction method, which has enormous application potential.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Niu X, Lu N, Yan R, et al (2024)

Model and Data Dual-Driven Double-Point Observation Network for Ultra-Short MI EEG Classification.

IEEE journal of biomedical and health informatics, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

Although deep networks have succeeded in various signal classification tasks, the time sequence samples used to train the deep models are usually required to reach a certain length. Especially, in brain computer interface (BCI) research, around 3.5s-long motor imagery (MI) Electroencephalography (EEG) samples are needed to obtain satisfactory classification performance. This time-span requirement of the training samples makes real-time MI BCI systems impossible to implement based on deep networks, which restricts the related researches within laboratory and makes practical application hard to accomplish. To address this issue, a double-point observation deep network (DoNet) is developed to classify ultra-short samples buried in noise. First, an analytical solution is developed theoretically to perform ultra-short signal classification based on double-point couples. Then, a signal-noise model is constructed to study the interference of noise on classification based on double-point couples. Based on which, an independent identical distribution condition is utilized to improve the classification accuracy in a data-driven manner. Combining the theoretical model and data-driven mechanism, DoNet can construct a steady data-distribution for the double-point couples of the samples with the same label. Therefore, the conditional probability of each double-point couple of a test sample can be obtained. With a voting strategy, the samples can be accurately classified by fusing these conditional probabilities. Meanwhile, the noise interference can be suppressed. DoNet has been evaluated on two public EEG datasets. Compared to most state-of-the-art methods, the 1s-long EEG signal classification accuracy has been improved by more than 3%.

RevDate: 2024-04-10
CmpDate: 2024-04-10

Ille N (2024)

Orthogonal extended infomax algorithm.

Journal of neural engineering, 21(2):.

Objective.The extended infomax algorithm for independent component analysis (ICA) can separate sub- and super-Gaussian signals but converges slowly as it uses stochastic gradient optimization. In this paper, an improved extended infomax algorithm is presented that converges much faster.Approach.Accelerated convergence is achieved by replacing the natural gradient learning rule of extended infomax by a fully-multiplicative orthogonal-group based update scheme of the ICA unmixing matrix, leading to an orthogonal extended infomax algorithm (OgExtInf). The computational performance of OgExtInf was compared with original extended infomax and with two fast ICA algorithms: the popular FastICA and Picard, a preconditioned limited-memory Broyden-Fletcher-Goldfarb-Shanno (L-BFGS) algorithm belonging to the family of quasi-Newton methods.Main results.OgExtInf converges much faster than original extended infomax. For small-size electroencephalogram (EEG) data segments, as used for example in online EEG processing, OgExtInf is also faster than FastICA and Picard.Significance.OgExtInf may be useful for fast and reliable ICA, e.g. in online systems for epileptic spike and seizure detection or brain-computer interfaces.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Osuna-Orozco R, Zhao Y, Stealey HM, et al (2024)

Adaptation and learning as strategies to maximize reward in neurofeedback tasks.

Frontiers in human neuroscience, 18:1368115.

INTRODUCTION: Adaptation and learning have been observed to contribute to the acquisition of new motor skills and are used as strategies to cope with changing environments. However, it is hard to determine the relative contribution of each when executing goal directed motor tasks. This study explores the dynamics of neural activity during a center-out reaching task with continuous visual feedback under the influence of rotational perturbations.

METHODS: Results for a brain-computer interface (BCI) task performed by two non-human primate (NHP) subjects are compared to simulations from a reinforcement learning agent performing an analogous task. We characterized baseline activity and compared it to the activity after rotational perturbations of different magnitudes were introduced. We employed principal component analysis (PCA) to analyze the spiking activity driving the cursor in the NHP BCI task as well as the activation of the neural network of the reinforcement learning agent.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: Our analyses reveal that both for the NHPs and the reinforcement learning agent, the task-relevant neural manifold is isomorphic with the task. However, for the NHPs the manifold is largely preserved for all rotational perturbations explored and adaptation of neural activity occurs within this manifold as rotations are compensated by reassignment of regions of the neural space in an angular pattern that cancels said rotations. In contrast, retraining the reinforcement learning agent to reach the targets after rotation results in substantial modifications of the underlying neural manifold. Our findings demonstrate that NHPs adapt their existing neural dynamic repertoire in a quantitatively precise manner to account for perturbations of different magnitudes and they do so in a way that obviates the need for extensive learning.

RevDate: 2024-04-08

Falaki A, Quessy S, N Dancause (2024)

Differential modulation of local field potentials in the primary and premotor cortices during ipsilateral and contralateral reach to grasp in macaque monkeys.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience pii:JNEUROSCI.1161-23.2024 [Epub ahead of print].

Hand movements are associated with modulations of neuronal activity across several interconnected cortical areas, including the primary motor cortex (M1), and the dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv). Local field potentials (LFPs) provide a link between neuronal discharges and synaptic inputs. Our current understanding of how LFPs vary in M1, PMd, and PMv during contralateral and ipsilateral movements is incomplete. To help reveal unique features in the pattern of modulations, we simultaneously recorded LFPs in these areas in two macaque monkeys performing reach and grasp movements with either the right or left hand. The greatest effector-dependent differences were seen in M1, at low (≤ 13 Hz) and gamma frequencies. In premotor areas, differences related to hand use were only present in low frequencies. PMv exhibited the greatest increase in low frequencies during instruction cues and the smallest effector-dependent modulation during movement execution. In PMd, delta oscillations were greater during contralateral reach and grasp, and beta activity increased during contralateral grasp. In contrast, beta oscillations decreased in M1 and PMv. These results suggest that while M1 primarily exhibits effector-specific LFP activity, premotor areas compute more effector-independent aspects of the task requirements, particularly during movement preparation for PMv and production for PMd. The generation of precise hand movements likely relies on the combination of complementary information contained in the unique pattern of neural modulations contained in each cortical area. Accordingly, integrating LFPs from premotor areas and M1 could enhance the performance and robustness of brain-machine interfaces.Significance Statement We compared local field potentials (LFPs) from the primary motor cortex (M1), the dorsal and ventral premotor cortices (PMd and PMv) while monkeys performed reach and grasp with the contralateral or ipsilateral hand. In general, hand-related differences were greater in M1 than in premotor areas. During both contralateral and ipsilateral trials, LFPs were more similar when comparing the two premotor areas than comparing M1 to PMd or PMv. However, the pattern of modulations in each area had unique features. The combination of these signals is likely essential to support the flexibility and complexity of unilateral hand movements. Our results help to understand the neural substrate that allows cortical areas to concurrently contribute to different aspects of movement planning and production.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Carrara I, T Papadopoulo (2024)

Classification of BCI-EEG Based on the Augmented Covariance Matrix.

IEEE transactions on bio-medical engineering, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Electroencephalography signals are recorded as multidimensional datasets. We propose a new framework based on the augmented covariance that stems from an autoregressive model to improve motor imagery classification.

METHODS: From the autoregressive model can be derived the Yule-Walker equations, which show the emergence of a symmetric positive definite matrix: the augmented covariance matrix. The state-of the art for classifying covariance matrices is based on Riemannian Geometry. A fairly natural idea is therefore to apply this Riemannian Geometry based approach to these augmented covariance matrices. The methodology for creating the augmented covariance matrix shows a natural connection with the delay embedding theorem proposed by Takens for dynamical systems. Such an embedding method is based on the knowledge of two parameters: the delay and the embedding dimension, respectively related to the lag and the order of the autoregressive model. This approach provides new methods to compute the hyper-parameters in addition to standard grid search.

RESULTS: The augmented covariance matrix performed ACMs better than any state-of-the-art methods. We will test our approach on several datasets and several subjects using the MOABB framework, using both within-session and cross-session evaluation.

CONCLUSION: The improvement in results is due to the fact that the augmented covariance matrix incorporates not only spatial but also temporal information. As such, it contains information on the nonlinear components of the signal through the embedding procedure, which allows the leveraging of dynamical systems algorithms.

SIGNIFICANCE: These results extend the concepts and the results of the Riemannian distance based classification algorithm.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Curà F, Sesana R, Corsaro L, et al (2024)

An Active Thermography approach for materials characterisation of thermal management systems for Lithium-ion batteries.

Heliyon, 10(7):e28587.

The aim of this work is an alternative non destructive technique for estimating the thermal properties of four different Thermal Management System (TMS) materials. More in detail, a thermographic setup realized with the Active Thermography approach (AT) is utilized for the purpose and the data elaboration follows the ISO 18755 Standard. As well known, Phase Changes Materials (PCMs) represent an innovative solution in the Thermal Management System (TMS) of Lithium-Ion batteries and, during the years, many solutions were developed to improve its thermal properties. As a matter of fact, parameters such as the internal temperature or heat exchanges impact on both efficiency and safety of the whole battery system. Consequently, the thermal conductivity was often chosen as a performance indicator of Thermal Management System (TMS) materials. In this work, both thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity were estimated in two different testing conditions, respectively at room temperature and higher temperature conditions. The Active Thermography (AT) technique proposed in this activity has satisfactory estimated both thermal diffusivity and thermal conductivity of Thermal Management System (TMS) materials. An analytical model was also developed to reproduce the temperature experimental profiles. Finally, results obtained with AT approach were compared to those available from commercial datasheet and literature.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Ma P, Dong C, Lin R, et al (2024)

A brain functional network feature extraction method based on directed transfer function and graph theory for MI-BCI decoding tasks.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 18:1306283.

BACKGROUND: The development of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology has brought tremendous potential to various fields. In recent years, prominent research has focused on enhancing the accuracy of BCI decoding algorithms by effectively utilizing meaningful features extracted from electroencephalographic (EEG) signals.

OBJECTIVE: This paper proposes a method for extracting brain functional network features based on directed transfer function (DTF) and graph theory. The method incorporates the extracted brain network features with common spatial pattern (CSP) to enhance the performance of motor imagery (MI) classification task.

METHODS: The signals from each electrode of the EEG, utilizing a total of 32 channels, are used as input signals for the network nodes. In this study, 26 healthy participants were recruited to provide EEG data. The brain functional network is constructed in Alpha and Beta bands using the DTF method. The node degree (ND), clustering coefficient (CC), and global efficiency (GE) of the brain functional network are obtained using graph theory. The DTF network features and graph theory are combined with the traditional signal processing method, the CSP algorithm. The redundant network features are filtered out using the Lasso method, and finally, the fused features are classified using a support vector machine (SVM), culminating in a novel approach we have termed CDGL.

RESULTS: For Beta frequency band, with 8 electrodes, the proposed CDGL method achieved an accuracy of 89.13%, a sensitivity of 90.15%, and a specificity of 88.10%, which are 14.10, 16.69, and 11.50% percentage higher than the traditional CSP method (75.03, 73.46, and 76.60%), respectively. Furthermore, the results obtained with 8 channels were superior to those with 4 channels (82.31, 83.35, and 81.74%), and the result for the Beta frequency band were better than those for the Alpha frequency band (87.42, 87.48, and 87.36%). Similar results were also obtained on two public datasets, where the CDGL algorithm's performance was found to be optimal.

CONCLUSION: The feature fusion of DTF network and graph theory features enhanced CSP algorithm's performance in MI task classification. Increasing the number of channels allows for more EEG signal feature information, enhancing the model's sensitivity and discriminative ability toward specific activities in brain regions. It should be noted that the functional brain network features in the Beta band exhibit superior performance improvement for the algorithm compared to those in the Alpha band.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Shuqfa Z, Lakas A, AN Belkacem (2024)

Increasing accessibility to a large brain-computer interface dataset: Curation of physionet EEG motor movement/imagery dataset for decoding and classification.

Data in brief, 54:110181.

A reliable motor imagery (MI) brain-computer interface (BCI) requires accurate decoding, which in turn requires model calibration using electroencephalography (EEG) signals from subjects executing or imagining the execution of movements. Although the PhysioNet EEG Motor Movement/Imagery Dataset is currently the largest EEG dataset in the literature, relatively few studies have used it to decode MI trials. In the present study, we curated and cleaned this dataset to store it in an accessible format that is convenient for quick exploitation, decoding, and classification using recent integrated development environments. We dropped six subjects owing to anomalies in EEG recordings and pre-possessed the rest, resulting in 103 subjects spanning four MI and four motor execution tasks. The annotations were coded to correspond to different tasks using numerical values. The resulting dataset is stored in both MATLAB structure and CSV files to ensure ease of access and organization. We believe that improving the accessibility of this dataset will help EEG-based MI-BCI decoding and classification, enabling more reliable real-life applications. The convenience and ease of access of this dataset may therefore lead to improvements in cross-subject classification and transfer learning.

RevDate: 2024-04-10

Mueller NN, Kim Y, Ocoko MYM, et al (2024)

Effects of Micromachining on Anti-oxidant Elution from a Mechanically-Adaptive Polymer.

Journal of micromechanics and microengineering : structures, devices, and systems, 34(3):.

Intracortical microelectrodes (IMEs) can be used to restore motor and sensory function as a part of brain-computer interfaces in individuals with neuromusculoskeletal disorders. However, the neuroinflammatory response to IMEs can result in their premature failure, leading to reduced therapeutic efficacy. Mechanically-adaptive, resveratrol-eluting (MARE) neural probes target two mechanisms believed to contribute to the neuroinflammatory response by reducing the mechanical mismatch between the brain tissue and device, as well as locally delivering an antioxidant therapeutic. To create the mechanically-adaptive substrate, a dispersion, casting, and evaporation method is used, followed by a microfabrication process to integrate functional recording electrodes on the material. Resveratrol release experiments were completed to generate a resveratrol release profile and demonstrated that the MARE probes are capable of long-term controlled release. Additionally, our results showed that resveratrol can be degraded by laser-micromachining, an important consideration for future device fabrication. Finally, the electrodes were shown to have a suitable impedance for single-unit neural recording and could record single units in vivo.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Ben Pazi H, Jahashan S, Har Nof S, et al (2024)

Pre-hospital stroke monitoring past, present, and future: a perspective.

Frontiers in neurology, 15:1341170.

Integrated brain-machine interface signifies a transformative advancement in neurological monitoring and intervention modalities for events such as stroke, the leading cause of disability. Historically, stroke management relied on clinical evaluation and imaging. While today's stroke landscape integrates artificial intelligence for proactive clinical decision-making, mainly in imaging and stroke detection, it depends on clinical observation for early detection. Cardiovascular monitoring and detection systems, which have become standard throughout healthcare and wellness settings, provide a model for future cerebrovascular monitoring and detection. This commentary reviews the progression of continuous stroke monitoring, spotlighting contemporary innovations and prospective avenues, and emphasizes the influential roles of cutting-edge technologies in shaping stroke care.

RevDate: 2024-04-09
CmpDate: 2024-04-09

Yuvaraj M, Raja P, David A, et al (2023)

A systematic investigation of detectors for low signal-to-noise ratio EMG signals.

F1000Research, 12:429.

BACKGROUND: Active participation of stroke survivors during robot-assisted movement therapy is essential for sensorimotor recovery. Robot-assisted therapy contingent on movement intention is an effective way to encourage patients' active engagement. For severely impaired stroke patients with no residual movements, a surface electromyogram (EMG) has been shown to be a viable option for detecting movement intention. Although numerous algorithms for EMG detection exist, the detector with the highest accuracy and lowest latency for low signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) remains unknown.

METHODS: This study, therefore, investigates the performance of 13 existing EMG detection algorithms on simulated low SNR (0dB and -3dB) EMG signals generated using three different EMG signal models: Gaussian, Laplacian, and biophysical model. The detector performance was quantified using the false positive rate (FPR), false negative rate (FNR), and detection latency. Any detector that consistently showed FPR and FNR of no more than 20%, and latency of no more than 50ms, was considered an appropriate detector for use in robot-assisted therapy.

RESULTS: The results indicate that the Modified Hodges detector - a simplified version of the threshold-based Hodges detector introduced in the current study - was the most consistent detector across the different signal models and SNRs. It consistently performed for ~90% and ~40% of the tested trials for 0dB and -3dB SNR, respectively. The two statistical detectors (Gaussian and Laplacian Approximate Generalized Likelihood Ratio) and the Fuzzy Entropy detectors have a slightly lower performance than Modified Hodges.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the Modified Hodges, Gaussian and Laplacian Approximate Generalized Likelihood Ratio, and the Fuzzy Entropy detectors were identified as the potential candidates that warrant further investigation with real surface EMG data since they had consistent detection performance on low SNR EMG data.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Khan AYY, Anjum A, HM Qadri (2024)

Ethical tightrope: Navigating neuro-ethics in brain computer interface (BCI) technology.

Brain & spine, 4:102800.

RevDate: 2024-04-08
CmpDate: 2024-04-08

Ferrero L, Soriano-Segura P, Navarro J, et al (2024)

Brain-machine interface based on deep learning to control asynchronously a lower-limb robotic exoskeleton: a case-of-study.

Journal of neuroengineering and rehabilitation, 21(1):48.

BACKGROUND: This research focused on the development of a motor imagery (MI) based brain-machine interface (BMI) using deep learning algorithms to control a lower-limb robotic exoskeleton. The study aimed to overcome the limitations of traditional BMI approaches by leveraging the advantages of deep learning, such as automated feature extraction and transfer learning. The experimental protocol to evaluate the BMI was designed as asynchronous, allowing subjects to perform mental tasks at their own will.

METHODS: A total of five healthy able-bodied subjects were enrolled in this study to participate in a series of experimental sessions. The brain signals from two of these sessions were used to develop a generic deep learning model through transfer learning. Subsequently, this model was fine-tuned during the remaining sessions and subjected to evaluation. Three distinct deep learning approaches were compared: one that did not undergo fine-tuning, another that fine-tuned all layers of the model, and a third one that fine-tuned only the last three layers. The evaluation phase involved the exclusive closed-loop control of the exoskeleton device by the participants' neural activity using the second deep learning approach for the decoding.

RESULTS: The three deep learning approaches were assessed in comparison to an approach based on spatial features that was trained for each subject and experimental session, demonstrating their superior performance. Interestingly, the deep learning approach without fine-tuning achieved comparable performance to the features-based approach, indicating that a generic model trained on data from different individuals and previous sessions can yield similar efficacy. Among the three deep learning approaches compared, fine-tuning all layer weights demonstrated the highest performance.

CONCLUSION: This research represents an initial stride toward future calibration-free methods. Despite the efforts to diminish calibration time by leveraging data from other subjects, complete elimination proved unattainable. The study's discoveries hold notable significance for advancing calibration-free approaches, offering the promise of minimizing the need for training trials. Furthermore, the experimental evaluation protocol employed in this study aimed to replicate real-life scenarios, granting participants a higher degree of autonomy in decision-making regarding actions such as walking or stopping gait.

RevDate: 2024-04-08
CmpDate: 2024-04-08

Allonen S, Aittoniemi J, Vuorialho M, et al (2024)

Streptococcus intermedius causing primary bacterial ventriculitis in a patient with severe periodontitis - a case report.

BMC neurology, 24(1):112.

BACKGROUND: Streptococcus intermedius is a member of the S. anginosus group and is part of the normal oral microbiota. It can cause pyogenic infections in various organs, primarily in the head and neck area, including brain abscesses and meningitis. However, ventriculitis due to periodontitis has not been reported previously.

CASE PRESENTATION: A 64-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with a headache, fever and later imbalance, blurred vision, and general slowness. Neurological examination revealed nuchal rigidity and general clumsiness. Meningitis was suspected, and the patient was treated with dexamethasone, ceftriaxone and acyclovir. A brain computer tomography (CT) scan was normal, and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) Gram staining and bacterial cultures remained negative, so the antibacterial treatment was discontinued. Nine days after admission, the patient's condition deteriorated. The antibacterial treatment was restarted, and a brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed ventriculitis. A subsequent CT scan showed hydrocephalus, so a ventriculostomy was performed. In CSF Gram staining, chains of gram-positive cocci were observed. Bacterial cultures remained negative, but a bacterial PCR detected Streptococcus intermedius. An orthopantomography revealed advanced periodontal destruction in several teeth and periapical abscesses, which were subsequently operated on. The patient was discharged in good condition after one month.

CONCLUSIONS: Poor dental health can lead to life-threatening infections in the central nervous system, even in a completely healthy individual. Primary bacterial ventriculitis is a diagnostic challenge, which may result in delayed treatment and increased mortality.

RevDate: 2024-04-08
CmpDate: 2024-04-08

Chen F, Zheng J, Wang L, et al (2024)

Attribute latencies causally shape intertemporal decisions.

Nature communications, 15(1):2948.

Intertemporal choices - decisions that play out over time - pervade our life. Thus, how people make intertemporal choices is a fundamental question. Here, we investigate the role of attribute latency (the time between when people start to process different attributes) in shaping intertemporal preferences using five experiments with choices between smaller-sooner and larger-later rewards. In the first experiment, we identify attribute latencies using mouse-trajectories and find that they predict individual differences in choices, response times, and changes across time constraints. In the other four experiments we test the causal link from attribute latencies to choice, staggering the display of the attributes. This changes attribute latencies and intertemporal preferences. Displaying the amount information first makes people more patient, while displaying time information first does the opposite. These findings highlight the importance of intra-choice dynamics in shaping intertemporal choices and suggest that manipulating attribute latency may be a useful technique for nudging.

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Wang C, Sun Y, Xing Y, et al (2024)

Role of electrophysiological activity and interactions of lateral habenula in the development of depression-like behavior in a chronic restraint stress model.

Brain research pii:S0006-8993(24)00168-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Closed-loop deep brain stimulation (DBS) system offers a promising approach for treatment-resistant depression, but identifying universally accepted electrophysiological biomarkers for closed-loop DBS systems targeting depression is challenging. There is growing evidence suggesting a strong association between the lateral habenula (LHb) and depression. Here, we took LHb as a key target, utilizing multi-site local field potentials (LFPs) to study the acute and chronic changes in electrophysiology, functional connectivity, and brain network characteristics during the formation of a chronic restraint stress (CRS) model. Furthermore, our model combining the electrophysiological changes of LHb and interactions between LHb and other potential targets of depression can effectively distinguish depressive states, offering a new way for developing effective closed-loop DBS strategies.

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Lo YT, Lim MJR, Kok CY, et al (2024)

Neural interface-based motor neuroprosthesis in post-stroke upper limb neurorehabilitation: An individual patient data meta-analysis.

Archives of physical medicine and rehabilitation pii:S0003-9993(24)00910-9 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To determine the efficacy of neural interface-, including brain-computer interface (BCI), based neurorehabilitation through conventional and individual patient data (IPD) meta-analysis, and to assess clinical parameters associated with positive response to neural interface-based neurorehabilitation.

DATA SOURCES: PubMed, EMBASE, and Cochrane Library databases up to February 2022 were reviewed.

STUDY SELECTION: Studies using neural interface-controlled physical effectors (FES and/or powered exoskeletons) and reported Fugl-Meyer Assessment-upper extremity (FMA-UE) scores were identified. This meta-analysis was prospectively registered on PROSPERO (#CRD42022312428). PRISMA guidelines were followed.

DATA EXTRACTION: Change in FMA-UE scores were pooled to estimate the mean effect size. Subgroup analyses were performed on clinical parameters and neural interface parameters with both study-level variables and IPD.

DATA SYNTHESIS: Forty-six studies containing 617 patients were included. Twenty-nine studies involving 214 patients reported IPD. FMA-UE score increased by a mean of 5.23 (95% CI: 3.85 to 6.61). Systems that used motor attempt resulted in greater FMA-UE gain than motor imagery, as did training lasting >4 versus ≤4 weeks. On IPD analysis, the mean time-to-improvement above MCID was 12 weeks (95% CI: 7 to not reached). At 6 months, 58% improved above MCID (95% CI: 41 to 70%). Patients with severe impairment (p=0.042) and age >50 years (p=0.0022) correlated with the failure to improve above the MCID on univariate log-rank tests. However, these factors were only borderline significant on multivariate Cox analysis (HR 0.15, p = 0.08 and HR 0.47, p = 0.06, respectively).

CONCLUSION: Neural interface-based motor rehabilitation resulted in significant though modest reductions in post-stroke impairment and should be considered for wider applications in stroke neurorehabilitation.

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Ali YH, Bodkin KL, Rigotti-Thompson M, et al (2024)

BRAND: A platform for closed-loop experiments with deep network models.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Artificial neural networks (ANNs) are state-of-the-art tools for modeling and decoding neural activity, but deploying them in closed-loop experiments with tight timing constraints is challenging due to their limited support in existing real-time frameworks. Researchers need a platform that fully supports high-level languages for running ANNs (e.g., Python and Julia) while maintaining support for languages that are critical for low-latency data acquisition and processing (e.g., C and C++).

APPROACH: To address these needs, we introduce the Backend for Realtime Asynchronous Neural Decoding (BRAND). BRAND comprises Linux processes, termed nodes, which communicate with each other in a graph via streams of data. Its asynchronous design allows for acquisition, control, and analysis to be executed in parallel on streams of data that may operate at different timescales. BRAND uses Redis, an in-memory database, to send data between nodes, which enables fast inter-process communication and supports 54 different programming languages. Thus, developers can easily deploy existing ANN models in BRAND with minimal implementation changes.

MAIN RESULTS: In our tests, BRAND achieved <600 microsecond latency between processes when sending large quantities of data (1024 channels of 30 kHz neural data in 1-millisecond chunks). BRAND runs a brain-computer interface with a recurrent neural network (RNN) decoder with less than 8 milliseconds of latency from neural data input to decoder prediction. In a real-world demonstration of the system, participant T11 in the BrainGate2 clinical trial (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT00912041) performed a standard cursor control task, in which 30 kHz signal processing, RNN decoding, task control, and graphics were all executed in BRAND. This system also supports real-time inference with complex latent variable models like Latent Factor Analysis via Dynamical Systems.

SIGNIFICANCE: By providing a framework that is fast, modular, and language-agnostic, BRAND lowers the barriers to integrating the latest tools in neuroscience and machine learning into closed-loop experiments. .

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Lin PJ, Li W, Zhai X, et al (2024)

Explainable deep-learning prediction for brain-computer interfaces supported lower extremity motor gains based on multi-state fusion.

IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

Predicting the potential for recovery of motor function in stroke patients who undergo specific rehabilitation treatments is an important and major challenge. Recently, electroencephalography (EEG) has shown potential in helping to determine the relationship between cortical neural activity and motor recovery. EEG recorded in different states could more accurately predict motor recovery than single-state recordings. Here, we design a multi-state (combining eyes closed, EC, and eyes open, EO) fusion neural network for predicting the motor recovery of patients with stroke after EEG-brain-computer-interface (BCI) rehabilitation training and use an explainable deep learning method to identify the most important features of EEG power spectral density and functional connectivity contributing to prediction. The prediction accuracy of the multi-states fusion network was 82%, significantly improved compared with a single-state model. The neural network explanation result demonstrated the important region and frequency oscillation bands. Specifically, in those two states, power spectral density and functional connectivity were shown as the regions and bands related to motor recovery in frontal, central, and occipital. Moreover, the motor recovery relation in bands, the power spectrum density shows the bands at delta and alpha bands. The functional connectivity shows the delta, theta, and alpha bands in the EC state; delta, theta, and beta mid at the EO state are related to motor recovery. Multi-state fusion neural networks, which combine multiple states of EEG signals into a single network, can increase the accuracy of predicting motor recovery after BCI training, and reveal the underlying mechanisms of motor recovery in brain activity.

RevDate: 2024-04-06

Liu F, Zheng H, Ma S, et al (2024)

Advancing brain-inspired computing with hybrid neural networks.

National science review, 11(5):nwae066.

Brain-inspired computing, drawing inspiration from the fundamental structure and information-processing mechanisms of the human brain, has gained significant momentum in recent years. It has emerged as a research paradigm centered on brain-computer dual-driven and multi-network integration. One noteworthy instance of this paradigm is the hybrid neural network (HNN), which integrates computer-science-oriented artificial neural networks (ANNs) with neuroscience-oriented spiking neural networks (SNNs). HNNs exhibit distinct advantages in various intelligent tasks, including perception, cognition and learning. This paper presents a comprehensive review of HNNs with an emphasis on their origin, concepts, biological perspective, construction framework and supporting systems. Furthermore, insights and suggestions for potential research directions are provided aiming to propel the advancement of the HNN paradigm.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Ning M, Duwadi S, Yücel MA, et al (2024)

fNIRS dataset during complex scene analysis.

Frontiers in human neuroscience, 18:1329086.

RevDate: 2024-04-04

Anonymous (2024)

Correction to: Transfer learning promotes acquisition of individual BCI skills.

PNAS nexus, 3(4):pgae137 pii:pgae137.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1093/pnasnexus/pgae076.].

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Wang L, Hong W, Zhu H, et al (2024)

Macrophage senescence in health and diseases.

Acta pharmaceutica Sinica. B, 14(4):1508-1524.

Macrophage senescence, manifested by the special form of durable cell cycle arrest and chronic low-grade inflammation like senescence-associated secretory phenotype, has long been considered harmful. Persistent senescence of macrophages may lead to maladaptation, immune dysfunction, and finally the development of age-related diseases, infections, autoimmune diseases, and malignancies. However, it is a ubiquitous, multi-factorial, and dynamic complex phenomenon that also plays roles in remodeled processes, including wound repair and embryogenesis. In this review, we summarize some general molecular changes and several specific biomarkers during macrophage senescence, which may bring new sight to recognize senescent macrophages in different conditions. Also, we take an in-depth look at the functional changes in senescent macrophages, including metabolism, autophagy, polarization, phagocytosis, antigen presentation, and infiltration or recruitment. Furthermore, some degenerations and diseases associated with senescent macrophages as well as the mechanisms or relevant genetic regulations of senescent macrophages are integrated, not only emphasizing the possibility of regulating macrophage senescence to benefit age-associated diseases but also has an implication on the finding of potential targets or drugs clinically.

RevDate: 2024-04-08
CmpDate: 2024-04-05

van Stuijvenberg OC, Broekman MLD, Wolff SEC, et al (2024)

Developer perspectives on the ethics of AI-driven neural implants: a qualitative study.

Scientific reports, 14(1):7880.

Convergence of neural implants with artificial intelligence (AI) presents opportunities for the development of novel neural implants and improvement of existing neurotechnologies. While such technological innovation carries great promise for the restoration of neurological functions, they also raise ethical challenges. Developers of AI-driven neural implants possess valuable knowledge on the possibilities, limitations and challenges raised by these innovations; yet their perspectives are underrepresented in academic literature. This study aims to explore perspectives of developers of neurotechnology to outline ethical implications of three AI-driven neural implants: a cochlear implant, a visual neural implant, and a motor intention decoding speech-brain-computer-interface. We conducted semi-structured focus groups with developers (n = 19) of AI-driven neural implants. Respondents shared ethically relevant considerations about AI-driven neural implants that we clustered into three themes: (1) design aspects; (2) challenges in clinical trials; (3) impact on users and society. Developers considered accuracy and reliability of AI-driven neural implants conditional for users' safety, authenticity, and mental privacy. These needs were magnified by the convergence with AI. Yet, the need for accuracy and reliability may also conflict with potential benefits of AI in terms of efficiency and complex data interpretation. We discuss strategies to mitigate these challenges.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Sun WB, Fu JX, Chen YL, et al (2024)

Both gain- and loss-of-function variants of KCNA1 are associated with paroxysmal kinesignic dyskinesia.

Journal of genetics and genomics = Yi chuan xue bao pii:S1673-8527(24)00066-3 [Epub ahead of print].

KCNA1 is the coding gene for Kv1.1 voltage-gated potassium channel α subunit. Three variants of KCNA1 have been reported to manifest as paroxysmal kinesignic dyskinesia (PKD), but the correlation between them remains unclear due to the phenotypic complexity of KCNA1 variants as well as the rarity of PKD cases. Using the whole exome sequencing followed by Sanger sequencing, we screen potential pathogenic KCNA1 variants in patients clinically diagnosed with paroxysmal movement disorders and identify three previously unreported missense variants of KCNA1 in three unrelated Chinese families. The proband of one family (c.496G>A, p.A166T) manifests as episodic ataxia type 1, and the other two (c.877G>A, p.V293I; and c.1112C>A, p.T371A) manifest as PKD. The pathogenicity of these variants is confirmed by functional studies, suggesting that p.A166T and p.T371A cause a loss-of-function of the channel, while p.V293I leads to a gain-of-function with the property of voltage-dependent gating and activation kinetic affected. By reviewing the locations of PKD-manifested KCNA1 variants in Kv1.1 protein, we find that these variants tend to cluster around the pore domain, which is similar to epilepsy. Thus, our study strengthens the correlation between KCNA1 variants and PKD and provides more information on genotype-phenotype correlations of KCNA1 channelopathy.

RevDate: 2024-04-05
CmpDate: 2024-04-04

Li H, Li Z, Yuan X, et al (2024)

Dynamic encoding of temperature in the central circadian circuit coordinates physiological activities.

Nature communications, 15(1):2834.

The circadian clock regulates animal physiological activities. How temperature reorganizes circadian-dependent physiological activities remains elusive. Here, using in-vivo two-photon imaging with the temperature control device, we investigated the response of the Drosophila central circadian circuit to temperature variation and identified that DN1as serves as the most sensitive temperature-sensing neurons. The circadian clock gate DN1a's diurnal temperature response. Trans-synaptic tracing, connectome analysis, and functional imaging data reveal that DN1as bidirectionally targets two circadian neuronal subsets: activity-related E cells and sleep-promoting DN3s. Specifically, behavioral data demonstrate that the DN1a-E cell circuit modulates the evening locomotion peak in response to cold temperature, while the DN1a-DN3 circuit controls the warm temperature-induced nocturnal sleep reduction. Our findings systematically and comprehensively illustrate how the central circadian circuit dynamically integrates temperature and light signals to effectively coordinate wakefulness and sleep at different times of the day, shedding light on the conserved neural mechanisms underlying temperature-regulated circadian physiology in animals.

RevDate: 2024-04-02

Li W, Li H, Sun X, et al (2024)

Self-supervised contrastive learning for EEG-based cross-subject motor imagery recognition.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The extensive application of electroencephalography (EEG) in brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) can be attributed to its non-invasive nature and capability to offer high-resolution data. The acquisition of EEG signals is a straightforward process, but the datasets associated with these signals frequently exhibit data scarcity and require substantial resources for proper labeling. Furthermore, there is a significant limitation in the generalization performance of EEG models due to the substantial inter-individual variability observed in EEG signals.

APPROACH: To address these issues, we propose a novel self-supervised contrastive learning framework for decoding motor imagery (MI) signals in cross-subject scenarios. Specifically, we design an encoder combining convolutional neural network and attention mechanism. In the contrastive learning training stage, the network undergoes training with the pretext task of data augmentation to minimize the distance between pairs of homologous transformations while simultaneously maximizing the distance between pairs of heterologous transformations. It enhances the amount of data utilized for training and improves the network's ability to extract deep features from original signals without relying on the true labels of the data.

MAIN RESULTS: To evaluate our framework's efficacy, we conduct extensive experiments on three public MI datasets: BCI IV IIa, BCI IV IIb, and HGD datasets. The proposed method achieves cross-subject classification accuracies of 67.32%, 82.34%, and 81.13% on the three datasets, demonstrating superior performance compared to existing methods.

SIGNIFICANCE: Therefore, this method has great promise for improving the performance of cross-subject transfer learning in MI-based BCI systems.

RevDate: 2024-04-02

Yang Q, Wu B, Castagnola E, et al (2024)

Integrated Microprism and Microelectrode Array for Simultaneous Electrophysiology and Two-Photon Imaging Across all Cortical Layers.

Advanced healthcare materials [Epub ahead of print].

Cerebral neural electronics play a crucial role in neuroscience research with increasing translational applications such as brain-computer interface for sensory input and motor output restoration. While widely utilized for decades, our understandings of the cellular mechanisms underlying this technology remains limited. Although two-photon microscopy (TPM) has shown great promise in imaging superficial neural electrodes, its application to deep-penetrating electrodes is unclear. Here, we introduce a novel device integrating transparent microelectrode arrays (MEAs) with glass microprisms, enabling electrophysiology recording and stimulation alongside TPM imaging across all cortical layers in a vertical plane. Tested in Thy1-GCaMP6 mice for over 4 months, our integrated device demonstrated the capability for multisite electrophysiological recording and simultaneous TPM calcium imaging. As a proof of concept, we investigated the impact of microstimulation amplitude, frequency, and depth on neural activation patterns throughout cortical layers using our setup. With future improvements in material stability and single unit yield, our multimodal tool can greatly expand integrated electrophysiology and optical imaging from the superficial brain to the entire cortical column, opening new avenues for neuroscience research and neurotechnology development. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2024-04-02

Rajeswaran P, Payeur A, Lajoie G, et al (2024)

Assistive sensory-motor perturbations influence learned neural representations.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2024.03.20.585972.

Task errors are used to learn and refine motor skills. We investigated how task assistance influences learned neural representations using Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs), which map neural activity into movement via a decoder. We analyzed motor cortex activity as monkeys practiced BCI with a decoder that adapted to improve or maintain performance over days. Population dimensionality remained constant or increased with learning, counter to trends with non-adaptive BCIs. Yet, over time, task information was contained in a smaller subset of neurons or population modes. Moreover, task information was ultimately stored in neural modes that occupied a small fraction of the population variance. An artificial neural network model suggests the adaptive decoders contribute to forming these compact neural representations. Our findings show that assistive decoders manipulate error information used for long-term learning computations, like credit assignment, which informs our understanding of motor learning and has implications for designing real-world BCIs.

RevDate: 2024-04-08
CmpDate: 2024-04-08

Venu K, P Natesan (2024)

Hybrid optimization assisted channel selection of EEG for deep learning model-based classification of motor imagery task.

Biomedizinische Technik. Biomedical engineering, 69(2):125-140.

OBJECTIVES: To design and develop an approach named HC + SMA-SSA scheme for classifying motor imagery task.

METHODS: The offered model employs a new method for classifying motor imagery task. Initially, down sampling is deployed to pre-process the incoming signal. Subsequently, "Modified Stockwell Transform (ST) and common spatial pattern (CSP) based features are extracted". Then, optimal channel selection is made by a novel hybrid optimization model named as Spider Monkey Assisted SSA (SMA-SSA). Here, "Long Short Term Memory (LSTM) and Bidirectional Gated Recurrent Unit (BI-GRU)" models are used for final classification, whose outcomes are averaged at the end. At last, the improvement of SMA-SSA based model is proven over different metrics.

RESULTS: A superior sensitivity of 0.939 is noted for HC + SMA-SSA that was higher over HC with no optimization and proposed with traditional ST.

CONCLUSIONS: The proposed method achieved effective classification performance in terms of performance measures.

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Fontaine AK, Segil JL, Caldwell JH, et al (2019)

Real-Time Prosthetic Digit Actuation by Optical Read-out of Activity-Dependent Calcium Signals in an Ex Vivo Peripheral Nerve.

International IEEE/EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering : [proceedings]. International IEEE EMBS Conference on Neural Engineering, 2019:143-146.

Improved neural interfacing strategies are needed for the full articulation of advanced prostheses. To address limitations of existing control interface designs, the work of our laboratory has presented an optical approach to reading activity from individual nerve fibers using activity-dependent calcium transients. Here, we demonstrate the feasibility of such signals to control prosthesis actuation by using the axonal fluorescence signal in an ex vivo mouse nerve to drive a prosthetic digit in real-time. Additionally, signals of varying action potential frequency are streamed post hoc to the prosthesis, showing graded motor output and the potential for proportional neural control. This proof-of-concept work is a novel demonstration of the functional use of activity-dependent optical read-out in the nerve.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Ilchev B, Chervenkov V, Valchev N, et al (2024)

Interdisciplinary Successful Revascularization of Traumatic Occlusion of the Right Common Carotid Artery.

Cureus, 16(3):e55395.

Blunt carotid artery injury (BCI) poses a rare yet severe threat following vascular trauma, often leading to significant morbidity and mortality. We present a case of a 33-year-old male who suffered complete thrombotic occlusion of the right common carotid artery (CCA) following a workplace accident. Clinical evaluation revealed profound neurological deficits, prompting multidisciplinary surgical intervention guided by the Denver criteria (Grade I - disruption inside the vessel that results in a narrowing of the lumen by less than 25%; Grade II - dissection or intramural hematoma causing greater than 25% stenosis; Grade III - comprises pseudoaneurysm formation; Grade IV - causes total vessel occlusion; Grade V - describes vessel transection with extravasation). Surgical exploration unveiled extensive arterial damage, necessitating thrombectomy, primary repair, and double-layered patch angioplasty using an autologous saphenous vein. Postoperative recovery was uneventful, with the restoration of pulsatile blood flow confirmed by Doppler ultrasound. Three-month follow-up demonstrated patent arterial reconstruction and improved cerebral perfusion, despite the persistent neurological deficits. Our case underscores the challenges in diagnosing and managing BCI, advocating for a tailored approach based on injury severity and neurological status. While conservative management remains standard, surgical intervention offers a viable option in select cases, particularly those with complete vessel occlusion and neurological compromise. Long-term surveillance is imperative to assess the durability of arterial reconstruction and monitor for recurrent thromboembolic events. Further research is warranted to refine management algorithms and elucidate optimal treatment strategies in this rare but critical vascular pathology.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Akuthota S, K R, J Ravichander (2024)

Artifact removal and motor imagery classification in EEG using advanced algorithms and modified DNN.

Heliyon, 10(7):e27198.

This paper presents an advanced approach for EEG artifact removal and motor imagery classification using a combination of Four Class Iterative Filtering and Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern Algorithm with a Modified Deep Neural Network (DNN) classifier. The research aims to enhance the accuracy and reliability of BCI systems by addressing the challenges posed by EEG artifacts and complex motor imagery tasks. The methodology begins by introducing FCIF, a novel technique for ocular artifact removal, utilizing iterative filtering and filter banks. FCIF's mathematical formulation allows for effective artifact mitigation, thereby improving the quality of EEG data. In tandem, the FC-FBCSP algorithm is introduced, extending the Filter Bank Common Spatial Pattern approach to handle four-class motor imagery classification. The Modified DNN classifier enhances the discriminatory power of the FC-FBCSP features, optimizing the classification process. The paper showcases a comprehensive experimental setup, featuring the utilization of BCI Competition IV Dataset 2a & 2b. Detailed preprocessing steps, including filtering and feature extraction, are presented with mathematical rigor. Results demonstrate the remarkable artifact removal capabilities of FCIF and the classification prowess of FC-FBCSP combined with the Modified DNN classifier. Comparative analysis highlights the superiority of the proposed approach over baseline methods and the method achieves the mean accuracy of 98.575%.

RevDate: 2024-04-03

Chen D (2024)

Improved empirical mode decomposition bagging RCSP combined with Fisher discriminant method for EEG feature extraction and classification.

Heliyon, 10(7):e28235.

BACKGROUND: Traditional Common Spatial Pattern (CSP) algorithms for Electroencephalogram (EEG) signal classification are sensitive to noise and can produce low accuracy in small sample datasets.

NEW METHOD: To solve the problem, an improved Empirical Mode Decomposition (EMD) Bagging Regularized CSP (RCSP) algorithm is proposed. It filters EEG signals through improved EMD, inhibits high-frequency noise, retains effective information in the characteristic frequency band, and uses Bagging algorithm for data reconstruction. Feature extraction is performed with regularization of spatial patterns and Fisher linear discriminant analysis for feature classification. T-test is used for classification.

RESULTS: The improved EMD Bagging RCSP algorithm has improved accuracy and robustness compared to CSP and its derivatives. The average classification rate is increased by about 6%, demonstrating the effectiveness and correctness of the proposed algorithm.Comparison with existing methods: The proposed algorithm outperforms CSP and its derivatives by retaining effective information and inhibiting high-frequency noise in small sample EEG datasets.

CONCLUSIONS: The proposed EMD Bagging RCSP algorithm provides a reliable and effective method for EEG signal classification and can be used in various applications, including brain-computer interfaces and clinical EEG diagnosis.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Chen D, Zhao Z, Zhang S, et al (2024)

Evolving Therapeutic Landscape of Intracerebral Hemorrhage: Emerging Cutting-Edge Advancements in Surgical Robots, Regenerative Medicine, and Neurorehabilitation Techniques.

Translational stroke research [Epub ahead of print].

Intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is the most serious form of stroke and has limited available therapeutic options. As knowledge on ICH rapidly develops, cutting-edge techniques in the fields of surgical robots, regenerative medicine, and neurorehabilitation may revolutionize ICH treatment. However, these new advances still must be translated into clinical practice. In this review, we examined several emerging therapeutic strategies and their major challenges in managing ICH, with a particular focus on innovative therapies involving robot-assisted minimally invasive surgery, stem cell transplantation, in situ neuronal reprogramming, and brain-computer interfaces. Despite the limited expansion of the drug armamentarium for ICH over the past few decades, the judicious selection of more efficacious therapeutic modalities and the exploration of multimodal combination therapies represent opportunities to improve patient prognoses after ICH.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Van Horn AL, JR Burgess (2024)

From Blunt Cardiac Injury to Heart Transplant Following Motorcycle Collision.

The American surgeon [Epub ahead of print].

Traumatic coronary artery occlusion and dissection is an exceedingly rare complication of blunt cardiac injury (BCI), though it has been previously noted in a number of case reports. However, it can also lead to heart transplant, which to our knowledge has not been previously described in the literature. We present a case of a healthy 24-year-old man without significant past medical history who was in a motorcycle accident, resulting in sternal fracture and BCI. He was ultimately found to have thrombotic occlusion and dissection of his left anterior descending artery (LAD), requiring mechanical thrombectomy and drug-eluting stent, as well as subsequent hospitalizations and operations due to various complications. It was suspected that he went into ventricular fibrillation and had a second motorcycle collision, resulting in cardiogenic shock. Ultimately, his progression of ischemic cardiomyopathy and mitral regurgitation led to the need for heart transplant. Blunt cardiac injury with myocardial contusion has such a broad range of pathologies. It is essential that patients with these injury patterns raise a high level of suspicion for BCI and are followed closely with appropriate diagnostic testing and rapid intervention for best possible outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Ling W, Shang X, Yu C, et al (2024)

Miniaturized Implantable Fluorescence Probes Integrated with Metal-Organic Frameworks for Deep Brain Dopamine Sensing.

ACS nano [Epub ahead of print].

Continuously monitoring neurotransmitter dynamics can offer profound insights into neural mechanisms and the etiology of neurological diseases. Here, we present a miniaturized implantable fluorescence probe integrated with metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) for deep brain dopamine sensing. The probe is assembled from physically thinned light-emitting diodes (LEDs) and phototransistors, along with functional surface coatings, resulting in a total thickness of 120 μm. A fluorescent MOF that specifically binds dopamine is introduced, enabling a highly sensitive dopamine measurement with a detection limit of 79.9 nM. A compact wireless circuit weighing only 0.85 g is also developed and interfaced with the probe, which was later applied to continuously monitor real-time dopamine levels during deep brain stimulation in rats, providing critical information on neurotransmitter dynamics. Cytotoxicity tests and immunofluorescence analysis further suggest a favorable biocompatibility of the probe for implantable applications. This work presents fundamental principles and techniques for integrating fluorescent MOFs and flexible electronics for brain-computer interfaces and may provide more customized platforms for applications in neuroscience, disease tracing, and smart diagnostics.

RevDate: 2024-04-02

Wei M, Xu K, Tang B, et al (2024)

Monolithic back-end-of-line integration of phase change materials into foundry-manufactured silicon photonics.

Nature communications, 15(1):2786.

Monolithic integration of novel materials without modifying the existing photonic component library is crucial to advancing heterogeneous silicon photonic integrated circuits. Here we show the introduction of a silicon nitride etch stop layer at select areas, coupled with low-loss oxide trench, enabling incorporation of functional materials without compromising foundry-verified device reliability. As an illustration, two distinct chalcogenide phase change materials (PCMs) with remarkable nonvolatile modulation capabilities, namely Sb2Se3 and Ge2Sb2Se4Te1, were monolithic back-end-of-line integrated, offering compact phase and intensity tuning units with zero-static power consumption. By employing these building blocks, the phase error of a push-pull Mach-Zehnder interferometer optical switch could be reduced with a 48% peak power consumption reduction. Mirco-ring filters with >5-bit wavelength selective intensity modulation and waveguide-based >7-bit intensity-modulation broadband attenuators could also be achieved. This foundry-compatible platform could open up the possibility of integrating other excellent optoelectronic materials into future silicon photonic process design kits.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Bader ER, Boro AD, Killian NJ, et al (2024)

A method for precisely timed, on-demand intracranial stimulation using the RNS device.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Chunduri V, Aoudni Y, Khan S, et al (2024)

Multi-Scale Spatiotemporal Attention Network for Neuron based Motor Imagery EEG Classification.

Journal of neuroscience methods pii:S0165-0270(24)00073-6 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: In recent times, the expeditious expansion of Brain-Computer Interface (BCI) technology in neuroscience, which relies on electroencephalogram (EEG) signals associated with motor imagery, has yielded outcomes that rival conventional approaches, notably due to the triumph of deep learning. Nevertheless, the task of developing and training a comprehensive network to extract the underlying characteristics of motor imagining EEG data continues to pose challenges.

NEW METHOD: This paper presents a multi-scale spatiotemporal self-attention (SA) network model that relies on an attention mechanism. This model aims to classify motor imagination EEG signals into four classes (left hand, right hand, foot, tongue/rest) by considering the temporal and spatial properties of EEG. It is employed to autonomously allocate greater weights to channels linked to motor activity and lesser weights to channels not related to movement, thus choosing the most suitable channels. Neuron utilises parallel multi-scale Temporal Convolutional Network (TCN) layers to extract feature information in the temporal domain at various scales, effectively eliminating temporal domain noise.

RESULTS: The suggested model achieves accuracies of 79.26%, 85.90%, and 96.96% on the BCI competition datasets IV-2a, IV-2b, and HGD, respectively.

In terms of single-subject classification accuracy, this strategy demonstrates superior performance compared to existing methods.

CONCLUSION: The results indicate that the proposed strategy exhibits favourable performance, resilience, and transfer learning capabilities.

RevDate: 2024-03-29

Wang W, Zhou H, Xu Z, et al (2024)

Flexible Conformally Bioadhesive MXene Hydrogel Electronics for Machine Learning-Facilitated Human-Interactive Sensing.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) [Epub ahead of print].

Wearable epidermic electronics assembled from conductive hydrogels are attracting various research attention for their seamless integration with human body for conformally real-time health monitoring, clinical diagnostics and medical treatment, and human-interactive sensing. Nevertheless, it remains a tremendous challenge to simultaneously achieve conformally bioadhesive epidermic electronics with remarkable self-adhesiveness, reliable ultraviolet (UV)-protection ability, and admirable sensing performance for high-fidelity epidermal electrophysiological signals monitoring, along with timely photothermal therapeutic performances after medical diagnostic sensing, as well as efficient antibacterial activity and reliable hemostatic effect for potential medical therapy. Herein, a conformally bioadhesive hydrogel-based epidermic sensor, featuring superior self-adhesiveness and excellent UV-protection performance, is developed by dexterously assembling conducting MXene nanosheets network with biological hydrogel polymer network for conformally stably attaching onto human skin for high-quality recording of various epidermal electrophysiological signals with high signal-to-noise ratios (SNR) and low interfacial impedance for intelligent medical diagnosis and smart human-machine interface. Moreover, a smart sign language gesture recognition platform based on collected EMG signals are designed for hassle-free communication with hearing-impaired people with the help of advanced machine learning algorithms. Meanwhile, the bioadhesive MXene hydrogel possesses reliable antibacterial capability, excellent biocompatibility and effective hemostasis properties for promising bacterial-infected wound bleeding. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Bossi F, Ciardo F, G Mostafaoui (2024)

Editorial: Neurocognitive features of human-robot and human-machine interaction.

Frontiers in psychology, 15:1394970.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Racz FS, Kumar S, Kaposzta Z, et al (2024)

Combining detrended cross-correlation analysis with Riemannian geometry-based classification for improved brain-computer interface performance.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 18:1271831.

Riemannian geometry-based classification (RGBC) gained popularity in the field of brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) lately, due to its ability to deal with non-stationarities arising in electroencephalography (EEG) data. Domain adaptation, however, is most often performed on sample covariance matrices (SCMs) obtained from EEG data, and thus might not fully account for components affecting covariance estimation itself, such as regional trends. Detrended cross-correlation analysis (DCCA) can be utilized to estimate the covariance structure of such signals, yet it is computationally expensive in its original form. A recently proposed online implementation of DCCA, however, allows for its fast computation and thus makes it possible to employ DCCA in real-time applications. In this study we propose to replace the SCM with the DCCA matrix as input to RGBC and assess its effect on offline and online BCI performance. First we evaluated the proposed decoding pipeline offline on previously recorded EEG data from 18 individuals performing left and right hand motor imagery (MI), and benchmarked it against vanilla RGBC and popular MI-detection approaches. Subsequently, we recruited eight participants (with previous BCI experience) who operated an MI-based BCI (MI-BCI) online using the DCCA-enhanced Riemannian decoder. Finally, we tested the proposed method on a public, multi-class MI-BCI dataset. During offline evaluations the DCCA-based decoder consistently and significantly outperformed the other approaches. Online evaluation confirmed that the DCCA matrix could be computed in real-time even for 22-channel EEG, as well as subjects could control the MI-BCI with high command delivery (normalized Cohen's κ: 0.7409 ± 0.1515) and sample-wise MI detection (normalized Cohen's κ: 0.5200 ± 0.1610). Post-hoc analysis indicated characteristic connectivity patterns under both MI conditions, with stronger connectivity in the hemisphere contralateral to the MI task. Additionally, fractal scaling exponent of neural activity was found increased in the contralateral compared to the ipsilateral motor cortices (C4 and C3 for left and right MI, respectively) in both classes. Combining DCCA with Riemannian geometry-based decoding yields a robust and effective decoder, that not only improves upon the SCM-based approach but can also provide relevant information on the neurophysiological processes behind MI.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Abbott JR, Jeakle EN, Haghighi P, et al (2024)

Planar amorphous silicon carbide microelectrode arrays for chronic recording in rat motor cortex.

Biomaterials, 308:122543 pii:S0142-9612(24)00077-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Chronic implantation of intracortical microelectrode arrays (MEAs) capable of recording from individual neurons can be used for the development of brain-machine interfaces. However, these devices show reduced recording capabilities under chronic conditions due, at least in part, to the brain's foreign body response (FBR). This creates a need for MEAs that can minimize the FBR to possibly enable long-term recording. A potential approach to reduce the FBR is the use of MEAs with reduced cross-sectional geometries. Here, we fabricated 4-shank amorphous silicon carbide (a-SiC) MEAs and implanted them into the motor cortex of seven female Sprague-Dawley rats. Each a-SiC MEA shank was 8 μm thick by 20 μm wide and had sixteen sputtered iridium oxide film (SIROF) electrodes (4 per shank). A-SiC was chosen as the fabrication base for its high chemical stability, good electrical insulation properties, and amenability to thin film fabrication. Electrochemical analysis and neural recordings were performed weekly for 4 months. MEAs were characterized pre-implantation in buffered saline and in vivo using electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry at 50 mV/s and 50,000 mV/s. Neural recordings were analyzed for single unit activity. At the end of the study, animals were sacrificed for immunohistochemical analysis. We observed statistically significant, but small, increases in 1 and 30 kHz impedance values and 50,000 mV/s charge storage capacity over the 16-week implantation period. Slow sweep 50 mV/s CV and 1 Hz impedance did not significantly change over time. Impedance values increased from 11.6 MΩ to 13.5 MΩ at 1 Hz, 1.2 MΩ-2.9 MΩ at 1 kHz, and 0.11 MΩ-0.13 MΩ at 30 kHz over 16 weeks. The median charge storage capacity of the implanted electrodes at 50 mV/s was 58.1 mC/cm[2] on week 1 and 55.9 mC/cm[2] on week 16, and at 50,000 mV/s, 4.27 mC/cm[2] on week 1 and 5.93 mC/cm[2] on week 16. Devices were able to record neural activity from 92% of all active channels at the beginning of the study, At the study endpoint, a-SiC devices were still recording single-unit activity on 51% of electrochemically active electrode channels. In addition, we observed that the signal-to-noise ratio experienced a small decline of -0.19 per week. We also classified observed units as fast and slow repolarizing based on the trough-to-peak time. Although the overall presence of single units declined, fast and slow repolarizing units declined at a similar rate. At recording electrode depth, immunohistochemistry showed minimal tissue response to the a-SiC devices, as indicated by statistically insignificant differences in activated glial cell response between implanted brains slices and contralateral sham slices at 150 μm away from the implant location, as evidenced by GFAP staining. NeuN staining revealed the presence of neuronal cell bodies close to the implantation site, again statistically not different from a contralateral sham slice. These results warrant further investigation of a-SiC MEAs for future long-term implantation neural recording studies.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Ergün E, Aydemir Ö, OE Korkmaz (2024)

Investigating the informative brain region in multiclass electroencephalography and near infrared spectroscopy based BCI system using band power based features.

Computer methods in biomechanics and biomedical engineering [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years, various brain imaging techniques have been used as input signals for brain-computer interface (BCI) systems. Electroencephalography (EEG) and near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) are two prominent techniques in this field, each with its own advantages and limitations. As a result, there is a growing tendency to integrate these methods in a hybrid within BCI systems. The primary aim of this study is to identify highly functional brain regions within an EEG + NIRS-based BCI system. To achieve this, the research focused on identifying EEG electrodes positioned in different brain lobes and then investigating the functionality of each lobe. The methodology involved segmenting the EEG + NIRS dataset into 2.4 s time windows, and then extracting band-power based features from these segmented signals. A classification algorithm, specifically the k-nearest neighbor algorithm, was then used to classify the features. The result was a remarkable classification accuracy (CA) of 95.54%±1.31 when using the active brain region within the hybrid model. These results underline the effectiveness of the proposed approach, as it outperformed both standalone EEG and NIRS modalities in terms of CA by 5.19% and 40.90%, respectively. Furthermore, the results confirm the considerable potential of the method in classifying EEG + NIRS signals recorded during tasks such as reading text while scrolling in different directions, including right, left, up and down. This research heralds a promising step towards enhancing the capabilities of BCI systems by harnessing the synergistic power of EEG and NIRS technologies.

RevDate: 2024-03-30
CmpDate: 2024-03-29

Albán-Escobar M, Navarrete-Arroyo P, De la Cruz-Guevara DR, et al (2024)

Assistance Device Based on SSVEP-BCI Online to Control a 6-DOF Robotic Arm.

Sensors (Basel, Switzerland), 24(6):.

This paper explores the potential benefits of integrating a brain-computer interface (BCI) utilizing the visual-evoked potential paradigm (SSVEP) with a six-degrees-of-freedom (6-DOF) robotic arm to enhance rehabilitation tools. The SSVEP-BCI employs electroencephalography (EEG) as a method of measuring neural responses inside the occipital lobe in reaction to pre-established visual stimulus frequencies. The BCI offline and online studies yielded accuracy rates of 75% and 83%, respectively, indicating the efficacy of the system in accurately detecting and capturing user intent. The robotic arm achieves planar motion by utilizing a total of five control frequencies. The results of this experiment exhibited a high level of precision and consistency, as indicated by the recorded values of ±0.85 and ±1.49 cm for accuracy and repeatability, respectively. Moreover, during the performance tests conducted with the task of constructing a square within each plane, the system demonstrated accuracy of 79% and 83%. The use of SSVEP-BCI and a robotic arm together shows promise and sets a solid foundation for the development of assistive technologies that aim to improve the health of people with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spina bifida, and other related diseases.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Pais-Vieira C, Figueiredo JG, Perrotta A, et al (2024)

Activation of a Rhythmic Lower Limb Movement Pattern during the Use of a Multimodal Brain-Computer Interface: A Case Study of a Clinically Complete Spinal Cord Injury.

Life (Basel, Switzerland), 14(3):.

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) that integrate virtual reality with tactile feedback are increasingly relevant for neurorehabilitation in spinal cord injury (SCI). In our previous case study employing a BCI-based virtual reality neurorehabilitation protocol, a patient with complete T4 SCI experienced reduced pain and emergence of non-spastic lower limb movements after 10 sessions. However, it is still unclear whether these effects can be sustained, enhanced, and replicated, as well as the neural mechanisms that underlie them. The present report outlines the outcomes of extending the previous protocol with 24 more sessions (14 months, in total). Clinical, behavioral, and neurophysiological data were analyzed. The protocol maintained or reduced pain levels, increased self-reported quality of life, and was frequently associated with the appearance of non-spastic lower limb movements when the patient was engaged and not experiencing stressful events. Neural activity analysis revealed that changes in pain were encoded in the theta frequency band by the left frontal electrode F3. Examination of the lower limbs revealed alternating movements resembling a gait pattern. These results suggest that sustained use of this BCI protocol leads to enhanced quality of life, reduced and stable pain levels, and may result in the emergence of rhythmic patterns of lower limb muscle activity reminiscent of gait.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Yao X, Li T, Ding P, et al (2024)

Emotion Classification Based on Transformer and CNN for EEG Spatial-Temporal Feature Learning.

Brain sciences, 14(3):.

OBJECTIVES: The temporal and spatial information of electroencephalogram (EEG) signals is crucial for recognizing features in emotion classification models, but it excessively relies on manual feature extraction. The transformer model has the capability of performing automatic feature extraction; however, its potential has not been fully explored in the classification of emotion-related EEG signals. To address these challenges, the present study proposes a novel model based on transformer and convolutional neural networks (TCNN) for EEG spatial-temporal (EEG ST) feature learning to automatic emotion classification.

METHODS: The proposed EEG ST-TCNN model utilizes position encoding (PE) and multi-head attention to perceive channel positions and timing information in EEG signals. Two parallel transformer encoders in the model are used to extract spatial and temporal features from emotion-related EEG signals, and a CNN is used to aggregate the EEG's spatial and temporal features, which are subsequently classified using Softmax.

RESULTS: The proposed EEG ST-TCNN model achieved an accuracy of 96.67% on the SEED dataset and accuracies of 95.73%, 96.95%, and 96.34% for the arousal-valence, arousal, and valence dimensions, respectively, for the DEAP dataset.

CONCLUSIONS: The results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed ST-TCNN model, with superior performance in emotion classification compared to recent relevant studies.

SIGNIFICANCE: The proposed EEG ST-TCNN model has the potential to be used for EEG-based automatic emotion recognition.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Kuang M, Zhan Z, S Gao (2024)

Natural Image Reconstruction from fMRI Based on Node-Edge Interaction and Multi-Scale Constraint.

Brain sciences, 14(3):.

Reconstructing natural stimulus images using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is one of the most challenging problems in brain decoding and is also the crucial component of a brain-computer interface. Previous methods cannot fully exploit the information about interactions among brain regions. In this paper, we propose a natural image reconstruction method based on node-edge interaction and a multi-scale constraint. Inspired by the extensive information interactions in the brain, a novel graph neural network block with node-edge interaction (NEI-GNN block) is presented, which can adequately model the information exchange between brain areas via alternatively updating the nodes and edges. Additionally, to enhance the quality of reconstructed images in terms of both global structure and local detail, we employ a multi-stage reconstruction network that restricts the reconstructed images in a coarse-to-fine manner across multiple scales. Qualitative experiments on the generic object decoding (GOD) dataset demonstrate that the reconstructed images contain accurate structural information and rich texture details. Furthermore, the proposed method surpasses the existing state-of-the-art methods in terms of accuracy in the commonly used n-way evaluation. Our approach achieves 82.00%, 59.40%, 45.20% in n-way mean squared error (MSE) evaluation and 83.50%, 61.80%, 46.00% in n-way structural similarity index measure (SSIM) evaluation, respectively. Our experiments reveal the importance of information interaction among brain areas and also demonstrate the potential for developing visual-decoding brain-computer interfaces.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Gu X, Jiang L, Chen H, et al (2024)

Exploring Brain Dynamics via EEG and Steady-State Activation Map Networks in Music Composition.

Brain sciences, 14(3):.

In recent years, the integration of brain-computer interface technology and neural networks in the field of music generation has garnered widespread attention. These studies aimed to extract individual-specific emotional and state information from electroencephalogram (EEG) signals to generate unique musical compositions. While existing research has focused primarily on brain regions associated with emotions, this study extends this research to brain regions related to musical composition. To this end, a novel neural network model incorporating attention mechanisms and steady-state activation mapping (SSAM) was proposed. In this model, the self-attention module enhances task-related information in the current state matrix, while the extended attention module captures the importance of state matrices over different time frames. Additionally, a convolutional neural network layer is used to capture spatial information. Finally, the ECA module integrates the frequency information learned by the model in each of the four frequency bands, mapping these by learning their complementary frequency information into the final attention representation. Evaluations conducted on a dataset specifically constructed for this study revealed that the model surpassed representative models in the emotion recognition field, with recognition rate improvements of 1.47% and 3.83% for two different music states. Analysis of the attention matrix indicates that the left frontal lobe and occipital lobe are the most critical brain regions in distinguishing between 'recall and creation' states, while FP1, FPZ, O1, OZ, and O2 are the electrodes most related to this state. In our study of the correlations and significances between these areas and other electrodes, we found that individuals with musical training exhibit more extensive functional connectivity across multiple brain regions. This discovery not only deepens our understanding of how musical training can enhance the brain's ability to work in coordination but also provides crucial guidance for the advancement of brain-computer music generation technologies, particularly in the selection of key brain areas and electrode configurations. We hope our research can guide the work of EEG-based music generation to create better and more personalized music.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Niu C, Yan Z, Yin K, et al (2024)

Identification and Verification of Error-Related Potentials Based on Cerebellar Targets.

Brain sciences, 14(3):.

The error-related potential (ErrP) is a weak explicit representation of the human brain for individual wrong behaviors. Previously, ErrP-related research usually focused on the design of automatic correction and the error correction mechanisms of high-risk pipeline-type judgment systems. Mounting evidence suggests that the cerebellum plays an important role in various cognitive processes. Thus, this study introduced cerebellar information to enhance the online classification effect of error-related potentials. We introduced cerebellar regional characteristics and improved discriminative canonical pattern matching (DCPM) in terms of data training and model building. In addition, this study focused on the application value and significance of cerebellar error-related potential characterization in the selection of excellent ErrP-BCI subjects (brain-computer interface). Here, we studied a specific ErrP, the so-called feedback ErrP. Thirty participants participated in this study. The comparative experiments showed that the improved DCPM classification algorithm proposed in this paper improved the balance accuracy by approximately 5-10% compared with the original algorithm. In addition, a correlation analysis was conducted between the error-related potential indicators of each brain region and the classification effect of feedback ErrP-BCI data, and the Fisher coefficient of the cerebellar region was determined as the quantitative screening index of the subjects. The screened subjects were superior to other subjects in the performance of the classification algorithm, and the performance of the classification algorithm was improved by up to 10%.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Wu S, Bhadra K, Giraud AL, et al (2024)

Adaptive LDA Classifier Enhances Real-Time Control of an EEG Brain-Computer Interface for Decoding Imagined Syllables.

Brain sciences, 14(3):.

Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCIs) aim to establish a pathway between the brain and an external device without the involvement of the motor system, relying exclusively on neural signals. Such systems have the potential to provide a means of communication for patients who have lost the ability to speak due to a neurological disorder. Traditional methodologies for decoding imagined speech directly from brain signals often deploy static classifiers, that is, decoders that are computed once at the beginning of the experiment and remain unchanged throughout the BCI use. However, this approach might be inadequate to effectively handle the non-stationary nature of electroencephalography (EEG) signals and the learning that accompanies BCI use, as parameters are expected to change, and all the more in a real-time setting. To address this limitation, we developed an adaptive classifier that updates its parameters based on the incoming data in real time. We first identified optimal parameters (the update coefficient, UC) to be used in an adaptive Linear Discriminant Analysis (LDA) classifier, using a previously recorded EEG dataset, acquired while healthy participants controlled a binary BCI based on imagined syllable decoding. We subsequently tested the effectiveness of this optimization in a real-time BCI control setting. Twenty healthy participants performed two BCI control sessions based on the imagery of two syllables, using a static LDA and an adaptive LDA classifier, in randomized order. As hypothesized, the adaptive classifier led to better performances than the static one in this real-time BCI control task. Furthermore, the optimal parameters for the adaptive classifier were closely aligned in both datasets, acquired using the same syllable imagery task. These findings highlight the effectiveness and reliability of adaptive LDA classifiers for real-time imagined speech decoding. Such an improvement can shorten the training time and favor the development of multi-class BCIs, representing a clear interest for non-invasive systems notably characterized by low decoding accuracies.

RevDate: 2024-03-29
CmpDate: 2024-03-29

Andrade K, Houmani N, Guieysse T, et al (2024)

Self-Modulation of Gamma-Band Synchronization through EEG-Neurofeedback Training in the Elderly.

Journal of integrative neuroscience, 23(3):67.

BACKGROUND: Electroencephalography (EEG) stands as a pivotal non-invasive tool, capturing brain signals with millisecond precision and enabling real-time monitoring of individuals' mental states. Using appropriate biomarkers extracted from these EEG signals and presenting them back in a neurofeedback loop offers a unique avenue for promoting neural compensation mechanisms. This approach empowers individuals to skillfully modulate their brain activity. Recent years have witnessed the identification of neural biomarkers associated with aging, underscoring the potential of neuromodulation to regulate brain activity in the elderly.

METHODS AND OBJECTIVES: Within the framework of an EEG-based brain-computer interface, this study focused on three neural biomarkers that may be disturbed in the aging brain: Peak Alpha Frequency, Gamma-band synchronization, and Theta/Beta ratio. The primary objectives were twofold: (1) to investigate whether elderly individuals with subjective memory complaints can learn to modulate their brain activity, through EEG-neurofeedback training, in a rigorously designed double-blind, placebo-controlled study; and (2) to explore potential cognitive enhancements resulting from this neuromodulation.

RESULTS: A significant self-modulation of the Gamma-band synchronization biomarker, critical for numerous higher cognitive functions and known to decline with age, and even more in Alzheimer's disease (AD), was exclusively observed in the group undergoing EEG-neurofeedback training. This effect starkly contrasted with subjects receiving sham feedback. While this neuromodulation did not directly impact cognitive abilities, as assessed by pre- versus post-training neuropsychological tests, the high baseline cognitive performance of all subjects at study entry likely contributed to this result.

CONCLUSION: The findings of this double-blind study align with a key criterion for successful neuromodulation, highlighting the significant potential of Gamma-band synchronization in such a process. This important outcome encourages further exploration of EEG-neurofeedback on this specific neural biomarker as a promising intervention to counter the cognitive decline that often accompanies brain aging and, eventually, to modify the progression of AD.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Wei 魏赣超 G, Tajik Mansouri زینب تاجیک منصوری Z, Wang 王晓婧 X, et al (2024)

Calibrating Bayesian decoders of neural spiking activity.

The Journal of neuroscience : the official journal of the Society for Neuroscience pii:JNEUROSCI.2158-23.2024 [Epub ahead of print].

Accurately decoding external variables from observations of neural activity is a major challenge in systems neuroscience. Bayesian decoders, that provide probabilistic estimates, are some of the most widely used. Here we show how, in many common settings, the probabilistic predictions made by traditional Bayesian decoders are overconfident. That is, the estimates for the decoded stimulus or movement variables are more certain than they should be. We then show how Bayesian decoding with latent variables, taking account of low-dimensional shared variability in the observations, can improve calibration, although additional correction for overconfidence is still needed. Using data from males, we examine: 1) decoding the direction of grating stimuli from spike recordings in primary visual cortex in monkeys, 2) decoding movement direction from recordings in primary motor cortex in monkeys, 3) decoding natural images from multi-region recordings in mice, and 4) decoding position from hippocampal recordings in rats. For each setting we characterize the overconfidence, and we describe a possible method to correct miscalibration post-hoc. Properly calibrated Bayesian decoders may alter theoretical results on probabilistic population coding and lead to brain machine interfaces that more accurately reflect confidence levels when identifying external variables.Significance Statement Bayesian decoding is a statistical technique for making probabilistic predictions about external stimuli or movements based on recordings of neural activity. These predictions may be useful for robust brain machine interfaces or for understanding perceptual or behavioral confidence. However, the probabilities produced by these models do not always match the observed outcomes. Just as a weather forecast predicting a 50% chance of rain may not accurately correspond to an outcome of rain 50% of the time, Bayesian decoders of neural activity can be miscalibrated as well. Here we identify and measure miscalibration of Bayesian decoders for neural spiking activity in a range of experimental settings. We compare multiple statistical models and demonstrate how overconfidence can be corrected.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Brannigan J, McClanahan A, Hui F, et al (2024)

Superior cortical venous anatomy for endovascular device implantation: a systematic review.

Journal of neurointerventional surgery pii:jnis-2023-021434 [Epub ahead of print].

Endovascular electrode arrays provide a minimally invasive approach to access intracranial structures for neural recording and stimulation. These arrays are currently used as brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) and are deployed within the superior sagittal sinus (SSS), although cortical vein implantation could improve the quality and quantity of recorded signals. However, the anatomy of the superior cortical veins is heterogenous and poorly characterised. MEDLINE and Embase databases were systematically searched from inception to December 15, 2023 for studies describing the anatomy of the superior cortical veins. A total of 28 studies were included: 19 cross-sectional imaging studies, six cadaveric studies, one intraoperative anatomical study and one review. There was substantial variability in cortical vein diameter, length, confluence angle, and location relative to the underlying cortex. The mean number of SSS branches ranged from 11 to 45. The vein of Trolard was most often reported as the largest superior cortical vein, with a mean diameter ranging from 2.1 mm to 3.3 mm. The mean vein of Trolard was identified posterior to the central sulcus. One study found a significant age-related variability in cortical vein diameter and another identified myoendothelial sphincters at the base of the cortical veins. Cortical vein anatomical data are limited and inconsistent. The vein of Trolard is the largest tributary vein of the SSS; however, its relation to the underlying cortex is variable. Variability in cortical vein anatomy may necessitate individualized pre-procedural planning of training and neural decoding in endovascular BCI. Future focus on the relation to the underlying cortex, sulcal vessels, and vessel wall anatomy is required.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Soldado-Magraner J, Antonietti A, French J, et al (2024)

Applying the IEEE BRAIN neuroethics framework to intra-cortical brain-computer interfaces.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

Brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are neuroprosthetic devices that allow for direct interaction between brains and machines. These types of neurotechnologies have recently experienced a strong drive in research and development, given, in part, that they promise to restore motor and communication abilities in individuals experiencing severe paralysis. While a rich literature analyzes the ethical, legal, and sociocultural implications (ELSCI) of these novel neurotechnologies, engineers, clinicians and BCI practitioners often do not have enough exposure to these topics. Here, we present the IEEE Neuroethics Framework, an international, multiyear, iterative initiative aimed at developing a robust, accessible set of considerations for diverse stakeholders. Using the framework, we provide practical examples of ELSCI considerations for BCI neurotechnologies. We focus on invasive technologies, and in particular, devices that are implanted intra-cortically for medical research applications. We demonstrate the utility of our framework in exposing a wide range of implications across different intra-cortical BCI technology modalities and conclude with recommendations on how to utilize this knowledge in the development and application of ethical guidelines for BCI neurotechnologies.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Suematsu N, Vazquez AL, TDY Kozai (2024)

Activation and depression of neural and hemodynamic responses induced by the intracortical microstimulation and visual stimulation in the mouse visual cortex.

Journal of neural engineering [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Intracortical microstimulation can be an effective method for restoring sensory perception in contemporary brain-machine interfaces. However, the mechanisms underlying better control of neuronal responses remain poorly understood, as well as the relationship between neuronal activity and other concomitant phenomena occurring around the stimulation site.

APPROACH: Different microstimulation frequencies were investigated in vivo on Thy1-GCaMP6s mice using widefield and two-photon imaging to evaluate the evoked excitatory neural responses across multiple spatial scales as well as the induced hemodynamic responses. Specifically, we quantified stimulation-induced neuronal activation and depression in the mouse visual cortex and measured hemodynamic oxyhemoglobin and deoxyhemoglobin signals using mesoscopic-scale widefield imaging. Main results. Our calcium imaging findings revealed a preference for lower-frequency stimulation in driving stronger neuronal activation. A depressive response following the neural activation preferred a slightly higher frequency stimulation compared to the activation. Hemodynamic signals exhibited a comparable spatial spread to neural calcium signals. Oxyhemoglobin concentration around the stimulation site remained elevated during the post-activation (depression) period. Somatic and neuropil calcium responses measured by two-photon microscopy showed similar dependence on stimulation parameters, although the magnitudes measured in soma was greater than in neuropil. Furthermore, higher-frequency stimulation induced a more pronounced activation in soma compared to neuropil, while depression was predominantly induced in soma irrespective of stimulation frequencies.

SIGNIFICANCE: These results suggest that the mechanism underlying depression differs from activation, requiring ample oxygen supply, and affecting neurons. Our findings provide a novel understanding of evoked excitatory neuronal activity induced by intracortical microstimulation and offer insights into neuro-devices that utilize both activation and depression phenomena to achieve desired neural responses. .

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Liang G, Cao D, Wang J, et al (2024)

EISATC-Fusion: Inception Self-Attention Temporal Convolutional Network Fusion for Motor Imagery EEG Decoding.

IEEE transactions on neural systems and rehabilitation engineering : a publication of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society, PP: [Epub ahead of print].

The motor imagery brain-computer interface (MI-BCI) based on electroencephalography (EEG) is a widely used human-machine interface paradigm. However, due to the non-stationarity and individual differences among subjects in EEG signals, the decoding accuracy is limited, affecting the application of the MI-BCI. In this paper, we propose the EISATC-Fusion model for MI EEG decoding, consisting of inception block, multi-head self-attention (MSA), temporal convolutional network (TCN), and layer fusion. Specifically, we design a DS Inception block to extract multi-scale frequency band information. And design a new cnnCosMSA module based on CNN and cos attention to solve the attention collapse and improve the interpretability of the model. The TCN module is improved by the depthwise separable convolution to reduces the parameters of the model. The layer fusion consists of feature fusion and decision fusion, fully utilizing the features output by the model and enhances the robustness of the model. We improve the two-stage training strategy for model training. Early stopping is used to prevent model overfitting, and the accuracy and loss of the validation set are used as indicators for early stopping. The proposed model achieves within-subject classification accuracies of 84.57% and 87.58% on BCI Competition IV Datasets 2a and 2b, respectively. And the model achieves cross-subject classification accuracies of 67.42% and 71.23% (by transfer learning) when training the model with two sessions and one session of Dataset 2a, respectively. The interpretability of the model is demonstrated through weight visualization method.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Siu C, Aoude M, Andersen J, et al (2024)

The lived experiences of play and the perspectives of disabled children and their parents surrounding brain-computer interfaces.

Disability and rehabilitation. Assistive technology [Epub ahead of print].

Brain-computer interfaces (BCI) offer promise to the play of children with significant physical impairments, as BCI technology can enable disabled children to control computer devices, toys, and robots using only their brain signals. However, there is little research on the unique needs of disabled children when it comes to BCI-enabled play. Thus, this paper explored the lived experiences of play for children with significant physical impairments and examined how BCI could potentially be implemented into disabled children's play experiences by applying a social model of childhood disability. Descriptive qualitative methodology was employed by conducting four semi-structured interviews with two children with significant physical impairments and their parents. We found that disabled children's play can be interpreted as passive or active depending on one's definition and perceptions surrounding play. Moreover, disabled children continue to face physical, economic, and technological barriers in their play, as well as play restrictions from physical impairments. We urge that future research should strive to directly hear from disabled children themselves, as their perspectives may differ from their parents' views. Also, future BCI development should strive to incorporate video games, recreational and entertainment applications/platforms, toys and switch-adapted toys, and power wheelchairs to better support the play of children with significant physical impairments.Implications for RehabilitationAssistive technology research should strive to examine the social, infrastructural, and environmental barriers that continue to disable and restrict participation for disabled children and their families through applying a social model of childhood disability and other holistic frameworks that look beyond individual factorsFuture research that examines the needs and lives of disabled children should strive to directly seek the opinions and perspectives of disabled children themselvesBrain-computer interface development should strive to incorporate video games, recreational and entertainment applications/platforms, toys and switch-adapted toys, and power wheelchairs to better support the play of children with significant physical impairments.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Wang G, Tang J, Yin Z, et al (2024)

The neurocomputational signature of decision-making for unfair offers in females under acute psychological stress.

Neurobiology of stress, 30:100622.

Stress is a crucial factor affecting social decision-making. However, its impacts on the behavioral and neural processes of females' unfairness decision-making remain unclear. Combining computational modeling and functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS), this study attempted to illuminate the neurocomputational signature of unfairness decision-making in females. We also considered the effect of trait stress coping styles. Forty-four healthy young females (20.98 ± 2.89 years) were randomly assigned to the stress group (n = 21) and the control group (n = 23). Acute psychosocial stress was induced by the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST), and participants then completed the one-shot ultimatum game (UG) as responders. The results showed that acute psychosocial stress reduced the adaptability to fairness and lead to more random decision-making responses. Moreover, in the stress group, a high level of negative coping style predicted more deterministic decision. fNIRS results showed that stress led to an increase of oxy-hemoglobin (HbO) peak in the right temporoparietal junction (rTPJ), while decreased the activation of left middle temporal gyrus (lMTG) when presented the moderately unfair (MU) offers. This signified more involvement of the mentalization and the inhibition of moral processing. Moreover, individuals with higher negative coping scores showed more deterministic decision behaviors under stress. Taken together, our study emphasizes the role of acute psychosocial stress in affecting females' unfairness decision-making mechanisms in social interactions, and provides evidences for the "tend and befriend" pattern based on a cognitive neuroscience perspec.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Hu S, Ng CH, JJ Mann (2024)

Editorial: Linking treatment target identification to biological mechanisms underlying mood disorders - Volume II.

Frontiers in psychiatry, 15:1385955.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Assi DS, Huang H, Karthikeyan V, et al (2024)

Topological Quantum Switching enabled Neuroelectronic Synaptic Modulators for Brain Computer Interface.

Advanced materials (Deerfield Beach, Fla.) [Epub ahead of print].

Aging and genetic-related disorders in the human brain lead to impairment of daily cognitive functions. Due to their neural synaptic complexity and the current limits of knowledge, reversing these disorders remains a substantial challenge for Brain-Computer Interfaces (BCI). In this work, we provide a solution to potentially override aging and neurological disorder-related cognitive function loss in the human brain through the application of our quantum synaptic device. To illustrate this point, we design and develop a quantum topological insulator (QTI) Bi2Se2Te-based synaptic neuroelectronic device, where the electric field-induced tunable topological surface edge states and quantum switching properties make them a premier option for establishing artificial synaptic neuromodulation approaches. Leveraging these unique quantum synaptic properties, our developed synaptic device provides the capability to neuromodulate distorted neural signals, leading to the reversal of age-related disorders via BCI. With the synaptic neuroelectronic characteristics of our device, we demonstrate excellent efficacy in treating cognitive neural dysfunctions through modulated neuromorphic stimuli. As a proof of concept, we demonstrate real-time neuromodulation of electroencephalogram (EEG) deduced distorted event-related potentials (ERP) by modulation of our synaptic device array. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2024-03-26

Losey DM, Hennig JA, Oby ER, et al (2024)

Learning leaves a memory trace in motor cortex.

Current biology : CB pii:S0960-9822(24)00298-7 [Epub ahead of print].

How are we able to learn new behaviors without disrupting previously learned ones? To understand how the brain achieves this, we used a brain-computer interface (BCI) learning paradigm, which enables us to detect the presence of a memory of one behavior while performing another. We found that learning to use a new BCI map altered the neural activity that monkeys produced when they returned to using a familiar BCI map in a way that was specific to the learning experience. That is, learning left a "memory trace" in the primary motor cortex. This memory trace coexisted with proficient performance under the familiar map, primarily by altering neural activity in dimensions that did not impact behavior. Forming memory traces might be how the brain is able to provide for the joint learning of multiple behaviors without interference.

RevDate: 2024-03-26

Kesarwani M, Kincaid Z, Azhar M, et al (2024)

Enhanced MAPK signaling induced by CSF3Rmutants confers dependence to DUSP1 for leukemic transformation.

Blood advances pii:515498 [Epub ahead of print].

Elevated MAPK and the JAK-STAT signaling play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of chronic neutrophilic leukemia (CNL) and atypical chronic myeloid leukemia (aCML). While inhibitors targeting these pathways effectively suppress the diseases, they fall short in providing enduring remission, largely attributed to cytostatic nature of these drugs. Even combinations of these drugs are ineffective in achieving sustained remission. Enhanced MAPK signaling besides promoting proliferation and survival triggers a pro-apoptotic response. Consequently, malignancies reliant on elevated MAPK signaling employ MAPK-feedback regulators to intricately modulate the signaling output, prioritizing proliferation and survival while dampening the apoptotic stimuli. Herein, we demonstrate that enhanced MAPK signaling in CSF3R (Granulocyte-colony stimulating factor receptor)-driven leukemia upregulates the expression of Dual specificity phosphatase 1 (DUSP1) to suppress the apoptotic stimuli crucial for leukemogenesis. Consequently, genetic deletion of Dusp1 in mice conferred synthetic lethality to CSF3R-induced leukemia. Mechanistically, DUSP1 depletion in leukemic context causes activation of JNK1/2 that results in induced expression of BIM and P53 while suppressing the expression BCL2 that selectively triggers apoptotic response in leukemic cells. Pharmacological inhibition of DUSP1 by BCI (a DUSP1 inhibitor) alone lacked anti-leukemic activity due to ERK1/2 rebound caused by off-target inhibition of DUSP6. Consequently, a combination of BCI with a MEK inhibitor successfully cured CSF3R-induced leukemia in a preclinical mouse model. Our findings underscore the pivotal role of DUSP1 in leukemic transformation driven by enhanced MAPK signaling and advocate for the development of a selective DUSP1 inhibitor for curative treatment outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-03-26

Meng L, He L, Chen M, et al (2024)

The compensation effect of competence frustration and its behavioral manifestations.

PsyCh journal [Epub ahead of print].

The frustration of competence, one of the three basic psychological needs proposed by self-determination theory, has been widely demonstrated to negatively influence one's motivation and well-being in both work and life. However, research on the recovery mechanism of competence is still in the nascent stage. In this study, a two-stage behavioral experiment was conducted to examine the restoration of competence and the potential moderating role of resilience. Results showed that individuals who were asked to recall experience of competence frustration performed better on subsequent tasks, manifesting their behavioral efforts of competence restoration. However, resilience does not play a significant moderating role in competence restoration. Through convergent behavioral evidence, findings of this study demonstrate the compensation effect of competence frustration.

RevDate: 2024-03-26

Lein A, Baumgartner WD, Riss D, et al (2024)

Early Results With the New Active Bone-Conduction Hearing Implant: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Otolaryngology--head and neck surgery : official journal of American Academy of Otolaryngology-Head and Neck Surgery [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: The bone conduction implant (BCI) 602 is a new transcutaneous BCI with smaller dimensions. However, limited patient numbers restrict the statistical power and generalizability of the current studies. The present systematic review and meta-analysis summarize early audiological and medical outcomes of adult and pediatric patients implanted with the BCI 602 due to mixed or conductive hearing loss.

DATA SOURCE: Following the Preferred Reporting items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses guidelines, 108 studies were reviewed, and 6 (5.6%) were included in the meta-analysis.

REVIEW METHOD: The data on study and patient characteristics, surgical outcomes, and audiological test results were extracted from each article. Meta-analysis employed the fixed-effect and random-effects models to analyze the mean differences (MDs) between pre- and postoperative performances.

RESULTS: In total, 116 patients were evaluated, including 64 (55%) adult and 52 (45%) pediatric patients. No intraoperative adverse events were reported, while postoperative complications were reported in 2 (3.1%) adult and 2 (3.8%) pediatric patients. Studies consistently showed significant improvements in audiological outcomes, quality of life, and sound localization in the aided condition. In the meta-analysis, we observed a significant difference in the unaided compared to the aided condition in sound field thresholds (n = 112; MD, -27.05 dB; P < 0.01), signal-to-noise ratio (n = 96; MD, -6.35 dB; P < 0.01), and word recognition scores (n = 96; MD, 68.89%; P < 0.01).

CONCLUSION: The implantation of the BCI 602 was associated with minimal surgical complications and excellent audiological outcomes for both the pediatric and the adult cohort. Therefore, our analysis indicates a high level of safety and reliability. Further research should focus on direct comparisons with other BCIs and long-term functional outcomes.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

Administrator

Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

Publisher

While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

Speaker

Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

Facilitator

Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

Designer

Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Rajesh Rao has written the perfect introduction to the exciting world of brain-computer interfaces. The book is remarkably comprehensive — not only including full descriptions of classic and current experiments but also covering essential background concepts, from the brain to Bayes and back. Brain-Computer Interfacing will be welcomed by a wide range of intelligent readers interested in understanding the first steps toward the symbiotic merger of brains and computers. Eberhard E. Fetz, UW

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

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