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28 Sep 2021 at 01:33
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Bibliography on: Alzheimer Disease — Treatment


Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 28 Sep 2021 at 01:33 Created: 

Alzheimer Disease — Treatment

Alzheimer's disease is an irreversible, progressive brain disorder that slowly destroys memory and thinking skills, and eventually the ability to carry out the simplest tasks. In most people with Alzheimer's, symptoms first appear in their mid-60s. Alzheimer's is the most common cause of dementia among older adults. Dementia is the loss of cognitive functioning — thinking, remembering, and reasoning — and behavioral abilities to such an extent that it interferes with a person's daily life and activities. Dementia ranges in severity from the mildest stage, when it is just beginning to affect a person's functioning, to the most severe stage, when the person must depend completely on others for basic activities of daily living. Scientists don't yet fully understand what causes Alzheimer's disease in most people. There is a genetic component to some cases of early-onset Alzheimer's disease. Late-onset Alzheimer's arises from a complex series of brain changes that occur over decades. The causes probably include a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. The importance of any one of these factors in increasing or decreasing the risk of developing Alzheimer's may differ from person to person. Because of this lack of understanding of the root cause for Alzheimer's Disease, no direct treatment for the condition is yet available. However, this bibliography specifically searches for the idea of treatment in conjunction with Alzheimer's to make it easier to track literature that explores the possibility of treatment.

Created with PubMed® Query: alzheimer[TIAB] AND treatment[TIAB] NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2021-09-27

Mintzer J, Lanctôt KL, Scherer RW, et al (2021)

Effect of Methylphenidate on Apathy in Patients With Alzheimer Disease: The ADMET 2 Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA neurology pii:2784538 [Epub ahead of print].

Importance: Apathy, characterized by diminished will or initiative and one of the most prevalent neuropsychiatric symptoms in individuals with Alzheimer disease, is associated with significant caregiver burden, excess disability, increased medical costs, and mortality.

Objective: To measure whether methylphenidate compared with placebo decreases the severity of apathy in individuals with Alzheimer disease.

This multicenter randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial was conducted from August 2016 to July 2020 in 9 US clinics and 1 Canadian clinic specializing in dementia care. A total of 307 potential participants were screened. Of those, 52 did not pass screening and 55 were not eligible. Participants with Alzheimer disease, mild to moderate cognitive impairment, and frequent and/or severe apathy as measured by the Neuropsychiatric Inventory (NPI) were included.

Interventions: Ten milligrams of methylphenidate, twice daily, vs matching placebo.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The coprimary outcomes included (1) change from baseline to 6 months in the NPI apathy subscale or (2) improved rating on the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Clinical Global Impression of Change. Other outcomes include safety, change in cognition, and quality of life.

Results: Of 200 participants, 99 were assigned to methylphenidate and 101 to placebo. The median (interquartile range) age of study participants was 76 (71-81) years; 68 (34%) were female and 131 (66%) were male. A larger decrease was found from baseline to 6 months in the NPI apathy score in those receiving methylphenidate compared with placebo (mean difference, -1.25; 95% CI, -2.03 to -0.47; P = .002). The largest decrease in the NPI apathy score was observed in the first 100 days, with a significant hazard ratio for the proportion of participants with no apathy symptoms receiving methylphenidate compared with placebo (hazard ratio, 2.16; 95% CI, 1.19-3.91; P = .01). At 6 months, the odds ratio of having an improved rating on the Alzheimer's Disease Cooperative Study Clinical Global Impression of Change for methylphenidate compared with placebo was 1.90 (95% CI, 0.95-3.84; P = .07). The difference in mean change from baseline to 6 months estimated using a longitudinal model was 1.43 (95% CI, 1.00-2.04; P = .048). Cognitive measures and quality of life were not significantly different between groups. Of the 17 serious adverse events that occurred during the study, none were related to the study drug. No significant differences in the safety profile were noted between treatment groups.

Conclusions and Relevance: This study found methylphenidate to be a safe and efficacious medication to use in the treatment of apathy in Alzheimer disease.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02346201.

RevDate: 2021-09-27

Vossel K, Ranasinghe KG, Beagle AJ, et al (2021)

Effect of Levetiracetam on Cognition in Patients With Alzheimer Disease With and Without Epileptiform Activity: A Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA neurology pii:2784539 [Epub ahead of print].

Importance: Network hyperexcitability may contribute to cognitive dysfunction in patients with Alzheimer disease (AD).

Objective: To determine the ability of the antiseizure drug levetiracetam to improve cognition in persons with AD.

The Levetiracetam for Alzheimer's Disease-Associated Network Hyperexcitability (LEV-AD) study was a phase 2a randomized double-blinded placebo-controlled crossover clinical trial of 34 adults with AD that was conducted at the University of California, San Francisco, and the University of Minnesota, Twin Cities, between October 16, 2014, and July 21, 2020. Participants were adults 80 years and younger who had a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 18 points or higher and/or a Clinical Dementia Rating score of less than 2 points. Screening included overnight video electroencephalography and a 1-hour resting magnetoencephalography examination.

Interventions: Group A received placebo twice daily for 4 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period, then oral levetiracetam, 125 mg, twice daily for 4 weeks. Group B received treatment using the reverse sequence.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was the ability of levetiracetam treatment to improve executive function (measured by the National Institutes of Health Executive Abilities: Measures and Instruments for Neurobehavioral Evaluation and Research [NIH-EXAMINER] composite score). Secondary outcomes were cognition (measured by the Stroop Color and Word Test [Stroop] interference naming subscale and the Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-Cognitive Subscale) and disability. Exploratory outcomes included performance on a virtual route learning test and scores on cognitive and functional tests among participants with epileptiform activity.

Results: Of 54 adults assessed for eligibility, 11 did not meet study criteria, and 9 declined to participate. A total of 34 adults (21 women [61.8%]; mean [SD] age, 62.3 [7.7] years) with AD were enrolled and randomized (17 participants to group A and 17 participants to group B). Thirteen participants (38.2%) were categorized as having epileptiform activity. In total, 28 participants (82.4%) completed the study, 10 of whom (35.7%) had epileptiform activity. Overall, treatment with levetiracetam did not change NIH-EXAMINER composite scores (mean difference vs placebo, 0.07 points; 95% CI, -0.18 to 0.32 points; P = .55) or secondary measures. However, among participants with epileptiform activity, levetiracetam treatment improved performance on the Stroop interference naming subscale (net improvement vs placebo, 7.4 points; 95% CI, 0.2-14.7 points; P = .046) and the virtual route learning test (t = 2.36; Cohen f2 = 0.11; P = .02). There were no treatment discontinuations because of adverse events.

Conclusions and Relevance: In this randomized clinical trial, levetiracetam was well tolerated and, although it did not improve the primary outcome, in prespecified analysis, levetiracetam improved performance on spatial memory and executive function tasks in patients with AD and epileptiform activity. These exploratory findings warrant further assessment of antiseizure approaches in AD.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT02002819.

RevDate: 2021-09-27

Hairu R, Close JCT, Lord SR, et al (2021)

The association between white matter hyperintensity volume and cognitive/physical decline in older people with dementia: A one-year longitudinal study.

Aging & mental health [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: Understanding the relationship between white matter hyperintensities (WMHs) and cognitive and physical decline in people with dementia will assist in determining potential treatment strategies. Currently there is conflicting evidence describing the association between WMHs and cognitive decline and, WMHs association with declines in objective measures of physical function have not been examined. We examined the relationship between baseline WMH volume and physical/cognitive decline over one-year in older people with dementia.

METHODS: Twenty-six community-dwelling older people with dementia (mean age = 81 ± 8 years; 35% female) were assessed at baseline and follow-up (one-year) using the Addenbrooke's Cognitive Examination-Revised (including verbal fluency), Trail Making Test A, the Physiological Profile Assessment (PPA), timed-up-and-go (TUG) and gait speed. WMH volumes were quantified using a fully automated segmentation toolbox, UBO Detector.

RESULTS: In analyses adjusted for baseline performance, higher baseline WMH volume was associated with decline in executive function (verbal fluency), sensorimotor function (PPA) and mobility (TUG). Executive function (semantic/category fluency) was the only domain association that withstood adjustment for age, and additionally hippocampal volume.

CONCLUSIONS: In unadjusted analyses, WMH volume was associated with one-year declines in cognitive and physical function in older people with dementia. The association with executive function decline withstood adjustment for age. More research is needed to confirm these findings and explore whether vascular risk reduction strategies can reduce WMH volume and associated cognitive and physical impairments in this group.

RevDate: 2021-09-24

Erekat NS (2021)

Apoptosis and its therapeutic implications in neurodegenerative diseases.

Clinical anatomy (New York, N.Y.) [Epub ahead of print].

Neurodegenerative disorders are characterized by progressive loss of particular populations of neurons. Apoptosis has been implicated in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, Huntington disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In this review, we focus on the existing notions relevant to comprehending the apoptotic death process, including the morphological features, mediators and regulators of cellular apoptosis. We also highlight the evidence of neuronal apoptotic death in Parkinson disease, Alzheimer disease, Huntington disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Additionally, we present evidence of potential therapeutic agents that could modify the apoptotic pathway in the aforementioned neurodegenerative diseases and delay disease progression. Finally, we review the clinical trials that were conducted to evaluate the use of anti-apoptotic drugs in the treatment of the aforementioned neurodegenerative diseases, in order to highlight the essential need for early detection and intervention of neurodegenerative diseases in humans.

RevDate: 2021-09-24

Jiang Z, Shi Y, Zhao W, et al (2021)

Association between chronic periodontitis and the risk of Alzheimer's disease: combination of text mining and GEO dataset.

BMC oral health, 21(1):466.

BACKGROUND: Although chronic periodontitis has previously been reported to be linked with Alzheimer's disease (AD), the pathogenesis between the two is unclear. The purpose of this study is to analyze and screen the relevant and promising molecular markers between chronic periodontitis and Alzheimer's disease (AD).

METHODS: In this paper, we analyzed three AD expression datasets and extracted differentially expressed genes (DEGs), then intersected them with chronic periodontitis genes obtained from text mining, and finally obtained integrated DEGs. We followed that by enriching the matching the matching cell signal cascade through DAVID analysis. Moreover, the MCODE of Cytoscape software was employed to uncover the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network and the matching hub gene. Finally, we verified our data using a different independent AD cohort.

RESULTS: The chronic periodontitis gene set acquired from text abstracting was intersected with the previously obtained three AD groups, and 12 common genes were obtained. Functional enrichment assessment uncovered 12 cross-genes, which were mainly linked to cell morphogenesis involved in neuron differentiation, leading edge membrane, and receptor ligand activity. After PPI network creation, the ten hub genes linked to AD were retrieved, consisting of SPP1, THY1, CD44, ITGB1, HSPB3, CREB1, SST, UCHL1, CCL5 and BMP7. Finally, the function terms in the new independent dataset were used to verify the previous dataset, and we found 22 GO terms and one pathway, "ECM-receptor interaction pathways", in the overlapping functional terms.

CONCLUSIONS: The establishment of the above-mentioned candidate key genes, as well as the enriched signaling cascades, provides promising molecular markers for chronic periodontitis-related AD, which may help the diagnosis and treatment of AD patients in the future.

RevDate: 2021-09-23

Mengr A, Hrubá L, Exnerová A, et al (2021)

Palmitoylated prolactin-releasing peptide reduced Aβ plaques and microgliosis in the cerebellum: APP/PS1 mice study.

Current Alzheimer research pii:CAR-EPUB-118110 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Prolactin-releasing peptide (PrRP) is a potential drug for the treatment of obesity and associated type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) due to its strong anorexigenic and antidiabetic properties. In our recent study, the lipidized PrRP analog palm11-PrRP31 was proven to exert beneficial effects in APP/PS1 mice, a model of Alzheimer´s disease (AD)-like amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology, reducing the Aβ plaque load, microgliosis and astrocytosis in the hippocampus and cortex.

OBJECTIVE: In this study, we focused on the neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory effects of palm11-PrRP31 and its possible impact on synaptogenesis in the cerebellum of APP/PS1 mice, because others have suggested that cerebellar Aβ plaques contribute to cognitive deficits in AD.

METHODS: APP/PS1 mice were treated subcutaneously with palm11-PrRP31 for 2 months, then immunoblotting and immunohistochemistry were used to quantify pathological markers connected to AD, compared to control mice.

RESULTS: In the cerebella of 8 months old APP/PS1 mice, we found widespread Aβ plaques surrounded by activated microglia detected by ionized calcium-binding adapter molecule (Iba1), but no increase in astrocytic marker glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) compared to controls. Interestingly, no difference in both presynaptic markers syntaxin1A and postsynaptic marker spinophilin was registered between APP/PS1 and control mice. Palm11-PrRP31 treatment significantly reduced the Aβ plaque load and microgliosis in the cerebellum. Furthermore, palm11-PrRP31 increased synaptogenesis and attenuated neuroinflammation and apoptosis in the hippocampus of APP/PS1 mice.

CONCLUSION: These results suggest palm11-PrRP31 is a promising agent for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

RevDate: 2021-09-25

Jutten RJ, Sikkes SAM, Van der Flier WM, et al (2021)

Finding Treatment Effects in Alzheimer Trials in the Face of Disease Progression Heterogeneity.

Neurology, 96(22):e2673-e2684.

OBJECTIVE: To investigate the influence of heterogeneity in disease progression for detecting treatment effects in Alzheimer disease (AD) trials, using a simulation study.

METHODS: Individuals with an abnormal amyloid PET scan, diagnosis of mild cognitive impairment or dementia, baseline Mini-Mental State Examination (MMSE) score ≥24, global Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) score of 0.5, and ≥1 follow-up cognitive assessment were selected from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative database (n = 302, age 73 ± 6.7; 44% female; 16.1 ± 2.7 years of education; 69% APOE ε4 carrier). We simulated a clinical trial by randomly assigning individuals to a "placebo" and "treatment" group and subsequently computed group differences on the CDR-sum of boxes (CDR-SB), Alzheimer's Disease Assessment Scale-cognitive subscale-13 and MMSE after 18 months follow-up. We repeated this simulation 10,000 times to determine the 95% range of effect sizes. We further studied the influence of known AD risk factors (age, sex, education, APOE ε4 status, CSF total tau levels) on the variability in effect sizes.

RESULTS: Individual trajectories on all cognitive outcomes were highly variable, and the 95% ranges of possible effect sizes at 18 months were broad (e.g., ranging from 0.35 improvement to 0.35 decline on the CDR-SB). Results of recent anti-amyloid trials mostly fell within these 95% ranges of effect sizes. APOE ε4 carriers and individuals with abnormal baseline tau levels showed faster decline at group level, but also greater within-group variability, as illustrated by broader 95% effect size ranges (e.g., ±0.70 points for the CDR-SB).

CONCLUSIONS: Individuals with early AD show heterogeneity in disease progression, which increases when stratifying on risk factors associated with progression. We provide guidance for a priori effect sizes on cognitive outcomes for detecting true change, which is crucial for future AD trials.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Janelidze S, Teunissen CE, Zetterberg H, et al (2021)

Head-to-Head Comparison of 8 Plasma Amyloid-β 42/40 Assays in Alzheimer Disease.

JAMA neurology pii:2784411 [Epub ahead of print].

Importance: Blood-based tests for brain amyloid-β (Aβ) pathology are needed for widespread implementation of Alzheimer disease (AD) biomarkers in clinical care and to facilitate patient screening and monitoring of treatment responses in clinical trials.

Objective: To compare the performance of plasma Aβ42/40 measured using 8 different Aβ assays when detecting abnormal brain Aβ status in patients with early AD.

This study included 182 cognitively unimpaired participants and 104 patients with mild cognitive impairment from the BioFINDER cohort who were enrolled at 3 different hospitals in Sweden and underwent Aβ positron emission tomography (PET) imaging and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and plasma collection from 2010 to 2014. Plasma Aβ42/40 was measured using an immunoprecipitation-coupled mass spectrometry developed at Washington University (IP-MS-WashU), antibody-free liquid chromatography MS developed by Araclon (LC-MS-Arc), and immunoassays from Roche Diagnostics (IA-Elc); Euroimmun (IA-EI); and Amsterdam University Medical Center, ADx Neurosciences, and Quanterix (IA-N4PE). Plasma Aβ42/40 was also measured using an IP-MS-based method from Shimadzu in 200 participants (IP-MS-Shim) and an IP-MS-based method from the University of Gothenburg (IP-MS-UGOT) and another immunoassay from Quanterix (IA-Quan) among 227 participants. For validation, 122 participants (51 cognitively normal, 51 with mild cognitive impairment, and 20 with AD dementia) were included from the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative who underwent Aβ-PET and plasma Aβ assessments using IP-MS-WashU, IP-MS-Shim, IP-MS-UGOT, IA-Elc, IA-N4PE, and IA-Quan assays.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Discriminative accuracy of plasma Aβ42/40 quantified using 8 different assays for abnormal CSF Aβ42/40 and Aβ-PET status.

Results: A total of 408 participants were included in this study. In the BioFINDER cohort, the mean (SD) age was 71.6 (5.6) years and 49.3% of the cohort were women. When identifying participants with abnormal CSF Aβ42/40 in the whole cohort, plasma IP-MS-WashU Aβ42/40 showed significantly higher accuracy (area under the receiver operating characteristic curve [AUC], 0.86; 95% CI, 0.81-0.90) than LC-MS-Arc Aβ42/40, IA-Elc Aβ42/40, IA-EI Aβ42/40, and IA-N4PE Aβ42/40 (AUC range, 0.69-0.78; P < .05). Plasma IP-MS-WashU Aβ42/40 performed significantly better than IP-MS-UGOT Aβ42/40 and IA-Quan Aβ42/40 (AUC, 0.84 vs 0.68 and 0.64, respectively; P < .001), while there was no difference in the AUCs between IP-MS-WashU Aβ42/40 and IP-MS-Shim Aβ42/40 (0.87 vs 0.83; P = .16) in the 2 subcohorts where these biomarkers were available. The results were similar when using Aβ-PET as outcome. Plasma IPMS-WashU Aβ42/40 and IPMS-Shim Aβ42/40 showed highest coefficients for correlations with CSF Aβ42/40 (r range, 0.56-0.65). The BioFINDER results were replicated in the Alzheimer Disease Neuroimaging Initiative cohort (mean [SD] age, 72.4 [5.4] years; 43.4% women), where the IP-MS-WashU assay performed significantly better than the IP-MS-UGOT, IA-Elc, IA-N4PE, and IA-Quan assays but not the IP-MS-Shim assay.

Conclusions and Relevance: The results from 2 independent cohorts indicate that certain MS-based methods performed better than most of the immunoassays for plasma Aβ42/40 when detecting brain Aβ pathology.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Saredakis D, Keage HA, Corlis M, et al (2021)

The Effect of Reminiscence Therapy Using Virtual Reality on Apathy in Residential Aged Care: Multisite Nonrandomized Controlled Trial.

Journal of medical Internet research, 23(9):e29210 pii:v23i9e29210.

BACKGROUND: Apathy is a frequent and underrecognized neurological disorder symptom. Reduced goal-directed behavior caused by apathy is associated with poor outcomes for older adults in residential aged care. Recommended nonpharmacological treatments include person-centered therapy using information and communication technology. Virtual reality (VR) in the form of head-mounted displays (HMDs) is a fully immersive technology that provides access to a wide range of freely available content. The use of VR as a therapy tool has demonstrated promise in the treatment of posttraumatic stress disorder and anxiety. In addition, VR has been used to improve conditions including depression, anxiety, cognitive function, and balance in older adults with memory deficits, Alzheimer disease, and Parkinson disease. Research using VR for the symptoms of apathy in older adults living in residential aged care facilities is limited.

OBJECTIVE: This study aims to examine whether using HMDs as a tool for reminiscence therapy improves the symptoms of apathy compared with using a laptop computer and physical items with older adults living in residential aged care.

METHODS: In this multisite trial, 43 participants were allocated to one of three groups: reminiscence therapy intervention using VR in the form of HMDs, reminiscence therapy using a laptop computer supplemented by physical items if required (active control), and a usual care (passive control) group. The primary outcome was apathy, and the secondary outcomes included cognition and depression. The side effects of using HMDs were also measured in the VR group.

RESULTS: Mixed model analyses revealed no significant group interaction over time in outcomes between the VR and laptop groups (estimate=-2.24, SE 1.89; t40=-1.18; P=.24). Pooled apathy scores in the two intervention groups compared with the passive control group also revealed no significant group interaction over time (estimate=-0.26, SE 1.66; t40=-0.16; P=.88). There were no significant secondary outcomes. Most participants in the VR group stated that they would prefer to watch content in VR than on a flat screen (Χ22=11.2; P=.004), side effects from HMD use were negligible to minimal according to the Simulator Sickness Questionnaire cutoff scores.

CONCLUSIONS: Although there were no significant results in outcome measures, this study found that participants engaged in the research and enjoyed the process of reminiscing using both forms of technology. It was found that VR can be implemented in an aged care setting with correct protocols in place. Providing residents in aged care with a choice of technology may assist in increasing participation in activities. We cannot dismiss the importance of immediate effects while the therapy was in progress, and this is an avenue for future research.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry ACTRN12619001510134; https://www.anzctr.org.au/Trial/Registration/TrialReview.aspx?id=378564.

RR2-DOI: 10.1136/bmjopen-2020-046030.

RevDate: 2021-09-18

Liu KY, R Howard (2021)

Can we learn lessons from the FDA's approval of aducanumab?.

Nature reviews. Neurology [Epub ahead of print].

On 7 June 2021, aducanumab was granted accelerated approval for the treatment of Alzheimer disease (AD) by the FDA on the basis of amyloid-lowering effects considered reasonably likely to confer clinical benefit. This decision makes aducanumab the first new drug to be approved for the treatment of AD since 2003 and the first drug to ever be approved for modification of the course of AD. Many have questioned how scientific evidence, expert advice and the best interests of patients and families were considered in the approval decision. In this article, we argue that prior to approval, the FDA and Biogen's shared interpretation of clinical trial data - that high-dose aducanumab was substantially clinically effective - avoided conventional scientific scrutiny, was prominently advanced by patient representative groups who had been major recipients of Biogen funds, and raised concerns that safeguards were insufficient to mitigate regulatory capture within the FDA. Here, we reflect on events leading to the FDA's decision on 7 June 2021 and consider whether any lessons can be learned for the field.

RevDate: 2021-09-17

Lopez-Grancha M, Bernardelli P, Moindrot N, et al (2021)

A Novel Selective PKR Inhibitor Restores Cognitive Deficits and Neurodegeneration in Alzheimer Disease Experimental Models.

The Journal of pharmacology and experimental therapeutics, 378(3):262-275.

In Alzheimer disease (AD), the double-strand RNA-dependent kinase protein kinase R (PKR)/EIF2AK2 is activated in brain with increased phosphorylation of its substrate eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α). AD risk-promoting factors, such as ApoE4 allele or the accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid-β oligomers (AβOs), have been associated with activation of PKR-dependent signaling. Here, we report the discovery of a novel potent and selective PKR inhibitor (SAR439883) and demonstrate its neuroprotective pharmacological activity in AD experimental models. In ApoE4 human replacement male mice, 1-week oral treatment with SAR439883 rescued short-term memory impairment in the spatial object recognition test and dose-dependently reduced learning and memory deficits in the Barnes maze test. Moreover, in AβO-injected male mice, a 2-week administration of SAR439883 in diet dose-dependently ameliorated the AβO-induced cognitive impairment in both Y-maze and Morris Water Maze, prevented loss of synaptic proteins, and reduced levels of the proinflammatory cytokine interleukin-1β In both mouse models, these effects were associated with a dose-dependent inhibition of brain PKR activity as measured by both PKR occupancy and partial lowering of peIF2α levels. Our results provide evidence that selective pharmacological inhibition of PKR by a small selective molecule can rescue memory deficits and prevent neurodegeneration in animal models of AD-like pathology, suggesting that inhibition of PKR is a potential therapeutic approach for AD. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: This study reports the identification of a new small molecule potent and selective protein kinase R (PKR) inhibitor that can prevent cognitive deficits and neurodegeneration in Alzheimer disease (AD) experimental models, including a mouse model expressing the most prevalent AD genetic risk factor ApoE4. With high potency and selectivity, this PKR inhibitor represents a unique tool for investigating the physiological role of PKR and a starting point for developing new drug candidates for AD.

RevDate: 2021-09-22

Marazuela P, Solé M, Bonaterra-Pastra A, et al (2021)

MFG-E8 (LACTADHERIN): a novel marker associated with cerebral amyloid angiopathy.

Acta neuropathologica communications, 9(1):154.

Brain accumulation of amyloid-beta (Aβ) is a crucial feature in Alzheimer´s disease (AD) and cerebral amyloid angiopathy (CAA), although the pathophysiological relationship between these diseases remains unclear. Numerous proteins are associated with Aβ deposited in parenchymal plaques and/or cerebral vessels. We hypothesized that the study of these proteins would increase our understanding of the overlap and biological differences between these two pathologies and may yield new diagnostic tools and specific therapeutic targets. We used a laser capture microdissection approach combined with mass spectrometry in the APP23 transgenic mouse model of cerebral-β-amyloidosis to specifically identify vascular Aβ-associated proteins. We focused on one of the main proteins detected in the Aβ-affected cerebrovasculature: MFG-E8 (milk fat globule-EGF factor 8), also known as lactadherin. We first validated the presence of MFG-E8 in mouse and human brains. Immunofluorescence and immunoblotting studies revealed that MFG-E8 brain levels were higher in APP23 mice than in WT mice. Furthermore, MFG-E8 was strongly detected in Aβ-positive vessels in human postmortem CAA brains, whereas MFG-E8 was not present in parenchymal Aβ deposits. Levels of MFG-E8 were additionally analysed in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) from patients diagnosed with CAA, patients with AD and control subjects. Whereas no differences were found in MFG-E8 serum levels between groups, MFG-E8 concentration was significantly lower in the CSF of CAA patients compared to controls and AD patients. Finally, in human vascular smooth muscle cells MFG-E8 was protective against the toxic effects of the treatment with the Aβ40 peptide containing the Dutch mutation. In summary, our study shows that MFG-E8 is highly associated with CAA pathology and highlights MFG-E8 as a new CSF biomarker that could potentially be used to differentiate cerebrovascular Aβ pathology from parenchymal Aβ deposition.

RevDate: 2021-09-26

Gao F, Liu T, Tuo M, et al (2021)

The role of orexin in Alzheimer disease: From sleep-wake disturbance to therapeutic target.

Neuroscience letters, 765:136247 pii:S0304-3940(21)00626-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Accumulating evidence has shown that sleep disturbance is a common symptom in Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is regarded as a modifiable risk factor for AD. Orexin is a key modulator of the sleep-wake cycle and has been found to be dysregulated in AD patients. The increased orexin in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is associated with decreased sleep efficiency and REM sleep, as well as cognitive impairment in AD patients. The orexin system has profuse projections to brain regions that are implicated in arousal and cognition and has been found to participate in the progression of AD pathology. Conversely the orexin receptor antagonists are able to consolidate sleep and reduce AD pathology. Therefore, improved understanding of the mechanisms linking orexin system, sleep disturbance and AD could make orexin receptor antagonists a promising target for the prevention or treatment of AD.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Benseny-Cases N, Álvarez-Marimon E, Aso E, et al (2021)

In situ identification and G4-PPI-His-Mal-dendrimer-induced reduction of early-stage amyloid aggregates in Alzheimer's disease transgenic mice using synchrotron-based infrared imaging.

Scientific reports, 11(1):18368.

Amyloid plaques composed of Aβ amyloid peptides and neurofibrillary tangles are a pathological hallmark of Alzheimer Disease. In situ identification of early-stage amyloid aggregates in Alzheimer's disease is relevant for their importance as potential targets for effective drugs. Synchrotron-based infrared imaging is here used to identify early-stage oligomeric/granular aggregated amyloid species in situ in the brain of APP/PS1 transgenic mice for the first time. Also, APP/PS1 mice show fibrillary aggregates at 6 and 12 months. A significant decreased burden of early-stage aggregates and fibrillary aggregates is obtained following treatment with poly(propylene imine) dendrimers with histidine-maltose shell (a neurodegenerative protector) in 6-month-old APP/PS1 mice, thus demonstrating their putative therapeutic properties of in AD models. Identification, localization, and characterization using infrared imaging of these non-fibrillary species in the cerebral cortex at early stages of AD progression in transgenic mice point to their relevance as putative pharmacological targets. No less important, early detection of these structures may be useful in the search for markers for non-invasive diagnostic techniques.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Parker K, Vincent B, Rhee Y, et al (2021)

The estimated prevalence of no reported dementia-related diagnosis in older Americans living with possible dementia by healthcare utilization.

Aging clinical and experimental research [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Screening for dementia in relevant healthcare settings may help in identifying low cognitive functioning for comprehensive cognitive assessments and subsequent dementia treatment after diagnosis.

AIMS: This study sought to estimate the prevalence of no reported dementia-related diagnosis in a nationally-representative sample of older Americans with a cognitive impairment consistent with dementia (CICD) by healthcare utilization.

METHODS: The unweighted analytical sample included 1514 Americans aged ≥ 65 years that were identified as having a CICD without history of stroke, cancers, neurological conditions, or brain damage who participated in at least one-wave of the 2010-2016 waves of the Health and Retirement Study. An adapted Telephone Interview of Cognitive Status assessed cognitive functioning. Those with scores ≤ 6 had a CICD. Dementia-related diagnosis was self-reported. Respondents indicated if they visited a physician, received home healthcare, or experienced an overnight nursing home stay in the previous two years.

RESULTS: The prevalence of no reported dementia-related diagnosis in persons with a CICD who visited a physician was 89.9% (95% confidence interval (CI): 85.4%-93.1%). Likewise, the prevalence of no reported diagnosis in those with a CICD who received home healthcare was 84.3% (CI: 75.1-90.5%). For persons with a CICD that had an overnight nursing home stay, the prevalence of no reported dementia-related diagnosis was 83.0% (CI: 69.1-91.4%).

DISCUSSION: Although the prevalence of no reported dementia-related diagnosis in individuals with a CICD differed across healthcare settings, the prevalence was generally high nonetheless.

CONCLUSIONS: We recommend increased awareness and efforts be given to dementia screenings in various clinical settings.

RevDate: 2021-09-18

Wen J, Zhao M, Sun W, et al (2021)

Uptake of Aβ by OATPs might be a new pathophysiological mechanism of Alzheimer disease.

BMC neuroscience, 22(1):53.

BACKGROUND: The accumulation of neurotoxic amyloid-beta (Aβ) in the brain is a characteristic of Alzheimer's disease (AD), at the same time, it is possible alterations of liver function could affect brain Aβ levels through changes in blood Aβ concentration. Over the last decade, a number of reports have shown that P-glycoprotein (encoded by ABC1B1) actively mediates the efflux transport of Aβ peptides. However, the mechanism by which Aβ peptides enter the cells is not clear. In the preliminary study, we found that the protein expression of organic anion transporting Polypeptide 1a4 (OATP1B1) in the liver tissue of mice with AD was significantly higher than that in the normal mice. In contrast, the protein expression of Oatp1a4 in the brain significantly decreased in mice with AD. OATP1B1, an important drug transporter might be related to the pathophysiology of AD.

RESULTS: In this study, we established an OATP1B1-GFP-HEK293T cell model to confirm the OATP1B1 mediated transport of Aβ1-42. Compared to the control group of GFP-HEK293Tcells, the uptake of Aβ1-42 protein in the OATP1B1-GFP-HEK293T group increased significantly with the increase in concentration of Aβ1-42, and also increased significantly with an increase in the duration of incubation. Similar results were observed in the flow cytometry experiment, and the uptake of Aβ1-42in HEK293T-OATP1B1 cells was almost twice that in the control group. These results indicate that OATPs may act as an important "carrier" for the transport of Aβ1-42 from the blood to the tissues, including liver and brain.

CONCLUSIONS: This is a novel and interesting finding and OATP1B1 can be investigated as a new treatment target for AD.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Kozlowska U, Nichols C, Wiatr K, et al (2021)

From Psychiatry to Neurology: Psychedelics as Prospective Therapeutics for Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Journal of neurochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The studies of psychedelics, especially psychedelic tryptamines like psilocybin, are rapidly gaining interest in neuroscience research. Much of this interest stems from recent clinical studies demonstrating that they have a unique ability to improve the debilitating symptoms of major depressive disorder (MDD) long-term after only a single treatment. Indeed, the Food and Drug Administration (FDA) has recently designated two Phase III clinical trials studying the ability of psilocybin to treat forms of MDD with "Breakthrough Therapy" status. If successful, the use of psychedelics to treat psychiatric diseases like depression would be revolutionary. As more evidence appears in the scientific literature to support their use in psychiatry to treat MDD on and substance use disorders (SUD), recent studies with rodents revealed that their therapeutic effects might extend beyond treating MDD and SUD. For example, psychedelics may have efficacy in the treatment and prevention of brain injury and neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer Disease. Preclinical work has highlighted psychedelics' ability to induce neuroplasticity and synaptogenesis, and neural progenitor cell proliferation. Psychedelics may also act as immunomodulators by reducing levels of proinflammatory biomarkers, including IL-1β, IL-6, Tumor Necrosis Factor-α (TNF-α). Their exact molecular mechanisms, and induction of cellular interactions, especially between neural and glial cells, leading to therapeutic efficacy, remain to be determined. In this review, we discuss recent findings and information on how psychedelics may act therapeutically on cells within the Central Nervous System (CNS) during brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Schwartz JB, S Weintraub (2021)

Treatment for Alzheimer Disease-Sex and Gender Effects Need to Be Explicitly Analyzed and Reported in Clinical Trials.

JAMA network open, 4(9):e2124386 pii:2783987.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Tsolaki M, Tsatali M, Gkioka M, et al (2021)

Memory Clinics and Day Care Centers in Thessaloniki, Northern Greece: 30 Years of Clinical Practice and Experience.

Frontiers in neurology, 12:683131.

Background: This review describes the diagnostic and interventional procedures conducted in two university memory clinics (established network of G. Papanikolaou Hospital: 1988-2017 and AHEPA hospital: 2017-today) and 2 day care centers (established network of DCCs: 2005-today) in North Greece and their contribution in the scientific field of dementia. The aims of this work are (1) to provide a diagnosis and treatment protocol established in the network of memory clinics and DCCs and (2) to present further research conducted in the aforementioned network during the last 30 years of clinical practice. Methods: The guidelines to set a protocol demand a series of actions as follows: (1) set the diagnosis criteria, neuropsychological assessment, laboratory examinations, and examination of neurophysiological, neuroimaging, cerebrospinal fluid, blood, and genetic markers; and (2) apply non-pharmacological interventions according to the needs and specialized psychosocial interventions of the patient to the caregivers of the patient. Results: In addition to the guidelines followed in memory clinics at the 1st and 3rd Department of Neurology and two DCCs, a database of patients, educational programs, and further participation in international research programs, including clinical trials, make our contribution in the dementia field strong. Conclusion: In the current paper, we provide useful guidelines on how major and minor neurocognitive disorders are being treated in Thessaloniki, Greece, describing successful practices which have been adapted in the last 30 years.

RevDate: 2021-09-26

Baldinotti R, Fronza MG, Fetter J, et al (2021)

Protective effects of octylseleno-xylofuranoside in a streptozotocin-induced mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

European journal of pharmacology, 910:174499 pii:S0014-2999(21)00653-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Octylseleno-xylofuranoside (OSX) is an organic selenium compound which has previously shown antioxidant and antidepressant-like activities, trough the modulation of monoaminergic system and synaptic plasticity pathways. Since recent studies have suggested Major Depressive Disorder (MDD) as a potential risk factor or condition that precedes and correlates with Alzheimer's Disease (AD), this study aimed to evaluate the protective effects of OSX in an AD mouse model induced by intracerebroventricular injection of streptozotocin (STZ). To address this protective effect, mice were pre-treated with intragastrical OSX (0.1 mg/kg) or vehicle for 20 days. After the pre-treatment, mice were submitted to two alternated intracerebroventricular infusions of STZ (days 21 and 23) or saline. 15 days after the last STZ injection, cognitive and memory skills of the treated mice were evaluated on object recognition test, Y-maze, stepdown passive avoidance and social recognition paradigms. Added to that, measurements of oxidative stress markers and gene expression were evaluated in brain samples of the same mice groups. Mice pre-treatment with OSX protected mice from cognitive and memory decline elicited by STZ. This effect was attributed to the prevention of lipid peroxidation and modulation of acetylcholinesterase and monoamine oxidase activities in cerebral cortices and hippocampi by OSX treatment. Furthermore, OSX treatment demonstrated reduction of amyloidogenic pathway genes expression when compared to the control groups. Besides that, OSX treatment showed no hepatic and renal toxicity in the protocol used for treatment. Considering the antidepressant-like effect of OSX, together with the ability to prevent memory and cognitive impairment, this new compound may be an interesting strategy for targeting the comorbidity between MDD and AD, in a multitarget drug paradigm.

RevDate: 2021-09-24
CmpDate: 2021-09-24

Brenowitz WD, Xiang Y, McEvoy CT, et al (2021)

Current Alzheimer disease research highlights: evidence for novel risk factors.

Chinese medical journal, 134(18):2150-2159.

ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia characterized by the progressive cognitive and social decline. Clinical drug targets have heavily focused on the amyloid hypothesis, with amyloid beta (Aβ), and tau proteins as key pathophysiologic markers of AD. However, no effective treatment has been developed so far, which prompts researchers to focus on other aspects of AD beyond Aβ, and tau proteins. Additionally, there is a mounting epidemiologic evidence that various environmental factors influence the development of dementia and that dementia etiology is likely heterogenous. In the past decades, new risk factors or potential etiologies have been widely studied. Here, we review several novel epidemiologic and clinical research developments that focus on sleep, hypoxia, diet, gut microbiota, and hearing impairment and their links to AD published in recent years. At the frontiers of AD research, these findings and updates could be worthy of further attention.

RevDate: 2021-09-14

Sanders OD, Rajagopal L, JA Rajagopal (2021)

The oxidatively damaged DNA and amyloid-β oligomer hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease.

Free radical biology & medicine pii:S0891-5849(21)00479-2 [Epub ahead of print].

The amyloid-β (Aβ) oligomer hypothesis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) still dominates the field, yet the clinical trial evidence does not robustly support it. A falsifiable prediction of the hypothesis is that Aβ oligomer levels should be elevated in the brain regions and at the disease stages where and when neuron death and synaptic protein loss begin and are the most severe, but we review previous evidence to demonstrate that this is not consistently the case. To rescue the Aβ oligomer hypothesis from falsification, we propose the novel ad-hoc hypothesis that the exceptionally vulnerable hippocampus may normally produce Aβ peptides even in healthily aging individuals, and hippocampal oxidatively damaged DNA, pathogen DNA, and metal ions such as zinc may initiate and drive Aβ peptide aggregation into oligomers and spreading, neuron death, synaptic dysfunction, and other aspects of AD neurodegeneration. We highlight additional evidence consistent with the underwhelming efficacy of Aβ oligomer-lowering agents, such as aducanumab, and of antioxidants, such as vitamin E, versus the so far isolated case report that DNase-I treatment for 2 months resulted in a severe AD patient's Mini-Mental State Exam score increasing from 3 to 18, reversing his diagnosis to moderate AD, according to the Mini-Mental State Exam.

RevDate: 2021-09-09

Lee SR, Choi EK, Park SH, et al (2021)

Comparing Warfarin and 4 Direct Oral Anticoagulants for the Risk of Dementia in Patients With Atrial Fibrillation.

Stroke [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Atrial fibrillation is a risk factor for dementia, and oral anticoagulant use is associated with a decreased risk of dementia in patients with atrial fibrillation. We aimed to investigate whether the risk of dementia would be different between patients treated with direct oral anticoagulants (DOACs) compared with those with warfarin.

METHODS: Using the Korean nationwide claims database from January 2014 to December 2017, we identified oral anticoagulant-naive nonvalvular atrial fibrillation patients aged ≥40 years. For the comparisons, warfarin and DOAC groups were balanced using the inverse probability of treatment weighting method. The primary outcome was incident dementia.

RESULTS: Among 72 846 of total study patients, 25 948 were treated with warfarin, and 46 898 were treated with DOAC (17 193 with rivaroxaban, 9882 with dabigatran, 11 992 with apixaban, and 7831 with edoxaban). During mean 1.3±1.1 years of follow-up, crude incidence of dementia was 4.87 per 100 person-years (1.20 per 100 person-years for vascular dementia and 3.30 per 100 person-years for Alzheimer dementia). Compared with warfarin, DOAC showed a comparable risks of dementia, vascular dementia, and Alzheimer dementia. In subgroup analyses, DOAC was associated with a lower risk of dementia than warfarin, particularly in patients aged 65 to 74 years (hazard ratio, 0.815 [95% CI, 0.709-0.936]) and in patients with prior stroke (hazard ratio, 0.891 [95% CI, 0.820-0.968]). When comparing individual DOACs with warfarin, edoxaban was associated with a lower risk of dementia (hazard ratio, 0.830 [95% CI, 0.740-0.931]).

CONCLUSIONS: In this large Asian population with atrial fibrillation, DOAC showed a comparable risk of dementia with warfarin overall. DOACs appeared more beneficial than warfarin, in those aged 65 to 74 years or with a history of stroke. For specific DOACs, only edoxaban was associated with a lower risk of dementia than warfarin.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Ou H, Chien WC, Chung CH, et al (2021)

Association Between Antibiotic Treatment of Chlamydia pneumoniae and Reduced Risk of Alzheimer Dementia: A Nationwide Cohort Study in Taiwan.

Frontiers in aging neuroscience, 13:701899.

Background: Chlamydia pneumoniae (CPn) is a common community-acquired pneumonia. In the literature, CPn infection is demonstrated to exhibit an association with Alzheimer dementia (AD). We executed the present nationwide, population-based research with the goal of probing the association of CPn infection and antibiotic therapy with AD risk. Methods: We conducted a cohort study using a database extracted from Taiwan's National Health Insurance Research Database (NHIRD). All medical conditions for each enrolled individuals were categorized using the International Classification of Diseases, ninth Revision classifications. Hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) for associations between CPn pneumonia-associated hospitalizations and AD were estimated using Fine and Gray's survival analysis and adjusted for comorbidities. The effects of the antibiotics on the HRs for AD in the patients with CPn pneumonia-associated hospitalization were also analyzed. Results: Our analyses included 6,628 individuals, including 1,657 CPn-infected patients, as well as 4,971 controls matched by age, index date, and sex (1:3). In this study, patients hospitalized for CPn pneumonia exhibited a significantly higher AD risk (adjusted HR = 1.599, 95% CI = 1.284-1.971, p < 0.001). We also noted an association of macrolide use (≥15 days) and fluoroquinolone use (≥15 days) with decreased AD risk. Conclusions: We determined CPn pneumonia to be associated with a relatively high AD risk. The result in this study confirmed the findings from previous literatures, by using a large, nationwide, population-based database. Appropriate macrolide and fluoroquinolone treatment may attenuate this risk.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Sim AY, Barua S, Kim JY, et al (2021)

Role of DPP-4 and SGLT2 Inhibitors Connected to Alzheimer Disease in Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 15:708547.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is characterized by memory loss and cognitive decline. Additionally, abnormal extracellular amyloid plaques accumulation and nerve damage caused by intracellular neurofibrillary tangles, and tau protein are characteristic of AD. Furthermore, AD is associated with oxidative stress, impaired mitochondrial structure and function, denormalization, and inflammatory responses. Recently, besides the amyloid β hypothesis, another hypothesis linking AD to systemic diseases has been put forth by multiple studies as a probable cause for AD. Particularly, type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and its features, including hyperinsulinemia, and chronic hyperglycemia with an inflammatory response, have been shown to be closely related to AD through insulin resistance. The brain cannot synthesize or store glucose, but it does require glucose, and the use of glucose in the brain is higher than that in any other organ in the mammalian body. One of the therapeutic drugs for T2DM, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP-4) inhibitor, suppresses the degradation of incretins, glucagon-like peptides and glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide. Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors, recently used in T2DM treatment, have a unique mechanism of action via inhibition of renal glucose reabsorption, and which is different from the mechanisms of previously used medications. This manuscript reviews the pathophysiological relationship between the two diseases, AD and T2DM, and the pharmacological effects of therapeutic T2DM drugs, especially DPP-4 inhibitors, and SGLT2 inhibitors.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Mahdavi KD, Jordan SE, Barrows HR, et al (2021)

Treatment of Dementia With Bosutinib: An Open-Label Study of a Tyrosine Kinase Inhibitor.

Neurology. Clinical practice, 11(3):e294-e302.

Objective: The pursuit of an effective therapeutic intervention for dementia has inspired interest in the class of medications known as tyrosine kinase inhibitors such as bosutinib.

Methods: Thirty-one patients with probable Alzheimer dementia or Parkinson spectrum disorder with dementia completed 12 months of bosutinib therapy and an additional 12 months of follow-up. The Clinical Dementia Rating scale (as estimated by the Quick Dementia Rating System [QDRS]) was the primary cognitive status outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures included the Repeatable Battery Assessment of Neuropsychological Status (RBANS) and the Montreal Cognitive Assessment. Cox regression methods were used to compare results with population-based estimates of cognitive decline.

Results: The present article reports on cognitive outcomes obtained at 12 months for 31 participants and up to 24 months for a 16-participant subset. Safety and tolerability of bosutinib were confirmed among the study population (Mage = 73.7 years, SDage = 14 years). Bosutinib was associated with less worsening in Clinical Dementia Rating (CDR) scores (hazard ratio = -0.62, p < 0.001, 95% confidence interval [CI]: -1.02 to -0.30) and less decline in RBANS performance (hazard ratio = -3.42, p < 0.001, 95% CI: -3.59 to -3.72) during the year of treatment than population-based estimates of decline. In the 24-month follow-up, wherein 16 patients were observed after 1 year postintervention, 31.2% of participants exhibited worsened CDR levels compared with their 12-month performances.

Conclusions: Results support an overall positive outcome after 1 year of bosutinib. Future studies should explore the relationship between tyrosine kinases and neurodegenerative pathology as well as related avenues of treatment.

RevDate: 2021-09-26

Taheri M, Oryan SH, Eslimi Esfahani D, et al (2021)

Artemisia absinthium improves spatial performance and neuronal injury induced by amyloid- beta in the CA1 hippocampal area of male Wistar rats.

Neurobiology of learning and memory, 185:107506 pii:S1074-7427(21)00128-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Alzheimer's disease is a neurodegenerative disorder. It is characterized by the presence of two aberrant structures in the brain, those are, amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles, along with neuronal death. Amyloid-beta further exacerbates the metabolic decline and results in cognitive impairments. Because of the favorable antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Artemisia absinthium (wormwood), this study aimed to evaluate the effects of hydroalcoholic extract of this plant on spatial memory performance, neuronal injury, and apoptosis induced by amyloid-beta. Forty-eight male Wistar rats (220-250 g) were divided into the following groups: 1) control; 2) sham (solvent; ICV); 3) amyloid-beta 1-40 (ICV); and 4) amyloid-beta plus A. absinthium (10, 50, and 100 mg/kg/day; gavage). Congo red and TUNEL staining were performed to investigate the neuronal injury. Also, the Morris water maze (MWM) test was used to evaluate the spatial memory of the experimental groups. The results showed that spatial memory for finding the hidden platform in the MWM task decreased significantly in the amyloid-beta group, compared to the control and sham groups. In contrast, treatment with A. absinthium improved spatial memory dose-dependently and reduced tissue degeneration, amyloid plaques, and apoptosis. It seems that the hydroalcoholic extract of A. absinthium, due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities, can effectively reverse spatial memory deficits and reduce amyloid-beta plaques.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Ryder MI, P Xenoudi (2021)

Alzheimer disease and the periodontal patient: New insights, connections, and therapies.

Periodontology 2000, 87(1):32-42.

Loss of cognitive function in the aging population, particular those with Alzheimer disease, presents unique challenges to health practitioners. For the dental practitioner these include management of periodontal diseases, caries, and other dental conditions in this special population. It is well established in the cognitively impaired patient that a lack of adherence to dental hygiene routines and professional care leads to increases in the prevalence and severity of these dental conditions, leading to increased loss of teeth. More recent evidence has indicated a possible role of the microbiota of dental plaque associated with periodontal diseases in the development and progression of Alzheimer disease, thereby supporting a two-way interaction of these two diseases. New therapies are needed to address the potential upstream events that may precede overt signs of Alzheimer disease. One of these approaches would be to target these various bacterial, viral, and other microbial pathogens associated with periodontal disease that can translocate into the bloodstream and then to distal sites, such as the brain. Such microbial translocation would lead to local inflammation and buildup of the hallmark signs of Alzheimer disease, including amyloid beta deposits, tau fragmentation and tangles, breakdown of host protective molecules, such as the apolipoproteins, and neuron toxicity. In this review, evidence for the biological basis of the role of the periodontal disease microflora on the initiation and progression of Alzheimer disease will be presented with a focus on the potential role of the keystone pathogen Porphyromonas gingivalis with its family of gingipain enzymes. The various mechanisms for which P. gingivalis gingipains may contribute to the initiation and progression of Alzheimer disease are presented. Small-molecule inhibitors of these gingipains and their effects on reducing biological markers of Alzheimer disease may have beneficial effects for the initiation and progression of loss of cognitive function in Alzheimer disease. In addition to these targeted therapies for specific periodontal pathogens, considerations for the dental practitioner in applying more general approaches to reducing the periodontal plaque microflora in the management of the cognitively impaired patient are discussed for this special population.

RevDate: 2021-09-15

Winer JR, Deters KD, Kennedy G, et al (2021)

Association of Short and Long Sleep Duration With Amyloid-β Burden and Cognition in Aging.

JAMA neurology [Epub ahead of print].

Importance: Disrupted sleep is common in aging and is associated with cognition. Age-related changes to sleep are associated with multiple causes, including early Alzheimer disease pathology (amyloid β [Aβ]), depression, and cardiovascular disease.

Objective: To investigate the associations between self-reported sleep duration and brain Aβ burden as well as the demographic, cognitive, and lifestyle variables in adults with normal cognition.

This cross-sectional study obtained data from participants in the Anti-Amyloid Treatment in Asymptomatic Alzheimer's Disease (A4) study, which is being conducted in 67 sites in the United States, Canada, Australia, and Japan. The sample for this analysis consisted of individuals aged 65 to 85 years who underwent an Aβ positron emission tomography (PET) scan, had complete apolipoprotein E (APOE) genotype data, and were identified as clinically normal (per a Clinical Dementia Rating score of 0) and cognitively unimpaired (per a Mini-Mental State Examination score of 25 to 30 and Logical Memory Delayed Recall test score of 6 to 18). Data were analyzed from April 3, 2020, to June 20, 2021.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The outcome was self-reported nightly sleep duration (grouped by short sleep duration: ≤6 hours, normal sleep duration: 7-8 hours, and long sleep duration: ≥9 hours) compared with demographic characteristics, Aβ burden (as measured with a fluorine 18-labeled-florbetapir PET scan), objective and subjective cognitive function measures, and lifestyle variables.

Results: The 4417 participants in the study included 2618 women (59%) and had a mean (SD) age of 71.3 (4.7) years. Self-reported shorter sleep duration was linearly associated with higher Aβ burden (β [SE] = -0.01 [0.00]; P = .005), and short sleep duration was associated with reduced cognition that was mostly in memory domains. No difference in Aβ was found between long and normal sleep duration groups (β [SE] = 0.00 [0.01]; P = .99). However, compared with normal sleep duration, both short and long sleep durations were associated with higher body mass index (short vs normal sleep duration: β [SE] = 0.48 [0.17], P = .01; long vs normal sleep duration: β [SE] = 0.97 [0.31], P = .002), depressive symptoms (short vs normal sleep duration: β [SE] = 0.31 [0.05], P < .001; long vs normal sleep duration: β [SE] = 0.39 [0.09], P < .001), and daytime napping (short vs normal sleep duration: β [SE] = 2.66 [0.77], P = .001; long vs normal sleep duration: β [SE] = 3.62 [1.38], P = .01). Long sleep duration was associated with worse performance across multiple cognitive domains.

Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, both short and long sleep durations were associated with worse outcomes for older adults, such as greater Aβ burden, greater depressive symptoms, higher body mass index, and cognitive decline, emphasizing the importance of maintaining adequate sleep.

RevDate: 2021-08-31

Thakur A, Moyo P, van der Westhuizen CJ, et al (2021)

A Novel Cardenolide Glycoside Isolated from Xysmalobium undulatum Reduces Levels of the Alzheimer's Disease-Associated β-Amyloid Peptides Aβ42 In Vitro.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 14(8):.

Elevated levels of the amylo β-proteins (Aβ), particularly Aβ42, are associated with a high risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). The Aβ proteins are produced from cellular processing of the amyloid precursor proteins (APPs). To identify natural products that block the formation of Aβ-proteins from APPs, we previously screened a library of plant extracts and identified Xysmalobium undulaum (Apocynaceae) as a potential plant for further research. Here, we provide a report on the isolation and identification of the active principles from the plant species using a bioassay-guided fractionation. Fractions and resulting pure compounds from the purification process of the extract of X. undulatum were screened in vitro against APPs transfected HeLa cell lines. Three compounds, acetylated glycosydated crotoxogenin (1), xysmalogenin-3, β-d-glucopyranoside (2), and crotoxigenin 3-O-glucopyranoside (3), were subsequently isolated and their structures elucidated using NMR and mass spectrometry. Compound 1, a novel cardenolide, and 2 significantly decreased the Aβ42 levels in a dose-dependent manner while compound 3 was inactive. In silico investigations identified the AD's β-secretase enzyme, BACE1, as a potential target for these compounds with the glycoside moiety being of significance in binding to the enzyme active site. Our study provides the first report of a novel cardenolide and the potential of cardenolides as chemical scaffolds for developing AD treatment drugs.

RevDate: 2021-09-08
CmpDate: 2021-09-08

Liang Z, Wu L, Gong S, et al (2021)

The cognitive dysfunction related to Alzheimer disease or cerebral small vessel disease: What's the differences.

Medicine, 100(34):e26967.

ABSTRACT: Alzheimer disease (AD) and sporadic cerebral small vessel disease (CSVD) are common cognitive disorders. Both AD and CSVD have mental symptoms including chronic progressive cognitive impairment, dysfunction, and behavioral abnormalities. However, the differences on the cognitive dysfunction of AD and CSVD remain unclear. It is necessary to elucidate the cognitive dysfunction differences of AD and CSVD, and to identify the potential risk factors.AD or sporadic CSVD patients treated in our hospital from December 1, 2018 to May 31, 2019 were included. And we selected healthy participants as controls. The mini-mental state examination and Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale were used for neuropsychological assessment, and related medical information were collected and compared.A total of 190 patients were included. The total mini-mental state examination scores in AD, CSVD group were significantly less than that of control group, there were significant differences in the domains of directional ability, attention and computing ability, delayed recall, and visual perception (all P < .05); the total Montreal Cognitive Assessment Scale scores in AD, CSVD group were significantly less than that of control group. There were significant differences in the domains of visual space and execution, immediate remember, attention and computing ability, language, delayed recall, and directional ability (all P < .05); diabetes was a risk factor both for AD (hazard ratio = 1.63, 95% confidence interval: 1.35-1.97) and CSVD (hazard ratio = 1.15, 95% confidence interval: 1.08-1.27).The cognitive dysfunctions of AD are difference to that of CSVD patients, and diabetes is the risk factor both for AD and CSVD, future studies are needed to further identify the prevention and treatment of AD and CSVD.

RevDate: 2021-08-28

Soureshjani FH, Kheirollahi M, Yaghmaei P, et al (2021)

Possible Preventive Effect of Donepezil and Hyoscyamoside by Reduction of Plaque Formation and Neuroinflammation in Alzheimer's Disease.

International journal of preventive medicine, 12:66.

Background: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common age-dependent dementia. The complex natural accumulation of amyloid beta (Aβ) precursor protein in hippocampus neurons is regarded as the earliest pathological feature of AD, although there are cholinergic assumptions and effective inflammation in AD. In this animal experimental study, we evaluated the preventive effect of hyoscyamoside (Hyo) and donepezil (Dz) on plaque formation and improvement of neurogenic inflammation in AD rats.

Methods: Dz was prepared and Hyo (steroidal saponin) was isolated from Hyoscymus niger. Then, Wistar rats divided into five groups including negative and positive controls, AD, Dz, and Hyo treatment groups based on the drug exposure and their behavioral alternation was examined using Morris water maze (MWM) test. Bielschowsky staining was used to detect the nerve fibers. Serum levels of interleukin (IL)-4 and IL-6 were evaluated by ELISA. The RNA expression of cyclin-dependent kinase CDK11-P58 in peripheral blood lymphocytes was performed using quantitative PCR.

Results: The MWM test showed significant changes in time the models spent to find the hidden platform. The Hyo treatment group showed a notable speed change (P < 0.01). The histopathological analysis of the hippocampal tissue revealed the inhibition of Aβ formation in the treatment groups. The treatment groups had a significant decline in the serum level of IL-6, and the IL-4 serum level was increased in the Hyo and Dz treated groups. The expression levels of CDK11-P58 was significantly decreased in the treatment groups.

Conclusions: In sum, the therapeutic effects of Hyo is comparable with that of Dz in AD rats by suppressing neuroinflammation. Thus, these compounds could be considered as a preventive agent in the AD therapy.

RevDate: 2021-08-28

Wang S, Ma J, Zeng Y, et al (2021)

Icariin, an Up-and-Coming Bioactive Compound Against Neurological Diseases: Network Pharmacology-Based Study and Literature Review.

Drug design, development and therapy, 15:3619-3641.

Icariin is a biologically active substance in Epimedii herba that is used for the treatment of neurologic disorders. However, a comprehensive analysis of the molecular mechanisms of icariin is lacking. In this review, we present a brief history of the use of icariin for medicinal purposes; describe the active chemical components of Epimedii herba; and examine the evidence from experimental studies that have uncovered molecular targets of icariin in different diseases. We also constructed a protein-protein interaction network and carried out Gene Ontology and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes functional enrichment analyses to predict the therapeutic actions of icariin in nervous system diseases including Alzheimer disease, Parkinson disease, ischemic stroke, depressive disorder, multiple sclerosis, glioblastoma, and hereditary spastic paraplegias. The results of our analyses can guide future studies on the application of icariin to the treatment of neurologic disorders.

RevDate: 2021-09-20
CmpDate: 2021-09-20

Oleksak P, Novotny M, Patocka J, et al (2021)

Neuropharmacology of Cevimeline and Muscarinic Drugs-Focus on Cognition and Neurodegeneration.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(16):.

At present, Alzheimer's disease (AD) and related dementias cannot be cured. Therefore, scientists all over the world are trying to find a new approach to prolong an active life of patients with initial dementia. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological pathways are investigated to improve the key symptom of the disease, memory loss. In this respect, influencing the neuromodulator acetylcholine via muscarinic receptors, such as cevimeline, might be one of the therapeutic alternatives. The purpose of this study is to explore the potential of cevimeline on the cognitive functions of AD patients. The methodology is based on a systematic literature review of available studies found in Web of Science, PubMed, Springer, and Scopus on the research topic. The findings indicate that cevimeline has shown an improvement in experimentally induced cognitive deficits in animal models. Furthermore, it has demonstrated to positively influence tau pathology and reduce the levels of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptide in the cerebral spinal fluid of Alzheimer's patients. Although this drug has not been approved by the FDA for its use among AD patients and there is a lack of clinical studies confirming and extending this finding, cevimeline might represent a breakthrough in the treatment of AD.

RevDate: 2021-08-30

Ibanez L, Cruchaga C, MV Fernández (2021)

Advances in Genetic and Molecular Understanding of Alzheimer's Disease.

Genes, 12(8):.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) has become a common disease of the elderly for which no cure currently exists. After over 30 years of intensive research, we have gained extensive knowledge of the genetic and molecular factors involved and their interplay in disease. These findings suggest that different subgroups of AD may exist. Not only are we starting to treat autosomal dominant cases differently from sporadic cases, but we could be observing different underlying pathological mechanisms related to the amyloid cascade hypothesis, immune dysfunction, and a tau-dependent pathology. Genetic, molecular, and, more recently, multi-omic evidence support each of these scenarios, which are highly interconnected but can also point to the different subgroups of AD. The identification of the pathologic triggers and order of events in the disease processes are key to the design of treatments and therapies. Prevention and treatment of AD cannot be attempted using a single approach; different therapeutic strategies at specific disease stages may be appropriate. For successful prevention and treatment, biomarker assays must be designed so that patients can be more accurately monitored at specific points during the course of the disease and potential treatment. In addition, to advance the development of therapeutic drugs, models that better mimic the complexity of the human brain are needed; there have been several advances in this arena. Here, we review significant, recent developments in genetics, omics, and molecular studies that have contributed to the understanding of this disease. We also discuss the implications that these contributions have on medicine.

RevDate: 2021-09-13
CmpDate: 2021-09-13

Vijverberg EGB, Axelsen TM, Bihlet AR, et al (2021)

Rationale and study design of a randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind phase 2b trial to evaluate efficacy, safety, and tolerability of an oral glutaminyl cyclase inhibitor varoglutamstat (PQ912) in study participants with MCI and mild AD-VIVIAD.

Alzheimer's research & therapy, 13(1):142.

BACKGROUND: Varoglutamstat (formerly PQ912) is a small molecule that inhibits the activity of the glutaminyl cyclase to reduce the level of pyroglutamate-A-beta (pGluAB42). Recent studies confirm that pGluAB42 is a particular amyloid form that is highly synaptotoxic and plays a significant role in the development of AD.

METHODS: This paper describes the design and methodology behind the phase 2b VIVIAD-trial in AD. The aim of this study is to evaluate varoglutamstat in a state-of-the-art designed, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial for safety and tolerability, efficacy on cognition, and effects on brain activity and AD biomarkers. In addition to its main purpose, the trial will explore potential associations between novel and established biomarkers and their individual and composite relation to disease characteristics.

RESULTS: To be expected early 2023 CONCLUSION: This state of the art phase 2b study will yield important results for the field with respect to trial methodology and for the treatment of AD with a small molecule directed against pyroglutamate-A-beta.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT04498650.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Sedighi M, Baluchnejadmojarad T, M Roghani (2021)

Linagliptin Protects Human SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells against Amyloid-β Cytotoxicity via the Activation of Wnt1 and Suppression of IL-6 Release.

Iranian biomedical journal, 25(5):343-348.

Background: Alzheimer’s disease is one of the neurodegenerative disorders typified by the aggregate of amyloid-β (Aβ) and phosphorylated tau protein. Oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, because of Aβ peptides, are strongly involved in the pathophysiology of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Linagliptin shows neuroprotective properties against AD pathological processes through alleviation of neural inflammation and AMPK activation.

Methods: We assessed the benefits of linagliptin pretreatment (at 10, 20, and 50 nM concentrations), against Aβ1-42 toxicity (20 μM) in SH-SY5Y cells. The concentrations of secreted cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β, and signaling proteins, including pCREB, Wnt1, and PKCε, were quantified by ELISA.

Results: We observed that Aβ led to cellular inflammation, which was assessed by measuring inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6). Moreover, Aβ1-42 treatment impaired pCREB, PKCε, and Wnt1 signaling in human SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells. Addition of Linagliptin significantly reduced IL-6 levels in the lysates of cells, treated with Aβ1-42. Furthermore, linagliptin prevented the downregulation of Wnt1 in Aβ1-42-treated cells exposed.

Conclusion: The current findings reveal that linagliptin alleviates Aβ1-42-induced inflammation in SH-SY5Y cells, probably through the suppression of IL-6 release, and some of its benefits are mediated through the activation of the Wnt1 signaling pathway.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Shi S, Li J, Zhao X, et al (2021)

A comprehensive review: Biological activity, modification and synthetic methodologies of prenylated flavonoids.

Phytochemistry, 191:112895.

Prenylated flavonoids, a unique class of flavonoids which combine a flavonoid skeleton and a lipophilic prenyl side-chain, possess great potential biological activities including cytotoxicity, anti-inflammation, anti-Alzheimer, anti-microbial, anti-oxidant, anti-diabetes, estrogenic, vasorelaxant and enzyme inhibition. Recently, prenylated flavonoids have become an indispensable anchor for the development of new therapeutic agents, and have received increasing from medicinal chemists. The prenylated flavonoids have been outstanding developed through isolation, semi or fully synthesis in a very short period of time, which proves the great value in medicinal chemistry researches. In this review, research progress of prenylated flavonoids including natural prenylated flavonoids, structural modification, synthetic methodologies and pharmacological activities was summarized comprehensively. Furthermore, the structure-activity relationships (SARs) of prenylated flavonoids were summarized which provided a basis for the selective design and optimization of multifunctional prenylated flavonoid derivatives for the treatment of multi-factorial diseases in clinic.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Puris E, Auriola S, Korhonen P, et al (2021)

Systemic inflammation induced changes in protein expression of ABC transporters and ionotropic glutamate receptor subunit 1 in the cerebral cortex of familial Alzheimer`s disease mouse model.

Journal of pharmaceutical sciences pii:S0022-3549(21)00414-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is an incurable disease, with complex pathophysiology and a myriad of proteins involved in its development. In this study, we applied quantitative targeted absolute proteomic analysis for investigation of changes in potential AD drug targets, biomarkers, and transporters in cerebral cortices of lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced neuroinflammation mouse model, familial AD mice (APdE9) with and without LPS treatment as compared to age-matched wild type (WT) mice. The ABCB1, ABCG2 and GluN1 protein expression ratios between LPS treated APdE9 and WT control mice were 0.58 (95% CI 0.44 - 0.72), 0.65 (95% CI 0.53 - 0.77) and 0.61 (95% CI 0.52 - 0.69), respectively. The protein expression levels of other proteins such as MGLL, COX-2, CytC, ABCC1, ABCC4, SLC2A1 and SLC7A5 did not differ between the study groups. Overall, the study revealed that systemic inflammation can alter ABCB1 and ABCG2 protein expression in brain in AD, which can affect intra-brain drug distribution and play a role in AD development. Moreover, the inflammatory insult caused by peripheral infection in AD may be important factor triggering changes in GluN1 protein expression. However, more studies need to be performed in order to confirm these findings. The quantitative information about the expression of selected proteins provides important knowledge, which may help in the optimal use of the mouse models in AD drug development and better translation of preclinical data to humans.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Gu J, Li Z, Chen H, et al (2021)

Neuroprotective Effect of Trans-Resveratrol in Mild to Moderate Alzheimer Disease: A Randomized, Double-Blind Trial.

Neurology and therapy [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Amyloid-beta (Aβ) protein is a major component of the extracellular plaque found in the brains of individuals with Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this study, we investigated the effect of trans-resveratrol as an antagonist treatment for moderate to mild AD, as well as its safety and tolerability.

METHODS: This was a case-control study that enrolled 30 selected patients who had been clinically diagnosed with moderate to mild AD. These patients were randomly divided into two groups, namely, a placebo group (n = 15) and a trans-resveratrol group (n = 15) who received 500 mg trans-resveratrol orally once daily for 52 weeks. Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) examinations were performed on and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples were obtained from all participants before (baseline) and after the study (52 weeks). Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays were used to determine the levels of plasma Aβ40 and Aβ42 and CSF Aβ40 and Aβ42.

RESULTS: The results showed that the changes over the study period in the levels of Aβ40 in the blood and CSF of the patients treated with trans-resveratrol were not statistically significant (P > 0.05). In contrast, patients who received placebo showed a significant decrease in Aβ40 levels compared with that at the beginning of the study (CSF Aβ40: P = 0.024, plasma Aβ40: P = 0.036). Analysis of the images on the brain MRI scans revealed that the brain volume of the patients treated with trans-resveratrol was significantly reduced at 52 weeks (P = 0.011) compared with that of patients in the placebo treatment group, Further analysis indicated that the level of matrix metallopeptidase 9 in the CSF of the patients treated with trans-resveratrol at 52 weeks decreased by 46% compared with that of patients in the placebo group (P = 0.033).

CONCLUSION: These results indicate that trans-resveratrol has potential neuroprotective roles in the treatment of moderate to mild AD and that its mechanism may involve a reduction in the accumulation and toxicity of Aβ in the brain of patients, thereby reducing neuroinflammation.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: Chinese clinical trial registry: CTR20151780X.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Ning F, Chen L, Chen L, et al (2021)

Combination of Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma Alleviates Learning and Memory Impairment in Scopolamine-Treated Mice by Regulating Synaptic-Related Proteins.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 12:679573.

Polygoni Multiflori Radix Praeparata (ZhiHeShouWu, PMRP) and Acori Tatarinowii Rhizoma (ShiChangPu, ATR) and their traditional combination (PA) are frequently used in traditional Chinese medicine to prevent and treat Alzheimer disease (AD) based on the theory that PMRP tonifies the kidney and ATR dissipates phlegm. However, the components of PA and their mechanisms of action are not known. The present study analyzed the active components of PA, and investigated the protective effect of PA against cognitive impairment induced by scopolamine in mice along with the underlying mechanism.The aqueous extract of PA was analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) and gas chromatography (GC)-MS in order to identify the major components. To evaluate the protective effect of PA against cognitive dysfunction, mice were orally administered PA, PMRP, or ATR for 30 days before treatment with scopolamine. Learning and memory were assessed in mice with the Morris water maze test; neurotransmitter levels in the hippocampus were analyzed by HPLC-MS; and the expression of synapse-related proteins in the hippocampus was detected by western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Eight active compounds in PA and rat plasma were identified by HPLC-MS and GC-MS. Plasma concentrations of 2,3,5,4'-tetrahydroxystilbene-2-O-β-d-glucoside, emodin, α-asarone, and asarylaldehyde were increased following PA administration; meanwhile, gallic acid, emodin-8-O-β-d-glucopyranoside, β-asarone, and cis-methyl isoeugenol concentrations were similar in rats treated with PA, PMRP, and ATR. In scopolamine-treated mice, PA increased the concentrations of neurotransmitters in the hippocampus, activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK)/cAMP response element binding protein (CREB) signaling pathway, and increased the expression of p90 ribosomal S6 kinase (p90RSK) and postsynaptic density (PSD)95 proteins. Thus, PA alleviates cognitive deficits by enhancing synaptic-related proteins, suggesting that it has therapeutic potential for the treatment of aging-related diseases such as AD.

RevDate: 2021-09-25

Mosaferi B, Jand Y, AA Salari (2021)

Antibiotic-induced gut microbiota depletion from early adolescence exacerbates spatial but not recognition memory impairment in adult male C57BL/6 mice with Alzheimer-like disease.

Brain research bulletin, 176:8-17.

Gut microbiota dysbiosis is associated with cognitive dysfunctions and Alzheimer's disease (AD). This study set out to better understand the relationship between gut microbiota depletion and cognitive abilities in mice with or without Alzheimer-like disease. Male C57BL/6 mice from early adolescence received an antibiotic cocktail, and then in adulthood, animals were subjected to a stereotaxic surgery to induce Alzheimer-like disease using amyloid-beta (Aβ) 1-42 microinjection. To assess cognitive functions in mice, three behavioural tests including the Y maze, object recognition, and Morris water maze were used. We also measured brain-derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF), tumour-necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interleukin (IL)-6, and Aβ42 in the brain. Our findings showed that antibiotics treatment impaired object recognition memory, whereas did not alter spatial memory in healthy mice. Antibiotics treatment in mice significantly exacerbated spatial memory impairment following the induction of AD in both the Y maze and Morris water maze test. There were significant correlations between these behavioural tests. In addition, healthy animals treated with antibiotics displayed a significant reduction in brain IL-6. We observed that antibiotics treatment significantly decreased both cytokines TNF-α and IL-6 in the brain of AD-induced mice. However, no alterations were found in brain BDNF levels following both antibiotics treatment and AD induction. These findings show that antibiotic-induced gut microbiota depletion from early adolescence to adulthood can impair cognitive abilities in mice with or without Alzheimer-like disease. Overall, this study suggests that gut microbiota manipulation from early adolescence to adulthood may adversely affect the normal development of cognitive functions.

RevDate: 2021-09-03

Moussavi Z, Koski L, Fitzgerald PB, et al (2021)

Repeated Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation for Improving Cognition in Alzheimer Disease: Protocol for an Interim Analysis of a Randomized Controlled Trial.

JMIR research protocols, 10(8):e31183.

BACKGROUND: Many clinical trials investigating treatment efficacy require an interim analysis. Recently we have been running a large, multisite, randomized, placebo-controlled, double-blind clinical trial investigating the effect of repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) treatment for improving or stabilizing the cognition of patients diagnosed with Alzheimer disease.

OBJECTIVE: The objectives of this paper are to report on recruitment, adherence, and adverse events (AEs) to date, and to describe in detail the protocol for interim analysis of the clinical trial data. The protocol will investigate whether the trial is likely to reach its objectives if continued to the planned maximum sample size.

METHODS: The specific requirements of the analytic protocol are to (1) ensure the double-blind nature of the data while doing the analysis, (2) estimate the predictive probabilities of success (PPoSs), (3) estimate the numbers needed to treat, (4) re-estimate the initial required sample size. The initial estimate of sample size was 208. The interim analysis will be based on 150 patients who will be enrolled in the study and finish at least 8 weeks of the study. Our protocol for interim analysis, at the very first stage, is to determine the response rate for each participant to the treatment (either sham or active), while ensuring the double-blind nature of the data. The blinded data will be analyzed by a statistician to investigate the treatment efficacy. We will use Bayesian PPoS to predict the success rate and determine whether the study should continue.

RESULTS: The enrollment has been slowed significantly due to the COVID-19 pandemic and lockdown. Nevertheless, so far 133 participants have been enrolled, while 22 of these have been withdrawn or dropped out for various reasons. In general, rTMS has been found tolerable with no serious AE. Only 2 patients dropped out of the study due to their intolerability to rTMS pulses.

CONCLUSIONS: Overall, the study with the same protocol is going as expected with no serious AE or any major protocol deviation.

TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov NCT02908815; https://clinicaltrials.gov/ct2/show/NCT02908815.


RevDate: 2021-08-12

Ahmad SS, Younis K, Philippe J, et al (2021)

Strategic approaches to target the enzymes using natural compounds for the management of Alzheimer's disease: A review.

CNS & neurological disorders drug targets pii:CNSNDDT-EPUB-117290 [Epub ahead of print].

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease. It is clinically characterized by memory loss and intellectual decrease, among other neurological deficits. The etiology of AD is not completely understood but includes amyloid plaques and intracellular helical filaments as well as neurofibrillary tangles with hyperphosphorylated tau protein. AD is also associated with alterations in amyloid processing genes, such as PSEN1 or PSEN2 and APP. The modulation immune system, cholesterol metabolism, and synaptic vesicle endocytosis have all been shown to remediate AD. In this review, enzymes such as AChE, BuChE, β-secretase, γ-secretase, MAO, and RAGE are discussed as potential targets for AD treatment. The aim of this review was to addresses the molecular mechanisms as well as various genetic factors in AD etiology. The use of natural compounds against these targets might be beneficial for the management of AD.

RevDate: 2021-08-13
CmpDate: 2021-08-13

Pierzynowska K, Cyske Z, Gaffke L, et al (2021)

Potential of genistein-induced autophagy in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Postepy biochemii, 67(2):117-129.

Development of therapies for neurodegenerative diseases, disorders characterized by progressing loss of neurons, is a great challenge for current medicine. Searching for drugs for these diseases is being proceeded in many laboratories in the world. To date, several therapeutical strategies have been proposed which, however, are either of insufficient efficacy or at the early preclinical stages. One of the newest concepts is elevated efficiency of degradation of protein aggregates which are causes of 70% of these diseases. Autophagy, i.e. lysosomal degradation of macromolecules, is a process which could be employed in such a strategy Searching for a compound which would not only stimulate autophagy but also reveal safety in a long-term usage and be able to cross the blood-brain-barrier led to studies on one of flavonoids, genistein which occurs at high concentrations in soy. Experiments with this compound indicated its enormous efficiency in removing protein aggregated formed by beta-amyloid, hyperphosphorylated tau protein, and mutant huntingtin. Moreover, using animal models of these diseases, correction of cognitive and motoric symptoms was demonstrated. Considering safety of genistein as well as its ability to crossing the blood-brain-barrier, one may assume that this molecule is a candidate for an effective drug in therapies of not only Alzheimer disease and Huntington disease, but also other disorders caused be protein aggregates. In this article, recent results of studies on the use of genistein in different models of neurodegenerative diseases are summarized, with special emphasis on its autophagy-dependent action.

RevDate: 2021-08-18

Gove D, Nielsen TR, Smits C, et al (2021)

The challenges of achieving timely diagnosis and culturally appropriate care of people with dementia from minority ethnic groups in Europe.

International journal of geriatric psychiatry [Epub ahead of print].

In a just society, everyone should have equal access to healthcare in terms of prevention, assessment, diagnosis, treatment and care. Europe is a multicultural society made up of people who identify with a wide range of ethnic groups. Many older people from minority ethnic groups also have a direct migration background. Several studies have shown that there is a lack of equity in relation to dementia diagnoses and care because equal opportunities do not necessarily translate into equal outcomes. An expert ethics working group led by Alzheimer Europe has produced an extensive report on this issue, a policy brief and a guide for health and social care workers. In this brief summary, the authors/members of the expert working group present some of the key challenges and recommendations for healthcare clinicians striving to provide timely diagnosis and good quality care and treatment to people with dementia from all ethnic groups.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Zhang T, Liu N, Wei W, et al (2021)

Integrated Analysis of Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis Identifying Six Genes as Novel Biomarkers for Alzheimer's Disease.

Oxidative medicine and cellular longevity, 2021:9918498.

Background: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic progressive neurodegenerative disease; however, there are no comprehensive therapeutic interventions. Therefore, this study is aimed at identifying novel molecular targets that may improve the diagnosis and treatment of patients with AD.

Methods: In our study, GSE5281 microarray dataset from the GEO database was collected and screened for differential expression analysis. Genes with a P value of <0.05 and ∣log2FoldChange | >0.5 were considered differentially expressed genes (DEGs). We further profiled and identified AD-related coexpression genes using weighted gene coexpression network analysis (WGCNA). Functional enrichment analysis was performed to determine the characteristics and pathways of the key modules. We constructed an AD-related model based on hub genes by logistic regression and least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analyses, which was also verified by the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve.

Results: In total, 4674 DEGs were identified. Nine distinct coexpression modules were identified via WGCNA; among these modules, the blue module showed the highest positive correlation with AD (r = 0.64, P = 3e - 20), and it was visualized by establishing a protein-protein interaction network. Moreover, this module was particularly enriched in "pathways of neurodegeneration-multiple diseases," "Alzheimer disease," "oxidative phosphorylation," and "proteasome." Sixteen genes were identified as hub genes and further submitted to a LASSO regression model, and six genes (EIF3H, RAD51C, FAM162A, BLVRA, ATP6V1H, and BRAF) were identified based on the model index. Additionally, we assessed the accuracy of the LASSO model by plotting an ROC curve (AUC = 0.940).

Conclusions: Using the WGCNA and LASSO models, our findings provide a better understanding of the role of biomarkers EIF3H, RAD51C, FAM162A, BLVRA, ATP6V1H, and BRAF and provide a basis for further studies on AD progression.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Kile S, Au W, Parise C, et al (2021)

Five-year outcomes after IVIG for mild cognitive impairment due to alzheimer disease.

BMC neuroscience, 22(1):49.

BACKGROUND: The purpose of this study was to assess the five-year treatment effects of a short course of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in subjects with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) due to Alzheimer disease (AD).

METHODS: Fifty subjects 50 to 84 years of age with MCI due to AD were administered 0.4 g/kg 10% IVIG or 0.9% saline every two weeks x five doses in a randomized double-blinded design as part of a two-year study. Twenty-seven subjects completed an additional three-year extension study. MRI brain imaging, cognitive testing, and conversion to dementia were assessed annually. Participants were stratified into early MCI (E-MCI) and late MCI (L-MCI). The primary endpoint was brain atrophy measured as annualized percent change in ventricular volume (APCV) annually for five years. ANOVA was used to compare annualized percent change in ventricular volume from baseline between the groups adjusting for MCI status (E-MCI, L-MCI).

RESULTS: Differences in brain atrophy between the groups, which were statistically significant after one year, were no longer significant after five years. IVIG-treated L-MCI subjects did demonstrate a delay in conversion to dementia of 21.4 weeks.

CONCLUSION: An eight-week course of IVIG totaling 2 g/kg in MCI is safe but is not sufficient to sustain an initial reduction in brain atrophy or a temporary delay in conversion to dementia at five years. Other dosing strategies of IVIG in the early stages of AD should be investigated to assess more sustainable disease-modifying effects. Trial registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01300728. Registered 23 February 2011.

RevDate: 2021-08-13
CmpDate: 2021-08-13

Esselun C, Theyssen E, GP Eckert (2021)

Effects of Urolithin A on Mitochondrial Parameters in a Cellular Model of Early Alzheimer Disease.

International journal of molecular sciences, 22(15):.

(1) Background: Ellagitannins are natural products occurring in pomegranate and walnuts. They are hydrolyzed in the gut to release ellagic acid, which is further metabolized by the microflora into urolithins, such as urolithin A (UA). Accumulation of damaged mitochondria is a hallmark of aging and age-related neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, we investigated the neuroprotective activity of the metabolite UA against mitochondrial dysfunction in a cellular model of early Alzheimer disease (AD). (2) Methods: In the present study we used SH-SY5Y-APP695 cells and its corresponding controls (SH-SY5Ymock) to assess UA's effect on mitochondrial function. Using these cells we investigated mitochondrial respiration (OXPHOS), mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production, autophagy and levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cells treated with UA. Furthermore, we assessed UA's effect on the expression of genes related to mitochondrial bioenergetics, mitochondrial biogenesis, and autophagy via quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). (3) Results: Treatment of SH-SY5Y-APP695 cells suggests changes to autophagy corresponding with qRT-PCR results. However, LC3B-I, LC3B-II, and p62 levels were unchanged. UA (10 µM) reduced MMP, and ATP-levels. Treatment of cells with UA (1 µM) for 24 h did not affect ROS production or levels of Aβ, but significantly increased expression of genes for mitochondrial biogenesis and OXPHOS. Mitochondrial Transcription Factor A (TFAM) expression was specifically increased in SH-SY5Y-APP695. Both cell lines showed unaltered levels of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma coactivator 1-alpha (PGC1α), which is commonly associated with mitochondrial biogenesis. Results imply that biogenesis might be facilitated by estrogen-related receptor (ESRR) genes. (4) Conclusion: Urolithin A shows no effect on autophagy in SH-SY5Y-APP695 cells and its effect on mitochondrial function is limited. Instead, data suggests that UA treatment induces hormetic effects as it induces transcription of several genes related to mitochondrial biogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-09-16
CmpDate: 2021-08-13

Godefroy V, Levy R, Bouzigues A, et al (2021)

ECOCAPTURE@HOME: Protocol for the Remote Assessment of Apathy and Its Everyday-Life Consequences.

International journal of environmental research and public health, 18(15):.

Apathy, a common neuropsychiatric symptom associated with dementia, has a strong impact on patients' and caregivers' quality of life. However, it is still poorly understood and hard to define. The main objective of the ECOCAPTURE programme is to define a behavioural signature of apathy using an ecological approach. Within this program, ECOCAPTURE@HOME is an observational study which aims to validate a method based on new technologies for the remote monitoring of apathy in real life. For this study, we plan to recruit 60 couples: 20 patient-caregiver dyads in which patients suffer from behavioral variant Fronto-Temporal Dementia, 20 patient-caregiver dyads in which patients suffer from Alzheimer Disease and 20 healthy control couples. These dyads will be followed for 28 consecutive days via multi-sensor bracelets collecting passive data (acceleration, electrodermal activity, blood volume pulse). Active data will also be collected by questionnaires on a smartphone application. Using a pool of metrics extracted from these passive and active data, we will validate a measurement model for three behavioural markers of apathy (i.e., daytime activity, quality of sleep, and emotional arousal). The final purpose is to facilitate the follow-up and precise diagnosis of apathy, towards a personalised treatment of this condition within everyday life.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

Arce-López B, Alvarez-Erviti L, De Santis B, et al (2021)

Biomonitoring of Mycotoxins in Plasma of Patients with Alzheimer's and Parkinson's Disease.

Toxins, 13(7):.

Exposure to environmental contaminants might play an important role in neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis, such as Parkinson´s disease (PD) and Alzheimer´s disease (AD). For the first time in Spain, the plasmatic levels of 19 mycotoxins from patients diagnosed with a neurodegenerative disease (44 PD and 24 AD) and from their healthy companions (25) from La Rioja region were analyzed. The studied mycotoxins were aflatoxins B1, B2, G1, G2 and M1, T-2 and HT-2, ochratoxins A (OTA) and B (OTB), zearalenone, sterigmatocystin (STER), nivalenol, deoxynivalenol, 3-acetyldeoxynivalenol, 15-acetyldeoxynivalenol, deepoxy-deoxynivalenol, neosolaniol, diacetoxyscirpenol and fusarenon-X. Samples were analyzed by LC-MS/MS before and after treatment with β-glucuronidase/arylsulfatase in order to detect potential metabolites. Only OTA, OTB and STER were detected in the samples. OTA was present before (77% of the samples) and after (89%) the enzymatic treatment, while OTB was only detectable before (13%). Statistically significant differences in OTA between healthy companions and patients were observed but the observed differences might seem more related to gender (OTA levels higher in men, p-value = 0.0014) than the disease itself. STER appeared only after enzymatic treatment (88%). Statistical analysis on STER, showed distributions always different between healthy controls and patients (patients' group > controls, p-value < 0.0001). Surprisingly, STER levels weakly correlated positively with age in women (rho = 0.3384), while OTA correlation showed a decrease of levels with age especially in the men with PD (rho = -0.4643).

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Boada M, Martínez-Lage P, Serrano-Castro P, et al (2021)

Therapeutic plasma exchange with albumin: a new approach to treat Alzheimer's disease.

Expert review of neurotherapeutics, 21(8):843-849.

INTRODUCTION: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic neurodegenerative disease and the most common cause of dementia. It has a complex pathophysiology that is not yet completely understood, where multiple central, systemic, and environmental factors play a key role in disease progression. Understanding the multifactorial nature of AD is paramount to formulate new therapies.

AREAS COVERED: The authors reviewed the role of the amyloid-β-binding, antioxidant, and immunomodulatory properties of albumin in AD and the use of therapeutic plasma exchange (PE) in neurology. The results from the Alzheimer Management By Albumin Replacement (AMBAR) trial that combined the use of PE with albumin replacement in patients with mild-to-moderate AD, are also analyzed.

EXPERT OPINION: Findings from the AMBAR study provide encouraging results in the treatment of AD with PE and albumin replacement, especially in patients at the moderate stage of the disease, who showed less cognitive decline from baseline compared with placebo in most of the variables analyzed. Further research is warranted to ascertain the possible mechanisms of action underlying these results. Different cohorts of patients that may also benefit from this treatment, such as those with mild cognitive impairment or other types of dementia, could also be the target of additional studies.

RevDate: 2021-08-02

Tsuji K, Ishii T, Kobayakawa T, et al (2021)

Fluorescence resonance energy transfer-based screening for protein kinase C ligands using 6-methoxynaphthalene-labeled 1,2-diacylglycerol-lactones.

Organic & biomolecular chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Protein kinase C (PKC) is associated with a central cellular signal transduction pathway and disorders such as cancer and Alzheimer-type dementia and is therefore a target for the treatment of these diseases. The development of simple methods suitable for high-throughput screening to find potent PKC ligands is desirable. We have developed an assay based on fluorescence-quenching screening with a solvatochromic fluorophore attached to a competitive probe and its alternative method based on Förster/fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) phenomena. Here, an improved FRET-based PKC binding assay using a diacylglycerol (DAG) lactone labeled with a donor fluorescent dye, 6-methoxynaphthalene (6MN), was developed. The 6MN-labeled DAG-lactone has a higher binding affinity for the PKCδ C1b domain and the fluorescent PKCδ C1b domain labeled by fluorescein as an acceptor fluorescent dye (Fl-δC1b) than the diethylaminocoumarin (DEAC)-labeled DAG-lactone. The combination of the 6MN-labeled DAG-lactone and Fl-δC1b showed a change in fluorescence response larger than that of the DEAC-labeled DAG-lactone and Fl-δC1b. The IC50 values of known PKC ligands calculated by the present FRET-based method using 6MN-labeled DAG-lactone agree well with the Ki values obtained by the conventional radioisotope-based assays. Some false positive compounds, identified by the previous solvatochromic fluorophore-based method, were found to be negative by this method. The present FRET-based PKC binding assay is more sensitive and could be more useful.

RevDate: 2021-09-20

Zhang YM, Zheng T, Huang TT, et al (2021)

Sarsasapogenin attenuates Alzheimer-like encephalopathy in diabetes.

Phytomedicine : international journal of phytotherapy and phytopharmacology, 91:153686.

BACKGROUND: A crosstalk exists between diabetes and Alzheimer's disease (AD), and diabetic encephalopathy displays AD-like disorders. Sarsasapogenin (Sar) has strong anti-inflammatory efficacy, showing neuroprotection and memory-enhancement effects.

PURPOSE: This study aims to verify the ameliorative effects of Sar on diabetic encephalopathy in vivo and in vitro, and to clarify the mechanisms from attenuation of AD-like pathology.

METHODS: Streptozotocin-induced type 1 diabetic rats and high glucose-cultured SH-SY5Y cells were used in this study. After Sar treatment (20 and 60 mg/kg) for consecutive 9 weeks, Morris water maze and novel object recognition tasks were performed. Hematoxylin-eosin staining was used for examining loss of neurons in CA1 area and ki67 expression for reflecting neurogenesis in DG area of hippocampus. Aβ production pathway and tau phosphorylation kinase cascade were examined in these two models.

RESULTS: Sar improved learning and memory ability, loss of neurons and reduction of neurogenesis in the hippocampus of diabetic rats. Moreover, Sar suppressed Aβ overproduction due to up-regulation of BACE1 in protein and mRNA and tau hyperphosphorylation from inactivation of AKT/GSK-3β cascade in the hippocampus and cerebral cortex of diabetic rats and high glucose-cultured SH-SY5Y cells, and PPARγ antagonism abolished the effects of Sar on key molecules in the two pathways. Additionally, it was found that high glucose-stimulated Aβ overproduction was prior to tau hyperphosphorylation in neurons.

CONCLUSION: Sar alleviated diabetic encephalopathy, which was obtained through inhibitions of Aβ overproduction and tau hyperphosphorylation mediated by the activation of PPARγ signaling. Hence, Sar is a good candidate compound for AD-like disorders.

RevDate: 2021-09-07

Procter TV, Williams A, A Montagne (2021)

Interplay between Brain Pericytes and Endothelial Cells in Dementia.

The American journal of pathology pii:S0002-9440(21)00340-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Dementia is becoming an increasingly important disease because of the aging population and limited treatment options. Cerebral small vessel disease and Alzheimer disease are the two most common causes of dementia with vascular dysfunction being a large component of both their pathophysiologies. The neurogliovascular unit and in particular the blood-brain barrier (BBB) are required for maintaining brain homeostasis. A complex interaction exists between the endothelial cells, which line the blood vessels and pericytes, which surround them in the neurogliovascular unit. Disruption of the BBB occurs in dementia, precipitating cognitive decline. In this review, we highlight how dysfunction of the endothelial-pericyte crosstalk contributes to dementia, focusing on cerebral small vessel disease and Alzheimer disease. This review examines how loss of pericyte coverage occurs and subsequent downstream changes. Furthermore, it examines how disruption to intimate crosstalk between endothelial cells and pericytes leads to alterations in cerebral blood flow, transcription, neuroinflammation, and transcytosis, contributing to breakdown of the BBB. This review illustrates how cumulation of loss of endothelial-pericyte crosstalk is a major driving force in dementia pathology.

RevDate: 2021-07-30

Sukkar SG, M Muscaritoli (2021)

A Clinical Perspective of Low Carbohydrate Ketogenic Diets: A Narrative Review.

Frontiers in nutrition, 8:642628.

Low carbohydrates diets (LCDs), which provide 20-120 g of carbohydrates per day, have long been used as therapeutic options in the treatment of severe obesity, type 2 diabetes mellitus and other morbid conditions, with good results in terms of weight loss and control of the main metabolic parameters, at least in the short and medium term. According to the caloric content and the macronutrient composition, we can classify LCDs in hypocaloric, normoproteic diets [such as the Very Low-Calorie Ketogenic Diet (VLCKD) or the protein-sparing modified fasting (PSMF)], hypocaloric, hyperproteic and hyperlipidic diets (e.g., Atkins, Paleo diets…) and normocaloric, normo-/hyperproteic diets (eucaloric KD), the latter mainly used in patients with brain tumors (gliomas) and refractory epilepsy. In addition to LCD diets, another interesting dietary approach which gained attention in the last few decades is fasting and its beneficial effects in terms of modulation of metabolic pathways, cellular processes and hormonal secretions. Due to the impossibility of using fasting regimens for long periods of time, several alternative strategies have been proposed that can mimic the effects, including calorie restriction, intermittent or alternating fasting, and the so-called fasting mimicking diets (FMDs). Recent preclinical studies have shown positive effects of FMDs in various experimental models of tumors, diabetes, Alzheimer Disease, and other morbid conditions, but to date, the scientific evidence in humans is limited to some opens studies and case reports. The purpose of our narrative review is to offer an overview of the characteristics of the main dietary regimens applied in the treatment of different clinical conditions as well as of the scientific evidence that justifies their use, focusing on low and zero-carb diets and on the different types of fasting.

RevDate: 2021-08-17

Zeng P, Fang M, Zhao H, et al (2021)

A network pharmacology approach to uncover the key ingredients in Ginkgo Folium and their anti-Alzheimer's disease mechanisms.

Aging, 13(14):18993-19012.

This study aimed to identify potential anti-Alzheimer's disease (AD) targets and action mechanisms of Ginkgo Folium (GF) through a network pharmacology approach. Eighty-four potential targets of 10 active anti-AD ingredients of GF were identified, among which genkwanin (GK) had the greatest number of AD-related targets. KEGG pathway enrichment analysis showed that the most significantly enriched signaling pathway of GF against AD was Alzheimer disease (hsa05010). More importantly, 29 of the 84 targets were significantly correlated with tau, Aβ or both Aβ and tau pathology. In addition, GO analysis suggested that the main biological processes of GF in AD treatment were the regulation of chemical synaptic transmission (GO:0007268), neuron death (GO:0070997), amyloid-beta metabolic process (GO:0050435), etc. We further investigated the anti-AD effects of GK using N2A-APP cells (a classical cellular model of AD). Treatment N2A-APP cells with 100 μM GK for 48 h affected core targets related to tau pathology (such as CDK5 and GSK3β). In conclusion, these findings indicate that GF exerts its therapeutic effects on AD by acting directly on multiple pathological processes of AD.

RevDate: 2021-07-29

Huang Y, Chang Y, Liu L, et al (2021)

Nanomaterials for Modulating the Aggregation of β-Amyloid Peptides.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 26(14):.

The aberrant aggregation of amyloid-β (Aβ) peptides in the brain has been recognized as the major hallmark of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Thus, the inhibition and dissociation of Aβ aggregation are believed to be effective therapeutic strategiesforthe prevention and treatment of AD. When integrated with traditional agents and biomolecules, nanomaterials can overcome their intrinsic shortcomings and boost their efficiency via synergistic effects. This article provides an overview of recent efforts to utilize nanomaterials with superior properties to propose effective platforms for AD treatment. The underlying mechanismsthat are involved in modulating Aβ aggregation are discussed. The summary of nanomaterials-based modulation of Aβ aggregation may help researchers to understand the critical roles in therapeutic agents and provide new insight into the exploration of more promising anti-amyloid agents and tactics in AD theranostics.

RevDate: 2021-08-13

Insel PS, Mohlenhoff BS, Neylan TC, et al (2021)

Association of Sleep and β-Amyloid Pathology Among Older Cognitively Unimpaired Adults.

JAMA network open, 4(7):e2117573.

Importance: Disrupted sleep commonly occurs with progressing neurodegenerative disease. Large, well-characterized neuroimaging studies of cognitively unimpaired adults are warranted to clarify the magnitude and onset of the association between sleep and emerging β-amyloid (Aβ) pathology.

Objective: To evaluate the associations between daytime and nighttime sleep duration with regional Aβ pathology in older cognitively unimpaired adults.

In this cross-sectional study, screening data were collected between April 1, 2014, and December 31, 2017, from healthy, cognitively unimpaired adults 65 to 85 years of age who underwent florbetapir F 18 positron emission tomography (PET), had APOE genotype information, scored between 25 and 30 on the Mini-Mental State Examination, and had a Clinical Dementia Rating of 0 for the Anti-Amyloid Treatment in Asymptomatic Alzheimer Disease (A4) Study. Data analysis was performed from December 1, 2019, to May 10, 2021.

Exposures: Self-reported daytime and nighttime sleep duration.

Main Outcomes and Measures: Regional Aβ pathology, measured by florbetapir PET standardized uptake value ratio.

Results: Amyloid PET and sleep duration information was acquired on 4425 cognitively unimpaired participants (mean [SD] age, 71.3 [4.7] years; 2628 [59.4%] female; 1509 [34.1%] tested Aβ positive). Each additional hour of nighttime sleep was associated with a 0.005 reduction of global Aβ standardized uptake value ratio (F1, 4419 = 5.0; P = .03), a 0.009 reduction of medial orbitofrontal Aβ (F1, 4419 = 17.4; P < .001), and a 0.011 reduction of anterior cingulate Aβ (F1, 4419 = 15.9; P < .001). When restricting analyses to participants who tested Aβ negative, nighttime sleep was associated with a 0.006 reduction of medial orbitofrontal Aβ (F1,2910 = 16.9; P < .001) and a 0.005 reduction of anterior cingulate Aβ (F1,2910 = 7.6; P = .03). Daytime sleep was associated with a 0.013 increase of precuneus Aβ (F1,2910 = 7.3; P = .03) and a 0.024 increase of posterior cingulate Aβ (F1,2910 = 14.2; P = .001) in participants who tested Aβ negative.

Conclusions and Relevance: In this cross-sectional study, the increased risk of Aβ deposition with reduced nighttime sleep duration occurred early, before cognitive impairment or significant Aβ deposition. Daytime sleep may be associated with an increase in risk for early Aβ accumulation and did not appear to be corrective for loss of nighttime sleep, demonstrating a circadian rhythm dependence of sleep in preventing Aβ accumulation. Treatments that improve sleep may reduce early Aβ accumulation and aid in delaying the onset of cognitive dysfunction associated with early Alzheimer disease.

RevDate: 2021-07-24

Kwan KKL, Yun H, Dong TTX, et al (2021)

Ginsenosides attenuate bioenergetics and morphology of mitochondria in cultured PC12 cells under the insult of amyloid beta-peptide.

Journal of ginseng research, 45(4):473-481.

Background: Mitochondrial dysfunction is one of the significant reasons for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Ginsenosides, natural molecules extracted from Panax ginseng, have been demonstrated to exert essential neuroprotective functions, which can ascribe to its anti-oxidative effect, enhancing central metabolism and improving mitochondrial function. However, a comprehensive analysis of cellular mitochondrial bioenergetics after ginsenoside treatment under Aβ-oxidative stress is missing.

Methods: The antioxidant activities of ginsenoside Rb1, Rd, Re, Rg1 were compared by measuring the cell survival and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation. Next, the protective effects of ginsenosides of mitochondrial bioenergetics were examined by measuring oxygen consumption rate (OCR) in PC12 cells under Aβ-oxidative stress with an extracellular flux analyzer. Meanwhile, mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP) and mitochondrial dynamics were evaluated by confocal laser scanning microscopy.

Results: Ginsenoside Rg1 possessed the strongest anti-oxidative property, and which therefore provided the best protective function to PC12 cells under the Aβ oxidative stress by increasing ATP production to 3 folds, spare capacity to 2 folds, maximal respiration to 2 folds and non-mitochondrial respiration to 1.5 folds, as compared to Aβ cell model. Furthermore, ginsenoside Rg1 enhanced MMP and mitochondrial interconnectivity, and simultaneously reduced mitochondrial circularity.

Conclusion: In the present study, these results demonstrated that ginsenoside Rg1 could be the best natural compound, as compared with other ginsenosides, by modulating the OCR of cultured PC12 cells during oxidative phosphorylation, in regulating MMP and in improving mitochondria dynamics under Aβ-induced oxidative stress.

RevDate: 2021-09-01

Chiang TI, Yu YH, Lin CH, et al (2021)

Novel Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease: Based Upon N-methyl-D-aspartate Receptor Hypoactivation and Oxidative Stress.

Clinical psychopharmacology and neuroscience : the official scientific journal of the Korean College of Neuropsychopharmacology, 19(3):423-433.

Early detection and prevention of Alzheimer's disease (AD) is important. The current treatment for early AD is acetylcholine esterase inhibitors (AChEIs); however, the efficacy is poor. Besides, AChEI did not show efficacy in mild cognitive impairment (MCI). Beta-amyloid (A) deposits have been regarded to be highly related to the pathogenesis of AD. However, many clinical trials aiming at the clearance of A deposits failed to improve the cognitive decline of AD, even at its early phase. There should be other important mechanisms unproven in the course of AD and MCI. Feasible biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment response of AD are lacking to date. The N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor (NMDAR) activation plays an important role in learning and memory. On the other hand, oxidative stress has been regarded to contribute to aging with the assumption that free radicals damage cell constituents and connective tissues. Our recent study found that an NMDAR enhancer, sodium benzoate (the pivotal inhibitor of D-amino acid oxidase [DAAO]), improved the cognitive and global function of patients with early-phase AD. Further, we found that peripheral DAAO levels were higher in patients with MCI and AD than healthy controls. We also found that sodium benzoate was able to change the activity of antioxidant. These pieces of evidence suggest that the NMDAR function is associated with anti-oxidation, and have potential to be biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment response of AD.

RevDate: 2021-07-29

Ettcheto M, Sánchez-Lopez E, Cano A, et al (2021)

Dexibuprofen ameliorates peripheral and central risk factors associated with Alzheimer's disease in metabolically stressed APPswe/PS1dE9 mice.

Cell & bioscience, 11(1):141.

BACKGROUND: Several studies stablished a relationship between metabolic disturbances and Alzheimer´s disease (AD) where inflammation plays a pivotal role. However, mechanisms involved still remain unclear. In the present study, we aimed to evaluate central and peripheral effects of dexibuprofen (DXI) in the progression of AD in APPswe/PS1dE9 (APP/PS1) female mice, a familial AD model, fed with high fat diet (HFD). Animals were fed either with conventional chow or with HFD, from their weaning until their sacrifice, at 6 months. Moreover, mice were divided into subgroups to which were administered drinking water or water supplemented with DXI (20 mg kg-1 d-1) for 3 months. Before sacrifice, body weight, intraperitoneal glucose and insulin tolerance test (IP-ITT) were performed to evaluate peripheral parameters and also behavioral tests to determine cognitive decline. Moreover, molecular studies such as Western blot and RT-PCR were carried out in liver to confirm metabolic effects and in hippocampus to analyze several pathways considered hallmarks in AD.

RESULTS: Our studies demonstrate that DXI improved metabolic alterations observed in transgenic animals fed with HFD in vivo, data in accordance with those obtained at molecular level. Moreover, an improvement of cognitive decline and neuroinflammation among other alterations associated with AD were observed such as beta-amyloid plaque accumulation and unfolded protein response.

CONCLUSIONS: Collectively, evidence suggest that chronic administration of DXI prevents the progression of AD through the regulation of inflammation which contribute to improve hallmarks of this pathology. Thus, this compound could constitute a novel therapeutic approach in the treatment of AD in a combined therapy.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Sanders OD, Rajagopal L, JA Rajagopal (2021)

Does oxidatively damaged DNA drive amyloid-β generation in Alzheimer's disease? A hypothesis.

Journal of neurogenetics [Epub ahead of print].

In Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyloid-β (Aβ) generation and upstream β-secretase 1 (BACE1) expression appear to be driven by oxidative stress via c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), p38, and Interferon-Induced, Double-Stranded RNA-Activated Protein Kinase (PKR). In addition, inflammatory molecules, including lipopolysaccharide (LPS), induce genes central to Aβ genesis, such as BACE1, via nuclear factor-κB (NFκB). However, additional triggers of Aβ generation remain poorly understood and might represent novel opportunities for therapeutic intervention. Based on mechanistic studies and elevated ectopic oxidatively damaged DNA (oxoDNA) levels in preclinical AD, mild cognitive impairment, and AD patients, we hypothesize oxoDNA contributes to β-amyloidosis starting from the earliest stages of AD through multiple pathways. OxoDNA induces mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinase kinase 4 (MAP4K4), thereby sensitizing the brain to oxidative stress-induced JNK activation and BACE1 transcription. It also induces myeloid differentiation primary response 88 (MyD88) and activates protein kinase CK2, thereby increasing NFκB activation and BACE1 induction. OxoDNA increases oxidative stress via nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) ectopic localization, likely augmenting JNK-mediated BACE1 induction. OxoDNA likely also promotes β-amyloidosis via absent in melanoma 2 (AIM2) induction. Falsifiable predictions of this hypothesis include that deoxyribonuclease treatment should decrease Aβ and possibly slow cognitive decline in AD patients. While formal testing of this hypothesis remains to be performed, a case report has found deoxyribonuclease I treatment improved a severely demented AD patient's Mini-Mental Status Exam score from 3 to 18 at 2 months. There is preliminary preclinical and clinical evidence suggesting that ectopic oxidatively damaged DNA may act as an inflammatory damage-associated molecular pattern contributing to Aβ generation in AD, and deoxyribonuclease I should be formally evaluated to test whether it can decrease Aβ levels and slow cognitive decline in AD patients.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Liu Z, Li H, S Pan (2021)

Discovery and Validation of Key Biomarkers Based on Immune Infiltrates in Alzheimer's Disease.

Frontiers in genetics, 12:658323.

Background: As the most common neurodegenerative disease, Alzheimer's disease (AD) leads to progressive loss of cognition and memory. Presently, the underlying pathogenic genes of AD patients remain elusive, and effective disease-modifying therapy is not available. This study explored novel biomarkers that can affect diagnosis and treatment in AD based on immune infiltration.

Methods: The gene expression profiles of 139 AD cases and 134 normal controls were obtained from the NCBI GEO public database. We applied the computational method CIBERSORT to bulk gene expression profiles of AD to quantify 22 subsets of immune cells. Besides, based on the use of the Least Absolute Shrinkage Selection Operator (LASSO), this study also applied SVM-RFE analysis to screen key genes. GO-based semantic similarity and logistic regression model analyses were applied to explore hub genes further.

Results: There was a remarkable significance in the infiltration of immune cells between the subgroups. The proportions for monocytes, M0 macrophages, and dendritic cells in the AD group were significantly higher than those in the normal group, while the proportion of some cells was lower than that of the normal group, such as NK cell resting, T-cell CD4 naive, T-cell CD4 memory activation, and eosinophils. Additionally, seven genes (ABCA2, CREBRF, CD72, CETN2, KCNG1, NDUFA2, and RPL36AL) were identified as hub genes. Then we performed the analysis of immune factor correlation, gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA), and GO based on seven hub genes. The AUC of ROC prediction model in test and validation sets were 0.845 and 0.839, respectively. Eventually, the mRNA expression analysis of ABCA2, NDUFA2, CREBRF, and CD72 revealed significant differences among the seven hub genes and then was confirmed by RT-PCR.

Conclusion: A model based on immune cell infiltration might be used to forecast AD patients' diagnosis, and it provided a new perspective for AD treatment targets.

RevDate: 2021-07-20

Song Y, Chen S, Gao J, et al (2021)

Case Report: Coexistence of Anti-AMPA Receptor Encephalitis and Positive Biomarkers of Alzheimer's Disease.

Frontiers in neurology, 12:673347.

Anti-α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid (AMPA) receptor encephalitis is a rare autoimmune disease that is characterized by acute cognitive impairment, mental symptoms, and seizures. The high comorbidity rate between anti-AMPA receptor (AMPAR) encephalitis and other somatic diseases, such as malignancy, has revealed the possibility of potential copathogenesis. However, there have not yet been reports about anti-AMPAR encephalitis with concomitant cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers consistent with Alzheimer disease (AD). Herein, we present the case of an elderly male patient with autoimmune encephalitis (AE) presenting with anti-AMPA1-R and anti-AMPA2-R antibodies, as well as CSF biomarkers of AD. The patient was hospitalized with acute memory decline for 1 week. Anti-AMPA1-R and anti-AMPA2-R antibodies were positively detected in CSF, and the anti-AMPA2-R antibody was also present in the serum. Additionally, the biomarkers of AD were concurrently present in CSF (Aβ1-42 = 245.70 pg/mL, t-Tau = 894.48 pg/mL, p-Tau = 78.66 pg/mL). After administering a combined treatment of intravenous immunoglobulin and glucocorticoids, the patient recovered significantly, and his cognitive function achieved a sustained remission during 2 months' follow-up. This case raises the awareness of a possible interaction between AE and changes of CSF biomarkers. We speculated that the existence of AMPAR antibodies can induce changes of CSF, and other pathological alterations. This present report highlights that a potential relationship exists among AE and provides a warning when making the diagnosis of AD.

RevDate: 2021-09-14
CmpDate: 2021-09-14

Ritwiset A, Khajonrit J, Krongsuk S, et al (2021)

Molecular insight on the formation structure and dynamics of melatonin in an aqueous solution and at the Water-Air interface: A molecular dynamics study.

Journal of molecular graphics & modelling, 108:107983.

Melatonin is a natural hormone that has been shown highly antioxidant effects. Consequently, it has been extensively studied for its therapeutic potential in several diseases such as insomnia, cardiovascular, Alzheimer, and certain types of cancers. Recently, it has been used to adjuvant treatment for COVID-19 patients. It is well-known that melatonin is highly hydrophobic, resulting in lower solubility. However, the molecular structure and dynamic behavior of the formation of melatonin in an aqueous solution and at the water-air interface have not yet been clearly explained. This information is necessary for the melatonin formulation in drug delivery systems. The present work focuses on the molecular structure and dynamics of melatonin molecules in the aqueous solution and at the water-air interface based on using a molecular dynamics simulation study. The results showed that most melatonin molecules were aggregated in an aqueous solution while they were formed a self-assembled monolayer with the ordered structure at the water-air interface. The strong interaction of melatonin depends on their functional group which showed a similar trend for both systems and was sequenced as follows: carbonyl O > indole NH > amide NH > methoxy OA, respectively. However, the carbonyl O and the indole NH groups exhibit strong interactions with water molecules at the interface. Consequently, the two preferred orientations of the melatonin head group can be observed at the water-air interface (i.e., one is to turn the head group to the water surface with the tilted angle of ~40°-60° and the second one is to turn the head group away from the water surface with the tilted angle of ~130°). The longer lifetime of hydrogen bonds formed between melatonin themselves in the bulk water reveals that the stability of melatonin aggregation in an aqueous solution is more stable. Therefore, melatonin has less soluble in an aqueous solution.

RevDate: 2021-07-29

Ousta A, Piao L, Fang YH, et al (2021)

Microglial Activation and Neurological Outcomes in a Murine Model of Cardiac Arrest.

Neurocritical care [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Neurological injury following successful resuscitation from sudden cardiac arrest (CA) is common. The pathophysiological basis of this injury remains poorly understood, and treatment options are limited. Microglial activation and neuroinflammation are established contributors to many neuropathologies, such as Alzheimer disease and traumatic brain injury, but their potential role in post-CA injury has only recently been recognized. Here, we hypothesize that microglial activation that occurs following brief asystolic CA is associated with neurological injury and represents a potential therapeutic target.

METHODS: Adult C57BL/6 male and female mice were randomly assigned to 12-min, KCl-induced asystolic CA, under anesthesia and ventilation, followed by successful cardiopulmonary resuscitation (n = 19) or sham intervention (n = 11). Neurological assessments of mice were performed using standardized neurological scoring, video motion tracking, and sensory/motor testing. Mice were killed at 72 h for histological studies; neuronal degeneration was assessed using Fluoro-Jade C staining. Microglial characteristics were assessed by immunohistochemistry using the marker of ionized calcium binding adaptor molecule 1, followed by ImageJ analyses for cell integrity density and skeletal analyses.

RESULTS: Neurological injury in post-cardiopulmonary-resuscitation mice vs. sham mice was evident by poorer neurological scores (difference of 3.626 ± 0.4921, 95% confidence interval 2.618-4.634), sensory and motor functions (worsened by sixfold and sevenfold, respectively, compared with baseline), and locomotion (75% slower with a 76% decrease in total distance traveled). Post-CA brains demonstrated evidence of neurodegeneration and neuroinflammatory microglial activation.

CONCLUSIONS: Extensive microglial activation and neurodegeneration in the CA1 region and the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus are evident following brief asystolic CA and are associated with severe neurological injury.

RevDate: 2021-07-16

Qi X, Nizamutdinov D, Berman MH, et al (2021)

Gender Differences of Dementia in Response to Intensive Self-Administered Transcranial and Intraocular Near-Infrared Stimulation.

Cureus, 13(7):e16188.

Background Transcranial near-infrared (tNIR) stimulation was proven to be a safe, reliable, and effective treatment for cognitive and behavioral symptoms of dementia. Dementia patients of different genders differ in terms of gross anatomy, biochemistry, genetic profile, clinical presentations, and socio-psychological status. Studies of the tNIR effect on dementia have thus far been gender-neutral, with dementia subjects being grouped based on diagnoses or dementia severity. This trial hereby investigated how dementia subjects of different sex respond to tNIR treatment. Methods A total of 60 patient-caregiver dyads were enrolled and randomized to this double-blind, sham-controlled clinical trial. The tNIR light has a wavelength of 1,060 nm to 1,080 nm and was delivered via a photobiomodulation (PBM) unit. The active PBM unit emits near-infrared (NIR) light while the sham unit does not. The treatment consists of a six-minute tNIR light stimulation session twice daily for eight weeks. Neuropsychological assessments conducted at baseline (week 0) and endline (week 8) were compared within the female and male group and between different sex, respectively. Results Over the course of treatment, active-arm female subjects had a 20.2% improvement in Mini-Mental State Exam (MMSE) (mean 4.8 points increase, p < 0.001) and active-arm male cohort had 19.3% improvement (p < 0.001). Control-arm female subjects had a 6.5% improvement in MMSE (mean 1.5 points increase, p < 0.03) and control-arm male subjects had 5.9% improvement (p = 0.35) with no significant differences in the mean MMSE between female and male subjects in both arms respectively. Other comparison of assessments including Clock Copying and Drawing Test, Logical Memory Test - immediate and delayed recall yielded nominal but not statistically significant differences. No significant differences were observed in the mean MMSE between female and male subjects in both arms respectively before treatment implementation (active arm, p = 0.12; control arm, p = 0.50) at week 0, or after treatment completion (active arm, p = 0.11; control arm, p = 0.74) at week 8. Conclusion Despite differences between female and male dementia subjects, the response to tNIR light stimulation does not demonstrate gender-based differences. Further studies are warranted to refine the tNIR treatment protocol for subjects suffering from dementia or dementia-related symptoms.

RevDate: 2021-08-31

Keret O, Staffaroni AM, Ringman JM, et al (2021)

Pattern and degree of individual brain atrophy predicts dementia onset in dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease.

Alzheimer's & dementia (Amsterdam, Netherlands), 13(1):e12197.

Introduction: Asymptomatic and mildly symptomatic dominantly inherited Alzheimer's disease mutation carriers (DIAD-MC) are ideal candidates for preventative treatment trials aimed at delaying or preventing dementia onset. Brain atrophy is an early feature of DIAD-MC and could help predict risk for dementia during trial enrollment.

Methods: We created a dementia risk score by entering standardized gray-matter volumes from 231 DIAD-MC into a logistic regression to classify participants with and without dementia. The score's predictive utility was assessed using Cox models and receiver operating curves on a separate group of 65 DIAD-MC followed longitudinally.

Results: Our risk score separated asymptomatic versus demented DIAD-MC with 96.4% (standard error = 0.02) and predicted conversion to dementia at next visit (hazard ratio = 1.32, 95% confidence interval [CI: 1.15, 1.49]) and within 2 years (area under the curve = 90.3%, 95% CI [82.3%-98.2%]) and improved prediction beyond established methods based on familial age of onset.

Discussion: Individualized risk scores based on brain atrophy could be useful for establishing enrollment criteria and stratifying DIAD-MC participants for prevention trials.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Isik AT, Erken N, Yavuz I, et al (2021)

Orthostatic hypotension in patients with Alzheimer's disease: a meta-analysis of prospective studies.

Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a clinical sign associated with severe adverse health outcomes in older adults. It has been reported to be common in patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD). The present meta-analysis aimed to investigate the prevalence and risk of OH in AD patients.

METHODS: English-language articles published from January 1990 to August 2020 were searched in PubMed, ScienceDirect, Cochrane, and Web of Science with the keywords "Alzheimer" and "autonomic dysfunction" or "dysautonomia" or "postural hypotension" or "orthostatic hypotension." All prospective clinical studies (case-control, cohort, and cross-sectional studies, and randomized controlled trials) that were regarded as pertinent were included in this study. For quality assessment, the Newcastle-Ottawa Scale was used. Odds ratios (OR) and risk ratios (RR) were extracted with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and combined using the random effects model after logarithmic transformation. The prevalence in the AD patients was also combined using the random effects model.

RESULTS: The meta-analysis involved 11 studies (7 case-control and 4 case series) to assess the risk of OH in AD. It was found that AD increased the risk of OH with an RR of 1.98 (95% CI: 0.97-4.04) and an OR of 2.53 (95% CI:1.10-5.86) compared to healthy controls, and OH was present in 28% (95% CI: 0.17-0.40) of 500 AD patients.

CONCLUSION: There is an elevated risk of OH in AD by nearly 2.5-fold. Therefore, the evaluation of postural blood pressure changes should definitely be among the follow-up and treatment goals of AD.

RevDate: 2021-07-13

Steinbrook R (2021)

The Accelerated Approval of Aducanumab for Treatment of Patients With Alzheimer Disease.

JAMA internal medicine pii:2782122 [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Mitchell SL, D'Agata EMC, Hanson LC, et al (2021)

The Trial to Reduce Antimicrobial Use in Nursing Home Residents With Alzheimer Disease and Other Dementias (TRAIN-AD): A Cluster Randomized Clinical Trial.

JAMA internal medicine, 181(9):1174-1182.

Importance: Antimicrobials are extensively prescribed to nursing home residents with advanced dementia, often without evidence of infection or consideration of the goals of care.

Objective: To test the effectiveness of a multicomponent intervention to improve the management of suspected urinary tract infections (UTIs) and lower respiratory infections (LRIs) for nursing home residents with advanced dementia.

A cluster randomized clinical trial of 28 Boston-area nursing homes (14 per arm) and 426 residents with advanced dementia (intervention arm, 199 residents; control arm, 227 residents) was conducted from August 1, 2017, to April 30, 2020.

Interventions: The intervention content integrated best practices from infectious diseases and palliative care for management of suspected UTIs and LRIs in residents with advanced dementia. Components targeting nursing home practitioners (physicians, physician assistants, nurse practitioners, and nurses) included an in-person seminar, an online course, management algorithms (posters, pocket cards), communication tips (pocket cards), and feedback reports on prescribing of antimicrobials. The residents' health care proxies received a booklet about infections in advanced dementia. Nursing homes in the control arm continued routine care.

Main Outcomes and Measures: The primary outcome was antimicrobial treatment courses for suspected UTIs or LRIs per person-year. Outcomes were measured for as many as 12 months. Secondary outcomes were antimicrobial courses for suspected UTIs and LRIs when minimal criteria for treatment were absent per person-year and burdensome procedures used to manage these episodes (bladder catherization, chest radiography, venous blood sampling, or hospital transfer) per person-year.

Results: The intervention arm had 199 residents (mean [SD] age, 87.7 [8.0] years; 163 [81.9%] women; 36 [18.1%] men), of which 163 (81.9%) were White and 27 (13.6%) were Black. The control arm had 227 residents (mean [SD] age, 85.3 [8.6] years; 190 [83.7%] women; 37 [16.3%] men), of which 200 (88.1%) were White and 22 (9.7%) were Black. There was a 33% (nonsignificant) reduction in antimicrobial treatment courses for suspected UTIs or LRIs per person-year in the intervention vs control arm (adjusted marginal rate difference, -0.27 [95% CI, -0.71 to 0.17]). This reduction was primarily attributable to reduced antimicrobial use for LRIs. The following secondary outcomes did not differ significantly between arms: antimicrobials initiated when minimal criteria were absent, bladder catheterizations, venous blood sampling, and hospital transfers. Chest radiography use was significantly lower in the intervention arm (adjusted marginal rate difference, -0.56 [95% CI, -1.10 to -0.03]). In-person or online training was completed by 88% of the targeted nursing home practitioners.

Conclusions and Relevance: This cluster randomized clinical trial found that despite high adherence to the training, a multicomponent intervention promoting goal-directed care for suspected UTIs and LRIs did not significantly reduce antimicrobial use among nursing home residents with advanced dementia.

Trial Registration: ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03244917.

RevDate: 2021-08-03
CmpDate: 2021-08-03

Moghadam B, Ashouri M, Roohi H, et al (2021)

Computational evidence of new putative allosteric sites in the acetylcholinesterase receptor.

Journal of molecular graphics & modelling, 107:107981.

Acetylcholinesterase (AChE), with a rigid structure and buried active site at the end of a deep narrow gorge, is interesting enough to solve the paradox between high catalytic activity and unavailability of the active site in treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). In this way, the blind docking process is performed on an ensemble of AChE structures created with molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to survey the whole space of AChE to find multiple access pathways to the active site and ranking them based on their affinity scores. Our results show that there are other allosteric binding sites in the protein structure whose inhibition, can affect protein function by disrupting the release of the Acetylcholine (AC) degradation products. In this study, inhibitory activities of Hybride14 and two natural compounds (Papaverine and Palmatine) were evaluated for all possible allosteric sites via docking method. The results confirmed the non-competitive inhibition mechanism. The best binding mode for these inhibitors and efficacy of hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions on inhibitory activities of ligands were also disclosed. Furthermore, our studies provide significant molecular insight for AChE inhibition that could aid in the development of new drugs for AD's treatment.

RevDate: 2021-08-12
CmpDate: 2021-08-12

Patwardhan AG, S Belemkar (2021)

An update on Alzheimer's disease: Immunotherapeutic agents, stem cell therapy and gene editing.

Life sciences, 282:119790.

Alzheimer's disease is a chronic lifestyle ailment whose occurrence has come to light with the increasing life expectancy due to better healthcare. The patient burden for AD is set to double by the year 2060 and advancement in research is of utmost importance to combat this problem. AD is characterized by the pathological hallmarks of amyloid plaques and neurofibrillary tangles. The disease has been implicated to have a genetic predisposition. The current treatment strategies are at best ameliorative in nature and offer no substantive cure. Immunotherapeutic approaches employed have shown few therapeutic benefits but the accelerated approval of aducanumab by the US-FDA shows clinical benefit merit. In addition, newer therapeutic approaches are the need of the hour. This review aims to highlight the pathology of the disease, followed by an insight into newer approaches like stem cell therapy and gene editing, focusing on possible CRISPR mediated targets.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Ilieva K, Atanasova M, Atanasova D, et al (2021)

Chronic agomelatine treatment alleviates icvAβ-induced anxiety and depressive-like behavior through affecting Aβ metabolism in the hippocampus in a rat model of Alzheimer's disease.

Physiology & behavior, 239:113525.

Recently, we reported that the atypical antidepressant agomelatine (Ago) exerted a beneficial impact on behavioral changes and concomitant neuropathological events in icvSTZ rat model of sporadic Alzheimer diseases (AD). In the present study, we aimed to explore the effect of Ago (40 mg/kg, i.p. for 30 days) on beta-amyloid (Aβ) metabolism in icvAβ1-42 rat model of AD. The melatonin analogue was administered either simultaneously with Aβ1-42 (AβAgo1) or 30 days later during the late stage of the progression of AD (AβAgo2). Treatment with Ago in the early stage of AD attenuated anxiety and depressive-like responses but was inefficient against Aβ-induced impairment of hippocampus-dependent spatial memory. The melatonin analogue, administered both during the early and the late stage of AD, corrected to control level the elevated Aβ1-42 in the frontal cortex (FC) and the hippocampus. The concentration of α-secretase was enhanced by AβAgo1 compared to the sham- and Aβ-veh groups in the hippocampus. No changes in the concentration of β-secretase in the FC and the hippocampus as well as of γ-secretase in the FC were observed among groups. Both the AβAgo1 and AβAgo2 attenuated to control level the Aβ-induced increased concentration of γ-secretase in the hippocampus. AβAgo1 exerted also structure-specific neuroprotection observed mainly in the CA1, septal CA3b subfield of the dorsal hippocampus and septo-temporal piriform cortex (Pir) and partially in the temporal CA3c, septal and temporal Pir. These findings suggest that Ago treatment in the early stage of AD can exert beneficial effects on concomitant behavioral impairments and neuroprotection in associated brain structures. The antidepressant administration both in the early stage and after the progression of AD affected Aβ metabolism via decreasing of γ-secretase concentration in the hippocampus.

RevDate: 2021-09-21
CmpDate: 2021-09-08

Jorge C, Cetó M, Arias A, et al (2021)

Level of understanding of Alzheimer disease among caregivers and the general population.

Neurologia (Barcelona, Spain), 36(6):426-432.

INTRODUCTION: Understanding of Alzheimer disease (AD) is fundamental for early diagnosis and to reduce caregiver burden. The objective of this study is to evaluate the degree of understanding of AD among informal caregivers and different segments of the general population through the Alzheimer's Disease Knowledge Scale (ADKS).

PATIENTS AND METHODS: We assessed the knowledge of caregivers in different follow-up periods (less than one year, between 1 and 5 years, and over 5 years since diagnosis) and individuals from the general population. ADKS scores were grouped into different items: life impact, risk factors, symptoms, diagnosis, treatment, disease progression, and caregiving.

RESULTS: A total of 419 people (215 caregivers and 204 individuals from the general population) were included in the study. No significant differences were found between groups for overall ADKS score (19.1 vs 18.8, P = .9). There is a scarce knowledge of disease risk factors (49.3%) or the care needed (51.2%), while symptoms (78.6%) and course of the disease (77.2%) were the best understood aspects. Older caregiver age was correlated with worse ADKS scores overall and for life impact, symptoms, treatment, and disease progression (P < .05). Time since diagnosis improved caregivers' knowledge of AD symptoms (P = .00) and diagnosis (P = .05).

CONCLUSION: Assessing the degree of understanding of AD is essential to the development of health education strategies both in the general population and among caregivers.

RevDate: 2021-08-10

He Y, Li H, Huang J, et al (2021)

Efficacy of antidepressant drugs in the treatment of depression in Alzheimer disease patients: A systematic review and network meta-analysis.

Journal of psychopharmacology (Oxford, England), 35(8):901-909.

BACKGROUND: Depression is considered as one of the most common neuropsychiatric symptoms (NPS) in Alzheimer's disease (AD) patients. Prescription of antidepressants is a current clinical practice well-established as the first-line treatment for such patients. Our study was aimed at systematically examining the evidence on the efficacy of antidepressants in the treatment of depression in AD patients.

METHODS: We conducted a network meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials retrieved by systematic search of the Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials, PubMed, Embase, and CNKI databases. Primary outcomes included mean depression score and safety. Secondary outcomes were cognition. The surface under the cumulative ranking curve was performed to estimate a ranking probability for different treatments.

RESULTS: A total of 25 studies including 14 medications met the inclusion criteria. Compared with placebo, only mirtazapine (standard mean deviation [SMD], -1.94; 95% confidence interval [CI], -3.53 to -0.36; p < 0.05) and sertraline (SMD, -1.16; 95% CI, -2.17 to -0.15; p < 0.05) showed a slightly better effect in treating symptoms of depression. Clomipramine increased risk of adverse events than placebo (odds ratio, 3.01; 95% CI, 1.45 to 4.57; p < 0.05). In terms of cognitive function, there was no statistically significant difference between antidepressants and placebo.

CONCLUSION: Overall, in the short-term treatment, these data suggest that commonly used antidepressants sertraline and mirtazapine should be considered as an alternative treatment for depression in AD patients. However, more high-quality trials with large samples and longer following-up are proposed.

RevDate: 2021-08-23

Lin F, Zhang H, Bao J, et al (2021)

Identification of Potential Diagnostic miRNAs Biomarkers for Alzheimer Disease Based on Weighted Gene Coexpression Network Analysis.

World neurosurgery, 153:e315-e328.

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is an age-related neurodegenerative disease that accounts for nearly three fourths of dementia cases. Searching for potential biomarkers will help clinicians in the early diagnosis and treatment of AD.

METHODS: Firstly, we downloaded detailed AD data from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database for identification of differentially expressed microribonucleic acids (DEmiRNAs) and differentially expressed messenger ribonucleic acids (DEmRNAs). Secondly, functional enrichment analysis was used to identify the biological functions of DEmRNAs. Thirdly, weighted gene coexpression network analysis was used to identify important modules and hub miRNAs. In addition, the miRNA-mRNA regulatory network was constructed. Fourthly, the GSE120584 dataset was used for electronic expression verification and diagnostic analysis. Finally, real-time polymerase chain reaction in vitro verification was performed.

RESULTS: We obtained 1005 DEmiRNAs and 97 DEmRNAs, respectively. Functional enrichment found that DEmRNAs was enriched in the N-glycan biosynthesis pathway, which was associated with AD. In the weighted gene coexpression network analysis, we found that the brown module was the optimal module. Moreover, 11 hub miRNAs were identified. A total of 216 negatively regulated miRNA-mRNA regulation effects are involved. Hub miRNAs were found to have potential diagnostic value in the receiver operating characteristic analysis.

CONCLUSION: Eleven hub miRNAs were identified, and DEmRNAs was found to be significantly enriched in the N-glycan biosynthesis pathway, which contributes to the early diagnosis and treatment of AD.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Chen X, Li L, Sharma A, et al (2021)

The Application of Convolutional Neural Network Model in Diagnosis and Nursing of MR Imaging in Alzheimer's Disease.

Interdisciplinary sciences, computational life sciences [Epub ahead of print].

The disease Alzheimer is an irrepressible neurologicalbrain disorder. Earlier detection and proper treatment of Alzheimer's disease can help for brain tissue damage prevention. The study was intended to explore the segmentation effects of convolutional neural network (CNN) model on Magnetic Resonance (MR) imaging for Alzheimer's diagnosis and nursing. Specifically, 18 Alzheimer's patients admitted to Indira Gandhi Medical College (IGMC) hospital were selected as the experimental group, with 18 healthy volunteers in the Ctrl group. Furthermore, the CNN model was applied to segment the MR imaging of Alzheimer's patients, and its segmentation effects were compared with those of the fully convolutional neural network (FCNN) and support vector machine (SVM) algorithms. It was found that the CNN model demonstrated higher segmentation precision, and the experimental group showed a higher clinical dementia rating (CDR) score and a lower mini-mental state examination (MMSE) score (P < 0.05). The size of parahippocompalgyrus and putamen was bigger in the Ctrl (P < 0.05). In experimental group, the amplitude of low-frequency fluctuation (ALFF) was positively correlated with the MMSE score in areas of bilateral cingulum gyri (r = 0.65) and precuneus (r = 0.59). In conclusion, the grey matter structure is damaged in Alzheimer's patients, and hippocampus ALFF and regional homogeneity (ReHo) is involved in the neuronal compensation mechanism of hippocampal damage, and the caregivers should take an active nursing method.

RevDate: 2021-07-06

Cotoban AG, Udroiu CA, Vina R, et al (2021)

Antithrombotic Strategies in Invasively Managed Patients with Non-ST Elevation Acute Coronary Syndromes and Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation in Romania.

Maedica, 16(1):6-15.

Introduction: Concomitant atrial fibrillation (AF) in non-ST segment elevation acute coronary syndrome (NSTE-ACS) patients complicates the decision-making process regarding short- and long-term antithrombotic strategies. Patient profiles and usage rates of different antithrombotic combinations in this patient subgroup in Romania are poorly described. Premises and objectives: To describe the characteristics of invasively managed NSTE-ACS patients with AF (either known or newly diagnosed) compared to patients with no oral anticoagulation (OAC) indications, and analyze the rates and factors that influence the different antithrombotic regimens at discharge in AF patients. Material and methods: The Romanian National NSTE-ACS Registry allows the enrollment of invasively managed NSTE-ACS patients admitted in 11 interventional centers. Patients with non-valvular AF and no other OAC indication were identified and compared with patients with no indication for OAC. The antithrombotic strategy at discharge was analyzed based on demographic, clinical, and invasive management characteristics. Outcomes:A total of 1418 patients were enrolled between 2016 and 2019 out of which, 175 AF subjects and 1159 patients with no OAC indication were included in the analysis. Subjects with AF were older (70 ± 8.3 vs 62.9 ± 10.4 years, p <0.001) and more likely to have a GRACE score >140 (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.58-3.31, p<0.001), a history of heart failure (aOR 3.07, 95% CI 2.14-4.41, p <0.001), dementia or Alzheimer disease (aOR 3.45, 95% CI 1.11-10.68, p 0.032), and non-fatal major cardiovascular (CV) events during admission (aOR 6.71, 95% CI 1.61-27.94, p 0.009). Globally, triple antithrombotic therapy (TAT) was used in 52.5% of AF patients. 69% of PCI patients received TAT. One in four patients with AF did not receive OAC at discharge. Prior treatment with OAC was the strongest predictor for OAC usage at discharge (aOR 12.34, 95% CI 3.21-47.61, p<0.001). Conclusion: More than one in 10 NSTE-ACS patients have a concomitant non-valvular AF diagnosis. These patients are significantly older and are more likely to have significant CV and non-CV disease. Triple antithrombotic therapy is the most used antithrombotic strategy, especially in the PCI subgroup. One in four NSTE-ACS AF patients do not receive OAC at discharge.

RevDate: 2021-07-23

Aarsland D, Batzu L, Halliday GM, et al (2021)

Parkinson disease-associated cognitive impairment.

Nature reviews. Disease primers, 7(1):47.

Parkinson disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, affecting >1% of the population ≥65 years of age and with a prevalence set to double by 2030. In addition to the defining motor symptoms of PD, multiple non-motor symptoms occur; among them, cognitive impairment is common and can potentially occur at any disease stage. Cognitive decline is usually slow and insidious, but rapid in some cases. Recently, the focus has been on the early cognitive changes, where executive and visuospatial impairments are typical and can be accompanied by memory impairment, increasing the risk for early progression to dementia. Other risk factors for early progression to dementia include visual hallucinations, older age and biomarker changes such as cortical atrophy, as well as Alzheimer-type changes on functional imaging and in cerebrospinal fluid, and slowing and frequency variation on EEG. However, the mechanisms underlying cognitive decline in PD remain largely unclear. Cortical involvement of Lewy body and Alzheimer-type pathologies are key features, but multiple mechanisms are likely involved. Cholinesterase inhibition is the only high-level evidence-based treatment available, but other pharmacological and non-pharmacological strategies are being tested. Challenges include the identification of disease-modifying therapies as well as finding biomarkers to better predict cognitive decline and identify patients at high risk for early and rapid cognitive impairment.

RevDate: 2021-07-14

Bures J, Tacheci I, Kvetina J, et al (2021)

Dextran Sodium Sulphate-Induced Gastrointestinal Injury Further Aggravates the Impact of Galantamine on the Gastric Myoelectric Activity in Experimental Pigs.

Pharmaceuticals (Basel, Switzerland), 14(6):.

Galantamine has been used as a treatment for Alzheimer disease. It has a unique, dual mode of action (inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and allosteric modulator of nicotinic acetylcholine receptors). Nausea (in about 20%), vomiting (10%) and diarrhoea (5-7%) are the most common side effects. The aim of this study was to assess the effect of galantamine on porcine gastric myoelectric activity without (Group A) and with (Group B) dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced gastrointestinal injury. Galantamine hydrobromide was administrated to twelve pigs as a single intragastric dose (24 mg). Gastric myoelectric activity was investigated by electrogastrography (EGG). Basal (15 min before galantamine administration) and study recordings after galantamine administration (300 min) were evaluated using a running spectral analysis. Results were expressed as dominant frequency of gastric slow waves and power analysis (areas of amplitudes). Altogether, 3780 one-minute EGG recordings were evaluated. In Group A, power was steady from basal values for 180 min, then gradually decreased till 270 min (p = 0.007). In Group B, there was a rapid gradual fall from basal values to those after 120 min (p = 0.007) till 300 min (p ˂ 0.001). In conclusion, galantamine alone revealed an unfavourable effect on porcine myoelectric activity assessed by gastric power. It can be a plausible explanation of galantamine-associated dyspepsia in humans. DSS caused further profound decrease of EGG power. That may indicate that underlying inflammatory, ischaemic or NSAIDs-induced condition of the intestine in humans can have aggravated the effect of galantamine on gastric myoelectric activity.

RevDate: 2021-07-27

Benito-Cuesta I, Ordoñez-Gutierrez L, F Wandosell (2021)

Trehalose Reduces the Secreted Beta-Amyloid Levels in Primary Neurons Independently of Autophagy Induction.

Metabolites, 11(7):.

The disaccharide trehalose was described as possessing relevant neuroprotective properties as an mTORC1-independent inducer of autophagy, with the ability to protect cellular membranes and denaturation, resulting from desiccation, and preventing the cellular accumulation of protein aggregates. These properties make trehalose an interesting therapeutic candidate against proteinopathies such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), which is characterized by deposits of aggregated amyloid-beta (Aβ) and hyperphosphorylated tau. In this study, we observed that trehalose was able to induce autophagy in neurons only in the short-term, whereas long-term treatment with trehalose provoked a relevant anti-amyloidogenic effect in neurons from an AD mouse model that was not mediated by autophagy. Trehalose treatment reduced secreted Aβ levels in a manner unrelated to its intracellular accumulation or its elimination through endocytosis or enzymatic degradation. Moreover, the levels of Aβ precursor protein (APP) and beta-secretase (BACE1) remained unaltered, as well as the proper acidic condition of the endo-lysosome system. Instead, our results support that the neuroprotective effect of trehalose was mediated by a reduced colocalization of APP and BACE1 in the cell, and, therefore, a lower amyloidogenic processing of APP. This observation illustrates that the determination of the mechanism, or mechanisms, that associate APP and BACE is a relevant therapeutic target to investigate.

RevDate: 2021-07-25

Milán-Tomás Á, Fernández-Matarrubia M, MC Rodríguez-Oroz (2021)

Lewy Body Dementias: A Coin with Two Sides?.

Behavioral sciences (Basel, Switzerland), 11(7):.

Lewy body dementias (LBDs) consist of dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) and Parkinson's disease dementia (PDD), which are clinically similar syndromes that share neuropathological findings with widespread cortical Lewy body deposition, often with a variable degree of concomitant Alzheimer pathology. The objective of this article is to provide an overview of the neuropathological and clinical features, current diagnostic criteria, biomarkers, and management of LBD. Literature research was performed using the PubMed database, and the most pertinent articles were read and are discussed in this paper. The diagnostic criteria for DLB have recently been updated, with the addition of indicative and supportive biomarker information. The time interval of dementia onset relative to parkinsonism remains the major distinction between DLB and PDD, underpinning controversy about whether they are the same illness in a different spectrum of the disease or two separate neurodegenerative disorders. The treatment for LBD is only symptomatic, but the expected progression and prognosis differ between the two entities. Diagnosis in prodromal stages should be of the utmost importance, because implementing early treatment might change the course of the illness if disease-modifying therapies are developed in the future. Thus, the identification of novel biomarkers constitutes an area of active research, with a special focus on α-synuclein markers.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Forés-Martos J, Boullosa C, Rodrigo-Domínguez D, et al (2021)

Transcriptomic and Genetic Associations between Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, and Cancer.

Cancers, 13(12):.

Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's diseases (PD) are the two most prevalent neurodegenerative disorders in human populations. Epidemiological studies have shown that patients suffering from either condition present a reduced overall risk of cancer than controls (i.e., inverse comorbidity), suggesting that neurodegeneration provides a protective effect against cancer. Reduced risks of several site-specific tumors, including colorectal, lung, and prostate cancers, have also been observed in AD and PD. By contrast, an increased risk of melanoma has been described in PD patients (i.e., direct comorbidity). Therefore, a fundamental question to address is whether these associations are due to shared genetic and molecular factors or are explained by other phenomena, such as flaws in epidemiological studies, exposure to shared risk factors, or the effect of medications. To this end, we first evaluated the transcriptomes of AD and PD post-mortem brain tissues derived from the hippocampus and the substantia nigra and analyzed their similarities to those of a large panel of 22 site-specific cancers, which were obtained through differential gene expression meta-analyses of array-based studies available in public repositories. Genes and pathways that were deregulated in both disorders in each analyzed pair were examined. Second, we assessed potential genetic links between AD, PD, and the selected cancers by establishing interactome-based overlaps of genes previously linked to each disorder. Then, their genetic correlations were computed using cross-trait LD score regression and GWAS summary statistics data. Finally, the potential role of medications in the reported comorbidities was assessed by comparing disease-specific differential gene expression profiles to an extensive collection of differential gene expression signatures generated by exposing cell lines to drugs indicated for AD, PD, and cancer treatment (LINCS L1000). We identified significant inverse associations of transcriptomic deregulation between AD hippocampal tissues and breast, lung, liver, and prostate cancers, and between PD substantia nigra tissues and breast, lung, and prostate cancers. Moreover, significant direct (same direction) associations of deregulation were observed between AD and PD and brain and thyroid cancers, as well as between PD and kidney cancer. Several biological processes, including the immune system, oxidative phosphorylation, PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling, and the cell cycle, were found to be deregulated in both cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. Significant genetic correlations were found between PD and melanoma and prostate cancers. Several drugs indicated for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders and cancer, such as galantamine, selegiline, exemestane, and estradiol, were identified as potential modulators of the comorbidities observed between neurodegeneration and cancer.

RevDate: 2021-06-30

Farhat A, Panchaud A, Al-Hajje A, et al (2021)

Ability to detect potentially inappropriate prescribing in older patients: comparative analysis between PIM-Check and STOPP/STARTv2.

European journal of clinical pharmacology [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Potentially inappropriate prescribing (PIP) is a source of preventable adverse drug events. The objective of this study was a comparative analysis (quantitative and qualitative) between two tools used to detect PIP, PIM-Check and STOPP/START.

METHODS: First, a qualitative analysis (QAC) was conducted to evaluate the concordance between the criteria, which constitute PIM-Check and the gold standard STOPP/START. Second, a retrospective comparative and observational study was performed on the list of treatment at the admission of 50 older patients hospitalized in an acute geriatric ward of a university hospital in Switzerland in 2016 using both tools.

RESULTS: The QAC has shown that 50% (57 criteria) of STOPP/START criteria are fully or partially concordant with those of PIM-Check. The retrospective study was performed on 50 patients aged 87 years, suffering from 5 co-morbidities (min-max 1-11) and treated by of 8 drugs (min-max 2-16), as medians. The prevalence of the detected PIP was 80% by PIM-Check and 90% by STOPP/START. Medication review shows that 4.2 PIP per patient were detected by PIM-Check and 3.5 PIP by STOPP/START among which 1.9 PIP was commonly detected by both tools, as means. PIM-Check detected more PIP related to cardiology, angiology, nephrology, and endocrinology in older patients but missed the PIP related to geriatric syndromes (e.g., fall, dementia, Alzheimer) detected by STOPP/START.

CONCLUSIONS: By using PIM-Check in geriatric settings, some PIP will not be detected. It is considered as a limitation for this tool in this frail population but brings a certain complementarity in other areas of therapy not covered by STOPP/START.

RevDate: 2021-07-02

Qiao O, Zhang X, Zhang Y, et al (2021)

Cerebralcare Granule® enhances memantine hydrochloride efficacy in APP/PS1 mice by ameliorating amyloid pathology and cognitive functions.

Chinese medicine, 16(1):47.

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by memory deficits and cognitive decline. Current drugs can only relieve symptoms, but cannot really cure AD. Cerebralcare Granule® (CG) is a Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) containing a variety of biologically active compounds. In our previous studies, CG has shown a beneficial effect against memory impairment in mice caused by D-galactose. However, whether CG can be used as a complementary medicine for the treatment of AD remains unexplored. Here, we use a combination of CG and memantine hydrochloride (Mm) to treat Alzheimer-like pathology and investigate the effects and mechanisms in vivo.

METHODS: The histology of brain was examined with Hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining, Golgi staining and Thioflavin S staining. ELISA was applied to assess the expression levels or activities of CAT, SOD, GSH-Px, MDA, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), total bilirubin (TBIL) in serum, as well as the levels of IL-6, IL-1β, and TNF-α in the mice brain. Western blotting was used to assess the expression of β-secretase (BACE1), amyloid precursor protein (APP), APPβ, APPα, synaptophysin (SYN), growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43), and postsynaptic density 95 (PSD95).

RESULTS: In the present study, the combination group (CG + Mm) significantly attenuated Alzheimer-like behavior without adverse effects in APP/PS1 mice, indicating its high degree of safety and efficacy after long-term treatment. CG + Mm reduced AD pathological biomarker Aβ plaque accumulation by inhibiting BACE1 and APP expression (P < 0.05 or P < 0.001). Besides, the combination group markedly inhibited the levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α in hippocampus (P < 0.001), as well as activities of SOD, CAT, and GSH-Px in serum (P < 0.001). By contrast, the combination group improved synaptic plasticity by enhancing SYN, PSD95, and GAP43 expression.

CONCLUSIONS: Taken together, these data supported the notion that CG combined with Mm might ameliorate the cognitive impairment through multiple pathways, suggesting that CG could play a role as complementary medicine to increase anti-AD effect of chemical drugs by reducing Aβ deposition, neuroinflammation, oxidative damage, and improving synaptic plasticity.

RevDate: 2021-09-13

Abdelmeguid NE, Khalil MIM, Elhabet R, et al (2021)

Combination of docosahexaenoic acid and Ginko biloba extract improves cognitive function and hippocampal tissue damages in a mouse model of Alzheimer's disease.

Journal of chemical neuroanatomy, 116:101995.

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative diseases characterized by a progressive loss of memory and other cognitive functions among elder people. Nowadays, natural antioxidants have been used to recover the quality of life for those with AD. In this study, we investigated, for the first time, the combined effect of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and Ginkgo bilobastandardized extract (EGb761) on AD mice. AD was induced in adult male albino mice with AlCl3 (20 mg/kg b.w, i.g.) and D-galactose (D-gal; 120 mg/kg, i.p.) for 90 days. 30 days after induction, mice were treated with DHA (200 mg/kg b.w., i.g.) and EGb761 (200 mg/kg b.w., i.g.) for two months. Our data revealed that the dual treatment of DHA and EGb761 significantly improved cognitive memory and spatial learning abilities in AD-induced mice. The drug treatments preserved the hippocampal CA3 architecture and restored neuronal ultrastructural alterations. Expression of protein phosphatase 2A (PP2A), the most implicated protein phosphatase in AD neurodegeneration, was highly upregulated in the CA3 hippocampus of AD mice treated with DHA and EGb761. Intriguingly, TNF-α expression was significantly reduced in the same group. In conclusion, our findings proved that the combined effect of DHA and EGb761 tended to be potent against the neurodegenerative effect of AlCl3 and D-gal. The applied treatment enhanced neuronal survival and cognitive functions via upregulation of PP2A and restoration of TNF-α expression.

RevDate: 2021-06-25

Mandour DA, Bendary MA, AE Alsemeh (2021)

Histological and imunohistochemical alterations of hippocampus and prefrontal cortex in a rat model of Alzheimer like-disease with a preferential role of the flavonoid "hesperidin".

Journal of molecular histology [Epub ahead of print].

Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a chronic age-related neurodegenerative disease characterized by degeneration of the central cholinergic neurons, inflammation and oxidative stress in the basal forebrain, prefrontal cortex and hippocampus. Hesperidin (Hesp) is one of the flavonoids havinganti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties in some neurodegerative brain lesions. To investigate the possible neuroprotective role of Hespin an AD-like rat model induced experimentally by Scopolamine (Scop). Forty adult male Sprague Dawley rats were randomly allocated into four groups. Group I-(Control), group II-(Hesp) (supplemented orally with 100 mg/kg Hesp for 28 days), group III-(AD) (injected i.p with 1 mg/kg Scop for 9 days) and group IV-(Hesp/AD). At the end of the experiment, behavioral (Y-maze test) and biochemical analysis were carried out along with histological, immunohistochemical and morphometric studies of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex. AD rats displayed memory impairment in the behavioural paradigm with a concomitant increase of serum TNF-α and IL-1β, while IL-10 decreased significantly. Also, there was a rise of amyloid beta-42 (Aβ-42), acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and malondialdehyde (MDA) together with a decrease of reduced glutathione (GSH) in hippocampal and prefrontal homogenate. In addition, sections of the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex revealed obvious histopathological changes, overexpression of p-Tau protein and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) with a decrease in the expression of synaptophysin (SYN). Contradictorily, pre-treatment with Hesp offset the spatial memory deficits, redox imbalance, Aβ-42 and AChE over activity as well as preserved the histological architecture and attenuated the raised p-Tau protein and GFAP while upregulated SYN immuoreactivity of AD rats. Collectively, our results highlight the potential mitigating role of Hesp in AD-like state in rats and this may presumably raise the possibility of its future implementation as a prophylactic remedy against AD in humans.

RevDate: 2021-07-12

Zhang Q, Wang J, Zhu L, et al (2021)

Ligustrazine Attenuates Hyperhomocysteinemia-induced Alzheimer-like Pathologies in Rats.

Current medical science, 41(3):548-554.

Ligustrazine, an alkaloid extracted from the traditional Chinese herbal medicine Ligusticum Chuanxiong Hort, has been clinically applied to treat the cerebrovascular diseases. Hyperhomocysteinemia (Hhcy) is an independent risk factor for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Memory deficits can be caused by Hhcy via pathologies of AD-like tau and amyloid-β (Aβ) in the hippocampus. Here, we investigated whether homocysteine (Hcy) can induce AD-like pathologies and the effects of ligustrazine on these pathologies. The Hcy rat model was constructed by 14-day Hcy injection via vena caudalis, and rats were treated with daily intragastric administration of ligustrazine at the same time. We found that the pathologies of tau and Aβ were induced by Hcy in the hippocampus, while the Hcy-induced tau hyperphosphorylation and Aβ accumulation could be markedly attenuated by simultaneous ligustrazine treatment. Our data demonstrate that ligustrazine may be used as a promising neuroprotective agent to treat the Hcy-induced AD-like pathologies.

RevDate: 2021-07-07
CmpDate: 2021-06-30

Lee S, Kwon DH, Kim JY, et al (2021)

Efficacy of Yukmijihwang-tang on symptoms of Alzheimer disease: A protocol for systematic review and meta-analysis.

Medicine, 100(25):e26363.

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer disease (AD) is the most common cause of dementia, which may lead to severe memory loss and other cognitive disorders. Yukmijihwang-tang (YMJ), a type of Korean traditional herbal medicine, has been shown to be effective against neurodegenerative diseases. Although a meta-analysis on the efficacy of YMJ on AD exists, the study had some limitations, and there have been several newly published studies assessing the effect of YMJ. Therefore, the purpose of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of YMJ as a treatment for AD through a meta-analysis.

METHODS: A systematic search of the following electronic databases will be conducted to identify eligible studies: MEDLINE (PubMed), Elsevier (EMBASE), The Cochrane Central Register of Controlled Trials (CENTRAL), Cumulative Index to Nursing and Allied Health Literature (CINAHL), Korean Medical Database (KMBASE), Oriental Medicine Advanced Searching Integrated System (OASIS), Korean Traditional Knowledge Portal, Citation Information by NII (CiNii), China National Knowledge Infrastructure (CNKI). All randomized controlled trials assessing the efficacy and safety of YMJ on the symptoms of AD will be included. Two independent reviewers will perform article retrieval, deduplication, data screening, data extraction, quality evaluation, and data analyses using RevMan version 5.4. The Cochrane risk of bias tool will be used to assess the quality of the trials.

RESULTS: This study will provide synthesis of the cognitive function measured with neuropsychological tests, behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD), and activities of daily living (ADL) measured using validated scales. The clinical effective rate and adverse events will also be analyzed to assess the efficacy and safety of YMJ for treating AD.

CONCLUSION: This systematic review will provide evidence for the efficacy and safety of YMJ in AD.

ETHICS AND DISSEMINATION: Ethical approval is not required because individual patient data will not be included in this study. The study findings will be disseminated through conference presentations.

RevDate: 2021-06-26

Puris E, Kouřil Š, Najdekr L, et al (2021)

Metabolomic and lipidomic changes triggered by lipopolysaccharide-induced systemic inflammation in transgenic APdE9 mice.

Scientific reports, 11(1):13076.

Peripheral infections followed by systemic inflammation may contribute to the onset of Alzheimer`s disease (AD) and accelerate the disease progression later in life. Yet, the impact of systemic inflammation on the plasma and brain tissue metabolome and lipidome in AD has not been investigated. In this study, targeted metabolomic and untargeted lipidomic profiling experiments were performed on the plasma, cortices, and hippocampi of wild-type (WT) mice and transgenic APdE9 mice after chronic lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment, as well as saline-treated APdE9 mice. The lipidome and the metabolome of these mice were compared to saline-treated WT animals. In the brain tissue of all three models, the lipidome was more influenced than the metabolome. The LPS-treated APdE9 mice had the highest number of changes in brain metabolic pathways with significant alterations in levels of lysine, myo-inositol, spermine, phosphocreatine, acylcarnitines and diacylglycerols, which were not observed in the saline-treated APdE9 mice. In the WT mice, the effect of the LPS administration on metabolome and lipidome was negligible. The study provided exciting information about the biochemical perturbations due to LPS-induced inflammation in the transgenic AD model, which can significantly enhance our understanding of the role of systemic inflammation in AD pathogenesis.

RevDate: 2021-06-22

Saleem U, Hira S, Anwar F, et al (2021)

Pharmacological Screening of Viola odorata L. for Memory-Enhancing Effect via Modulation of Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Biomarkers.

Frontiers in pharmacology, 12:664832.

Purpose: Alzheimer disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder that is caused by neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. The present study aimed to characterize and then investigate the memory-enhancing potential of Viola odorata methanolic extract in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-treated mice. Methods: V. odorata characterization was done by using the GCMS technique. Neuroinflammation was induced by the intracerebroventricular administration of LPS at a dose of 12 µg. Animals were divided randomly into six groups (n = 10). Group I was normal control, which was given vehicle. Group II was disease control, which received LPS (12 µg) via the intracerebroventricular route. Group III was standard, which was administered with donepezil (3 µg) orally for 21 days. Groups IV-VI were the treatment groups, which were administered with the extract at 100, 200, and 400 mg/kg dose levels orally respectively for 21 days. Groups III-VI received LPS (12 µg) on the first day along with their treatments. During the treatment, the animals were assessed for memory retention by employing different behavioral paradigms namely elevated plus maze, passive avoidance, foot shock and open field. Various mediators [endogenous antioxidants, neurotransmitters, and acetylcholinesterase (AChE)] involved in the pathogenesis of AD were quantified by using the UV spectrophotometric method. Results: Extract-treated groups showed a remarkable improvement in cognitive impairment in all behavioral paradigms. Oxidative stress biomarkers, that is, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione were raised dose-dependently in the treatment groups with a dose-dependent decrease in the malonaldehyde and AChE levels in the brains of the treated animals. The treatment groups showed decreased levels of inflammatory biomarkers, that is, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, nuclear factor kappa light-chain enhancer of activated β-cells, and cyclo-oxygenase, which supports the therapeutic effectiveness of the treatment. Conclusion: Based on behavioral, oxidative stress biomarker, and neuroinflammatory data, it is concluded that V. odorata possesses memory-enhancing activity and may prove a beneficial role in the management of AD.

RevDate: 2021-09-08

Gao Y, Almalki WH, Afzal O, et al (2021)

Systematic development of lectin conjugated microspheres for nose-to-brain delivery of rivastigmine for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 141:111829.

The current study focuses on development of nasal mucoadhesive microspheres for nose-to-brain delivery of rivastigmine for Alzheimer treatment. A systematic development was employed for optimization of the formulation and process parameters influential on the quality attributes of the microspheres. The risk assessment study revealed major influence of the polymer concentration (ethylcellulose: chitosan), the concentration of surfactant solution (polyvinyl alcohol), and stirring speed as the critical factors for optimization of the microspheres. These factors were systematically optimized using Box-Behnken design and microspheres were evaluated for the particle size, entrapment efficiency, and in vitro drug release as the response variables. The optimized microspheres containing 4.4% wt/vol polymers, 1% wt/vol surfactant, and stirring speed at 1500 rpm showed particle size of 19.9 µm, entrapment efficiency of 77.8%, and drug release parameters as T80% of 7.3 h. The surface modification of microspheres was performed with lectin by carbodiimide activation reaction and confirmed by difference in surface charge before and after chemical functionalization by zeta potential measurement which was found to be - 25.7 mV and 20.5 mV, respectively. Ex vivo study for bioadhesion strength evaluation on goat nasal mucosa indicated a significant difference (p < 0.001) between the plain (29%) and lectin functionalized microspheres (64%). In vivo behavioral and biochemical studies in the rats treated with lectin functionalized microspheres showed markedly better memory-retention vis-à-vis test and pure drug solution treated rats (p < 0.001). In a nutshell, the present studies showed successful development of nasal microspheres for enhanced brain delivery of rivastigmine for Alzheimer's treatment.

RevDate: 2021-06-22
CmpDate: 2021-06-22

Brandt MD (2021)

[Insomnia in the context of neurological diseases].

Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie, 89(6):314-328.

This article provides an overview of the prevalence, cause and treatment of insomnia in common neurological diseases (restless legs syndrome, stroke, multiple sclerosis, Parkinson´s disease and Alzheimer´s disease) with an additional focus on the bidirectional relationship between sleep and neurological disorders.Insomnia is prevalent, but frequently unrecognized in the context of neurological diseases. Although it is widely known that sleep has a relevant impact on quality of life in general and cerebral function in particular, sleep disorders receive little attention in the prevention and treatment of neurological diseases.

RevDate: 2021-09-25

Yang EJ, Kim H, Choi Y, et al (2021)

Modulation of Neuroinflammation by Low-Dose Radiation Therapy in an Animal Model of Alzheimer's Disease.

International journal of radiation oncology, biology, physics, 111(3):658-670.

PURPOSE: Recently, several studies have reported that low-dose radiation therapy (RT) suppresses the release of proinflammatory cytokines in inflammatory-degenerative disorders, including Alzheimer disease (AD). AD is the most common cause of dementia, and neuroinflammation is one of the major contributing factors in AD pathogenesis. Therefore, low-dose RT may be used clinically for treating AD. However, the appropriate doses, effects, and underlying mechanisms of RT in AD have not been determined. In this study, we aimed to determine the appropriate RT dose and schedule for AD treatment and to investigate the therapeutic effects and mechanisms of low-dose RT in AD.

METHODS AND MATERIALS: We first determined the proper dose and schedule for RT in late-stage AD using 8- to 9-month-old 5x Familial AD (5xFAD) mice, a well-known animal model of AD, by comparing the effects of a low total dose with low dose per fraction (LD-LDRT, 5 × 0.6 Gy) with those of a low moderate total dose with conventional dose per fraction (LMD-CDRT, 5 × 2 Gy).

RESULTS: LD-LDRT and LMD-CDRT were found to reduce the levels of the proinflammatory cytokines CD54, IL-3, CXCL9/10, and CCL2/4 in the hippocampus of 5xFAD mice. Furthermore, increased microgliosis assessed using Iba-1 and CD68 dual immunostaining was significantly reduced by LD-LDRT and LMD-CDRT in the hippocampus of 5xFAD mice. Moreover, LD-LDRT and LMD-CDRT decreased the amyloid plaque burden in the hippocampus of 5xFAD mice and attenuated their cognitive impairment; these effects persisted for 4 to 5 weeks.

CONCLUSIONS: The present study showed that LD-LDRT alleviates cognitive impairments and prevents the accumulation of amyloid plaques by regulating neuroinflammation in the late stage of AD in 5xFAD mice, with an efficacy equivalent to that of LMD-CDRT. Furthermore, the findings suggest that compared with LMD-CDRT, LD-LDRT may facilitate accessible and convenient treatment in clinical trials.

RevDate: 2021-07-05

Doyle JJ, Maios C, Vrancx C, et al (2021)

Chemical and genetic rescue of in vivo progranulin-deficient lysosomal and autophagic defects.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 118(25):.

In 2006, GRN mutations were first linked to frontotemporal dementia (FTD), the leading cause of non-Alzheimer dementias. While much research has been dedicated to understanding the genetic causes of the disease, our understanding of the mechanistic impacts of GRN deficiency has only recently begun to take shape. With no known cure or treatment available for GRN-related FTD, there is a growing need to rapidly advance genetic and/or small-molecule therapeutics for this disease. This issue is complicated by the fact that, while lysosomal dysfunction seems to be a key driver of pathology, the mechanisms linking a loss of GRN to a pathogenic state remain unclear. In our attempt to address these key issues, we have turned to the nematode, Caenorhabditis elegans, to model, study, and find potential therapies for GRN-deficient FTD. First, we show that the loss of the nematode GRN ortholog, pgrn-1, results in several behavioral and molecular defects, including lysosomal dysfunction and defects in autophagic flux. Our investigations implicate the sphingolipid metabolic pathway in the regulation of many of the in vivo defects associated with pgrn-1 loss. Finally, we utilized these nematodes as an in vivo tool for high-throughput drug screening and identified two small molecules with potential therapeutic applications against GRN/pgrn-1 deficiency. These compounds reverse the biochemical, cellular, and functional phenotypes of GRN deficiency. Together, our results open avenues for mechanistic and therapeutic research into the outcomes of GRN-related neurodegeneration, both genetic and molecular.

RevDate: 2021-09-21

Alexander GC, J Karlawish (2021)

The Problem of Aducanumab for the Treatment of Alzheimer Disease.

Annals of internal medicine, 174(9):1303-1304.

RevDate: 2021-06-16

Pei X, Hu F, Luo F, et al (2021)

The neuroprotective effects of alpha-lipoic acid on an experimental model of Alzheimer's disease in PC12 cells.

Journal of applied toxicology : JAT [Epub ahead of print].

With the growth of the aging population, the prevalence of Alzheimer's disease (AD) has increased and influenced the work and daily life of AD patients, imposing a heavy burden on society and the patients' families. AD is a progressive disease with a long duration, and the pathogenesis is very complicated. Here, we found that alpha-lipoic acid (LA), an endogenous, naturally synthesized compound, could attenuate amyloid beta fragment (Aβ25-35)-induced PC12 cell toxicity. Aβ25-35 treatment largely decreased the viability of PC12 cells, increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels, and increased the percentage of apoptotic cells, which were accompanied by changes in the expression of the apoptosis-related genes. Further, the Wnt pathway was inactivated, and the expression of Wnt pathway-related proteins such as Frizzled2, GSK3β, and phosphorylated GSK3β were dysregulated after Aβ25-35 treatment. LA efficiently attenuated Aβ25-35 -induced PC12 cell apoptosis and downregulated the phosphorylation-mediated degradation of β-catenin as well as GSK3β. Our results demonstrate that LA rescues Aβ25-35 -induced neurocytotoxicity through the Wnt-β-catenin pathway.

RevDate: 2021-06-17

Burke AD, L Apostolova (2021)

Treatment Challenges and the Hope of Emerging Therapies in Early-Stage Alzheimer Disease.

The Journal of clinical psychiatry, 82(4):.

Alzheimer disease (AD), the most common cause of dementia, is a degenerative brain disease with no cure. In the United States alone, an estimated 5.8 million people are living with AD. More than half of individuals living with AD and other dementias are not getting an accurate diagnosis and, when they do receive one, clinicians are not effectively communicating with patients and care partners regarding the illness and next steps. Additionally, prompt treatment initiation does not occur in a substantial number of newly diagnosed patients. This Academic Highlights addresses best practices for identifying patients with early-stage AD, discussing treatment goals and challenges with patients who have AD and their care partners, employing current medications approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration to slow symptom progression, and staying informed about emerging therapies that offer new hope for disease modification.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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E-mail: RJR8222@gmail.com

Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

long standard version

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