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22 May 2024 at 01:35
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Bibliography on: ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) — Review Papers


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 22 May 2024 at 01:35 Created: 

ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) — Review Papers

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND) or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a neurodegenerative disease that results in the progressive loss of motor neurons that control voluntary muscles. ALS is the most common form of the motor neuron diseases. Early symptoms of ALS include stiff muscles, muscle twitches, and gradual increasing weakness and muscle wasting. Limb-onset ALS begins with weakness in the arms or legs, while bulbar-onset ALS begins with difficulty speaking or swallowing. Around half of people with ALS develop at least mild difficulties with thinking and behavior, and about 15% develop frontotemporal dementia. Motor neuron loss continues until the ability to eat, speak, move, and finally the ability to breathe is lost. Most cases of ALS (about 90% to 95%) have no known cause, and are known as sporadic ALS. However, both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved. The remaining 5% to 10% of cases have a genetic cause, often linked to a history of the disease in the family, and these are known as genetic ALS. About half of these genetic cases are due to disease-causing variants in one of two specific genes. The diagnosis is based on a person's signs and symptoms, with testing conducted to rule out other potential causes.

Tens of thousands of papers have been published on ALS. In this bibliography we restrict our attention to review papers.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( ( ALS*[TIAB] OR "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis"[TIAB] OR "motor neurone disease"[TIAB] ) AND review[SB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2024-05-20
CmpDate: 2024-05-20

Napoletano G, Circosta F, G Basile (2024)

Access to medically-assisted procreation: the withdrawal of paternal consent in the maze of law n. 40/2004.

La Clinica terapeutica, 175(3):163-167.

The law (No.40/2004) stipulates that consent to Medically Assisted Procreation (MAP) remains irrevocable post ovum fertilization. Cryo-preservation introduces complexities, enabling embryo implantation requests after a couple's separation and the dissolution of the original parenthood plan. Constitutional Court Ruling No.161 in 2023 affirmed that the prohibition of revoking consent to MAP aligns with the Italian Constitution and the jurisprudence of the European Court of Human Rights. This delicate equilibrium of conflicting interests upholds human freedom, allowing consent revocation prior to ovocyte fertilization. Permitting revocation until implantation could inflict more significant harm: the infertile woman can in fact miss the opportunity to become a mother, impacting her psychophysical well-being and freedom of self-determination. Moreover, the embryo loses the chance to live, remaining in cryopreservation, which violates its dignity. Addressing this issue requires thorough communication by medical profession-als to inform couples about the limitations on consent revocation. An element of objectivity in terms of standards and evidence-based guidelines, from which norms must originate, is of utmost importance. Relying on broadly shared rules, especially at the international level, is vital in light of the unremitting scientific advances in MAP, as in other areas of medicine, which will open up new opportunities for which current legal/regulatory frameworks are inadequate.

RevDate: 2024-05-19
CmpDate: 2024-05-19

Dorrity TJ, Shin H, Gertie JA, et al (2024)

The Sixth Sense: Self-nucleic acid sensing in the brain.

Advances in immunology, 161:53-83.

Our innate immune system uses pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) as a first line of defense to detect microbial ligands and initiate an immune response. Viral nucleic acids are key ligands for the activation of many PRRs and the induction of downstream inflammatory and antiviral effects. Initially it was thought that endogenous (self) nucleic acids rarely activated these PRRs, however emerging evidence indicates that endogenous nucleic acids are able to activate host PRRs in homeostasis and disease. In fact, many regulatory mechanisms are in place to finely control and regulate sensing of self-nucleic acids by PRRs. Sensing of self-nucleic acids is particularly important in the brain, as perturbations to nucleic acid sensing commonly leads to neuropathology. This review will highlight the role of nucleic acid sensors in the brain, both in disease and homeostasis. We also indicate the source of endogenous stimulatory nucleic acids where known and summarize future directions for the study of this growing field.

RevDate: 2024-05-18
CmpDate: 2024-05-18

Ponzini E (2024)

Tear biomarkers.

Advances in clinical chemistry, 120:69-115.

An extensive exploration of lacrimal fluid molecular biomarkers in understanding and diagnosing a spectrum of ocular and systemic diseases is presented. The chapter provides an overview of lacrimal fluid composition, elucidating the roles of proteins, lipids, metabolites, and nucleic acids within the tear film. Pooled versus single-tear analysis is discussed to underline the benefits and challenges associated with both approaches, offering insights into optimal strategies for tear sample analysis. Subsequently, an in-depth analysis of tear collection methods is presented, with a focus on Schirmer's test strips and microcapillary tubes methods. Alternative tear collection techniques are also explored, shedding light on their applicability and advantages. Variability factors, including age, sex, and diurnal fluctuations, are examined in the context of their impact on tear biomarker analysis. The main body of the chapter is dedicated to discussing specific biomarkers associated with ocular discomfort and a wide array of ocular diseases. From dry eye disease and thyroid-associated ophthalmopathy to keratoconus, age-related macular degeneration, diabetic retinopathy, and glaucoma, the intricate relationship between molecular biomarkers and these conditions is thoroughly dissected. Expanding beyond ocular pathologies, the chapter explores the applicability of tear biomarkers in diagnosing systemic diseases such as multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and cancer. This broader perspective underscores the potential of lacrimal fluid analysis in offering non-invasive diagnostic tools for conditions with far-reaching implications.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Wei Y, Zhong S, Yang H, et al (2024)

Current therapy in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS): A review on past and future therapeutic strategies.

European journal of medicinal chemistry, 272:116496 pii:S0223-5234(24)00376-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that affects the first and second motoneurons (MNs), associated with muscle weakness, paralysis and finally death. The exact etiology of the disease still remains unclear. Currently, efforts to develop novel ALS treatments which target specific pathomechanisms are being studied. The mechanisms of ALS pathogenesis involve multiple factors, such as protein aggregation, glutamate excitotoxicity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, apoptosis, inflammation etc. Unfortunately, to date, there are only two FDA-approved drugs for ALS, riluzole and edavarone, without curative treatment for ALS. Herein, we give an overview of the many pathways and review the recent discovery and preclinical characterization of neuroprotective compounds. Meanwhile, drug combination and other therapeutic approaches are also reviewed. In the last part, we analyze the reasons of clinical failure and propose perspective on the treatment of ALS in the future.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Pupillo E, Al-Chalabi A, Sassi S, et al (2024)

Methodological Quality of Clinical Trials in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A systematic Review.

Journal of neuromuscular diseases pii:JND230217 [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: More than 200 clinical trials have been performed worldwide in ALS so far, but no agents with substantial efficacy on disease progression have been found.

OBJECTIVE: To describe the methodological quality of all clinical trials performed in ALS and published before December 31, 2022.

METHODS: We conducted a systematic review following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta Analyses.

RESULTS: 213 trials were included. 47.4% manuscripts described preclinical study evaluation, with a positive effect in all. 67.6% of trials were conducted with a parallel-arm design, while 12.7% were cross-over studies; 77% were randomized, while in 5.6% historical-controls were used for comparison. 70% of trials were double blind. Participant inclusion allowed forced vital capacity (or corresponding slow vital capacity)<50% in 15% cases, between 55-65% in 21.6%, between 70-80% in 14.1% reports, and 49.3% of the evaluated manuscripts did not provide a minimum value for respiratory capacity at inclusion. Disease duration was <  6-months in 6 studies, 7-36 months in 68, 37-60 months in 24, 8 trials requested more than 1-month of disease duration, while in 107 reports a disease duration was not described. Dropout rate was ≥20% in 30.5% trials, while it was not reported for 8.5% .

CONCLUSION: The methodological quality of the included studies was highly variable. Major issues to be addressed in future ALS clinical trials include: the requirement for standard animal toxicology and phase I studies, the resource-intensive nature of phase II-III studies, adequate study methodology and design, a good results reporting.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Mavroudis I, Alexiou P, Petridis F, et al (2024)

Patients' and caregivers' attitudes towards patient assisted suicide or euthanasia in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-a meta-analysis.

Acta neurologica Belgica [Epub ahead of print].

Assisted suicide and euthanasia are long debated topics in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) patients care. We conducted a meta-analysis to evaluate the attitudes of ALS patients and their caregivers toward physician-assisted suicide (PAS) and euthanasia. Also, we were interested to identify the factors associated with the positive or negative attitude of patients and caregivers towards PAS/euthanasia. A thorough search of the online databases (PubMed, Cochrane Library, and Web of Science) was conducted and eligibility criteria according to the PRISMA guidelines were used to include the studies in the current meta-analysis. The assessment of the quality of the selected studies was carried out using a pre-specified set of criteria by Cochrane. The studies that were selected for this meta-analysis suggested that the expression of the wish to die is more likely correlated with depression, anxiety, hopelessness, and lack of optimism. The overall prevalence of considering PAS/euthanasia significantly varies in a dependent manner over the cultural, legal, and societal factors. In this context, we found that the opinion on this topic can be deeply personal and may vary widely among individuals and communities. Lower quality of life and lower religiosity were associated with a positive attitude toward PAS/euthanasia. On the other hand, patients who are more religious are less likely to choose PAS/euthanasia. Gender does not appear to play a significant role in determining attitudes towards PAS/euthanasia in ALS patients. Other factors, such as education and psychological state, could also be important. In conclusion, end-of-life decisions in ALS patients are complex and require careful consideration of individual values, beliefs, and preferences. Understanding the factors that influence a patient's attitude towards PAS/euthanasia can help healthcare providers to offer appropriate care and support for these patients and their families.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Oliveira Santos M, M de Carvalho (2024)

Profiling tofersen as a treatment of superoxide dismutase 1 amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Expert review of neurotherapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive motor neuron disorder with a fatal outcome 3-5 years after disease onset due to respiratory complications. Superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) mutations are found in about 2% of all patients. Tofersen is a novel oligonucleotide antisense drug specifically developed to treat SOD1-ALS patients.

AREAS COVERED: Our review covers and discusses tofersen pharmacological properties and its phase I/II and III clinical trials results. Other available drugs and their limitations are also addressed.

EXPERT OPINION: VALOR study failed to meet the primary endpoint (change in the revised Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Functional Rating Scale score from baseline to week 28, tofersen arm vs. placebo), but a significant reduction in plasma neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels was observed in tofersen arm (60% vs. 20%). PrefALS study has proposed plasma NfL has a potential biomarker for presymptomatic treatment, since it increases 6-12 months before phenoconversion. There is probably a delay between plasma NfL reduction and the clinical benefit. ATLAS study will allow more insights regarding tofersen clinical efficacy in disease progression rate, survival, and even disease onset delay in presymptomatic SOD1 carriers.

RevDate: 2024-05-17

Rennie O, Sharma M, N Helwa (2024)

Colorectal anastomotic leakage: a narrative review of definitions, grading systems, and consequences of leaks.

Frontiers in surgery, 11:1371567.

BACKGROUND: Anastomotic leaks (ALs) are a significant and feared postoperative complication, with incidence of up to 30% despite advances in surgical techniques. With implications such as additional interventions, prolonged hospital stays, and hospital readmission, ALs have important impacts at the level of individual patients and healthcare providers, as well as healthcare systems as a whole. Challenges in developing unified definitions and grading systems for leaks have proved problematic, despite acknowledgement that colorectal AL is a critical issue in intestinal surgery with serious consequences. The aim of this study was to construct a narrative review of literature surrounding definitions and grading systems for ALs, and consequences of this postoperative complication.

METHODS: A literature review was conducted by examining databases including PubMed, Web of Science, OVID Embase, Google Scholar, and Cochrane library databases. Searches were performed with the following keywords: anastomosis, anastomotic leak, colorectal, surgery, grading system, complications, risk factors, and consequences. Publications that were retrieved underwent further assessment to ensure other relevant publications were identified and included.

RESULTS: A universally accepted definition and grading system for ALs continues to be lacking, leading to variability in reported incidence in the literature. Additional factors add to variability in estimates, including differences in the anastomotic site and institutional/individual differences in operative technique. Various groups have worked to publish guidelines for defining and grading AL, with the International Study Group of Rectal Cancer (ISGRC/ISREC) definition the current most recommended universal definition for colorectal AL. The burden of AL on patients, healthcare providers, and hospitals is well documented in evidence from leak consequences, such as increased morbidity and mortality, higher reoperation rates, and increased readmission rates, among others.

CONCLUSIONS: Colorectal AL remains a significant challenge in intestinal surgery, despite medical advancements. Understanding the progress made in defining and grading leaks, as well as the range of negative outcomes that arise from AL, is crucial in improving patient care, reduce surgical mortality, and drive further advancements in earlier detection and treatment of AL.

RevDate: 2024-05-16
CmpDate: 2024-05-14

Kanda S, T Kanda (2024)

[Multifocal Motor Neuropathy].

Brain and nerve = Shinkei kenkyu no shinpo, 76(5):526-533.

Multifocal motor neuropathy (MMN), an acquired chronic progressive immune-mediated motor neuropathy, is characterized by asymmetrical distal upper limb muscle weakness and muscle atrophy without sensory impairment. Differentiation from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is usually challenging, and electrophysiological studies show multifocal conduction blocks. Immunoglobulin (Ig)M GM1 antibodies are detected in approximately 50% of patients. In contrast to chronic inflammatory demyelinating polyneuropathy, corticosteroids are ineffective for management of MMN, and IVIg is the sole established treatment.

RevDate: 2024-05-13

Xin J, Huang S, Wen J, et al (2024)

Drug Screening and Validation Targeting TDP-43 Proteinopathy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Aging and disease pii:AD.2024.0440 [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) stands as a rare, yet severely debilitating disorder marked by the deterioration of motor neurons (MNs) within the brain and spinal cord, which is accompanied by degenerated corticobulbar/corticospinal tracts and denervation in skeletal muscles. Despite ongoing research efforts, ALS remains incurable, attributed to its intricate pathogenic mechanisms. A notable feature in the pathology of ALS is the prevalence of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) proteinopathy, detected in approximately 97% of ALS cases, underscoring its significance in the disease's progression. As a result, strategies targeting the aberrant TDP-43 protein have garnered attention as a potential avenue for ALS therapy. This review delves into the existing drug screening systems aimed at TDP-43 proteinopathy and the models employed for drug efficacy validation. It also explores the hurdles encountered in the quest to develop potent medications against TDP-43 proteinopathy, offering insights into the intricacies of drug discovery and development for ALS. Through this comprehensive analysis, the review sheds light on the critical aspects of identifying and advancing therapeutic solutions for ALS.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Panchalingam S, G Kasivelu (2024)

Exploring the impact of circular RNA on ALS progression: A systematic review.

Brain research pii:S0006-8993(24)00244-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a neurodegenerative disease that damages motor neurons and causes gradual muscular weakening and paralysis. Although studies have linked a number of genetic and environmental factors to ALS, the specific causes and mechanisms of the disease are still unclear. The pivotal role of circular RNA in the pathogenesis of ALS is a newly emerging area of research. The term "circular RNA" describes a particular class of RNA molecule that, in contrast to most RNA molecules, has a closed-loop structure. According to recent research, circular RNA might be essential for the development and progression of ALS. It has been discovered that these circular RNAs support important cellular functions related to ALS, including protein turnover, mitochondrial function, RNA processing, and cellular transport. Gaining knowledge about the precise roles and processes of circular RNA in the development of ALS could assist in understanding the pathophysiology of the disease and possibly pave the way for the development of targeted therapies. However, the understanding of circular RNA in ALS is still limited, and more research is needed to fully elucidate its role. In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the role of circRNAs in ALS, it is imperative to delve into the various mechanisms through which circRNAs may contribute to the development and progression of the disease. Examining the current status of circRNA research in ALS and offering insights into their potential as therapeutic targets and diagnostic markers are the primary objectives of this review.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Liu S, Hong Y, Wang BR, et al (2024)

The presence and clinical significance of autoantibodies in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a narrative review.

Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating and rapidly fatal neurodegenerative disease, which is characterized by the selective loss of the upper and lower motor neurons. The pathogenesis of ALS remains to be elucidated and has been connected to genetic, environmental and immune conditions. Evidence from clinical and experimental studies has suggested that the immune system played an important role in ALS pathophysiology. Autoantibodies are essential components of the immune system. Several autoantibodies directed at antigens associated with ALS pathogenesis have been identified in the serum and/or cerebrospinal fluid of ALS patients. The aim of this review is to summarize the presence and clinical significance of autoantibodies in ALS.

RevDate: 2024-05-11
CmpDate: 2024-05-11

Cantara S, Simoncelli G, C Ricci (2024)

Antisense Oligonucleotides (ASOs) in Motor Neuron Diseases: A Road to Cure in Light and Shade.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(9): pii:ijms25094809.

Antisense oligonucleotides (ASOs) are short oligodeoxynucleotides designed to bind to specific regions of target mRNA. ASOs can modulate pre-mRNA splicing, increase levels of functional proteins, and decrease levels of toxic proteins. ASOs are being developed for the treatment of motor neuron diseases (MNDs), including spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). The biggest success has been the ASO known as nusinersen, the first effective therapy for SMA, able to improve symptoms and slow disease progression. Another success is tofersen, an ASO designed to treat ALS patients with SOD1 gene mutations. Both ASOs have been approved by the FDA and EMA. On the other hand, ASO treatment in ALS patients with the C9orf72 gene mutation did not show any improvement in disease progression. The aim of this review is to provide an up-to-date overview of ASO research in MNDs, from preclinical studies to clinical trials and, where available, regulatory approval. We highlight the successes and failures, underline the strengths and limitations of the current ASO research, and suggest possible approaches that could lead to more effective treatments.

RevDate: 2024-05-11

Ueha R, Miura C, Matsumoto N, et al (2024)

Vocal Fold Motion Impairment in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Journal of clinical medicine, 13(9): pii:jcm13092507.

Vocal fold motion impairment (VFMI) is the inappropriate movement of the vocal folds during respiration, leading to vocal fold adduction and/or abduction problems and causing respiratory and vocal impairments. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) are a wide range of disorders characterized by progressive loss of neurons and deposition of altered proteins in the brain and peripheral organs. VFMI may be unrecognized in patients with NDDs. VFMI in NDDs is caused by the following: laryngeal muscle weakness due to muscular atrophy, caused by brainstem and motor neuron degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis; hyperactivity of laryngeal adductors in Parkinson's disease; and varying degrees of laryngeal adductor hypertonia and abductor paralysis in multiple system atrophy. Management of VFMI depends on whether there is a presence of glottic insufficiency or insufficient glottic opening with/without severe dysphagia. VFMI treatment options for glottic insufficiency range from surgical interventions, including injection laryngoplasty and medialization thyroplasty, to behavioral therapies; for insufficient glottic opening, various options are available based on the severity and underlying cause of the condition, including continuous positive airway pressure therapy, botulinum toxin injection, tracheostomy, vocal fold surgery, or a combination of interventions. In this review, we outline the mechanisms, clinical features, and management of VFMI in NDDs and provide a guide for physicians who may encounter these clinical features in their patients. NDDs are always progressive; hence, timely evaluation, proper diagnosis, and appropriate management of the patient will greatly affect their vocal, respiratory, and swallowing functions as well as their quality of life.

RevDate: 2024-05-10
CmpDate: 2024-05-10

Gao Y, Lu Y, Liang X, et al (2024)

CD4[+] T-Cell Senescence in Neurodegenerative Disease: Pathogenesis and Potential Therapeutic Targets.

Cells, 13(9): pii:cells13090749.

With the increasing proportion of the aging population, neurodegenerative diseases have become one of the major health issues in society. Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), including multiple sclerosis (MS), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), are characterized by progressive neurodegeneration associated with aging, leading to a gradual decline in cognitive, emotional, and motor functions in patients. The process of aging is a normal physiological process in human life and is accompanied by the aging of the immune system, which is known as immunosenescence. T-cells are an important part of the immune system, and their senescence is the main feature of immunosenescence. The appearance of senescent T-cells has been shown to potentially lead to chronic inflammation and tissue damage, with some studies indicating a direct link between T-cell senescence, inflammation, and neuronal damage. The role of these subsets with different functions in NDs is still under debate. A growing body of evidence suggests that in people with a ND, there is a prevalence of CD4[+] T-cell subsets exhibiting characteristics that are linked to senescence. This underscores the significance of CD4[+] T-cells in NDs. In this review, we summarize the classification and function of CD4[+] T-cell subpopulations, the characteristics of CD4[+] T-cell senescence, the potential roles of these cells in animal models and human studies of NDs, and therapeutic strategies targeting CD4[+] T-cell senescence.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Koike Y (2024)

Molecular mechanisms linking loss of TDP-43 function to amyotrophic lateral sclerosis/frontotemporal dementia-related genes.

Neuroscience research pii:S0168-0102(24)00063-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are characterized by nuclear depletion and cytoplasmic aggregation of TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43). TDP-43 plays a key role in regulating the splicing of numerous genes, including TARDBP. This review aims to delineate two aspects of ALS/FTD pathogenesis associated with TDP-43 function. First, we provide novel mechanistic insights into the splicing of UNC13A, a TDP-43 target gene. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in UNC13A are the most common risk factors for ALS/FTD. We found that TDP-43 represses "cryptic exon" inclusion during UNC13A RNA splicing. A risk-associated SNP in this exon results in increased RNA levels of UNC13A retaining the cryptic exon. Second, we described the perturbation of the TDP-43 autoregulatory mechanism caused by age-related DNA demethylation. Aging is a major risk factor for sporadic ALS/FTD. Typically, TDP-43 levels are regulated via alternative splicing of TARDBP mRNA. We hypothesized that TARDBP methylation is altered by aging, thereby disrupting TDP-43 autoregulation. We found that demethylation reduces the efficiency of alternative splicing and increases TARDBP mRNA levels. Moreover, we demonstrated that, with aging, this region is demethylated in the human motor cortex and is associated with the early onset of ALS.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Singh K, Sethi P, Datta S, et al (2024)

Advances in Gene Therapy Approaches Targeting Neuro-inflammation in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Ageing research reviews pii:S1568-1637(24)00139-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Over the last three decades, neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) have increased in frequency. About 15% of the world's population suffers from NDs in some capacity, which causes cognitive and physical impairment. Neurodegenerative diseases, including Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, and others represent a significant and growing global health challenge. Neuroinflammation is recognized to be related to all NDs, even though NDs are caused by a complex mix of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Numerous genes and pathways such as NFκB, p38 MAPK, Akt/mTOR, caspase, nitric oxide, and COX are involved in triggering brain immune cells like astrocytes and microglia to secrete inflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-1β, and IL-6. In AD, the binding of Aβ with CD36, TLR4, and TLR6 receptors results in activation of microglia which start to produce proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Consequently, the pro-inflammatory cytokines worsen and spread neuroinflammation, causing the deterioration of healthy neurons and the impairment of brain functions. Gene therapy has emerged as a promising therapeutic approach to modulate the inflammatory response in NDs, offering potential neuroprotective effects and disease-modifying benefits. This review article focuses on recent advances in gene therapy strategies targeting neuroinflammation pathways in NDs. We discussed the molecular pathways involved in neuroinflammation, highlighted key genes and proteins implicated in these processes, and reviewed the latest preclinical and clinical studies utilizing gene therapy to modulate neuroinflammatory responses. Additionally, this review addressed the prospects and challenges in translating gene therapy approaches into effective treatments for NDs.

RevDate: 2024-05-09

Lu L, Deng Y, R Xu (2024)

Current potential therapeutics of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Frontiers in neurology, 15:1402962.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a debilitating motor neurological disorder for which there is still no cure. The disease seriously jeopardizes the health and lifespan of adult populations. The authors extensively retrieved the current literature about clinical and experimental ALS treatments. Based on them, this review primarily focused on summarizing the current potential clinical usage and trialing therapeutics of ALS. Currently, the clinical ALS treatments have focused primarily on relieving symptoms to improve the quality of life yet. There are a number of therapeutic approaches such as medicine, gene therapy, neuron protectants, combination therapy and stem cells. Among them, Stem cells including embryonic stem cells, mesenchymal stem cells, neural stem cells, and many other types of stem cells have been used in ALS treatment, and although the short-term efficacy is good, it is worth exploring whether this improved efficacy leads to prolonged patient survival. In addition, the supportive treatments also exert an important effect on improving the quality of life and prolong the survival of ALS patients in absence of effectively care for stopping or reversing the progression of ALS.

RevDate: 2024-05-09
CmpDate: 2024-05-09

Dai S, Qiu L, Veeraraghavan VP, et al (2024)

Advances in iPSC Technology in Neural Disease Modeling, Drug Screening, and Therapy.

Current stem cell research & therapy, 19(6):809-819.

Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) including Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's disease are all incurable and can only be managed with drugs for the associated symptoms. Animal models of human illnesses help to advance our understanding of the pathogenic processes of diseases. Understanding the pathogenesis as well as drug screening using appropriate disease models of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are vital for identifying novel therapies. Human-derived induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) models can be an efficient model to create disease in a dish and thereby can proceed with drug screening and identifying appropriate drugs. This technology has many benefits, including efficient reprogramming and regeneration potential, multidirectional differentiation, and the lack of ethical concerns, which open up new avenues for studying neurological illnesses in greater depth. The review mainly focuses on the use of iPSC technology in neuronal disease modeling, drug screening, and cell therapy.

RevDate: 2024-05-08

Gupta S, U Sharma (2021)

Metabolomics of neurological disorders in India.

Analytical science advances, 2(11-12):594-610.

Metabolomics is the comprehensive study of the metabolome and its alterations within biological fluids and tissues. Over the years, applications of metabolomics have been explored in several areas, including personalised medicine in diseases, metabolome-wide association studies (MWAS), pharmacometabolomics and in combination with other branches of omics such as proteomics, transcriptomics and genomics. Mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy are the major analytical techniques widely employed in metabolomics. In addition, MS is coupled with chromatography techniques like gas chromatography (GC) and liquid chromatography (LC) to separate metabolites before analysis. These analytical techniques have made possible identification and quantification of large numbers of metabolites, encompassing characterization of diseases and facilitating a systematic and rational therapeutic strategy based on metabolic patterns. In recent years, the metabolomics approach has been used to obtain a deeper insight into the underlying biochemistry of neurodegenerative disorders and the discovery of biomarkers of clinical implications. The current review mainly focuses on an Indian perspective of metabolomics for the identification of metabolites and metabolic alterations serving as potential diagnostic biomarkers for neurological diseases including acute spinal cord injury, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, tethered cord syndrome, spina bifida, stroke, Parkinson's disease, glioblastoma and neurological disorders with inborn errors of metabolism.

RevDate: 2024-05-06
CmpDate: 2024-05-06

Monteiro KLC, Dos Santos Alcântara MG, de Aquino TM, et al (2024)

Insights on Natural Products Against Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

Current neuropharmacology, 22(7):1169-1188.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that causes the death of motor neurons and consequent muscle paralysis. Despite many efforts to address it, current therapy targeting ALS remains limited, increasing the interest in complementary therapies. Over the years, several herbal preparations and medicinal plants have been studied to prevent and treat this disease, which has received remarkable attention due to their blood-brain barrier penetration properties and low toxicity. Thus, this review presents the therapeutic potential of a variety of medicinal herbs and their relationship with ALS and their physiopathological pathways.

RevDate: 2024-05-05

Dharmadasa T, Pavey N, Tu S, et al (2024)

Novel approaches to assessing upper motor neuron dysfunction in motor neuron disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: IFCN handbook chapter.

Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, 163:68-89 pii:S1388-2457(24)00127-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Identifying upper motor neuron (UMN) dysfunction is fundamental to the diagnosis and understanding of disease pathogenesis in motor neuron disease (MND). The clinical assessment of UMN dysfunction may be difficult, particularly in the setting of severe muscle weakness. From a physiological perspective, transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) techniques provide objective biomarkers of UMN dysfunction in MND and may also be useful to interrogate cortical and network function. Single, paired- and triple pulse TMS techniques have yielded novel diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers in MND, and have provided important pathogenic insights, particularly pertaining to site of disease onset. Cortical hyperexcitability, as heralded by reduced short interval intracortical inhibition (SICI) and increased short interval intracortical facilitation, has been associated with the onset of lower motor neuron degeneration, along with patterns of disease spread, development of specific clinical features such as the split hand phenomenon, and may provide an indication about the rate of disease progression. Additionally, reduction of SICI has emerged as a potential diagnostic aid in MND. The triple stimulation technique (TST) was shown to enhance the diagnostic utility of conventional TMS measures in detecting UMN dysfunction in MND. Separately, sophisticated brain imaging techniques have uncovered novel biomarkers of neurodegeneration that have bene associated with progression. The present review will discuss the utility of TMS and brain neuroimaging derived biomarkers of UMN dysfunction in MND, focusing on recently developed TMS techniques and advanced neuroimaging modalities that interrogate structural and functional integrity of the corticomotoneuronal system, with an emphasis on pathogenic, diagnostic, and prognostic utility.

RevDate: 2024-05-03

Tazir M, S Nouioua (2024)

Distal hereditary motor neuropathies.

Revue neurologique pii:S0035-3787(23)01111-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Distal hereditary motor neuropathies (dHMN) are a group of heterogeneous hereditary disorders characterized by a slowly progressive distal pure motor neuropathy. Electrophysiology, with normal motor and sensory conduction velocities, can suggest the diagnosis of dHMN and guide the genetic study. More than thirty genes are currently associated with HMNs, but around 60 to 70% of cases of dHMN remain uncharacterized genetically. Recent cohort studies showed that HSPB1, GARS, BICB2 and DNAJB2 are among the most frequent dHMN genes and that the prevalence of the disease was calculated as 2.14 and 2.3 per 100,000. The determination of the different genes involved in dHMNs made it possible to observe a genotypic overlap with some other neurogenetic disorders and other hereditary neuropathies such as CMT2, mainly with the HSPB1, HSPB8, BICD2 and TRPV4 genes of AD-inherited transmission and recently observed with SORD gene of AR transmission which seems relatively frequent and potentially curable. Distal hereditary motor neuropathy that predominates in the upper limbs is linked mainly to three genes: GARS, BSCL2 and REEP1, whereas dHMN with vocal cord palsy is associated with SLC5A7, DCTN1 and TRPV4 genes. Among the rare AR forms of dHMN like IGHMBP2 and DNAJB2, the SIGMAR1 gene mutations as well as VRK1 variants are associated with a motor neuropathy phenotype often associated with upper motoneuron involvement. The differential diagnosis of these latter arises with juvenile forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, that could be caused also by variations of these genes, as well as hereditary spastic paraplegia. A differential diagnosis of dHMN related to Brown Vialetto Van Laere syndrome due to riboflavin transporter deficiency is important to consider because of the therapeutic possibility.

RevDate: 2024-05-03
CmpDate: 2024-05-03

Keeley O, AN Coyne (2024)

Nuclear and degradative functions of the ESCRT-III pathway: implications for neurodegenerative disease.

Nucleus (Austin, Tex.), 15(1):2349085.

The ESCRT machinery plays a pivotal role in membrane-remodeling events across multiple cellular processes including nuclear envelope repair and reformation, nuclear pore complex surveillance, endolysosomal trafficking, and neuronal pruning. Alterations in ESCRT-III functionality have been associated with neurodegenerative diseases including Frontotemporal Dementia (FTD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Alzheimer's Disease (AD). In addition, mutations in specific ESCRT-III proteins have been identified in FTD/ALS. Thus, understanding how disruptions in the fundamental functions of this pathway and its individual protein components in the human central nervous system (CNS) may offer valuable insights into mechanisms underlying neurodegenerative disease pathogenesis and identification of potential therapeutic targets. In this review, we discuss ESCRT components, dynamics, and functions, with a focus on the ESCRT-III pathway. In addition, we explore the implications of altered ESCRT-III function for neurodegeneration with a primary emphasis on nuclear surveillance and endolysosomal trafficking within the CNS.

RevDate: 2024-05-03
CmpDate: 2024-05-03

Odierna GL, Vucic S, Dyer M, et al (2024)

How do we get from hyperexcitability to excitotoxicity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis?.

Brain : a journal of neurology, 147(5):1610-1621.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating neurodegenerative disease that, at present, has no effective cure. Evidence of increased circulating glutamate and hyperexcitability of the motor cortex in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have provided an empirical support base for the 'dying forward' excitotoxicity hypothesis. The hypothesis postulates that increased activation of upper motor neurons spreads pathology to lower motor neurons in the spinal cord in the form of excessive glutamate release, which triggers excitotoxic processes. Many clinical trials have focused on therapies that target excitotoxicity via dampening neuronal activation, but not all are effective. As such, there is a growing tension between the rising tide of evidence for the 'dying forward' excitotoxicity hypothesis and the failure of therapies that target neuronal activation. One possible solution to these contradictory outcomes is that our interpretation of the current evidence requires revision in the context of appreciating the complexity of the nervous system and the limitations of the neurobiological assays we use to study it. In this review we provide an evaluation of evidence relevant to the 'dying forward' excitotoxicity hypothesis and by doing so, identify key gaps in our knowledge that need to be addressed. We hope to provide a road map from hyperexcitability to excitotoxicity so that we can better develop therapies for patients suffering from amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. We conclude that studies of upper motor neuron activity and their synaptic output will play a decisive role in the future of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis therapy.

RevDate: 2024-05-02

Arora H, Javed B, Kutikuppala LVS, et al (2024)

ST2 levels and neurodegenerative diseases: is this a significant relation?.

Annals of medicine and surgery (2012), 86(5):2812-2817 pii:AMSU-D-24-00005.

Interleukin-33 (IL-33), belonging to the interleukin-1 cytokine family, has a decoy receptor soluble ST2 (sST2). IL-33 is found in oligodendrocytes and astrocytes and is involved in central nervous system healing and repair, whereas ST2 is found in microglia and astrocytes. Some studies have found a link between changes in the IL-33/ST2 pathway and neurodegenerative disorders. This review article investigates the relationship between the interleukin-33 (IL-33)/ST2 pathway and neurodegenerative disorders. It was discovered that soluble st2 levels were increased. Furthermore, IL-33 levels were found to be lower in many neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The association with other disorders, such as ankylosing spondylitis, multiple sclerosis, and systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE), was also observed. Various studies suggest that ST2/IL-33 signalling may be pivotal in the disease modulation of neurodegenerative disorders. The serum sST2 level test can be useful in determining the inflammatory status and severity of illness in many neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we will discuss recent findings concerning the interleukin-33 (IL-33)/ST2 pathway and its role in the diagnosis and treatment of diseases with neurodegeneration.

RevDate: 2024-05-02
CmpDate: 2024-05-02

Campagne S (2024)

U1 snRNP Biogenesis Defects in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Chembiochem : a European journal of chemical biology, 25(9):e202300864.

The U1 small ribonucleoprotein (U1 snRNP) plays a pivotal role in the intricate process of gene expression, specifically within nuclear RNA processing. By initiating the splicing reaction and modulating 3'-end processing, U1 snRNP exerts precise control over RNA metabolism and gene expression. This ribonucleoparticle is abundantly present, and its complex biogenesis necessitates shuttling between the nuclear and cytoplasmic compartments. Over the past three decades, extensive research has illuminated the crucial connection between disrupted U snRNP biogenesis and several prominent human diseases, notably various neurodegenerative conditions. The perturbation of U1 snRNP homeostasis has been firmly established in diseases such as Spinal Muscular Atrophy, Pontocerebellar hypoplasia, and FUS-mediated Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Intriguingly, compelling evidence suggests a potential correlation in Fronto-temporal dementia and Alzheimer's disease as well. Although the U snRNP biogenesis pathway is conserved across all eukaryotic cells, neurons, in particular, appear to be highly susceptible to alterations in spliceosome homeostasis. In contrast, other cell types exhibit a greater resilience to such disturbances. This vulnerability underscores the intricate relationship between U1 snRNP dynamics and the health of neuronal cells, shedding light on potential avenues for understanding and addressing neurodegenerative disorders.

RevDate: 2024-05-01
CmpDate: 2024-05-01

Singh P, Belliveau P, Towle J, et al (2024)

Edaravone Oral Suspension: A Neuroprotective Agent to Treat Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

American journal of therapeutics, 31(3):e258-e267.

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is characterized by loss of motor neurons due to degeneration of nerve cells within the brain and spinal cord. Early symptoms include limb weakness, twitching or muscle cramping, and slurred speech. As the disease progresses, difficulty breathing, swallowing, and paralysis can lead to death. Currently, there are no medications that cure ALS, and guidelines recommend treatments focused on symptom management. Intravenous (IV) edaravone was approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) in 2017 as a treatment to slow the progression of ALS. In May 2022, the FDA approved an oral suspension (ORS) formulation of edaravone.

MECHANISM OF ACTION: The mechanism of action of edaravone is not well defined. However, its neuroprotective effects are thought to result from antioxidant properties occurring through elimination of free radicals.

PHARMACOKINETICS: Edaravone ORS (105 mg) has a bioavailability of 57% when compared with edaravone IV (60 mg). The ORS should be taken on an empty stomach in the morning, with water and no food or beverages, for 1 hour. Edaravone is bound to albumin (92%), has a mean volume of distribution of 63.1 L, a half-life of 4.5-9 hours, and a total clearance of 35.9 L/h after intravenous administration. Edaravone is metabolized into nonactive sulfate and glucuronide conjugates.

CLINICAL TRIALS: The FDA approval was based on studies of the pharmacokinetics, safety, tolerability, and bioavailability of edaravone ORS. A phase III, global, multicenter, open-label safety study was conducted on edaravone ORS in 185 patients with ALS over 48 weeks. The most reported treatment-emergent adverse events were falls, muscular weakness, and constipation. Serious treatment-emergent adverse events included disease worsening, dysphagia, dyspnea, and respiratory failure.

THERAPEUTIC ADVANCE: Oral edaravone is an ALS treatment that can be self-administered or administered by a caregiver, precluding the need for administration by a health care professional in an institutional setting.

RevDate: 2024-04-27

Kubat GB, P Picone (2024)

Skeletal muscle dysfunction in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a mitochondrial perspective and therapeutic approaches.

Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive and fatal neuromuscular disease that results in the loss of motor neurons and severe skeletal muscle atrophy. The etiology of ALS is linked to skeletal muscle, which can activate a retrograde signaling cascade that destroys motor neurons. This is why satellite cells and mitochondria play a crucial role in the health and performance of skeletal muscles. This review presents current knowledge on the involvement of mitochondrial dysfunction, skeletal muscle atrophy, muscle satellite cells, and neuromuscular junction (NMJ) in ALS. It also discusses current therapeutic strategies, including exercise, drugs, stem cells, gene therapy, and the prospective use of mitochondrial transplantation as a viable therapeutic strategy.

RevDate: 2024-04-27
CmpDate: 2024-04-27

Kutlubaev MA (2024)

[Promising approaches to the pathogenetic therapy of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis].

Zhurnal nevrologii i psikhiatrii imeni S.S. Korsakova, 124(4):13-21.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a severe incurable disease of the nervous system. Currently only methods of palliative care for the patients with this disease are available. Few medications for the pathogenetic therapy are registered in some countries, i.e. riluzole, edaravon, sodium phenylbutyrate/taurursodiol as well as tofersen (conditionally). Their efficacy is relatively low. The main directions in the development of pathogenetic therapy of ALS include gene therapy, use of stem cells, immunomodulators, agents affecting gut microbiota. A search is also underway for low-molecular compounds with neuroprotective and antioxidant properties. Perspective direction is prevention of ALS. This will be possible when biomarkers for identification of patients in pre-manifest/prodromal stage are detected.

RevDate: 2024-04-29
CmpDate: 2024-04-27

Wang W, Pan D, Liu Q, et al (2024)

L-Carnitine in the Treatment of Psychiatric and Neurological Manifestations: A Systematic Review.

Nutrients, 16(8):.

OBJECTIVE: L-carnitine (LC), a vital nutritional supplement, plays a crucial role in myocardial health and exhibits significant cardioprotective effects. LC, being the principal constituent of clinical-grade supplements, finds extensive application in the recovery and treatment of diverse cardiovascular and cerebrovascular disorders. However, controversies persist regarding the utilization of LC in nervous system diseases, with varying effects observed across numerous mental and neurological disorders. This article primarily aims to gather and analyze database information to comprehensively summarize the therapeutic potential of LC in patients suffering from nervous system diseases while providing valuable references for further research.

METHODS: A comprehensive search was conducted in PubMed, Web Of Science, Embase, Ovid Medline, Cochrane Library and Clinicaltrials.gov databases. The literature pertaining to the impact of LC supplementation on neurological or psychiatric disorders in patients was reviewed up until November 2023. No language or temporal restrictions were imposed on the search.

RESULTS: A total of 1479 articles were retrieved, and after the removal of duplicates through both automated and manual exclusion processes, 962 articles remained. Subsequently, a meticulous re-screening led to the identification of 60 relevant articles. Among these, there were 12 publications focusing on hepatic encephalopathy (HE), while neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) and peripheral nervous system diseases (PNSDs) were represented by 9 and 6 articles, respectively. Additionally, stroke was addressed in five publications, whereas Raynaud's syndrome (RS) and cognitive disorder (CD) each had three dedicated studies. Furthermore, migraine, depression, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) each accounted for two publications. Lastly, one article was found for other symptoms under investigation.

CONCLUSION: In summary, LC has demonstrated favorable therapeutic effects in the management of HE, Alzheimer's disease (AD), carpal tunnel syndrome (CTS), CD, migraine, neurofibromatosis (NF), PNSDs, RS, and stroke. However, its efficacy appears to be relatively limited in conditions such as ALS, ataxia, attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD), depression, chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS), Down syndrome (DS), and sciatica.

RevDate: 2024-04-29
CmpDate: 2024-04-27

Shahim P, Norato G, Sinaii N, et al (2024)

Neurofilaments in Sporadic and Familial Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Genes, 15(4):.

BACKGROUND: Neurofilament proteins have been implicated to be altered in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). The objectives of this study were to assess the diagnostic and prognostic utility of neurofilaments in ALS.

METHODS: Studies were conducted in electronic databases (PubMed/MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and Cochrane CENTRAL) from inception to 17 August 2023, and investigated neurofilament light (NfL) or phosphorylated neurofilament heavy chain (pNfH) in ALS. The study design, enrolment criteria, neurofilament concentrations, test accuracy, relationship between neurofilaments in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) and blood, and clinical outcome were recorded. The protocol was registered with PROSPERO, CRD42022376939.

RESULTS: Sixty studies with 8801 participants were included. Both NfL and pNfH measured in CSF showed high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing ALS from disease mimics. Both NfL and pNfH measured in CSF correlated with their corresponding levels in blood (plasma or serum); however, there were stronger correlations between CSF NfL and blood NfL. NfL measured in blood exhibited high sensitivity and specificity in distinguishing ALS from controls. Both higher levels of NfL and pNfH either measured in blood or CSF were correlated with more severe symptoms as assessed by the ALS Functional Rating Scale Revised score and with a faster disease progression rate; however, only blood NfL levels were associated with shorter survival.

DISCUSSION: Both NfL and pNfH measured in CSF or blood show high diagnostic utility and association with ALS functional scores and disease progression, while CSF NfL correlates strongly with blood (either plasma or serum) and is also associated with survival, supporting its use in clinical diagnostics and prognosis. Future work must be conducted in a prospective manner with standardized bio-specimen collection methods and analytical platforms, further improvement in immunoassays for quantification of pNfH in blood, and the identification of cut-offs across the ALS spectrum and controls.

RevDate: 2024-04-29
CmpDate: 2024-04-27

Cheslow L, Snook AE, SA Waldman (2024)

Biomarkers for Managing Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Biomolecules, 14(4):.

Neurological disorders are the leading cause of cognitive and physical disability worldwide, affecting 15% of the global population. Due to the demographics of aging, the prevalence of neurological disorders, including neurodegenerative diseases, will double over the next two decades. Unfortunately, while available therapies provide symptomatic relief for cognitive and motor impairment, there is an urgent unmet need to develop disease-modifying therapies that slow the rate of pathological progression. In that context, biomarkers could identify at-risk and prodromal patients, monitor disease progression, track responses to therapy, and parse the causality of molecular events to identify novel targets for further clinical investigation. Thus, identifying biomarkers that discriminate between diseases and reflect specific stages of pathology would catalyze the discovery and development of therapeutic targets. This review will describe the prevalence, known mechanisms, ongoing or recently concluded therapeutic clinical trials, and biomarkers of three of the most prevalent neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD).

RevDate: 2024-04-26

Sitruk-Ware R, Sussman H, Brinton R, et al (2024)

Nestorone (segesterone acetate) effects on neuroregeneration.

Frontiers in neuroendocrinology pii:S0091-3022(24)00016-5 [Epub ahead of print].

Nestorone® (segesterone acetate) is a progestin with a chemical structure closely related to progesterone with high affinity and selectivity for the progesterone receptor without significant interaction with other steroid receptors. It has been developed for female and male contraception and is FDA-approved in a first long-acting contraceptive vaginal system for female contraception. Its safety has been extensively demonstrated in both preclinical and clinical studies for contraceptive indications. Nestorone was found to display neuroprotective and neuroregenerative activity in animal models of various central nervous system diseases, including multiple sclerosis, stroke, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Reviewed herein are neuroprotective and myelin- regenerating properties of Nestorone in various animal models and its translational potential as a therapeutic agent for debilitating neurological diseases for which limited therapeutic options are available (Table 1).

RevDate: 2024-04-28
CmpDate: 2024-04-26

Alzahrani FA, Riza YM, Eid TM, et al (2024)

Exosomes in Vascular/Neurological Disorders and the Road Ahead.

Cells, 13(8):.

Neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), stroke, and aneurysms, are characterized by the abnormal accumulation and aggregation of disease-causing proteins in the brain and spinal cord. Recent research suggests that proteins linked to these conditions can be secreted and transferred among cells using exosomes. The transmission of abnormal protein buildup and the gradual degeneration in the brains of impacted individuals might be supported by these exosomes. Furthermore, it has been reported that neuroprotective functions can also be attributed to exosomes in neurodegenerative diseases. The potential neuroprotective functions may play a role in preventing the formation of aggregates and abnormal accumulation of proteins associated with the disease. The present review summarizes the roles of exosomes in neurodegenerative diseases as well as elucidating their therapeutic potential in AD, PD, ALS, HD, stroke, and aneurysms. By elucidating these two aspects of exosomes, valuable insights into potential therapeutic targets for treating neurodegenerative diseases may be provided.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Hastings RL, G Valdez (2024)

Origin, identity, and function of terminal Schwann cells.

Trends in neurosciences pii:S0166-2236(24)00055-9 [Epub ahead of print].

The highly specialized nonmyelinating glial cells present at somatic peripheral nerve endings, known collectively as terminal Schwann cells (TSCs), play critical roles in the development, function and repair of their motor and sensory axon terminals and innervating tissue. Over the past decades, research efforts across various vertebrate species have revealed that while TSCs are a diverse group of cells, they share a number of features among them. In this review, we summarize the state-of-knowledge about each TSC type and explore the opportunities that TSCs provide to treat conditions that afflict peripheral axon terminals.

RevDate: 2024-04-26
CmpDate: 2024-04-23

Yao Q, Long C, Yi P, et al (2024)

C/EBPβ: A transcription factor associated with the irreversible progression of Alzheimer's disease.

CNS neuroscience & therapeutics, 30(4):e14721.

BACKGROUND: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a neurodegenerative disorder distinguished by a swift cognitive deterioration accompanied by distinctive pathological hallmarks such as extracellular Aβ (β-amyloid) peptides, neuronal neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs), sustained neuroinflammation, and synaptic degeneration. The elevated frequency of AD cases and its proclivity to manifest at a younger age present a pressing challenge in the quest for novel therapeutic interventions. Numerous investigations have substantiated the involvement of C/EBPβ in the progression of AD pathology, thus indicating its potential as a therapeutic target for AD treatment.

AIMS: Several studies have demonstrated an elevation in the expression level of C/EBPβ among individuals afflicted with AD. Consequently, this review predominantly delves into the association between C/EBPβ expression and the pathological progression of Alzheimer's disease, elucidating its underlying molecular mechanism, and pointing out the possibility that C/EBPβ can be a new therapeutic target for AD.

METHODS: A systematic literature search was performed across multiple databases, including PubMed, Google Scholar, and so on, utilizing predetermined keywords and MeSH terms, without temporal constraints. The inclusion criteria encompassed diverse study designs, such as experimental, case-control, and cohort studies, restricted to publications in the English language, while conference abstracts and unpublished sources were excluded.

RESULTS: Overexpression of C/EBPβ exacerbates the pathological features of AD, primarily by promoting neuroinflammation and mediating the transcriptional regulation of key molecular pathways, including δ-secretase, apolipoprotein E4 (APOE4), acidic leucine-rich nuclear phosphoprotein-32A (ANP32A), transient receptor potential channel 1 (TRPC1), and Forkhead BoxO (FOXO).

DISCUSSION: The correlation between overexpression of C/EBPβ and the pathological development of AD, along with its molecular mechanisms, is evident. Investigating the pathways through which C/EBPβ regulates the development of AD reveals numerous multiple vicious cycle pathways exacerbating the pathological progression of the disease. Furthermore, the exacerbation of pathological progression due to C/EBPβ overexpression and its molecular mechanism is not limited to AD but also extends to other neurodegenerative diseases such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS).

CONCLUSION: The overexpression of C/EBPβ accelerates the irreversible progression of AD pathophysiology. Additionally, C/EBPβ plays a crucial role in mediating multiple pathways linked to AD pathology, some of which engender vicious cycles, leading to the establishment of feedback mechanisms. To sum up, targeting C/EBPβ could hold promise as a therapeutic strategy not only for AD but also for other degenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2024-04-19
CmpDate: 2024-04-19

Gerecht RB, JV Nable (2024)

Out-of-Hospital Cardiac Arrest.

Cardiology clinics, 42(2):317-331.

Survival from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest (OHCA) is predicated on a community and system-wide approach that includes rapid recognition of cardiac arrest, capable bystander CPR, effective basic and advanced life support (BLS and ALS) by EMS providers, and coordinated postresuscitation care. Management of these critically ill patients continues to evolve. This article focuses on the management of OHCA by EMS providers.

RevDate: 2024-04-17

Wolff A, Demleitner AF, Feneberg E, et al (2024)

[Smell the smoke before one sees the fire-The oligosymptomatic prodromal phase of neurodegenerative diseases].

Der Nervenarzt [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: With the increasing development of disease-modifying causative treatment, the importance of early diagnosis and detection of asymptomatic or oligosymptomatic early stages of neurodegenerative diseases is increasing.

OBJECTIVE: Presentation of early stages of neurodegenerative diseases, diagnostic procedures for the early detection and possible treatment consequences.

MATERIAL AND METHODS: Selective literature search, discussion of basic research and expert recommendations.

RESULTS: Many neurodegenerative diseases have a prodromal phase preceding the manifest disease that can be diagnosed with current criteria. In this prodromal phase, those affected are often oligosymptomatic but in some cases can already be identified using biomarkers. These developments are already taken into account in diagnostic criteria for some of these prodromal phases. The prodromal phase, in turn, is preceded by an asymptomatic phase which, however, already shows molecular changes and can be identified by biomarkers in some diseases. The early identification and stratification of patients is particularly important when planning studies for disease-modifying treatment, and biomarkers are already being used in clinical trials for this purpose.

DISCUSSION: Biomarker-based identification of individuals in the prodromal phase of neurodegenerative diseases is already possible for some entities. People who show the first signs of a neurodegenerative disease can be referred to centers for clinical trials and observational studies.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Uzunoglu-Ozyurek E, Önal G, S Dökmeci (2023)

Investigating the Therapeutics Effects of Oral Cavity Derived Stem Cells on Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Systematic Review.

Basic and clinical neuroscience, 14(5):565-584.

INTRODUCTION: Published data obtained from in vitro and in vivo studies was reviewed systematically and analyzed critically to evaluate the effect of oral cavity-derived stem cells (OCDSCs) on the recovery or therapy of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs), such as Alzheimer disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington (HD) diseases, and Parkinson disease (PD).

METHODS: An electronic search was accomplished. References of included articles were also manually searched. Studies were critically evaluated for suitability against the inclusion/exclusion criteria and the data was extracted. Bias risk evaluation of the studies and evidence synthesis were conducted.

RESULTS: A total of 14 in vivo and 10 in vitro studies met the inclusion criteria. PD was induced in 10 in vivo and 7 in vitro studies, while AD was induced in 2 in vivo and 4 in vitro studies. Two studies (1 in vitro and 1 in vivo) evaluated ALS disease and 1 in vivo study evaluated HD. Moderate evidence was found for in vitro studies reporting the positive effect of OCDSCs on PD or AD recovery. Strong evidence was found for in vivo studies in which PD animal models were used; meanwhile, moderate evidence was found for the impact of OCDSCs on AD recovery. Limited evidence was found for in vivo studies evaluating HD and ALS.

CONCLUSION: Although studies reported favorable data regarding the OCDSCs on NDs, they presented a considerable risk of bias. Because of heterogeneous study characteristics, the current study recommends improving standardized methods to evaluate the therapeutic effects of OCDSCs on the NDs.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Inci OK, Basırlı H, Can M, et al (2024)

Gangliosides as Therapeutic Targets for Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Journal of lipids, 2024:4530255.

Gangliosides, sialic acid-containing glycosphingolipids, are abundant in cell membranes and primarily involved in controlling cell signaling and cell communication. The altered ganglioside pattern has been demonstrated in several neurodegenerative diseases, characterized during early-onset or infancy, emphasizing the significance of gangliosides in the brain. Enzymes required for the biosynthesis of gangliosides are linked to several devastating neurological disorders, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), hereditary spastic paraplegia (HSP). In this review, we summarized not only the critical roles of biosynthetic enzymes and their inhibitors in ganglioside metabolism but also the efficacy of treatment strategies of ganglioside to address their significance in those diseases.

RevDate: 2024-04-17
CmpDate: 2024-04-17

Kosmachevskaya OV, Novikova NN, Yakunin SN, et al (2024)

Formation of Supplementary Metal-Binding Centers in Proteins under Stress Conditions.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 89(Suppl 1):S180-S204.

In many proteins, supplementary metal-binding centers appear under stress conditions. They are known as aberrant or atypical sites. Physico-chemical properties of proteins are significantly changed after such metal binding, and very stable protein aggregates are formed, in which metals act as "cross-linking" agents. Supplementary metal-binding centers in proteins often arise as a result of posttranslational modifications caused by reactive oxygen and nitrogen species and reactive carbonyl compounds. New chemical groups formed as a result of these modifications can act as ligands for binding metal ions. Special attention is paid to the role of cysteine SH-groups in the formation of supplementary metal-binding centers, since these groups are the main target for the action of reactive species. Supplementary metal binding centers may also appear due to unmasking of amino acid residues when protein conformation changing. Appearance of such centers is usually considered as a pathological process. Such unilateral approach does not allow to obtain an integral view of the phenomenon, ignoring cases when formation of metal complexes with altered proteins is a way to adjust protein properties, activity, and stability under the changed redox conditions. The role of metals in protein aggregation is being studied actively, since it leads to formation of non-membranous organelles, liquid condensates, and solid conglomerates. Some proteins found in such aggregates are typical for various diseases, such as Alzheimer's and Huntington's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and some types of cancer.

RevDate: 2024-04-17
CmpDate: 2024-04-17

Rezvykh A, Shteinberg D, Bronovitsky E, et al (2024)

Animal Models of FUS-Proteinopathy: A Systematic Review.

Biochemistry. Biokhimiia, 89(Suppl 1):S34-S56.

Mutations that disrupt the function of the DNA/RNA-binding protein FUS could cause amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and other neurodegenerative diseases. One of the key features in ALS pathogenesis is the formation of insoluble protein aggregates containing aberrant isoforms of the FUS protein in the cytoplasm of upper and lower motor neurons. Reproduction of human pathology in animal models is the main tool for studying FUS-associated pathology and searching for potential therapeutic agents for ALS treatment. In this review, we provide a systematic analysis of the role of FUS protein in ALS pathogenesis and an overview of the results of modelling FUS-proteinopathy in animals.

RevDate: 2024-04-14

Roghani AK, Garcia RI, Roghani A, et al (2024)

Treating Alzheimer's disease using nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery strategies/systems.

Ageing research reviews, 97:102291 pii:S1568-1637(24)00109-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The administration of promising medications for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is significantly hampered by the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Nanotechnology has recently come to light as a viable strategy for overcoming this obstacle and improving drug delivery to the brain. With a focus on current developments and prospects, this review article examines the use of nanoparticles to overcome the BBB constraints to improve drug therapy for AD The potential for several nanoparticle-based approaches, such as those utilizing lipid-based, polymeric, and inorganic nanoparticles, to enhance drug transport across the BBB are highlighted. To shed insight on their involvement in aiding effective drug transport to the brain, methods of nanoparticle-mediated drug delivery, such as surface modifications, functionalization, and particular targeting ligands, are also investigated. The article also discusses the most recent findings on innovative medication formulations encapsulated within nanoparticles and the therapeutic effects they have shown in both preclinical and clinical testing. This sector has difficulties and restrictions, such as the need for increased safety, scalability, and translation to clinical applications. However, the major emphasis of this review aims to provide insight and contribute to the knowledge of how nanotechnology can potentially revolutionize the worldwide treatment of NDDs, particularly AD, to enhance clinical outcomes.

RevDate: 2024-04-25
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Giri PM, Banerjee A, Ghosal A, et al (2024)

Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Disorders: Current Knowledge and Therapeutic Implications.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(7):.

Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) have become increasingly common during the past three decades. Approximately 15% of the total population of the world is affected by some form of NDs, resulting in physical and cognitive disability. The most common NDs include Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Huntington's disease. Although NDs are caused by a complex interaction of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle variables, neuroinflammation is known to be associated with all NDs, often leading to permanent damage to neurons of the central nervous system. Furthermore, numerous emerging pieces of evidence have demonstrated that inflammation not only supports the progression of NDs but can also serve as an initiator. Hence, various medicines capable of preventing or reducing neuroinflammation have been investigated as ND treatments. While anti-inflammatory medicine has shown promising benefits in several preclinical models, clinical outcomes are often questionable. In this review, we discuss various NDs with their current treatment strategies, the role of neuroinflammation in the pathophysiology of NDs, and the use of anti-inflammatory agents as a potential therapeutic option.

RevDate: 2024-04-25
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Homma H, Tanaka H, Fujita K, et al (2024)

Necrosis Links Neurodegeneration and Neuroinflammation in Neurodegenerative Disease.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(7):.

The mechanisms of neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative disease remain incompletely understood, although recent studies have made significant advances. Apoptosis was previously considered to be the only mechanism of neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. However, recent findings have challenged this dogma, identifying new subtypes of necrotic neuronal cell death. The present review provides an updated summary of necrosis subtypes and discusses their potential roles in neurodegenerative cell death. Among numerous necrosis subtypes, including necroptosis, paraptosis, ferroptosis, and pyroptosis, transcriptional repression-induced atypical cell death (TRIAD) has been identified as a potential mechanism of neuronal cell death. TRIAD is induced by functional deficiency of TEAD-YAP and self-amplifies via the release of HMGB1. TRIAD is a feasible potential mechanism of neuronal cell death in Alzheimer's disease and other neurodegenerative diseases. In addition to induction of cell death, HMGB1 released during TRIAD activates brain inflammatory responses, which is a potential link between neurodegeneration and neuroinflammation.

RevDate: 2024-04-25

Papadopoulou M, Papapostolou A, Dimakopoulos R, et al (2024)

Non-Pharmacological Interventions on Pain in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis.

Healthcare (Basel, Switzerland), 12(7):.

BACKGROUND: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder affecting upper and lower motor neurons. Some ALS patients exhibit concomitant nonmotor signs; thus, ALS is considered a multisystemic disorder. Pain is an important nonmotor symptom. Observational and case-control studies report high frequency of pain in ALS patients and it has been correlated with depression and quality of life. There are no specific scales for the assessment of pain and no randomized controlled trials (RCTs) regarding the drug management of pain in ALS.

AIM: To systematically review the evidence for the nonpharmacological interventions (NPIs) in relieving pain in ALS, on March 2024, we searched the following databases: Pubmed, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane. We also checked the bibliographies of trials identified to include further published or unpublished trials.

MAIN RESULTS: A total of 1003 records were identified. Finally, five RCTs including 131 patients (64 in the intervention group and 67 in the control group) were included for meta-analysis. The interventions of the included RCTs consisted of muscle exercise, combined aerobics-strength intervention, and osteopathic manual treatment. The meta-analysis did not find a statistically significant difference in favor of NPIs for alleviating pain in ALS patients.

CONCLUSIONS: ALS has a fulminant course and irreversibly leads to death. Pain in ALS patients, although a common nonmotor symptom, is often unrecognized and undertreated, and this is underlined by the lack of any RCTs on drug therapy for pain. Albeit NPIs are considered safe, as adverse effects are rarely reported, this systematic review did not provide sufficient evidence for a beneficial effect on pain. The scarceness of relevant literature highlights the need for future studies, with larger samples, more homogeneous in terms of interventions and population characteristics (stage of disease), and better choice of measurement scales to further investigate the efficacy, if any, of various pain interventions in ALS patients.

RevDate: 2024-04-25
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Liu X, Shen L, Wan M, et al (2024)

Peripheral extracellular vesicles in neurodegeneration: pathogenic influencers and therapeutic vehicles.

Journal of nanobiotechnology, 22(1):170.

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis epitomize a class of insidious and relentless neurological conditions that are difficult to cure. Conventional therapeutic regimens often fail due to the late onset of symptoms, which occurs well after irreversible neurodegeneration has begun. The integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) further impedes efficacious drug delivery to the central nervous system, presenting a formidable challenge in the pharmacological treatment of NDDs. Recent scientific inquiries have shifted focus toward the peripheral biological systems, investigating their influence on central neuropathology through the lens of extracellular vesicles (EVs). These vesicles, distinguished by their ability to breach the BBB, are emerging as dual operatives in the context of NDDs, both as conveyors of pathogenic entities and as prospective vectors for therapeutic agents. This review critically summarizes the burgeoning evidence on the role of extracerebral EVs, particularly those originating from bone, adipose tissue, and gut microbiota, in modulating brain pathophysiology. It underscores the duplicity potential of peripheral EVs as modulators of disease progression and suggests their potential as novel vehicles for targeted therapeutic delivery, positing a transformative impact on the future landscape of NDD treatment strategies. Search strategy A comprehensive literature search was conducted using PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus from January 2000 to December 2023. The search combined the following terms using Boolean operators: "neurodegenerative disease" OR "Alzheimer's disease" OR "Parkinson's disease" OR "Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis" AND "extracellular vesicles" OR "exosomes" OR "outer membrane vesicles" AND "drug delivery systems" AND "blood-brain barrier". MeSH terms were employed when searching PubMed to refine the results. Studies were included if they were published in English, involved human subjects, and focused on the peripheral origins of EVs, specifically from bone, adipose tissue, and gut microbiota, and their association with related diseases such as osteoporosis, metabolic syndrome, and gut dysbiosis. Articles were excluded if they did not address the role of EVs in the context of NDDs or did not discuss therapeutic applications. The titles and abstracts of retrieved articles were screened using a dual-review process to ensure relevance and accuracy. The reference lists of selected articles were also examined to identify additional relevant studies.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Sellier C, Corcia P, Vourc'h P, et al (2024)

C9ORF72 hexanucleotide repeat expansion: From ALS and FTD to a broader pathogenic role?.

Revue neurologique pii:S0035-3787(24)00488-0 [Epub ahead of print].

The major gene underlying monogenic forms of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and fronto-temporal dementia (FTD) is C9ORF72. The causative mutation in C9ORF72 is an abnormal hexanucleotide (G4C2) repeat expansion (HRE) located in the first intron of the gene. The aim of this review is to propose a comprehensive update on recent developments on clinical, biological and therapeutics aspects related to C9ORF72 in order to highlight the current understanding of genotype-phenotype correlations, and also on biological machinery leading to neuronal death. We will particularly focus on the broad phenotypic presentation of C9ORF72-related diseases, that goes well beyond the classical phenotypes observed in ALS and FTD patients. Last, we will comment the possible therapeutical hopes for patients carrying a C9ORF72 HRE.

RevDate: 2024-04-12

Khalil M, Teunissen CE, Lehmann S, et al (2024)

Neurofilaments as biomarkers in neurological disorders - towards clinical application.

Nature reviews. Neurology [Epub ahead of print].

Neurofilament proteins have been validated as specific body fluid biomarkers of neuro-axonal injury. The advent of highly sensitive analytical platforms that enable reliable quantification of neurofilaments in blood samples and simplify longitudinal follow-up has paved the way for the development of neurofilaments as a biomarker in clinical practice. Potential applications include assessment of disease activity, monitoring of treatment responses, and determining prognosis in many acute and chronic neurological disorders as well as their use as an outcome measure in trials of novel therapies. Progress has now moved the measurement of neurofilaments to the doorstep of routine clinical practice for the evaluation of individuals. In this Review, we first outline current knowledge on the structure and function of neurofilaments. We then discuss analytical and statistical approaches and challenges in determining neurofilament levels in different clinical contexts and assess the implications of neurofilament light chain (NfL) levels in normal ageing and the confounding factors that need to be considered when interpreting NfL measures. In addition, we summarize the current value and potential clinical applications of neurofilaments as a biomarker of neuro-axonal damage in a range of neurological disorders, including multiple sclerosis, Alzheimer disease, frontotemporal dementia, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke and cerebrovascular disease, traumatic brain injury, and Parkinson disease. We also consider the steps needed to complete the translation of neurofilaments from the laboratory to the management of neurological diseases in clinical practice.

RevDate: 2024-04-25
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Tamberi L, Belloni A, Pugnaloni A, et al (2024)

The Influence of Myeloid-Derived Suppressor Cell Expansion in Neuroinflammation and Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Cells, 13(7):.

The neuro-immune axis has a crucial function both during physiological and pathological conditions. Among the immune cells, myeloid-derived suppressor cells (MDSCs) exert a pivotal role in regulating the immune response in many pathological conditions, influencing neuroinflammation and neurodegenerative disease progression. In chronic neuroinflammation, MDSCs could lead to exacerbation of the inflammatory state and eventually participate in the impairment of cognitive functions. To have a complete overview of the role of MDSCs in neurodegenerative diseases, research on PubMed for articles using a combination of terms made with Boolean operators was performed. According to the search strategy, 80 papers were retrieved. Among these, 44 papers met the eligibility criteria. The two subtypes of MDSCs, monocytic and polymorphonuclear MDSCs, behave differently in these diseases. The initial MDSC proliferation is fundamental for attenuating inflammation in Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and multiple sclerosis (MS), but not in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), where MDSC expansion leads to exacerbation of the disease. Moreover, the accumulation of MDSC subtypes in distinct organs changes during the disease. The proliferation of MDSC subtypes occurs at different disease stages and can influence the progression of each neurodegenerative disorder differently.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Shin-Yi Lin C, Howells J, Rutkove S, et al (2024)

Neurophysiological and imaging biomarkers of lower motor neuron dysfunction in motor neuron diseases/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: IFCN handbook chapter.

Clinical neurophysiology : official journal of the International Federation of Clinical Neurophysiology, 162:91-120 pii:S1388-2457(24)00085-3 [Epub ahead of print].

This chapter discusses comprehensive neurophysiological biomarkers utilised in motor neuron disease (MND) and, in particular, its commonest form, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). These encompass the conventional techniques including nerve conduction studies (NCS), needle and high-density surface electromyography (EMG) and H-reflex studies as well as novel techniques. In the last two decades, new methods of assessing the loss of motor units in a muscle have been developed, that are more convenient than earlier methods of motor unit number estimation (MUNE),and may use either electrical stimulation (e.g. MScanFit MUNE) or voluntary activation (MUNIX). Electrical impedance myography (EIM) is another novel approach for the evaluation that relies upon the application and measurement of high-frequency, low-intensity electrical current. Nerve excitability techniques (NET) also provide insights into the function of an axon and reflect the changes in resting membrane potential, ion channel dysfunction and the structural integrity of the axon and myelin sheath. Furthermore, imaging ultrasound techniques as well as magnetic resonance imaging are capable of detecting the constituents of morphological changes in the nerve and muscle. The chapter provides a critical description of the ability of each technique to provide neurophysiological insight into the complex pathophysiology of MND/ALS. However, it is important to recognise the strengths and limitations of each approach in order to clarify utility. These neurophysiological biomarkers have demonstrated reliability, specificity and provide additional information to validate and assess lower motor neuron dysfunction. Their use has expanded the knowledge about MND/ALS and enhanced our understanding of the relationship between motor units, axons, reflexes and other neural circuits in relation to clinical features of patients with MND/ALS at different stages of the disease. Taken together, the ultimate goal is to aid early diagnosis, distinguish potential disease mimics, monitor and stage disease progression, quantify response to treatment and develop potential therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Madhubala D, Patra A, Khan MR, et al (2024)

Phytomedicine for neurodegenerative diseases: The road ahead.

Phytotherapy research : PTR [Epub ahead of print].

Neurodegenerative disorders (NDs) are among the most common causes of death across the globe. NDs are characterized by progressive damage to CNS neurons, leading to defects in specific brain functions such as memory, cognition, and movement. The most common NDs are Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, Huntington's, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Despite extensive research, no therapeutics or medications against NDs have been proven to be effective. The current treatment of NDs involving symptom-based targeting of the disease pathogenesis has certain limitations, such as drug resistance, adverse side effects, poor blood-brain barrier permeability, and poor bioavailability of drugs. Some studies have shown that plant-derived natural compounds hold tremendous promise for treating and preventing NDs. Therefore, the primary objective of this review article is to critically analyze the properties and potency of some of the most studied phytomedicines, such as quercetin, curcumin, epigallocatechin gallate (EGCG), apigenin, and cannabinoids, and highlight their advantages and limitations for developing next-generation alternative treatments against NDs. Further extensive research on pre-clinical and clinical studies for developing plant-based drugs against NDs from bench to bedside is warranted.

RevDate: 2024-04-12
CmpDate: 2024-04-12

Castro-Gomez S, MT Heneka (2024)

Innate immune activation in neurodegenerative diseases.

Immunity, 57(4):790-814.

Activation of the innate immune system following pattern recognition receptor binding has emerged as one of the major pathogenic mechanisms in neurodegenerative disease. Experimental, epidemiological, pathological, and genetic evidence underscores the meaning of innate immune activation during the prodromal as well as clinical phases of several neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and frontotemporal dementia. Importantly, innate immune activation and the subsequent release of inflammatory mediators contribute mechanistically to other hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases such as aberrant proteostatis, pathological protein aggregation, cytoskeleton abnormalities, altered energy homeostasis, RNA and DNA defects, and synaptic and network disbalance and ultimately to the induction of neuronal cell death. In this review, we discuss common mechanisms of innate immune activation in neurodegeneration, with particular emphasis on the pattern recognition receptors (PRRs) and other receptors involved in the detection of damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs).

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Zhou L, Xie M, Wang X, et al (2024)

The usage and advantages of several common amyotrophic lateral sclerosis animal models.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 18:1341109.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal, multigenic, multifactorial neurodegenerative disease characterized by upper and lower motor neuron loss. Animal models are essential for investigating pathogenesis and reflecting clinical manifestations, particularly in developing reasonable prevention and therapeutic methods for human diseases. Over the decades, researchers have established a host of different animal models in order to dissect amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), such as yeast, worms, flies, zebrafish, mice, rats, pigs, dogs, and more recently, non-human primates. Although these models show different peculiarities, they are all useful and complementary to dissect the pathological mechanisms of motor neuron degeneration in ALS, contributing to the development of new promising therapeutics. In this review, we describe several common animal models in ALS, classified by the naturally occurring and experimentally induced, pointing out their features in modeling, the onset and progression of the pathology, and their specific pathological hallmarks. Moreover, we highlight the pros and cons aimed at helping the researcher select the most appropriate among those common experimental animal models when designing a preclinical ALS study.

RevDate: 2024-04-11

Lerose V, Ponticelli M, Benedetto N, et al (2024)

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal, a Potential Source of Phytochemicals for Treating Neurodegenerative Diseases: A Systematic Review.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 13(6):.

Withania somnifera (L.) Dunal is a medicinal plant belonging to the traditional Indian medical system, showing various therapeutic effects such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammatory, anti-microbial, anti-diabetic, and hepatoprotective activity. Of great interest is W. somnifera's potential beneficial effect against neurodegenerative diseases, since the authorized medicinal treatments can only delay disease progression and provide symptomatic relief and are not without side effects. A systematic search of PubMed and Scopus databases was performed to identify preclinical and clinical studies focusing on the applications of W. somnifera in preventing neurodegenerative diseases. Only English articles and those containing the keywords (Withania somnifera AND "neurodegenerative diseases", "neuroprotective effects", "Huntington", "Parkinson", "Alzheimer", "Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis", "neurological disorders") in the title or abstract were considered. Reviews, editorials, letters, meta-analyses, conference papers, short surveys, and book chapters were not considered. Selected articles were grouped by pathologies and summarized, considering the mechanism of action. The quality assessment and the risk of bias were performed using the Cochrane Handbook for Systematic Reviews of Interventions checklist. This review uses a systematic approach to summarize the results from 60 investigations to highlight the potential role of W. somnifera and its specialized metabolites in treating or preventing neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2024-04-10
CmpDate: 2024-04-10

El Hajj R, Al Sagheer T, N Ballout (2024)

Optogenetics in chronic neurodegenerative diseases, controlling the brain with light: A systematic review.

Journal of neuroscience research, 102(4):e25321.

Neurodegenerative diseases are progressive disorders characterized by synaptic loss and neuronal death. Optogenetics combines optical and genetic methods to control the activity of specific cell types. The efficacy of this approach in neurodegenerative diseases has been investigated in many reviews, however, none of them tackled it systematically. Our study aimed to review systematically the findings of optogenetics and its potential applications in animal models of chronic neurodegenerative diseases and compare it with deep brain stimulation and designer receptors exclusively activated by designer drugs techniques. The search strategy was performed based on the PRISMA guidelines and the risk of bias was assessed following the Systematic Review Centre for Laboratory Animal Experimentation tool. A total of 247 articles were found, of which 53 were suitable for the qualitative analysis. Our data revealed that optogenetic manipulation of distinct neurons in the brain is efficient in rescuing memory impairment, alleviating neuroinflammation, and reducing plaque pathology in Alzheimer's disease. Similarly, this technique shows an advanced understanding of the contribution of various neurons involved in the basal ganglia pathways with Parkinson's disease motor symptoms and pathology. However, the optogenetic application using animal models of Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis was limited. Optogenetics is a promising technique that enhanced our knowledge in the research of neurodegenerative diseases and addressed potential therapeutic solutions for managing these diseases' symptoms and delaying their progression. Nevertheless, advanced investigations should be considered to improve optogenetic tools' efficacy and safety to pave the way for their translatability to the clinic.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Zhang T, Bao L, H Chen (2024)

Review of Phenotypic Heterogeneity of Neuronal Intranuclear Inclusion Disease and NOTCH2NLC-Related GGC Repeat Expansion Disorders.

Neurology. Genetics, 10(2):e200132.

Neuronal intranuclear inclusion disease (NIID) is an underdiagnosed neurodegenerative disorder caused by pathogenic GGC expansions in NOTCH2NLC. However, an increasing number of reports of NOTCH2NLC GGC expansions in patients with Alzheimer disease, essential tremor, Parkinson disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and oculopharyngodistal myopathy have led to the proposal of a new concept known as NOTCH2NLC-related GGC repeat expansion disorders (NREDs). The majority of studies have mainly focused on screening for NOTCH2NLC GGC repeat variation in populations previously diagnosed with the associated disease, subsequently presenting it as a novel causative gene for the condition. These studies appear to be clinically relevant but do have their limitations because they may incorrectly regard the lack of MRI abnormalities as an exclusion criterion for NIID or overlook concomitant clinical presentations not typically observed in the associated diseases. Besides, in many instances within these reports, patients lack pathologic evidence or undergo long-term follow-up to conclusively rule out NIID. In this review, we will systematically review the research on NOTCH2NLC 5' untranslated region GGC repeat expansions and their association with related neurologic disorders, explaining the limitations of the relevant reports. Furthermore, we will integrate subsequent studies to further demonstrate that these patients actually experienced distinct clinical phenotypes of NIID.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Pinilla-González V, Montecinos-Barrientos B, Martin-Kommer C, et al (2024)

Exploring antioxidant strategies in the pathogenesis of ALS.

Open life sciences, 19(1):20220842.

The central nervous system is essential for maintaining homeostasis and controlling the body's physiological functions. However, its biochemical characteristics make it highly vulnerable to oxidative damage, which is a common factor in neurodegenerative diseases like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). ALS is a leading cause of motor neuron disease, characterized by a rapidly progressing and incurable condition. ALS often results in death from respiratory failure within 3-5 years from the onset of the first symptoms, underscoring the urgent need to address this medical challenge. The aim of this study is to present available data supporting the role of oxidative stress in the mechanisms underlying ALS and to discuss potential antioxidant therapies currently in development. These therapies aim to improve the quality of life and life expectancy for patients affected by this devastating disease.

RevDate: 2024-04-09

Jamet M, Dupuis L, JL Gonzalez De Aguilar (2024)

Oligodendrocytes in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia: the new players on stage.

Frontiers in molecular neuroscience, 17:1375330.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are fatal adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders that share clinical, neuropathological and genetic features, which forms part of a multi-system disease spectrum. The pathological process leading to ALS and FTD is the result of the combination of multiple mechanisms that operate within specific populations of neurons and glial cells. The implication of oligodendrocytes has been the subject of a number of studies conducted on patients and related animal models. In this review we summarize our current knowledge on the alterations specific to myelin and the oligodendrocyte lineage occurring in ALS and FTD. We also consider different ways by which specific oligodendroglial alterations influence neurodegeneration and highlight the important role of oligodendrocytes in these two intrinsically associated neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2024-04-08
CmpDate: 2024-04-08

Thal DR, Gawor K, S Moonen (2024)

Regulated cell death and its role in Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Acta neuropathologica, 147(1):69.

Despite considerable research efforts, it is still not clear which mechanisms underlie neuronal cell death in neurodegenerative diseases. During the last 20 years, multiple pathways have been identified that can execute regulated cell death (RCD). Among these RCD pathways, apoptosis, necroptosis, pyroptosis, ferroptosis, autophagy-related cell death, and lysosome-dependent cell death have been intensively investigated. Although RCD consists of numerous individual pathways, multiple common proteins have been identified that allow shifting from one cell death pathway to another. Another layer of complexity is added by mechanisms such as the endosomal machinery, able to regulate the activation of some RCD pathways, preventing cell death. In addition, restricted axonal degeneration and synaptic pruning can occur as a result of RCD activation without loss of the cell body. RCD plays a complex role in neurodegenerative processes, varying across different disorders. It has been shown that RCD is differentially involved in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), among the most common neurodegenerative diseases. In AD, neuronal loss is associated with the activation of not only necroptosis, but also pyroptosis. In ALS, on the other hand, motor neuron death is not linked to canonical necroptosis, whereas pyroptosis pathway activation is seen in white matter microglia. Despite these differences in the activation of RCD pathways in AD and ALS, the accumulation of protein aggregates immunoreactive for p62/SQSTM1 (sequestosome 1) is a common event in both diseases and many other neurodegenerative disorders. In this review, we describe the major RCD pathways with clear activation in AD and ALS, the main interactions between these pathways, as well as their differential and similar involvement in these disorders. Finally, we will discuss targeting RCD as an innovative therapeutic concept for neurodegenerative diseases, such as AD and ALS. Considering that the execution of RCD or "cellular suicide" represents the final stage in neurodegeneration, it seems crucial to prevent neuronal death in patients by targeting RCD. This would offer valuable time to address upstream events in the pathological cascade by keeping the neurons alive.

RevDate: 2024-04-04

Chandran SK, M Doucet (2024)

Neurogenic Dysphagia.

Otolaryngologic clinics of North America pii:S0030-6665(24)00037-9 [Epub ahead of print].

This article provides an overview of neurogenic dysphagia, describing the evaluation and management of swallowing dysfunction in various neurologic diseases. The article will focus on stroke, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis.

RevDate: 2024-04-27

Wiblin L (2024)

An introduction to neuropalliative care: A growing need.

Clinical medicine (London, England), 24(2):100038 pii:S1470-2118(24)01759-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Palliative care (PC) defined as 'an approach improving the quality of life of patients and their families facing problems associated with life-limiting illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychosocial and spiritual' aims to enhance the improve the remaining time that patients have, emphasising choice for patients and families.[1] Patients with neurological disease such as Parkinson's (PD) and motor neurone disease (MND) benefit from PC earlier in disease with increasing emphasis over time. Understanding and communicating uncertain trajectories, honest prognostic communication when patients are ready and careful symptom control has been shown to enhance quality of life in patients and caregivers, giving greater autonomy to these patients when supported in decision-making by a palliative approach. Although obstacles to palliative care are frequent, there are strategies which can help overcome them.

RevDate: 2024-04-02

Pastora LE, Namburu NS, Arora K, et al (2024)

STING-Pathway Inhibiting Nanoparticles (SPINs) as a Platform for Treatment of Inflammatory Diseases.

ACS applied bio materials [Epub ahead of print].

Aberrant activation of the cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS)/Stimulator of Interferon Genes (STING) pathway has been implicated in the development and progression of a myriad of inflammatory diseases including colitis, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and age-related macular degeneration. Thus, STING pathway inhibitors could have therapeutic application in many of these inflammatory conditions. The cGAS inhibitor RU.521 and the STING inhibitor H-151 have shown promise as therapeutics in mouse models of colitis, ALS, and more. However, these agents require frequent high-dose intraperitoneal injections, which may limit translatability. Furthermore, long-term use of systemically administered cGAS/STING inhibitors may leave patients vulnerable to viral infections and cancer. Thus, localized or targeted inhibition of the cGAS/STING pathway may be an attractive, broadly applicable treatment for a variety of STING pathway-driven ailments. Here we describe STING-Pathway Inhibiting Nanoparticles (SPINS)-poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) nanoparticles loaded with RU.521 and H-151-as a platform for enhanced and sustained inhibition of cGAS/STING signaling. We demonstrate that SPINs are equally or more effective at inhibiting type-I interferon responses induced by cytosolic DNA than free H-151 or RU.521. Additionally, we describe a SPIN formulation in which PLGA is coemulsified with poly(benzoyloxypropyl methacrylamide) (P(HPMA-Bz)), which significantly improves drug loading and allows for tunable release of H-151 over a period of days to over a week by varying P(HPMA-Bz) content. Finally, we find that all SPIN formulations were as potent or more potent in inhibiting cGAS/STING signaling in primary murine macrophages, resulting in decreased expression of inflammatory M1-like macrophage markers. Therefore, our study provides an in vitro proof-of-concept for nanoparticle delivery of STING pathway inhibitors and positions SPINs as a potential platform for slowing or reversing the onset or progression of cGAS/STING-driven inflammatory conditions.

RevDate: 2024-04-02

Umar TP, Jain N, Papageorgakopoulou M, et al (2024)

Artificial intelligence for screening and diagnosis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare and fatal neurological disease that leads to progressive motor function degeneration. Diagnosing ALS is challenging due to the absence of a specific detection test. The use of artificial intelligence (AI) can assist in the investigation and treatment of ALS.

METHODS: We searched seven databases for literature on the application of AI in the early diagnosis and screening of ALS in humans. The findings were summarized using random-effects summary receiver operating characteristic curve. The risk of bias (RoB) analysis was carried out using QUADAS-2 or QUADAS-C tools.

RESULTS: In the 34 analyzed studies, a meta-prevalence of 47% for ALS was noted. For ALS detection, the pooled sensitivity of AI models was 94.3% (95% CI - 63.2% to 99.4%) with a pooled specificity of 98.9% (95% CI - 92.4% to 99.9%). For ALS classification, the pooled sensitivity of AI models was 90.9% (95% CI - 86.5% to 93.9%) with a pooled specificity of 92.3% (95% CI - 84.8% to 96.3%). Based on type of input for classification, the pooled sensitivity of AI models for gait, electromyography, and magnetic resonance signals was 91.2%, 92.6%, and 82.2%, respectively. The pooled specificity for gait, electromyography, and magnetic resonance signals was 94.1%, 96.5%, and 77.3%, respectively.

CONCLUSIONS: Although AI can play a significant role in the screening and diagnosis of ALS due to its high sensitivities and specificities, concerns remain regarding quality of evidence reported in the literature.

RevDate: 2024-04-01

Pensato U, P Cortelli (2024)

Soccer (football) and brain health.

Journal of neurology [Epub ahead of print].

Soccer is one of the most popular sports worldwide, played by over 270 million people and followed by many more. Several brain health benefits are promoted by practising soccer and physical exercise at large, which helps contrast the cognitive decline associated with ageing by enhancing neurogenesis processes. However, sport-related concussions have been increasingly recognised as a pressing public health concern, not only due to their acute impact but also, more importantly, due to mounting evidence indicating an elevated risk for the development of neurological sequelae following recurrent head traumas, especially chronic traumatic encephalopathy (CTE). While soccer players experience less frequent concussions compared with other contact or combat sports, such as American football or boxing, it stands alone in its purposeful use of the head to hit the ball (headings), setting its players apart as the only athletes exposed to intentional, sub-concussive head impacts. Additionally, an association between soccer and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis has been consistently observed, suggesting a potential "soccer-specific" risk factor. In this review, we discuss the neurological sequelae related to soccer playing, the emerging evidence of a detrimental effect related to recurrent headings, and the need for implementation of comprehensive strategies aimed at preventing and managing the burden of head impact in soccer.

RevDate: 2024-04-23

Yang L, Guttman L, Dawson VL, et al (2024)

Parthanatos: Mechanisms, modulation, and therapeutic prospects in neurodegenerative disease and stroke.

Biochemical pharmacology pii:S0006-2952(24)00157-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Parthanatos is a cell death signaling pathway that has emerged as a compelling target for pharmaceutical intervention. It plays a pivotal role in the neuron loss and neuroinflammation that occurs in Parkinson's Disease (PD), Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Huntington's Disease (HD), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and stroke. There are currently no treatments available to humans to prevent cell death in any of these diseases. This review provides an in-depth examination of the current understanding of the Parthanatos mechanism, with a particular focus on its implications in neuroinflammation and various diseases discussed herein. Furthermore, we thoroughly review potential intervention targets within the Parthanatos pathway. We dissect recent progress in inhibitory strategies, complimented by a detailed structural analysis of key Parthanatos executioners, PARP-1, AIF, and MIF, along with an assessment of their established inhibitors. We hope to introduce a new perspective on the feasibility of targeting components within the Parthanatos pathway, emphasizing its potential to bring about transformative outcomes in therapeutic interventions. By delineating therapeutic opportunities and known targets, we seek to emphasize the imperative of blocking Parthanatos as a precursor to developing disease-modifying treatments. This comprehensive exploration aims to catalyze a paradigm shift in our understanding of potential neurodegenerative disease therapeutics, advocating for the pursuit of effective interventions centered around Parthanatos inhibition.

RevDate: 2024-03-30

Di Nardo AA, A Prochiantz (2024)

Therapeutic value of homeoprotein signaling pathways.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 18:1359523.

Cell signaling based on homeoprotein transfer is a pathway with developmental and physiological functions. For a few transcription factors of this family, primarily ENGRAILED1, ENGRAILED2 and OTX2, their physiological functions have led to therapeutic strategies in animal models of human diseases, including Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, amblyopia and anxiety-related disorders. In mesencephalic dopaminergic neurons which degenerate in Parkinson's disease, ENGRAILED1/2 have cell autonomous activities, but their transducing properties enables their use as therapeutic proteins. In contrast, in spinal alpha-motoneurons, which are lost in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, ENGRAILED1 is supplied by V1 interneurons. Thus, its use as a therapeutic protein to protect alpha-motoneurons against degeneration mimics its normal non-cell autonomous neurotrophic activity. OTX2, synthesized and secreted by the choroid plexus, is transferred to parvalbumin interneurons and exerts regulatory functions controlling cerebral cortex plasticity. Understanding the latter OTX2 function has led to strategies for manipulating visual acuity and anxiety-like behavior in adult mice. In this review, we describe these cases and what is known about the involved molecular mechanisms. Because the transduction sequences are conserved in most of the few hundred homeoproteins, we argue how this family of molecules constitutes an important reservoir of physiological knowledge, with potential consequences in the search for new therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2024-04-15
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Krut' VG, Kalinichenko AL, Maltsev DI, et al (2024)

Optogenetic and chemogenetic approaches for modeling neurological disorders in vivo.

Progress in neurobiology, 235:102600.

Animal models of human neurological disorders provide valuable experimental tools which enable us to study various aspects of disorder pathogeneses, ranging from structural abnormalities and disrupted metabolism and signaling to motor and mental deficits, and allow us to test novel therapies in preclinical studies. To be valid, these animal models should recapitulate complex pathological features at the molecular, cellular, tissue, and behavioral levels as closely as possible to those observed in human subjects. Pathological states resembling known human neurological disorders can be induced in animal species by toxins, genetic factors, lesioning, or exposure to extreme conditions. In recent years, novel animal models recapitulating neuropathologies in humans have been introduced. These animal models are based on synthetic biology approaches: opto- and chemogenetics. In this paper, we review recent opto- and chemogenetics-based animal models of human neurological disorders. These models allow for the creation of pathological states by disrupting specific processes at the cellular level. The artificial pathological states mimic a range of human neurological disorders, such as aging-related dementia, Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, epilepsy, and ataxias. Opto- and chemogenetics provide new opportunities unavailable with other animal models of human neurological disorders. These techniques enable researchers to induce neuropathological states varying in severity and ranging from acute to chronic. We also discuss future directions for the development and application of synthetic biology approaches for modeling neurological disorders.

RevDate: 2024-03-30
CmpDate: 2024-03-29

Nemeth C, Banik NL, A Haque (2024)

Disruption of Neuromuscular Junction Following Spinal Cord Injury and Motor Neuron Diseases.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(6):.

The neuromuscular junction (NMJ) is a crucial structure that connects the cholinergic motor neurons to the muscle fibers and allows for muscle contraction and movement. Despite the interruption of the supraspinal pathways that occurs in spinal cord injury (SCI), the NMJ, innervated by motor neurons below the injury site, has been found to remain intact. This highlights the importance of studying the NMJ in rodent models of various nervous system disorders, such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Charcot-Marie-Tooth disease (CMT), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). The NMJ is also involved in myasthenic disorders, such as myasthenia gravis (MG), and is vulnerable to neurotoxin damage. Thus, it is important to analyze the integrity of the NMJ in rodent models during the early stages of the disease, as this may allow for a better understanding of the condition and potential treatment options. The spinal cord also plays a crucial role in the functioning of the NMJ, as the junction relays information from the spinal cord to the muscle fibers, and the integrity of the NMJ could be disrupted by SCI. Therefore, it is vital to study SCI and muscle function when studying NMJ disorders. This review discusses the formation and function of the NMJ after SCI and potential interventions that may reverse or improve NMJ dysfunction, such as exercise, nutrition, and trophic factors.

RevDate: 2024-03-30
CmpDate: 2024-03-29

Marshall Moscon SL, JR Connor (2024)

HFE Mutations in Neurodegenerative Disease as a Model of Hormesis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(6):.

Common variants in the iron regulatory protein HFE contribute to systematically increased iron levels, yet the effects in the brain are not fully characterized. It is commonly believed that iron dysregulation is a key contributor to neurodegenerative disease due to iron's ability to catalyze reactive oxygen species production. However, whether HFE variants exacerbate or protect against neurodegeneration has been heavily debated. Some claim that mutated HFE exacerbates oxidative stress and neuroinflammation, thus predisposing carriers to neurodegeneration-linked pathologies. However, H63D HFE has also been shown to slow the progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases and to protect against environmental toxins that cause neurodegeneration. These conflicting results showcase the need to further understand the contribution of HFE variants to neurodegenerative disease heterogeneity. Data from mouse models consistently demonstrate robust neuroprotection against toxins known to increase the risk of neurodegenerative disease. This may represent an adaptive, or hormetic, response to increased iron, which leaves cells better protected against future stressors. This review describes the current research regarding the contribution of HFE variants to neurodegenerative disease prognosis in the context of a hormetic model. To our knowledge, this is the first time that a hormetic model for neurodegenerative disease has been presented.

RevDate: 2024-03-30
CmpDate: 2024-03-29

Gascón E, Zaragoza P, Calvo AC, et al (2024)

Sporadic Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Skeletal Muscle Transcriptome Analysis: A Comprehensive Examination of Differentially Expressed Genes.

Biomolecules, 14(3):.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that comprises sporadic (sALS) and familial (fALS) cases, is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterized by progressive degeneration of motor neurons, leading to muscle atrophy and various clinical manifestations. However, the complex underlying mechanisms affecting this disease are not yet known. On the other hand, there is also no good prognosis of the disease due to the lack of biomarkers and therapeutic targets. Therefore, in this study, by means of bioinformatics analysis, sALS-affected muscle tissue was analyzed using the GEO GSE41414 dataset, identifying 397 differentially expressed genes (DEGs). Functional analysis revealed 320 up-regulated DEGs associated with muscle development and 77 down-regulated DEGs linked to energy metabolism. Protein-protein interaction network analysis identified 20 hub genes, including EIF4A1, HNRNPR and NDUFA4. Furthermore, miRNA target gene networks revealed 17 miRNAs linked to hub genes, with hsa-mir-206, hsa-mir-133b and hsa-mir-100-5p having been previously implicated in ALS. This study presents new potential biomarkers and therapeutic targets for ALS by correlating the information obtained with a comprehensive literature review, providing new potential targets to study their role in ALS.

RevDate: 2024-03-30
CmpDate: 2024-03-29

Stoklund Dittlau K, K Freude (2024)

Astrocytes: The Stars in Neurodegeneration?.

Biomolecules, 14(3):.

Today, neurodegenerative disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) affect millions of people worldwide, and as the average human lifespan increases, similarly grows the number of patients. For many decades, cognitive and motoric decline has been explained by the very apparent deterioration of neurons in various regions of the brain and spinal cord. However, more recent studies show that disease progression is greatly influenced by the vast population of glial cells. Astrocytes are traditionally considered star-shaped cells on which neurons rely heavily for their optimal homeostasis and survival. Increasing amounts of evidence depict how astrocytes lose their supportive functions while simultaneously gaining toxic properties during neurodegeneration. Many of these changes are similar across various neurodegenerative diseases, and in this review, we highlight these commonalities. We discuss how astrocyte dysfunction drives neuronal demise across a wide range of neurodegenerative diseases, but rather than categorizing based on disease, we aim to provide an overview based on currently known mechanisms. As such, this review delivers a different perspective on the disease causes of neurodegeneration in the hope to encourage further cross-disease studies into shared disease mechanisms, which might ultimately disclose potentially common therapeutic entry points across a wide panel of neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2024-03-30
CmpDate: 2024-03-29

Souza PVS, Serrano PL, Farias IB, et al (2024)

Clinical and Genetic Aspects of Juvenile Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Promising Era Emerges.

Genes, 15(3):.

Juvenile Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a genetically heterogeneous neurodegenerative disorder, which is frequently misdiagnosed due to low clinical suspicion and little knowledge about disease characteristics. More than 20 different genetic loci have been associated with both sporadic and familial juvenile Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. Currently, almost 40% of cases have an identifiable monogenic basis; type 6, associated with FUS gene variants, is the most prevalent globally. Despite several upper motor neuron-dominant forms being generally associated with long-standing motor symptoms and slowly progressive course, certain subtypes with lower motor neuron-dominant features and early bulbar compromise lead to rapidly progressive motor handicap. For some monogenic forms, there is a well-established genotypic-phenotypic correlation. There are no specific biochemical and neuroimaging biomarkers for the diagnosis of juvenile Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. There are several inherited neurodegenerative and neurometabolic disorders which can lead to the signs of motor neuron impairment. This review emphasizes the importance of high clinical suspicion, assessment, and proper diagnostic work-up for juvenile Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

RevDate: 2024-03-29
CmpDate: 2024-03-29

Ceccarelli L, Verriello L, Pauletto G, et al (2024)

The Role of Human Pluripotent Stem Cells in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: From Biological Mechanism to Practical Implications.

Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition), 29(3):114.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder, characterized by progressive loss of both upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in clinical features such as muscle weakness, paralysis, and ultimately, respiratory failure. Nowadays, there is not effective treatment to reverse the progression of the disease, that leads to death within 3-5 years after the onset. Nevertheless, the induced pluripotent stem cells (iPS) technology could be the answer, providing disease modelling, drug testing, and cell-based therapies for this pathology. The aim of this work was to conduct a literature review of the past 5 years about the role of iPS in ALS, to better define the neurobiological mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis and the potential future therapies. The review also deals with advanced and currently available technologies used to reprogram cell lines and generate human motor neurons in vitro, which represent the source to study the pathological processes, the relationship between phenotype and genotype, the disease progression and the potential therapeutic targets of these group of disorders. Specific treatment options with stem cells involve Advance Gene Editing Technology, neuroprotective agents, and cells or exosomes transplantation, aimed to replace dead or damaged nerve cells. In summary, this review comprehensively addresses the role of human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs) in motor neuron diseases (MND), with a focus on physiopathology, diagnostic and prognostic implications, specific and potential future treatment options. Understanding the biological mechanisms and practical implications of hPSCs in MND is crucial for advancing therapeutic strategies and improving outcomes for patients affected by these devastating diseases.

RevDate: 2024-03-29

Liampas I, Danga F, Kyriakoulopoulou P, et al (2024)

The Contribution of Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) to the Study of Neurodegenerative Disorders: A Narrative Review.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 14(6):.

Functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) is an innovative neuroimaging method that offers several advantages over other commonly used modalities. This narrative review investigated the potential contribution of this method to the study of neurodegenerative disorders. Thirty-four studies involving patients with Alzheimer's disease (AD), mild cognitive impairment (MCI), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Parkinson's disease (PD), or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and healthy controls were reviewed. Overall, it was revealed that the prefrontal cortex of individuals with MCI may engage compensatory mechanisms to support declining brain functions. A rightward shift was suggested to compensate for the loss of the left prefrontal capacity in the course of cognitive decline. In parallel, some studies reported the failure of compensatory mechanisms in MCI and early AD; this lack of appropriate hemodynamic responses may serve as an early biomarker of neurodegeneration. One article assessing FTD demonstrated a heterogeneous cortical activation pattern compared to AD, indicating that fNIRS may contribute to the challenging distinction of these conditions. Regarding PD, there was evidence that cognitive resources (especially executive function) were recruited to compensate for locomotor impairments. As for ALS, fNIRS data support the involvement of extra-motor networks in ALS, even in the absence of measurable cognitive impairment.

RevDate: 2024-03-29
CmpDate: 2024-03-28

Cohen J, Mathew A, Dourvetakis KD, et al (2024)

Recent Research Trends in Neuroinflammatory and Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Cells, 13(6):.

Neuroinflammatory and neurodegenerative disorders including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), traumatic brain injury (TBI) and Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are chronic major health disorders. The exact mechanism of the neuroimmune dysfunctions of these disease pathogeneses is currently not clearly understood. These disorders show dysregulated neuroimmune and inflammatory responses, including activation of neurons, glial cells, and neurovascular unit damage associated with excessive release of proinflammatory cytokines, chemokines, neurotoxic mediators, and infiltration of peripheral immune cells into the brain, as well as entry of inflammatory mediators through damaged neurovascular endothelial cells, blood-brain barrier and tight junction proteins. Activation of glial cells and immune cells leads to the release of many inflammatory and neurotoxic molecules that cause neuroinflammation and neurodegeneration. Gulf War Illness (GWI) and myalgic encephalomyelitis/chronic fatigue syndrome (ME/CFS) are chronic disorders that are also associated with neuroimmune dysfunctions. Currently, there are no effective disease-modifying therapeutic options available for these diseases. Human induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC)-derived neurons, astrocytes, microglia, endothelial cells and pericytes are currently used for many disease models for drug discovery. This review highlights certain recent trends in neuroinflammatory responses and iPSC-derived brain cell applications in neuroinflammatory disorders.

RevDate: 2024-03-28

Moskvin SV (2024)

A brief literature review of low-level laser therapy for treating amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and confirmation of its effectiveness.

BioMedicine, 14(1):1-9.

INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with a steadily progressive course due to the death of central and peripheral motor neurons responsible for voluntary movements. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is a treatment method unique in its universality and efficacy, particularly for neurodegenerative diseases.

METHODS: In this review, we discuss the effect and application of LLLT in the treatment of ALS. A literature search for English and Russian publications for the keywords "Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis", "Low-Level Laser Therapy" was performed using PubMed, Scopus, Google Scholar, Web of Science and Russian Science Citation Index (RSCI) databases.

RESULTS: The article provided a brief literature review, substantiated the potential use of low-level laser therapy for ALS. The particular techniques of LLLT were developed.

CONCLUSION: Based on the results of several studies and many years of successful experience with low-level laser therapy in Russia we conclude that a LLLT technique, including intravenous laser blood illumination (ILBI), noninvasive laser blood illumination (NLBI), and local exposure, is a promising treatment method for ALS.

RevDate: 2024-03-27

Shirai R, J Yamauchi (2024)

Emerging Evidence of Golgi Stress Signaling for Neuropathies.

Neurology international, 16(2):334-348.

The Golgi apparatus is an intracellular organelle that modifies cargo, which is transported extracellularly through the nucleus, endoplasmic reticulum, and plasma membrane in order. First, the general function of the Golgi is reviewed and, then, Golgi stress signaling is discussed. In addition to the six main Golgi signaling pathways, two pathways that have been increasingly reported in recent years are described in this review. The focus then shifts to neurological disorders, examining Golgi stress reported in major neurological disorders, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and Huntington's disease. The review also encompasses findings related to other diseases, including hypomyelinating leukodystrophy, frontotemporal spectrum disorder/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, microcephaly, Wilson's disease, and prion disease. Most of these neurological disorders cause Golgi fragmentation and Golgi stress. As a result, strong signals may act to induce apoptosis.

RevDate: 2024-03-26
CmpDate: 2024-03-26

Pota V, Sansone P, De Sarno S, et al (2024)

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Pain: A Narrative Review from Pain Assessment to Therapy.

Behavioural neurology, 2024:1228194.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is the most frequent neurodegenerative disease of the motor system that affects upper and lower motor neurons, leading to progressive muscle weakness, spasticity, atrophy, and respiratory failure, with a life expectancy of 2-5 years after symptom onset. In addition to motor symptoms, patients with ALS have a multitude of nonmotor symptoms; in fact, it is currently considered a multisystem disease. The purpose of our narrative review is to evaluate the different types of pain, the correlation between pain and the disease's stages, the pain assessment tools in ALS patients, and the available therapies focusing above all on the benefits of cannabis use. Pain is an underestimated and undertreated symptom that, in the last few years, has received more attention from research because it has a strong impact on the quality of life of these patients. The prevalence of pain is between 15% and 85% of ALS patients, and the studies on the type and intensity of pain are controversial. The absence of pain assessment tools validated in the ALS population and the dissimilar study designs influence the knowledge of ALS pain and consequently the pharmacological therapy. Several studies suggest that ALS is associated with changes in the endocannabinoid system, and the use of cannabis could slow the disease progression due to its neuroprotective action and act on pain, spasticity, cramps, sialorrhea, and depression. Our research has shown high patients' satisfaction with the use of cannabis for the treatment of spasticity and related pain. However, especially due to the ethical problems and the lack of interest of pharmaceutical companies, further studies are needed to ensure the most appropriate care for ALS patients.

RevDate: 2024-03-22

Kotsia E, Chroni E, Alexandropoulou A, et al (2024)

Dysphagia Assessments as Criteria in the 'Decision-Making Process' for Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy Placement in People with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Systematic Review.

Dysphagia [Epub ahead of print].

To review the assessment methods of dysphagia as a criterion for the decision-making process for Percutaneous Endoscopic Gastrostomy (PEG) placement in patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS). Systematic review. A search was conducted in three databases (EMBASE, CINAHL, PUBMED) in December 2022 and updated in July 2023. Two reviewers independently screened, selected, and extracted data. Study quality was appraised using the Joanna Briggs Institute Critical Appraisal Tools. Systematic review registration number in the International Prospective Register of Systematic Reviews (PROSPERO): CRD42022385461. The searches identified 240 records. The 10 eligible studies included 2 case reports, 4 retrospective studies, 3 prospective studies, and 1 cohort observational study. Study quality was low, with most studies having moderate to high risk of bias. Dysphagia is a common criterion for decision-making. Dysphagia assessment is usually in the form of either self-reports, objective instrumental assessments, or both. Dysphagia is a common criterion for the decision-making process, yet is missing in clinical guidelines. Establishing the optimal means of dysphagia assessment is important for timely decision-making procedures, so that life-threatening consequences of dysphagia are minimized.

RevDate: 2024-03-22

Li X, R Bedlack (2024)

Evaluating emerging drugs in phase II & III for the treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Expert opinion on emerging drugs [Epub ahead of print].

INTRODUCTION: Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis is a rapidly progressive motor neuron disorder causing severe disability and premature death. Owing to the advances in uncovering ALS pathophysiology, efficient clinical trial design and research advocacy program, several disease-modifying drugs have been approved for treating ALS. Despite this progress, ALS remains a rapidly disabling and life shortening condition. There is a critical need for more effective therapies.

AREAS COVERED: Here, we reviewed the emerging ALS therapeutics undergoing phase II & III clinical trials. To identify the investigational drugs, we searched ALS and phase II/III trials that are active and recruiting or not yet recruiting on clinicaltrials.gov and Pharmaprojects database.

EXPERT OPINION: The current pipeline is larger and more diverse than ever, with drugs targeting potential genetic and retroviral causes of ALS and drugs targeting a wide array of downstream pathways, including RNA metabolism, protein aggregation, integrated stress response and neuroinflammation.We remain most excited about those that target direct causes of ALS, e.g. antisense oligonucleotides targeting causative genes. Drugs that eliminate abnormal protein aggregates are also up-and-coming. Eventually, because of the heterogeneity of ALS pathophysiology, biomarkers that determine which biological events are most important for an individual ALS patient are needed.

RevDate: 2024-03-23

Wang L, Fang X, Ling B, et al (2024)

Research progress on ferroptosis in the pathogenesis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Frontiers in cellular neuroscience, 18:1359453.

Globally, millions of individuals are impacted by neurodegenerative disorders including Huntington's disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Parkinson's disease (PD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). Although a great deal of energy and financial resources have been invested in disease-related research, breakthroughs in therapeutic approaches remain elusive. The breakdown of cells usually happens together with the onset of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the mechanism that triggers neuronal loss is unknown. Lipid peroxidation, which is iron-dependent, causes a specific type of cell death called ferroptosis, and there is evidence its involvement in the pathogenic cascade of neurodegenerative diseases. However, the specific mechanisms are still not well known. The present article highlights the basic processes that underlie ferroptosis and the corresponding signaling networks. Furthermore, it provides an overview and discussion of current research on the role of ferroptosis across a variety of neurodegenerative conditions.

RevDate: 2024-03-22

Baxter RC (2024)

Endocrine and cellular physiology and pathology of the insulin-like growth factor acid-labile subunit.

Nature reviews. Endocrinology [Epub ahead of print].

The acid-labile subunit (ALS) of the insulin-like growth factor (IGF) binding protein (IGFBP) complex, encoded in humans by IGFALS, has a vital role in regulating the endocrine transport and bioavailability of IGF-1 and IGF-2. Accordingly, ALS has a considerable influence on postnatal growth and metabolism. ALS is a leucine-rich glycoprotein that forms high-affinity ternary complexes with IGFBP-3 or IGFBP-5 when they are occupied by either IGF-1 or IGF-2. These complexes constitute a stable reservoir of circulating IGFs, blocking the potentially hypoglycaemic activity of unbound IGFs. ALS is primarily synthesized by hepatocytes and its expression is lower in non-hepatic tissues. ALS synthesis is strongly induced by growth hormone and suppressed by IL-1β, thus potentially serving as a marker of growth hormone secretion and/or activity and of inflammation. IGFALS mutations in humans and Igfals deletion in mice cause modest growth retardation and pubertal delay, accompanied by decreased osteogenesis and enhanced adipogenesis. In hepatocellular carcinoma, IGFALS is described as a tumour suppressor; however, its contribution to other cancers is not well delineated. This Review addresses the endocrine physiology and pathology of ALS, discusses the latest cell and proteomic studies that suggest emerging cellular roles for ALS and outlines its involvement in other disease states.

RevDate: 2024-03-27
CmpDate: 2024-03-25

Bartolomé-Nafría A, García-Pardo J, S Ventura (2024)

Mutations in human prion-like domains: pathogenic but not always amyloidogenic.

Prion, 18(1):28-39.

Heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoproteins (hnRNPs) are multifunctional proteins with integral roles in RNA metabolism and the regulation of alternative splicing. These proteins typically contain prion-like domains of low complexity (PrLDs or LCDs) that govern their assembly into either functional or pathological amyloid fibrils. To date, over 60 mutations targeting the LCDs of hnRNPs have been identified and associated with a spectrum of neurodegenerative diseases including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), and Alzheimer's disease (AD). The cryo-EM structures of pathological and functional fibrils formed by different hnRNPs have been recently elucidated, including those of hnRNPA1, hnRNPA2, hnRNPDL-2, TDP-43, and FUS. In this review, we discuss the structural features of these amyloid assemblies, placing particular emphasis on scrutinizing the impact of prevalent disease-associated mutations mapping within their LCDs. By performing systematic energy calculations, we reveal a prevailing trend of destabilizing effects induced by these mutations in the amyloid structure, challenging the traditionally assumed correlation between pathogenicity and amyloidogenic propensity. Understanding the molecular basis of this discrepancy might provide insights for developing targeted therapeutic strategies to combat hnRNP-associated diseases.

RevDate: 2024-03-22

Ditan ID, CWR Turalde (2024)

Treatment gaps in the care of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in the Philippines: A scoping review.

Heliyon, 10(6):e27944.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive disease affecting both the upper and lower motor neurons. Much of the management of ALS is supportive with the goal of maximizing patient quality of life. While the Philippines was participative in the "Ice Bucket Challenge" in 2014, it is up for investigation whether substantial changes occurred to improve healthcare for ALS patients. This study aims to evaluate the treatment gaps in the management of ALS in the Philippines through a scoping review. Data on epidemiology, health systems, and pharmacotherapy available regarding ALS in the local setting were synthesized. Nine articles were included. As of July 2023, there were only four indexed studies on ALS from the Philippines. Five of the included articles investigated ALS in Filipino populations but were not authored by Filipinos nor affiliated with Philippine institutions. The available literature showed a distinct lack of local ALS epidemiologic data, as well as limited availability in diagnostic centers, medications, health financing options, and digestible information for Filipinos. The limitations in managing ALS in the country are multifactorial - from political, medical, and social. It is imperative to establish a national database, financing systems, support groups, and accessible diagnostic centers for ALS patients.

RevDate: 2024-03-20

Zhou L, R Xu (2024)

Invertebrate genetic models of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Frontiers in molecular neuroscience, 17:1328578.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a common adult-onset neurodegenerative disease characterized by the progressive death of motor neurons in the cerebral cortex, brain stem, and spinal cord. The exact mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of ALS remain unclear. The current consensus regarding the pathogenesis of ALS suggests that the interaction between genetic susceptibility and harmful environmental factors is a promising cause of ALS onset. The investigation of putative harmful environmental factors has been the subject of several ongoing studies, but the use of transgenic animal models to study ALS has provided valuable information on the onset of ALS. Here, we review the current common invertebrate genetic models used to study the pathology, pathophysiology, and pathogenesis of ALS. The considerations of the usage, advantages, disadvantages, costs, and availability of each invertebrate model will also be discussed.

RevDate: 2024-04-15
CmpDate: 2024-04-15

Bashir S, Aiman A, Shahid M, et al (2024)

Amyloid-induced neurodegeneration: A comprehensive review through aggregomics perception of proteins in health and pathology.

Ageing research reviews, 96:102276.

Amyloidosis of protein caused by fibrillation and aggregation are some of the most exciting new edges not only in protein sciences but also in molecular medicines. The present review discusses recent advancements in the field of neurodegenerative diseases and therapeutic applications with ongoing clinical trials, featuring new areas of protein misfolding resulting in aggregation. The endogenous accretion of protein fibrils having fibrillar morphology symbolizes the beginning of neuro-disorders. Prognostic amyloidosis is prominent in numerous degenerative infections such as Alzheimer's and Parkinson's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), etc. However, the molecular basis determining the intracellular or extracellular evidence of aggregates, playing a significant role as a causative factor in neurodegeneration is still unclear. Structural conversions and protein self-assembly resulting in the formation of amyloid oligomers and fibrils are important events in the pathophysiology of the disease. This comprehensive review sheds light on the evolving landscape of potential treatment modalities, highlighting the ongoing clinical trials and the potential socio-economic impact of novel therapeutic interventions in the realm of neurodegenerative diseases. Furthermore, many drugs are undergoing different levels of clinical trials that would certainly help in treating these disorders and will surely improve the socio-impact of human life.

RevDate: 2024-04-19
CmpDate: 2024-03-20

Kertesz A, Finger E, DG Munoz (2024)

Progress in Primary Progressive Aphasia: A Review.

Cognitive and behavioral neurology : official journal of the Society for Behavioral and Cognitive Neurology, 37(1):3-12.

We present a review of the definition, classification, and epidemiology of primary progressive aphasia (PPA); an update of the taxonomy of the clinical syndrome of PPA; and recent advances in the neuroanatomy, pathology, and genetics of PPA, as well as the search for biomarkers and treatment. PPA studies that have contributed to concepts of language organization and disease propagation in neurodegeneration are also reviewed. In addition, the issues of heterogeneity versus the relationships of the clinical phenotypes and their relationship to biological, pathological, and genetic advances are discussed, as is PPA's relationship to other conditions such as frontotemporal dementia, corticobasal degeneration, progressive supranuclear palsy, Pick disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Arguments are presented in favor of considering these conditions as one entity versus many.

RevDate: 2024-04-05

Chatterjee A, Kumar S, Roy Sarkar S, et al (2024)

Dietary polyphenols represent a phytotherapeutic alternative for gut dysbiosis associated neurodegeneration: A systematic review.

The Journal of nutritional biochemistry, 129:109622 pii:S0955-2863(24)00055-X [Epub ahead of print].

Globally, neurodegeneration and cerebrovascular disease are common and growing causes of morbidity and mortality. Pathophysiology of this group of diseases encompasses various factors from oxidative stress to gut microbial dysbiosis. The study of the etiology and mechanisms of oxidative stress as well as gut dysbiosis-induced neurodegeneration in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, autism spectrum disorder, and Huntington's disease has recently received a lot of attention. Numerous studies lend credence to the notion that changes in the intestinal microbiota and enteric neuroimmune system have an impact on the initiation and severity of these diseases. The prebiotic role of polyphenols can influence the makeup of the gut microbiota in neurodegenerative disorders by modulating intracellular signalling pathways. Metabolites of polyphenols function directly as neurotransmitters by crossing the blood-brain barrier or indirectly via influencing the cerebrovascular system. This assessment aims to bring forth an interlink between the consumption of polyphenols biotransformed by gut microbiota which in turn modulate the gut microbial diversity and biochemical changes in the brain. This systematic review will further augment research towards the association of dietary polyphenols in the management of gut dysbiosis-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2024-04-04
CmpDate: 2024-04-01

Tausendfreund O, Bidlingmaier M, Martini S, et al (2024)

Growth hormone treatment in aged patients with comorbidities: A systematic review.

Growth hormone & IGF research : official journal of the Growth Hormone Research Society and the International IGF Research Society, 75:101584.

OBJECTIVE: Hormonal substitution with growth hormone in aged patients remains a debated research topic and is rarely initiated in clinical practice. This reluctance may originate from concerns about adverse effects and the uncritical use as an anti-aging agent. Nevertheless, beneficial effects for selected patients suffering from certain acute and chronic illnesses could justify its use at an advanced age. This systematic review analyzes randomized controlled studies of GH interventions in older patients with different comorbidities to assess both, beneficial and harmful effects.

DESIGN: A systematic search strategy was implemented to identify relevant studies from PubMed, MEDLINE, and The Cochrane Library.

INCLUSION CRITERIA: participants aged over 65 years, randomized controlled trials involving human growth hormone (GH) and presence of at least one additional comorbidity independent of a flawed somatotropic axis.

RESULTS: The eight eligible studies encompassed various comorbidities including osteoporosis, frailty, chronic heart failure, hip fracture, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and hemodialysis. Outcomes varied, including changes in body composition, physical performance, strength, bone mineral density, cardiovascular parameters, quality of life and housing situation. Study protocols differed greatly in GH application frequency (daily, 2nd day or 3×/week), doses (0.41 mg-2.6 mg; mean 1.3 mg per 60 kg patient) and duration (1-12 months; mean 7 months). Mild dose-related side effects were reported, alongside noticeable positive impacts particularly on body composition, functionality, and quality of life.

CONCLUSION: Despite limited evidence, GH treatment might offer diverse benefits with few adverse effects. Further research with IGF-I dependent indication and clear outcomes, incorporating IGF-I dependent GH titration in older adults is warranted.

RevDate: 2024-03-18
CmpDate: 2024-03-18

Perera A, Brock O, Ahmed A, et al (2024)

Taking the knife to neurodegeneration: a review of surgical gene therapy delivery to the CNS.

Acta neurochirurgica, 166(1):136.

Gene supplementation and editing for neurodegenerative disorders has emerged in recent years as the understanding of the genetic mechanisms underlying several neurodegenerative disorders increases. The most common medium to deliver genetic material to cells is via viral vectors; and with respect to the central nervous system, adeno-associated viral (AAV) vectors are a popular choice. The most successful example of AAV-based gene therapy for neurodegenerative disorders is Zolgensma© which is a transformative intravenous therapy given to babies with spinal muscular atrophy. However, the field has stalled in achieving safe drug delivery to the central nervous system in adults for which treatments for disorders such as amyotrophic lateral sclerosis are desperately needed. Surgical gene therapy delivery has been proposed as a potential solution to this problem. While the field of the so-called regenerative neurosurgery has yielded pre-clinical optimism, several challenges have emerged. This review seeks to explore the field of regenerative neurosurgery with respect to AAV-based gene therapy for neurodegenerative diseases, its progress so far and the challenges that need to be overcome.

RevDate: 2024-04-17
CmpDate: 2024-04-17

de Fátima Dos Santos Sampaio M, de Paiva YB, Sampaio TB, et al (2024)

Therapeutic applicability of cannabidiol and other phytocannabinoids in epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's disease and in comorbidity with psychiatric disorders.

Basic & clinical pharmacology & toxicology, 134(5):574-601.

Studies have demonstrated the neuroprotective effect of cannabidiol (CBD) and other Cannabis sativa L. derivatives on diseases of the central nervous system caused by their direct or indirect interaction with endocannabinoid system-related receptors and other molecular targets, such as the 5-HT1A receptor, which is a potential pharmacological target of CBD. Interestingly, CBD binding with the 5-HT1A receptor may be suitable for the treatment of epilepsies, parkinsonian syndromes and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, in which the 5-HT1A serotonergic receptor plays a key role. The aim of this review was to provide an overview of cannabinoid effects on neurological disorders, such as epilepsy, multiple sclerosis and Parkinson's diseases, and discuss their possible mechanism of action, highlighting interactions with molecular targets and the potential neuroprotective effects of phytocannabinoids. CBD has been shown to have significant therapeutic effects on epilepsy and Parkinson's disease, while nabiximols contribute to a reduction in spasticity and are a frequent option for the treatment of multiple sclerosis. Although there are multiple theories on the therapeutic potential of cannabinoids for neurological disorders, substantially greater progress in the search for strong scientific evidence of their pharmacological effectiveness is needed.

RevDate: 2024-03-15
CmpDate: 2024-03-14

Noor Eddin A, Alfuwais M, Noor Eddin R, et al (2024)

Gut-Modulating Agents and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Current Evidence and Future Perspectives.

Nutrients, 16(5):.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a highly fatal neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the progressive wasting and paralysis of voluntary muscle. Despite extensive research, the etiology of ALS remains elusive, and effective treatment options are limited. However, recent evidence implicates gut dysbiosis and gut-brain axis (GBA) dysfunction in ALS pathogenesis. Alterations to the composition and diversity of microbial communities within the gut flora have been consistently observed in ALS patients. These changes are often correlated with disease progression and patient outcome, suggesting that GBA modulation may have therapeutic potential. Indeed, targeting the gut microbiota has been shown to be neuroprotective in several animal models, alleviating motor symptoms and mitigating disease progression. However, the translation of these findings to human patients is challenging due to the complexity of ALS pathology and the varying diversity of gut microbiota. This review comprehensively summarizes the current literature on ALS-related gut dysbiosis, focusing on the implications of GBA dysfunction. It delineates three main mechanisms by which dysbiosis contributes to ALS pathology: compromised intestinal barrier integrity, metabolic dysfunction, and immune dysregulation. It also examines preclinical evidence on the therapeutic potential of gut-microbiota-modulating agents (categorized as prebiotics, probiotics, and postbiotics) in ALS.

RevDate: 2024-03-21
CmpDate: 2024-03-14

Tzeplaeff L, Jürs AV, Wohnrade C, et al (2024)

Unraveling the Heterogeneity of ALS-A Call to Redefine Patient Stratification for Better Outcomes in Clinical Trials.

Cells, 13(5):.

Despite tremendous efforts in basic research and a growing number of clinical trials aiming to find effective treatments, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) remains an incurable disease. One possible reason for the lack of effective causative treatment options is that ALS may not be a single disease entity but rather may represent a clinical syndrome, with diverse genetic and molecular causes, histopathological alterations, and subsequent clinical presentations contributing to its complexity and variability among individuals. Defining a way to subcluster ALS patients is becoming a central endeavor in the field. Identifying specific clusters and applying them in clinical trials could enable the development of more effective treatments. This review aims to summarize the available data on heterogeneity in ALS with regard to various aspects, e.g., clinical, genetic, and molecular.

RevDate: 2024-03-16
CmpDate: 2024-03-14

Manora L, Borlongan CV, S Garbuzova-Davis (2024)

Cellular and Noncellular Approaches for Repairing the Damaged Blood-CNS-Barrier in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Cells, 13(5):.

Numerous reports have demonstrated the breakdown of the blood-CNS barrier (B-CNS-B) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a fatal neurodegenerative disease. Re-establishing barrier integrity in the CNS is critical to prevent further motor neuron degeneration from harmful components in systemic circulation. Potential therapeutic strategies for repairing the B-CNS-B may be achieved by the replacement of damaged endothelial cells (ECs) via stem cell administration or enhancement of endogenous EC survival through the delivery of bioactive particles secreted by stem cells. These cellular and noncellular approaches are thoroughly discussed in the present review. Specific attention is given to certain stem cell types for EC replacement. Also, various nanoparticles secreted by stem cells as well as other biomolecules are elucidated as promising agents for endogenous EC repair. Although the noted in vitro and in vivo studies show the feasibility of the proposed therapeutic approaches to the repair of the B-CNS-B in ALS, further investigation is needed prior to clinical transition.

RevDate: 2024-03-21
CmpDate: 2024-03-14

Yamashita T, K Abe (2024)

Update on Antioxidant Therapy with Edaravone: Expanding Applications in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(5):.

The brain is susceptible to oxidative stress, which is associated with various neurological diseases. Edaravone (MCI-186, 3-methyl-1 pheny-2-pyrazolin-5-one), a free radical scavenger, has promising effects by quenching hydroxyl radicals (∙OH) and inhibiting both ∙OH-dependent and ∙OH-independent lipid peroxidation. Edaravone was initially developed in Japan as a neuroprotective agent for acute cerebral infarction and was later applied clinically to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a neurodegenerative disease. There is accumulating evidence for the therapeutic effects of edaravone in a wide range of diseases related to oxidative stress, including ischemic stroke, ALS, Alzheimer's disease, and placental ischemia. These neuroprotective effects have expanded the potential applications of edaravone. Data from experimental animal models support its safety for long-term use, implying broader applications in various neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we explain the unique characteristics of edaravone, summarize recent findings for specific diseases, and discuss its prospects for future therapeutic applications.

RevDate: 2024-03-15
CmpDate: 2024-03-14

Scarian E, Viola C, Dragoni F, et al (2024)

New Insights into Oxidative Stress and Inflammatory Response in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

International journal of molecular sciences, 25(5):.

Oxidative stress (OS) and inflammation are two important and well-studied pathological hallmarks of neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs). Due to elevated oxygen consumption, the high presence of easily oxidizable polyunsaturated fatty acids and the weak antioxidant defenses, the brain is particularly vulnerable to oxidative injury. Uncertainty exists over whether these deficits contribute to the development of NDDs or are solely a consequence of neuronal degeneration. Furthermore, these two pathological hallmarks are linked, and it is known that OS can affect the inflammatory response. In this review, we will overview the last findings about these two pathways in the principal NDDs. Moreover, we will focus more in depth on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) to understand how anti-inflammatory and antioxidants drugs have been used for the treatment of this still incurable motor neuron (MN) disease. Finally, we will analyze the principal past and actual clinical trials and the future perspectives in the study of these two pathological mechanisms.

RevDate: 2024-03-12
CmpDate: 2024-03-12

Chen Y, Mateski J, Gerace L, et al (2024)

Non-coding RNAs and neuroinflammation: implications for neurological disorders.

Experimental biology and medicine (Maywood, N.J.), 249:10120.

Neuroinflammation is considered a balanced inflammatory response important in the intrinsic repair process after injury or infection. Under chronic states of disease, injury, or infection, persistent neuroinflammation results in a heightened presence of cytokines, chemokines, and reactive oxygen species that result in tissue damage. In the CNS, the surrounding microglia normally contain macrophages and other innate immune cells that perform active immune surveillance. The resulting cytokines produced by these macrophages affect the growth, development, and responsiveness of the microglia present in both white and gray matter regions of the CNS. Controlling the levels of these cytokines ultimately improves neurocognitive function and results in the repair of lesions associated with neurologic disease. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are master regulators of the genome and subsequently control the activity of inflammatory responses crucial in sustaining a robust and acute immunological response towards an acute infection while dampening pathways that result in heightened levels of cytokines and chemokines associated with chronic neuroinflammation. Numerous reports have directly implicated miRNAs in controlling the abundance and activity of interleukins, TGF-B, NF-kB, and toll-like receptor-signaling intrinsically linked with the development of neurological disorders such as Parkinson's, ALS, epilepsy, Alzheimer's, and neuromuscular degeneration. This review is focused on discussing the role miRNAs play in regulating or initiating these chronic neurological states, many of which maintain the level and/or activity of neuron-specific secondary messengers. Dysregulated miRNAs present in the microglia, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, and epididymal cells, contribute to an overall glial-specific inflammatory niche that impacts the activity of neuronal conductivity, signaling action potentials, neurotransmitter robustness, neuron-neuron specific communication, and neuron-muscular connections. Understanding which miRNAs regulate microglial activation is a crucial step forward in developing non-coding RNA-based therapeutics to treat and potentially correct the behavioral and cognitive deficits typically found in patients suffering from chronic neuroinflammation.

RevDate: 2024-03-07

Rajabi D, Khanmohammadi S, N Rezaei (2024)

The role of long noncoding RNAs in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Reviews in the neurosciences [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease with a poor prognosis leading to death. The diagnosis and treatment of ALS are inherently challenging due to its complex pathomechanism. Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are transcripts longer than 200 nucleotides involved in different cellular processes, incisively gene expression. In recent years, more studies have been conducted on lncRNA classes and interference in different disease pathologies, showing their promising contribution to diagnosing and treating neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discussed the role of lncRNAs like NEAT1 and C9orf72-as in ALS pathogenesis mechanisms caused by mutations in different genes, including TAR DNA-binding protein-43 (TDP-43), fused in sarcoma (FUS), superoxide dismutase type 1 (SOD1). NEAT1 is a well-established lncRNA in ALS pathogenesis; hence, we elaborate on its involvement in forming paraspeckles, stress response, inflammatory response, and apoptosis. Furthermore, antisense lncRNAs (as-lncRNAs), a key group of transcripts from the opposite strand of genes, including ZEB1-AS1 and ATXN2-AS, are discussed as newly identified components in the pathology of ALS. Ultimately, we review the current standing of using lncRNAs as biomarkers and therapeutic agents and the future vision of further studies on lncRNA applications.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, is a rare, incurable neuro-degenerative disease, of unknown etiology. With this disease, both upper (brain) and lower (spinal cord) motor neurons progressively degenerate and die, rendering immobile the muscles that they innervated. For anyone with a need or desire to appreciate what is known about ALS, this book provides a good foundation. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )