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04 Dec 2023 at 01:34
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Bibliography on: ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) — Treatment


Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 04 Dec 2023 at 01:34 Created: 

ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) — Treatment

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND) or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a neurodegenerative disease that results in the progressive loss of motor neurons that control voluntary muscles. ALS is the most common form of the motor neuron diseases. Early symptoms of ALS include stiff muscles, muscle twitches, and gradual increasing weakness and muscle wasting. Limb-onset ALS begins with weakness in the arms or legs, while bulbar-onset ALS begins with difficulty speaking or swallowing. Around half of people with ALS develop at least mild difficulties with thinking and behavior, and about 15% develop frontotemporal dementia. Motor neuron loss continues until the ability to eat, speak, move, and finally the ability to breathe is lost. Most cases of ALS (about 90% to 95%) have no known cause, and are known as sporadic ALS. However, both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved. The remaining 5% to 10% of cases have a genetic cause, often linked to a history of the disease in the family, and these are known as genetic ALS. About half of these genetic cases are due to disease-causing variants in one of two specific genes. The diagnosis is based on a person's signs and symptoms, with testing conducted to rule out other potential causes.

There is no known cure for ALS. The goal of treatment is to slow the disease and improve symptoms.

However, this bibliography specifically searches PubMed for the idea of treatment in conjunction with ALS to make it easier to track literature that explores the possibility of treatment.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( ( ALS*[TIAB] OR "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis"[TIAB] OR "motor neurone disease"[TIAB] ) AND treatment[TIAB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-11-30

Ghasemi A, Sadedel M, MM Moghaddam (2023)

A wearable system to assist impaired-neck patients: Design and evaluation.

Proceedings of the Institution of Mechanical Engineers. Part H, Journal of engineering in medicine [Epub ahead of print].

Patients with neurological disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral palsy, often face challenges due to head-neck immobility. The conventional treatment approach involves using a neck collar to maintain an upright head position, but this can be cumbersome and restricts head-neck movements over prolonged periods. This study introduces a wearable robot capable of providing three anatomical head motions for training and assistance. The primary contributions of this research include the design of an optimized structure and the incorporation of human-robot interaction. Based on human head motion data, our primary focus centered on developing a robot capable of accommodating a significant range of neutral head movements. To ensure safety, impedance control was employed to facilitate human-robot interaction. A human study was conducted involving 10 healthy subjects who participated in an experiment to assess the robot's assistance capabilities. Passive and active modes were used to evaluate the robot's effectiveness, taking into account head-neck movement error and muscle activity levels. Surface electromyography signals (sEMG) were collected from the splenius capitis muscles during the experiment. The results demonstrated that the robot covered nearly 85% of the overall range of head rotations. Importantly, using the robot during rehabilitation led to reduced muscle activation, highlighting its potential for assisting individuals with post-stroke movement impairments.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Jain A, Madkan S, P Patil (2023)

The Role of Gut Microbiota in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Current Insights and Therapeutic Implications.

Cureus, 15(10):e47861.

Small microscopic entities known as microbes, having a population of hundreds of billions or perhaps even in trillions, reside in our gastrointestinal tract. A healthy immune system, digestion, and creation of vitamins and enzymes are all thanks to these microbes. However, new research has shown a hitherto unrecognized connection between the microbiota of the intestines and the genesis of neurodegenerative diseases. Neurons in the CNS gradually deteriorate in neurodegenerative illnesses like multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease (PD). This deterioration impairs cognitive and physical function. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), PD, and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are just a few examples of neurodegenerative illnesses that pose a serious threat to world health and have few effective treatments. Recent research suggests that the gut microbiota, a diverse microbial population found in the gastrointestinal system, may substantially impact the cause and development of various diseases. The discovery of altered gut microbiota composition in people with these illnesses is one of the most critical lines of evidence connecting gut microbiota dysbiosis to neurodegenerative diseases. AD patients have a distinct characteristic of having a particular microbiota profile. In addition, an excess population of a specific microbe data profile is seen as compared to a healthy individual. Similar changes in the gut microbiota composition have been noted in people with multiple sclerosis and PD. The latest study indicates the potential that dysbiosis, a condition characterized by alteration in the intestinal microbiota's makeup and functioning, may have an effect on the onset and progression of neurodegenerative diseases, including PD and multiple sclerosis. In order to emphasize any potential underlying mechanisms and examine potential treatment repercussions, the review article's goal is to summarize current knowledge about the connection between gut microbiota and neurodegenerative disorders. The review article aims to summarize current knowledge about the connection between gut microbiota and neurodegenerative disorders, highlighting potential underlying mechanisms and examining potential treatment repercussions.

RevDate: 2023-11-29

Brown A, Armon C, Barkhaus P, et al (2023)

ALSUntangled #72: Insulin.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration [Epub ahead of print].

ALSUntangled reviews alternative and off-label treatments for people living with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (PALS). Here we review insulin, which has at least one plausible mechanism for slowing ALS progression. However, pre-clinical studies are limited and there have been no trials in PALS yet. Insulin use in patients without a metabolic need may cause very serious and potentially lethal side effects. While further studies to evaluate potential benefits may be warranted, at this time we cannot endorse insulin treatment to slow ALS progression.

RevDate: 2023-11-30
CmpDate: 2023-11-29

Yamashita T, Nakano Y, Sasaki R, et al (2023)

Safety and Clinical Effects of a Muse Cell-Based Product in Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Results of a Phase 2 Clinical Trial.

Cell transplantation, 32:9636897231214370.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons. Multilineage-differentiating stress-enduring (Muse) cells are unique endogenous stem cells that show therapeutic effects on motor function in ALS mouse models. We conducted a single-center open phase II clinical trial to evaluate the safety and clinical effects of repeated intravenous injections of an allogenic Muse cell-based product, CL2020, in patients with ALS. Five patients with ALS received CL2020 intravenously once a month for a total of six doses. The primary endpoints were safety and tolerability, and the secondary endpoint was the rate of change in the Revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R) score. In addition, serum tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6), sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P), cerebrospinal fluid chitotriosidase-1 (CHIT-1), and neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels were evaluated. The CL2020 treatment was highly tolerated without serious side effects. The ALSFRS-R score change trended upward at 12 months post-CL2020 treatment compared with that at 3 months pre-administration, but the difference was not statistically significant. Among five patients diagnosed with ALS, three exhibited a decrease in the rate of ALSFRS-R score change, one demonstrated an increase, and another showed no change. In addition, the patients' serum IL-6 and TNF-α levels and cerebrospinal fluid CHIT-1 and NfL levels increased for up to 6 months post-treatment; however, their serum S1P levels continuously decreased over 12 months. These findings indicate a favorable safety profile of CL2020 therapy. In the near future, a double-blind study of a larger number of ALS patients should be conducted to confirm the efficacy of ALS treatment with CL2020.

RevDate: 2023-11-28

Wilkins OG, Chien MZYJ, Wlaschin JJ, et al (2023)

Creation of de novo cryptic splicing for ALS/FTD precision medicine.

bioRxiv : the preprint server for biology pii:2023.11.15.565967.

UNLABELLED: A system enabling the expression of therapeutic proteins specifically in diseased cells would be transformative, providing greatly increased safety and the possibility of pre-emptive treatment. Here we describe "TDP-REG", a precision medicine approach primarily for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), which exploits the cryptic splicing events that occur in cells with TDP-43 loss-of-function (TDP-LOF) in order to drive expression specifically in diseased cells. In addition to modifying existing cryptic exons for this purpose, we develop a deep-learning-powered algorithm for generating customisable cryptic splicing events, which can be embedded within virtually any coding sequence. By placing part of a coding sequence within a novel cryptic exon, we tightly couple protein expression to TDP-LOF. Protein expression is activated by TDP-LOF in vitro and in vivo , including TDP-LOF induced by cytoplasmic TDP-43 aggregation. In addition to generating a variety of fluorescent and luminescent reporters, we use this system to perform TDP-LOF-dependent genomic prime editing to ablate the UNC13A cryptic donor splice site. Furthermore, we design a panel of tightly gated, autoregulating vectors encoding a TDP-43/Raver1 fusion protein, which rescue key pathological cryptic splicing events. In summary, we combine deep-learning and rational design to create sophisticated splicing sensors, resulting in a platform that provides far safer therapeutics for neurodegeneration, potentially even enabling preemptive treatment of at-risk individuals.

ONE-SENTENCE SUMMARY: We engineer TDP-43-regulated cryptic exons, enabling exceptionally precise activation of gene therapies in diseased neurons.

RevDate: 2023-11-29
CmpDate: 2023-11-29

Wang Z, Yang H, Han Y, et al (2023)

Screening and identification of key biomarkers associated with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and depression using bioinformatics.

Medicine, 102(47):e36265.

This study aims to identify common molecular biomarkers between amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and depression using bioinformatics methods, in order to provide potential targets and new ideas and methods for the diagnosis and treatment of these diseases. Microarray datasets GSE139384, GSE35978 and GSE87610 were obtained from the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database, and differentially expressed genes (DEGs) between ALS and depression were identified. After screening for overlapping DEGs, gene ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway enrichment analyses were performed. Furthermore, a protein-protein interaction (PPI) network was constructed using the STRING database and Cytoscape software, and hub genes were identified. Finally, a network between miRNAs and hub genes was constructed using the NetworkAnalyst tool, and possible key miRNAs were predicted. A total of 357 genes have been identified as common DEGs between ALS and depression. GO and KEGG enrichment analyses of the 357 DEGs showed that they were mainly involved in cytoplasmic translation. Further analysis of the PPI network using Cytoscape and MCODE plugins identified 6 hub genes, including mitochondrial ribosomal protein S12 (MRPS12), poly(rC) binding protein 1 (PARP1), SNRNP200, PCBP1, small G protein signaling modulator 1 (SGSM1), and DNA methyltransferase 1 (DNMT1). Five possible target miRNAs, including miR-221-5p, miR-21-5p, miR-100-5p, miR-30b-5p, and miR-615-3p, were predicted by constructing a miRNA-gene network. This study used bioinformatics techniques to explore the potential association between ALS and depression, and identified potential biomarkers. These biomarkers may provide new ideas and methods for the early diagnosis, treatment, and monitoring of ALS and depression.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Asawadethmetakul P, Xie F, Xie C, et al (2023)

Effect of Tuina Combined with Chinese Herbal Compress on Primary Dysmenorrhea with Cold Coagulation and Blood Stasis Syndrome: A Study Protocol for a Randomized Controlled Trial.

Complementary medicine research pii:000534335 [Epub ahead of print].

INDRODUCTION: Primary dysmenorrhea (PD) is a very common issue in young women that reduces the quality of women's lives. Both Western medicine and traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) provide several ways to treat PD; however, TCM treatment exhibits fewer side effects for the patient. Tuina massage and Chinese herbal compresses are considered forms of external TCM therapy that have been widely used to treat PD, especially in China. Therefore, to provide the most effective and safe treatment for PD, we combined Tuina and Chinese herbal compresses together in this observational study.

METHODS: A randomized controlled trial (RCT) consisting of 114 participants from the Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine who meet inclusion criteria will be divided into two groups in a 1:1 allocation ratio. The intervention group will receive Tuina combined with Chinese herbal compress therapy, while the control group will only receive Chinese herbal compress therapy. The treatment will be given 3 days before menstruation (once per day, 3 times per menstrual cycle). The primary outcome will be measured with the Visual Analog Scale (VAS). The secondary outcomes will be measured by the Dysmenorrhea Symptom Score, the Chinese Medical Dysmenorrhea Symptom Score, the Self-Rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), the Self-Rating Depression Scale (SDS), and the pain threshold at Guanyuan (CV4).

CONCLUSION: This study will be the first RCT that will entail the combination of Tuina and Chinese herbal compresses to treat PD in the category of cold coagulation and blood stasis syndrome. If the results demonstrate that Tuina combined with a Chinese herbal compress is effective, we posit that this study will provide evidence-based references for a potential alternative treatment to treat PD in the future.

UNLABELLED: EinleitungDie primäre Dysmenorrhoe (PD) ist ein Problem, das bei jungen Frauen sehr häufig auftritt und ihre Lebensqualität beeinträchtigt. Sowohl die westliche Medizin als auch die traditionelle chinesische Medizin (TCM) bieten verschiedene Therapiemöglichkeiten zur Behandlung der PD, allerdings ist die TCM mit weniger Nebenwirkungen für die Patientin verbunden. Tuina-Massage und chinesische Kräuterkompressen gelten als Formen der äußerlichen TCM-Therapie, die besonders in China zur Behandlung der PD weit verbreitet sind. Daher haben wir in dieser Beobachtungsstudie Tuina und chinesische Kräuterkompressen kombiniert, um eine möglichst wirksame und sichere Behandlung der PD bereitzustellen.MethodenEs handelt sich um eine randomisierte kontrollierte Studie (randomized controlled trial, RCT), bei der 114 Teilnehmerinnen der Shanghai University of Traditional Chinese Medicine, die die Einschlusskriterien erfüllen, im Verhältnis 1:1 in zwei Gruppen aufgeteilt werden. Die Interventionsgruppe erhält Tuina in Kombination mit chinesischen Kräuterkompressen, während die Kontrollgruppe nur eine Behandlung mit chinesischen Kräuterkompressen erhält. Die Behandlung erfolgt drei Tage vor der Menstruation (einmal täglich, dreimal pro Menstruationszyklus). Das primäre Zielkriterium wird anhand der visuellen Analogskala (VAS) gemessen. Die sekundären Zielkriterien werden mithilfe des Dysmenorrhoe-Symptom-Scores, des chinesischen medizinischen Dysmenorrhoe-Symptom-Scores, der Self-rating Anxiety Scale (SAS), der Self-rating Depression Scale (SDS) und der Schmerzschwelle am Guanyuan-Akupunkturpunkt (CV4) ermittelt.SchlussfolgerungDiese Studie ist die erste randomisierte kontrollierte Studie, die die Kombination von Tuina und chinesischen Kräuterkompressen zur Behandlung von PD in der Kategorie Kältekoagulation und Blutstauungssyndrom untersucht. Sollten die Ergebnisse zeigen, dass Tuina in Kombination mit chinesischen Kräuterkompressen wirksam ist, erwarten wir, dass diese Studie evidenzbasierte Belege für eine mögliche alternative Behandlung von PD in der Zukunft liefern wird.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Fateh HR, Askary-Kachoosangy R, Shirzad N, et al (2022)

The effect of energy conservation strategies on fatigue, function, and quality of life in adults with motor neuron disease: Randomized controlled trial.

Current journal of neurology, 21(2):83-90.

Background: Fatigue is one of the most frequent complaints in patients with motor neuron diseases (MNDs), with a significant impact on the quality of life (QOL). There is lack of enough evidence for current pharmacological or non-pharmacological treatments of fatigue in this population to be applied in clinical setting. Energy conservation strategies are one of the key interventions for fatigue management in chronic diseases. We aimed to investigate the effect of applying these techniques in the fatigue management of patients with MND. Methods: This randomized controlled trial (RCT) study was carried out on 28 patients with MND. Participants were randomly assigned to either the intervention or control group. In addition to routine treatment, patients in the intervention group participated in 3 weekly 1-hour energy conservation programs provided by an experienced occupational therapist. The Fatigue Severity Scale (FSS) score, 36-Item Short Form Survey (SF-36), and Canadian Occupational Performance Measure (COPM) were measured at baseline, immediately after the last intervention session, and one month later. Results: FSS and COPM significantly changed after the course in the intervention group (P < 0.001 and P = 0.001, respectively). Both FSS and COPM improved significantly toward the final assessment only in the intervention group. The SF-36 changes were not significant in each of the groups. Conclusion: According to the findings of the present study, using energy conservation strategies could lead to better mid-term fatigue management and occupational performance improvement, but it did not improve QOL in patients with MND.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Eishi-Oskouei A, K Basiri (2021)

Safety and efficacy of edaravone in well-defined Iranian patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A parallel-group single-blind trial.

Current journal of neurology, 20(1):1-7.

Background: This parallel-group single-blind trial evaluates the safety and efficacy of Edaravone, as a free radical scavenger, in a highly selective subgroup of Iranian patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Methods: The study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov (registration number: NCT03272802) and Iranian Registry of Clinical Trials (registration number: IRCT20190324043105N). Patients were included into the study, who were diagnosed as probable or definite ALS (according to revised El Escorial criteria), mildly to moderately affected by the disease [according to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Health State Scale (ALS/HSS)], scored ≥ 2 points on all items of the Revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale (ALSFRS-R), and had forced vital capacity (FVC) of at least 80%. 20 patients (10 cases, 10 controls) were observed for 12 cycles (each cycle lasted four weeks). Cases received Edaravone for the first 14 days in the first cycle and for the first 10 days in the next cycles. In addition, all patients received Riluzole. The 40-item Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Assessment Questionnaire (ALSAQ-40), ALSFRS-R, and Manual Muscle Testing (MMT) scores were measured every 3 cycles to evaluate the physical and functional status of the patients. Besides, injection reactions, adverse events (AEs), and serious adverse events (SAEs) were measured during the study. Results: ALSAQ-40, ALSFRS-R, and MMT scores were not significantly different between cases and controls in 5 different time points. During the study, no injection reactions were observed. AEs and SAEs were not significantly different between cases and controls. Conclusion: Our data did not demonstrate efficacy of Edaravone in ALS treatment, but showed its safety for use in patients with ALS. Further studies are necessary to investigate Edaravone efficacy in patients with ALS before prescribing this new drug outside Japan.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Zhong R, Rua MT, L Wei-LaPierre (2023)

Targeting mitochondrial Ca[2+] uptake for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

The Journal of physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive motor neuron (MN) loss, muscle denervation and paralysis. Over the past several decades, researchers have made tremendous efforts to understand the pathogenic mechanisms underpinning ALS, with much yet to be resolved. ALS is described as a non-cell autonomous condition with pathology detected in both MNs and non-neuronal cells, such as glial cells and skeletal muscle. Studies in ALS patient and animal models reveal ubiquitous abnormalities in mitochondrial structure and function, and disturbance of intracellular calcium homeostasis in various tissue types, suggesting a pivotal role of aberrant mitochondrial calcium uptake and dysfunctional calcium signalling cascades in ALS pathogenesis. Calcium signalling and mitochondrial dysfunction are intricately related to the manifestation of cell death contributing to MN loss and skeletal muscle dysfunction. In this review, we discuss the potential contribution of intracellular calcium signalling, particularly mitochondrial calcium uptake, in ALS pathogenesis. Functional consequences of excessive mitochondrial calcium uptake and possible therapeutic strategies targeting mitochondrial calcium uptake or the mitochondrial calcium uniporter, the main channel mediating mitochondrial calcium influx, are also discussed.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

Hincelin-Mery A, Nicolas X, Cantalloube C, et al (2023)

Safety, Pharmacokinetics, and Target Engagement of a Brain Penetrant RIPK1 Inhibitor, SAR443820 (DNL788), in Healthy Adult Participants.

Clinical and translational science [Epub ahead of print].

SAR443820 (DNL788) is a selective, orally bioavailable, brain penetrant inhibitor of receptor-interacting serine/threonine protein kinase 1 (RIPK1). This phase 1 first-in-human healthy participant study (NCT05795907) was comprised of three parts: randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled single ascending dose (SAD; Part 1a); 14-day multiple ascending dose (MAD; Part 2) parts that evaluated safety, tolerability, pharmacokinetics (PK), and pharmacodynamics of SAR443820; and a separate open-label, single-dose Part 1b (PK-CSF) to assess SAR443820 levels in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). SAR443820 was well-tolerated in healthy participants, and no treatment discontinuation related to an adverse event (AE) occurred. Most common AEs were dizziness and headache. No clinically meaningful changes were noted in laboratory values, vital signs, or electrocardiogram (ECG) parameters. SAR443820 had a favorable PK profile, with plasma half-lives (geometric mean) ranged between 5.7-8.0 h and 7.2-8.9 h after single and repeated doses, respectively. There were no major deviations from dose proportionality for maximum concentration and area under the curve across SAR443820 doses. Mean CSF-to-unbound plasma concentration ratio ranged from 0.8-1.3 over time (assessed up to 10 h postdose), indicating high brain penetrance. High levels of inhibition of activated RIPK1, as measured by decrease in pS166-RIPK1, were achieved in both SAD and MAD parts, with a maximum median inhibition from baseline close to 90% at predose (Ctrough) after multiple dosing in MAD, reflecting a marked RIPK1 target engagement at peripheral level. These results support further development of SAR443820 in phase 2 trials in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (NCT05237284) and multiple sclerosis (NCT05630547).

RevDate: 2023-11-26

Zhang J, Wang C, Zhou M, et al (2023)

Comprehensive treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis combined with colon cancer: A case report.

RevDate: 2023-11-26

Feng T (2023)

Applications of Artificial Intelligence to Diagnosis of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Studies in health technology and informatics, 308:648-655.

Artificial Intelligence (AI) is an umbrella term that represents a new technology for simulating and expanding human intelligence by using machines and computer systems. It consists of methods such as machine learning (ML), deep learning (DL), and natural language processing (NLP). In the era of big data, AI has emerged as an essential tool for improving the detection of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's diseases (AD), Parkinson's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, etc. AI with its ability to extract critical information from the mass of data has enabled scientists to deal with various types of large-volume data, including genetic data, imaging data, and clinical data, rapidly generated in the course of neurodegenerative disease research. This review provides a comprehensive overview of the literature on current AI applications in the diagnosis of neurodegenerative diseases. Firstly, bioinformatics and AI approaches to identify potential biomarkers for neurodegenerative diseases such as AD are reviewed. Secondly, the use of ML and DL methods to analyze Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) data for a better understanding of disease progression and predicting patient outcomes is discussed. Finally, the use of AI methods including NLP for Electronic Health Record (EHR) data analysis to extract meaningful information and identify patterns that may contribute to early diagnosis and treatment planning are reviewed. The potential benefits of AI-based approaches in improving patient outcomes and the challenges associated with their implementations are also discussed. Overall, this paper highlights the promise of AI in transforming the diagnosis and management of neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-11-27
CmpDate: 2023-11-27

Lapshina MA, Shevtsova EF, Grigoriev VV, et al (2023)

New Adamantane-Containing Edaravone Conjugates as Potential Neuroprotective Agents for ALS Treatments.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 28(22):.

Currently, there are no effective drugs for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Only two drugs-edaravone and riluzole-have been approved, but they have very limited efficacy. The aim of this work was to modify the structural core of the Edaravone-phenylpyrazolone moiety and combine it with aminoadamantane pharmacophore in order to expand the spectrum of its action to a number of processes involved in the pathogenesis of ALS. New conjugates of edaravone derivatives with 1-aminoadamantanes combined with alkylene or hydroxypropylene spacers were synthesized, and their biological activity was investigated. Compounds were found that could inhibit lipid peroxidation and calcium-related mitochondrial permeability, block fast sodium currents of CNS neurons, and reduce aggregation of the mutated form of the FUS-protein typical to ALS. So, the proposed modification of the edaravone molecule has allowed the obtaining of new original structures that combine some prospective therapeutic mechanisms against key chains of the pathogenesis of ALS. The identified lead compounds can be used for further optimization and development of new promising drugs on this basis for the treatment of ALS.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Toader C, Dobrin N, Brehar FM, et al (2023)

From Recognition to Remedy: The Significance of Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Disease Pathology.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(22):.

With the inexorable aging of the global populace, neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pose escalating challenges, which are underscored by their socioeconomic repercussions. A pivotal aspect in addressing these challenges lies in the elucidation and application of biomarkers for timely diagnosis, vigilant monitoring, and effective treatment modalities. This review delineates the quintessence of biomarkers in the realm of NDs, elucidating various classifications and their indispensable roles. Particularly, the quest for novel biomarkers in AD, transcending traditional markers in PD, and the frontier of biomarker research in ALS are scrutinized. Emergent susceptibility and trait markers herald a new era of personalized medicine, promising enhanced treatment initiation especially in cases of SOD1-ALS. The discourse extends to diagnostic and state markers, revolutionizing early detection and monitoring, alongside progression markers that unveil the trajectory of NDs, propelling forward the potential for tailored interventions. The synergy between burgeoning technologies and innovative techniques like -omics, histologic assessments, and imaging is spotlighted, underscoring their pivotal roles in biomarker discovery. Reflecting on the progress hitherto, the review underscores the exigent need for multidisciplinary collaborations to surmount the challenges ahead, accelerate biomarker discovery, and herald a new epoch of understanding and managing NDs. Through a panoramic lens, this article endeavors to provide a comprehensive insight into the burgeoning field of biomarkers in NDs, spotlighting the promise they hold in transforming the diagnostic landscape, enhancing disease management, and illuminating the pathway toward efficacious therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Yang J, Xin C, Huo J, et al (2023)

Rab Geranylgeranyltransferase Subunit Beta as a Potential Indicator to Assess the Progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Brain sciences, 13(11):.

BACKGROUND: Currently, there is no effective treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating neurodegenerative disorder. Many biomarkers have been proposed, but because ALS is a clinically heterogeneous disease with an unclear etiology, biomarker discovery for ALS has been challenging due to the lack of specificity of these biomarkers. In recent years, the role of autophagy in the development and treatment of ALS has become a research hotspot. In our previous studies, we found that the expression of RabGGTase (low RABGGTB expression and no change in RABGGTA) is lower in the lumbar and thoracic regions of spinal cord motoneurons in SOD1G93A mice compared with WT (wild-type) mice groups, and upregulation of RABGGTB promoted prenylation modification of Rab7, which promoted autophagy to protect neurons by degrading SOD1. Given that RabGGTase is associated with autophagy and autophagy is associated with inflammation, and based on the above findings, since peripheral blood mononuclear cells are readily available from patients with ALS, we proposed to investigate the expression of RabGGTase in peripheral inflammatory cells.

METHODS: Information and venous blood were collected from 86 patients diagnosed with ALS between January 2021 and August 2023. Flow cytometry was used to detect the expression of RABGGTB in monocytes from peripheral blood samples collected from patients with ALS and healthy controls. Extracted peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were differentiated in vitro into macrophages, and then the expression of RABGGTB was detected by immunofluorescence. RABGGTB levels in patients with ALS were analyzed to determine their impact on disease progression.

RESULTS: Using flow cytometry in monocytes and immunofluorescence in macrophages, we found that RABGGTB expression in the ALS group was significantly higher than in the control group. Age, sex, original location, disease course, C-reactive protein (CRP), and interleukin-6 (IL-6) did not correlate with the ALS functional rating scale-revised (ALSFRS-R), whereas the RABGGTB level was significantly correlated with the ALSFRS-R. In addition, multivariate analysis revealed a significant correlation between RABGGTB and ALSFRS-R score. Further analysis revealed a significant correlation between RABGGTB expression levels and disease progression levels (ΔFS).

CONCLUSIONS: The RABGGTB level was significantly increased in patients with ALS compared with healthy controls. An elevated RABGGTB level in patients with ALS is associated with the rate of progression in ALS, suggesting that elevated RABGGTB levels in patients with ALS may serve as an indicator for tracking ALS progression.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Seki S, Kitaoka Y, Kawata S, et al (2023)

Characteristics of Sensory Neuron Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): Potential for ALS Therapy.

Biomedicines, 11(11): pii:biomedicines11112967.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons, resulting in muscle weakness, paralysis, and, ultimately, death. Presently, no effective treatment for ALS has been established. Although motor neuron dysfunction is a hallmark of ALS, emerging evidence suggests that sensory neurons are also involved in the disease. In clinical research, 30% of patients with ALS had sensory symptoms and abnormal sensory nerve conduction studies in the lower extremities. Peroneal nerve biopsies show histological abnormalities in 90% of the patients. Preclinical research has reported several genetic abnormalities in the sensory neurons of animal models of ALS, as well as in motor neurons. Furthermore, the aggregation of misfolded proteins like TAR DNA-binding protein 43 has been reported in sensory neurons. This review aims to provide a comprehensive description of ALS-related sensory neuron dysfunction, focusing on its clinical changes and underlying mechanisms. Sensory neuron abnormalities in ALS are not limited to somatosensory issues; proprioceptive sensory neurons, such as MesV and DRG neurons, have been reported to form networks with motor neurons and may be involved in motor control. Despite receiving limited attention, sensory neuron abnormalities in ALS hold potential for new therapies targeting proprioceptive sensory neurons.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Fu RH (2023)

Pectolinarigenin Improves Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis in Mouse NSC-34 Motor Neuron Cell Lines Induced by C9-ALS-Associated Proline-Arginine Dipeptide Repeat Proteins by Enhancing Mitochondrial Fusion Mediated via the SIRT3/OPA1 Axis.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(11): pii:antiox12112008.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is considered a fatal progressive degeneration of motor neurons (MN) caused by oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction. There are currently no treatments available. The most common inherited form of ALS is the C9orf72 mutation (C9-ALS). The proline-arginine dipeptide repeat protein (PR-DPR) produced by C9-ALS has been confirmed to be a functionally acquired pathogenic factor that can cause increased ROS, mitochondrial defects, and apoptosis in motor neurons. Pectolinarigenin (PLG) from the traditional medicinal herb Linaria vulgaris has antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties. I established a mouse NSC-34 motor neuron cell line model expressing PR-DPR and confirmed the neuroprotective effect of PLG. The results showed that ROS production and apoptosis caused by PR-DPR could be improved by PLG treatment. In terms of mechanism research, PR-DPR inhibited the activity of the mitochondrial fusion proteins OPA1 and mitofusin 2. Conversely, the expression of fission protein fission 1 and dynamin-related protein 1 (DRP1) increased. However, PLG treatment reversed these effects. Furthermore, I found that PLG increased the expression and deacetylation of OPA1. Deacetylation of OPA1 enhances mitochondrial fusion and resistance to apoptosis. Finally, transfection with Sirt3 small interfering RNA abolished the neuroprotective effects of PLG. In summary, the mechanism by which PLG alleviates PR-DPR toxicity is mainly achieved by activating the SIRT3/OPA1 axis to regulate the balance of mitochondrial dynamics. Taken together, the potential of PLG in preclinical studies for C9-ALS drug development deserves further evaluation.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Genge A, Wainwright S, C Vande Velde (2023)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: exploring pathophysiology in the context of treatment.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex, neurodegenerative disorder in which alterations in structural, physiological, and metabolic parameters act synergistically. Over the last decade there has been a considerable focus on developing drugs to slow the progression of the disease. Despite this, only four disease-modifying therapies are approved in North America. Although additional research is required for a thorough understanding of ALS, we have accumulated a large amount of knowledge that could be better integrated into future clinical trials to accelerate drug development and provide patients with improved treatment options. It is likely that future, successful ALS treatments will take a multi-pronged therapeutic approach, targeting different pathways, akin to personalized medicine in oncology. In this review, we discuss the link between ALS pathophysiology and treatments, looking at the therapeutic failures as learning opportunities that can help us refine and optimize drug development.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Kuan LH, Parnianpour P, Kushol R, et al (2023)

Accurate personalized survival prediction for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis patients.

Scientific reports, 13(1):20713.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disease. Accurately predicting the survival time for ALS patients can help patients and clinicians to plan for future treatment and care. We describe the application of a machine-learned tool that incorporates clinical features and cortical thickness from brain magnetic resonance (MR) images to estimate the time until a composite respiratory failure event for ALS patients, and presents the prediction as individual survival distributions (ISDs). These ISDs provide the probability of survival (none of the respiratory failures) at multiple future time points, for each individual patient. Our learner considers several survival prediction models, and selects the best model to provide predictions. We evaluate our learned model using the mean absolute error margin (MAE-margin), a modified version of mean absolute error that handles data with censored outcomes. We show that our tool can provide helpful information for patients and clinicians in planning future treatment.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

Li L, Lei T, Xing C, et al (2023)

Advances in microfluidic chips targeting toxic aggregation proteins for neurodegenerative diseases.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(23)05207-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are characterized by nervous system damage, often influenced by genetic and aging factors. Pathological analysis frequently reveals the presence of aggregated toxic proteins. The intricate and poorly understood origins of these diseases have hindered progress in early diagnosis and drug development. The development of novel in-vitro and in-vivo models could enhance our comprehension of ND mechanisms and facilitate clinical treatment advancements. Microfluidic chips are employed to establish three-dimensional culture conditions, replicating the human ecological niche and creating a microenvironment conducive to neuronal cell survival. The incorporation of mechatronic controls unifies the chip, cells, and culture medium optimizing living conditions for the cells. This study provides a comprehensive overview of microfluidic chip applications in drug and biomarker screening for neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Our Lab-on-a-Chip system releases toxic proteins to simulate the pathological characteristics of neurodegenerative diseases, encompassing β-amyloid, α-synuclein, huntingtin, TAR DNA-binding protein 43, and Myelin Basic Protein. Investigating molecular and cellular interactions in vitro can enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms while minimizing harmful protein levels and can aid in screening potential therapeutic agents. We anticipate that our research will promote the utilization of microfluidic chips in both fundamental research and clinical applications for neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-11-24
CmpDate: 2023-11-24

Shimizu M, Shiraishi N, Tada S, et al (2023)

RGMa collapses the neuronal actin barrier against disease-implicated protein and exacerbates ALS.

Science advances, 9(47):eadg3193.

Repulsive guidance molecule A (RGMa) was originally identified as a neuronal growth cone-collapsing factor. Previous reports have demonstrated the multifunctional roles of RGMa mediated by neogenin1. However, the pathogenic involvement of RGMa in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains unclear. Here, we demonstrated that RGMa concentration was elevated in the cerebrospinal fluid of both patients with ALS and transgenic mice overexpressing the mutant human superoxide dismutase1 (mSOD1 mice). Treatment with humanized anti-RGMa monoclonal antibody ameliorated the clinical symptoms in mSOD1 mice. Histochemical analysis revealed that the anti-RGMa antibody significantly decreased mutant SOD1 protein accumulation in the motor neurons of mSOD1 mice via inhibition of actin depolymerization. In vitro analysis revealed that the anti-RGMa antibody inhibited the cellular uptake of the mutant SOD1 protein, presumably by reinforcing the neuronal actin barrier. Collectively, these data suggest that RGMa leads to the collapse of the neuronal actin barrier and promotes aberrant protein deposition, resulting in exacerbation of the ALS pathology.

RevDate: 2023-11-21

Simmonds E, Levine KS, Han J, et al (2023)

Sleep disturbances as risk factors for neurodegeneration later in life.

medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences pii:2023.11.08.23298037.

UNLABELLED: The relationship between sleep disorders and neurodegeneration is complex and multi-faceted. Using over one million electronic health records (EHRs) from Wales, UK, and Finland, we mined biobank data to identify the relationships between sleep disorders and the subsequent manifestation of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) later in life. We then examined how these sleep disorders' severity impacts neurodegeneration risk. Additionally, we investigated how sleep attributed risk may compensate for the lack of genetic risk factors (i.e. a lower polygenic risk score) in NDD manifestation. We found that sleep disorders such as sleep apnea were associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dementia, Parkinson's disease (PD), and vascular dementia in three national scale biobanks, with hazard ratios (HRs) ranging from 1.31 for PD to 5.11 for dementia. These sleep disorders imparted significant risk up to 15 years before the onset of an NDD. Cumulative number of sleep disorders in the EHRs were associated with a higher risk of neurodegeneration for dementia and vascular dementia. Sleep related risk factors were independent of genetic risk for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, potentially compensating for low genetic risk in overall disease etiology. There is a significant multiplicative interaction regarding the combined risk of sleep disorders and Parkinson's disease. Poor sleep hygiene and sleep apnea are relatively modifiable risk factors with several treatment options, including CPAP and surgery, that could potentially reduce the risk of neurodegeneration. This is particularly interesting in how sleep related risk factors are significantly and independently enriched in manifesting NDD patients with low levels of genetic risk factors for these diseases.

HIGHLIGHTS: Sleep disorders, particularly sleep apnea, are associated with the risk of Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, dementia, Parkinson's disease, and vascular dementia in national scale biobanks.These sleep disorders imparted significant risk up to 15 years before the onset of a neurodegenerative disease.The cumulative number of sleep disorders in the electronic health records were associated with a higher risk of neurodegeneration related to dementia and vascular dementia.Sleep related risk factors are independent of genetic risk for Alzheimer's and Parkinson's, potentially compensating for low genetic risk in overall disease etiology.Significant multiplicative interaction exists regarding the combined risk of sleep disorders and Parkinson's disease.

RevDate: 2023-11-20

Wen D, Ji Y, Li Y, et al (2023)

OPTN gene therapy increases autophagy and protects mitochondria in SOD1-G93A-expressing transgenic mice and cells.

The FEBS journal [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive motor neuron (MN) death. Mutation of the superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) gene, which results in abnormal protein aggregation, is one of the causes of familial ALS. Autophagic dysfunction occurs in SOD1-G93A mutant mice as the disease progresses, but the aetiology of this disease is still unclear. Optineurin (OPTN) is an adaptor that is involved in autophagy and participates in aggrephagy and mitophagy. Previous studies have established that OPTN mutations contribute to diseases such as glaucoma and ALS. However, the function of OPTN in autophagy and mitophagy has not been intensively investigated in models of ALS. In this study, we assessed the beneficial effect of OPTN on autophagy and mitochondrial function by intrathecally injecting adeno-associated virus 9 (AAV9)-OPTN into SOD1-G93A transgenic mice, and by administering lentivirus (LV)-OPTN to cells expressing the SOD1-G93A mutant protein. The expression of voltage dependent anion channel 1 (VDAC1) was increased and autophagy was elevated after OPTN gene therapy, as shown by a lower level of p62 and a higher level of microtubule-associated protein 1A/1B-light chain 3 (LC3)-II. Moreover, using electron microscopy, we observed a hyperpolarized mitochondrial transmembrane potential and reversal of mitochondrial morphological abnormalities. Furthermore, the protein level of TANK-binding kinase 1 (TBK1) was increased, suggesting that mitophagy was increased. Our findings from both animal and cell line studies strongly suggest that OPTN gene therapy is a powerful strategy to increase autophagy and protect mitochondria to prevent the progression of ALS, and could be effective in the treatment of ALS.

RevDate: 2023-11-20

Tsui A, Kouznetsova VL, Kesari S, et al (2023)

Role of Senataxin in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Journal of molecular neuroscience : MN [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive, uncurable neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the degradation of motor neurons leading to muscle impairment, failure, and death. Senataxin, encoded by the SETX gene, is a human helicase protein whose mutations have been linked with ALS onset, particularly in its juvenile ALS4 form. Using senataxin's yeast homolog Sen1 as a model for study, it is suggested that senataxin's N-terminus interacts with RNA polymerase II, whilst its C-terminus engages in helicase activity. Senataxin is heavily involved in transcription regulation, termination, and R-loop resolution, enabled by recruitment and interactions with enzymes such as ubiquitin protein ligase SAN1 and ribonuclease H (RNase H). Senataxin also engages in DNA damage response (DDR), primarily interacting with the exosome subunit Rrp45. The Sen1 mutation E1597K, alongside the L389S and R2136H gain-of-function mutations to senataxin, is shown to cause negative structural and thus functional effects to the protein, thus contributing to a disruption in WT functions, motor neuron (MN) degeneration, and the manifestation of ALS clinical symptoms. This review corroborates and summarizes published papers concerning the structure and function of senataxin as well as the effects of their mutations in ALS pathology in order to compile current knowledge and provide a reference for future research. The findings compiled in this review are indicative of the experimental and therapeutic potential of senataxin and its mutations as a target in future ALS treatment/cure discovery, with some potential therapeutic routes also being discussed in the review.

RevDate: 2023-11-19

Kim Y, Lee Y, Choo M, et al (2023)

A Surge of Cytosolic Calcium Dysregulates Lysosomal Function and Impairs Autophagy Flux during Cupric Chloride-Induced Neuronal Death.

The Journal of biological chemistry pii:S0021-9258(23)02507-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Autophagy is a degradative pathway that plays an important role in maintaining cellular homeostasis. Dysfunction of autophagy is associated with the progression of neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Although one of the typical features of brain aging is an accumulation of redox-active metals that eventually lead to neurodegeneration, a plausible link between trace metal-induced neurodegeneration and dysregulated autophagy has not been clearly determined. Here, we used a cupric chloride-induced neurodegeneration model in MN9D dopaminergic neuronal cells along with ultrastructural and biochemical analyses to demonstrate impaired autophagic flux with accompanying lysosomal dysfunction. We found that a surge of cytosolic calcium was involved in cupric chloride-induced dysregulated autophagy. Consequently, buffering of cytosolic calcium by calbindin-D28K overexpression or co-treatment with the calcium chelator BAPTA attenuated the cupric chloride-induced impairment in autophagic flux by ameliorating dysregulation of lysosomal function. Thus, these events allowed the rescue of cells from cupric chloride-induced neuronal death. These phenomena were largely confirmed in cupric chloride-treated primary cultures of cortical neurons. Taken together, these results suggest that abnormal accumulation of trace metal elements and a resultant surge of cytosolic calcium leads to neuronal death by impairing autophagic flux at the lysosomal level.

RevDate: 2023-11-20

Benussi A, Cantoni V, Grassi M, et al (2023)

Cortico-spinal tDCS in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial followed by an open-label phase.

Brain stimulation, 16(6):1666-1676 pii:S1935-861X(23)01951-4 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease for which no curative treatment is currently available.

OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate whether cortico-spinal transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) could mitigate symptoms in ALS patients via a randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled trial, followed by an open-label phase.

METHODS: Thirty-one participants were randomized into two groups for the initial controlled phase. At baseline (T0), Group 1 received placebo stimulation (sham tDCS), while Group 2 received cortico-spinal stimulation (real tDCS) for five days/week for two weeks (T1), with an 8-week (T2) follow-up (randomized, double-blind, sham-controlled phase). At the 24-week follow-up (T3), all participants (Groups 1 and 2) received a second treatment of anodal bilateral motor cortex and cathodal spinal stimulation (real tDCS) for five days/week for two weeks (T4). Follow-up evaluations were performed at 32-weeks (T5) and 48-weeks (T6) (open-label phase). At each time point, clinical assessment, blood sampling, and intracortical connectivity measures using transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) were evaluated. Additionally, we evaluated survival rates.

RESULTS: Compared to sham stimulation, cortico-spinal tDCS significantly improved global strength, caregiver burden, and quality of life scores, which correlated with the restoration of intracortical connectivity measures. Serum neurofilament light levels decreased among patients who underwent real tDCS but not in those receiving sham tDCS. The number of completed 2-week tDCS treatments significantly influenced patient survival.

CONCLUSIONS: Cortico-spinal tDCS may represent a promising therapeutic and rehabilitative approach for patients with ALS. Further larger-scale studies are necessary to evaluate whether tDCS could potentially impact patient survival.


RevDate: 2023-11-17

Saini A, PA Chawla (2023)

Breaking barriers with tofersen: Enhancing therapeutic opportunities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

European journal of neurology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects adults, characterized by muscle weakness resulting from the specific death of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain. The pathogenesis of ALS is associated with the accumulation of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) proteins and neurofilaments in motor neurons, highlighting the critical need for disease-modifying treatments. Current therapies, such as riluzole and edaravone, provide only symptomatic relief. Recently, tofersen gained approval from the US FDA under the brand name Qalsody as the first and only gene therapy for ALS, addressing a significant pathological aspect of the disease.

METHODS: We carried out a literature survey using PubMed, Scopus, National Institutes of Health, and Biogen for articles published in the English language concerned with "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis", pathophysiology, current treatment, treatment under clinical trial, and the newly approved drug "tofersen" and its detailed summary.

RESULTS: A comprehensive review of the literature on the pathophysiology, available treatment, and newly approved drug for this condition revealed convincing evidence that we are now able to better monitor and treat ALS.

CONCLUSIONS: Although treatment of ALS is difficult, the newly approved drug tofersen has emerged as a potential therapy to slow down the progression of ALS by targeting SOD1 mRNA, representing a significant advancement in the treatment of ALS.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Witzel S, Statland JM, Steinacker P, et al (2023)

Longitudinal course of neurofilament light chain levels in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-insights from a completed randomized controlled trial with rasagiline.

European journal of neurology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Rasagiline might be disease modifying in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The aim was to evaluate the effect of rasagiline 2 mg/day on neurofilament light chain (NfL), a prognostic biomarker in ALS.

METHODS: In 65 patients with ALS randomized in a 3:1 ratio to rasagiline 2 mg/day (n = 48) or placebo (n = 17) in a completed randomized controlled multicentre trial, NfL levels in plasma were measured at baseline, month 6 and month 12. Longitudinal changes in NfL levels were evaluated regarding treatment and clinical parameters.

RESULTS: Baseline NfL levels did not differ between the study arms and correlated with disease progression rates both pre-baseline (r = 0.64, p < 0.001) and during the study (r = 0.61, p < 0.001). NfL measured at months 6 and 12 did not change significantly from baseline in both arms, with a median individual NfL change of +1.4 pg/mL (interquartile range [IQR] -5.6, 14.2) across all follow-up time points. However, a significant difference in NfL change at month 12 was observed between patients with high and low NfL baseline levels treated with rasagiline (high [n = 13], -6.9 pg/mL, IQR -20.4, 6.0; low [n = 18], +5.9 pg/mL, IQR -1.4, 19.7; p = 0.025). Additionally, generally higher longitudinal NfL variability was observed in patients with high baseline levels, whereas disease progression rates and disease duration at baseline had no impact on the longitudinal NfL course.

CONCLUSION: Post hoc NfL measurements in completed clinical trials are helpful in interpreting NfL data from ongoing and future interventional trials and could provide hypothesis-generating complementary insights. Further studies are warranted to ultimately differentiate NfL response to treatment from other factors.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Fornage LB, O'Neil C, Dowker SR, et al (2023)

Prehospital Intervention Improves Outcomes for Patients Presenting in Atrial Fibrillation with Rapid Ventricular Response.

Prehospital emergency care [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: To compare outcomes of patients presenting to emergency medical services (EMS) with atrial fibrillation with rapid ventricular response (AF-RVR) who did and did not receive prehospital advanced life support (ALS) rate or rhythm control intervention(s).

METHODS: This retrospective cohort study used the 2021 ESO Data Collaborative (Austin, TX) dataset. We identified 9-1-1 scene responses for patients aged 16 to 100 years old presenting with AF and an initial heart rate ≥ 110 beats per minute (bpm). Prehospital ALS interventions for AF-RVR included medications (e.g., calcium channel blockers, beta blockers, etc.) or electrical cardioversion. Outcome measures included prehospital rate control (i.e., final prehospital heart rate < 110 bpm), emergency department (ED) discharge to home, ED and hospital length of stay, and mortality. We also evaluated prehospital adverse events-specifically bradycardia, hypotension, and cardiac arrest. We used propensity score matching to compare outcomes among treated and untreated patients with similar demographic and clinical characteristics. We determined the average treatment effect on the treated (ATET) with 95% confidence intervals (CI) and the number needed to treat (NNT).

RESULTS: After propensity score matching, prehospital outcomes were available for 4,859 treated patients matched with 4,859 similar untreated patients. Prehospital rate control was more frequent for treated than for untreated patients (41.0% vs. 18.2%, ATET +22.8%, CI: +21.1%; +24.6%, NNT = 5). Hospital outcomes were available for 1,347 treated patients matched with 1,347 similar untreated patients. Treated patients were more likely to be discharged from the ED (37.9% vs. 34.0%, ATET +3.9%, CI: +0.2%; +7.5%, NNT = 26) and less likely to die (4.3% vs. 6.7%, ATET -2.5%, CI: -4.2%; -0.8%, NNT = 40) compared to untreated patients. Hypotension occurred more often in treated patients (ATET +2.6%, CI: +1.5%; +3.7%), but resolved before ED arrival in 73% of affected patients. Otherwise, adverse event rates did not significantly differ for the two groups.

CONCLUSIONS: In this propensity score matched study of patients presenting to EMS with AF-RVR, prehospital ALS interventions were associated with more frequent prehospital rate control, more frequent discharge to home from the ED, and lower mortality.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Pelaez MC, Desmeules A, Gelon PA, et al (2023)

Neuronal dysfunction caused by FUSR521G promotes ALS-associated phenotypes that are attenuated by NF-κB inhibition.

Acta neuropathologica communications, 11(1):182.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are related neurodegenerative diseases that belong to a common disease spectrum based on overlapping clinical, pathological and genetic evidence. Early pathological changes to the morphology and synapses of affected neuron populations in ALS/FTD suggest a common underlying mechanism of disease that requires further investigation. Fused in sarcoma (FUS) is a DNA/RNA-binding protein with known genetic and pathological links to ALS/FTD. Expression of ALS-linked FUS mutants in mice causes cognitive and motor defects, which correlate with loss of motor neuron dendritic branching and synapses, in addition to other pathological features of ALS/FTD. The role of ALS-linked FUS mutants in causing ALS/FTD-associated disease phenotypes is well established, but there are significant gaps in our understanding of the cell-autonomous role of FUS in promoting structural changes to motor neurons, and how these changes relate to disease progression. Here we generated a neuron-specific FUS-transgenic mouse model expressing the ALS-linked human FUSR521G variant, hFUS[R521G/Syn1], to investigate the cell-autonomous role of FUSR521G in causing loss of dendritic branching and synapses of motor neurons, and to understand how these changes relate to ALS-associated phenotypes. Longitudinal analysis of mice revealed that cognitive impairments in juvenile hFUS[R521G/Syn1] mice coincide with reduced dendritic branching of cortical motor neurons in the absence of motor impairments or changes in the neuromorphology of spinal motor neurons. Motor impairments and dendritic attrition of spinal motor neurons developed later in aged hFUS[R521G/Syn1] mice, along with FUS cytoplasmic mislocalisation, mitochondrial abnormalities and glial activation. Neuroinflammation promotes neuronal dysfunction and drives disease progression in ALS/FTD. The therapeutic effects of inhibiting the pro-inflammatory nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway with an analog of Withaferin A, IMS-088, were assessed in symptomatic hFUS[R521G/Syn1] mice and were found to improve cognitive and motor function, increase dendritic branches and synapses of motor neurons, and attenuate other ALS/FTD-associated pathological features. Treatment of primary cortical neurons expressing FUSR521G with IMS-088 promoted the restoration of dendritic mitochondrial numbers and mitochondrial activity to wild-type levels, suggesting that inhibition of NF-κB permits the restoration of mitochondrial stasis in our models. Collectively, this work demonstrates that FUSR521G has a cell-autonomous role in causing early pathological changes to dendritic and synaptic structures of motor neurons, and that these changes precede motor defects and other well-known pathological features of ALS/FTD. Finally, these findings provide further support that modulation of the NF-κB pathway in ALS/FTD is an important therapeutic approach to attenuate disease.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Awuah WA, Ahluwalia A, Ghosh S, et al (2023)

The molecular landscape of neurological disorders: insights from single-cell RNA sequencing in neurology and neurosurgery.

European journal of medical research, 28(1):529.

Single-cell ribonucleic acid sequencing (scRNA-seq) has emerged as a transformative technology in neurological and neurosurgical research, revolutionising our comprehension of complex neurological disorders. In brain tumours, scRNA-seq has provided valuable insights into cancer heterogeneity, the tumour microenvironment, treatment resistance, and invasion patterns. It has also elucidated the brain tri-lineage cancer hierarchy and addressed limitations of current models. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have been molecularly subtyped, dysregulated pathways have been identified, and potential therapeutic targets have been revealed using scRNA-seq. In epilepsy, scRNA-seq has explored the cellular and molecular heterogeneity underlying the condition, uncovering unique glial subpopulations and dysregulation of the immune system. ScRNA-seq has characterised distinct cellular constituents and responses to spinal cord injury in spinal cord diseases, as well as provided molecular signatures of various cell types and identified interactions involved in vascular remodelling. Furthermore, scRNA-seq has shed light on the molecular complexities of cerebrovascular diseases, such as stroke, providing insights into specific genes, cell-specific expression patterns, and potential therapeutic interventions. This review highlights the potential of scRNA-seq in guiding precision medicine approaches, identifying clinical biomarkers, and facilitating therapeutic discovery. However, challenges related to data analysis, standardisation, sample acquisition, scalability, and cost-effectiveness need to be addressed. Despite these challenges, scRNA-seq has the potential to transform clinical practice in neurological and neurosurgical research by providing personalised insights and improving patient outcomes.

RevDate: 2023-11-16

Lisi E, JJ Abellan (2023)

Statistical analysis of actigraphy data with generalised additive models.

Pharmaceutical statistics [Epub ahead of print].

There is a growing interest in the use of physical activity data in clinical studies, particularly in diseases that limit mobility in patients. High-frequency data collected with digital sensors are typically summarised into actigraphy features aggregated at epoch level (e.g., by minute). The statistical analysis of such volume of data is not straightforward. The general trend is to derive metrics, capturing specific aspects of physical activity, that condense (say) a week worth of data into a single numerical value. Here we propose to analyse the entire time-series data using Generalised Additive Models (GAMs). GAMs are semi-parametric models that allow inclusion of both parametric and non-parametric terms in the linear predictor. The latter are smooth terms (e.g., splines) and, in the context of actigraphy minute-by-minute data analysis, they can be used to assess daily patterns of physical activity. This in turn can be used to better understand changes over time in longitudinal studies as well as to compare treatment groups. We illustrate the application of GAMs in two clinical studies where actigraphy data was collected: a non-drug, single-arm study in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and a physical-activity sub-study included in a phase 2b clinical trial in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

RevDate: 2023-11-16

Rizzuti M, Sali L, Melzi V, et al (2023)

Genomic and transcriptomic advances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Ageing research reviews pii:S1568-1637(23)00285-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common motor neuron disease. ALS shows substantial clinical and molecular heterogeneity. In vitro and in vivo models coupled with multiomic techniques have provided important contributions to unraveling the pathomechanisms underlying ALS. To date, despite promising results and accumulating knowledge, an effective treatment is still lacking. Here, we provide an overview of the literature on the use of genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics and microRNAs to deeply investigate the molecular mechanisms developing and sustaining ALS. We report the most relevant genes implicated in ALS pathogenesis, discussing the use of different high-throughput sequencing techniques and the role of epigenomic modifications. Furthermore, we present transcriptomic studies discussing the most recent advances, from microarrays to bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing. Finally, we discuss the use of microRNAs as potential biomarkers and promising tools for molecular intervention. The integration of data from multiple omic approaches may provide new insights into pathogenic pathways in ALS by shedding light on diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, helping to stratify patients into clinically relevant subgroups, revealing novel therapeutic targets and supporting the development of new effective therapies.

RevDate: 2023-11-15

Quattrocchi S, Bonan L, Cirillo L, et al (2023)

Bibrachial amyotrophy as a rare manifestation of intraspinal fluid collection: a case report and systematic review.

Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Intraspinal cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) collection has been reported as a rare cause of lower motor neuron (LMN) disorder. We report a case of bibrachial diplegia associated with intraspinal CSF collection and perform a systematic literature review.

PATIENT AND METHODS: A 52-year-old man developed a bibrachial amyotrophy over 6 years, confirmed by the presence of cervical subacute neurogenic changes at electromyography (EMG). Brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) revealed cerebral siderosis, while spine MRI showed a ventral longitudinal intraspinal fluid collection (VLISFC) from C2 to L2. No CSF leakage was localized at myelography; a conservative treatment was chosen. We searched for all published cases until 30th April 2023 and extrapolated data of 44 patients reported in 27 publications.

RESULTS: We observed a male predominance, a younger disease onset compared to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and a quite long disease duration, highlighting a slow disease progression. LMN signs were more frequently bilateral, mostly involving C5-C6 myotomes. Around 61% of patients presented additional symptoms, but only three referred to a history of headache. Accordingly, CSF opening pressure was mostly normal. Spinal MRI revealed the presence of VLISFC and in some cases myelomalacia. EMG patterns displayed both chronic and subacute neurogenic change in the cervical region. The disease course mainly depended on the treatment choice, which was mostly represented by a surgical approach when a specific dural defect was detected by imaging.

CONCLUSION: Bibrachial diplegia due to VLISFC can be a treatable cause of focal amyotrophy and presents some clinical and radiological "red flags" which cannot be missed by a clinical neurologist.

RevDate: 2023-11-15

Ansari MA, Tripathi T, Venkidasamy B, et al (2023)

Multifunctional Nanocarriers for Alzheimer's Disease: Befriending the Barriers.

Molecular neurobiology [Epub ahead of print].

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) have been increasing in incidence in recent years and are now widespread worldwide. Neuronal death is defined as the progressive loss of neuronal structure or function which is closely associated with NDDs and represents the intrinsic features of such disorders. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases (AD, PD, and HD, respectively) are considered neurodegenerative diseases that affect a large number of people worldwide. Despite the testing of various drugs, there is currently no available therapy that can remedy or effectively slow the progression of these diseases. Nanomedicine has the potential to revolutionize drug delivery for the management of NDDs. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) has recently been developed to improve drug delivery efficiency and is currently subjected to extensive studies. Nanoengineered particles, known as nanodrugs, can cross the blood-brain barrier while also being less invasive compared to the most treatment strategies in use. Polymeric, magnetic, carbonic, and inorganic NPs are examples of NPs that have been developed to improve drug delivery efficiency. Primary research studies using NPs to cure AD are promising, but thorough research is needed to introduce these approaches to clinical use. In the present review, we discussed the role of metal-based NPs, polymeric nanogels, nanocarrier systems such as liposomes, solid lipid NPs, polymeric NPs, exosomes, quantum dots, dendrimers, polymersomes, carbon nanotubes, and nanofibers and surfactant-based systems for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, we highlighted nanoformulations such as N-butyl cyanoacrylate, poly(butyl cyanoacrylate), D-penicillamine, citrate-coated peptide, magnetic iron oxide, chitosan (CS), lipoprotein, ceria, silica, metallic nanoparticles, cholinesterase inhibitors, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, metal chelators, anti-amyloid, protein, and peptide-loaded NPs for the treatment of AD.

RevDate: 2023-11-15
CmpDate: 2023-11-15

Boylan MA, Pincetic A, Romano G, et al (2023)

Targeting Progranulin as an Immuno-Neurology Therapeutic Approach.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(21): pii:ijms242115946.

Immuno-neurology is an emerging therapeutic strategy for dementia and neurodegeneration designed to address immune surveillance failure in the brain. Microglia, as central nervous system (CNS)-resident myeloid cells, routinely perform surveillance of the brain and support neuronal function. Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations causing decreased levels of progranulin (PGRN), an immune regulatory protein, lead to dysfunctional microglia and are associated with multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including frontotemporal dementia caused by the progranulin gene (GRN) mutation (FTD-GRN), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), limbic-predominant age-related transactivation response deoxyribonucleic acid binding protein 43 (TDP-43) encephalopathy (LATE), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Immuno-neurology targets immune checkpoint-like proteins, offering the potential to convert aging and dysfunctional microglia into disease-fighting cells that counteract multiple disease pathologies, clear misfolded proteins and debris, promote myelin and synapse repair, optimize neuronal function, support astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and maintain brain vasculature. Several clinical trials are underway to elevate PGRN levels as one strategy to modulate the function of microglia and counteract neurodegenerative changes associated with various disease states. If successful, these and other immuno-neurology drugs have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders by harnessing the brain's immune system and shifting it from an inflammatory/pathological state to an enhanced physiological/homeostatic state.

RevDate: 2023-11-14

Gonzalo-Gobernado R, Moreno-Martínez L, González P, et al (2023)

Repaglinide Induces ATF6 Processing and Neuroprotection in Transgenic SOD1G93A Mice.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(21): pii:ijms242115783.

The interaction of the activating transcription factor 6 (ATF6), a key effector of the unfolded protein response (UPR) in the endoplasmic reticulum, with the neuronal calcium sensor Downstream Regulatory Element Antagonist Modulator (DREAM) is a potential therapeutic target in neurodegeneration. Modulation of the ATF6-DREAM interaction with repaglinide (RP) induced neuroprotection in a model of Huntington's disease. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder with no cure, characterized by the progressive loss of motoneurons resulting in muscle denervation, atrophy, paralysis, and death. The aim of this work was to investigate the potential therapeutic significance of DREAM as a target for intervention in ALS. We found that the expression of the DREAM protein was reduced in the spinal cord of SOD1G93A mice compared to wild-type littermates. RP treatment improved motor strength and reduced the expression of the ALS progression marker collagen type XIXα1 (Col19α1 mRNA) in the quadriceps muscle in SOD1G93A mice. Moreover, treated SOD1G93A mice showed reduced motoneuron loss and glial activation and increased ATF6 processing in the spinal cord. These results indicate that the modulation of the DREAM-ATF6 interaction ameliorates ALS symptoms in SOD1G93A mice.

RevDate: 2023-11-13

Spörndly-Nees S, Jakobsson Larsson B, Zetterberg L, et al (2023)

Pain in patients with motor neuron disease: Variation of pain and association with disease severity, health-related quality of life and depression - A longitudinal study.

Palliative & supportive care pii:S1478951523001347 [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: To describe levels of pain over time during disease progression in individual patients and for a total sample of patients with motor neuron disease (MND), respectively, and to examine associations between pain, disease severity, health-related quality of life (HRQOL), and depression.

METHODS: A prospective cohort study was conducted on 68 patients with MND, including data collected on five occasions over a period of 2 years. Pain was assessed using the Brief Pain Inventory - Short Form. Depression was assessed using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS)-Depression-Inventory (ADI-12). Disability progression was measured using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale - Revised Version (ALSFRS-R). HRQOL was assessed using the Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Assessment Questionnaire (ALSAQ-5).

RESULTS: Participants reported great individual variation over time. The median level of pain was 4 (min 0 and max 10). Higher levels of pain during the last 24 h were associated with higher depression scores (ADI-12), poorer quality of life (ALSAQ-5), and lower reporting of fine and gross motor skills (ALSFRS-R). Baseline pain levels did not predict future values of depression and function. Individuals reporting average pain >3 experienced more hopelessness toward the future and reported higher depression scores compared with participants reporting average pain <3.

SIGNIFICANCE OF RESULTS: Great within-individual variation of pain intensity was reported. Pain intensity was associated with depression, function and HRQOL cross-sectionally, but it did not have a strong prognostic value for future depression, function, or HRQOL. Patients with MND should be offered frequent assessment of pain and depressive symptoms in person-centered care, allowing for individualization of treatment.

RevDate: 2023-11-13

Zhao K, Chen P, Alexander-Bloch A, et al (2023)

A neuroimaging biomarker for Individual Brain-Related Abnormalities In Neurodegeneration (IBRAIN): a cross-sectional study.

EClinicalMedicine, 65:102276.

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a prevalent neurodegenerative disorder that poses a worldwide public health challenge. A neuroimaging biomarker would significantly improve early diagnosis and intervention, ultimately enhancing the quality of life for affected individuals and reducing the burden on healthcare systems.

METHODS: Cross-sectional and longitudinal data (10,099 participants with 13,380 scans) from 12 independent datasets were used in the present study (this study was performed between September 1, 2021 and February 15, 2023). The Individual Brain-Related Abnormalities In Neurodegeneration (IBRAIN) score was developed via integrated regional- and network-based measures under an ensemble machine learning model based on structural MRI data. We systematically assessed whether IBRAIN could be a neuroimaging biomarker for AD.

FINDINGS: IBRAIN accurately differentiated individuals with AD from NCs (AUC = 0.92) and other neurodegenerative diseases, including Frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Vascular dementia (VaD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) (AUC = 0.92). IBRAIN was significantly correlated to clinical measures and gene expression, enriched in immune process and protein metabolism. The IBRAIN score exhibited a significant ability to reveal the distinct progression of prodromal AD (i.e., Mild cognitive impairment, MCI) (Hazard Ratio (HR) = 6.52 [95% CI: 4.42∼9.62], p < 1 × 10[-16]), which offers similar powerful performance with Cerebrospinal Fluid (CSF) Aβ (HR = 3.78 [95% CI: 2.63∼5.43], p = 2.13 × 10[-14]) and CSF Tau (HR = 3.77 [95% CI: 2.64∼5.39], p = 9.53 × 10[-15]) based on the COX and Log-rank test. Notably, the IBRAIN shows comparable sensitivity (beta = -0.70, p < 1 × 10[-16]) in capturing longitudinal changes in individuals with conversion to AD than CSF Aβ (beta = -0.26, p = 4.40 × 10[-9]) and CSF Tau (beta = 0.12, p = 1.02 × 10[-5]).

INTERPRETATION: Our findings suggested that IBRAIN is a biologically relevant, specific, and sensitive neuroimaging biomarker that can serve as a clinical measure to uncover prodromal AD progression. It has strong potential for application in future clinical practice and treatment trials.

FUNDING: Science and Technology Innovation 2030 Major Projects, the National Natural Science Foundation of China, Beijing Natural Science Funds, the Fundamental Research Funds for the CentralUniversity, and the Startup Funds for Talents at Beijing Normal University.

RevDate: 2023-11-12

Shimizu H, Nishimura Y, Shiide Y, et al (2023)

Pharmacokinetics of Edaravone Oral Suspension in Patients With Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Clinical therapeutics pii:S0149-2918(23)00389-2 [Epub ahead of print].

PURPOSE: Edaravone is a neuroprotective agent approved as an intravenous treatment for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The intravenous administration of edaravone places a burden on patients and there is a clinical need for oral agents for the treatment of ALS. This report aimed to assess the pharmacokinetics and safety of an edaravone oral suspension in patients with ALS after oral and percutaneous endoscopic gastrostomy (PEG) tube administration.

METHODS: Two single-dose, open-label phase 1 clinical studies were conducted. Edaravone oral suspension (105 mg of edaravone in 5 mL aqueous suspension) was administered orally and via PEG tube to 9 and 6 Japanese patients with ALS, respectively. Plasma and urinary pharmacokinetics of unchanged edaravone and its metabolites (sulfate and glucuronide conjugates) were determined. Safety was also evaluated.

FINDINGS: After reaching maximum plasma concentration, the mean plasma concentration-time of unchanged edaravone showed a triphasic elimination. Mean plasma concentration-time profiles of the metabolites were higher than those of unchanged edaravone. The mean urinary excretion ratios were higher for the glucuronide conjugate than for either unchanged edaravone or the sulfate conjugate. In patients administered edaravone orally, a single adverse event occurred (blood urine present), which was mild and improved without medical intervention. No adverse drug reactions or serious adverse events were reported. In patients administered edaravone via PEG tube, 5 treatment-emergent adverse events were reported in 3 patients; none were related to the study drug. No adverse drug reactions were reported.

IMPLICATIONS: In patients with ALS, a single dose of edaravone oral suspension was well absorbed and mainly eliminated in urine as the glucuronide conjugate. No safety concerns emerged. Pharmacokinetics were similar to those previously reported in healthy participants following oral administration. This indicates that effective drug concentrations were achieved and edaravone can be successfully administered both orally and via a PEG tube in patients with ALS.

CLINICAL TRIAL REGISTRATION: ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT04176224 (oral administration) and NCT04254913 (PEG tube administration), www.


RevDate: 2023-11-12

Okano H, Morimoto S, Kato C, et al (2023)

Induced pluripotent stem cells-based disease modeling, drug screening, clinical trials, and reverse translational research for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Journal of neurochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

It has been more than 10 years since the hopes for disease modeling and drug discovery using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology boomed. Recently, clinical trials have been conducted with drugs identified using this technology, and some promising results have been reported. For amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating neurodegenerative disease, several groups have identified candidate drugs, ezogabine (retigabine), bosutinib, and ropinirole, using iPSCs-based drug discovery, and clinical trials using these drugs have been conducted, yielding interesting results. In our previous study, an iPSCs-based drug repurposing approach was utilized to show the potential of ropinirole hydrochloride (ROPI) in reducing ALS-specific pathological phenotypes. Recently, a phase 1/2a trial was conducted to investigate the effects of ropinirole on ALS further. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study confirmed the safety and tolerability of and provided evidence of its ability to delay disease progression and prolong the time to respiratory failure in ALS patients. Furthermore, in the reverse translational research, in vitro characterization of patient-derived iPSCs-motor neurons (MNs) mimicked the therapeutic effects of ROPI in vivo, suggesting the potential application of this technology to the precision medicine of ALS. Interestingly, RNA-seq data showed that ROPI treatment suppressed the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2-dependent cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Therefore, this pathway may be involved in the therapeutic effect of ROPI on ALS. The possibility that this pathway may be involved in the therapeutic effect of ALS was demonstrated. Finally, new future strategies for ALS using iPSCs technology will be discussed in this paper.

RevDate: 2023-11-11

Beloribi-Djefaflia S, Morales RJ, Fatehi F, et al (2023)

Clinical and genetic features of patients suffering from CMT4J.

Journal of neurology [Epub ahead of print].

Mutations in the FIG4 gene have been identified in various diseases, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, and Charcot-Marie-Tooth 4 J (CMT4J), with a wide range of phenotypic manifestations. We present eight cases of CMT4J patients carrying the p.Ile41Thr mutation of FIG4. The patients were categorized according to their phenotype. Six patients had a pure CMT; whereas, two patients had a CMT associated with parkinsonism. Three patients had an early onset and exhibited more severe forms of the disease. Three others experienced symptoms in their teenage years and had milder forms. Two patients had a late onset in adulthood. Four patients showed electrophysiological evidence of conduction blocks, typically associated with acquired neuropathies. Consequently, two of them received intravenous immunoglobulin treatment without a significant objective response. Interestingly, two heterozygous patients with the same mutations exhibited contrasting phenotypes, one having a severe early-onset form and the other experiencing a slow disease progression starting at the age of 49. Notably, although 7 out of 8 patients in this study were compound heterozygous for the p.Ile41Thr mutation, only one individual was found to be homozygous for this genetic variant and exhibited an early-onset, severe form of the disease. Additionally, one patient who developed the disease in his youth was also diagnosed with hereditary neuropathy with pressure palsies. Our findings provide insights into the CMT4J subtype by reporting on eight heterogeneous patient cases and highlight the potential for misdiagnosis when conduction blocks or asymmetrical nerve conduction study results are observed in patients with FIG4 mutations.

RevDate: 2023-11-11

Rogers ML, Schultz DW, Karnaros V, et al (2023)

Urinary biomarkers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: candidates, opportunities and considerations.

Brain communications, 5(6):fcad287.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a relentless neurodegenerative disease that is mostly fatal within 3-5 years and is diagnosed on evidence of progressive upper and lower motor neuron degeneration. Around 15% of those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also have frontotemporal degeneration, and gene mutations account for ∼10%. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a variable heterogeneous disease, and it is becoming increasingly clear that numerous different disease processes culminate in the final degeneration of motor neurons. There is a profound need to clearly articulate and measure pathological process that occurs. Such information is needed to tailor treatments to individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to an individual's pathological fingerprint. For new candidate therapies, there is also a need for methods to select patients according to expected treatment outcomes and measure the success, or not, of treatments. Biomarkers are essential tools to fulfil these needs, and urine is a rich source for candidate biofluid biomarkers. This review will describe promising candidate urinary biomarkers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other possible urinary candidates in future areas of investigation as well as the limitations of urinary biomarkers.

RevDate: 2023-11-09

Faria Assoni A, Giove Mitsugi T, Wardenaar R, et al (2023)

Neurodegeneration-associated protein VAPB regulates proliferation in medulloblastoma.

Scientific reports, 13(1):19481.

VAMP (Vesicle-associated membrane protein)-associated protein B and C (VAPB) has been widely studied in neurodegenerative diseases such as ALS, but little is known about its role in cancer. Medulloblastoma is a common brain malignancy in children and arises from undifferentiated cells during neuronal development. Therefore, medulloblastoma is an interesting model to investigate the possible relationship between VAPB and tumorigenesis. Here we demonstrate that high VAPB expression in medulloblastoma correlates with decreased overall patient survival. Consistent with this clinical correlation, we find that VAPB is required for normal proliferation rates of medulloblastoma cells in vitro and in vivo. Knockout of VAPB (VAPB[KO]) delayed cell cycle progression. Furthermore, transcript levels of WNT-related proteins were decreased in the VAPB[KO]. We conclude that VAPB is required for proliferation of medulloblastoma cells, thus revealing VAPB as a potential therapeutic target for medulloblastoma treatment.

RevDate: 2023-11-09

Shi Y, R Zhu (2023)

Analysis of damage-associated molecular patterns in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis based on ScRNA-seq and bulk RNA-seq data.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 17:1259742.

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive loss of motor neurons. Despite extensive research, the exact etiology of ALS remains elusive. Emerging evidence highlights the critical role of the immune system in ALS pathogenesis and progression. Damage-Associated Molecular Patterns (DAMPs) are endogenous molecules released by stressed or damaged cells, acting as danger signals and activating immune responses. However, their specific involvement in ALS remains unclear.

METHODS: We obtained single-cell RNA sequencing (scRNA-seq) data of ALS from the primary motor cortex in the Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database. To better understand genes associated with DAMPs, we performed analyses on cell-cell communication and trajectory. The abundance of immune-infiltrating cells was assessed using the single-sample Gene Set Enrichment Analysis (ssGSEA) method. We performed univariate Cox analysis to construct the risk model and utilized the least absolute shrinkage and selection operator (LASSO) analysis. Finally, we identified potential small molecule drugs targeting ALS by screening the Connectivity Map database (CMap) and confirmed their potential through molecular docking analysis.

RESULTS: Our study annotated 10 cell types, with the expression of genes related to DAMPs predominantly observed in microglia. Analysis of intercellular communication revealed 12 ligand-receptor pairs in the pathways associated with DAMPs, where microglial cells acted as ligands. Among these pairs, the SPP1-CD44 pair demonstrated the greatest contribution. Furthermore, trajectory analysis demonstrated distinct differentiation fates of different microglial states. Additionally, we constructed a risk model incorporating four genes (TRPM2, ROCK1, HSP90AA1, and HSPA4). The validity of the risk model was supported by multivariate analysis. Moreover, external validation from dataset GSE112681 confirmed the predictive power of the model, which yielded consistent results with datasets GSE112676 and GSE112680. Lastly, the molecular docking analysis suggested that five compounds, namely mead-acid, nifedipine, nifekalant, androstenol, and hydrastine, hold promise as potential candidates for the treatment of ALS.

CONCLUSION: Taken together, our study demonstrated that DAMP entities were predominantly observed in microglial cells within the context of ALS. The utilization of a prognostic risk model can accurately predict ALS patient survival. Additionally, genes related to DAMPs may present viable drug targets for ALS therapy.

RevDate: 2023-11-09
CmpDate: 2023-11-09

Maharaj D, Kaur K, Saltese A, et al (2023)

Personalized Precision Immunotherapy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

Critical reviews in immunology, 43(2):1-11.

Neurological syndrome amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) affects motor neurons and is characterized by progressive motor neuron loss in the brain and spinal cord. ALS starts with mainly focal onset but when the disease progresses, it spreads to different parts of the body, with survival limits of 2-5 years after disease initiation. To date, only supportive care is provided for ALS patients, and no effective treatment or cure has been discovered. This review is focused on clinical and immunological aspects of ALS patients, based on our case studies, and we discuss the treatment we have provided to those patients based on a detailed evaluation of their peripheral blood immune cells and blood-derived serum secreted factors, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. We show that using a personalized approach of low dose immunotherapy there is an improvement in the effects on inflammation and immunological dysfunction.

RevDate: 2023-11-07

Gao H, Yu J, Chen J, et al (2023)

Target-Site and Metabolic Resistance Mechanisms to Penoxsulam in Late Watergrass (Echinochloa phyllopogon) in China.

Journal of agricultural and food chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Echinochloa phyllopogon, a malignant weed in Northeast China's paddy fields, is currently presenting escalating resistance concerns. Our study centered on the HJHL-715 E. phyllopogon population, which showed heightened resistance to penoxsulam, through a whole-plant bioassay. Pretreatment with a P450 inhibitor malathion significantly increased penoxsulam sensitivity in resistant plants. In order to determine the resistance mechanism of the resistant population, we purified the resistant population from individual plants and isolated target-site resistance (TSR) and nontarget-site resistance (NTSR) materials. Pro-197-Thr and Trp-574-Leu mutations in acetolactate synthase (ALS) 1 and ALS2 of the resistant population drove reduced sensitivity of penoxsulam to the target-site ALS, the primary resistance mechanisms. To fully understand the NTSR mechanism, NTSR materials were investigated by using RNA-sequencing (RNA-seq) combined with a reference genome. High-performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) analysis further supported the enhanced penoxsulam metabolism in NTSR materials. Gene expression data and quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) validation confirmed 29 overexpressed genes under penoxsulam treatment, with 16 genes concurrently upregulated with quinclorac and metamifop treatment. Overall, our study confirmed coexisting TSR and NTSR mechanisms in E. phyllopogon's resistance to ALS inhibitors.

RevDate: 2023-11-06

Domi T, Schito P, Sferruzza G, et al (2023)

Unveiling the SOD1-mediated ALS phenotype: insights from a comprehensive meta-analysis.

Journal of neurology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis associated with mutations in SOD1 (SOD1-ALS) might be susceptible to specific treatment. The aim of the study is to outline the clinical features of SOD1-ALS patients by comparing them to patients without ALS major gene variants and patients with variants in other major ALS genes. Defining SOD1-ALS phenotype may assist clinicians in identifying patients who should be prioritized for genetic testing.

METHODS: We performed an extensive literature research including original studies which reported the clinical features of SOD1-ALS and at least one of the following patient groups: C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion (C9-ALS), TARDBP (TARDBP-ALS), FUS (FUS-ALS) or patients without a positive test for a major-ALS gene (N-ALS). A random effects meta-analytic model was applied to clinical data extracted encompassing sex, site and age of onset. To reconstruct individual patient survival data, the published Kaplan-Meier curves were digitized. Data were measured as odds ratio (OR) or standardized mean difference (SMD) as appropriate. Median survival was compared between groups.

RESULTS: Twenty studies met the inclusion criteria. We identified 721 SOD1-ALS, 470 C9-ALS, 183 TARDBP-ALS, 113 FUS-ALS and 2824 N-ALS. SOD1-ALS showed a higher rate of spinal onset compared with N-ALS and C9-ALS (OR = 4.85, 95% CI = 3.04-7.76; OR = 10.47, 95% CI = 4.32-27.87) and an earlier onset compared with N-ALS (SMD = - 0.45, 95% CI = - 0.72 to - 0.18). SOD1-ALS had a similar survival compared with N-ALS (p = 0.14), a longer survival compared with C9-ALS (p < 0.01) and FUS-ALS (p = 0.019) and a shorter survival compared with TARDBP-ALS (p < 0.01).

DISCUSSION: This study indicates the presence of a specific SOD1-ALS phenotype. Insights in SOD1-ALS clinical features are important in genetic counseling, disease prognosis and support patients' stratification in clinical trials.

RevDate: 2023-11-06

Chen SK, Hawley ZCE, Zavodszky MI, et al (2023)

Efficacy and safety of a SOD1-targeting artificial miRNA delivered by AAV9 in mice are impacted by miRNA scaffold selection.

Molecular therapy. Nucleic acids, 34:102057.

Toxic gain-of-function mutations in superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) contribute to approximately 2%-3% of all amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) cases. Artificial microRNAs (amiRs) delivered by adeno-associated virus (AAV) have been proposed as a potential treatment option to silence SOD1 expression and mitigate disease progression. Primary microRNA (pri-miRNA) scaffolds are used in amiRs to shuttle a hairpin RNA into the endogenous miRNA pathway, but it is unclear whether different primary miRNA (pri-miRNA) scaffolds impact the potency and safety profile of the expressed amiR in vivo. In our process to develop an AAV amiR targeting SOD1, we performed a preclinical characterization of two pri-miRNA scaffolds, miR155 and miR30a, sharing the same guide strand sequence. We report that, while the miR155-based vector, compared with the miR30a-based vector, leads to a higher level of the amiR and more robust suppression of SOD1 in vitro and in vivo, it also presents significantly greater risks for CNS-related toxicities in vivo. Despite miR30a-based vector showing relatively lower potency, it can significantly delay the development of ALS-like phenotypes in SOD1-G93A mice and increase survival in a dose-dependent manner. These data highlight the importance of scaffold selection in the pursuit of highly efficacious and safe amiRs for RNA interference gene therapy.

RevDate: 2023-11-06

Sun J, Chen J, Xie Q, et al (2023)

Sodium butyrate alleviates R97-116 peptide-induced myasthenia gravis in mice by improving the gut microbiota and modulating immune response.

Journal of inflammation (London, England), 20(1):37.

Fermented butyrate exhibits an anti-inflammatory response to maintain immune homeostasis within the gut. However, the effect and underlying mechanism of butyrate on myasthenia gravis (MG) remain unclear. The changes in the gut microbiota and fecal contents of SCFAs in MG patients were examined. R97-116 peptide was used to induce the experimental autoimmune myasthenia gravis (EAMG) mice and sodium butyrate (NaB) was gavaged to the EAMG mice. Gut microbiota, the frequency of Th1, Th17, Treg, Tfh, and B cells, the levels of IFN-γ, IL-17 A, IL-10, IL-21, and anti-R97-116 IgG, RNA-seq of total B cells in the spleen were explored by metagenomics, flow cytometry, ELISA, and transcriptomics. A significant reduction in SCFA-producing bacteria including Butyricimonas synergistica and functional modules including butyrate synthesis/production II was observed in MG patients and fecal SCFAs detection confirmed the increase. The EAMG mice were successfully constructed and NaB supplementation has changed the composition and function of the gut microbiota. The numbers of Th1, Th17, Tfh, and B cells were significantly increased while that of Treg cells was obviously decreased in EAMG mice compared with controls. Interestingly, NaB treatment has reduced the amounts of Th17, Tfh, and B cells but increased that of Treg cells. Accordingly, the levels of IL-17 A, IL-21, and IgG were increased while IL-10 was decreased in EAMG mice. However, NaB treatment reduced IL-17 A and IL-21 but increased that of IL-10. RNA-seq of B cells has revealed 4577 deferentially expressed genes (DEGs), in which 1218 DEGs were up-regulated while 3359 DEGs were down-regulated in NaB-treated EAMG mice. GO enrichment and KEGG pathway analysis unveiled that the function of these DEGs was mainly focused on immunoglobulin production, mitochondrial respiratory chain complex, ribosome, oxidative phosphorylation, and CNS diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We have found that butyrate was significantly reduced in MG patients and NaB gavage could evidently improve MG symptoms in EAMG mice by changing the gut microbiota, regulating the immune response, and altering the gene expression and function of B cells, suggesting NaB might be a potential immunomodulatory supplement for MG drugs.

RevDate: 2023-11-03

Jellinger KA (2023)

Understanding depression with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a short assessment of facts and perceptions.

Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) [Epub ahead of print].

Depression with an average prevalence of 25-40% is a serious condition in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that can impact quality of life and survival of patients and caregiver burden, yet the underlying neurobiology is poorly understood. Preexisting depression has been associated with a higher risk of developing ALS, while people with ALS have a significantly higher risk of developing depression that can cause multiple complications. Depression may be a prodromal or subclinical symptom prior to motor involvement, although its relations with disease progression and impairment of quality of life are under discussion. Unfortunately, there are no studies existing that explore the pathogenic mechanisms of depression associated with the basic neurodegenerative process, and no specific neuroimaging data or postmortem findings for the combination of ALS and depression are currently available. Experience from other neurodegenerative processes suggests that depressive symptoms in ALS may be the consequence of cortical thinning in prefrontal regions and other cortex areas, disruption of mood-related brain networks, dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems, changing cortisol levels and other, hitherto unknown mechanisms. Treatment of both ALS and depression is a multidisciplinary task, depression generally being treated with a combination of antidepressant medication, physiotherapy, psychological and other interventions, while electroconvulsive therapy and deep brain stimulation might not be indicated in the majority of patients in view of their poor prognosis. Since compared to depression in other neurodegenerative diseases, our knowledge of its molecular basis in ALS is missing, multidisciplinary clinicopathological studies to elucidate the pathomechanism of depression in motor system disorders including ALS are urgently warranted.

RevDate: 2023-11-03

Stamatelatou A, Bertinetto CG, Jansen JJ, et al (2023)

A multivariate curve resolution analysis of multicenter proton spectroscopic imaging of the prostate for cancer localization and assessment of aggressiveness.

NMR in biomedicine [Epub ahead of print].

In this study, we investigated the potential of the multivariate curve resolution alternating least squares (MCR-ALS) algorithm for analyzing three-dimensional (3D) [1] H-MRSI data of the prostate in prostate cancer (PCa) patients. MCR-ALS generates relative intensities of components representing spectral profiles derived from a large training set of patients, providing an interpretable model. Our objectives were to classify magnetic resonance (MR) spectra, differentiating tumor lesions from benign tissue, and to assess PCa aggressiveness. We included multicenter 3D [1] H-MRSI data from 106 PCa patients across eight centers. The patient cohort was divided into a training set (N = 63) and an independent test set (N = 43). Singular value decomposition determined that MR spectra were optimally represented by five components. The profiles of these components were extracted from the training set by MCR-ALS and assigned to specific tissue types. Using these components, MCR-ALS was applied to the test set for a quantitative analysis to discriminate tumor lesions from benign tissue and to assess tumor aggressiveness. Relative intensity maps of the components were reconstructed and compared with histopathology reports. The quantitative analysis demonstrated a significant separation between tumor and benign voxels (t-test, p < 0.001). This result was achieved including voxels with low-quality MR spectra. A receiver operating characteristic analysis of the relative intensity of the tumor component revealed that low- and high-risk tumor lesions could be distinguished with an area under the curve of 0.88. Maps of this component properly identified the extent of tumor lesions. Our study demonstrated that MCR-ALS analysis of [1] H-MRSI of the prostate can reliably identify tumor lesions and assess their aggressiveness. It handled multicenter data with minimal preprocessing and without using prior knowledge or quality control. These findings indicate that MCR-ALS can serve as an automated tool to assess the presence, extent, and aggressiveness of tumor lesions in the prostate, enhancing diagnostic capabilities and treatment planning of PCa patients.

RevDate: 2023-11-03

Kassahun Bekele B, Kwizera L, Abdul Razzak R, et al (2023)

ALS in Africa: current knowledge and exciting opportunities for future study - short communication.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 85(11):5827-5830.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that can present with motor and extra-motor manifestations. Its global prevalence is 4.42 per 1 000 000, and it has a high mortality rate. In sub-Saharan Africa alone, 15 per 100 000 develop ALS mainly between their 40s and 60s and only one-fourth of them have access to treatment. ALS was found to be not only affected by genetic variation but also by the patient's mood and lifestyle. In Africa, males and younger people tend to be affected with ALS and rarely present with bulbar onset. ALS diagnosis is very challenging due to the lack of ALS-specific biomarkers and the sharing of some clinical features with other syndromes. ALS treatment is mainly riluzole and supportive treatment via nasogastric tube and ventilatory support. The access to treatment in Africa is very limited, thus a very bad prognosis with a median survival time of 14 months post-diagnosis. Further research is needed to assess the real situation in Africa and to try to closely monitor patients suffering from ALS.

RevDate: 2023-11-01

Franklin JE (2023)

Palliative hypnosis approaches in the symptomatic treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

The American journal of clinical hypnosis [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare, incurable, and ultimately fatal, devastating, progressive degenerative neurologic disease. It causes upheaval in the lives of patients and family caregivers alike. Palliative care can play an important supportive role in the care of patients and families dealing with the devastation of this illness. Clinical hypnosis has demonstrated benefits in treating the symptoms associated with severe chronic illness. There are, however, few studies looking at the benefits of clinical hypnosis in treating the symptom burden of ALS. This article describes palliative care and how it can provide an additional layer of support to seriously ill patients. A brief review of previous studies of hypnosis in the supportive, symptomatic treatment of ALS is provided, followed by a description of a case series of 30 Veterans who received clinical hypnosis and self-hypnosis training as a complementary treatment for the symptoms of ALS. Details of three case histories are included to highlight and discuss specific strategies and emblematic clinical responses. There is evidence that clinical hypnosis can benefit ALS patients and family caregivers struggling with this devastating illness.

RevDate: 2023-11-01

Yamamoto K, Itoi T, Matsunami Y, et al (2023)

Early and late effects of endoscopic interventions in patients with malignant afferent loop syndrome: A single-center experience and literature review.

Journal of hepato-biliary-pancreatic sciences [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND/PURPOSE: Afferent loop syndrome (ALS) is a rare adverse event after gastrointestinal surgery requiring appropriate early decompression treatment. Several endoscopic interventions have been attempted for treatment, including endoscopic enteral metal stent placement (EMSP), endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)-guided entero-enterostomy (EUS-EE), and EUS-guided hepaticogastrostomy (EUS-HGS). However, there are limited data on outcomes, including duration of stent patency. In this study, we evaluated the usefulness of each endoscopic intervention for malignant ALS.

METHODS: We retrospectively investigated nine patients with malignant ALS who underwent EMSP, EUS-EE, or EUS-HGS. Information on technical success, clinical efficacy, adverse events, stent dysfunction, and overall survival was collected and analyzed.

RESULTS: The most common symptoms were abdominal pain and cholangitis. ALS was treated by EMSP in three patients, EUS-EE in three patients, and EUS-HGS in three patients. Stent placement was successful and clinically effective in all patients with no adverse events. During follow-up, stent dysfunction occurred in two patients treated by EUS-HGS. Eight patients died of primary disease during a median follow-up of 157 days.

CONCLUSIONS: Each of the available endoscopic interventions for malignant ALS can be expected to produce similar outcomes, including duration of stent patency. The choice of endoscopic intervention should be made based on the characteristics of each treatment.

RevDate: 2023-10-31

Birajdar SV, Mazahir F, Alam MI, et al (2023)

Repurposing and clinical attributes of antidiabetic drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

European journal of pharmacology pii:S0014-2999(23)00631-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The risk of neurodegeneration was found to be increased among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Brain disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and others are considered neurodegenerative diseases and can be characterized by progressive loss of neurons. The deficiency of insulin, impaired signaling, and its resistance lead to alteration in the neuronal functioning of the brain. Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) plays a significant role in the amyloid β metabolism, aggregation, and deposition of misfolded proteins in the brain's hippocampal and cortical neuronal regions. The insulin signaling via IP3 activation upregulates the IDE and could be a promising approach to regulate neurodegeneration. The repurposing of existing antidiabetic drugs such as Metformin, DPP-4 inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1), sodium-glucose co-transport-2 (SGCT-2) inhibitors, and insulin could be an alternative and effective strategy to treat neurodegeneration via modulating insulin signaling, insulin resistance, IDE activity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, serum lipid profile and neuroinflammation in the brain. Antidiabetic medications reduce the risk of neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and Aβ deposition by enhancing their clearance rate. The downregulation of IDE alters the degradation of Aβ monomers in the Tg2576 APP mice. Also, the treatment with metformin activated the AMPK pathway and suppressed mTOR and BACE-1 protein expression in the APP/PS1-induced mice model. Thus, the primary intention of this review is to explore the link between T2DM and neurodegenerative disorders, and the possible role of various antidiabetic drugs in the management of neurodegenerative disorders.

RevDate: 2023-11-01

Zhang Z, Zhu Y, Zhu C, et al (2023)

Effects of Dihuang Yinzi Decoction on Alzheimer's Disease: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Complementary medicine research, 30(5):440-452.

OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to systematically evaluate the therapeutic effects of Dihuang Yinzi decoction on Alzheimer's disease (AD) and provide a medical evidence-based clinical application of traditional Chinese medicine (TCM).

METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted across multiple databases, including PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Journals Full-text Database, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, Wan Fang database, and SinoMed database, to collect clinical randomized controlled trials of Dihuang Yinzi decoction in the treatment of AD. Strict literature screening was performed based on predefined inclusion and exclusion criteria. The Cochrane Collaboration risk of bias assessment tool and the Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) system recommendation-level method was used to assess the quality of the included studies. Review Manager 5.4 and Stata 17 software were used for data synthesis and processing, while GRADE Profiler 3.6 software was used to evaluate the quality of evidence for outcome indicators (risk ratio, standardized mean difference, and weighted mean difference).

RESULTS: A total of 11 studies involving 798 patients met the inclusion criteria. Dihuang Yinzi decoction, whether used alone or in combination with conventional Western medicine, demonstrated superior efficacy compared to conventional Western medicine alone in improving the clinical effective rate, TCM syndrome score, activity of daily living score, Mini-Mental State Examination score, and Hasegawa Dementia Scale score in AD treatment. Furthermore, it exhibited a favorable safety profile. However, the GRADE evidence quality rating for the included studies was low.

CONCLUSIONS: Dihuang Yinzi decoction, either used alone or in combination with conventional Western medicine, shows promising results in enhancing cognitive and memory functions as well as the self-care ability of patients with AD. However, the low GRADE evidence quality rating highlights the need for focused advancements in the planning and execution of clinical randomized controlled trials during future research attempts.

UNLABELLED: ZIELZiel dieser Studie ist es, die therapeutischen Effekte von Dihuang Yinzi-Dekokt auf die Alzheimer-Krankheit systematisch zu bewerten und eine evidenzbasierte klinische Anwendung der traditionellen chinesischen Medizin (TCM) bereitzustellen.MethodenEs wurde eine umfassende Suche in mehreren Datenbanken, darunter PubMed, Embase, Cochrane Library, China National Journals Volltext-Datenbank, VIP Database for Chinese Technical Periodicals, Wan Fang Datenbank und SinoMed-Datenbank durchgeführt, um randomisierte, kontrollierte klinische Studien zu Dihuang Yinzi-Dekokt in der Behandlung der Alzheimer-Krankheit zu erfassen. Die strenge Literatursuche erfolgte auf Grundlage von vordefinierten Ein-und Ausschlusskriterien. Zur Bewertung der Qualität der eingeschlossenen Studien wurden das Risk-of-Bias-Tool von Cochrane und das GRADE (Grading of Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation)-System zur Beurteilung der Empfehlungsgrade herangezogen. Die Datensynthese und -verarbeitung erfolgten mithilfe der Review Manager 5.4- und der Stata 17-Software, während für die Bewertung der Evidenzqualität der Outcome-Indikatoren (Risikoverhältnis, standardisierte Mittelwertdifferenz und gewichtete Mittelwertdifferenz) die Software GRADE Profiler 3.6 verwendet wurde.ErgebnisseInsgesamt erfüllten 11 Studien, an denen 798 Patienten teilnahmen, die Einschlusskriterien. Dihuang Yinzi-Dekokt zeigte allein oder in Kombination mit konventioneller westlicher Medizin eine überlegene Wirksamkeit gegenüber der alleinigen Verwendung von konventioneller westlicher Medizin in Bezug auf die klinische Gesamtwirksamkeitsrate, den TCM-Syndrom-Score, den Score für die Alltagsaktivitäten, den Mini-Mental State Examination-Score und den Score der Hasegawa-Demenz-Skala in der Behandlung der Alzheimer-Krankheit. Darüber hinaus wies es ein günstiges Sicherheitsprofil auf. Die Evidenzqualität der eingeschlossenen Studien gemäß GRADE wurde jedoch als gering eingestuft.SchlussfolgerungenDihuang Yinzi-Dekokt zeigt allein oder in Kombination mit konventioneller westlicher Medizin vielversprechende Ergebnisse in Bezug auf die Verbesserung der kognitiven und Gedächtnisfunktionen sowie die Selbstversorgungsfähigkeit von Alzheimer-Patienten. Die niedrige Bewertung der Evidenzqualität gemäß GRADE unterstreicht jedoch die Notwendigkeit von zielgerichteten Weiterentwicklungen bei der Planung und Durchführung von randomisierten, kontrollierten klinischen Studien in zukünftigen Forschungsunternehmungen.

RevDate: 2023-11-01

Pannek J, Mahler J, Wöllner J, et al (2023)

Satisfaction with Homeopathic Service and Care for Persons with Spinal Cord Injury.

Complementary medicine research, 30(5):408-414.

BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to investigate the satisfaction of individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) with a homeopathic service at an SCI rehabilitation center.

PATIENTS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional questionnaire study was performed at an SCI rehabilitation center in Switzerland. It included patients with chronic SCI who presented themselves to a homeopathic service offered by the hospital in a 12-months period. The participants filled in standardized questionnaires in German: "Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile" (MYMOP), Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM-9), the European Project on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care (EUROPEP) questionnaire, and a self-administered questionnaire.

RESULTS: The data of 14 patients were analyzed. Symptom severity as well as bother by the symptoms that led to homeopathic treatment decreased under homeopathic treatment (severity: from 4.3 to 3.3; bother: from 4.2 to 2.9) and remained lower over time (severity: 2.6; bother: 2.7), suggesting a sustained effect. Irrespective of the test instrument used, satisfaction rates were higher for homeopathic service than for homeopathic medication, which was rated as successful by 50% of the participants.

CONCLUSION: Persons with SCI suffering from secondary complications of SCI who accessed homeopathic care reported high satisfaction rates with the service. Therefore, homeopathic service can be considered as an additive measure in persons with SCI suffering from recurrent symptoms.

UNLABELLED: HintergrundEvaluierung der Zufriedenheit von Personen mit Querschnittlähmung (QSL) mit einer homöopathischen Betreuung an einem Rehabilitationszentrum für QSL.Patient*innen und MethodikAn einem Rehabilitationszentrum für QSL in der Schweiz wurde eine Querschnittserhebung mittels Fragebögen durchgeführt. Eingeschlossen wurden Personen mit chronischer QSL, die sich in einer von der Klinik angebotenen homöopathischen Sprechstunde in einem 12-Monats-Intervall vorstellten. Die Teilnehmenden füllten standardisierte Fragebogen in deutscher Sprache aus: "Measure Yourself Medical Outcome Profile" (MYMOP), Treatment Satisfaction Questionnaire for Medication (TSQM-9), den "European Project on Patient Evaluation of General Practice Care (EUROPEP)" Fragebogen sowie einen selbst-erstellten Fragebogen.ErgebnisseDie Daten von 14 Teilnehmenden wurden ausgewertet. Der Schweregrad der Symptome sowie die Belastung durch die Symptome die zur homöopathischen Behandlung geführt haben, wurden unter der homöopathischen Therapie geringer (Schweregrad: von 4.3 auf 3.3; Belastung: von 4.2 auf 2.9) und blieben über den Untersuchungszeitraum geringer (Schweregrad: 2.6; Belastung 2.7), was einen anhaltenden Effekt nahelegt. Unabhängig von dem verwendeten Testinstrument waren die Zufriedenheitsraten für die homöopathische Betreuung höher als diejenigen für die homöopathische Medikation, die von 50% der Teilnehmenden als erfolgreich bewertet wurde.SchlussfolgerungPersonen mit QSL, die wegen Sekundärkomplikationen eine homöopathische Sprechstunde aufsuchten, berichteten eine hohe Zufriedenheit mit dieser Betreuung. Daher kann eine homöopathische Betreuung als zusätzliche Massnahme bei Personen mit QSL mit persistierender Symptomatik in Betracht gezogen werden.

RevDate: 2023-10-31

Matamala JM, Moreno-Roco J, Acosta I, et al (2022)

[Multidisciplinary care and therapeutic advances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

Revista medica de Chile, 150(12):1633-1646.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease that mainly affects the motor system, resulting in progressive weakness and muscle wasting. Despite the tremendous advances in physiopathological and clinical characterization, we do not have a curative treatment yet. The progressive and fatal course of ALS makes its management particularly complex and challenging given the diversity of symptoms presenting during the disease progression. The main goal in the treatment of ALS patients is to minimize morbidity and maximize the quality of life. Currently, a series of therapeutic interventions improve the quality of life and prolong survival, including multidisciplinary care, respiratory management, and disease-modifying therapy. Within the supportive interventions, weight maintenance through nutritional and metabolic support is critical. In addition, the management of neuropsychiatric manifestations and preservation of communicative capacity before speech loss are also crucial. Lastly, early palliative care intervention is essential to optimize symptomatic management. Anticipatory guidelines to face the inevitable patient deterioration should be devised. This article updates the main therapeutic strategies used in these patients, including evolving clinical trials with promising novel therapies.

RevDate: 2023-10-31

Chen X, Luo J, Zheng W, et al (2023)

Hyperhidrosis as the initial symptom in FUS mutation-associated amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a case report and comprehensive literature review.

Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that is now recognized to involve autonomic dysfunction. The burden of autonomic dysfunction is an important factor in the quality of life and prognosis of ALS patients. This article presents the clinical characteristics of a young female ALS patient with a fused in sarcoma (FUS) gene mutation and notable hyperhidrosis.

METHOD: Detailed clinical characteristics of the patients were collected, and comprehensive examinations such as electrophysiological assessment, neuro-ultrasound, genetic testing, and relevant blood tests were conducted.

RESULT: A 24-year-old female experienced progressive weakness in both lower limbs for over 5 months, along with excessive sweating on both palms and feet. A positive skin iodine-starch test was observed. Electromyography revealed extensive neurogenic damage and prolonged sympathetic skin response (SSR) latency in both lower limbs. Full exon gene sequencing showed a heterozygous mutation c.1574C>T (p.Pro525Leu) in the FUS gene.

CONCLUSION: The pathogenesis of ALS remains unclear at present. This case underscores the presence of autonomic nervous symptoms in ALS associated with FUS mutation and highlights the importance of early diagnosis and timely treatment intervention to enhance patient prognosis.

RevDate: 2023-10-31

Aslam A, Sarmad E, Nawaz A, et al (2023)

Brait-Fahn-Schwartz Disease: A Unique Co-Occurrence of Parkinson's Disease and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Case reports in neurology, 15(1):207-214.

The Parkinson's disease-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) complex typically manifests as levodopa-responsive parkinsonism, followed by ALS. It is extremely rare for Parkinson's disease and ALS to coexist without other neurological disorders. Named after the scientists who first described this overlap of two neurodegenerative conditions, it is referred to as Brait-Fahn-Schwartz disease. Given its variable presentation, increasing rarity, and lack of any diagnostic test, it poses a diagnostic challenge for physicians. We present a case of a 55-year-old Pakistani male experiencing progressive quadriparesis with spastic lower limbs and flaccid upper limbs, in addition to the cardinal features of idiopathic Parkinson's disease. Since there is currently no cure available for either Parkinson's disease or ALS, all available treatment focuses on improving quality of life, which we achieved in our patient. This case is unique in being the first incidence of Parkinson's disease-ALS complex in a novel geographic region such as Pakistan, where genetic testing and cost constraints limit the diagnosis of rare disorders. The coexistence of extrapyramidal symptoms and pyramidal symptoms is uncommon. In such situations, physicians may overlook one group of symptoms, potentially leading to a misdiagnosis. This case highlights the value of a thorough physical examination and electrodiagnostic studies and suggests the association between Parkinson's disease and ALS. This case demonstrates the significance of understanding when Parkinson's disease symptoms start to appear in patients with ALS and the need to start dopaminergic therapy in those who had Parkinson's disease features before ALS to alleviate the suffering of an individual and enhance quality of life.

RevDate: 2023-10-30
CmpDate: 2023-10-30

Moțățăianu A, Șerban G, S Andone (2023)

The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Microbiota-Gut-Brain Cross-Talk with a Focus on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Systematic Review.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(20):.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by the gradual loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive motor function decline. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment, and its increasing prevalence is linked to an aging population, improved diagnostics, heightened awareness, and changing lifestyles. In the gastrointestinal system, the gut microbiota plays a vital role in producing metabolites, neurotransmitters, and immune molecules. Short-chain fatty acids, of interest for their potential health benefits, are influenced by a fiber- and plant-based diet, promoting a diverse and balanced gut microbiome. These fatty acids impact the body by binding to receptors on enteroendocrine cells, influencing hormones like glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY, which regulate appetite and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, these fatty acids impact the blood-brain barrier, neurotransmitter levels, and neurotrophic factors, and directly stimulate vagal afferent nerves, affecting gut-brain communication. The vagus nerve is a crucial link between the gut and the brain, transmitting signals related to appetite, inflammation, and various processes. Dysregulation of this pathway can contribute to conditions like obesity and irritable bowel syndrome. Emerging evidence suggests the complex interplay among these fatty acids, the gut microbiota, and environmental factors influences neurodegenerative processes via interconnected pathways, including immune function, anti-inflammation, gut barrier, and energy metabolism. Embracing a balanced, fiber-rich diet may foster a diverse gut microbiome, potentially impacting neurodegenerative disease risk. Comprehensive understanding requires further research into interventions targeting the gut microbiome and fatty acid production and their potential therapeutic role in neurodegeneration.

RevDate: 2023-10-28

De Marchi F, Munitic I, Vidatic L, et al (2023)

Overlapping Neuroimmune Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets in Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Biomedicines, 11(10): pii:biomedicines11102793.

Many potential immune therapeutic targets are similarly affected in adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's (AD) disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), as well as in a seemingly distinct Niemann-Pick type C disease with primarily juvenile onset. This strongly argues for an overlap in pathogenic mechanisms. The commonly researched immune targets include various immune cell subsets, such as microglia, peripheral macrophages, and regulatory T cells (Tregs); the complement system; and other soluble factors. In this review, we compare these neurodegenerative diseases from a clinical point of view and highlight common pathways and mechanisms of protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and/or neuroinflammation that could potentially lead to shared treatment strategies for overlapping immune dysfunctions in these diseases. These approaches include but are not limited to immunisation, complement cascade blockade, microbiome regulation, inhibition of signal transduction, Treg boosting, and stem cell transplantation.

RevDate: 2023-10-28

Wu YS, Taniar D, Adhinugraha K, et al (2023)

Detection of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) Comorbidity Trajectories Based on Principal Tree Model Analytics.

Biomedicines, 11(10): pii:biomedicines11102629.

The multifaceted nature and swift progression of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) pose considerable challenges to our understanding of its evolution and interplay with comorbid conditions. This study seeks to elucidate the temporal dynamics of ALS progression and its interaction with associated diseases. We employed a principal tree-based model to decipher patterns within clinical data derived from a population-based database in Taiwan. The disease progression was portrayed as branched trajectories, each path representing a series of distinct stages. Each stage embodied the cumulative occurrence of co-existing diseases, depicted as nodes on the tree, with edges symbolizing potential transitions between these linked nodes. Our model identified eight distinct ALS patient trajectories, unveiling unique patterns of disease associations at various stages of progression. These patterns may suggest underlying disease mechanisms or risk factors. This research re-conceptualizes ALS progression as a migration through diverse stages, instead of the perspective of a sequence of isolated events. This new approach illuminates patterns of disease association across different progression phases. The insights obtained from this study hold the potential to inform doctors regarding the development of personalized treatment strategies, ultimately enhancing patient prognosis and quality of life.

RevDate: 2023-10-28

Fu RH, Chen HJ, SY Hong (2023)

Glycine-Alanine Dipeptide Repeat Protein from C9-ALS Interacts with Sulfide Quinone Oxidoreductase (SQOR) to Induce the Activity of the NLRP3 Inflammasome in HMC3 Microglia: Irisflorentin Reverses This Interaction.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(10): pii:antiox12101896.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal rare disease of progressive degeneration of motor neurons. The most common genetic mutation in ALS is the hexanucleotide repeat expansion (HRE) located in the first intron of the C9orf72 gene (C9-ALS). HRE can produce dipeptide repeat proteins (DPRs) such as poly glycine-alanine (GA) in a repeat-associated non-ATG (RAN) translation. GA-DPR has been shown to be toxic to motor neurons in various biological models. However, its effects on microglia involved in C9-ALS have not been reported. Here, we show that GA-DPR (GA50) activates the NLR family pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome in a human HMC3 microglia model. MCC950 (specific inhibitor of the NLRP3) treatment can abrogate this activity. Next, using yeast two-hybrid screening, we identified sulfide quinone oxidoreductase (SQOR) as a GA50 interacting protein. SQOR knockdown in HMC3 cells can significantly induce the activity of the NLRP3 inflammasome by upregulating the level of intracellular reactive oxygen species and the cytoplasmic escape of mitochondrial DNA. Furthermore, we obtained irisflorentin as an effective blocker of the interaction between SQOR and GA50, thus inhibiting NLRP3 inflammasome activity in GA50-expressing HMC3 cells. These results imply the association of GA-DPR, SQOR, and NLRP3 inflammasomes in microglia and establish a treatment strategy for C9-ALS with irisflorentin.

RevDate: 2023-10-28

Grossini E, De Marchi F, Venkatesan S, et al (2023)

Effects of Acetyl-L-Carnitine on Oxidative Stress in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients: Evaluation on Plasma Markers and Members of the Neurovascular Unit.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(10): pii:antiox12101887.

Oxidative stress, the alteration of mitochondrial function, and the neurovascular unit (NVU), play a role in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) pathogenesis. We aimed to demonstrate the changes in the plasma redox system and nitric oxide (NO) in 32 new ALS-diagnosed patients in treatment with Acetyl-L-Carnitine (ALCAR) compared to healthy controls. We also evaluated the effects of plasma on human umbilical cord-derived endothelial vascular cells (HUVEC) and astrocytes. The analyses were performed at the baseline (T0), after three months (T1), and after six months (T2). In ALS patients at T0/T1, the plasma markers of lipid peroxidation, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and 4-hydroxy nonenal (4-HNE) were higher, whereas the antioxidants, glutathione (GSH) and the glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity were lower than in healthy controls. At T2, plasma TBARS and 4-HNE decreased, whereas plasma GSH and the GPx activity increased in ALS patients. As regards NO, the plasma levels were firmly lower at T0-T2 than those of healthy controls. Cell viability, and mitochondrial membrane potential in HUVEC/astrocytes treated with the plasma of ALS patients at T0-T2 were reduced, while the oxidant release increased. Those results, which confirmed the fundamental role of oxidative stress, mitochondrial function, and of the NVU in ALS pathogenesis, can have a double meaning, acting as disease markers at baseline and potential markers of drug effects in clinical practice and during clinical trials.

RevDate: 2023-10-27

Ilieva H, Vullaganti M, J Kwan (2023)

Advances in molecular pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 383:e075037.

Although the past two decades have produced exciting discoveries in the genetics and pathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progress in developing an effective therapy remains slow. This review summarizes the critical discoveries and outlines the advances in disease characterization, diagnosis, imaging, and biomarkers, along with the current status of approaches to ALS care and treatment. Additional knowledge of the factors driving disease progression and heterogeneity will hopefully soon transform the care for patients with ALS into an individualized, multi-prong approach able to prevent disease progression sufficiently to allow for a dignified life with limited disability.

RevDate: 2023-10-27

Fu RH, Chen HJ, SY Hong (2023)

Interaction of the C9orf72-Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis-Related Proline-Arginine Dipeptide Repeat Protein with the RNA-Binding Protein NOVA1 Causes Decreased Expression of UNC13A Due to Enhanced Inclusion of Cryptic Exons, Which Is Reversed by Betulin Treatment.

Cells, 12(20): pii:cells12202476.

C9orf72 mutations are the most common form of familial amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (C9-ALS). It causes the production of proline-arginine dipeptide repeat proteins (PR-DPRs) in motor neurons (MNs), leading to the molecular pathology characteristic of ALS. UNC13A is critical for maintaining the synaptic function of MNs. Most ALS patients have nuclear deletion of the splicing repressor TDP-43 in MNs, which causes inclusion of the cryptic exon (CE) of UNC13A mRNA, resulting in nonsense-mediated mRNA decay and reduced protein expression. Therefore, in this study, we explored the role of PR-DPR in CE inclusion of UNC13A mRNA. Our results showed that PR-DPR (PR50) induced CE inclusion and decreased the protein expression of UNC13A in human neuronal cell lines. We also identified an interaction between the RNA-binding protein NOVA1 and PR50 by yeast two-hybrid screening. NOVA1 expression is known to be reduced in patients with ALS. We found that knockdown of NOVA1 enhanced CE inclusion of UNC13A mRNA. Furthermore, the naturally occurring triterpene betulin can inhibit the interaction between NOVA1 and PR50, thus preventing CE inclusion of UNC13A mRNA and protein reduction in human neuronal cell lines. This study linked PR-DPR with CE inclusion of UNC13A mRNA and developed candidate therapeutic strategies for C9-ALS using betulin.

RevDate: 2023-10-27

Provasek VE, Kodavati M, Guo W, et al (2023)

lncRNA Sequencing Reveals Neurodegeneration-Associated FUS Mutations Alter Transcriptional Landscape of iPS Cells That Persists in Motor Neurons.

Cells, 12(20): pii:cells12202461.

Fused-in sarcoma (FUS) gene mutations have been implicated in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). This study aimed to investigate the impact of FUS mutations (R521H and P525L) on the transcriptome of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and iPSC-derived motor neurons (iMNs). Using RNA sequencing (RNA Seq), we characterized differentially expressed genes (DEGs) and differentially expressed lncRNAs (DELs) and subsequently predicted lncRNA-mRNA target pairs (TAR pairs). Our results show that FUS mutations significantly altered the expression profiles of mRNAs and lncRNAs in iPSCs. Using this large dataset, we identified and verified six key differentially regulated TAR pairs in iPSCs that were also altered in iMNs. These target transcripts included: GPR149, NR4A, LMO3, SLC15A4, ZNF404, and CRACD. These findings indicated that selected mutant FUS-induced transcriptional alterations persist from iPSCs into differentiated iMNs. Functional enrichment analyses of DEGs indicated pathways associated with neuronal development and carcinogenesis as likely altered by these FUS mutations. Furthermore, ingenuity pathway analysis (IPA) and GO network analysis of lncRNA-targeted mRNAs indicated associations between RNA metabolism, lncRNA regulation, and DNA damage repair. Our findings provide insights into potential molecular mechanisms underlying the pathophysiology of ALS-associated FUS mutations and suggest potential therapeutic targets for the treatment of ALS.

RevDate: 2023-10-27

Krannich T, Sarrias MH, Ben Aribi H, et al (2023)

VariantSurvival: a tool to identify genotype-treatment response.

Frontiers in bioinformatics, 3:1277923.

Motivation: For a number of neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and many others, certain genes are known to be involved in the disease mechanism. A common question is whether a structural variant in any such gene may be related to drug response in clinical trials and how this relationship can contribute to the lifecycle of drug development. Results: To this end, we introduce VariantSurvival, a tool that identifies changes in survival relative to structural variants within target genes. VariantSurvival matches annotated structural variants with genes that are clinically relevant to neurological diseases. A Cox regression model determines the change in survival between the placebo and clinical trial groups with respect to the number of structural variants in the drug target genes. We demonstrate the functionality of our approach with the exemplary case of the SETX gene. VariantSurvival has a user-friendly and lightweight graphical user interface built on the shiny web application package.

RevDate: 2023-10-26

Wang Y, Sun S, Zhai J, et al (2023)

scAAV9-VEGF alleviates symptoms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) mice through regulating aromatase.

Experimental brain research [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is an adult-onset, chronic, progressive, and fatal neurodegenerative disease that leads to progressive atrophy and weakness of the muscles throughout the body. Herein, we found that the intrathecal injection of adeno-associated virus (AAV)-delivered VEGF in SOD1-G93A transgenic mice, as well as ALS mice, could significantly delay disease onset and preserve motor functions and neurological functions, thus prolonging the survival of mice models. Moreover, we found that VEGF treatment could induce the elevated expression of aromatase, which is a key enzyme in estrogen synthesis, in neurons but not in astrocytes. On the other hand, the changes in the expression of oxidative stress-related factors HO-1 and GCLM and autophagy-related proteins p62 and LC3II upon the administration of VEGF revealed the involvement of oxidative stress and autophagy underlying the downstream of the VEGF-induced mitigation of ALS. In conclusion, this study proved the protective effects of VEGF in the onset and development of ALS and revealed the involvement of estrogen, oxidative stress and autophagy in the VEGF-induced alleviation of ALS. Our results highlighted the potential of VEGF as a promising therapeutic agent in the treatment of ALS.

RevDate: 2023-10-27

Pottinger TD, Motelow JE, Povysil G, et al (2023)

Rare variant analyses validate known ALS genes in a multi-ethnic population and identifies ANTXR2 as a candidate in PLS.

medRxiv : the preprint server for health sciences pii:2023.09.30.23296353.

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease affecting over 30,000 people in the United States. It is characterized by the progressive decline of the nervous system that leads to the weakening of muscles which impacts physical function. Approximately, 15% of individuals diagnosed with ALS have a known genetic variant that contributes to their disease. As therapies that slow or prevent symptoms, such as antisense oligonucleotides, continue to develop, it is important to discover novel genes that could be targets for treatment. Additionally, as cohorts continue to grow, performing analyses in ALS subtypes, such as primary lateral sclerosis (PLS), becomes possible due to an increase in power. These analyses could highlight novel pathways in disease manifestation.

METHODS: Building on our previous discoveries using rare variant association analyses, we conducted rare variant burden testing on a substantially larger cohort of 6,970 ALS patients from a large multi-ethnic cohort as well as 166 PLS patients, and 22,524 controls. We used intolerant domain percentiles based on sub-region Residual Variation Intolerance Score (subRVIS) that have been described previously in conjunction with gene based collapsing approaches to conduct burden testing to identify genes that associate with ALS and PLS.

RESULTS: A gene based collapsing model showed significant associations with SOD1 , TARDBP , and TBK1 (OR=19.18, p = 3.67 × 10 [-39] ; OR=4.73, p = 2 × 10 [-10] ; OR=2.3, p = 7.49 × 10 [-9] , respectively). These genes have been previously associated with ALS. Additionally, a significant novel control enriched gene, ALKBH3 (p = 4.88 × 10 [-7]), was protective for ALS in this model. An intolerant domain based collapsing model showed a significant improvement in identifying regions in TARDBP that associated with ALS (OR=10.08, p = 3.62 × 10 [-16]). Our PLS protein truncating variant collapsing analysis demonstrated significant case enrichment in ANTXR2 (p=8.38 × 10 [-6]).

CONCLUSIONS: In a large multi-ethnic cohort of 6,970 ALS patients, rare variant burden testing validated known ALS genes and identified a novel potentially protective gene, ALKBH3 . A first-ever analysis in 166 patients with PLS found a candidate association with loss-of-function mutations in ANTXR2 .

RevDate: 2023-10-26

Barco-Antoñanzas M, Font-Farre M, Eceiza MV, et al (2023)

Cysteine proteases are activated in sensitive Amaranthus palmeri populations upon treatment with herbicides inhibiting amino acid biosynthesis.

Physiologia plantarum, 175(5):e13993.

The herbicides glyphosate and pyrithiobac inhibit the enzyme 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) in the aromatic amino acid biosynthetic pathway and acetolactate synthase (ALS) in the branched-chain amino acid biosynthetic pathway, respectively. Here we characterise the protease activity profiles of a sensitive (S), a glyphosate-resistant (GR) and a multiple-resistant (MR) population of Amaranthus palmeri in response to glyphosate and pyrithiobac. Amino acid accumulation and cysteine protease activities were induced with both herbicides in the S population and with pyrithiobac in the GR population, suggesting that the increase in cysteine proteases is responsible for the increased degradation of the available proteins and the observed increase in free amino acids. Herbicides did not induce any changes in the proteolytic activities in the populations with target-site resistance, indicating that this effect was only induced in sensitive plants.

RevDate: 2023-10-25

Liu JY, Lu YR, Guo J, et al (2023)

Effect of electroacupuncture intervention on the spinal cord PPIA/NF-κB signaling pathway in mice with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Zhen ci yan jiu = Acupuncture research, 48(10):1009-1016.

OBJECTIVES: To observe the effects of electroacupuncture (EA) on motor function, expression of extracellular cyclophile A(PPIA) and PPIA/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in spinal cord of amyotrophic la-teral sclerosis (ALS) mice, so as to explore the mechanism of EA intervention in regulating extracellular PPIA on neuroinflammation in ALS mice.

METHODS: Thirty ALS-SOD1[G93A] mice with hSOD1-G93A gene were randomly divided into model, EA and Riluzole groups , with 10 mice in each group, and other 10 ALS-SOD1[G93A] negative mice were used as the blank group. EA was applied to bilateral "Yanglingquan"(GB34) and "Zusanli"(ST36) for 20 min once daily, 5 days a week for 2 weeks. In the Riluzole group, riluzole solution (30 mg·kg[-1]·d[-1]) was administrated intragastrically, and the treatment time was the same as that in the EA group.Rotating rod experiment and open field experiment were used to evaluate the changes in motor function of mice .The morphology of motor neurons in the anterior horn of spinal cord was observed by HE staining.The relative protein expression levels of PPIA, TDP-43 and NF-κB in the spinal cord were detected by Western blot.The positive expression level of TDP-43 in the spinal cord was detected by immunohistochemistry. The positive expression level of PPIA in spinal cord was marked by immunofluorescence. Serum PPIA content was determined by ELISA.

RESULTS: Compared with the blank group, the time of rod dropping and the total distance of open field movement in the model group were shortened (P<0.01), the number of motor neurons in the anterior horn of the spinal cord was reduced, the cell morphology was incomplete, the cell body was atrophied, the protein expression and positive expression of TDP-43 were increased (P<0.01), the protein expressions of PPIA and NF-κB in the spinal cord were increased(P<0.01), the serum content of PPIA and immunofluorescence expression of PPIA in spinal cord were increased (P<0.01). Compared with the model group, the time of rod dropping and the total distance of open field movement of mice in the EA group and the Riluzole group were prolonged (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the injury of motor neuron in the anterior horn of the spinal cord was decreased, the protein expression and positive expression of TDP-43 in the spinal cord were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01);the relative expression levels of PPIA and NF-κB proteins were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01), and the content of PPIA in serum and the immunofluorescence expression of PPIA in the spinal cord were decreased (P<0.05, P<0.01) in the EA group;the relative protein expression of NF-κB and fluorescence expression of PPIA in spinal cord of mice in the Riluzole group were decreased (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: EA intervention can improve motor function in ALS mice, and its mechanism may be related to the inhibition of PPIA/NF-κB signaling pathway by EA to alleviating neuroinflammatory response.

RevDate: 2023-10-25

Haldar S, Khan AH, De A, et al (2023)

Fluorinated Benzimidazole-Linked Highly Conjugated Polymer Enabling Covalent Polysulfide Anchoring for Stable Sulfur Batteries.

Chemistry (Weinheim an der Bergstrasse, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

Sulfur is one of the most abundant and economical sources in the p-block family and highly redox active, potentially utilizable as a charge-storing electrode with high theoretical capacities. However, its inherent dissolution feature in the electrolytes inhibits its accessibility as an electrode material in typical metal-sulfur batteries. In this work, the synthetically designed fluorinated porous polymer, when treated with elemental sulfur through a well-known nucleophilic aromatic substitution mechanism (SNAr), allows for the covalent integration of polysulfides into a highly conjugated benzimidazole polymer by replacing the fluorine atoms. Chemically robust benzimidazole linkages allow such harsh post-synthetic treatment and facilitate the electronic activation of the anchored polysulfides for redox reactions under applied potential. The electrode amalgamated with sulfurized polymer mitigates the so-called polysulfide shuttle effect in the lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery and also enables a reversible, more environmentally friendly, and cheaper aluminum-sulfur (Al-S) battery that is configured with mostly p-block elements as cathode, anode, and electrolytes. The improved cycling stabilities and reduction of the overpotential in both cases pave the way for future sustainable energy storage solutions.

RevDate: 2023-10-24

Loubet I, Meyer L, Michel S, et al (2023)

A high diversity of non-target site resistance mechanisms to acetolactate-synthase (ALS) inhibiting herbicides has evolved within and among field populations of common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.).

BMC plant biology, 23(1):510.

BACKGROUND: Non-target site resistance (NTSR) to herbicides is a polygenic trait that threatens the chemical control of agricultural weeds. NTSR involves differential regulation of plant secondary metabolism pathways, but its precise genetic determinisms remain fairly unclear. Full-transcriptome sequencing had previously been implemented to identify NTSR genes. However, this approach had generally been applied to a single weed population, limiting our insight into the diversity of NTSR mechanisms. Here, we sought to explore the diversity of NTSR mechanisms in common ragweed (Ambrosia artemisiifolia L.) by investigating six field populations from different French regions where NTSR to acetolactate-synthase-inhibiting herbicides had evolved.

RESULTS: A de novo transcriptome assembly (51,242 contigs, 80.2% completeness) was generated as a reference to seek genes differentially expressed between sensitive and resistant plants from the six populations. Overall, 4,609 constitutively differentially expressed genes were identified, of which none were common to all populations, and only 197 were shared by several populations. Similarly, population-specific transcriptomic response was observed when investigating early herbicide response. Gene ontology enrichment analysis highlighted the involvement of stress response and regulatory pathways, before and after treatment. The expression of 121 candidate constitutive NTSR genes including CYP71, CYP72, CYP94, oxidoreductase, ABC transporters, gluco and glycosyltransferases was measured in 220 phenotyped plants. Differential expression was validated in at least one ragweed population for 28 candidate genes. We investigated whether expression patterns at some combinations of candidate genes could predict phenotype. Within populations, prediction accuracy decreased when applied to an additional, independent plant sampling. Overall, a wide variety of genes linked to NTSR was identified within and among ragweed populations, of which only a subset was captured in our experiments.

CONCLUSION: Our results highlight the complexity and the diversity of NTSR mechanisms that can evolve in a weed species in response to herbicide selective pressure. They strongly point to a non-redundant, population-specific evolution of NTSR to ALS inhibitors in ragweed. It also alerts on the potential of common ragweed for rapid adaptation to drastic environmental or human-driven selective pressures.

RevDate: 2023-10-24

Harrison D, Billinton A, Bock MG, et al (2023)

Discovery of Clinical Candidate NT-0796, a Brain-Penetrant and Highly Potent NLRP3 Inflammasome Inhibitor for Neuroinflammatory Disorders.

Journal of medicinal chemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The NLRP3 inflammasome is a component of the innate immune system involved in the production of proinflammatory cytokines. Neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, have been shown to have a component driven by NLRP3 inflammasome activation. Diseases such as these with large unmet medical needs have resulted in an interest in inhibiting the NLRP3 inflammasome as a potential pharmacological treatment, but to date, no marketed drugs specifically targeting NLRP3 have been approved. Furthermore, the requirement for CNS-penetrant molecules adds additional complexity to the search for NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors suitable for clinical investigation of neuroinflammatory disorders. We designed a series of ester-substituted carbamate compounds as selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitors, leading to NT-0796, an isopropyl ester that undergoes intracellular conversion to NDT-19795, the carboxylic acid active species. NT-0796 was shown to be a potent and selective NLRP3 inflammasome inhibitor with demonstrated in vivo brain penetration.

RevDate: 2023-10-24

You FL, Xia GF, J Cai (2023)

Behavioural Variant Frontotemporal Dementia due to CCNF Gene Mutation: A Case Report.

Current Alzheimer research, 20(5):371-378.

BACKGROUND: Frontal, temporal lobe dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are fatal neurodegenerative diseases. Studies have found that CCNF mutations have been found in patients with familial and sporadic ALS and FTD. Behavioural variant frontotemporal dementia (bvFTD) is a clinical syndrome characterized by progressive deterioration of personality, social behaviour, and cognitive function, which is most closely related to genetic factors. As the early symptoms of bvFTD are highly heterogeneous, the condition is often misdiagnosed as Alzheimer's disease or psychiatric disorders. In this study, a bvFTD patient had a CCNF gene mutation, which led to ubiquitinated protein accumulation and ultimately caused neurodegenerative disease. Genetic detection should be improved urgently for bvFTD patients and family members to provide a clinical reference for early diagnosis of frontotemporal dementia.

CASE PRESENTATION: In this case, the patient was 65 years old with an insidious onset, early-onset memory loss, a significant decline in the episodic memory, an early AD diagnosis, and oral treatment with donepezil hydrochloride for 3 years with poor efficacy, followed by a change to oral memantine hydrochloride tablets, which controlled the condition for several months. His medication was switched to sodium oligomannate capsules, and his condition was gradually controlled, but no significant improvement was observed. After spontaneous drug withdrawal, the patient's condition progressed rapidly; therefore, he visited our hospital and underwent neuropsychological tests for moderate to severe cognitive impairment. AD cerebrospinal fluid markers showed no significant abnormalities, and cranial MRI revealed frontotemporal lobe atrophy and decreased hippocampal volume. Genetic testing for the presence of the CCNF gene revealed a c.1532C > A (p. T511N) heterozygous variant, which might be a diagnostic criterion for bvFTD. Therefore, the patient's symptoms recurred after transient improvement with the combination of donepezil, oral memantine hydrochloride tablets, and sodium oligomannate, but his overall condition was improved compared to that before, and this treatment regimen was continued to observe changes during the follow-up.

CONCLUSION: The early clinical manifestations of bvFTD are complex and variable, and the condition is easily misdiagnosed, thus delaying treatment. Therefore, for patients with a high clinical suspicion of FTD, in addition to a detailed understanding of their medical history and family history and improvement of relevant examinations, genetic testing should be performed as early as possible to help confirm the diagnosis. For diseases closely related to genes, genetic testing of other family members should be optimised as much as possible to allow early diagnosis and intervention and guide fertility in the next generation.

RevDate: 2023-10-24

Hoxhaj P, Hastings N, Kachhadia MP, et al (2023)

Exploring Advancements in the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Comprehensive Review of Current Modalities and Future Prospects.

Cureus, 15(9):e45489.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and incurable disease requiring a multidisciplinary treatment approach and a collaborative therapeutic effort. A combination of both upper and lower motor neuron degeneration ultimately leads to respiratory failure, similar to other dementia-type neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this paper is to pioneer current ALS research by carrying out a narrative literature review of the current treatment modalities of the disease. Through these efforts, we hope to condense the most pertinent information regarding current treatments and enhance the management of ALS patients as a whole, giving these patients a better quality of life as the search for a cure continues. We used a Pubmed search strategy and specific MeSH terms for the selection of the literature articles using the keywords "ALS," "new treatment," "treatment," and "symptomatic treatment." A combination of pharmaceutical interventions, psychological support, and physical rehabilitation has been most effective in enhancing the quality of life of patients with ALS (PALS). Among potential pharmacological therapies, only a few have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration(FDA) to be used to treat ALS and its symptoms. Other treatment modalities being considered include gene therapy, cellular therapy, psychological therapy, physical therapy, and speech therapy, alongside robotics, alternative feeding methods, and communication devices.

RevDate: 2023-10-21

Xiao F, He Z, Wang S, et al (2023)

Regulatory mechanism of circular RNAs in neurodegenerative diseases.

CNS neuroscience & therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative disease is a collective term for a category of diseases that are caused by neuronal dysfunction, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs without the 3' cap and 5' poly(A) and are linked by covalent bonds. CircRNAs are highly expressed in brain neurons and can regulate the pathological process of neurodegenerative diseases by affecting the levels of various deposition proteins.

AIMS: This review is aiming to suggest that the majority of circRNAs influence neurodegenerative pathologies mainly by affecting the abnormal deposition of proteins in neurodegenerative diseases.

METHODS: We systematically summarized the pathological features of neurodegenerative diseases and the regulatory mechanisms of circRNAs in various types of neurodegenerative diseases.

RESULTS: Neurodegenerative disease main features include intercellular ubiquitin-proteasome system abnormalities, changes in cytoskeletal proteins, and the continuous deposition of insoluble protein fragments and inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm or nucleus, resulting in impairment of the normal physiological processes of the neuronal system. CircRNAs have multiple mechanisms, such as acting as microRNA sponges, binding to proteins, and regulating transcription. CircRNAs, which are highly stable molecules, are expected to be potential biomarkers for the pathological detection of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD and PD.

CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we describe the regulatory roles and mechanisms of circRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases and aim to employ circRNAs as biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-10-20

Rabeh N, Hajjar B, Maraka JO, et al (2023)

Targeting mGluR group III for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 168:115733 pii:S0753-3322(23)01531-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, is essential for neuronal function, and it acts on ionotropic or metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). A disturbance in glutamatergic signaling is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. Developing disease-modifying treatments for neurodegenerative diseases targeting glutamate receptors is a promising avenue. The understudied group III mGluR 4, 6-8 are commonly found in the presynaptic membrane, and their activation inhibits glutamate release. Thus, targeted mGluRs therapies could aid in treating neurodegenerative diseases. This review describes group III mGluRs and their pharmacological ligands in the context of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. Attempts to evaluate the efficacy of these drugs in clinical trials are also discussed. Despite a growing list of group III mGluR-specific pharmacological ligands, research on the use of these drugs in neurodegenerative diseases is limited, except for Parkinson's disease. Future efforts should focus on delineating the contribution of group III mGluR to neurodegeneration and developing novel ligands with superior efficacy and a favorable side effect profile for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-10-20

Hu Y, Chen W, Wei C, et al (2024)

Pathological mechanisms of amyotrophic lateral Sclerosis.

Neural regeneration research, 19(5):1036-1044.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis refers to a neurodegenerative disease involving the motor system, the cause of which remains unexplained despite several years of research. Thus, the journey to understanding or treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is still a long one. According to current research, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is likely not due to a single factor but rather to a combination of mechanisms mediated by complex interactions between molecular and genetic pathways. The progression of the disease involves multiple cellular processes and the interaction between different complex mechanisms makes it difficult to identify the causative factors of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we review the most common amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated pathogenic genes and the pathways involved in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as summarize currently proposed potential mechanisms responsible for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis disease and their evidence for involvement in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. In addition, we discuss current emerging strategies for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Studying the emergence of these new therapies may help to further our understanding of the pathogenic mechanisms of the disease.

RevDate: 2023-10-20

Romano R, C Bucci (2024)

Antisense therapy: a potential breakthrough in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Neural regeneration research, 19(5):1027-1035.

Neurodegenerative diseases are a group of disorders characterized by the progressive degeneration of neurons in the central or peripheral nervous system. Currently, there is no cure for neurodegenerative diseases and this means a heavy burden for patients and the health system worldwide. Therefore, it is necessary to find new therapeutic approaches, and antisense therapies offer this possibility, having the great advantage of not modifying cellular genome and potentially being safer. Many preclinical and clinical studies aim to test the safety and effectiveness of antisense therapies in the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases. The objective of this review is to summarize the recent advances in the development of these new technologies to treat the most common neurodegenerative diseases, with a focus on those antisense therapies that have already received the approval of the U.S. Food and Drug Administration.

RevDate: 2023-10-20

Tarot P, Lasbleiz C, JC Liévens (2024)

NRF2 signaling cascade in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: bridging the gap between promise and reality.

Neural regeneration research, 19(5):1006-1012.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a very disabling disease due to the degeneration of motor neurons. Symptoms include muscle weakness and atrophy, spasticity, and progressive paralysis. Currently, there is no treatment to reverse damage to motor neurons and cure amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The only two treatments actually approved, riluzole and edaravone, have shown mitigated beneficial effects. The difficulty to find a cure lies in the complexity and multifaceted pattern of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis pathogenesis. Among mechanisms, abnormal RNA metabolism, nucleocytoplasmic transport defects, accumulation of unfolded protein, and mitochondrial dysfunction would in fine induce oxidative damage and vice versa. A potent therapeutic strategy will be to find molecules that break this vicious circle. Sharpening the nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 signaling may fulfill this objective since nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2 has a multitarget profile controlling antioxidant defense, mitochondrial functioning, and inflammation. We here discuss the interest of developing nuclear factor erythroid-2 related factor 2-based therapy in regard to the pathophysiological mechanisms and we provide a general overview of the attempted clinical assays in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

RevDate: 2023-10-19

Vieira TCRG, Barros CA, Domingues R, et al (2023)

PrP meets alpha-synuclein: Molecular mechanisms and implications for disease.

Journal of neurochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The discovery of prions has challenged dogmas and has revolutionized our understanding of protein-misfolding diseases. The concept of self-propagation via protein conformational changes, originally discovered for the prion protein (PrP), also applies to other proteins that exhibit similar behavior, such as alpha-synuclein (aSyn), a central player in Parkinson's disease and in other synucleinopathies. aSyn pathology appears to spread from one cell to another during disease progression, and involves the misfolding and aggregation of aSyn. How the transfer of aSyn between cells occurs is still being studied, but one important hypothesis involves receptor-mediated transport. Interestingly, recent studies indicate that the cellular prion protein (PrP[C]) may play a crucial role in this process. PrP[C] has been shown to act as a receptor/sensor for protein aggregates in different neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the interaction between aSyn and PrP[C] and discuss its role in synucleinopathies. We examine the properties of PrP and aSyn, including their structure, function, and aggregation. Additionally, we discuss the current understanding of PrP[C] 's role as a receptor/sensor for aSyn aggregates and identify remaining unanswered questions in this area of research. Ultimately, we posit that exploring the interaction between aSyn and PrP[C] may offer potential treatment options for synucleinopathies.

RevDate: 2023-10-19

Izenberg A (2023)

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Diseases.

Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.), 29(5):1538-1563.

OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the clinical spectrum of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), its variant presentations, and the approach to diagnosis and management. This review includes a detailed discussion of current and emerging disease-modifying therapies and the management of respiratory and bulbar manifestations of disease. An updated review of ALS genetics and pathophysiology is also provided. This article also touches on several other important motor neuron diseases.

LATEST DEVELOPMENTS: A new set of simplified diagnostic criteria may help identify patients at earlier stages of the disease. A coformulation of sodium phenylbutyrate and tauroursodeoxycholic acid has been shown to have a significant benefit on disease progression and survival, leading to approval by regulatory authorities in the United States and Canada. An oral formulation of edaravone and an antisense oligonucleotide to a SOD1 gene variation (tofersen) have also recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Phase 3 trials of intrathecal mesenchymal stem cells failed to meet primary end points for efficacy. Updated American Academy of Neurology quality measures for the care of patients with ALS were published in 2023.

ESSENTIAL POINTS: There has been continued progress in ALS genetics, diagnosis, and disease-modifying therapies. However, we still lack a definitive biomarker or a treatment that can halt the progression or reverse the course of disease. The evolving understanding of the genetic and pathophysiologic underpinnings of disease offers promise for more effective and clinically meaningful treatments in the future.

RevDate: 2023-10-18

Fang M, Deibler SK, Nana AL, et al (2023)

Loss of TDP-43 function contributes to genomic instability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 17:1251228.

A common pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) is the cytoplasmic mislocalization and aggregation of the DNA/RNA-binding protein TDP-43, but how loss of nuclear TDP-43 function contributes to ALS and FTD pathogenesis remains largely unknown. Here, using large-scale RNAi screening, we identify TARDBP, which encodes TDP-43, as a gene whose loss-of-function results in elevated DNA mutation rate and genomic instability. Consistent with this finding, we observe increased DNA damage in induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) and iPSC-derived post-mitotic neurons generated from ALS patients harboring TARDBP mutations. We find that the increase in DNA damage in ALS iPSC-derived neurons is due to defects in two major pathways for DNA double-strand break repair: non-homologous end joining and homologous recombination. Cells with defects in DNA repair are sensitive to DNA damaging agents and, accordingly, we find that ALS iPSC-derived neurons show a marked reduction in survival following treatment with a DNA damaging agent. Importantly, we find that increased DNA damage is also observed in neurons with nuclear TDP-43 depletion from ALS/FTD patient brain tissues. Collectively, our results demonstrate that ALS neurons with loss of nuclear TDP-43 function have elevated levels of DNA damage and contribute to the idea that genomic instability is a defining pathological feature of ALS/FTD patients with TDP-43 pathology.

RevDate: 2023-10-17

Sattler R, Traynor BJ, Robertson J, et al (2023)

Roadmap for C9ORF72 in Frontotemporal Dementia and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Report on the C9ORF72 FTD/ALS Summit.

Neurology and therapy [Epub ahead of print].

A summit held March 2023 in Scottsdale, Arizona (USA) focused on the intronic hexanucleotide expansion in the C9ORF72 gene and its relevance in frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS; C9ORF72-FTD/ALS). The goal of this summit was to connect basic scientists, clinical researchers, drug developers, and individuals affected by C9ORF72-FTD/ALS to evaluate how collaborative efforts across the FTD-ALS disease spectrum might break down existing disease silos. Presentations and discussions covered recent discoveries in C9ORF72-FTD/ALS disease mechanisms, availability of disease biomarkers and recent advances in therapeutic development, and clinical trial design for prevention and treatment for individuals affected by C9ORF72-FTD/ALS and asymptomatic pathological expansion carriers. The C9ORF72-associated hexanucleotide repeat expansion is an important locus for both ALS and FTD. C9ORF72-FTD/ALS may be characterized by loss of function of the C9ORF72 protein and toxic gain of functions caused by both dipeptide repeat (DPR) proteins and hexanucleotide repeat RNA. C9ORF72-FTD/ALS therapeutic strategies discussed at the summit included the use of antisense oligonucleotides, adeno-associated virus (AAV)-mediated gene silencing and gene delivery, and engineered small molecules targeting RNA structures associated with the C9ORF72 expansion. Neurofilament light chain, DPR proteins, and transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43)-associated molecular changes were presented as biomarker candidates. Similarly, brain imaging modalities (i.e., magnetic resonance imaging [MRI] and positron emission tomography [PET]) measuring structural, functional, and metabolic changes were discussed as important tools to monitor individuals affected with C9ORF72-FTD/ALS, at both pre-symptomatic and symptomatic disease stages. Finally, summit attendees evaluated current clinical trial designs available for FTD or ALS patients and concluded that therapeutics relevant to FTD/ALS patients, such as those specifically targeting C9ORF72, may need to be tested with composite endpoints covering clinical symptoms of both FTD and ALS. The latter will require novel clinical trial designs to be inclusive of all patient subgroups spanning the FTD/ALS spectrum.

RevDate: 2023-10-16

Shin J, Kang H, S Kim (2023)

Primo Vessels Inside Lymphatic Vessels Are Absent in an ALS Mouse Model.

Advances in experimental medicine and biology, 1438:113-117.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by the selective death of motor neurons in the central nervous system. It is also a representative rare disease among degenerative diseases of the nervous system. Although many drugs for the treatment of degenerative brain diseases are being developed, they are not delivered correctly to the target due to the blood-brain barrier. The present study aimed to analyze changes in the primo vascular system (PVS) in ALS mice with symptoms and the partial oxygen pressure (pO2) in normal mice. In normal mice, we consistently observed primo vessels in lymphatic vessels (L-PVS). However, in ALS mice with symptoms, L-PVS were mostly lost, rendering them difficult to observe. The pO2 of the L-PVS in normal mice was significantly higher than that of normal dermis and lymph nodes.In conclusion, the relatively higher oxygen levels measured in the L-PVS than in normal dermis and lymph nodes suggest a role for the PVS in oxygen transport and enable a hypothesis that the L-PVS can function as a drug delivery pathway.

RevDate: 2023-10-16

Zucchi E, Musazzi UM, Fedele G, et al (2023)

Effect of tauroursodeoxycholic acid on survival and safety in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a retrospective population-based cohort study.

EClinicalMedicine, 65:102256.

BACKGROUND: Oral tauroursodeoxycholic acid (TUDCA) is a commercial drug currently tested in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) both singly and combined with sodium phenylbutyrate. This retrospective study aimed to investigate, in a real-world setting, whether TUDCA had an impact on the overall survival of patients with ALS who were treated with this drug compared to those patients who received standard care only.

METHODS: This propensity score-matched study was conducted in the Emilia Romagna Region (Italy), which has had an ALS regional registry since 2009. Out of 627 patients with ALS diagnosed from January 1st, 2015 to June 30th, 2021 and recorded in the registry with available information on death/tracheostomy, 86 patients took TUDCA and were matched in a 1:2 ratio with patients who received only usual care according to age at onset, sex, phenotype, diagnostic latency, ALS Functional Rating Scale-Revised (ALSFRS-R) at first visit, disease progression rate at first visit, and BMI at diagnosis. The primary outcome was survival difference (time from onset of symptoms to tracheostomy/death) between TUDCA exposed and unexposed patients.

FINDINGS: A total of 86 patients treated with TUDCA were matched to 172 patients who did not receive treatment. TUDCA-exposed patients were stratified based on dosage (less than or equal to 1000 mg/day or greater) and duration (less than or equal to 12 months or longer) of treatment. The median overall survival was 49.6 months (95% CI 41.7-93.5) among those treated with TUDCA and 36.2 months (95% CI 32.7-41.6) in the control group, with a reduced risk of death observed in patients exposed to a higher dosage (defined as ≥ 1000 mg/day) of TUDCA (HR 0.56; 95% CI 0.38-0.83; p = 0.0042) compared to both the control group and those with lower TUDCA dosages (defined as < 1000 mg/day). TUDCA was generally well-tolerated, except for a minority of patients (n = 7, 8.1%) who discontinued treatment due to side effects, primarily gastrointestinal and mild in severity; only 2 adverse events required hospital access but resolved without sequelae.

INTERPRETATION: In this population-based exploratory study, patients with ALS who were treated with TUDCA may have prolonged survival compared to patients receiving standard care only. Additional prospective randomized studies are needed to confirm the efficacy and safety of this drug.

FUNDING: Emilia-Romagna Region.

RevDate: 2023-10-15

Jagadish A, Shankaranarayana AM, Natarajan M, et al (2023)

Transcranial direct current stimulation for fatigue in neurological conditions: A systematic scoping review.

Physiotherapy research international : the journal for researchers and clinicians in physical therapy [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fatigue following neurological conditions negatively impacts daily activities, reducing overall quality of life. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for fatigue management is still underexplored. This scoping review explores its use in managing fatigue among various neurological conditions.

METHODS: A thorough literature search was carried out using PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, Embase, ProQuest, and the Cochrane Library. Google Scholar and clinicaltrials.gov were manually searched for gray literature and ongoing trials, respectively. Regardless of the study design, all studies utilizing tDCS for the management of fatigue in various neurological conditions were considered. Two reviewers independently screened all the studies, following which the data were retrieved.

RESULTS: Studies employing tDCS for fatigue management across neurological conditions is as follows: Multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 28, 66%), stroke (n = 5, 12%), Parkinson's disease (PD) (n = 4, 10%), post-polio syndrome (PPS) (n = 2, 5%), traumatic brain injury (TBI) (n = 2, 5%), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 1, 2%). All the studies used anodal stimulation, with the common stimulation site being the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for MS, stroke, and PD. A stimulation intensity of 1.0-4.0 mA with a duration ranging from 15 to 30 min in 1 to 24 sessions were commonly reported. The Fatigue Severity Scale (n = 21) and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (n = 17) were frequently implemented outcome measures. Regardless of the study design, 36/42 (85.7%) studies reported an improvement in fatigue scores in the tDCS group. The common adverse events noted were tingling (n = 8, 35%), headache (n = 6, 26%), and itching (n = 6, 26%).

DISCUSSION: Application of tDCS for fatigue was explored in individuals with stroke, PD, PPS, and TBI after MS. Even though a wide range of treatment parameters and outcome measures were adopted to assess and target fatigue, tDCS proves to have a promising role in alleviating this symptom.

RevDate: 2023-10-14

Colombo E, Olla S, Minnelli C, et al (2023)

Synthesis and Characterization of Edaravone Analogues as Remyelinating Agents and Putative Mechanistic Probes.

Molecules (Basel, Switzerland), 28(19): pii:molecules28196928.

Edaravone (EDA), an antioxidant drug approved for the treatment of ischemic stroke and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, was recently proposed as a remyelinating candidate for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Here, we synthesized twelve EDA analogues 2b-4c showing three substitution patterns A-C, searching for improved remyelinating agents and putative molecular targets responsible for their regenerative activity. We profiled them in three primary assays to determine their stimulation of oligodendrocyte progenitor cell metabolism (tetrazolium MTT assay), their antioxidant potential (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl-DPPH assay) and to predict their bioavailability (virtual ADME profile). Active 4'-carboxylate 2b, 4'-ester 2c and N[1]-carbamate-4'-ester 4a were further characterized, justifying their in vitro effects and selecting 4a as a putative EDA 1 prodrug suitable for in vivo testing.

RevDate: 2023-10-13

Bryukhovetskiy AS, Grivtsova LY, Bogachev SS, et al (2023)

Technology of genomic balancing of chromatin of autologous hematopoietic stem cells for gene therapy of fatal immune-mediated diseases of civilization, extended life expectancy and sudden human death prevention.

International review of neurobiology, 172:237-284.

A biotechnology for personalized ex vivo gene therapy based on molecular genomic balancing of hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) chromatin with nucleosome monomers of human genomic DNA (hDNA[nmr]) has been developed and implemented in the clinic to change (to "correct") mutant chromosome loci genomes of dominant HSC clones that form mono- and oligoclonal hematopoiesis during aging and major (oncological, cardiovascular, neurodegenerative and autoimmune) fatal immune-mediated diseases of civilization. A fundamentally new biotechnological approach has been applied to the delivery of genetic material into eukaryotic stem and progenitor cells by establishing an artificial "recombinogenic situation" in them to induce homologous recombination (equivalent replacement) of mutant DNA regions with healthy hDNA[nmr]. In experimental preclinical trials, the effectiveness of genomic balancing technology has been proven to reduce the risk of sudden death in old animals and to increase the lifespan of outbred mice by 30% and Wistar rats by 57%. The improvement in their quality of life, compared with the control, is explained by an increase in the telomeric regions of the HSCs and HPCs chromosomes by 1.5-2 times. The potential of the technology to slow down the hereditary neurodegenerative diseases on the model of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is shown. The effectiveness of this technology in clinical practice is presented on the example of a terminal patient with stage 4 neuroendocrine cancer. This technology used in the treatment of a number of oncological, neurodegenerative, autoimmune and hereditary diseases with clonal hematopoiesis is able to arrest the progression of the disease, prevent its recurrence, prolong the active life of a person, increase the average life expectancy and prevent sudden death.

RevDate: 2023-10-13

Latorre-Rodríguez AR, Huang J, Schaheen L, et al (2023)

Diagnosis and management of anastomotic leaks after Ivor Lewis esophagectomy: a single-center experience.

Langenbeck's archives of surgery, 408(1):397.

PURPOSE: Esophageal anastomotic leaks (ALs) after esophagectomy are a common and serious complication. The incidence, diagnostic approach, and management have changed over time. We described the diagnosis and management of patients who developed an esophageal AL after an Ivor Lewis esophagectomy at our center.

METHODS: After IRB approval, we queried our prospectively maintained database for patients who developed an esophageal AL after esophagectomy from August 2016 through July 2022. Data pertaining to demographics, comorbidities, surgical and oncological characteristics, and clinical course were extracted and analyzed.

RESULTS: During the study period, 145 patients underwent an Ivor Lewis esophagectomy; 10 (6.9%) developed an AL, diagnosed a median of 7.5 days after surgery, and detected by enteric contents in wound drains (n = 3), endoscopy (n = 3), CT (n = 2), and contrast esophagogram (n = 2). Nine patients (90%) had an increasing white blood cell count and additional signs of sepsis. One asymptomatic patient was identified by contrast esophagography. All patients received enteral nutritional support, intravenous antibiotics, and antifungals. Primary treatment of ALs included endoscopic placement of a self-expanding metal stent (SEMS; n = 6), surgery (n = 2), and SEMS with endoluminal vacuum therapy (n = 2). One patient required surgery after SEMS placement. The median length of ICU and total hospital stays were 11.5 and 22.5 days, respectively. There was no 30-day mortality.

CONCLUSION: The incidence of esophageal ALs at our center is similar to that of other high-volume centers. Most ALs can be managed without surgery; however, ALs remain a significant source of postoperative morbidity despite clinical advancements that have improved mortality.

RevDate: 2023-10-13

Prior-González M, Lazo-Gómez R, R Tapia (2023)

Sodium butyrate does not protect spinal motor neurons from AMPA-induced excitotoxic degeneration in vivo.

Disease models & mechanisms, 16(10):.

Motor neuron (MN) loss is the primary pathological hallmark of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Histone deacetylase 4 (HDAC4) is one of several factors involved in nerve-muscle communication during MN loss, hindering muscle reinnervation, as shown in humans and in animal models of ALS, and may explain the differential progression observed in patients with ALS - rapid versus slow progression. In this work, we inhibited HDAC4 activity through the administration of a pan-histone deacetylase inhibitor, sodium butyrate, in an in vivo model of chronic spinal MN death induced by AMPA-mediated excitotoxicity. We infused AMPA into the spinal cord at low and high doses, which mimic the rapid and slow progression observed in humans, respectively. We found that muscle HDAC4 expression was increased by high-dose infusion of AMPA. Treatment of animals with sodium butyrate further decreased expression of muscle HDAC4, although non-significantly, and did not prevent the paralysis or the MN loss induced by AMPA infusion. These results inform on the role of muscle HDAC4 in MN degeneration in vivo and provide insights for the search for more suitable therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2023-10-12

Cassereau J, Bernard E, Genestet S, et al (2023)

Management of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in clinical practice: Results of the expert consensus using the Delphi methodology.

Revue neurologique pii:S0035-3787(23)01043-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare disease characterized by a progressive and irreversible degeneration of upper and lower motor neurons leading to death. In France, limited data exist describing the criteria used in clinical practice for diagnosis and follow-up, and how novel therapies may fit in. The objective of this Delphi panel was to obtain an overview of current French practices in ALS diagnosis, management, and follow-up by determining the scales and criteria used in clinical practice outside of clinical trials, as well as the place of a future treatment like AMX0035, acting on endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and mitochondrial dysfunction, in the current therapeutic strategies. A questionnaire was administered to 24 ALS healthcare providers practicing in ALS centers in France. Two rounds of remote voting were organized, before proposition of final consensus statements. Consensus was considered reached when at least 66% of the voters agreed. Consensus were obtained to define the new Gold Coast criteria as the ones used in clinical practice to establish the diagnosis of ALS, thus replacing the revised El Escorial criteria, considered too complex and now mainly used to characterize the patient populations to be included in clinical trials. The clinical factors considered to establish ALS diagnosis are mainly the demonstration of progression of the motor deficit and elimination of differential diagnoses. The ALSFRS-R scale is used in daily clinical practice to assess patient's functional impairment in terms of number of points lost, with the bulbar, respiratory, and fine motor subscores being the most important to evaluate independently. A critical medical need was identified regarding the provision of new therapeutic alternatives in ALS. The panel members would support the earliest management of patients. In this landscape, based on data from a very encouraging phase II (Centaur trial), AMX0035 represents a new tool of choice in current treatment strategies for all patients for whom experts are confident in the diagnosis of ALS, in combination with riluzole. These results will need to be confirmed by the ongoing phase III trial (Phoenix trial).

RevDate: 2023-10-10

McHenry KL (2023)

Airway Clearance Strategies and Secretion Management in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Respiratory care pii:respcare.11215 [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare, neurodegenerative motor neuron disease that affects voluntary muscle movement. Often, difficulty in coughing, breathing, and swallowing are sequela associated with the condition, and the presence of bulbar muscle predominant weakness results in deleterious effects on airway clearance and secretion management. This narrative review will provide practical guidance for clinicians treating this population. Cough insufficiency in this population typically manifests as a prolonged, slow, weak cough effort that impedes the clearability of secretions and airway protection. Dystussia and dysphagia frequently occur simultaneously in bulbar dysfunction, subsequently impacting respiratory health. Measures of respiratory strength should be obtained and monitored every 3-6 months, preferably in a multidisciplinary clinic setting. Cough augmentation, whether manual or mechanical techniques, should be sought as early in the disease progression as possible to adequately control secretions in the proximal airways. This airway clearance strategy can aid in the prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), which can pose a significant clinical hurdle to those with ALS. The use of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation may be complicated by severe bulbar dysfunction rendering this technique ineffective. Though peripheral airway clearance strategies, such as high-frequency chest-wall compression, have the advantage of being less impacted by bulbar dysfunction, it is only recommended this modality be used in conjunction with, versus in lieu of, proximal strategies. Salivary secretion management includes the use of anticholinergics, botulinum toxin, and radiation therapy depending on severity and desire for relief.

RevDate: 2023-10-10

Liu KF, Ramachandran S, Chang CW, et al (2023)

The synergistic effect of full-spectrum light therapy and transient immunosuppressants prolonged allotransplant survival.

Plastic and reconstructive surgery pii:00006534-990000000-02166 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: The lifelong administration of immunosuppressants remains its largest drawback in vascularized composite allotransplantation (VCA). Therefore, developing alternative strategies to minimize the long-term use of immunosuppressive agents is crucial. This study investigated whether full-spectrum bright light therapy (FBLT) combined with short-term immunosuppressant therapy could prolong VCA survival in a rodent hindlimb model.

METHODS: Hindlimb allotransplantation was conducted from Brown-Norway to Lewis rats, and the rats were divided into 4 groups. Group 1 did not receive treatment as a rejection control. Group 2 received FBLT alone. Group 3 was treated with short-term anti-lymphocyte serum and cyclosporine-A. Group 4 was administered short-term ALS/CsA combined with FBLT for 8 weeks. Peripheral blood and transplanted tissues were collected for analysis.

RESULTS: The results revealed median survival time of FBLT alone (group 2) did not increase allograft survival compared to the control (group 1). However, group 4 with FBLT combined with short-term ALS/CsA significantly prolonged median composite tissue allograft survival time (266 days) compared with groups 1 (11 days), 2 (10 days), and 3 (41 days) (p<0.01). Group 4 also showed a significant increase in Treg cells (p = 0.04) and TGF-β1 levels (p = 0.02), and a trend toward a decrease in IL-1β levels (p = 0.03) at 16 weeks after transplantation as compared to control Group 1.

CONCLUSIONS: FBLT combined with short-term immunosuppressants prolonged allotransplant survival by modulating T-cell regulatory functions and anti-inflammatory cytokine expression. This approach could be a potential strategy to increase VCA survival.

RevDate: 2023-10-10

Li B, Zhang W, Zhong S, et al (2023)

Short-term outcome of plasma adsorption therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Journal of medical biochemistry, 42(3):401-406.

BACKGROUND: To observe the short-term outcome of plasma adsorption PA therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

METHODS: 28 cases of als patients were recruited in this study, of which 20 were male and 8 were female with a mean age of 53.21±9.07 years and the average course of 33±23.35 months. The clinical manifestations were limb weakness (N=27), muscular atrophy (N=27), muscular tremor (N=5), dysphagia (N=12) and dysarthria (N=12). The clinical data of the patients recruited were graded by Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale Revised (ALSFRSR) : <10 (N=1), 11-20 (N=4), 21-30 (N=6), 31-40 (N=12), >40 (N=5). All patients received PA therapy once a week for three successive times after examining the conditions of blood coagulation and virus infection. PA therapy was supplemented with neurotrophic therapy meanwhile. All patients' clinical manifestations and scores of ALSFRSR before treatment and one week after treatment were evaluated and compared. The levels of serum superoxide dismutase (SOD), interleukin-10 (IL-10), serum creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) before and after treatment were compared.

RESULTS: After PA therapy, 14 patients have improved obviously in muscle strength, 4 patients in hypermyotonia partially, 3 patients in muscular tremor, 5 patients in dysarthria, 3 patients in salivation to some extent and 2 patients in swallowing function. The score of ALSFRSR after PA treatment (31.89±10.36) was remarkably higher than that before PA treatment (30.68±10.52) (P<0.01). The levels of SOD (155.10±21.87 IU/L) and IL-10 (138.06±185.88 pg/mL) after PA treatment were significantly higher than the levels before PA treatment (143.08.3±19.16 IU/L and 46.34±75.31 pg/mL, respectively) (P<0.05). The levels of CK (168.86±113.50 IU/L) and LDH (152.07±32.65 IU/L) after PA treatment were significantly lower than the levels before PA treatment (356.68±250.30 IU/L and 181.36±33.74 IU/L respectively) (P<0.01). At the end of follow-up period (November, 2019), five patients died of respiratory failure 16-21 months after PA treatment and two patents died of respiratory infection 15-20 months after PA treatment. 7 patients were still alive. The score of ALSFRS-R of these patients who survived at the end of follow-up (13.00±13.37) were significantly lower than before PA treatment (36.71±8.56) (P<0.05) and after PA treatment (38.14±8.82) (P<0.05).

CONCLUSIONS: Plasma adsorption (PA) therapy has shortterm therapeutic effects on als. The effects might be attributed to the anti-oxygen free radical effect by increasing SOD level and the anti-inflammation effect by increasing IL-10 level. As the efficacy of PA therapy was obtained in a small sample size and short follow-up period, the longterm observation of PA efficacy in treating als should be further investigated.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, is a rare, incurable neuro-degenerative disease, of unknown etiology. With this disease, both upper (brain) and lower (spinal cord) motor neurons progressively degenerate and die, rendering immobile the muscles that they innervated. For anyone with a need or desire to appreciate what is known about ALS, this book provides a good foundation. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )