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04 Dec 2023 at 01:34
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Bibliography on: ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) — Review Papers


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RJR: Recommended Bibliography 04 Dec 2023 at 01:34 Created: 

ALS (Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis) — Review Papers

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), also known as motor neurone disease (MND) or Lou Gehrig's disease, is a neurodegenerative disease that results in the progressive loss of motor neurons that control voluntary muscles. ALS is the most common form of the motor neuron diseases. Early symptoms of ALS include stiff muscles, muscle twitches, and gradual increasing weakness and muscle wasting. Limb-onset ALS begins with weakness in the arms or legs, while bulbar-onset ALS begins with difficulty speaking or swallowing. Around half of people with ALS develop at least mild difficulties with thinking and behavior, and about 15% develop frontotemporal dementia. Motor neuron loss continues until the ability to eat, speak, move, and finally the ability to breathe is lost. Most cases of ALS (about 90% to 95%) have no known cause, and are known as sporadic ALS. However, both genetic and environmental factors are believed to be involved. The remaining 5% to 10% of cases have a genetic cause, often linked to a history of the disease in the family, and these are known as genetic ALS. About half of these genetic cases are due to disease-causing variants in one of two specific genes. The diagnosis is based on a person's signs and symptoms, with testing conducted to rule out other potential causes.

Tens of thousands of papers have been published on ALS. In this bibliography we restrict our attention to review papers.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( ( ALS*[TIAB] OR "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis"[TIAB] OR "motor neurone disease"[TIAB] ) AND review[SB] ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)


RevDate: 2023-11-27
CmpDate: 2023-11-27

Toader C, Dobrin N, Brehar FM, et al (2023)

From Recognition to Remedy: The Significance of Biomarkers in Neurodegenerative Disease Pathology.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(22):.

With the inexorable aging of the global populace, neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) pose escalating challenges, which are underscored by their socioeconomic repercussions. A pivotal aspect in addressing these challenges lies in the elucidation and application of biomarkers for timely diagnosis, vigilant monitoring, and effective treatment modalities. This review delineates the quintessence of biomarkers in the realm of NDs, elucidating various classifications and their indispensable roles. Particularly, the quest for novel biomarkers in AD, transcending traditional markers in PD, and the frontier of biomarker research in ALS are scrutinized. Emergent susceptibility and trait markers herald a new era of personalized medicine, promising enhanced treatment initiation especially in cases of SOD1-ALS. The discourse extends to diagnostic and state markers, revolutionizing early detection and monitoring, alongside progression markers that unveil the trajectory of NDs, propelling forward the potential for tailored interventions. The synergy between burgeoning technologies and innovative techniques like -omics, histologic assessments, and imaging is spotlighted, underscoring their pivotal roles in biomarker discovery. Reflecting on the progress hitherto, the review underscores the exigent need for multidisciplinary collaborations to surmount the challenges ahead, accelerate biomarker discovery, and herald a new epoch of understanding and managing NDs. Through a panoramic lens, this article endeavors to provide a comprehensive insight into the burgeoning field of biomarkers in NDs, spotlighting the promise they hold in transforming the diagnostic landscape, enhancing disease management, and illuminating the pathway toward efficacious therapeutic interventions.

RevDate: 2023-11-27
CmpDate: 2023-11-27

Genin EC, Abou-Ali M, V Paquis-Flucklinger (2023)

Mitochondria, a Key Target in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Pathogenesis.

Genes, 14(11):.

Mitochondrial dysfunction occurs in numerous neurodegenerative diseases, particularly amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), where it contributes to motor neuron (MN) death. Of all the factors involved in ALS, mitochondria have been considered as a major player, as secondary mitochondrial dysfunction has been found in various models and patients. Abnormal mitochondrial morphology, defects in mitochondrial dynamics, altered activities of respiratory chain enzymes and increased production of reactive oxygen species have been described. Moreover, the identification of CHCHD10 variants in ALS patients was the first genetic evidence that a mitochondrial defect may be a primary cause of MN damage and directly links mitochondrial dysfunction to the pathogenesis of ALS. In this review, we focus on the role of mitochondria in ALS and highlight the pathogenic variants of ALS genes associated with impaired mitochondrial functions. The multiple pathways demonstrated in ALS pathogenesis suggest that all converge to a common endpoint leading to MN loss. This may explain the disappointing results obtained with treatments targeting a single pathological process. Fighting against mitochondrial dysfunction appears to be a promising avenue for developing combined therapies in the future.

RevDate: 2023-11-27

O'Day DH (2023)

Protein Biomarkers Shared by Multiple Neurodegenerative Diseases Are Calmodulin-Binding Proteins Offering Novel and Potentially Universal Therapeutic Targets.

Journal of clinical medicine, 12(22):.

Seven major neurodegenerative diseases and their variants share many overlapping biomarkers that are calmodulin-binding proteins: Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar dementia (FTD), Huntington's disease (HD), Lewy body disease (LBD), multiple sclerosis (MS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Calcium dysregulation is an early and persistent event in each of these diseases, with calmodulin serving as an initial and primary target of increased cytosolic calcium. Considering the central role of calcium dysregulation and its downstream impact on calcium signaling, calmodulin has gained interest as a major regulator of neurodegenerative events. Here, we show that calmodulin serves a critical role in neurodegenerative diseases via binding to and regulating an abundance of biomarkers, many of which are involved in multiple neurodegenerative diseases. Of special interest are the shared functions of calmodulin in the generation of protein biomarker aggregates in AD, HD, LBD, and PD, where calmodulin not only binds to amyloid beta, pTau, alpha-synuclein, and mutant huntingtin but also, via its regulation of transglutaminase 2, converts them into toxic protein aggregates. It is suggested that several calmodulin binding proteins could immediately serve as primary drug targets, while combinations of calmodulin binding proteins could provide simultaneous insight into the onset and progression of multiple neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-11-27
CmpDate: 2023-11-27

Duranti E, C Villa (2023)

Muscle Involvement in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Understanding the Pathogenesis and Advancing Therapeutics.

Biomolecules, 13(11):.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal condition characterized by the selective loss of motor neurons in the motor cortex, brainstem, and spinal cord. Muscle involvement, muscle atrophy, and subsequent paralysis are among the main features of this disease, which is defined as a neuromuscular disorder. ALS is a persistently progressive disease, and as motor neurons continue to degenerate, individuals with ALS experience a gradual decline in their ability to perform daily activities. Ultimately, muscle function loss may result in paralysis, presenting significant challenges in mobility, communication, and self-care. While the majority of ALS research has traditionally focused on pathogenic pathways in the central nervous system, there has been a great interest in muscle research. These studies were carried out on patients and animal models in order to better understand the molecular mechanisms involved and to develop therapies aimed at improving muscle function. This review summarizes the features of ALS and discusses the role of muscle, as well as examines recent studies in the development of treatments.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Seki S, Kitaoka Y, Kawata S, et al (2023)

Characteristics of Sensory Neuron Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS): Potential for ALS Therapy.

Biomedicines, 11(11):.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a devastating neurodegenerative disorder characterised by the progressive degeneration of motor neurons, resulting in muscle weakness, paralysis, and, ultimately, death. Presently, no effective treatment for ALS has been established. Although motor neuron dysfunction is a hallmark of ALS, emerging evidence suggests that sensory neurons are also involved in the disease. In clinical research, 30% of patients with ALS had sensory symptoms and abnormal sensory nerve conduction studies in the lower extremities. Peroneal nerve biopsies show histological abnormalities in 90% of the patients. Preclinical research has reported several genetic abnormalities in the sensory neurons of animal models of ALS, as well as in motor neurons. Furthermore, the aggregation of misfolded proteins like TAR DNA-binding protein 43 has been reported in sensory neurons. This review aims to provide a comprehensive description of ALS-related sensory neuron dysfunction, focusing on its clinical changes and underlying mechanisms. Sensory neuron abnormalities in ALS are not limited to somatosensory issues; proprioceptive sensory neurons, such as MesV and DRG neurons, have been reported to form networks with motor neurons and may be involved in motor control. Despite receiving limited attention, sensory neuron abnormalities in ALS hold potential for new therapies targeting proprioceptive sensory neurons.

RevDate: 2023-11-25

Reddy VP (2023)

Oxidative Stress in Health and Disease.

Biomedicines, 11(11): pii:biomedicines11112925.

Oxidative stress, resulting from the excessive intracellular accumulation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), reactive nitrogen species (RNS), and other free radical species, contributes to the onset and progression of various diseases, including diabetes, obesity, diabetic nephropathy, diabetic neuropathy, and neurological diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and Parkinson's disease (PD). Oxidative stress is also implicated in cardiovascular disease and cancer. Exacerbated oxidative stress leads to the accelerated formation of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), a complex mixture of crosslinked proteins and protein modifications. Relatively high levels of AGEs are generated in diabetes, obesity, AD, and other I neurological diseases. AGEs such as N[e]-carboxymethyllysine (CML) serve as markers for disease progression. AGEs, through interaction with receptors for advanced glycation end products (RAGE), initiate a cascade of deleterious signaling events to form inflammatory cytokines, and thereby further exacerbate oxidative stress in a vicious cycle. AGE inhibitors, AGE breakers, and RAGE inhibitors are therefore potential therapeutic agents for multiple diseases, including diabetes and AD. The complexity of the AGEs and the lack of well-established mechanisms for AGE formation are largely responsible for the lack of effective therapeutics targeting oxidative stress and AGE-related diseases. This review addresses the role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of AGE-related chronic diseases, including diabetes and neurological disorders, and recent progress in the development of therapeutics based on antioxidants, AGE breakers and RAGE inhibitors. Furthermore, this review outlines therapeutic strategies based on single-atom nanozymes that attenuate oxidative stress through the sequestering of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and reactive nitrogen species (RNS).

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Genge A, Wainwright S, C Vande Velde (2023)

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: exploring pathophysiology in the context of treatment.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex, neurodegenerative disorder in which alterations in structural, physiological, and metabolic parameters act synergistically. Over the last decade there has been a considerable focus on developing drugs to slow the progression of the disease. Despite this, only four disease-modifying therapies are approved in North America. Although additional research is required for a thorough understanding of ALS, we have accumulated a large amount of knowledge that could be better integrated into future clinical trials to accelerate drug development and provide patients with improved treatment options. It is likely that future, successful ALS treatments will take a multi-pronged therapeutic approach, targeting different pathways, akin to personalized medicine in oncology. In this review, we discuss the link between ALS pathophysiology and treatments, looking at the therapeutic failures as learning opportunities that can help us refine and optimize drug development.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Ovsepian SV, O'Leary VB, S Martinez (2023)

Selective vulnerability of motor neuron types and functional groups to degeneration in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: review of the neurobiological mechanisms and functional correlates.

Brain structure & function [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative condition characterised by a progressive loss of motor neurons controlling voluntary muscle activity. The disease manifests through a variety of motor dysfunctions related to the extent of damage and loss of neurons at different anatomical locations. Despite extensive research, it remains unclear why some motor neurons are especially susceptible to the disease, while others are affected less or even spared. In this article, we review the neurobiological mechanisms, neurochemical profiles, and morpho-functional characteristics of various motor neuron groups and types of motor units implicated in their differential exposure to degeneration. We discuss specific cell-autonomous (intrinsic) and extrinsic factors influencing the vulnerability gradient of motor units and motor neuron types to ALS, with their impact on disease manifestation, course, and prognosis, as revealed in preclinical and clinical studies. We consider the outstanding challenges and emerging opportunities for interpreting the phenotypic and mechanistic variability of the disease to identify targets for clinical interventions.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

Li L, Lei T, Xing C, et al (2023)

Advances in microfluidic chips targeting toxic aggregation proteins for neurodegenerative diseases.

International journal of biological macromolecules pii:S0141-8130(23)05207-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are characterized by nervous system damage, often influenced by genetic and aging factors. Pathological analysis frequently reveals the presence of aggregated toxic proteins. The intricate and poorly understood origins of these diseases have hindered progress in early diagnosis and drug development. The development of novel in-vitro and in-vivo models could enhance our comprehension of ND mechanisms and facilitate clinical treatment advancements. Microfluidic chips are employed to establish three-dimensional culture conditions, replicating the human ecological niche and creating a microenvironment conducive to neuronal cell survival. The incorporation of mechatronic controls unifies the chip, cells, and culture medium optimizing living conditions for the cells. This study provides a comprehensive overview of microfluidic chip applications in drug and biomarker screening for neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Our Lab-on-a-Chip system releases toxic proteins to simulate the pathological characteristics of neurodegenerative diseases, encompassing β-amyloid, α-synuclein, huntingtin, TAR DNA-binding protein 43, and Myelin Basic Protein. Investigating molecular and cellular interactions in vitro can enhance our understanding of disease mechanisms while minimizing harmful protein levels and can aid in screening potential therapeutic agents. We anticipate that our research will promote the utilization of microfluidic chips in both fundamental research and clinical applications for neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-11-19

Sutter PA, Lavoie ER, Lombardo ET, et al (2023)

Emerging Role of Astrocyte-Derived Extracellular Vesicles as Active Participants in CNS Neuroimmune Responses.

Immunological investigations [Epub ahead of print].

Astrocyte-derived extracellular vesicles (ADEVs) have garnered attention as a fundamental mechanism of intercellular communication in health and disease. In the context of neurological diseases, for which prodromal diagnosis would be advantageous, ADEVs are also being explored for their potential utility as biomarkers. In this review, we provide the current state of data supporting our understanding on the manifold roles of ADEVs in several common neurological disorders. We also discuss these findings from a unique emerging perspective that ADEVs represent a means by which the central nervous system may broadcast influence over other systems in the body to affect neuroinflammatory processes, with both dual potential to either propagate illness or restore health and homeostasis.

RevDate: 2023-11-22

Wang C, Cui Y, Xu T, et al (2023)

New insights into glycogen synthase kinase-3: A common target for neurodegenerative diseases.

Biochemical pharmacology, 218:115923 pii:S0006-2952(23)00516-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is a highly conserved protein serine/threonine kinase that plays a central role in a wide variety of cellular processes to coordinate catabolic and anabolic pathways and regulate cell growth and fate. There is increasing evidence showing that abnormal glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK-3) is associated with the pathogenesis and progression of many disorders, such as cancer, diabetes, psychiatric diseases, and neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we summarize recent findings about the regulatory role of GSK-3 in the occurrence and development of multiple neurodegenerative diseases, mainly focusing on Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The aim of this study is to provide new insight into the shared working mechanism of GSK-3 as a therapeutic target of multiple neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-11-17

Saini A, PA Chawla (2023)

Breaking barriers with tofersen: Enhancing therapeutic opportunities in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

European journal of neurology [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease that primarily affects adults, characterized by muscle weakness resulting from the specific death of motor neurons in the spinal cord and brain. The pathogenesis of ALS is associated with the accumulation of mutant superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) proteins and neurofilaments in motor neurons, highlighting the critical need for disease-modifying treatments. Current therapies, such as riluzole and edaravone, provide only symptomatic relief. Recently, tofersen gained approval from the US FDA under the brand name Qalsody as the first and only gene therapy for ALS, addressing a significant pathological aspect of the disease.

METHODS: We carried out a literature survey using PubMed, Scopus, National Institutes of Health, and Biogen for articles published in the English language concerned with "amyotrophic lateral sclerosis", pathophysiology, current treatment, treatment under clinical trial, and the newly approved drug "tofersen" and its detailed summary.

RESULTS: A comprehensive review of the literature on the pathophysiology, available treatment, and newly approved drug for this condition revealed convincing evidence that we are now able to better monitor and treat ALS.

CONCLUSIONS: Although treatment of ALS is difficult, the newly approved drug tofersen has emerged as a potential therapy to slow down the progression of ALS by targeting SOD1 mRNA, representing a significant advancement in the treatment of ALS.

RevDate: 2023-11-18

Bhargava S, Kulkarni R, Dewangan B, et al (2023)

Microtubule stabilising peptides: new paradigm towards management of neuronal disorders.

RSC medicinal chemistry, 14(11):2192-2205.

Neuronal cells made of soma, axon, and dendrites are highly compartmentalized and possess a specialized transport system that can convey long-distance electrical signals for the cross-talk. The transport system is made up of microtubule (MT) polymers and MT-binding proteins. MTs play vital and diverse roles in various cellular processes. Therefore, defects and dysregulation of MTs and their binding proteins lead to many neurological disorders as exemplified by Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Huntington's disease, and many others. MT-stabilising agents (MSAs) altering the MT-associated protein connections have shown great potential for several neurodegenerative disorders. Peptides are an important class of molecules with high specificity, biocompatibility and are devoid of side effects. In the past, peptides have been explored in various neuronal disorders as therapeutics. Davunetide, a MT-stabilising octapeptide, has entered into phase II clinical trials for schizophrenia. Numerous examples of peptides emerging as MSAs reflect the emergence of a new paradigm for peptides which can be explored further as drug candidates for neuronal disorders. Although small molecule-based MSAs have been reviewed in the past, there is no systematic review in recent years focusing on peptides as MSAs apart from davunetide in 2013. Therefore, a systematic updated review on MT stabilising peptides may shed light on many hidden aspects and enable researchers to develop new therapies for diseases related to the CNS. In this review we have summarised the recent examples of peptides as MSAs.

RevDate: 2023-11-24

Awuah WA, Ahluwalia A, Ghosh S, et al (2023)

The molecular landscape of neurological disorders: insights from single-cell RNA sequencing in neurology and neurosurgery.

European journal of medical research, 28(1):529.

Single-cell ribonucleic acid sequencing (scRNA-seq) has emerged as a transformative technology in neurological and neurosurgical research, revolutionising our comprehension of complex neurological disorders. In brain tumours, scRNA-seq has provided valuable insights into cancer heterogeneity, the tumour microenvironment, treatment resistance, and invasion patterns. It has also elucidated the brain tri-lineage cancer hierarchy and addressed limitations of current models. Neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis have been molecularly subtyped, dysregulated pathways have been identified, and potential therapeutic targets have been revealed using scRNA-seq. In epilepsy, scRNA-seq has explored the cellular and molecular heterogeneity underlying the condition, uncovering unique glial subpopulations and dysregulation of the immune system. ScRNA-seq has characterised distinct cellular constituents and responses to spinal cord injury in spinal cord diseases, as well as provided molecular signatures of various cell types and identified interactions involved in vascular remodelling. Furthermore, scRNA-seq has shed light on the molecular complexities of cerebrovascular diseases, such as stroke, providing insights into specific genes, cell-specific expression patterns, and potential therapeutic interventions. This review highlights the potential of scRNA-seq in guiding precision medicine approaches, identifying clinical biomarkers, and facilitating therapeutic discovery. However, challenges related to data analysis, standardisation, sample acquisition, scalability, and cost-effectiveness need to be addressed. Despite these challenges, scRNA-seq has the potential to transform clinical practice in neurological and neurosurgical research by providing personalised insights and improving patient outcomes.

RevDate: 2023-11-16

Lo Giudice M, Cocco A, Reggiardo G, et al (2023)

Tauro-Urso-Deoxycholic Acid Trials in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: What is Achieved and What to Expect.

Clinical drug investigation [Epub ahead of print].

Phase II studies on tauro-urso-deoxycholic acid (TUDCA) raised the promise of safety and efficacy in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, a currently incurable and devastating disease. We review the available evidence on the efficacy and safety of TUDCA, administered alone or in combination, by analyzing and comparing published and ongoing studies on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Two independent phase II studies (using TUDCA solo or combined with sodium phenylbutyrate) showed similar efficacy in slowing disease progression measured by functional scales. One open-label follow-up TUDCA+sodium phenylbutyrate study suggested a benefit on survival. Two subsequent phase III studies with TUDCA (solo or combined with sodium phenylbutyrate) have been initiated and are currently ongoing. Their completion is expected by the end of 2023 and beginning of 2024. Evidence collected by phase II studies indicates that there are no safety concerns in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. The efficacy shown in phase II studies was considered sufficient to grant approval in some countries but not in others, owing to discrepant views on the strength of evidence. It will be necessary to wait for the results of ongoing phase III studies to attain a full appreciation of these data.

RevDate: 2023-11-16

Rizzuti M, Sali L, Melzi V, et al (2023)

Genomic and transcriptomic advances in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Ageing research reviews pii:S1568-1637(23)00285-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disorder and the most common motor neuron disease. ALS shows substantial clinical and molecular heterogeneity. In vitro and in vivo models coupled with multiomic techniques have provided important contributions to unraveling the pathomechanisms underlying ALS. To date, despite promising results and accumulating knowledge, an effective treatment is still lacking. Here, we provide an overview of the literature on the use of genomics, epigenomics, transcriptomics and microRNAs to deeply investigate the molecular mechanisms developing and sustaining ALS. We report the most relevant genes implicated in ALS pathogenesis, discussing the use of different high-throughput sequencing techniques and the role of epigenomic modifications. Furthermore, we present transcriptomic studies discussing the most recent advances, from microarrays to bulk and single-cell RNA sequencing. Finally, we discuss the use of microRNAs as potential biomarkers and promising tools for molecular intervention. The integration of data from multiple omic approaches may provide new insights into pathogenic pathways in ALS by shedding light on diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers, helping to stratify patients into clinically relevant subgroups, revealing novel therapeutic targets and supporting the development of new effective therapies.

RevDate: 2023-11-15

Fang M, Liu Y, Huang C, et al (2023)

Targeting stress granules in neurodegenerative diseases: A focus on biological function and dynamics disorders.

BioFactors (Oxford, England) [Epub ahead of print].

Stress granules (SGs) are membraneless organelles formed by eukaryotic cells in response to stress to promote cell survival through their pleiotropic cytoprotective effects. SGs recruit a variety of components to enhance their physiological function, and play a critical role in the propagation of pathological proteins, a key factor in neurodegeneration. Recent advances indicate that SG dynamic disorders exacerbate neuronal susceptibility to stress in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) including Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal dementia (FTD), Huntington's disease (HD) and Parkinson's disease (PD). Here, we outline the biological functions of SGs, highlight SG dynamic disorders in NDs, and emphasize therapeutic approaches for enhancing SG dynamics to provide new insights into ND intervention.

RevDate: 2023-11-15

Ansari MA, Tripathi T, Venkidasamy B, et al (2023)

Multifunctional Nanocarriers for Alzheimer's Disease: Befriending the Barriers.

Molecular neurobiology [Epub ahead of print].

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) have been increasing in incidence in recent years and are now widespread worldwide. Neuronal death is defined as the progressive loss of neuronal structure or function which is closely associated with NDDs and represents the intrinsic features of such disorders. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, frontotemporal dementia, Alzheimer's, Parkinson's, and Huntington's diseases (AD, PD, and HD, respectively) are considered neurodegenerative diseases that affect a large number of people worldwide. Despite the testing of various drugs, there is currently no available therapy that can remedy or effectively slow the progression of these diseases. Nanomedicine has the potential to revolutionize drug delivery for the management of NDDs. The use of nanoparticles (NPs) has recently been developed to improve drug delivery efficiency and is currently subjected to extensive studies. Nanoengineered particles, known as nanodrugs, can cross the blood-brain barrier while also being less invasive compared to the most treatment strategies in use. Polymeric, magnetic, carbonic, and inorganic NPs are examples of NPs that have been developed to improve drug delivery efficiency. Primary research studies using NPs to cure AD are promising, but thorough research is needed to introduce these approaches to clinical use. In the present review, we discussed the role of metal-based NPs, polymeric nanogels, nanocarrier systems such as liposomes, solid lipid NPs, polymeric NPs, exosomes, quantum dots, dendrimers, polymersomes, carbon nanotubes, and nanofibers and surfactant-based systems for the therapy of neurodegenerative diseases. In addition, we highlighted nanoformulations such as N-butyl cyanoacrylate, poly(butyl cyanoacrylate), D-penicillamine, citrate-coated peptide, magnetic iron oxide, chitosan (CS), lipoprotein, ceria, silica, metallic nanoparticles, cholinesterase inhibitors, an acetylcholinesterase inhibitors, metal chelators, anti-amyloid, protein, and peptide-loaded NPs for the treatment of AD.

RevDate: 2023-11-17
CmpDate: 2023-11-15

Zheng Y, Bonfili L, Wei T, et al (2023)

Understanding the Gut-Brain Axis and Its Therapeutic Implications for Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Nutrients, 15(21):.

The gut-brain axis (GBA) is a complex bidirectional communication network connecting the gut and brain. It involves neural, immune, and endocrine communication pathways between the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and the central nervous system (CNS). Perturbations of the GBA have been reported in many neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs), such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), among others, suggesting a possible role in disease pathogenesis. The gut microbiota is a pivotal component of the GBA, and alterations in its composition, known as gut dysbiosis, have been associated with GBA dysfunction and neurodegeneration. The gut microbiota might influence the homeostasis of the CNS by modulating the immune system and, more directly, regulating the production of molecules and metabolites that influence the nervous and endocrine systems, making it a potential therapeutic target. Preclinical trials manipulating microbial composition through dietary intervention, probiotic and prebiotic supplementation, and fecal microbial transplantation (FMT) have provided promising outcomes. However, its clear mechanism is not well understood, and the results are not always consistent. Here, we provide an overview of the major components and communication pathways of the GBA, as well as therapeutic approaches targeting the GBA to ameliorate NDDs.

RevDate: 2023-11-17
CmpDate: 2023-11-15

Boylan MA, Pincetic A, Romano G, et al (2023)

Targeting Progranulin as an Immuno-Neurology Therapeutic Approach.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(21):.

Immuno-neurology is an emerging therapeutic strategy for dementia and neurodegeneration designed to address immune surveillance failure in the brain. Microglia, as central nervous system (CNS)-resident myeloid cells, routinely perform surveillance of the brain and support neuronal function. Loss-of-function (LOF) mutations causing decreased levels of progranulin (PGRN), an immune regulatory protein, lead to dysfunctional microglia and are associated with multiple neurodegenerative diseases, including frontotemporal dementia caused by the progranulin gene (GRN) mutation (FTD-GRN), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), limbic-predominant age-related transactivation response deoxyribonucleic acid binding protein 43 (TDP-43) encephalopathy (LATE), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Immuno-neurology targets immune checkpoint-like proteins, offering the potential to convert aging and dysfunctional microglia into disease-fighting cells that counteract multiple disease pathologies, clear misfolded proteins and debris, promote myelin and synapse repair, optimize neuronal function, support astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, and maintain brain vasculature. Several clinical trials are underway to elevate PGRN levels as one strategy to modulate the function of microglia and counteract neurodegenerative changes associated with various disease states. If successful, these and other immuno-neurology drugs have the potential to revolutionize the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders by harnessing the brain's immune system and shifting it from an inflammatory/pathological state to an enhanced physiological/homeostatic state.

RevDate: 2023-11-17
CmpDate: 2023-11-15

Stoka V, Vasiljeva O, Nakanishi H, et al (2023)

The Role of Cysteine Protease Cathepsins B, H, C, and X/Z in Neurodegenerative Diseases and Cancer.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(21):.

Papain-like cysteine proteases are composed of 11 human cysteine cathepsins, originally located in the lysosomes. They exhibit broad specificity and act as endopeptidases and/or exopeptidases. Among them, only cathepsins B, H, C, and X/Z exhibit exopeptidase activity. Recently, cysteine cathepsins have been found to be present outside the lysosomes and often participate in various pathological processes. Hence, they have been considered key signalling molecules. Their potentially hazardous proteolytic activities are tightly regulated. This review aims to discuss recent advances in understanding the structural aspects of these four cathepsins, mechanisms of their zymogen activation, regulation of their activities, and functional aspects of these enzymes in neurodegeneration and cancer. Neurodegenerative effects have been evaluated, particularly in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, and neuropsychiatric disorders. Cysteine cathepsins also participate in tumour progression and metastasis through the overexpression and secretion of proteases, which trigger extracellular matrix degradation. To our knowledge, this is the first review to provide an in-depth analysis regarding the roles of cysteine cathepsins B, H, C, and X in neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Further advances in understanding the functions of cysteine cathepsins in these conditions will result in the development of novel, targeted therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2023-11-14
CmpDate: 2023-11-14

Yuan YH, Mao ND, Duan JL, et al (2023)

Recent progress in discovery of novel AAK1 inhibitors: from pain therapy to potential anti-viral agents.

Journal of enzyme inhibition and medicinal chemistry, 38(1):2279906.

Adaptor associated kinase 1 (AAK1), a member of the Ark1/Prk1 family of Ser/Thr kinases, is a specific key kinase regulating Thr156 phosphorylation at the μ2 subunit of the adapter complex-2 (AP-2) protein. Due to their important biological functions, AAK1 systems have been validated in clinics for neuropathic pain therapy, and are being explored as potential therapeutic targets for diseases caused by various viruses such as Hepatitis C (HCV), Dengue, Ebola, and COVID-19 viruses and for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Centreing on the advances of drug discovery programs in this field up to 2023, AAK1 inhibitors are discussed from the aspects of the structure-based rational molecular design, pharmacology, toxicology and synthetic routes for the compounds of interest in this review. The aim is to provide the medicinal chemistry community with up-to-date information and to accelerate the drug discovery programs in the field of AAK1 small molecule inhibitors.

RevDate: 2023-11-12

Okano H, Morimoto S, Kato C, et al (2023)

Induced pluripotent stem cells-based disease modeling, drug screening, clinical trials, and reverse translational research for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Journal of neurochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

It has been more than 10 years since the hopes for disease modeling and drug discovery using induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) technology boomed. Recently, clinical trials have been conducted with drugs identified using this technology, and some promising results have been reported. For amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating neurodegenerative disease, several groups have identified candidate drugs, ezogabine (retigabine), bosutinib, and ropinirole, using iPSCs-based drug discovery, and clinical trials using these drugs have been conducted, yielding interesting results. In our previous study, an iPSCs-based drug repurposing approach was utilized to show the potential of ropinirole hydrochloride (ROPI) in reducing ALS-specific pathological phenotypes. Recently, a phase 1/2a trial was conducted to investigate the effects of ropinirole on ALS further. This double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study confirmed the safety and tolerability of and provided evidence of its ability to delay disease progression and prolong the time to respiratory failure in ALS patients. Furthermore, in the reverse translational research, in vitro characterization of patient-derived iPSCs-motor neurons (MNs) mimicked the therapeutic effects of ROPI in vivo, suggesting the potential application of this technology to the precision medicine of ALS. Interestingly, RNA-seq data showed that ROPI treatment suppressed the sterol regulatory element-binding protein 2-dependent cholesterol biosynthesis pathway. Therefore, this pathway may be involved in the therapeutic effect of ROPI on ALS. The possibility that this pathway may be involved in the therapeutic effect of ALS was demonstrated. Finally, new future strategies for ALS using iPSCs technology will be discussed in this paper.

RevDate: 2023-11-10

McMackin R, Bede P, Ingre C, et al (2023)

Biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: current status and future prospects.

Nature reviews. Neurology [Epub ahead of print].

Disease heterogeneity in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis poses a substantial challenge in drug development. Categorization based on clinical features alone can help us predict the disease course and survival, but quantitative measures are also needed that can enhance the sensitivity of the clinical categorization. In this Review, we describe the emerging landscape of diagnostic, categorical and pharmacodynamic biomarkers in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and their place in the rapidly evolving landscape of new therapeutics. Fluid-based markers from cerebrospinal fluid, blood and urine are emerging as useful diagnostic, pharmacodynamic and predictive biomarkers. Combinations of imaging measures have the potential to provide important diagnostic and prognostic information, and neurophysiological methods, including various electromyography-based measures and quantitative EEG-magnetoencephalography-evoked responses and corticomuscular coherence, are generating useful diagnostic, categorical and prognostic markers. Although none of these biomarker technologies has been fully incorporated into clinical practice or clinical trials as a primary outcome measure, strong evidence is accumulating to support their clinical utility.

RevDate: 2023-11-11

Rogers ML, Schultz DW, Karnaros V, et al (2023)

Urinary biomarkers for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: candidates, opportunities and considerations.

Brain communications, 5(6):fcad287.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a relentless neurodegenerative disease that is mostly fatal within 3-5 years and is diagnosed on evidence of progressive upper and lower motor neuron degeneration. Around 15% of those with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis also have frontotemporal degeneration, and gene mutations account for ∼10%. Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a variable heterogeneous disease, and it is becoming increasingly clear that numerous different disease processes culminate in the final degeneration of motor neurons. There is a profound need to clearly articulate and measure pathological process that occurs. Such information is needed to tailor treatments to individuals with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis according to an individual's pathological fingerprint. For new candidate therapies, there is also a need for methods to select patients according to expected treatment outcomes and measure the success, or not, of treatments. Biomarkers are essential tools to fulfil these needs, and urine is a rich source for candidate biofluid biomarkers. This review will describe promising candidate urinary biomarkers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and other possible urinary candidates in future areas of investigation as well as the limitations of urinary biomarkers.

RevDate: 2023-11-11

Ebrahimi A, Kamyab A, Hosseini S, et al (2023)

Involvement of Coenzyme Q10 in Various Neurodegenerative and Psychiatric Diseases.

Biochemistry research international, 2023:5510874.

Coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10), commonly known as ubiquinone, is a vitamin-like component generated in mitochondrial inner membranes. This molecule is detected broadly in different parts of the human body in various quantities. This molecule can be absorbed by the digestive system from various nutritional sources as supplements. CoQ10 exists in three states: in a of reduced form (ubiquinol), in a semiquinone radical form, and in oxidized ubiquinone form in different organs of the body, playing a crucial role in electron transportation and contributing to energy metabolism and oxygen utilization, especially in the musculoskeletal and nervous systems. Since the early 1980s, research about CoQ10 has become the interest for two reasons. First, CoQ10 deficiency has been found to have a link with cardiovascular, neurologic, and cancer disorders. Second, this molecule has an antioxidant and free-radical scavenger nature. Since then, several investigations have indicated that the drug may benefit patients with cardiovascular, neuromuscular, and neurodegenerative illnesses. CoQ10 may protect the neurological system from degeneration and degradation due to its antioxidant and energy-regulating activity in mitochondria. This agent has shown its efficacy in preventing and treating neurological diseases such as migraine, Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, Huntington's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and Friedreich's ataxia. This study reviews the literature to highlight this agent's potential therapeutic effects in the mentioned neurological disorders.

RevDate: 2023-11-13
CmpDate: 2023-11-13

Lochbaum R, Hoffmann TK, Greve J, et al (2023)

Medikamente als Auslöser Bradykinin-vermittelter Angioödeme - mehr als ACE-Hemmer.

Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft = Journal of the German Society of Dermatology : JDDG, 21(11):1283-1290.

RevDate: 2023-11-09

Yang K, Tang Z, Xing C, et al (2023)

STING signaling in the brain: Molecular threats, signaling activities, and therapeutic challenges.

Neuron pii:S0896-6273(23)00795-X [Epub ahead of print].

Stimulator of interferon genes (STING) is an innate immune signaling protein critical to infections, autoimmunity, and cancer. STING signaling is also emerging as an exciting and integral part of many neurological diseases. Here, we discuss recent advances in STING signaling in the brain. We summarize how molecular threats activate STING signaling in the diseased brain and how STING signaling activities in glial and neuronal cells cause neuropathology. We also review human studies of STING neurobiology and consider therapeutic challenges in targeting STING to treat neurological diseases.

RevDate: 2023-11-10

Piñeros-Fernández MC (2023)

Artificial Intelligence Applications in the Diagnosis of Neuromuscular Diseases: A Narrative Review.

Cureus, 15(11):e48458.

The accurate diagnosis of neuromuscular diseases (NMD) is in many cases difficult; the starting point is the clinical approach based on the course of the disease and a careful physical examination of the patient. Electrodiagnostic tests, imaging, muscle biopsy, and genetics are fundamental complementary studies for the diagnosis of NMD. The large volume of data obtained from such studies makes it necessary to look for efficient solutions, such as artificial intelligence (AI) applications, which can help classify, synthesize, and organize the information of patients with NMD to facilitate their accurate and timely diagnosis. The objective of this study was to describe the usefulness of AI applications in the diagnosis of patients with neuromuscular diseases. A narrative review was done, including publications on artificial intelligence applied to the diagnostic methods of NMD currently existing. Twelve studies were included. Two of the studies focused on muscle ultrasound, five of the studies on muscle MRI, two studies on electromyography, two studies on amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) biomarkers, and one study on genes related to myopathies. The accuracy of classification using different classification algorithms used in each of the studies included in this narrative review was already 90% in most studies. In conclusion, the future design of more accurate algorithms applied to NMD with greater precision will have an impact on the earlier diagnosis of this group of diseases.

RevDate: 2023-11-10
CmpDate: 2023-11-10

Huang Y, Liu B, Sinha SC, et al (2023)

Mechanism and therapeutic potential of targeting cGAS-STING signaling in neurological disorders.

Molecular neurodegeneration, 18(1):79.

DNA sensing is a pivotal component of the innate immune system that is responsible for detecting mislocalized DNA and triggering downstream inflammatory pathways. Among the DNA sensors, cyclic GMP-AMP synthase (cGAS) is a primary player in detecting cytosolic DNA, including foreign DNA from pathogens and self-DNA released during cellular damage, culminating in a type I interferon (IFN-I) response through stimulator of interferon genes (STING) activation. IFN-I cytokines are essential in mediating neuroinflammation, which is widely observed in CNS injury, neurodegeneration, and aging, suggesting an upstream role for the cGAS DNA sensing pathway. In this review, we summarize the latest developments on the cGAS-STING DNA-driven immune response in various neurological diseases and conditions. Our review covers the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms of cGAS activation and highlights cGAS-STING signaling in various cell types of central and peripheral nervous systems, such as resident brain immune cells, neurons, and glial cells. We then discuss the role of cGAS-STING signaling in different neurodegenerative conditions, including tauopathies, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, as well as aging and senescence. Finally, we lay out the current advancements in research and development of cGAS inhibitors and assess the prospects of targeting cGAS and STING as therapeutic strategies for a wide spectrum of neurological diseases.

RevDate: 2023-11-10
CmpDate: 2023-11-10

Gendron TF, L Petrucelli (2023)

Immunological drivers of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Science translational medicine, 15(721):eadj9332.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), a devastating motor neuron disease involving complex genetic and environmental factors, is associated with neuroinflammation. Preclinical and clinical studies support immune system involvement in ALS pathogenesis, thereby spurring investigations into potential pathogenic mechanisms, immune response biomarkers, and ALS therapeutics.

RevDate: 2023-11-09
CmpDate: 2023-11-09

Maharaj D, Kaur K, Saltese A, et al (2023)

Personalized Precision Immunotherapy for Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS).

Critical reviews in immunology, 43(2):1-11.

Neurological syndrome amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) affects motor neurons and is characterized by progressive motor neuron loss in the brain and spinal cord. ALS starts with mainly focal onset but when the disease progresses, it spreads to different parts of the body, with survival limits of 2-5 years after disease initiation. To date, only supportive care is provided for ALS patients, and no effective treatment or cure has been discovered. This review is focused on clinical and immunological aspects of ALS patients, based on our case studies, and we discuss the treatment we have provided to those patients based on a detailed evaluation of their peripheral blood immune cells and blood-derived serum secreted factors, cytokines, chemokines and growth factors. We show that using a personalized approach of low dose immunotherapy there is an improvement in the effects on inflammation and immunological dysfunction.

RevDate: 2023-11-07

Johnson GA, Krishnamoorthy RR, DL Stankowska (2023)

Modulating mitochondrial calcium channels (TRPM2/MCU/NCX) as a therapeutic strategy for neurodegenerative disorders.

Frontiers in neuroscience, 17:1202167.

Efficient cellular communication is essential for the brain to regulate diverse functions like muscle contractions, memory formation and recall, decision-making, and task execution. This communication is facilitated by rapid signaling through electrical and chemical messengers, including voltage-gated ion channels and neurotransmitters. These messengers elicit broad responses by propagating action potentials and mediating synaptic transmission. Calcium influx and efflux are essential for releasing neurotransmitters and regulating synaptic transmission. Mitochondria, which are involved in oxidative phosphorylation, and the energy generation process, also interact with the endoplasmic reticulum to store and regulate cytoplasmic calcium levels. The number, morphology, and distribution of mitochondria in different cell types vary based on energy demands. Mitochondrial damage can cause excess reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation. Mitophagy is a selective process that targets and degrades damaged mitochondria via autophagosome-lysosome fusion. Defects in mitophagy can lead to a buildup of ROS and cell death. Numerous studies have attempted to characterize the relationship between mitochondrial dysfunction and calcium dysregulation in neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, Huntington's Disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, spinocerebellar ataxia, and aging. Interventional strategies to reduce mitochondrial damage and accumulation could serve as a therapeutic target, but further research is needed to unravel this potential. This review offers an overview of calcium signaling related to mitochondria in various neuronal cells. It critically examines recent findings, exploring the potential roles that mitochondrial dysfunction might play in multiple neurodegenerative diseases and aging. Furthermore, the review identifies existing gaps in knowledge to guide the direction of future research.

RevDate: 2023-11-05

Xiao X, Li M, Ye Z, et al (2023)

FUS gene mutation in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a new case report and systematic review.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis & frontotemporal degeneration [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVE: Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease associated with upper and lower motor neuron degeneration and necrosis, characterized by progressive muscle weakness, atrophy, and paralysis. The FUS mutation-associated ALS has been classified as ALS6. We reported a case of ALS6 with de novo mutation and investigated retrospectively the characteristics of cases with FUS mutation.

METHODS: We reported a male patient with a new heterozygous variant of the FUS gene and comprehensively reviewed 173 ALS cases with FUS mutation. The literature was reviewed from the PubMed MEDLINE electronic database (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed) using "Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Fus mutation" or "Fus mutation" as key words from 1 January 2009 to 1 January 2022.

RESULTS: We report a case of ALS6 with a new mutation point (c.1225-1227delGGA) and comprehensively review 173 ALS cases with FUS mutation. Though ALS6 is all with FUS mutation, it is still a highly heterogenous subtype. The average onset age of ALS6 is 35.2 ± 1.3 years, which is much lower than the average onset age of ALS (60 years old). Juvenile FUS mutations have an aggressive progression of disease, with an average time from onset to death or tracheostomy of 18.2 ± 0.5 months. FUS gene has the characteristics of early onset, faster progress, and shorter survival, especially in deletion mutation p.G504Wfs *12 and missense mutation of p.P525L.

CONCLUSIONS: ALS6 is a highly heterogenous subtype. Our study could allow clinicians to better understand the non-ALS typical symptoms, phenotypes, and pathophysiology of ALS6.

RevDate: 2023-11-03

Jellinger KA (2023)

Understanding depression with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a short assessment of facts and perceptions.

Journal of neural transmission (Vienna, Austria : 1996) [Epub ahead of print].

Depression with an average prevalence of 25-40% is a serious condition in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that can impact quality of life and survival of patients and caregiver burden, yet the underlying neurobiology is poorly understood. Preexisting depression has been associated with a higher risk of developing ALS, while people with ALS have a significantly higher risk of developing depression that can cause multiple complications. Depression may be a prodromal or subclinical symptom prior to motor involvement, although its relations with disease progression and impairment of quality of life are under discussion. Unfortunately, there are no studies existing that explore the pathogenic mechanisms of depression associated with the basic neurodegenerative process, and no specific neuroimaging data or postmortem findings for the combination of ALS and depression are currently available. Experience from other neurodegenerative processes suggests that depressive symptoms in ALS may be the consequence of cortical thinning in prefrontal regions and other cortex areas, disruption of mood-related brain networks, dysfunction of neurotransmitter systems, changing cortisol levels and other, hitherto unknown mechanisms. Treatment of both ALS and depression is a multidisciplinary task, depression generally being treated with a combination of antidepressant medication, physiotherapy, psychological and other interventions, while electroconvulsive therapy and deep brain stimulation might not be indicated in the majority of patients in view of their poor prognosis. Since compared to depression in other neurodegenerative diseases, our knowledge of its molecular basis in ALS is missing, multidisciplinary clinicopathological studies to elucidate the pathomechanism of depression in motor system disorders including ALS are urgently warranted.

RevDate: 2023-11-09
CmpDate: 2023-11-09

Shefner JM, Musaro A, Ngo ST, et al (2023)

Skeletal muscle in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Brain : a journal of neurology, 146(11):4425-4436.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the major adult-onset motor neuron disease, has been viewed almost exclusively as a disease of upper and lower motor neurons, with muscle changes interpreted as a consequence of the progressive loss of motor neurons and neuromuscular junctions. This has led to the prevailing view that the involvement of muscle in ALS is only secondary to motor neuron loss. Skeletal muscle and motor neurons reciprocally influence their respective development and constitute a single functional unit. In ALS, multiple studies indicate that skeletal muscle dysfunction might contribute to progressive muscle weakness, as well as to the final demise of neuromuscular junctions and motor neurons. Furthermore, skeletal muscle has been shown to participate in disease pathogenesis of several monogenic diseases closely related to ALS. Here, we move the narrative towards a better appreciation of muscle as a contributor of disease in ALS. We review the various potential roles of skeletal muscle cells in ALS, from passive bystanders to active players in ALS pathophysiology. We also compare ALS to other motor neuron diseases and draw perspectives for future research and treatment.

RevDate: 2023-11-06
CmpDate: 2023-11-06

Lemos JP, Tenório LPG, Mouly V, et al (2023)

T cell biology in neuromuscular disorders: a focus on Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Frontiers in immunology, 14:1202834.

Growing evidence demonstrates a continuous interaction between the immune system, the nerve and the muscle in neuromuscular disorders of different pathogenetic origins, such as Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), the focus of this review. Herein we highlight the complexity of the cellular and molecular interactions involving the immune system in neuromuscular disorders, as exemplified by DMD and ALS. We describe the distinct types of cell-mediated interactions, such as cytokine/chemokine production as well as cell-matrix and cell-cell interactions between T lymphocytes and other immune cells, which target cells of the muscular or nervous tissues. Most of these interactions occur independently of exogenous pathogens, through ligand-receptor binding and subsequent signal transduction cascades, at distinct levels of specificity. Although this issue reveals the complexity of the system, it can also be envisioned as a window of opportunity to design therapeutic strategies (including synthetic moieties, cell and gene therapy, as well as immunotherapy) by acting upon one or more targets. In this respect, we discuss ongoing clinical trials using VLA-4 inhibition in DMD, and in ALS, with a focus on regulatory T cells, both revealing promising results.

RevDate: 2023-11-08
CmpDate: 2023-11-06

Moda F, Ciullini A, Dellarole IL, et al (2023)

Secondary Protein Aggregates in Neurodegenerative Diseases: Almost the Rule Rather than the Exception.

Frontiers in bioscience (Landmark edition), 28(10):255.

The presence of protein aggregates is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases, including Parkinson's disease (PD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), and frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD). Traditionally, each disease has been associated with the aggregation of specific proteins, which serve as disease-specific biomarkers. For example, aggregates of α-synuclein (α-syn) are found in α-synucleinopathies such as PD, dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB), and multiple system atrophy (MSA). Similarly, AD is characterized by aggregates of amyloid-beta (Aβ) and tau proteins. However, it has been observed that these protein aggregates can also occur in other neurodegenerative diseases, contributing to disease progression. For instance, α-syn aggregates have been detected in AD, Down syndrome, Huntington's disease, prion diseases, and various forms of FTLD. Similarly, Aβ aggregates have been found in conditions like DLB and PD. Tau aggregates, in addition to being present in primary tauopathies, have been identified in prion diseases, α-synucleinopathies, and cognitively healthy aged subjects. Finally, aggregates of TDP-43, typically associated with FTLD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), have been observed in AD, progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), corticobasal degeneration (CBD), MSA, DLB, and other neurodegenerative diseases. These findings highlight the complexity of protein aggregation in neurodegeneration and suggest potential interactions and common mechanisms underlying different diseases. A deeper understating of this complex scenario may eventually lead to the identification of a better elucidation of the pathogenetic mechanisms of these devastating conditions and hopefully new therapeutic stragegies.

RevDate: 2023-11-02
CmpDate: 2023-11-02

Reis AHO, Figalo LB, Orsini M, et al (2023)

The implications of DNA methylation for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Anais da Academia Brasileira de Ciencias, 95(suppl 2):e20230277 pii:S0001-37652023000500801.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a complex and serious neurodegenerative disorder that develops in consequence of the progressive loss of the upper and lower motor neurons. Cases of ALS are classified as sporadic (sALS), or familial (fALS). Over 90% of cases are sALS, while roughly 10% are related to inherited genetic mutations (fALS). Approximately 70% of the genetic mutations that contribute to fALS have been identified. On the other hand, the majority of the sALS cases have an undetermined genetic contributor and few mutations have been described, despite the advanced genetic analysis methods. Also, several factors contribute to the onset and progression of ALS. Numerous lines of evidence indicate that epigenetic changes are linked to aging, as well as neurodegenerative disorders, such as ALS. In most cases, they act as the heritable regulation of transcription by DNA methylation, histone modification and expression of noncoding RNAs. Mechanisms involving aberrant DNA methylation could be relevant to human ALS pathobiology and therapeutic targeting. Despite advances in research to find factors associated with ALS and more effective treatments, this disease remains complex and has low patient survival. Here, we provide a narrative review of the role of DNA methylation for this complex neurodegenerative disorder.

RevDate: 2023-11-06
CmpDate: 2023-11-06

Martin Schaff C, Kurent JE, Kolodziejczak S, et al (2023)

Neuroprognostication for Patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Updated, Evidence-Based Review.

Seminars in neurology, 43(5):776-790.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rapidly progressive neurodegenerative disorder that presents and progresses in various ways, making prognostication difficult. Several paradigms exist for providers to elucidate prognosis in a way that addresses not only the amount of time a patient has to live, but also a patient's quality of their life moving forward. Prognostication, with regard to both survivability and quality of life, is impacted by several features that include, but are not limited to, patient demographics, clinical features on presentation, and over time, access to therapy, and access to multidisciplinary clinics. An understanding of the impact that these features have on the life of a patient with ALS can help providers to develop a better and more personalized approach for patients related to their clinical prognosis after a diagnosis is made. The ultimate goal of prognostication is to empower patients with ALS to take control and make decisions with their care teams to ensure that their goals are addressed and met.

RevDate: 2023-10-31

Birajdar SV, Mazahir F, Alam MI, et al (2023)

Repurposing and clinical attributes of antidiabetic drugs for the treatment of neurodegenerative disorders.

European journal of pharmacology pii:S0014-2999(23)00631-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The risk of neurodegeneration was found to be increased among people with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM). Brain disorders like Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and others are considered neurodegenerative diseases and can be characterized by progressive loss of neurons. The deficiency of insulin, impaired signaling, and its resistance lead to alteration in the neuronal functioning of the brain. Insulin degrading enzyme (IDE) plays a significant role in the amyloid β metabolism, aggregation, and deposition of misfolded proteins in the brain's hippocampal and cortical neuronal regions. The insulin signaling via IP3 activation upregulates the IDE and could be a promising approach to regulate neurodegeneration. The repurposing of existing antidiabetic drugs such as Metformin, DPP-4 inhibitors, thiazolidinediones, glucagon-like peptides (GLP-1), sodium-glucose co-transport-2 (SGCT-2) inhibitors, and insulin could be an alternative and effective strategy to treat neurodegeneration via modulating insulin signaling, insulin resistance, IDE activity, oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, serum lipid profile and neuroinflammation in the brain. Antidiabetic medications reduce the risk of neuroinflammation, oxidative stress, and Aβ deposition by enhancing their clearance rate. The downregulation of IDE alters the degradation of Aβ monomers in the Tg2576 APP mice. Also, the treatment with metformin activated the AMPK pathway and suppressed mTOR and BACE-1 protein expression in the APP/PS1-induced mice model. Thus, the primary intention of this review is to explore the link between T2DM and neurodegenerative disorders, and the possible role of various antidiabetic drugs in the management of neurodegenerative disorders.

RevDate: 2023-10-30
CmpDate: 2023-10-30

Provenzano F, Torazza C, Bonifacino T, et al (2023)

The Key Role of Astrocytes in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Their Commitment to Glutamate Excitotoxicity.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(20):.

In the last two decades, there has been increasing evidence supporting non-neuronal cells as active contributors to neurodegenerative disorders. Among glial cells, astrocytes play a pivotal role in driving amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) progression, leading the scientific community to focus on the "astrocytic signature" in ALS. Here, we summarized the main pathological mechanisms characterizing astrocyte contribution to MN damage and ALS progression, such as neuroinflammation, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, energy metabolism impairment, miRNAs and extracellular vesicles contribution, autophagy dysfunction, protein misfolding, and altered neurotrophic factor release. Since glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the most relevant ALS features, we focused on the specific contribution of ALS astrocytes in this aspect, highlighting the known or potential molecular mechanisms by which astrocytes participate in increasing the extracellular glutamate level in ALS and, conversely, undergo the toxic effect of the excessive glutamate. In this scenario, astrocytes can behave as "producers" and "targets" of the high extracellular glutamate levels, going through changes that can affect themselves and, in turn, the neuronal and non-neuronal surrounding cells, thus actively impacting the ALS course. Moreover, this review aims to point out knowledge gaps that deserve further investigation.

RevDate: 2023-10-30
CmpDate: 2023-10-30

Davis SE, Cirincione AB, Jimenez-Torres AC, et al (2023)

The Impact of Neurotransmitters on the Neurobiology of Neurodegenerative Diseases.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(20):.

Neurodegenerative diseases affect millions of people worldwide. Neurodegenerative diseases result from progressive damage to nerve cells in the brain or peripheral nervous system connections that are essential for cognition, coordination, strength, sensation, and mobility. Dysfunction of these brain and nerve functions is associated with Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and motor neuron disease. In addition to these, 50% of people living with HIV develop a spectrum of cognitive, motor, and/or mood problems collectively referred to as HIV-Associated Neurocognitive Disorders (HAND) despite the widespread use of a combination of antiretroviral therapies. Neuroinflammation and neurotransmitter systems have a pathological correlation and play a critical role in developing neurodegenerative diseases. Each of these diseases has a unique pattern of dysregulation of the neurotransmitter system, which has been attributed to different forms of cell-specific neuronal loss. In this review, we will focus on a discussion of the regulation of dopaminergic and cholinergic systems, which are more commonly disturbed in neurodegenerative disorders. Additionally, we will provide evidence for the hypothesis that disturbances in neurotransmission contribute to the neuronal loss observed in neurodegenerative disorders. Further, we will highlight the critical role of dopamine as a mediator of neuronal injury and loss in the context of NeuroHIV. This review will highlight the need to further investigate neurotransmission systems for their role in the etiology of neurodegenerative disorders.

RevDate: 2023-10-30
CmpDate: 2023-10-30

Moțățăianu A, Șerban G, S Andone (2023)

The Role of Short-Chain Fatty Acids in Microbiota-Gut-Brain Cross-Talk with a Focus on Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Systematic Review.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(20):.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a devastating neurodegenerative disease characterized by the gradual loss of motor neurons in the brain and spinal cord, leading to progressive motor function decline. Unfortunately, there is no effective treatment, and its increasing prevalence is linked to an aging population, improved diagnostics, heightened awareness, and changing lifestyles. In the gastrointestinal system, the gut microbiota plays a vital role in producing metabolites, neurotransmitters, and immune molecules. Short-chain fatty acids, of interest for their potential health benefits, are influenced by a fiber- and plant-based diet, promoting a diverse and balanced gut microbiome. These fatty acids impact the body by binding to receptors on enteroendocrine cells, influencing hormones like glucagon-like peptide-1 and peptide YY, which regulate appetite and insulin sensitivity. Furthermore, these fatty acids impact the blood-brain barrier, neurotransmitter levels, and neurotrophic factors, and directly stimulate vagal afferent nerves, affecting gut-brain communication. The vagus nerve is a crucial link between the gut and the brain, transmitting signals related to appetite, inflammation, and various processes. Dysregulation of this pathway can contribute to conditions like obesity and irritable bowel syndrome. Emerging evidence suggests the complex interplay among these fatty acids, the gut microbiota, and environmental factors influences neurodegenerative processes via interconnected pathways, including immune function, anti-inflammation, gut barrier, and energy metabolism. Embracing a balanced, fiber-rich diet may foster a diverse gut microbiome, potentially impacting neurodegenerative disease risk. Comprehensive understanding requires further research into interventions targeting the gut microbiome and fatty acid production and their potential therapeutic role in neurodegeneration.

RevDate: 2023-10-30

De Marchi F, Munitic I, Vidatic L, et al (2023)

Overlapping Neuroimmune Mechanisms and Therapeutic Targets in Neurodegenerative Disorders.

Biomedicines, 11(10):.

Many potential immune therapeutic targets are similarly affected in adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's (AD) disease, Parkinson's disease (PD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), as well as in a seemingly distinct Niemann-Pick type C disease with primarily juvenile onset. This strongly argues for an overlap in pathogenic mechanisms. The commonly researched immune targets include various immune cell subsets, such as microglia, peripheral macrophages, and regulatory T cells (Tregs); the complement system; and other soluble factors. In this review, we compare these neurodegenerative diseases from a clinical point of view and highlight common pathways and mechanisms of protein aggregation, neurodegeneration, and/or neuroinflammation that could potentially lead to shared treatment strategies for overlapping immune dysfunctions in these diseases. These approaches include but are not limited to immunisation, complement cascade blockade, microbiome regulation, inhibition of signal transduction, Treg boosting, and stem cell transplantation.

RevDate: 2023-11-02
CmpDate: 2023-11-02

Pennisi F F, Lo Presti T T, Ricciardi G E GE, et al (2023)

Training and career opportunities for residencies in Hygiene and Preventive Medicine: results of a survey on 39 Italian schools.

Igiene e sanita pubblica, 80(4):94-100.

INTRODUCTION: The Italian National Health Service (SSN) is currently grappling. with a complex situation, characterized by a persistent shortage of medical personnel and the divergent aspirations of young medical graduates. Additionally, recent regulatory developments concerning specialist training further contribute to the intricacies of the landscape, calling for a comprehensive analysis of the challenges and opportunities within the sector. This study aims to provide an updated overview of the current placement of medical graduates, residents and specialists in the specific hygiene and preventive medicine (Public Health) field.

METHODS: Data on admissions, withdrawals and resignations were obtained from the Ministries of Universities and Health and from the archives of the "Associazione Liberi Specializzandi" (ALS). Information regarding the professional prospects for specialists and residents in the field of Public Health was gathered through a tailored survey conducted by the "Consulta dei Medici in Formazione Specialistica" (Council of Medical Residents) of the Italian Society of Hygiene (SItI).

RESULTS: In 2022, a total of 483 specialization contracts were granted, indicating a decrease of 37% compared to the previous year. Notably, 85 positions (17.6%) remained unallocated or resulted in dropouts. Six months after completing their residency, 1.5% of hygiene residents were still actively seeking employment. On a positive note, 75.4% of fourth-year residents secured contracts under the "Decreto Calabria". Career opportunities within the Italian SSN have witnessed growth, with a significant proportion of placements in territorial services and hospital medical directorates.

DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSIONS: The updating of training programs provided by residency schools and the exploration of innovative approaches are of paramount importance to address the urgent need for high-quality training and to cater to the requirements of the national health system.

RevDate: 2023-10-30
CmpDate: 2023-10-30

Ramos V, Reis M, Ferreira L, et al (2023)

Stalling the Course of Neurodegenerative Diseases: Could Cyanobacteria Constitute a New Approach toward Therapy?.

Biomolecules, 13(10):.

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) are characterized by progressive and irreversible neuronal loss, accompanied by a range of pathological pathways, including aberrant protein aggregation, altered energy metabolism, excitotoxicity, inflammation, and oxidative stress. Some of the most common NDs include Alzheimer's Disease (AD), Parkinson's Disease (PD), Multiple Sclerosis (MS), Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS), and Huntington's Disease (HD). There are currently no available cures; there are only therapeutic approaches that ameliorate the progression of symptoms, which makes the search for new drugs and therapeutic targets a constant battle. Cyanobacteria are ancient prokaryotic oxygenic phototrophs whose long evolutionary history has resulted in the production of a plethora of biomedically relevant compounds with anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, immunomodulatory, and neuroprotective properties, that can be valuable in this field. This review summarizes the major NDs and their pathophysiology, with a focus on the anti-neurodegenerative properties of cyanobacterial compounds and their main effects.

RevDate: 2023-10-30
CmpDate: 2023-10-30

Cave R, S Bloch (2023)

The use of speech recognition technology by people living with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a scoping review.

Disability and rehabilitation. Assistive technology, 18(7):1043-1055.

BACKGROUND: More than 80% of people living with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (plwALS) develop difficulties with their speech, affecting communication, self-identity and quality of life. Automatic speech recognition technology (ASR) is becoming a common way to interact with a broad range of devices, to find information and control the environment.ASR can be problematic for people with acquired neurogenic motor speech difficulties (dysarthria). Given that the field is rapidly developing, a scoping review is warranted.

AIMS: This study undertakes a scoping review on the use of ASR technology by plwALS and identifies research gaps in the existing literature.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: Electronic databases and relevant grey literature were searched from 1990 to 2020. Eleven research papers and articles were identified that included participants living with ALS using ASR technology. Relevant data were extracted from the included sources, and a narrative summary of the findings presented.Outcomes and Results: Eleven publications used recordings of plwALS to assess word recognition rate (WRR) word error rate (WER) or phoneme error rate (PER) and appropriacy of responses by ASR devices. All were found to be linked to severity of dysarthria and the ASR technology used. One article examined how speech modification may improve ASR accuracy. The final article completed thematic analysis of Amazon.com reviews for the Amazon Echo and plwALS were reported to use ASR devices to control the environment and summon assistance.

CONCLUSIONS: There are gaps in the evidence base: understanding expectations of plwALS and how they use ASR technology; how WER/PER/WRR relates to usability; how ASR use changes as ALS progresses.Implications for rehabilitationDevices that people can interact with using speech are becoming ubiquitous. As movement and mobility are likely to be affected by ALS and progress over time, speech interaction could be very helpful for accessing information and environmental control.However, many people living with ALS (plwALS) also have impaired speech (dysarthria) and experience trouble using voice interaction technology because it may not understand them.Although advances in automated speech recognition (ASR) technology promise better understanding of dysarthric speech, future research needs to investigate how plwALS use ASR, how accurate it needs to be to be functionally useful, and how useful it may be over time as the disease progresses.

RevDate: 2023-10-28

Korczowska-Łącka I, Słowikowski B, Piekut T, et al (2023)

Disorders of Endogenous and Exogenous Antioxidants in Neurological Diseases.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(10): pii:antiox12101811.

In diseases of the central nervous system, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), stroke, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), Huntington's disease (HD), and even epilepsy and migraine, oxidative stress load commonly surpasses endogenous antioxidative capacity. While oxidative processes have been robustly implicated in the pathogenesis of these diseases, the significance of particular antioxidants, both endogenous and especially exogenous, in maintaining redox homeostasis requires further research. Among endogenous antioxidants, enzymes such as catalase, superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase are central to disabling free radicals, thereby preventing oxidative damage to cellular lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids. Whether supplementation with endogenously occurring antioxidant compounds such as melatonin and glutathione carries any benefit, however, remains equivocal. Similarly, while the health benefits of certain exogenous antioxidants, including ascorbic acid (vitamin C), carotenoids, polyphenols, sulforaphanes, and anthocyanins are commonly touted, their clinical efficacy and effectiveness in particular neurological disease contexts need to be more robustly defined. Here, we review the current literature on the cellular mechanisms mitigating oxidative stress and comment on the possible benefit of the most common exogenous antioxidants in diseases such as AD, PD, ALS, HD, stroke, epilepsy, and migraine. We selected common neurological diseases of a basically neurodegenerative nature.

RevDate: 2023-10-27

Ilieva H, Vullaganti M, J Kwan (2023)

Advances in molecular pathology, diagnosis, and treatment of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

BMJ (Clinical research ed.), 383:e075037.

Although the past two decades have produced exciting discoveries in the genetics and pathology of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), progress in developing an effective therapy remains slow. This review summarizes the critical discoveries and outlines the advances in disease characterization, diagnosis, imaging, and biomarkers, along with the current status of approaches to ALS care and treatment. Additional knowledge of the factors driving disease progression and heterogeneity will hopefully soon transform the care for patients with ALS into an individualized, multi-prong approach able to prevent disease progression sufficiently to allow for a dignified life with limited disability.

RevDate: 2023-10-27

You J, Youssef MMM, Santos JR, et al (2023)

Microglia and Astrocytes in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: Disease-Associated States, Pathological Roles, and Therapeutic Potential.

Biology, 12(10): pii:biology12101307.

Microglial and astrocytic reactivity is a prominent feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Microglia and astrocytes have been increasingly appreciated to play pivotal roles in disease pathogenesis. These cells can adopt distinct states characterized by a specific molecular profile or function depending on the different contexts of development, health, aging, and disease. Accumulating evidence from ALS rodent and cell models has demonstrated neuroprotective and neurotoxic functions from microglia and astrocytes. In this review, we focused on the recent advancements of knowledge in microglial and astrocytic states and nomenclature, the landmark discoveries demonstrating a clear contribution of microglia and astrocytes to ALS pathogenesis, and novel therapeutic candidates leveraging these cells that are currently undergoing clinical trials.

RevDate: 2023-10-23

Schmitz J, Liebold F, Hinkelbein J, et al (2023)

Cardiopulmonary resuscitation during hyperbaric oxygen therapy: a comprehensive review and recommendations for practice.

Scandinavian journal of trauma, resuscitation and emergency medicine, 31(1):57.

BACKGROUND: Cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) during hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) presents unique challenges due to limited access to patients in cardiac arrest (CA) and the distinct physiological conditions present during hyperbaric therapy. Despite these challenges, guidelines specifically addressing CPR during HBOT are lacking. This review aims to consolidate the available evidence and offer recommendations for clinical practice in this context.

MATERIALS AND METHODS: A comprehensive literature search was conducted in PubMed, EMBASE, Cochrane Library, and CINAHL using the search string: "(pressure chamber OR decompression OR hyperbaric) AND (cardiac arrest OR cardiopulmonary resuscitation OR advanced life support OR ALS OR life support OR chest compression OR ventricular fibrillation OR heart arrest OR heart massage OR resuscitation)". Additionally, relevant publications and book chapters not identified through this search were included.

RESULTS: The search yielded 10,223 publications, with 41 deemed relevant to the topic. Among these, 18 articles (primarily case reports) described CPR or defibrillation in 22 patients undergoing HBOT. The remaining 23 articles provided information or recommendations pertaining to CPR during HBOT. Given the unique physiological factors during HBOT, the limitations of current resuscitation guidelines are discussed.

CONCLUSIONS: CPR in the context of HBOT is a rare, yet critical event requiring special considerations. Existing guidelines should be adapted to address these unique circumstances and integrated into regular training for HBOT practitioners. This review serves as a valuable contribution to the literature on "CPR under special circumstances".

RevDate: 2023-10-23

Zhou L, Chen W, Jiang S, et al (2023)

In Vitro Models of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Cellular and molecular neurobiology [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is one of the commonest neurodegenerative diseases of adult-onset, which is characterized by the progressive death of motor neurons in the cerebral cortex, brain stem and spinal cord. The dysfunction and death of motor neurons lead to the progressive muscle weakness, atrophy, fasciculations, spasticity and ultimately the whole paralysis of body. Despite the identification of several genetic mutations associated with the pathogenesis of ALS, including mutations in chromosome 9 open reading frame 72 leading to the abnormal expansion of GGGGCC repeat sequence, TAR DNA-binding protein 43, fused in sarcoma/translocated in liposarcoma, copper/zinc superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) and TANK-binding kinase 1, the exact mechanisms underlying the specific degeneration of motor neurons that causes ALS remain incompletely understood. At present, since the transgenic model expressed SOD1 mutants was established, multiple in vitro models of ALS have been developed for studying the pathology, pathophysiology and pathogenesis of ALS as well as searching the effective neurotherapeutics. This review reviewed the details of present established in vitro models used in studying the pathology, pathophysiology and pathogenesis of ALS. Meanwhile, we also discussed the advantages, disadvantages, cost and availability of each models.

RevDate: 2023-10-24

Hoxhaj P, Hastings N, Kachhadia MP, et al (2023)

Exploring Advancements in the Treatment of Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: A Comprehensive Review of Current Modalities and Future Prospects.

Cureus, 15(9):e45489.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a fatal and incurable disease requiring a multidisciplinary treatment approach and a collaborative therapeutic effort. A combination of both upper and lower motor neuron degeneration ultimately leads to respiratory failure, similar to other dementia-type neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this paper is to pioneer current ALS research by carrying out a narrative literature review of the current treatment modalities of the disease. Through these efforts, we hope to condense the most pertinent information regarding current treatments and enhance the management of ALS patients as a whole, giving these patients a better quality of life as the search for a cure continues. We used a Pubmed search strategy and specific MeSH terms for the selection of the literature articles using the keywords "ALS," "new treatment," "treatment," and "symptomatic treatment." A combination of pharmaceutical interventions, psychological support, and physical rehabilitation has been most effective in enhancing the quality of life of patients with ALS (PALS). Among potential pharmacological therapies, only a few have been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration(FDA) to be used to treat ALS and its symptoms. Other treatment modalities being considered include gene therapy, cellular therapy, psychological therapy, physical therapy, and speech therapy, alongside robotics, alternative feeding methods, and communication devices.

RevDate: 2023-10-21

Xiao F, He Z, Wang S, et al (2023)

Regulatory mechanism of circular RNAs in neurodegenerative diseases.

CNS neuroscience & therapeutics [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Neurodegenerative disease is a collective term for a category of diseases that are caused by neuronal dysfunction, such as Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). Circular RNAs (circRNAs) are a class of non-coding RNAs without the 3' cap and 5' poly(A) and are linked by covalent bonds. CircRNAs are highly expressed in brain neurons and can regulate the pathological process of neurodegenerative diseases by affecting the levels of various deposition proteins.

AIMS: This review is aiming to suggest that the majority of circRNAs influence neurodegenerative pathologies mainly by affecting the abnormal deposition of proteins in neurodegenerative diseases.

METHODS: We systematically summarized the pathological features of neurodegenerative diseases and the regulatory mechanisms of circRNAs in various types of neurodegenerative diseases.

RESULTS: Neurodegenerative disease main features include intercellular ubiquitin-proteasome system abnormalities, changes in cytoskeletal proteins, and the continuous deposition of insoluble protein fragments and inclusion bodies in the cytoplasm or nucleus, resulting in impairment of the normal physiological processes of the neuronal system. CircRNAs have multiple mechanisms, such as acting as microRNA sponges, binding to proteins, and regulating transcription. CircRNAs, which are highly stable molecules, are expected to be potential biomarkers for the pathological detection of neurodegenerative diseases such as AD and PD.

CONCLUSIONS: In this review, we describe the regulatory roles and mechanisms of circRNAs in neurodegenerative diseases and aim to employ circRNAs as biomarkers for the diagnosis and treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-10-20

Rabeh N, Hajjar B, Maraka JO, et al (2023)

Targeting mGluR group III for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

Biomedicine & pharmacotherapy = Biomedecine & pharmacotherapie, 168:115733 pii:S0753-3322(23)01531-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Glutamate, an excitatory neurotransmitter, is essential for neuronal function, and it acts on ionotropic or metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs). A disturbance in glutamatergic signaling is a hallmark of many neurodegenerative diseases. Developing disease-modifying treatments for neurodegenerative diseases targeting glutamate receptors is a promising avenue. The understudied group III mGluR 4, 6-8 are commonly found in the presynaptic membrane, and their activation inhibits glutamate release. Thus, targeted mGluRs therapies could aid in treating neurodegenerative diseases. This review describes group III mGluRs and their pharmacological ligands in the context of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, Parkinson's, Alzheimer's, and Huntington's diseases. Attempts to evaluate the efficacy of these drugs in clinical trials are also discussed. Despite a growing list of group III mGluR-specific pharmacological ligands, research on the use of these drugs in neurodegenerative diseases is limited, except for Parkinson's disease. Future efforts should focus on delineating the contribution of group III mGluR to neurodegeneration and developing novel ligands with superior efficacy and a favorable side effect profile for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-10-23
CmpDate: 2023-10-23

Xie M, Pallegar PN, Parusel S, et al (2023)

Regulation of cortical hyperexcitability in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: focusing on glial mechanisms.

Molecular neurodegeneration, 18(1):75.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder characterized by the loss of both upper and lower motor neurons, resulting in muscle weakness, atrophy, paralysis, and eventually death. Motor cortical hyperexcitability is a common phenomenon observed at the presymptomatic stage of ALS. Both cell-autonomous (the intrinsic properties of motor neurons) and non-cell-autonomous mechanisms (cells other than motor neurons) are believed to contribute to cortical hyperexcitability. Decoding the pathological relevance of these dynamic changes in motor neurons and glial cells has remained a major challenge. This review summarizes the evidence of cortical hyperexcitability from both clinical and preclinical research, as well as the underlying mechanisms. We discuss the potential role of glial cells, particularly microglia, in regulating abnormal neuronal activity during the disease progression. Identifying early changes such as neuronal hyperexcitability in the motor system may provide new insights for earlier diagnosis of ALS and reveal novel targets to halt the disease progression.

RevDate: 2023-10-19

Suh A, Ong J, Kamran SA, et al (2023)

Retina Oculomics in Neurodegenerative Disease.

Annals of biomedical engineering [Epub ahead of print].

Ophthalmic biomarkers have long played a critical role in diagnosing and managing ocular diseases. Oculomics has emerged as a field that utilizes ocular imaging biomarkers to provide insights into systemic diseases. Advances in diagnostic and imaging technologies including electroretinography, optical coherence tomography (OCT), confocal scanning laser ophthalmoscopy, fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy, and OCT angiography have revolutionized the ability to understand systemic diseases and even detect them earlier than clinical manifestations for earlier intervention. With the advent of increasingly large ophthalmic imaging datasets, machine learning models can be integrated into these ocular imaging biomarkers to provide further insights and prognostic predictions of neurodegenerative disease. In this manuscript, we review the use of ophthalmic imaging to provide insights into neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer Disease, Parkinson Disease, Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, and Huntington Disease. We discuss recent advances in ophthalmic technology including eye-tracking technology and integration of artificial intelligence techniques to further provide insights into these neurodegenerative diseases. Ultimately, oculomics opens the opportunity to detect and monitor systemic diseases at a higher acuity. Thus, earlier detection of systemic diseases may allow for timely intervention for improving the quality of life in patients with neurodegenerative disease.

RevDate: 2023-10-19

Vieira TCRG, Barros CA, Domingues R, et al (2023)

PrP meets alpha-synuclein: Molecular mechanisms and implications for disease.

Journal of neurochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

The discovery of prions has challenged dogmas and has revolutionized our understanding of protein-misfolding diseases. The concept of self-propagation via protein conformational changes, originally discovered for the prion protein (PrP), also applies to other proteins that exhibit similar behavior, such as alpha-synuclein (aSyn), a central player in Parkinson's disease and in other synucleinopathies. aSyn pathology appears to spread from one cell to another during disease progression, and involves the misfolding and aggregation of aSyn. How the transfer of aSyn between cells occurs is still being studied, but one important hypothesis involves receptor-mediated transport. Interestingly, recent studies indicate that the cellular prion protein (PrP[C]) may play a crucial role in this process. PrP[C] has been shown to act as a receptor/sensor for protein aggregates in different neurodegenerative disorders, including Alzheimer's disease and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. Here, we provide a comprehensive overview of the current state of knowledge regarding the interaction between aSyn and PrP[C] and discuss its role in synucleinopathies. We examine the properties of PrP and aSyn, including their structure, function, and aggregation. Additionally, we discuss the current understanding of PrP[C] 's role as a receptor/sensor for aSyn aggregates and identify remaining unanswered questions in this area of research. Ultimately, we posit that exploring the interaction between aSyn and PrP[C] may offer potential treatment options for synucleinopathies.

RevDate: 2023-10-23
CmpDate: 2023-10-23

Corcoran J, BM Kluger (2023)

Prognosis in chronic progressive neurologic disease: a narrative review.

Annals of palliative medicine, 12(5):952-962.

BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVE: Prognostication is the process of predicting a patient's likely outcome from their medical condition, and consists of determining both how well and how long a patient may live. There are few disease-specific prognostic tools to estimate a patient's individualized prognosis in terms of symptom burden and mortality. Here we summarize relevant literature on prognosis in four progressive neurologic diseases-dementia, Parkinson's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, and multiple sclerosis-as well as on best practices on communicating prognosis with patients and care partners.

METHODS: We conducted a PubMed search for terms including "prognosis", "mortality" and "prognostic indicators" in addition to specific diseases, and for terms including "prognosis AND communication". Only English-language papers were included in this review. The time frame of our literature search was 1965 through March 1, 2023.

KEY CONTENT AND FINDINGS: There is some literature to help clinicians in predicting disease progression and survival. These include both general factors (e.g., age, medical co-morbidities) and disease-specific factors (e.g., postural instability in Parkinson's disease). There is also literature on communication of prognosis in neurologic and non-neurologic disease which demonstrates that many patients and care partners prefer to hear prognosis early after diagnosis and to have prognosis discussed as a roadmap of disease.

CONCLUSIONS: More work is needed to develop tools for individualized prognostication and communication for patients with neurologic disease. While there is limited literature on disease-specific prognostic models, existing literature combined with palliative care approaches may improve prognostic guidance for patients.

RevDate: 2023-10-22
CmpDate: 2023-10-22

Izenberg A (2023)

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis and Other Motor Neuron Diseases.

Continuum (Minneapolis, Minn.), 29(5):1538-1563.

OBJECTIVE: This article reviews the clinical spectrum of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), its variant presentations, and the approach to diagnosis and management. This review includes a detailed discussion of current and emerging disease-modifying therapies and the management of respiratory and bulbar manifestations of disease. An updated review of ALS genetics and pathophysiology is also provided. This article also touches on several other important motor neuron diseases.

LATEST DEVELOPMENTS: A new set of simplified diagnostic criteria may help identify patients at earlier stages of the disease. A coformulation of sodium phenylbutyrate and tauroursodeoxycholic acid has been shown to have a significant benefit on disease progression and survival, leading to approval by regulatory authorities in the United States and Canada. An oral formulation of edaravone and an antisense oligonucleotide to a SOD1 gene variation (tofersen) have also recently been approved by the US Food and Drug Administration (FDA). Phase 3 trials of intrathecal mesenchymal stem cells failed to meet primary end points for efficacy. Updated American Academy of Neurology quality measures for the care of patients with ALS were published in 2023.

ESSENTIAL POINTS: There has been continued progress in ALS genetics, diagnosis, and disease-modifying therapies. However, we still lack a definitive biomarker or a treatment that can halt the progression or reverse the course of disease. The evolving understanding of the genetic and pathophysiologic underpinnings of disease offers promise for more effective and clinically meaningful treatments in the future.

RevDate: 2023-10-22
CmpDate: 2023-10-22

Chaves-Filho AB, Diniz LS, Santos RS, et al (2023)

Plasma oxylipin profiling by high resolution mass spectrometry reveal signatures of inflammation and hypermetabolism in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Free radical biology & medicine, 208:285-298.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease characterized by progressive loss of motor neurons, systemic hypermetabolism, and inflammation. In this context, oxylipins have been investigated as signaling molecules linked to neurodegeneration, although their specific role in ALS remains unclear. Importantly, most methods focused on oxylipin analysis are based on low-resolution mass spectrometry, which usually confers high sensitivity, but not great accuracy for molecular characterization, as provided by high-resolution MS (HRMS). Here, we established an ultra-high performance liquid chromatography HRMS (LC-HRMS) method for simultaneous analysis of 126 oxylipins in plasma. Intra- and inter-day method validation showed high sensitivity (0.3-25 pg), accuracy and precision for more than 90% of quality controls. This method was applied in plasma of ALS rats overexpressing the mutant human Cu/Zn-superoxide dismutase gene (SOD1-G93A) at asymptomatic (ALS 70 days old) and symptomatic stages (ALS 120 days old), and their respective age-matched wild type controls. From the 56 oxylipins identified in plasma, 17 species were significantly altered. Remarkably, most of oxylipins linked to inflammation and oxidative stress derived from arachidonic acid (AA), like prostaglandins and mono-hydroxides, were increased in ALS 120 d rats. In addition, ketones derived from AA and linoleic acid (LA) were increased in both WT 120 d and ALS 120 d groups, supporting that age also modulates oxylipin metabolism in plasma. Interestingly, the LA-derived diols involved in fatty acid uptake and β-oxidation, 9(10)-DiHOME and 12(13)-DiHOME, were decreased in ALS 120 d rats and showed significant synergic effects between age and disease factors. In summary, we validated a high-throughput LC-HRMS method for oxylipin analysis and provided a comprehensive overview of plasma oxylipins involved in ALS disease progression. Noteworthy, the oxylipins altered in plasma have potential to be investigated as biomarkers for inflammation and hypermetabolism in ALS.

RevDate: 2023-10-17

Holt MW, Robinson EC, Shlobin NA, et al (2023)

Intracortical brain-computer interfaces for improved motor function: a systematic review.

Reviews in the neurosciences [Epub ahead of print].

In this systematic review, we address the status of intracortical brain-computer interfaces (iBCIs) applied to the motor cortex to improve function in patients with impaired motor ability. This study followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) 2020 Guidelines for Systematic Reviews. Risk Of Bias In Non-randomized Studies - of Interventions (ROBINS-I) and the Effective Public Health Practice Project (EPHPP) were used to assess bias and quality. Advances in iBCIs in the last two decades demonstrated the use of iBCI to activate limbs for functional tasks, achieve neural typing for communication, and other applications. However, the inconsistency of performance metrics employed by these studies suggests the need for standardization. Each study was a pilot clinical trial consisting of 1-4, majority male (64.28 %) participants, with most trials featuring participants treated for more than 12 months (55.55 %). The systems treated patients with various conditions: amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, stroke, spinocerebellar degeneration without cerebellar involvement, and spinal cord injury. All participants presented with tetraplegia at implantation and were implanted with microelectrode arrays via pneumatic insertion, with nearly all electrode locations solely at the precentral gyrus of the motor cortex (88.88 %). The development of iBCI devices using neural signals from the motor cortex to improve motor-impaired patients has enhanced the ability of these systems to return ability to their users. However, many milestones remain before these devices can prove their feasibility for recovery. This review summarizes the achievements and shortfalls of these systems and their respective trials.

RevDate: 2023-10-16

Liu X, Liu Y, Liu J, et al (2024)

Correlation between the gut microbiome and neurodegenerative diseases: a review of metagenomics evidence.

Neural regeneration research, 19(4):833-845.

A growing body of evidence suggests that the gut microbiota contributes to the development of neurodegenerative diseases via the microbiota-gut-brain axis. As a contributing factor, microbiota dysbiosis always occurs in pathological changes of neurodegenerative diseases, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. High-throughput sequencing technology has helped to reveal that the bidirectional communication between the central nervous system and the enteric nervous system is facilitated by the microbiota's diverse microorganisms, and for both neuroimmune and neuroendocrine systems. Here, we summarize the bioinformatics analysis and wet-biology validation for the gut metagenomics in neurodegenerative diseases, with an emphasis on multi-omics studies and the gut virome. The pathogen-associated signaling biomarkers for identifying brain disorders and potential therapeutic targets are also elucidated. Finally, we discuss the role of diet, prebiotics, probiotics, postbiotics and exercise interventions in remodeling the microbiome and reducing the symptoms of neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-10-16

Wang X, Hu Y, R Xu (2024)

The pathogenic mechanism of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Neural regeneration research, 19(4):800-806.

The onset of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is usually characterized by focal death of both upper and/or lower motor neurons occurring in the motor cortex, basal ganglia, brainstem, and spinal cord, and commonly involves the muscles of the upper and/or lower extremities, and the muscles of the bulbar and/or respiratory regions. However, as the disease progresses, it affects the adjacent body regions, leading to generalized muscle weakness, occasionally along with memory, cognitive, behavioral, and language impairments; respiratory dysfunction occurs at the final stage of the disease. The disease has a complicated pathophysiology and currently, only riluzole, edaravone, and phenylbutyrate/taurursodiol are licensed to treat amyotrophic lateral sclerosis in many industrialized countries. The TAR DNA-binding protein 43 inclusions are observed in 97% of those diagnosed with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. This review provides a preliminary overview of the potential effects of TAR DNA-binding protein 43 in the pathogenesis of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, including the abnormalities in nucleoplasmic transport, RNA function, post-translational modification, liquid-liquid phase separation, stress granules, mitochondrial dysfunction, oxidative stress, axonal transport, protein quality control system, and non-cellular autonomous functions (e.g., glial cell functions and prion-like propagation).

RevDate: 2023-10-19

King PH (2024)

Skeletal muscle as a molecular and cellular biomarker of disease progression in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: a narrative review.

Neural regeneration research, 19(4):747-753.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is a fatal multisystemic neurodegenerative disease with motor neurons being a primary target. Although progressive weakness is a hallmark feature of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, there is considerable heterogeneity, including clinical presentation, progression, and the underlying triggers for disease initiation. Based on longitudinal studies with families harboring amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-associated gene mutations, it has become apparent that overt disease is preceded by a prodromal phase, possibly in years, where compensatory mechanisms delay symptom onset. Since 85-90% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis is sporadic, there is a strong need for identifying biomarkers that can detect this prodromal phase as motor neurons have limited capacity for regeneration. Current Food and Drug Administration-approved therapies work by slowing the degenerative process and are most effective early in the disease. Skeletal muscle, including the neuromuscular junction, manifests abnormalities at the earliest stages of the disease, before motor neuron loss, making it a promising source for identifying biomarkers of the prodromal phase. The accessibility of muscle through biopsy provides a lens into the distal motor system at earlier stages and in real time. The advent of "omics" technology has led to the identification of numerous dysregulated molecules in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis muscle, ranging from coding and non-coding RNAs to proteins and metabolites. This technology has opened the door for identifying biomarkers of disease activity and providing insight into disease mechanisms. A major challenge is correlating the myriad of dysregulated molecules with clinical or histological progression and understanding their relevance to presymptomatic phases of disease. There are two major goals of this review. The first is to summarize some of the biomarkers identified in human amyotrophic lateral sclerosis muscle that have a clinicopathological correlation with disease activity, evidence of a similar dysregulation in the SOD1[G93A] mouse during presymptomatic stages, and evidence of progressive change during disease progression. The second goal is to review the molecular pathways these biomarkers reflect and their potential role in mitigating or promoting disease progression, and as such, their potential as therapeutic targets in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

RevDate: 2023-10-15

Jagadish A, Shankaranarayana AM, Natarajan M, et al (2023)

Transcranial direct current stimulation for fatigue in neurological conditions: A systematic scoping review.

Physiotherapy research international : the journal for researchers and clinicians in physical therapy [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Fatigue following neurological conditions negatively impacts daily activities, reducing overall quality of life. Transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) for fatigue management is still underexplored. This scoping review explores its use in managing fatigue among various neurological conditions.

METHODS: A thorough literature search was carried out using PubMed, Scopus, CINAHL, Web of Science, Embase, ProQuest, and the Cochrane Library. Google Scholar and clinicaltrials.gov were manually searched for gray literature and ongoing trials, respectively. Regardless of the study design, all studies utilizing tDCS for the management of fatigue in various neurological conditions were considered. Two reviewers independently screened all the studies, following which the data were retrieved.

RESULTS: Studies employing tDCS for fatigue management across neurological conditions is as follows: Multiple sclerosis (MS) (n = 28, 66%), stroke (n = 5, 12%), Parkinson's disease (PD) (n = 4, 10%), post-polio syndrome (PPS) (n = 2, 5%), traumatic brain injury (TBI) (n = 2, 5%), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (n = 1, 2%). All the studies used anodal stimulation, with the common stimulation site being the left dorsolateral prefrontal cortex for MS, stroke, and PD. A stimulation intensity of 1.0-4.0 mA with a duration ranging from 15 to 30 min in 1 to 24 sessions were commonly reported. The Fatigue Severity Scale (n = 21) and Modified Fatigue Impact Scale (n = 17) were frequently implemented outcome measures. Regardless of the study design, 36/42 (85.7%) studies reported an improvement in fatigue scores in the tDCS group. The common adverse events noted were tingling (n = 8, 35%), headache (n = 6, 26%), and itching (n = 6, 26%).

DISCUSSION: Application of tDCS for fatigue was explored in individuals with stroke, PD, PPS, and TBI after MS. Even though a wide range of treatment parameters and outcome measures were adopted to assess and target fatigue, tDCS proves to have a promising role in alleviating this symptom.

RevDate: 2023-10-14

Hamad AA, Amer BE, Abbas NB, et al (2023)

Prevalence and correlates of fatigue in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis: A systematic review and meta-analysis.

Neurological sciences : official journal of the Italian Neurological Society and of the Italian Society of Clinical Neurophysiology [Epub ahead of print].

OBJECTIVES: This systematic review and meta-analysis aimed to determine the frequency and correlates of fatigue in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS).

METHODS: Three databases were searched up to 2nd May 2023 to identify studies reporting fatigue frequency in ALS. Studies included had to identify ALS patients through one of ALS diagnostic criteria and measure fatigue by a validated tool with a specific cut-off value. Meta-analysis was conducted using RStudio's "meta" package with a random-effects model. Subgroup analyses and meta-regression explored the relationship between fatigue frequency in ALS and different covariates.

RESULTS: Eleven studies, compromising 1072 patients, met the inclusion criteria and were included in our analysis. The pooled frequency of fatigue across all studies was 48% (95% CI = 40% to 57%). Our subgroup analysis based on the ALSFRS-R revealed a higher frequency of fatigue in studies with lower scores (< 30) compared to those with higher scores (≥ 30), with a pooled frequency of 62% (95% CI = 43% to 79%) and 43% (95% CI = 37% to 49%), respectively. Also, the meta-regression analysis showed a significant negative association between fatigue and ALSFRS-R mean (P = 0.02). The included studies reported an association between fatigue and lower functional status and poorer quality of life in patients with ALS.

CONCLUSION: Our findings suggest that fatigue is prevalent in almost half of ALS patients and is associated with lower functional status and poorer quality of life, highlighting the importance of assessing and managing fatigue in ALS patients.

RevDate: 2023-10-16

Baj J, Flieger W, Barbachowska A, et al (2023)

Consequences of Disturbing Manganese Homeostasis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(19):.

Manganese (Mn) is an essential trace element with unique functions in the body; it acts as a cofactor for many enzymes involved in energy metabolism, the endogenous antioxidant enzyme systems, neurotransmitter production, and the regulation of reproductive hormones. However, overexposure to Mn is toxic, particularly to the central nervous system (CNS) due to it causing the progressive destruction of nerve cells. Exposure to manganese is widespread and occurs by inhalation, ingestion, or dermal contact. Associations have been observed between Mn accumulation and neurodegenerative diseases such as manganism, Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. People with genetic diseases associated with a mutation in the gene associated with impaired Mn excretion, kidney disease, iron deficiency, or a vegetarian diet are at particular risk of excessive exposure to Mn. This review has collected data on the current knowledge of the source of Mn exposure, the experimental data supporting the dispersive accumulation of Mn in the brain, the controversies surrounding the reference values of biomarkers related to Mn status in different matrices, and the competitiveness of Mn with other metals, such as iron (Fe), magnesium (Mg), zinc (Zn), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), calcium (Ca). The disturbed homeostasis of Mn in the body has been connected with susceptibility to neurodegenerative diseases, fertility, and infectious diseases. The current evidence on the involvement of Mn in metabolic diseases, such as type 2 diabetes mellitus/insulin resistance, osteoporosis, obesity, atherosclerosis, and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, was collected and discussed.

RevDate: 2023-10-16

Oprisan AL, BO Popescu (2023)

Dysautonomia in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(19):.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease, characterized in its typical presentation by a combination of lower and upper motor neuron symptoms, with a progressive course and fatal outcome. Due to increased recognition of the non-motor symptoms, it is currently considered a multisystem disorder with great heterogeneity, regarding genetical, clinical, and neuropathological features. Often underestimated, autonomic signs and symptoms have been described in patients with ALS, and various method analyses have been used to assess autonomic nervous system involvement. The aim of this paper is to offer a narrative literature review on autonomic disturbances in ALS, based on the scarce data available to date.

RevDate: 2023-10-15

Huber K, Szerenos E, Lewandowski D, et al (2023)

The Role of Adipokines in the Pathologies of the Central Nervous System.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(19):.

Adipokines are protein hormones secreted by adipose tissue in response to disruptions in physiological homeostasis within the body's systems. The regulatory functions of adipokines within the central nervous system (CNS) are multifaceted and intricate, and they have been identified in a number of pathologies. Therefore, specific adipokines have the potential to be used as biomarkers for screening purposes in neurological dysfunctions. The systematic review presented herein focuses on the analysis of the functions of various adipokines in the pathogenesis of CNS diseases. Thirteen proteins were selected for analysis through scientific databases. It was found that these proteins can be identified within the cerebrospinal fluid either by their ability to modify their molecular complex and cross the blood-brain barrier or by being endogenously produced within the CNS itself. As a result, this can correlate with their measurability during pathological processes, including Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, multiple sclerosis, depression, or brain tumors.

RevDate: 2023-10-14

Jellinger KA (2023)

The Spectrum of Cognitive Dysfunction in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis: An Update.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(19):.

Cognitive dysfunction is an important non-motor symptom in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) that has a negative impact on survival and caregiver burden. It shows a wide spectrum ranging from subjective cognitive decline to frontotemporal dementia (FTD) and covers various cognitive domains, mainly executive/attention, language and verbal memory deficits. The frequency of cognitive impairment across the different ALS phenotypes ranges from 30% to 75%, with up to 45% fulfilling the criteria of FTD. Significant genetic, clinical, and pathological heterogeneity reflects deficits in various cognitive domains. Modern neuroimaging studies revealed frontotemporal degeneration and widespread involvement of limbic and white matter systems, with hypometabolism of the relevant areas. Morphological substrates are frontotemporal and hippocampal atrophy with synaptic loss, associated with TDP-43 and other co-pathologies, including tau deposition. Widespread functional disruptions of motor and extramotor networks, as well as of frontoparietal, frontostriatal and other connectivities, are markers for cognitive deficits in ALS. Cognitive reserve may moderate the effect of brain damage but is not protective against cognitive decline. The natural history of cognitive dysfunction in ALS and its relationship to FTD are not fully understood, although there is an overlap between the ALS variants and ALS-related frontotemporal syndromes, suggesting a differential vulnerability of motor and non-motor networks. An assessment of risks or the early detection of brain connectivity signatures before structural changes may be helpful in investigating the pathophysiological mechanisms of cognitive impairment in ALS, which might even serve as novel targets for effective disease-modifying therapies.

RevDate: 2023-10-13

Rezaee D, Saadatpour F, Akbari N, et al (2023)

The role of microRNAs in the pathophysiology of human central nervous system: A focus on neurodegenerative diseases.

Ageing research reviews pii:S1568-1637(23)00249-0 [Epub ahead of print].

microRNAs (miRNAs) are suggested to play substantial roles in regulating the development and various physiologic functions of the central nervous system (CNS). These include neurogenesis, cell fate and differentiation, morphogenesis, formation of dendrites, and targeting non-neural mRNAs. Notably, deregulation of an increasing number of miRNAs is associated with several neurodegenerative diseases including Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and CNS tumors. They are particularly known to affect the amyloid β (Aβ) cleavage and accumulation, tau protein homeostasis, and expression of alpha-synuclein (α-syn), Parkin, PINK1, and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) that play pivotal roles in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases. These include miR-16, miR-17-5p, miR-20a, miR-106a, miR-106b, miR-15a, miR-15b, miR-103, miR-107, miR-298, miR-328, miR-195, miR-485, and miR-29. In CNS tumors, several miRNAs, including miR-31, miR-16, and miR-21 have been identified to modulate tumorigenesis through impacting tumor invasion and apoptosis. In this review article, we have a look at the recent advances on our knowledge about the role of miRNAs in human brain development and functions, neurodegenerative diseases, and their clinical potentials.

RevDate: 2023-10-13

Berlowitz DJ, Mathers S, Hutchinson K, et al (2023)

The complexity of multidisciplinary respiratory care in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Breathe (Sheffield, England), 19(3):220269.

UNLABELLED: Motor neurone disease/amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive neurodegenerative disorder with no known cure, where death is usually secondary to progressive respiratory failure. Assisting people with ALS through their disease journey is complex and supported by clinics that provide comprehensive multidisciplinary care (MDC). This review aims to apply both a respiratory and a complexity lens to the key roles and areas of practice within the MDC model in ALS. Models of noninvasive ventilation care, and considerations in the provision of palliative therapy, respiratory support, and speech and language therapy are discussed. The impact on people living with ALS of both inequitable funding models and the complexity of clinical care decisions are illustrated using case vignettes. Considerations of the impact of emerging antisense and gene modifying therapies on MDC challenges are also highlighted. The review seeks to illustrate how MDC members contribute to collective decision-making in ALS, how the sum of the parts is greater than any individual care component or health professional, and that the MDC per se adds value to the person living with ALS. Through this approach we hope to support clinicians to navigate the space between what are minimum, guideline-driven, standards of care and what excellent, person-centred ALS care that fully embraces complexity could be.

EDUCATIONAL AIMS: To highlight the complexities surrounding respiratory care in ALS.To alert clinicians to the risk that complexity of ALS care may modify the effectiveness of any specific, evidence-based therapy for ALS.To describe the importance of person-centred care and shared decision-making in optimising care in ALS.

RevDate: 2023-10-12

Richardson PJ, Smith DP, de Giorgio A, et al (2023)

Janus kinase inhibitors are potential therapeutics for amyotrophic lateral sclerosis.

Translational neurodegeneration, 12(1):47.

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a poorly treated multifactorial neurodegenerative disease associated with multiple cell types and subcellular organelles. As with other multifactorial diseases, it is likely that drugs will need to target multiple disease processes and cell types to be effective. We review here the role of Janus kinase (JAK)/Signal transducer and activator of transcription (STAT) signalling in ALS, confirm the association of this signalling with fundamental ALS disease processes using the BenevolentAI Knowledge Graph, and demonstrate that inhibitors of this pathway could reduce the ALS pathophysiology in neurons, glia, muscle fibres, and blood cells. Specifically, we suggest that inhibition of the JAK enzymes by approved inhibitors known as Jakinibs could reduce STAT3 activation and modify the progress of this disease. Analysis of the Jakinibs highlights baricitinib as a suitable candidate due to its ability to penetrate the central nervous system and exert beneficial effects on the immune system. Therefore, we recommend that this drug be tested in appropriately designed clinical trials for ALS.

RevDate: 2023-10-12

Abrahams S (2023)

Neuropsychological impairment in amyotrophic lateral sclerosis-frontotemporal spectrum disorder.

Nature reviews. Neurology [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease with a rapid course, characterized by motor neuron dysfunction, leading to progressive disability and death. This Review, which is aimed at neurologists, psychologists and other health professionals who follow evidence-based practice relating to ALS and frontotemporal dementia (FTD), examines the neuropsychological evidence that has driven the reconceptualization of ALS as a spectrum disorder ranging from a pure motor phenotype to ALS-FTD. It focuses on changes in cognition and behaviour, which vary in severity across the spectrum: around 50% individuals with ALS are within the normal range, 15% meet the criteria for ALS-FTD, and the remaining 35% are in the mid-spectrum range with milder and more focal impairments. The cognitive impairments include deficits in verbal fluency, executive functions, social cognition and language, and apathy is the most prevalent behavioural change. The pattern and severity of cognitive and behavioural change predicts underlying regional cerebral dysfunction from brain imaging and post-mortem pathology. Our increased recognition of cognition and behaviour as part of the ALS phenotype has led to the development and standardization of assessment tools, which have been incorporated into research and clinical care. Measuring change over the course of the disease is vital for clinical trials, and neuropsychology is proving to be a biomarker for the earliest preclinical changes.

RevDate: 2023-10-12

Todd TW, Shao W, Zhang YJ, et al (2023)

The endolysosomal pathway and ALS/FTD.

Trends in neurosciences pii:S0166-2236(23)00222-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) are considered to be part of a disease spectrum that is associated with causative mutations and risk variants in a wide range of genes. Mounting evidence indicates that several of these genes are linked to the endolysosomal system, highlighting the importance of this pathway in ALS/FTD. Although many studies have focused on how disruption of this pathway impacts on autophagy, recent findings reveal that this may not be the whole picture: specifically, disrupting autophagy may not be sufficient to induce disease, whereas disrupting the endolysosomal system could represent a crucial pathogenic driver. In this review we discuss the connections between ALS/FTD and the endolysosomal system, including a breakdown of how disease-associated genes are implicated in this pathway. We also explore the potential downstream consequences of disrupting endolysosomal activity in the brain, outside of an effect on autophagy.

RevDate: 2023-10-12

Santiago JA, Karthikeyan M, Lackey M, et al (2023)

Diabetes: a tipping point in neurodegenerative diseases.

Trends in molecular medicine pii:S1471-4914(23)00220-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Diabetes is associated with an increased risk and progression of Alzheimer's (AD) and Parkinson's (PD) diseases. Conversely, diabetes may confer neuroprotection against amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). It has been posited that perturbations in glucose and insulin regulation, cholesterol metabolism, and mitochondrial bioenergetics defects may underlie the molecular underpinnings of diabetes effects on the brain. Nevertheless, the precise molecular mechanisms remain elusive. Here, we discuss the evidence from molecular, epidemiological, and clinical studies investigating the impact of diabetes on neurodegeneration and highlight shared dysregulated pathways between these complex comorbidities. We also discuss promising antidiabetic drugs, molecular diagnostics currently in clinical trials, and outstanding questions and challenges for future pursuit.

RevDate: 2023-10-10

McHenry KL (2023)

Airway Clearance Strategies and Secretion Management in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

Respiratory care pii:respcare.11215 [Epub ahead of print].

Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a rare, neurodegenerative motor neuron disease that affects voluntary muscle movement. Often, difficulty in coughing, breathing, and swallowing are sequela associated with the condition, and the presence of bulbar muscle predominant weakness results in deleterious effects on airway clearance and secretion management. This narrative review will provide practical guidance for clinicians treating this population. Cough insufficiency in this population typically manifests as a prolonged, slow, weak cough effort that impedes the clearability of secretions and airway protection. Dystussia and dysphagia frequently occur simultaneously in bulbar dysfunction, subsequently impacting respiratory health. Measures of respiratory strength should be obtained and monitored every 3-6 months, preferably in a multidisciplinary clinic setting. Cough augmentation, whether manual or mechanical techniques, should be sought as early in the disease progression as possible to adequately control secretions in the proximal airways. This airway clearance strategy can aid in the prevention and treatment of respiratory tract infections (RTIs), which can pose a significant clinical hurdle to those with ALS. The use of mechanical insufflation-exsufflation may be complicated by severe bulbar dysfunction rendering this technique ineffective. Though peripheral airway clearance strategies, such as high-frequency chest-wall compression, have the advantage of being less impacted by bulbar dysfunction, it is only recommended this modality be used in conjunction with, versus in lieu of, proximal strategies. Salivary secretion management includes the use of anticholinergics, botulinum toxin, and radiation therapy depending on severity and desire for relief.

RevDate: 2023-10-09

Babazadeh A, Rayner SL, Lee A, et al (2023)

TDP-43 as A Therapeutic Target in Neurodegenerative Diseases; Focusing on Motor Neuron Disease and Frontotemporal Dementia.

Ageing research reviews pii:S1568-1637(23)00244-1 [Epub ahead of print].

A common feature of adult-onset neurodegenerative diseases is the presence of characteristic pathological accumulations of specific proteins. These pathological protein depositions can vary in their protein composition, cell-type distribution, and intracellular (or extracellular) location. For example, abnormal cytoplasmic protein deposits which consist of the TDP-43 protein are found within motor neurons in patients with amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, a common form of motor neuron disease) and frontotemporal dementia (FTD). The presence of these insoluble intracellular TDP-43 inclusions suggests that restoring TDP-43 homeostasis represents a potential therapeutical strategy, which has been demonstrated in alleviating neurodegenerative symptoms in cell and animal models of ALS/FTD. We have reviewed the mechanisms that lead to disrupted TDP-43 homeostasis and discussed how small molecule-based therapies could be applied in modulating these mechanisms. This review covers recent advancements and challenges in small molecule-based therapies that could be used to clear pathological forms of TDP-43 through various protein homeostasis mechanisms and advance the way towards finding effective therapeutical drug discoveries for neurodegenerative diseases characterized by TDP-43 proteinopathies, especially ALS and FTD. We also consider the wider insight of these therapeutic strategies for other neurodegenerative diseases.

RevDate: 2023-10-06

Kuhn I, Erber B, SS Goller (2023)

[Adhesive capsulitis bitte Aff2 als corresponding Affiliation verwenden!].

Radiologie (Heidelberg, Germany) [Epub ahead of print].

BACKGROUND: Adhesive capsulitis (CA; also called Frozen shoulder) is a common, usually unilateral disease of the shoulder joint primarily affecting middle-aged women. Primary, idiopathic, and secondary forms are distinguished. Painful active and passive movement restriction are the clinically leading symptoms.

COURSE OF THE DISEASE: The disease usually progresses in three successive stages: freezing phase, frozen phase, and thawing phase.

CA is primarily diagnosed clinically, with imaging being used to assess or exclude differential diagnoses. Radiography as part of basic diagnostics allows exclusion of common differential diagnoses such as osteoarthritis of the shoulder or calcific tendinitis. Native magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and MR arthrography (MRA) reveal pathomorphologies typical of CA. Intravenously administered gadolinium increases the sensitivity of MRI. Sonography may be used as a complementary diagnostic modality or as an alternative in case of contraindications to MRI. Fluoroscopy-guided arthrography has been replaced by MRI because of its invasiveness. Computed tomography (CT) has no role in diagnostics due to its radiation exposure and significantly lower sensitivity and specificity compared to MRI.

TREATMENT: Therapy of CA is stage-adapted and includes conservative measures such as analgesics and physiotherapy and surgical procedures such as arthroscopic arthrolysis. The therapeutic spectrum is supplemented by new, innovative procedures such as transarterial periarticular embolization.

PROGNOSIS: CA is self-limiting and usually persists for 2-3 years. However, the patients may even suffer from pain and limited range of motion beyond this time.

RevDate: 2023-10-06

Billings JL, Hilton JBW, Liddell JR, et al (2023)

Fundamental Neurochemistry Review: Copper availability as a potential therapeutic target in progressive supranuclear palsy: Insight from other neurodegenerative diseases.

Journal of neurochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

Since the first description of Parkinson's disease (PD) over two centuries ago, the recognition of rare types of atypical parkinsonism has introduced a spectrum of related PD-like diseases. Among these is progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), a neurodegenerative condition that clinically differentiates through the presence of additional symptoms uncommon in PD. As with PD, the initial symptoms of PSP generally present in the sixth decade of life when the underpinning neurodegeneration is already significantly advanced. The causal trigger of neuronal cell loss in PSP is unknown and treatment options are consequently limited. However, converging lines of evidence from the distinct neurodegenerative conditions of PD and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are beginning to provide insights into potential commonalities in PSP pathology and opportunity for novel therapeutic intervention. These include accumulation of the high abundance cuproenzyme superoxide dismutase 1 (SOD1) in an aberrant copper-deficient state, associated evidence for altered availability of the essential micronutrient copper, and evidence for neuroprotection using compounds that can deliver available copper to the central nervous system. Herein, we discuss the existing evidence for SOD1 pathology and copper imbalance in PSP and speculate that treatments able to provide neuroprotection through manipulation of copper availability could be applicable to the treatment of PSP.

RevDate: 2023-10-05

Yonekura K, Maki-Yonekura S, K Takaba (2023)

Applications and limitations of electron 3D crystallography.

Structure (London, England : 1993) pii:S0969-2126(23)00330-1 [Epub ahead of print].

Three-dimensional electron diffraction (3D ED) is a measurement and analysis technique in transmission electron microscopy that is used for determining atomic structures from small crystals. Diverse targets such as proteins, polypeptides, and organic compounds, whose crystals exist in aqueous solutions and organic solvents, or as dried powders, can be studied with 3D ED. We have been involved in the development of this technique, which can now rapidly process a large number of data collected through AI control, enabling efficient structure determination. Here, we introduce this method and describe our recent results. These include the structures and pathogenic mechanisms of wild-type and mutant polypeptides associated with the debilitating disease amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), the double helical structure of nanographene promoting nanofiber formation, and the structural properties of an organic semiconductor containing disordered regions. We also discuss the limitations and prospects of 3D ED compared to microcrystallography with X-ray free electron lasers.

RevDate: 2023-10-05

Rodriguez P, RD Blakely (2023)

Sink or swim: Does a worm paralysis phenotype hold clues to neurodegenerative disease?.

Journal of cellular physiology [Epub ahead of print].

Receiving a neurodegenerative disease (NDD) diagnosis, such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, Huntington's disease, or amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, is devastating, particularly given the limited options for treatment. Advances in genetic technologies have allowed for efficient modeling of NDDs in animals and brought hope for new disease-modifying medications. The complexity of the mammalian brain and the costs and time needed to identify and develop therapeutic leads limits progress. Modeling NDDs in invertebrates, such as the fruit fly Drosophila melanogaster and the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans, offers orders of magnitude increases in speed of genetic analysis and manipulation, and can be pursued at substantially reduced cost, providing an important, platform complement and inform research with mammalian NDD models. In this review, we describe how our efforts to exploit C. elegans for the study of neural signaling and health led to the discovery of a paralytic phenotype (swimming-induced paralysis) associated with altered dopamine signaling and, surprisingly, to the discovery of a novel gene and pathway whose dysfunction in glial cells triggers neurodegeneration. Research to date on swip-10 and its putative mammalian ortholog MBLAC1, suggests that a tandem analysis will offer insights into NDD mechanisms and insights into novel, disease-modifying therapeutics.

RevDate: 2023-10-06

Venediktov AA, Bushueva OY, Kudryavtseva VA, et al (2023)

Closest horizons of Hsp70 engagement to manage neurodegeneration.

Frontiers in molecular neuroscience, 16:1230436.

Our review seeks to elucidate the current state-of-the-art in studies of 70-kilodalton-weighed heat shock proteins (Hsp70) in neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). The family has already been shown to play a crucial role in pathological aggregation for a wide spectrum of brain pathologies. However, a slender boundary between a big body of fundamental data and its implementation has only recently been crossed. Currently, we are witnessing an anticipated advancement in the domain with dozens of studies published every month. In this review, we briefly summarize scattered results regarding the role of Hsp70 in the most common NDs including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). We also bridge translational studies and clinical trials to portray the output for medical practice. Available options to regulate Hsp70 activity in NDs are outlined, too.

RevDate: 2023-10-03

Li S, Zhao L, Xiao J, et al (2023)

The gut microbiome: an important role in neurodegenerative diseases and their therapeutic advances.

Molecular and cellular biochemistry [Epub ahead of print].

There are complex interactions between the gut and the brain. With increasing research on the relationship between gut microbiota and brain function, accumulated clinical and preclinical evidence suggests that gut microbiota is intimately involved in the pathogenesis of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs). Increasingly studies are beginning to focus on the association between gut microbiota and central nervous system (CNS) degenerative pathologies to find potential therapies for these refractory diseases. In this review, we summarize the changes in the gut microbiota in Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, multiple sclerosis, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and contribute to our understanding of the function of the gut microbiota in NDs and its possible involvement in the pathogenesis. We subsequently discuss therapeutic approaches targeting gut microbial abnormalities in these diseases, including antibiotics, diet, probiotics, and fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT). Furthermore, we summarize some completed and ongoing clinical trials of interventions with gut microbes for NDs, which may provide new ideas for studying NDs.

RevDate: 2023-10-04
CmpDate: 2023-10-04

Chen D, Huang H, Saberi H, et al (2023)

Positive and negative cell therapy in randomized control trials for central nervous system diseases.

International review of neurobiology, 171:241-254.

Neurorestorative cell therapies have been tested to treat patients with nervous system diseases for over 20 years. Now it is still hard to answer which kinds of cells can really play a role on improving these patients' quality of life. Non-randomized clinical trials or studies could not provide strong evidences in answering this critical question. In this review, we summarized randomized clinical trials of cell therapies for central nervous diseases, such as stroke, spinal cord injury, cerebral palsy (CP), Parkinson's disease (PD), multiple sclerosis (MS), brain trauma, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), etc. Most kinds of cell therapies demonstrated negative results for stoke, brain trauma and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. A few kinds of cell therapies showed neurorestorative effects in this level of evidence-based medicine, such as olfactory ensheating cells for chronic ischemic stroke. Some kinds of cells showed positive or negative effects from different teams in the same or different diseases. We analyzed the possible failed reasons of negative results and the cellular bio-propriety basis of positive results. Based on therapeutic results of randomized control trials and reasonable analysis, we recommend: (1) to further conduct trials for successful cell therapies with positive results to increase neurorestorative effects; (2) to avoid in repeating failed cell therapies with negative results in same diseases because it is nonsense for them to be done with similar treatment methods, such as cell dosage, transplanting way, time of window, etc. Furthermore, we strongly suggest not to do non-randomized clinical trials for cells that had shown negative results in randomized clinical trials.

RevDate: 2023-10-04

Huang ZQ, Ba ZS, Huang NQ, et al (2021)

Aberrant TDP-43 phosphorylation: a key wind gap from TDP-43 to TDP-43 proteinopathy.

Ibrain, 7(2):119-131.

TDP-43 proteinopathy is a kind of neurodegenerative diseases related to the TAR DNA-binding protein of 43-kDa molecular weight (TDP-43). The typical neurodegenerative diseases include amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), frontotemporal lobar degeneration (FTLD), Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD) and so on. As the disease process cannot be blocked or slowed down, these patients have poor quality of life and poor prognosis, and bring a huge burden to the family and society. So far, the specific pathogenesis of TDP-43 proteinopathy is not clear, and there is no effective preventive measure and treatment program for this kind of disease. TDP-43 plays an important role in triggering or promoting the occurrence and progression of TDP-43 proteinopathy. The hyperphosphorylation of TDP-43 is undoubtedly an important factor in triggering or promoting the process of TDP-43 proteinopathy. Hyperphosphorylation of TDP-43 can inhibit the degradation of TDP-43, aggravate the aggregation of TDP-43 protein, increase the wrong localization of TDP-43 in cells, and enhance the cytotoxicity of TDP-43. More and more evidences show that the hyperphosphorylation of TDP-43 plays an important role in the pathogenesis of TDP-43 proteinopathy. Inhibition of TDP-43 hyperphosphorylation may be one of the important strategies for the treatment of TDP-43 proteinopathy. Therefore, this article reviews the role of TDP-43 phosphorylation in TDP-43 proteinopathy and the related mechanisms.

RevDate: 2023-10-04

Yu H, Xiong M, Z Zhang (2023)

The role of glycogen synthase kinase 3 beta in neurodegenerative diseases.

Frontiers in molecular neuroscience, 16:1209703.

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) pose an increasingly prevalent threat to the well-being and survival of elderly individuals worldwide. NDDs include Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), and so on. They are characterized by progressive loss or dysfunction of neurons in the central or peripheral nervous system and share several cellular and molecular mechanisms, including protein aggregation, mitochondrial dysfunction, gene mutations, and chronic neuroinflammation. Glycogen synthase kinase-3 beta (GSK-3β) is a serine/threonine kinase that is believed to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of NDDs. Here we summarize the structure and physiological functions of GSK3β and explore its involvement in NDDs. We also discussed its potential as a therapeutic target.

RevDate: 2023-09-30

Ocharán-Mercado A, Loaeza-Loaeza J, Castro-Coronel Y, et al (2023)

RNA-Binding Proteins: A Role in Neurotoxicity?.

Neurotoxicity research [Epub ahead of print].

Despite sustained efforts to treat neurodegenerative diseases, little is known at the molecular level to understand and generate novel therapeutic approaches for these malignancies. Therefore, it is not surprising that neurogenerative diseases are among the leading causes of death in the aged population. Neurons require sophisticated cellular mechanisms to maintain proper protein homeostasis. These cells are generally sensitive to loss of gene expression control at the post-transcriptional level. Post-translational control responds to signals that can arise from intracellular processes or environmental factors that can be regulated through RNA-binding proteins. These proteins recognize RNA through one or more RNA-binding domains and form ribonucleoproteins that are critically involved in the regulation of post-transcriptional processes from splicing to the regulation of association of the translation machinery allowing a relatively rapid and precise modulation of the transcriptome. Neurotoxicity is the result of the biological, chemical, or physical interaction of agents with an adverse effect on the structure and function of the central nervous system. The disruption of the proper levels or function of RBPs in neurons and glial cells triggers neurotoxic events that are linked to neurodegenerative diseases such as spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), fragile X syndrome (FXS), and frontotemporal dementia (FTD) among many others. The connection between RBPs and neurodegenerative diseases opens a new landscape for potentially novel therapeutic targets for the intervention of these neurodegenerative pathologies. In this contribution, a summary of the recent findings of the molecular mechanisms involved in the plausible role of RBPs in RNA processing in neurodegenerative disease is discussed.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Souza INO, Roychaudhuri R, de Belleroche J, et al (2023)

d-Amino acids: new clinical pathways for brain diseases.

Trends in molecular medicine pii:S1471-4914(23)00216-2 [Epub ahead of print].

Free d-amino acids (d-AAs) are emerging as a novel and important class of signaling molecules in many organs, including the brain and endocrine systems. There has been considerable progress in our understanding of the fundamental roles of these atypical messengers, with increasingly recognized implications in a wide range of neuropathologies, including schizophrenia (SCZ), epilepsy, Alzheimer's disease (AD), amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), substance abuse, and chronic pain, among others. Research has enabled the discovery that d-serine, d-aspartate and more recently d-cysteine are essential for the healthy development and function of the central nervous system (CNS). We discuss recent progress that has profoundly transformed our vision of numerous physiological processes but has also shown how d-AAs are now offering therapeutic promise in clinical settings for several human diseases.

RevDate: 2023-09-30
CmpDate: 2023-09-29

Taneva SG, Todinova S, T Andreeva (2023)

Morphometric and Nanomechanical Screening of Peripheral Blood Cells with Atomic Force Microscopy for Label-Free Assessment of Alzheimer's Disease, Parkinson's Disease, and Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18):.

Neurodegenerative disorders (NDDs) are complex, multifactorial disorders with significant social and economic impact in today's society. NDDs are predicted to become the second-most common cause of death in the next few decades due to an increase in life expectancy but also to a lack of early diagnosis and mainly symptomatic treatment. Despite recent advances in diagnostic and therapeutic methods, there are yet no reliable biomarkers identifying the complex pathways contributing to these pathologies. The development of new approaches for early diagnosis and new therapies, together with the identification of non-invasive and more cost-effective diagnostic biomarkers, is one of the main trends in NDD biomedical research. Here we summarize data on peripheral biomarkers, biofluids (cerebrospinal fluid and blood plasma), and peripheral blood cells (platelets (PLTs) and red blood cells (RBCs)), reported so far for the three most common NDDs-Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS). PLTs and RBCs, beyond their primary physiological functions, are increasingly recognized as valuable sources of biomarkers for NDDs. Special attention is given to the morphological and nanomechanical signatures of PLTs and RBCs as biophysical markers for the three pathologies. Modifications of the surface nanostructure and morphometric and nanomechanical signatures of PLTs and RBCs from patients with AD, PD, and ALS have been revealed by atomic force microscopy (AFM). AFM is currently experiencing rapid and widespread adoption in biomedicine and clinical medicine, in particular for early diagnostics of various medical conditions. AFM is a unique instrument without an analog, allowing the generation of three-dimensional cell images with extremely high spatial resolution at near-atomic scale, which are complemented by insights into the mechanical properties of cells and subcellular structures. Data demonstrate that AFM can distinguish between the three pathologies and the normal, healthy state. The specific PLT and RBC signatures can serve as biomarkers in combination with the currently used diagnostic tools. We highlight the strong correlation of the morphological and nanomechanical signatures between RBCs and PLTs in PD, ALS, and AD.

RevDate: 2023-09-30
CmpDate: 2023-09-30

Gimenez J, Spalloni A, Cappelli S, et al (2023)

TDP-43 Epigenetic Facets and Their Neurodegenerative Implications.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(18):.

Since its initial involvement in numerous neurodegenerative pathologies in 2006, either as a principal actor or as a cofactor, new pathologies implicating transactive response (TAR) DNA-binding protein 43 (TDP-43) are regularly emerging also beyond the neuronal system. This reflects the fact that TDP-43 functions are particularly complex and broad in a great variety of human cells. In neurodegenerative diseases, this protein is often pathologically delocalized to the cytoplasm, where it irreversibly aggregates and is subjected to various post-translational modifications such as phosphorylation, polyubiquitination, and cleavage. Until a few years ago, the research emphasis has been focused particularly on the impacts of this aggregation and/or on its widely described role in complex RNA splicing, whether related to loss- or gain-of-function mechanisms. Interestingly, recent studies have strengthened the knowledge of TDP-43 activity at the chromatin level and its implication in the regulation of DNA transcription and stability. These discoveries have highlighted new features regarding its own transcriptional regulation and suggested additional mechanistic and disease models for the effects of TPD-43. In this review, we aim to give a comprehensive view of the potential epigenetic (de)regulations driven by (and driving) this multitask DNA/RNA-binding protein.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Anghel L, Ciubară A, Nechita A, et al (2023)

Sleep Disorders Associated with Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Diagnostics (Basel, Switzerland), 13(18): pii:diagnostics13182898.

Sleep disturbances are common in various neurological pathologies, including amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), multiple system atrophy (MSA), hereditary ataxias, Huntington's disease (HD), progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP), and dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB). This article reviews the prevalence and characteristics of sleep disorders in these conditions, highlighting their impact on patients' quality of life and disease progression. Sleep-related breathing disorders, insomnia, restless legs syndrome (RLS), periodic limb movement syndrome (PLMS), and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder (RBD) are among the common sleep disturbances reported. Both pharmacological and non-pharmacological interventions play crucial roles in managing sleep disturbances and enhancing overall patient care.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Rubino V, La Rosa G, Pipicelli L, et al (2023)

Insights on the Multifaceted Roles of Wild-Type and Mutated Superoxide Dismutase 1 in Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Pathogenesis.

Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(9): pii:antiox12091747.

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) is a progressive motor neurodegenerative disease. Cell damage in ALS is the result of many different, largely unknown, pathogenetic mechanisms. Astrocytes and microglial cells play a critical role also for their ability to enhance a deranged inflammatory response. Excitotoxicity, due to excessive glutamate levels and increased intracellular Ca[2+] concentration, has also been proposed to play a key role in ALS pathogenesis/progression. Reactive Oxygen Species (ROS) behave as key second messengers for multiple receptor/ligand interactions. ROS-dependent regulatory networks are usually mediated by peroxides. Superoxide Dismutase 1 (SOD1) physiologically mediates intracellular peroxide generation. About 10% of ALS subjects show a familial disease associated with different gain-of-function SOD1 mutations. The occurrence of sporadic ALS, not clearly associated with SOD1 defects, has been also described. SOD1-dependent pathways have been involved in neuron functional network as well as in immune-response regulation. Both, neuron depolarization and antigen-dependent T-cell activation mediate SOD1 exocytosis, inducing increased interaction of the enzyme with a complex molecular network involved in the regulation of neuron functional activity and immune response. Here, alteration of SOD1-dependent pathways mediating increased intracellular Ca[2+] levels, altered mitochondria functions and defective inflammatory process regulation have been proposed to be relevant for ALS pathogenesis/progression.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Angelopoulou E, Pyrgelis ES, Ahire C, et al (2023)

Functional Implications of Protein Arginine Methyltransferases (PRMTs) in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Biology, 12(9): pii:biology12091257.

During the aging of the global population, the prevalence of neurodegenerative diseases will be continuously growing. Although each disorder is characterized by disease-specific protein accumulations, several common pathophysiological mechanisms encompassing both genetic and environmental factors have been detected. Among them, protein arginine methyltransferases (PRMTs), which catalyze the methylation of arginine of various substrates, have been revealed to regulate several cellular mechanisms, including neuronal cell survival and excitability, axonal transport, synaptic maturation, and myelination. Emerging evidence highlights their critical involvement in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, including Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), frontotemporal dementia-amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (FTD-ALS) spectrum, Huntington's disease (HD), spinal muscular atrophy (SMA) and spinal and bulbar muscular atrophy (SBMA). Underlying mechanisms include the regulation of gene transcription and RNA splicing, as well as their implication in various signaling pathways related to oxidative stress responses, apoptosis, neuroinflammation, vacuole degeneration, abnormal protein accumulation and neurotransmission. The targeting of PRMTs is a therapeutic approach initially developed against various forms of cancer but currently presents a novel potential strategy for neurodegenerative diseases. In this review, we discuss the accumulating evidence on the role of PRMTs in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative diseases, enlightening their pathogenesis and stimulating future research.

RevDate: 2023-09-28

Sanghai N, GK Tranmer (2023)

Biochemical and Molecular Pathways in Neurodegenerative Diseases: An Integrated View.

Cells, 12(18): pii:cells12182318.

Neurodegenerative diseases (NDDs) like Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) are defined by a myriad of complex aetiologies. Understanding the common biochemical molecular pathologies among NDDs gives an opportunity to decipher the overlapping and numerous cross-talk mechanisms of neurodegeneration. Numerous interrelated pathways lead to the progression of neurodegeneration. We present evidence from the past pieces of literature for the most usual global convergent hallmarks like ageing, oxidative stress, excitotoxicity-induced calcium butterfly effect, defective proteostasis including chaperones, autophagy, mitophagy, and proteosome networks, and neuroinflammation. Herein, we applied a holistic approach to identify and represent the shared mechanism across NDDs. Further, we believe that this approach could be helpful in identifying key modulators across NDDs, with a particular focus on AD, PD, and ALS. Moreover, these concepts could be applied to the development and diagnosis of novel strategies for diverse NDDs.

RevDate: 2023-09-27

Hu C, Yan Y, Jin Y, et al (2023)

Decoding the Cellular Trafficking of Prion-like Proteins in Neurodegenerative Diseases.

Neuroscience bulletin [Epub ahead of print].

The accumulation and spread of prion-like proteins is a key feature of neurodegenerative diseases (NDs) such as Alzheimer's disease, Parkinson's disease, or Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis. In a process known as 'seeding', prion-like proteins such as amyloid beta, microtubule-associated protein tau, α-synuclein, silence superoxide dismutase 1, or transactive response DNA-binding protein 43 kDa, propagate their misfolded conformations by transforming their respective soluble monomers into fibrils. Cellular and molecular evidence of prion-like propagation in NDs, the clinical relevance of their 'seeding' capacities, and their levels of contribution towards disease progression have been intensively studied over recent years. This review unpacks the cyclic prion-like propagation in cells including factors of aggregate internalization, endo-lysosomal leaking, aggregate degradation, and secretion. Debates on the importance of the role of prion-like protein aggregates in NDs, whether causal or consequent, are also discussed. Applications lead to a greater understanding of ND pathogenesis and increased potential for therapeutic strategies.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Wang Z, Zhang C, Fan C, et al (2023)

Post-translational modifications in stress granule and their implications in neurodegenerative diseases.

Biochimica et biophysica acta. Gene regulatory mechanisms pii:S1874-9399(23)00084-6 [Epub ahead of print].

Stress granules (SGs) arise as formations of mRNAs and proteins in response to translation initiation inhibition during stress. These dynamic compartments adopt a fluidic nature through liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS), exhibiting a composition subject to constant change within cellular contexts. Research has unveiled an array of post-translational modifications (PTMs) occurring on SG proteins, intricately orchestrating SG dynamics. In the realm of neurodegenerative diseases, pathological mutant proteins congregate into insoluble aggregates alongside numerous SG proteins, manifesting resilience against disassembly. Specific PTMs conspicuously label these aggregates, designating them for subsequent degradation. The strategic manipulation of aberrant SGs via PTMs emerges as a promising avenue for therapeutic intervention. This review discerns recent strides in comprehending the impact of PTMs on LLPS behavior and the assembly/disassembly kinetics of SGs. By delving into the roles of PTMs in governing SG dynamics, we augment our cognizance of the molecular underpinnings of neurodegeneration. Furthermore, we offer invaluable insights into potential targets for therapeutic intervention in neurodegenerative afflictions, encompassing conditions like amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and frontotemporal dementia.

RevDate: 2023-09-26

Singh A, Arora S, Chavan M, et al (2023)

An Overview of the Neurotrophic and Neuroprotective Properties of the Psychoactive Drug Lithium as an Autophagy Modulator in Neurodegenerative Conditions.

Cureus, 15(8):e44051.

For both short-term and long-term treatment of bipolar disorder, lithium is a prototypical mood stabilizer. Lithium's neuroprotective properties were revealed by cumulative translational research, which opened the door to reforming the chemical as a treatment for neurodegenerative illnesses. The control of homeostatic systems such as oxidative stress, autophagy, apoptosis, mitochondrial function, and inflammation underlies lithium's neuroprotective characteristics. The fact that lithium inhibits the enzymes inositol monophosphatase (IMPase) and glycogen synthase kinase (GSK)-3 may be the cause of the various intracellular reactions. In this article, we review lithium's neurobiological properties, as demonstrated by its neurotrophic and neuroprotective capabilities, as well as translational studies in cells in culture and in animal models of Alzheimer's disease (AD), Parkinson's disease (PD), Huntington's disease (HD), Prion disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS), ischemic stroke, and neuronal ceroid lipofuscinosis (NCL), discussing the justification for the drug's use in the treatment of these neurodegenerative disorders.


RJR Experience and Expertise


Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.


Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.


Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.


Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.


While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.


Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.


Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.


Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis, or ALS, is a rare, incurable neuro-degenerative disease, of unknown etiology. With this disease, both upper (brain) and lower (spinal cord) motor neurons progressively degenerate and die, rendering immobile the muscles that they innervated. For anyone with a need or desire to appreciate what is known about ALS, this book provides a good foundation. R. Robbins

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Collection of publications by R J Robbins

Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

Research Gate page for R J Robbins

ResearchGate is a social networking site for scientists and researchers to share papers, ask and answer questions, and find collaborators. According to a study by Nature and an article in Times Higher Education , it is the largest academic social network in terms of active users.

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

short personal version

Curriculum Vitae for R J Robbins

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RJR Picks from Around the Web (updated 11 MAY 2018 )