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Bibliography on: Holobiont

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Robert J. Robbins is a biologist, an educator, a science administrator, a publisher, an information technologist, and an IT leader and manager who specializes in advancing biomedical knowledge and supporting education through the application of information technology. More About:  RJR | OUR TEAM | OUR SERVICES | THIS WEBSITE

RJR: Recommended Bibliography 30 Mar 2023 at 01:31 Created: 

Holobiont

Holobionts are assemblages of different species that form ecological units. Lynn Margulis proposed that any physical association between individuals of different species for significant portions of their life history is a symbiosis. All participants in the symbiosis are bionts, and therefore the resulting assemblage was first coined a holobiont by Lynn Margulis in 1991 in the book Symbiosis as a Source of Evolutionary Innovation. Holo is derived from the Ancient Greek word ὅλος (hólos) for “whole”. The entire assemblage of genomes in the holobiont is termed a hologenome.

Created with PubMed® Query: ( holobiont OR hologenome OR holospecies ) NOT pmcbook NOT ispreviousversion

Citations The Papers (from PubMed®)

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RevDate: 2023-03-29

Müller M, Kües U, Budde KB, et al (2023)

Applying molecular and genetic methods to trees and their fungal communities.

Applied microbiology and biotechnology [Epub ahead of print].

Forests provide invaluable economic, ecological, and social services. At the same time, they are exposed to several threats, such as fragmentation, changing climatic conditions, or increasingly destructive pests and pathogens. Trees, the inherent species of forests, cannot be viewed as isolated organisms. Manifold (micro)organisms are associated with trees playing a pivotal role in forest ecosystems. Of these organisms, fungi may have the greatest impact on the life of trees. A multitude of molecular and genetic methods are now available to investigate tree species and their associated organisms. Due to their smaller genome sizes compared to tree species, whole genomes of different fungi are routinely compared. Such studies have only recently started in forest tree species. Here, we summarize the application of molecular and genetic methods in forest conservation genetics, tree breeding, and association genetics as well as for the investigation of fungal communities and their interrelated ecological functions. These techniques provide valuable insights into the molecular basis of adaptive traits, the impacts of forest management, and changing environmental conditions on tree species and fungal communities and can enhance tree-breeding cycles due to reduced time for field testing. It becomes clear that there are multifaceted interactions among microbial species as well as between these organisms and trees. We demonstrate the versatility of the different approaches based on case studies on trees and fungi. KEY POINTS: • Current knowledge of genetic methods applied to forest trees and associated fungi. • Genomic methods are essential in conservation, breeding, management, and research. • Important role of phytobiomes for trees and their ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Alvarez-Estape M, Pawar H, Fontsere C, et al (2023)

Past Connectivity but Recent Inbreeding in Cross River Gorillas Determined Using Whole Genomes from Single Hairs.

Genes, 14(3): pii:genes14030743.

The critically endangered western gorillas (Gorilla gorilla) are divided into two subspecies: the western lowland (G. g. gorilla) and the Cross River (G. g. diehli) gorilla. Given the difficulty in sampling wild great ape populations and the small estimated size of the Cross River gorilla population, only one whole genome of a Cross River gorilla has been sequenced to date, hindering the study of this subspecies at the population level. In this study, we expand the number of whole genomes available for wild western gorillas, generating 41 new genomes (25 belonging to Cross River gorillas) using single shed hairs collected from gorilla nests. By combining these genomes with publicly available wild gorilla genomes, we confirm that Cross River gorillas form three population clusters. We also found little variation in genome-wide heterozygosity among them. Our analyses reveal long runs of homozygosity (>10 Mb), indicating recent inbreeding in Cross River gorillas. This is similar to that seen in mountain gorillas but with a much more recent bottleneck. We also detect past gene flow between two Cross River sites, Afi Mountain Wildlife Sanctuary and the Mbe Mountains. Furthermore, we observe past allele sharing between Cross River gorillas and the northern western lowland gorilla sites, as well as with the eastern gorilla species. This is the first study using single shed hairs from a wild species for whole genome sequencing to date. Taken together, our results highlight the importance of implementing conservation measures to increase connectivity among Cross River gorilla sites.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Yakupova A, Tomarovsky A, Totikov A, et al (2023)

Chromosome-Length Assembly of the Baikal Seal (Pusa sibirica) Genome Reveals a Historically Large Population Prior to Isolation in Lake Baikal.

Genes, 14(3): pii:genes14030619.

Pusa sibirica, the Baikal seal, is the only extant, exclusively freshwater, pinniped species. The pending issue is, how and when they reached their current habitat-the rift lake Baikal, more than three thousand kilometers away from the Arctic Ocean. To explore the demographic history and genetic diversity of this species, we generated a de novo chromosome-length assembly, and compared it with three closely related marine pinniped species. Multiple whole genome alignment of the four species compared with their karyotypes showed high conservation of chromosomal features, except for three large inversions on chromosome VI. We found the mean heterozygosity of the studied Baikal seal individuals was relatively low (0.61 SNPs/kbp), but comparable to other analyzed pinniped samples. Demographic reconstruction of seals revealed differing trajectories, yet remarkable variations in Ne occurred during approximately the same time periods. The Baikal seal showed a significantly more severe decline relative to other species. This could be due to the difference in environmental conditions encountered by the earlier populations of Baikal seals, as ice sheets changed during glacial-interglacial cycles. We connect this period to the time of migration to Lake Baikal, which occurred ~3-0.3 Mya, after which the population stabilized, indicating balanced habitat conditions.

RevDate: 2023-03-29

Tan LT (2023)

Impact of Marine Chemical Ecology Research on the Discovery and Development of New Pharmaceuticals.

Marine drugs, 21(3): pii:md21030174.

Diverse ecologically important metabolites, such as allelochemicals, infochemicals and volatile organic chemicals, are involved in marine organismal interactions. Chemically mediated interactions between intra- and interspecific organisms can have a significant impact on community organization, population structure and ecosystem functioning. Advances in analytical techniques, microscopy and genomics are providing insights on the chemistry and functional roles of the metabolites involved in such interactions. This review highlights the targeted translational value of several marine chemical ecology-driven research studies and their impact on the sustainable discovery of novel therapeutic agents. These chemical ecology-based approaches include activated defense, allelochemicals arising from organismal interactions, spatio-temporal variations of allelochemicals and phylogeny-based approaches. In addition, innovative analytical techniques used in the mapping of surface metabolites as well as in metabolite translocation within marine holobionts are summarized. Chemical information related to the maintenance of the marine symbioses and biosyntheses of specialized compounds can be harnessed for biomedical applications, particularly in microbial fermentation and compound production. Furthermore, the impact of climate change on the chemical ecology of marine organisms-especially on the production, functionality and perception of allelochemicals-and its implications on drug discovery efforts will be presented.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Battlay P, Wilson J, Bieker VC, et al (2023)

Large haploblocks underlie rapid adaptation in the invasive weed Ambrosia artemisiifolia.

Nature communications, 14(1):1717.

Adaptation is the central feature and leading explanation for the evolutionary diversification of life. Adaptation is also notoriously difficult to study in nature, owing to its complexity and logistically prohibitive timescale. Here, we leverage extensive contemporary and historical collections of Ambrosia artemisiifolia-an aggressively invasive weed and primary cause of pollen-induced hayfever-to track the phenotypic and genetic causes of recent local adaptation across its native and invasive ranges in North America and Europe, respectively. Large haploblocks-indicative of chromosomal inversions-contain a disproportionate share (26%) of genomic regions conferring parallel adaptation to local climates between ranges, are associated with rapidly adapting traits, and exhibit dramatic frequency shifts over space and time. These results highlight the importance of large-effect standing variants in rapid adaptation, which have been critical to A. artemisiifolia's global spread across vast climatic gradients.

RevDate: 2023-03-27

Mancuso FP, Morrissey KL, De Clerck O, et al (2023)

Warming and nutrient enrichment can trigger seaweed loss by dysregulation of the microbiome structure and predicted function.

The Science of the total environment, 879:162919 pii:S0048-9697(23)01535-8 [Epub ahead of print].

Warming and nutrient enrichment are key pervasive drivers of ecological shifts in both aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, impairing the physiology and survival of a wide range of foundation species. But the underlying mechanisms often remain unclear, and experiments have overlooked the potential effects mediated by changes in the microbial communities. We experimentally tested in the field orthogonal stress combinations from simulated air warming and nutrient enrichment on the intertidal foundation seaweed Cystoseira compressa, and its associated bacterial communities. A total of 523 Amplicon Sequence Variance (ASVs) formed the bacterial community on C. compressa, with 222 ASVs assigned to 69 taxa at the genus level. Most bacteria taxa experienced changes in abundance as a result of additive (65 %) and antagonistic (30 %) interactions between the two stressors, with synergies (5 %) occurring less frequently. The analysis of the predicted bacterial functional profile identified 160 metabolic pathways, and showed that these were mostly affected by additive interactions (74 %) between air warming and nutrient enrichment, while antagonisms (20 %) and synergisms (6 %) were less frequent. Overall, the two stressors combined increased functions associated with seaweed disease or degradation of major cell-wall polymers and other algicidal processes, and decreased functions associated with Quorum Quenching and photosynthetic response. We conclude that warming and nutrient enrichment can dysregulate the microbiome of seaweeds, providing a plausible mechanism for their ongoing loss, and encourage more research into the effects of human impacts on crucial but yet largely unstudied host-microbiome relationships in different aquatic and terrestrial species.

RevDate: 2023-03-23

Ricci F, Tandon K, Moßhammer M, et al (2023)

Fine-scale mapping of physicochemical and microbial landscapes of the coral skeleton.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The coral skeleton harbours a diverse community of bacteria and microeukaryotes exposed to light, O2 and pH gradients, but how such physicochemical gradients affect the coral skeleton microbiome remains unclear. In this study, we employed chemical imaging of O2 and pH, hyperspectral reflectance imaging and spatially resolved taxonomic and inferred functional microbiome characterisation to explore links between the skeleton microenvironment and microbiome in the reef-building corals Porites lutea and Paragoniastrea benhami. The physicochemical environment was more stable in the deep skeleton and the diversity and evenness of the bacterial community increased with skeletal depth, suggesting that the microbiome was stratified along the physicochemical gradients. The bulk of the coral skeleton was a low O2 habitat, whereas pH varied from pH 6 to 9 with depth. Physicochemical gradients of O2 and pH of the coral skeleton explained the β-diversity of the bacterial communities, and skeletal layers that showed O2 peaks had a higher relative abundance of endolithic algae, reflecting a link between the abiotic environment and the microbiome composition. Our study links the physicochemical, microbial and functional landscapes of the coral skeleton and provides new insights into the involvement of skeletal microbes in coral holobiont metabolism. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2023-03-23
CmpDate: 2023-03-23

Penno C, Tremblay J, O'Connell Motherway M, et al (2023)

Analysis of Small Non-coding RNAs as Signaling Intermediates of Environmentally Integrated Responses to Abiotic Stress.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2642:403-427.

Research to date on abiotic stress responses in plants has been largely focused on the plant itself, but current knowledge indicates that microorganisms can interact with and help plants during periods of abiotic stress. In our research, we aim to investigate the interkingdom communication between the plant root and the rhizo-microbiota. Our investigation showed that miRNA plays a pivotal role in this interkingdom communication. Here, we describe a protocol for the analysis of miRNA secreted by the plant root, which includes all of the steps from the isolation of the miRNA to the bioinformatics analysis. Because of their short nucleotide length, Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) library preparation from miRNAs can be challenging due to the presence of dimer adapter contaminants. Therefore, we highlight some strategies we adopt to inhibit the generation of dimer adapters during library preparation. Current screens of miRNA targets mostly focus on the identification of targets present in the same organism expressing the miRNA. Our bioinformatics analysis challenges the barrier of evolutionary divergent organisms to identify candidate sequences of the microbiota targeted by the miRNA of plant roots. This protocol should be of interest to researchers investigating interkingdom RNA-based communication between plants and their associated microorganisms, particularly in the context of holobiont responses to abiotic stresses.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Xiang N, Meyer A, Pogoreutz C, et al (2023)

Excess labile carbon promotes diazotroph abundance in heat-stressed octocorals.

Royal Society open science, 10(3):221268.

Nitrogen limitation is the foundation of stable coral-algal symbioses. Diazotrophs, prokaryotes capable of fixing N2 into ammonia, support the productivity of corals in oligotrophic waters, but could contribute to the destabilization of holobiont functioning when overstimulated. Recent studies on reef-building corals have shown that labile dissolved organic carbon (DOC) enrichment or heat stress increases diazotroph abundance and activity, thereby increasing nitrogen availability and destabilizing the coral-algal symbiosis. However, the (a)biotic drivers of diazotrophs in octocorals are still poorly understood. We investigated diazotroph abundance (via relative quantification of nifH gene copy numbers) in two symbiotic octocorals, the more mixotrophic soft coral Xenia umbellata and the more autotrophic gorgonian Pinnigorgia flava, under (i) labile DOC enrichment for 21 days, followed by (ii) combined labile DOC enrichment and heat stress for 24 days. Without heat stress, relative diazotroph abundances in X. umbellata and P. flava were unaffected by DOC enrichment. During heat stress, DOC enrichment (20 and 40 mg glucose l[-1]) increased the relative abundances of diazotrophs by sixfold in X. umbellata and fourfold in P. flava, compared with their counterparts without excess DOC. Our data suggest that labile DOC enrichment and concomitant heat stress could disrupt the nitrogen limitation in octocorals by stimulating diazotroph proliferation. Ultimately, the disruption of nitrogen cycling may further compromise octocoral fitness by destabilizing symbiotic nutrient cycling. Therefore, improving local wastewater facilities to reduce labile DOC input into vulnerable coastal ecosystems may help octocorals cope with ocean warming.

RevDate: 2023-03-21

Theissinger K, Fernandes C, Formenti G, et al (2023)

How genomics can help biodiversity conservation.

Trends in genetics : TIG pii:S0168-9525(23)00020-3 [Epub ahead of print].

The availability of public genomic resources can greatly assist biodiversity assessment, conservation, and restoration efforts by providing evidence for scientifically informed management decisions. Here we survey the main approaches and applications in biodiversity and conservation genomics, considering practical factors, such as cost, time, prerequisite skills, and current shortcomings of applications. Most approaches perform best in combination with reference genomes from the target species or closely related species. We review case studies to illustrate how reference genomes can facilitate biodiversity research and conservation across the tree of life. We conclude that the time is ripe to view reference genomes as fundamental resources and to integrate their use as a best practice in conservation genomics.

RevDate: 2023-03-18

Zhang J, Huang Z, Li Y, et al (2023)

Synergistic/antagonistic effects of nitrate/ammonium enrichment on fatty acid biosynthesis and translocation in coral under heat stress.

The Science of the total environment, 876:162834 pii:S0048-9697(23)01450-X [Epub ahead of print].

Superimposed on ocean warming, nitrogen enrichment caused by human activity puts corals under even greater pressure. Biosynthesis of fatty acids (FA) is crucial for coral holobiont survival. However, the responses of FA biosynthesis pathways to nitrogen enrichment under heat stress in coral hosts and Symbiodiniaceae remain unknown, as do FA translocation mechanisms in corals. Herein, we used the thermosensitive coral species Acropora hyacinthus to investigate changes in FA biosynthesis pathways and polyunsaturated FA translocation of coral hosts and Symbiodiniaceae with respect to nitrate and ammonium enrichment under heat stress. Heat stress promoted pro-inflammatory FA biosynthesis in coral hosts and inhibited FA biosynthesis in Symbiodiniaceae. Nitrate enrichment inhibited anti-inflammatory FA biosynthesis in Symbiodiniaceae, and promoted pro-inflammatory FA biosynthesis in coral hosts and translocation to Symbiodiniaceae, leading to bleaching after 14 days of culture. Intriguingly, ammonium enrichment promoted anti-inflammatory FA biosynthesis in Symbiodiniaceae and translocation to hosts, allowing corals to better endure heat stress. We constructed schematic diagrams of the shift in FA biosynthesis and translocation in and between A. hyacinthus and its Symbiodiniaceae under heat stress, heat and nitrate co-stress, and heat and ammonium co-stress. The findings provide insight into the mechanisms of coral bleaching under environmental stress from a fatty acid perspective.

RevDate: 2023-03-16

Marynowska M, Sillam-Dussès D, Untereiner B, et al (2023)

A holobiont approach towards polysaccharide degradation by the highly compartmentalised gut system of the soil-feeding higher termite Labiotermes labralis.

BMC genomics, 24(1):115.

BACKGROUND: Termites are among the most successful insects on Earth and can feed on a broad range of organic matter at various stages of decomposition. The termite gut system is often referred to as a micro-reactor and is a complex structure consisting of several components. It includes the host, its gut microbiome and fungal gardens, in the case of fungi-growing higher termites. The digestive tract of soil-feeding higher termites is characterised by radial and axial gradients of physicochemical parameters (e.g. pH, O2 and H2 partial pressure), and also differs in the density and structure of residing microbial communities. Although soil-feeding termites account for 60% of the known termite species, their biomass degradation strategies are far less known compared to their wood-feeding counterparts.

RESULTS: In this work, we applied an integrative multi-omics approach for the first time at the holobiont level to study the highly compartmentalised gut system of the soil-feeding higher termite Labiotermes labralis. We relied on 16S rRNA gene community profiling, metagenomics and (meta)transcriptomics to uncover the distribution of functional roles, in particular those related to carbohydrate hydrolysis, across different gut compartments and among the members of the bacterial community and the host itself. We showed that the Labiotermes gut was dominated by members of the Firmicutes phylum, whose abundance gradually decreased towards the posterior segments of the hindgut, in favour of Bacteroidetes, Proteobacteria and Verrucomicrobia. Contrary to expectations, we observed that L. labralis gut microbes expressed a high diversity of carbohydrate active enzymes involved in cellulose and hemicelluloses degradation, making the soil-feeding termite gut a unique reservoir of lignocellulolytic enzymes with considerable biotechnological potential. We also evidenced that the host cellulases have different phylogenetic origins and structures, which is possibly translated into their different specificities towards cellulose. From an ecological perspective, we could speculate that the capacity to feed on distinct polymorphs of cellulose retained in soil might have enabled this termite species to widely colonise the different habitats of the Amazon basin.

CONCLUSIONS: Our study provides interesting insights into the distribution of the hydrolytic potential of the highly compartmentalised higher termite gut. The large number of expressed enzymes targeting the different lignocellulose components make the Labiotermes worker gut a relevant lignocellulose-valorising model to mimic by biomass conversion industries.

RevDate: 2023-03-14

Limborg MT, Chua PYS, JA Rasmussen (2023)

Unexpected fishy microbiomes.

Nature reviews. Microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Wu J, Wang Q, Wang D, et al (2023)

Axenic and gnotobiotic insect technologies in research on host-microbiota interactions.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(23)00055-0 [Epub ahead of print].

Insects are one of the most important animal life forms on earth. Symbiotic microbes are closely related to the growth and development of the host insects and can affect pathogen transmission. For decades, various axenic insect-rearing systems have been developed, allowing further manipulation of symbiotic microbiota composition. Here we review the historical development of axenic rearing systems and the latest progress in using axenic and gnotobiotic approaches to study insect-microbe interactions. We also discuss the challenges of these emerging technologies, possible solutions to address these challenges, and future research directions that can contribute to a more comprehensive understanding of insect-microbe interactions.

RevDate: 2023-03-11

Minerdi D, Savoi S, P Sabbatini (2023)

Role of Cytochrome P450 Enzyme in Plant Microorganisms' Communication: A Focus on Grapevine.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(5): pii:ijms24054695.

Cytochromes P450 are ancient enzymes diffused in organisms belonging to all kingdoms of life, including viruses, with the largest number of P450 genes found in plants. The functional characterization of cytochromes P450 has been extensively investigated in mammals, where these enzymes are involved in the metabolism of drugs and in the detoxification of pollutants and toxic chemicals. The aim of this work is to present an overview of the often disregarded role of the cytochrome P450 enzymes in mediating the interaction between plants and microorganisms. Quite recently, several research groups have started to investigate the role of P450 enzymes in the interactions between plants and (micro)organisms, focusing on the holobiont Vitis vinifera. Grapevines live in close association with large numbers of microorganisms and interact with each other, regulating several vine physiological functions, from biotic and abiotic stress tolerance to fruit quality at harvest.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Reich HG, Camp EF, Roger LM, et al (2023)

The trace metal economy of the coral holobiont: supplies, demands and exchanges.

Biological reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society, 98(2):623-642.

The juxtaposition of highly productive coral reef ecosystems in oligotrophic waters has spurred substantial interest and progress in our understanding of macronutrient uptake, exchange, and recycling among coral holobiont partners (host coral, dinoflagellate endosymbiont, endolithic algae, fungi, viruses, bacterial communities). By contrast, the contribution of trace metals to the physiological performance of the coral holobiont and, in turn, the functional ecology of reef-building corals remains unclear. The coral holobiont's trace metal economy is a network of supply, demand, and exchanges upheld by cross-kingdom symbiotic partnerships. Each partner has unique trace metal requirements that are central to their biochemical functions and the metabolic stability of the holobiont. Organismal homeostasis and the exchanges among partners determine the ability of the coral holobiont to adjust to fluctuating trace metal supplies in heterogeneous reef environments. This review details the requirements for trace metals in core biological processes and describes how metal exchanges among holobiont partners are key to sustaining complex nutritional symbioses in oligotrophic environments. Specifically, we discuss how trace metals contribute to partner compatibility, ability to cope with stress, and thereby to organismal fitness and distribution. Beyond holobiont trace metal cycling, we outline how the dynamic nature of the availability of environmental trace metal supplies can be influenced by a variability of abiotic factors (e.g. temperature, light, pH, etc.). Climate change will have profound consequences on the availability of trace metals and further intensify the myriad stressors that influence coral survival. Lastly, we suggest future research directions necessary for understanding the impacts of trace metals on the coral holobiont symbioses spanning subcellular to organismal levels, which will inform nutrient cycling in coral ecosystems more broadly. Collectively, this cross-scale elucidation of the role of trace metals for the coral holobiont will allow us to improve forecasts of future coral reef function.

RevDate: 2023-03-10

Fieschi-Méric L, Van Leeuwen P, Hopkins K, et al (2023)

Strong restructuration of skin microbiota during captivity challenges ex-situ conservation of amphibians.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1111018.

In response to the current worldwide amphibian extinction crisis, conservation instances have encouraged the establishment of ex-situ collections for endangered species. The resulting assurance populations are managed under strict biosecure protocols, often involving artificial cycles of temperature and humidity to induce active and overwintering phases, which likely affect the bacterial symbionts living on the amphibian skin. However, the skin microbiota is an important first line of defense against pathogens that can cause amphibian declines, such as the chytrid Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis (Bd). Determining whether current husbandry practices for assurance populations might deplete amphibians from their symbionts is therefore essential to conservation success. Here, we characterize the effect of the transitions from the wild to captivity, and between aquatic and overwintering phases, on the skin microbiota of two newt species. While our results confirm differential selectivity of skin microbiota between species, they underscore that captivity and phase-shifts similarly affect their community structure. More specifically, the translocation ex-situ is associated with rapid impoverishment, decrease in alpha diversity and strong species turnover of bacterial communities. Shifts between active and overwintering phases also cause changes in the diversity and composition of the microbiota, and on the prevalence of Bd-inhibitory phylotypes. Altogether, our results suggest that current husbandry practices strongly restructure the amphibian skin microbiota. Although it remains to be determined whether these changes are reversible or have deleterious effects on their hosts, we discuss methods to limit microbial diversity loss ex-situ and emphasize the importance of integrating bacterial communities to applied amphibian conservation.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Guo Y, Meng L, Wang M, et al (2023)

Hologenome analysis reveals independent evolution to chemosymbiosis by deep-sea bivalves.

BMC biology, 21(1):51.

BACKGROUND: Bivalves have independently evolved a variety of symbiotic relationships with chemosynthetic bacteria. These relationships range from endo- to extracellular interactions, making them ideal for studies on symbiosis-related evolution. It is still unclear whether there are universal patterns to symbiosis across bivalves. Here, we investigate the hologenome of an extracellular symbiotic thyasirid clam that represents the early stages of symbiosis evolution.

RESULTS: We present a hologenome of Conchocele bisecta (Bivalvia: Thyasiridae) collected from deep-sea hydrothermal vents with extracellular symbionts, along with related ultrastructural evidence and expression data. Based on ultrastructural and sequencing evidence, only one dominant Thioglobaceae bacteria was densely aggregated in the large bacterial chambers of C. bisecta, and the bacterial genome shows nutritional complementarity and immune interactions with the host. Overall, gene family expansions may contribute to the symbiosis-related phenotypic variations in different bivalves. For instance, convergent expansions of gaseous substrate transport families in the endosymbiotic bivalves are absent in C. bisecta. Compared to endosymbiotic relatives, the thyasirid genome exhibits large-scale expansion in phagocytosis, which may facilitate symbiont digestion and account for extracellular symbiotic phenotypes. We also reveal that distinct immune system evolution, including expansion in lipopolysaccharide scavenging and contraction of IAP (inhibitor of apoptosis protein), may contribute to the different manners of bacterial virulence resistance in C. bisecta.

CONCLUSIONS: Thus, bivalves employ different pathways to adapt to the long-term co-existence with their bacterial symbionts, further highlighting the contribution of stochastic evolution to the independent gain of a symbiotic lifestyle in the lineage.

RevDate: 2023-03-07

Mohamed AR, Ochsenkühn MA, Kazlak A, et al (2023)

The coral microbiome: Towards an understanding of the molecular mechanisms of coral-microbiota interactions.

FEMS microbiology reviews pii:7071893 [Epub ahead of print].

Corals live in a complex, multi-partite symbiosis with diverse microbes across kingdoms, some of which are implicated in vital functions, such as those related to resilience against climate change. However, knowledge gaps and technical challenges limit our understanding of the nature and functional significance of complex symbiotic relationships within corals. Here, we provide an overview of the complexity of the coral microbiome focusing on taxonomic diversity and functions of well-studied and cryptic microbes. Mining the coral literature indicate that while corals collectively harbor a third of all marine bacterial phyla, known bacterial symbionts and antagonists of corals represent a minute fraction of this diversity and that these taxa cluster into select genera, suggesting selective evolutionary mechanisms enabled these bacteria to gain a niche within the holobiont. Recent advances in coral microbiome research aimed at leveraging microbiome manipulation to increase coral's fitness to help mitigate heat stress-related mortality are discussed. Then, insights into the potential mechanisms through which microbiota can communicate with and modify host responses are examined by describing known recognition patterns, potential microbially-derived coral epigenome effector proteins and coral gene regulation. Finally, the power of omics tools used to study corals are highlighted with emphasis on an integrated host-microbiota multiomics framework to understand the underlying mechanisms during symbiosis and climate change-driven dysbiosis.

RevDate: 2023-03-05

Fieschi-Méric L, van Leeuwen P, Denoël M, et al (2023)

Encouraging news for in situ conservation: translocation of salamander larvae has limited impacts on their skin microbiota.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

The key role of symbiotic skin bacteria communities in amphibian resistance to emerging pathogens is well recognized, but factors leading to their dysbiosis are not fully understood. In particular, the potential effects of population translocations on the composition and diversity of hosts' skin microbiota have received little attention, although such transfers are widely carried out as a strategy for amphibian conservation. To characterize the potential reorganization of the microbiota over such a sudden environmental change, we conducted a common-garden experiment simulating reciprocal translocations of yellow-spotted salamander larvae across three lakes. We sequenced skin microbiota samples collected before and 15 days after the transfer. Using a database of antifungal isolates, we identified symbionts with known function against the pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis, a major driver of amphibian declines. Our results indicate an important reorganization of bacterial assemblages throughout ontogeny, with strong changes in composition, diversity and structure of the skin microbiota in both control and translocated individuals over the 15 days of monitoring. Unexpectedly, the diversity and community structure of the microbiota were not significantly affected by the translocation event, thus suggesting a strong resilience of skin bacterial communities to environmental change - at least across the time-window studied here. A few phylotypes were more abundant in the microbiota of translocated larvae, but no differences were found among pathogen-inhibiting symbionts. Taken together, our results support amphibian translocations as a promising strategy for this endangered animal class, with limited impact on their skin microbiota.

RevDate: 2023-03-04

Buitrago-López C, Cárdenas A, Hume BCC, et al (2023)

Disparate population and holobiont structure of pocilloporid corals across the Red Sea gradient demonstrate species-specific evolutionary trajectories.

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Global habitat degradation heightens the need to better understand patterns of genetic connectivity and diversity of marine biota across geographical ranges to guide conservation efforts. Corals across the Red Sea are subject to pronounced environmental differences, but studies so far suggest that animal populations are largely connected, excepting evidence for a genetic break between the northern-central and southern regions. Here, we investigated population structure and holobiont assemblage of two common pocilloporid corals, Pocillopora verrucosa and Stylophora pistillata, across the Red Sea. We found little evidence for population differentiation in P. verrucosa, except for the southernmost site. Conversely, S. pistillata exhibited a complex population structure with evidence for within-reef and regional genetic differentiation, in line with differences in their reproductive mode (P. verrucosa is a broadcast spawner and S. pistillata is a brooder). Analysis for genomic loci under positive selection identified 85 sites (18 of which were in coding sequences) that distinguished the southern P. verrucosa population from the remainder of the Red Sea population. By comparison, we found 128 loci (24 of which were residing in coding sequences) in S. pistillata with evidence for local adaptation at various sites. Functional annotation of the underlying proteins revealed putative roles in the response to stress, lipid metabolism, transport, cytoskeletal rearrangement, and ciliary function (among others). Microbial assemblages of both coral species showed pervasive association with microalgal symbionts from the genus Symbiodinium (former clade A) and bacteria from the genus Endozoicomonas that exhibited significant differences according to host genotype and environment. The disparity of population genetic and holobiont assemblage patterns even between closely related species (family Pocilloporidae) highlights the need for multispecies investigations to better understand the role of the environment in shaping evolutionary trajectories. It further emphasizes the importance of networks of reef reserves to achieve conservation of genetic variants critical to the future survival of coral ecosystems.

RevDate: 2023-03-01

Bergeron LA, Besenbacher S, Zheng J, et al (2023)

Evolution of the germline mutation rate across vertebrates.

Nature [Epub ahead of print].

The germline mutation rate determines the pace of genome evolution and is an evolving parameter itself[1]. However, little is known about what determines its evolution, as most studies of mutation rates have focused on single species with different methodologies[2]. Here we quantify germline mutation rates across vertebrates by sequencing and comparing the high-coverage genomes of 151 parent-offspring trios from 68 species of mammals, fishes, birds and reptiles. We show that the per-generation mutation rate varies among species by a factor of 40, with mutation rates being higher for males than for females in mammals and birds, but not in reptiles and fishes. The generation time, age at maturity and species-level fecundity are the key life-history traits affecting this variation among species. Furthermore, species with higher long-term effective population sizes tend to have lower mutation rates per generation, providing support for the drift barrier hypothesis[3]. The exceptionally high yearly mutation rates of domesticated animals, which have been continually selected on fecundity traits including shorter generation times, further support the importance of generation time in the evolution of mutation rates. Overall, our comparative analysis of pedigree-based mutation rates provides ecological insights on the mutation rate evolution in vertebrates.

RevDate: 2023-02-28

Johnson NC, C Marín (2023)

Microbial villages in the geography of arbuscular mycorrhizal symbioses.

The New phytologist [Epub ahead of print].

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Chevrier DM, Juhin A, Menguy N, et al (2023)

Collective magnetotaxis of microbial holobionts is optimized by the three-dimensional organization and magnetic properties of ectosymbionts.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(10):e2216975120.

Over the last few decades, symbiosis and the concept of holobiont-a host entity with a population of symbionts-have gained a central role in our understanding of life functioning and diversification. Regardless of the type of partner interactions, understanding how the biophysical properties of each individual symbiont and their assembly may generate collective behaviors at the holobiont scale remains a fundamental challenge. This is particularly intriguing in the case of the newly discovered magnetotactic holobionts (MHB) whose motility relies on a collective magnetotaxis (i.e., a magnetic field-assisted motility guided by a chemoaerotaxis system). This complex behavior raises many questions regarding how magnetic properties of symbionts determine holobiont magnetism and motility. Here, a suite of light-, electron- and X-ray-based microscopy techniques [including X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD)] reveals that symbionts optimize the motility, the ultrastructure, and the magnetic properties of MHBs from the microscale to the nanoscale. In the case of these magnetic symbionts, the magnetic moment transferred to the host cell is in excess (10[2] to 10[3] times stronger than free-living magnetotactic bacteria), well above the threshold for the host cell to gain a magnetotactic advantage. The surface organization of symbionts is explicitly presented herein, depicting bacterial membrane structures that ensure longitudinal alignment of cells. Magnetic dipole and nanocrystalline orientations of magnetosomes were also shown to be consistently oriented in the longitudinal direction, maximizing the magnetic moment of each symbiont. With an excessive magnetic moment given to the host cell, the benefit provided by magnetosome biomineralization beyond magnetotaxis can be questioned.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Di Lelio I, Forni G, Magoga G, et al (2023)

A soil fungus confers plant resistance against a phytophagous insect by disrupting the symbiotic role of its gut microbiota.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(10):e2216922120.

Plants generate energy flows through natural food webs, driven by competition for resources among organisms, which are part of a complex network of multitrophic interactions. Here, we demonstrate that the interaction between tomato plants and a phytophagous insect is driven by a hidden interplay between their respective microbiotas. Tomato plants colonized by the soil fungus Trichoderma afroharzianum, a beneficial microorganism widely used in agriculture as a biocontrol agent, negatively affects the development and survival of the lepidopteran pest Spodoptera littoralis by altering the larval gut microbiota and its nutritional support to the host. Indeed, experiments aimed to restore the functional microbial community in the gut allow a complete rescue. Our results shed light on a novel role played by a soil microorganism in the modulation of plant-insect interaction, setting the stage for a more comprehensive analysis of the impact that biocontrol agents may have on ecological sustainability of agricultural systems.

RevDate: 2023-02-27

Anguita-Maeso M, Navas-Cortés JA, BB Landa (2023)

Insights into the Methodological, Biotic and Abiotic Factors Influencing the Characterization of Xylem-Inhabiting Microbial Communities of Olive Trees.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(4):.

Vascular pathogens are the causal agents of some of the most devastating plant diseases in the world, which can cause, under specific conditions, the destruction of entire crops. These plant pathogens activate a range of physiological and immune reactions in the host plant following infection, which may trigger the proliferation of a specific microbiome to combat them by, among others, inhibiting their growth and/or competing for space. Nowadays, it has been demonstrated that the plant microbiome can be modified by transplanting specific members of the microbiome, with exciting results for the control of plant diseases. However, its practical application in agriculture for the control of vascular plant pathogens is hampered by the limited knowledge of the plant endosphere, and, in particular, of the xylem niche. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of how research on the plant microbiome has evolved during the last decades to unravel the factors and complex interactions that affect the associated microbial communities and their surrounding environment, focusing on the microbial communities inhabiting the xylem vessels of olive trees (Olea europaea subsp. europaea), the most ancient and important woody crop in the Mediterranean Basin. For that purpose, we have highlighted the role of xylem composition and its associated microorganisms in plants by describing the methodological approaches explored to study xylem microbiota, starting from the methods used to extract xylem microbial communities to their assessment by culture-dependent and next-generation sequencing approaches. Additionally, we have categorized some of the key biotic and abiotic factors, such as the host plant niche and genotype, the environment and the infection with vascular pathogens, that can be potential determinants to critically affect olive physiology and health status in a holobiont context (host and its associated organisms). Finally, we have outlined future directions and challenges for xylem microbiome studies based on the recent advances in molecular biology, focusing on metagenomics and culturomics, and bioinformatics network analysis. A better understanding of the xylem olive microbiome will contribute to facilitate the exploration and selection of specific keystone microorganisms that can live in close association with olives under a range of environmental/agronomic conditions. These microorganisms could be ideal targets for the design of microbial consortia that can be applied by endotherapy treatments to prevent or control diseases caused by vascular pathogens or modify the physiology and growth of olive trees.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Mashini AG, Oakley CA, Beepat SS, et al (2023)

The Influence of Symbiosis on the Proteome of the Exaiptasia Endosymbiont Breviolum minutum.

Microorganisms, 11(2): pii:microorganisms11020292.

The cellular mechanisms responsible for the regulation of nutrient exchange, immune response, and symbiont population growth in the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis are poorly resolved. Here, we employed liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry to elucidate proteomic changes associated with symbiosis in Breviolum minutum, a native symbiont of the sea anemone Exaiptasia diaphana ('Aiptasia'). We manipulated nutrients available to the algae in culture and to the holobiont in hospite (i.e., in symbiosis) and then monitored the impacts of our treatments on host-endosymbiont interactions. Both the symbiotic and nutritional states had significant impacts on the B. minutum proteome. B. minutum in hospite showed an increased abundance of proteins involved in phosphoinositol metabolism (e.g., glycerophosphoinositol permease 1 and phosphatidylinositol phosphatase) relative to the free-living alga, potentially reflecting inter-partner signalling that promotes the stability of the symbiosis. Proteins potentially involved in concentrating and fixing inorganic carbon (e.g., carbonic anhydrase, V-type ATPase) and in the assimilation of nitrogen (e.g., glutamine synthase) were more abundant in free-living B. minutum than in hospite, possibly due to host-facilitated access to inorganic carbon and nitrogen limitation by the host when in hospite. Photosystem proteins increased in abundance at high nutrient levels irrespective of the symbiotic state, as did proteins involved in antioxidant defences (e.g., superoxide dismutase, glutathione s-transferase). Proteins involved in iron metabolism were also affected by the nutritional state, with an increased iron demand and uptake under low nutrient treatments. These results detail the changes in symbiont physiology in response to the host microenvironment and nutrient availability and indicate potential symbiont-driven mechanisms that regulate the cnidarian-dinoflagellate symbiosis.

RevDate: 2023-02-25

Mutusamy P, Banga Singh KK, Su Yin L, et al (2023)

Phenotypic Characterization and Comparative Genomic Analysis of Novel Salmonella Bacteriophages Isolated from a Tropical Rainforest.

International journal of molecular sciences, 24(4): pii:ijms24043678.

Salmonella infections across the globe are becoming more challenging to control due to the emergence of multidrug-resistant (MDR) strains. Lytic phages may be suitable alternatives for treating these multidrug-resistant Salmonella infections. Most Salmonella phages to date were collected from human-impacted environments. To further explore the Salmonella phage space, and to potentially identify phages with novel characteristics, we characterized Salmonella-specific phages isolated from the Penang National Park, a conserved rainforest. Four phages with a broad lytic spectrum (kills >5 Salmonella serovars) were further characterized; they have isometric heads and cone-shaped tails, and genomes of ~39,900 bp, encoding 49 CDSs. As the genomes share a <95% sequence similarity to known genomes, the phages were classified as a new species within the genus Kayfunavirus. Interestingly, the phages displayed obvious differences in their lytic spectrum and pH stability, despite having a high sequence similarity (~99% ANI). Subsequent analysis revealed that the phages differed in the nucleotide sequence in the tail spike proteins, tail tubular proteins, and portal proteins, suggesting that the SNPs were responsible for their differing phenotypes. Our findings highlight the diversity of novel Salmonella bacteriophages from rainforest regions, which can be explored as an antimicrobial agent against MDR-Salmonella strains.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Biget M, Wang T, Mony C, et al (2023)

Evaluating the hologenome concept by analyzing the root-endosphere microbiota of chimeric plants.

iScience, 26(2):106031 pii:S2589-0042(23)00108-6.

The hologenome concept considers the entity formed by a host and its microbiota, the holobiont, as new level of hierarchical organization subject to neutral and selective forces. We used grafted plants to formally evaluate the hologenome concept. We analyzed the root-endosphere microbiota of two independent watermelon and grapevine plant systems, including ungrafted and reciprocal-grafting combinations. Grafted and ungrafted hosts harbor markedly different microbiota compositions. Furthermore, the results indicate a non-random assembly of bacterial communities inhabiting the root endosphere of chimeric plants with interactive effect of both the rootstock and scion on the recruitment of microorganisms. Because chimeric plants did not have a random microbiota, the null hypothesis that holobionts assemble randomly and hologenome concept is an intellectual construction only can be rejected. The study supports the relevance of hologenome as biological level of organization and opens new avenues for a better fundamental understanding of plants as holobionts.

RevDate: 2023-02-24

Sun X, Li Y, Yang Q, et al (2023)

Identification of quorum sensing-regulated Vibrio fortis as potential pathogenic bacteria for coral bleaching and the effects on the microbial shift.

Frontiers in microbiology, 14:1116737.

Coastal pollution, global warming, ocean acidification, and other reasons lead to the imbalance of the coral reef ecosystem, resulting in the increasingly serious problem of coral degradation. Coral bleaching is often accompanied by structural abnormalities of coral symbiotic microbiota, among which Vibrio is highly concerned. In this study, Vibrio fortis S10-1 (MCCC 1H00104), isolated from sea cucumber, was used for the bacterial infection on coral Seriatopora guttatus and Pocillopora damicornis. The infection of S10-1 led to coral bleaching and a significant reduction of photosynthetic function in coral holobiont, and the pathogenicity of V. fortis was regulated by quorum sensing. Meanwhile, Vibrio infection also caused a shift of coral symbiotic microbial community, with significantly increased abundant Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria and significantly reduced abundant Firmicutes; on genus level, the abundance of Bacillus decreased significantly and the abundance of Rhodococcus, Ralstonia, and Burkholderia-Caballeronia-Paraburkholderia increased significantly; S10-1 infection also significantly impacted the water quality in the micro-ecosystem. In contrast, S10-1 infection showed less effect on the microbial community of the live stone, which reflected that the microbes in the epiphytic environment of the live stone might have a stronger ability of self-regulation; the algal symbionts mainly consisted of Cladocopium sp. and showed no significant effect by the Vibrio infection. This study verified that V. fortis is the primary pathogenic bacterium causing coral bleaching, revealed changes in the microbial community caused by its infection, provided strong evidence for the "bacterial bleaching" hypothesis, and provided an experimental experience for the exploration of the interaction mechanism among microbial communities, especially coral-associated Vibrio in the coral ecosystem, and potential probiotic strategy or QS regulation on further coral disease control.

RevDate: 2023-02-23

Jin X, Zhu H, Shi Y, et al (2023)

Host Hybridization Dominates over Cohabitation in Affecting Gut Microbiota of Intrageneric Hybrid Takifugu Pufferfish.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Microbial symbionts are of great importance for macroscopic life, including fish, and both collectively comprise an integrated biological entity known as the holobiont. Yet little is known as to how the normal balance within the fish holobiont is maintained and how it responds to biotic and/or abiotic influences. Here, through amplicon profiling, the genealogical relationship between artificial F1 hybrid pufferfish with growth heterosis, produced from crossing female Takifugu obscurus with male Takifugu rubripes and its maternal halfsibling purebred, was well recapitulated by their gut microbial community similarities, indicating an evident parallelism between host phylogeny (hybridity) and microbiota relationships therein. Interestingly, modest yet significant fish growth promotion and gut microbiota alteration mediated by hybrid-purebred cohabitation were observed, in comparison with their respective monoculture cohorts that share common genetic makeups, implying a certain degree of environmental influences. Moreover, the underlying assemblage patterns of gut microbial communities were found associated with a trade-off between variable selection and dispersal limitation, which are plausibly driven by the augmented social interactions between hybrid and purebred cohabitants differing in behaviors. Results from this study not only can enrich, from a microbial perspective, the sophisticated understanding of complex and dynamic assemblage of the fish holobiont, but will also provide deeper insights into the ecophysiological factors imposed on the diversity-function relationships thereof. Our findings emphasize the intimate associations of gut microbiota in host genetics-environmental interactions and would have deeper practical implications for microbial contributions to optimize performance prediction and to improve the production of farmed fishes. IMPORTANCE Microbial symbionts are of great importance for macroscopic life, including fish, and yet little is known as to how the normal balance within the fish holobiont is maintained and how it responds to the biotic and/or abiotic influences. Through gut microbiota profiling, we show that host intrageneric hybridization and cohabitation can impose a strong disturbance upon pufferfish gut microbiota. Moreover, marked alterations in the composition and function of gut microbiota in both hybrid and purebred pufferfish cohabitants were observed, which are potentially correlated with different metabolic priorities and behaviors between host genealogy. These results can enrich, from a microbial perspective, the sophisticated understanding of the complex and dynamic assemblage of the fish holobiont and would have deeper practical implications for microbial contributions to optimize performance prediction and to improve farmed fish production.

RevDate: 2023-02-22

Lindner M, Radke DI, G Elke (2023)

[Bacterial gut microbiota-key player in sepsis].

Medizinische Klinik, Intensivmedizin und Notfallmedizin [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiota is comprised of over 1200 different bacteria and forms a symbiotic community with the human organism, the holobiont. It plays an important role in the maintenance of homeostasis, e.g., of the immune system and essential metabolic processes. Disturbances in the balance of this reciprocal relationship are called dysbiosis and, in the field of sepsis, are associated with incidence of disease, extent of the systemic inflammatory response, severity of organ dysfunction, and mortality. In addition to providing guiding principles in the fascinating relationship between "human and microbe," this article summarizes recent findings regarding the role of the bacterial gut microbiota in sepsis, which is one a very relevant in intensive care medicine.

RevDate: 2023-02-22

Rasmussen JA, Kiilerich P, Madhun AS, et al (2023)

Co-diversification of an intestinal Mycoplasma and its salmonid host.

The ISME journal [Epub ahead of print].

Understanding the evolutionary relationships between a host and its intestinal resident bacteria can transform how we understand adaptive phenotypic traits. The interplay between hosts and their resident bacteria inevitably affects the intestinal environment and, thereby, the living conditions of both the host and the microbiota. Thereby this co-existence likely influences the fitness of both bacteria and host. Whether this co-existence leads to evolutionary co-diversification in animals is largely unexplored, mainly due to the complexity of the environment and microbial communities and the often low host selection. We present the gut metagenome from wild Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar), a new wild organism model with an intestinal microbiota of low complexity and a well-described population structure, making it well-suited for investigating co-evolution. Our data reveal a strong host selection of a core gut microbiota dominated by a single Mycoplasma species. We found a clear co-diversification between the population structure of Atlantic salmon and nucleotide variability of the intestinal Mycoplasma populations conforming to expectations from co-evolution between host and resident bacteria. Our results show that the stable microbiota of Atlantic salmon has evolved with its salmonid host populations while potentially providing adaptive traits to the salmon host populations, including defence mechanisms, biosynthesis of essential amino acids, and metabolism of B vitamins. We highlight Atlantic salmon as a novel model for studying co-evolution between vertebrate hosts and their resident bacteria.

RevDate: 2023-02-21

Poupin MJ, Ledger T, Roselló-Móra R, et al (2023)

The Arabidopsis holobiont: a (re)source of insights to understand the amazing world of plant-microbe interactions.

Environmental microbiome, 18(1):9.

As holobiont, a plant is intrinsically connected to its microbiomes. However, some characteristics of these microbiomes, such as their taxonomic composition, biological and evolutionary role, and especially the drivers that shape them, are not entirely elucidated. Reports on the microbiota of Arabidopsis thaliana first appeared more than ten years ago. However, there is still a lack of a comprehensive understanding of the vast amount of information that has been generated using this holobiont. The main goal of this review was to perform an in-depth, exhaustive, and systematic analysis of the literature regarding the Arabidopsis-microbiome interaction. A core microbiota was identified as composed of a few bacterial and non-bacterial taxa. The soil (and, to a lesser degree, air) were detected as primary microorganism sources. From the plant perspective, the species, ecotype, circadian cycle, developmental stage, environmental responses, and the exudation of metabolites were crucial factors shaping the plant-microbe interaction. From the microbial perspective, the microbe-microbe interactions, the type of microorganisms belonging to the microbiota (i.e., beneficial or detrimental), and the microbial metabolic responses were also key drivers. The underlying mechanisms are just beginning to be unveiled, but relevant future research needs were identified. Thus, this review provides valuable information and novel analyses that will shed light to deepen our understanding of this plant holobiont and its interaction with the environment.

RevDate: 2023-02-19

Eisenhofer R, Odriozola I, A Alberdi (2023)

Impact of microbial genome completeness on metagenomic functional inference.

ISME communications, 3(1):12.

Inferring the functional capabilities of bacteria from metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs) is becoming a central process in microbiology. Here we show that the completeness of genomes has a significant impact on the recovered functional signal, spanning all domains of metabolic functions. We identify factors that affect this relationship between genome completeness and function fullness, and provide baseline knowledge to guide efforts to correct for this overlooked bias in metagenomic functional inference.

RevDate: 2023-02-16

Zhang P, Zhu Y, Guo Q, et al (2023)

On the origin and evolution of RNA editing in metazoans.

Cell reports, 42(2):112112 pii:S2211-1247(23)00123-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Extensive adenosine-to-inosine (A-to-I) editing of nuclear-transcribed mRNAs is the hallmark of metazoan transcriptional regulation. Here, by profiling the RNA editomes of 22 species that cover major groups of Holozoa, we provide substantial evidence supporting A-to-I mRNA editing as a regulatory innovation originating in the last common ancestor of extant metazoans. This ancient biochemistry process is preserved in most extant metazoan phyla and primarily targets endogenous double-stranded RNA (dsRNA) formed by evolutionarily young repeats. We also find intermolecular pairing of sense-antisense transcripts as an important mechanism for forming dsRNA substrates for A-to-I editing in some but not all lineages. Likewise, recoding editing is rarely shared across lineages but preferentially targets genes involved in neural and cytoskeleton systems in bilaterians. We conclude that metazoan A-to-I editing might first emerge as a safeguard mechanism against repeat-derived dsRNA and was later co-opted into diverse biological processes due to its mutagenic nature.

RevDate: 2023-02-16

Clokie M, T Sicheritz-Pontén (2022)

Reflections on 2022: A Progressive Year for Phage Therapy.

PHAGE (New Rochelle, N.Y.), 3(4):181-182.

RevDate: 2023-02-16

Matias AMA, Popovic I, Thia JA, et al (2023)

Cryptic diversity and spatial genetic variation in the coral Acropora tenuis and its endosymbionts across the Great Barrier Reef.

Evolutionary applications, 16(2):293-310.

Genomic studies are uncovering extensive cryptic diversity within reef-building corals, suggesting that evolutionarily and ecologically relevant diversity is highly underestimated in the very organisms that structure coral reefs. Furthermore, endosymbiotic algae within coral host species can confer adaptive responses to environmental stress and may represent additional axes of coral genetic variation that are not constrained by taxonomic divergence of the cnidarian host. Here, we examine genetic variation in a common and widespread, reef-building coral, Acropora tenuis, and its associated endosymbiotic algae along the entire expanse of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR). We use SNPs derived from genome-wide sequencing to characterize the cnidarian coral host and organelles from zooxanthellate endosymbionts (genus Cladocopium). We discover three distinct and sympatric genetic clusters of coral hosts, whose distributions appear associated with latitude and inshore-offshore reef position. Demographic modelling suggests that the divergence history of the three distinct host taxa ranges from 0.5 to 1.5 million years ago, preceding the GBR's formation, and has been characterized by low-to-moderate ongoing inter-taxon gene flow, consistent with occasional hybridization and introgression typifying coral evolution. Despite this differentiation in the cnidarian host, A. tenuis taxa share a common symbiont pool, dominated by the genus Cladocopium (Clade C). Cladocopium plastid diversity is not strongly associated with host identity but varies with reef location relative to shore: inshore colonies contain lower symbiont diversity on average but have greater differences between colonies as compared with symbiont communities from offshore colonies. Spatial genetic patterns of symbiont communities could reflect local selective pressures maintaining coral holobiont differentiation across an inshore-offshore environmental gradient. The strong influence of environment (but not host identity) on symbiont community composition supports the notion that symbiont community composition responds to habitat and may assist in the adaptation of corals to future environmental change.

RevDate: 2023-02-09

Choudhary DK, Vaishnav A, Jain S, et al (2022)

Editorial: Climate impact on plant holobiont: Mitigation strategies and sustainability.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1040876.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Woltyńska A, Gawor J, Olech MA, et al (2023)

Bacterial communities of Antarctic lichens explored by gDNA and cDNA 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing.

FEMS microbiology ecology pii:7030896 [Epub ahead of print].

Recently, lichens came once more into the scientific spotlight due to their unique relations with Prokaryotes. Several temperate region lichen species have been thoroughly explored in this regard yet, the information on Antarctic lichens and their associated bacteriobiomes is somewhat lacking. In this paper we assessed the phylogenetic structure of the whole and active fractions of bacterial communities housed by Antarctic lichens growing in different environmental conditions by targeted 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing. Bacterial communities associated with lichens procured from a nitrogen enriched site were very distinct from the communities isolated from lichens of a nitrogen depleted site. The former were characterized by substantial contributions of Bacteroidetes phylum members and the elusive Armatimonadetes. At the nutrient-poor site the lichen-associated bacteriobiome structure was unique for each lichen species, with chlorolichens being occupied largely by Proteobacteria. Lichen species with a pronounced discrepancy in diversity between the whole and active fractions of their bacterial communities had the widest ecological amplitude, hinting that the non-active part of the community is a reservoir of latent stress coping mechanisms. This is the first investigation to make use of targeted metatranscriptomics to infer the bacterial biodiversity in Antarctic lichens.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Kazmi SA, EY Hsiao (2023)

Extending genetic risk for Alzheimer's disease from host to holobiont.

Cell pii:S0092-8674(23)00004-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The gut microbiota is implicated in risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). A study in Science reports that depleting gut bacteria in mice with genetic risk for AD reduces neuropathology in a sex-dependent manner. This is reversed by administering short-chain fatty acids, suggesting that specific bacterial metabolites increase susceptibility to AD.

RevDate: 2023-02-07

Izraeli Y, Lepetit D, Atias S, et al (2022)

Genomic characterization of viruses associated with the parasitoid Anagyrus vladimiri (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae).

The Journal of general virology, 103(12):.

Knowledge on symbiotic microorganisms of insects has increased dramatically in recent years, yet relatively little data are available regarding non-pathogenic viruses. Here we studied the virome of the parasitoid wasp Anagyrus vladimiri Triapitsyn (Hymenoptera: Encyrtidae), a biocontrol agent of mealybugs. By high-throughput sequencing of viral nucleic acids, we revealed three novel viruses, belonging to the families Reoviridae [provisionally termed AnvRV (Anagyrus vladimiri reovirus)], Iflaviridae (AnvIFV) and Dicistroviridae (AnvDV). Phylogenetic analysis further classified AnvRV in the genus Idnoreovirus, and AnvDV in the genus Triatovirus. The genome of AnvRV comprises 10 distinct genomic segments ranging in length from 1.5 to 4.2 kb, but only two out of the 10 ORFs have a known function. AnvIFV and AnvDV each have one polypeptide ORF, which is typical of iflaviruses but very un-common among dicistroviruses. Five conserved domains were found along both the ORFs of those two viruses. AnvRV was found to be fixed in an A. vladimiri population that was obtained from a mass rearing facility, whereas its prevalence in field-collected A. vladimiri was ~15 %. Similarly, the prevalence of AnvIFV and AnvDV was much higher in the mass rearing population than in the field population. The presence of AnvDV was positively correlated with the presence of Wolbachia in the same individuals. Transmission electron micrographs of females' ovaries revealed clusters and viroplasms of reovirus-like particles in follicle cells, suggesting that AnvRV is vertically transmitted from mother to offspring. AnvRV was not detected in the mealybugs, supporting the assumption that this virus is truly associated with the wasps. The possible effects of these viruses on A. vladimiri's biology, and on biocontrol agents in general, are discussed. Our findings identify RNA viruses as potentially involved in the multitrophic system of mealybugs, their parasitoids and other members of the holobiont.

RevDate: 2023-02-06

Germain RR, Feng S, Buffan L, et al (2023)

Changes in the functional diversity of modern bird species over the last million years.

Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 120(7):e2201945119.

Despite evidence of declining biosphere integrity, we currently lack understanding of how the functional diversity associated with changes in abundance among ecological communities has varied over time and before widespread human disturbances. We combine morphological, ecological, and life-history trait data for >260 extant bird species with genomic-based estimates of changing effective population size (Ne) to quantify demographic-based shifts in avian functional diversity over the past million years and under pre-anthropogenic climate warming. We show that functional diversity was relatively stable over this period, but underwent significant changes in some key areas of trait space due to changing species abundances. Our results suggest that patterns of population decline over the Pleistocene have been concentrated in particular regions of trait space associated with extreme reproductive strategies and low dispersal ability, consistent with an overall erosion of functional diversity. Further, species most sensitive to climate warming occupied a relatively narrow region of functional space, indicating that the largest potential population increases and decreases under climate change will occur among species with relatively similar trait sets. Overall, our results identify fluctuations in functional space of extant species over evolutionary timescales and represent the demographic-based vulnerability of different regions of functional space among these taxa. The integration of paleodemographic dynamics with functional trait data enhances our ability to quantify losses of biosphere integrity before anthropogenic disturbances and attribute contemporary biodiversity loss to different drivers over time.

RevDate: 2023-02-03

Fujiyoshi S, Yarimizu K, Perera I, et al (2023)

Learning from mistakes: challenges in finding holobiont factors from environmental samples and the importance of methodological consistency.

Current opinion in biotechnology, 80:102897 pii:S0958-1669(23)00007-1 [Epub ahead of print].

The cause of harmful algal blooms has been a mystery, but research to elucidate its mechanism has progressed over the years thanks to genetic technologies. We have monitored toxic algae and its associated bacteria as a community, the so-called 'holobiont' in Chilean coastal waters for years from the perspective of bacteria as an algal bloom driver. This review describes the challenges of holobiont monitoring, specifically with respect to standardizing and compliance with the monitoring protocols to collect reliable and sustainable data. Further, we suggest adopting the high-throughput sequencing (HTS) standard operating procedure (SOP) by the International Human Microbiome to improve the quality and consistency of holobiont monitoring in the harmful algal world.

RevDate: 2023-02-02

Zhu W, Wang H, Li X, et al (2023)

Consistent responses of coral microbiome to acute and chronic heat stress exposures.

Marine environmental research, 185:105900 pii:S0141-1136(23)00028-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Frequent and intense heat waves lead to bleaching and even death of reef-building corals, and the thermal tolerance ultimately depends on the genetic composition of the holobiont. Here, we compared the effects of acute and chronic heat stress exposures on coral Porites cylindrica holobiont. Regardless of the temperature treatment, corals at 33 °C showed signs of bleaching and a significant decrease in photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm). However, Symbiodiniaceae communities were relatively stable and all dominated by the same genus Cladocopium (C15). The relative abundanbce of core microbiome varied significantly, and they may provide several functions important to holobiont fitness. Both heat stress exposures induced the significant structural reorganization of coral-associated bacteria, with bacterial diversity and community heterogeneity significantly increasing with the temperature treatment. The modified stochasticity ratio (MST) revealed that stochastic processes dominated bacterial community assembly in thermally stressed corals. Certain core bacterial members that were hypothesized to fulfil functional niche decreased significantly, with the enrichment of potentially pathogenic and opportunistic bacteria in heat stress exposures. Thermally stressed corals had more positive correlation, higher network complexity and tighter associations among microbial taxa, relative to healthy corals. Overall, the coral microbiome exhibits similar responses to acute and chronic heat stress, and our study provides new insights about the deleterious impacts of complex warming oceans on coral holobiont.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Lin Z, Zheng X, J Chen (2023)

Deciphering pH-dependent microbial taxa and functional gene co-occurrence in the coral Galaxea fascicularis.

Microbial ecology pii:10.1007/s00248-023-02183-0 [Epub ahead of print].

How the coral microbiome responds to oceanic pH changes due to anthropogenic climate change, including ocean acidification and deliberate artificial alkalization, remains an open question. Here, we applied a 16S profile and GeoChip approach to microbial taxonomic and gene functional landscapes in the coral Galaxea fascicularis under three pH levels (7.85, 8.15, and 8.45) and tested the influence of pH changes on the cell growth of several coral-associated strains and bacterial populations. Statistical analysis of GeoChip-based data suggested that both ocean acidification and alkalization destabilized functional cores related to aromatic degradation, carbon degradation, carbon fixation, stress response, and antibiotic biosynthesis in the microbiome, which are related to holobiont carbon cycling and health. The taxonomic analysis revealed that bacterial species richness was not significantly different among the three pH treatments, but the community compositions were significantly distinct. Acute seawater alkalization leads to an increase in pathogens as well as a stronger taxonomic shift than acidification, which is worth considering when using artificial ocean alkalization to protect coral ecosystems from ocean acidification. In addition, our co-occurrence network analysis reflected microbial community and functional shifts in response to pH change cues, which will further help to understand the functional ecological role of the microbiome in coral resilience.

RevDate: 2023-01-31

Bonthond G, Neu AK, Bayer T, et al (2023)

Non-native hosts of an invasive seaweed holobiont have more stable microbial communities compared to native hosts in response to thermal stress.

Ecology and evolution, 13(1):e9753.

Seaweeds are colonized by a microbial community, which can be directly linked to their performance. This community is shaped by an interplay of stochastic and deterministic processes, including mechanisms which the holobiont host deploys to manipulate its associated microbiota. The Anna Karenina principle predicts that when a holobiont is exposed to suboptimal or stressful conditions, these host mechanisms may be compromised. This leads to a relative increase of stochastic processes that may potentially result in the succession of a microbial community harmful to the host. Based on this principle, we used the variability in microbial communities (i.e., beta diversity) as a proxy for stability within the invasive holobiont Gracilaria vermiculophylla during a simulated invasion in a common garden experiment. Independent of host range, host performance declined at elevated temperature (22°C) and disease incidence and beta diversity increased. Under thermally stressful conditions, beta diversity increased more in epibiota from native populations, suggesting that epibiota from non-native holobionts are thermally more stable. This pattern reflects an increase in deterministic processes acting on epibiota associated with non-native hosts, which in the setting of a common garden can be assumed to originate from the host itself. Therefore, these experimental data suggest that the invasion process may have selected for hosts better able to maintain stable microbiota during stress. Future studies are needed to identify the underlying host mechanisms.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Li JH, Muhammad Aslam M, Gao YY, et al (2023)

Microbiome-mediated signal transduction within the plant holobiont.

Trends in microbiology pii:S0966-842X(22)00340-7 [Epub ahead of print].

Microorganisms colonizing the plant rhizosphere and phyllosphere play crucial roles in plant growth and health. Recent studies provide new insights into long-distance communication from plant roots to shoots in association with their commensal microbiome. In brief, these recent advances suggest that specific plant-associated microbial taxa can contribute to systemic plant responses associated with the enhancement of plant health and performance in face of a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses. However, most of the mechanisms associated with microbiome-mediated signal transduction in plants remain poorly understood. In this review, we provide an overview of long-distance signaling mechanisms within plants mediated by the commensal plant-associated microbiomes. We advocate the view of plants and microbes as a holobiont and explore key molecules and mechanisms associated with plant-microbe interactions and changes in plant physiology activated by signal transduction.

RevDate: 2023-01-26

Bolt Botnen A, Bjørnsen MB, Alberdi A, et al (2023)

A simplified protocol for DNA extraction from FTA cards for faecal microbiome studies.

Heliyon, 9(1):e12861.

As metagenomic studies continue to increase in size and complexity, they are often required to incorporate data from geographically isolated locations or longitudinal time samples. This represents a technical challenge, given that many of the commonly used methods used for sample collection, storage, and DNA extraction are sensitive to differences related to the time, storage and chemistry involved. FTA cards have been previously proposed as a simple, reliable and cost-efficient method for the preservation of animal faecal microbiomes. In this study, we report a simplified extraction methodology for recovering microbiome DNA from faeces stored on FTA cards and compare its performance to a common alternative means of characterising such microbiomes; namely, immediate freezing of the faeces followed by DNA extraction using the Qiagen PowerSoil DNA isolation kit. Our results show that overall the application of our simplified DNA extraction methodology yields microbial community results that have higher diversity and an expanded core microbiome than that found using the PowerSoil methodology. This suggests that the FTA card extraction method presented here is a viable alternative for metagenomic studies using faecal material when traditional freeze-based storage methods are not feasible.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Rosado PM, Cardoso PM, Rosado JG, et al (2023)

Exploring the Potential Molecular Mechanisms of Interactions between a Probiotic Consortium and Its Coral Host.

mSystems [Epub ahead of print].

Beneficial microorganisms for corals (BMCs) have been demonstrated to be effective probiotics to alleviate bleaching and mitigate coral mortality in vivo. The selection of putative BMCs is traditionally performed manually, using an array of biochemical and molecular tests for putative BMC traits. We present a comprehensive genetic survey of BMC traits using a genome-based framework for the identification of alternative mechanisms that can be used for future in silico selection of BMC strains. We identify exclusive BMC traits associated with specific strains and propose new BMC mechanisms, such as the synthesis of glycine betaine and ectoines. Our roadmap facilitates the selection of BMC strains while increasing the array of genetic targets that can be included in the selection of putative BMC strains to be tested as coral probiotics. IMPORTANCE Probiotics are currently the main hope as a potential medicine for corals, organisms that are considered the marine "canaries of the coal mine" and that are threatened with extinction. Our experiments have proved the concept that probiotics mitigate coral bleaching and can also prevent coral mortality. Here, we present a comprehensive genetic survey of probiotic traits using a genome-based framework. The main outcomes are a roadmap that facilitates the selection of coral probiotic strains while increasing the array of mechanisms that can be included in the selection of coral probiotics.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Burgunter-Delamare B, Rousvoal S, Legeay E, et al (2022)

The Saccharina latissima microbiome: Effects of region, season, and physiology.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1050939.

INTRODUCTION: Saccharina latissima is a canopy-forming species of brown algae and, as such, is considered an ecosystem engineer. Several populations of this alga are exploited worldwide, and a decrease in the abundance of S. latissima at its southern distributional range limits has been observed. Despite its economic and ecological interest, only a few data are available on the composition of microbiota associated with S. latissima and its role in algal physiologyn.

METHODS: We studied the whole bacterial community composition associated with S. latissima samples from three locations (Brittany, Helgoland, and Skagerrak) by 16S metabarcoding analyses at different scales: algal blade part, regions, season (at one site), and algal physiologic state.

RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: We have shown that the difference in bacterial composition is driven by factors of decreasing importance: (i) the algal tissues (apex/meristem), (ii) the geographical area, (iii) the seasons (at the Roscoff site), and (iv) the algal host's condition (healthy vs. symptoms). Overall, Alphaproteobacteria, Gammaproteobacteria, and Bacteroidia dominated the general bacterial communities. Almost all individuals hosted bacteria of the genus Granulosicoccus, accounting for 12% of the total sequences, and eight additional core genera were identified. Our results also highlight a microbial signature characteristic for algae in poor health independent of the disease symptoms. Thus, our study provides a comprehensive overview of the S. latissima microbiome, forming a basis for understanding holobiont functioning.

RevDate: 2023-01-23

Tandon K, Ricci F, Costa J, et al (2022)

Genomic view of the diversity and functional role of archaea and bacteria in the skeleton of the reef-building corals Porites lutea and Isopora palifera.

GigaScience, 12:.

At present, our knowledge on the compartmentalization of coral holobiont microbiomes is highly skewed toward the millimeter-thin coral tissue, leaving the diverse coral skeleton microbiome underexplored. Here, we present a genome-centric view of the skeleton of the reef-building corals Porites lutea and Isopora palifera, through a compendium of ∼400 high-quality bacterial and archaeal metagenome-assembled genomes (MAGs), spanning 34 phyla and 57 classes. Skeletal microbiomes harbored a diverse array of stress response genes, including dimethylsulfoniopropionate synthesis (dsyB) and metabolism (DMSP lyase). Furthermore, skeletal MAGs encoded an average of 22 ± 15 genes in P. lutea and 28 ± 23 in I. palifera with eukaryotic-like motifs thought to be involved in maintaining host association. We provide comprehensive insights into the putative functional role of the skeletal microbiome on key metabolic processes such as nitrogen fixation, dissimilatory and assimilatory nitrate, and sulfate reduction. Our study provides critical genomic resources for a better understanding of the coral skeletal microbiome and its role in holobiont functioning.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Hansen CCR, Láruson ÁJ, Rasmussen JA, et al (2023)

Genomic diversity and differentiation between island and mainland populations of White-tailed Eagles (Haliaeetus albicilla).

Molecular ecology [Epub ahead of print].

Divergence in the face of high dispersal capabilities is a documented but poorly understood phenomenon. The white-tailed eagle (Haliaeetus albicilla) has a large geographic dispersal capability and should theoretically be able to maintain genetic homogeneity across its dispersal range. However, following analysis of the genomic variation of white-tailed eagles, from both historical and contemporary samples, clear signatures of ancient biogeographic substructure across Europe and the North-East Atlantic is observed. The greatest genomic differentiation was observed between island (Greenland and Iceland) and mainland (Denmark, Norway and Estonia) populations. The two island populations share a common ancestry from a single mainland population, distinct from the other sampled mainland populations, and despite the potential for high connectivity between Iceland and Greenland they are well separated from each other and are characterized by inbreeding and little variation. Temporal differences also highlight a pattern of regional populations persisting despite the potential for admixture. All sampled populations generally showed a decline in effective population size over time, which may have been shaped by four historical events: I) isolation of refugia during the last glacial period 110-115,000 years ago, II) population divergence following the colonization of the deglaciated areas ~10,000 years ago, III) human population expansion, which led to the settlement in Iceland ~1,100 years ago, and IV) human persecution and exposure to toxic pollutants during the last two centuries.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Conte C, Apostolaki ET, Vizzini S, et al (2023)

A Tight Interaction between the Native Seagrass Cymodocea nodosa and the Exotic Halophila stipulacea in the Aegean Sea Highlights Seagrass Holobiont Variations.

Plants (Basel, Switzerland), 12(2): pii:plants12020350.

Seagrasses harbour bacterial communities with which they constitute a functional unit called holobiont that responds as a whole to environmental changes. Epiphytic bacterial communities rapidly respond to both biotic and abiotic factors, potentially contributing to the host fitness. The Lessepsian migrant Halophila stipulacea has a high phenotypical plasticity and harbours a highly diverse epiphytic bacterial community, which could support its invasiveness in the Mediterranean Sea. The current study aimed to evaluate the Halophila/Cymodocea competition in the Aegean Sea by analysing each of the two seagrasses in a meadow zone where these intermingled, as well as in their monospecific zones, at two depths. Differences in holobionts were evaluated using seagrass descriptors (morphometric, biochemical, elemental, and isotopic composition) to assess host changes, and 16S rRNA gene to identify bacterial community structure and composition. An Indicator Species Index was used to identify bacteria significantly associated with each host. In mixed meadows, native C. nodosa was shown to be affected by the presence of exotic H. stipulacea, in terms of both plant descriptors and bacterial communities, while H. stipulacea responded only to environmental factors rather than C. nodosa proximity. This study provided evidence of the competitive advantage of H. stipulacea on C. nodosa in the Aegean Sea and suggests the possible use of associated bacterial communities as an ecological seagrass descriptor.

RevDate: 2023-01-21

Mathew SA, Helander M, Saikkonen K, et al (2023)

Epichloë Endophytes Shape the Foliar Endophytic Fungal Microbiome and Alter the Auxin and Salicylic Acid Phytohormone Levels in Two Meadow Fescue Cultivars.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 9(1): pii:jof9010090.

Plants harbor a large diversity of endophytic microbes. Meadow fescue (Festuca pratensis) is a cool-season grass known for its symbiotic relationship with the systemic and vertically-via seeds-transmitted fungal endophyte Epichloë uncinata, yet its effects on plant hormones and the microbial community is largely unexplored. Here, we sequenced the endophytic bacterial and fungal communities in the leaves and roots, analyzing phytohormone concentrations and plant performance parameters in Epichloë-symbiotic (E+) and Epichloë-free (E-) individuals of two meadow fescue cultivars. The endophytic microbial community differed between leaf and root tissues independent of Epichloë symbiosis, while the fungal community was different in the leaves of Epichloë-symbiotic and Epichloë-free plants in both cultivars. At the same time, Epichloë symbiosis decreased salicylic acid and increased auxin concentrations in leaves. Epichloë-symbiotic plants showed higher biomass and higher seed mass at the end of the season. Our results demonstrate that Epichloë symbiosis alters the leaf fungal microbiota, which coincides with changes in phytohormone concentrations, indicating that Epichloë endophytes affect both plant immune responses and other fungal endophytes. Whether the effect of Epichloë endophytes on other fungal endophytes is connected to changes in phytohormone concentrations remains to be elucidated.

RevDate: 2023-01-20

Deutsch JM, Green MO, Akavaram P, et al (2023)

Limited Metabolomic Overlap between Commensal Bacteria and Marine Sponge Holobionts Revealed by Large Scale Culturing and Mass Spectrometry-Based Metabolomics: An Undergraduate Laboratory Pedagogical Effort at Georgia Tech.

Marine drugs, 21(1): pii:md21010053.

Sponges are the richest source of bioactive organic small molecules, referred to as natural products, in the marine environment. It is well established that laboratory culturing-resistant symbiotic bacteria residing within the eukaryotic sponge host matrix often synthesize the natural products that are detected in the sponge tissue extracts. However, the contributions of the culturing-amenable commensal bacteria that are also associated with the sponge host to the overall metabolome of the sponge holobiont are not well defined. In this study, we cultured a large library of bacteria from three marine sponges commonly found in the Florida Keys. Metabolomes of isolated bacterial strains and that of the sponge holobiont were compared using mass spectrometry to reveal minimal metabolomic overlap between commensal bacteria and the sponge hosts. We also find that the phylogenetic overlap between cultured commensal bacteria and that of the sponge microbiome is minimal. Despite these observations, the commensal bacteria were found to be a rich resource for novel natural product discovery. Mass spectrometry-based metabolomics provided structural insights into these cryptic natural products. Pedagogic innovation in the form of laboratory curricula development is described which provided undergraduate students with hands-on instruction in microbiology and natural product discovery using metabolomic data mining strategies.

RevDate: 2023-01-20
CmpDate: 2023-01-20

Mayfield AB (2023)

Multi-macromolecular Extraction from Endosymbiotic Anthozoans.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2625:17-56.

Obligately symbiotic associations between reef-building corals (anthozoan cnidarians) and photosynthetically active dinoflagellates of the family Symbiodiniaceae comprise the functional basis of all coral reef ecosystems. Given the existential threats of global climate change toward these thermo-sensitive entities, there is an urgent need to better understand the physiological implications of changes in the abiotic milieu of scleractinian corals and their mutualistic algal endosymbionts. Although initially slow to leverage the immense breakthroughs in molecular biotechnology that have benefited humankind, coral biologists are making up for lost time in exploiting an array of ever-advancing molecular tools for answering key questions pertaining to the survival of corals in an ever-changing world. In order to comprehensively characterize the multi-omic landscape of the coral holobiont-the cnidarian host, its intracellular dinoflagellates, and a plethora of other microbial constituents-I introduce a series of protocols herein that yield large quantities of high-quality RNA, DNA, protein, lipids, and polar metabolites from a diverse array of reef corals and endosymbiotic sea anemones. Although numerous published articles in the invertebrate zoology field feature protocols that lead to sufficiently high yield of intact host coral macromolecules, through using the approach outlined herein one may simultaneously acquire a rich, multi-compartmental biochemical pool that truly reflects the complex and dynamic nature of these animal-plant chimeras.

RevDate: 2023-01-18

Takagi T, Aoyama K, Motone K, et al (2023)

Mutualistic Interactions between Dinoflagellates and Pigmented Bacteria Mitigate Environmental Stress.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Scleractinian corals form symbiotic relationships with a variety of microorganisms, including endosymbiotic dinoflagellates of the family Symbiodiniaceae, and with bacteria, which are collectively termed coral holobionts. Interactions between hosts and their symbionts are critical to the physiological status of corals. Coral-microorganism interactions have been studied extensively, but dinoflagellate-bacterial interactions remain largely unexplored. Here, we developed a microbiome manipulation method employing KAS-antibiotic treatment (kanamycin, ampicillin, and streptomycin) to favor pigmented bacteria residing on cultured Cladocopium and Durusdinium, major endosymbionts of corals, and isolated several carotenoid-producing bacteria from cell surfaces of the microalgae. Following KAS-antibiotic treatment of Cladocopium sp. strain NIES-4077, pigmented bacteria increased 8-fold based on colony-forming assays from the parental strain, and 100% of bacterial sequences retrieved through 16S rRNA amplicon sequencing were affiliated with the genus Maribacter. Microbiome manipulation enabled host microalgae to maintain higher maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (variable fluorescence divided by maximum fluorescence [Fv/Fm]) under light-stress conditions, compared to the parental strain. Furthermore, by combining culture-dependent and -independent techniques, we demonstrated that species of the family Symbiodiniaceae and pigmented bacteria form strong interactions. Dinoflagellates protected bacteria from antibiotics, while pigmented bacteria protected microalgal cells from light stress via carotenoid production. Here, we describe for the first time a symbiotic relationship in which dinoflagellates and bacteria mutually reduce environmental stress. Investigations of microalgal-bacterial interactions further document bacterial contributions to coral holobionts and may facilitate development of novel techniques for microbiome-mediated coral reef conservation. IMPORTANCE Coral reefs cover less than 0.1% of the ocean floor, but about 25% of all marine species depend on coral reefs at some point in their life cycles. However, rising ocean temperatures associated with global climate change are a serious threat to coral reefs, causing dysfunction of the photosynthetic apparatus of endosymbiotic microalgae of corals, and overproducing reactive oxygen species harmful to corals. We manipulated the microbiome using an antibiotic treatment to favor pigmented bacteria, enabling their symbiotic microalgal partners to maintain higher photosynthetic function under insolation stress. Furthermore, we investigated mechanisms underlying microalgal-bacterial interactions, describing for the first time a symbiotic relationship in which the two symbionts mutually reduce environmental stress. Our findings extend current insights about microalgal-bacterial interactions, enabling better understanding of bacterial contributions to coral holobionts under stressful conditions and offering hope of reducing the adverse impacts of global warming on coral reefs.

RevDate: 2023-01-18

Pirolo M, Espinosa-Gongora C, Alberdi A, et al (2023)

Bacterial topography of the upper and lower respiratory tract in pigs.

Animal microbiome, 5(1):5.

BACKGROUND: Understanding the complex structures and interactions of the bacterial communities inhabiting the upper (URT) and lower (LRT) respiratory tract of pigs is at an early stage. The objective of this study was to characterize the bacterial topography of three URT (nostrils, choana, and tonsils) and LRT (proximal trachea, left caudal lobe and secondary bronchi) sites in pigs. Thirty-six post-mortem samples from six pigs were analysed by 16S rRNA gene quantification and sequencing, and the microbiota in nostrils and trachea was additionally profiled by shotgun sequencing.

RESULTS: The bacterial composition obtained by the two methods was congruent, although metagenomics recovered only a fraction of the diversity (32 metagenome-assembled genomes) due to the high proportion (85-98%) of host DNA. The highest abundance of 16S rRNA copies was observed in nostrils, followed by tonsils, trachea, bronchi, choana and lung. Bacterial richness and diversity were lower in the LRT compared to the URT. Overall, Firmicutes and Proteobacteria were identified as predominant taxa in all sample types. Glasserella (15.7%), Streptococcus (14.6%) and Clostridium (10.1%) were the most abundant genera but differences in microbiota composition were observed between the two tracts as well as between sampling sites within the same tract. Clear-cut differences were observed between nasal and tonsillar microbiomes (R-values 0.85-0.93), whereas bacterial communities inhabiting trachea and lung were similar (R-values 0.10-0.17). Moraxella and Streptococcus were more common in bronchial mucosal scraping than in lavage, probably because of mucosal adherence. The bacterial microbiota of the choana was less diverse than that of the nostrils and similar to the tracheal microbiota (R-value 0.24), suggesting that the posterior nasal cavity serves as the primary source of bacteria for the LRT.

CONCLUSION: We provide new knowledge on microbiota composition and species abundance in distinct ecological niches of the pig respiratory tract. Our results shed light on the distribution of opportunistic bacterial pathogens across the respiratory tract and support the hypothesis that bacteria present in the lungs originate from the posterior nasal cavity. Due to the high abundance of host DNA, high-resolution profiling of the pig respiratory microbiota by shotgun sequencing requires methods for host DNA depletion.

RevDate: 2023-01-13

Feldner-Busztin D, Firbas Nisantzis P, Jane Edmunds S, et al (2023)

Dealing with dimensionality: the application of machine learning to multi-omics data.

Bioinformatics (Oxford, England) pii:6986971 [Epub ahead of print].

MOTIVATION: Machine learning (ML) methods are motivated by the need to automate information extraction from large data sets in order to support human users in data-driven tasks. This is an attractive approach for integrative joint analysis of vast amounts of omics data produced in next generation sequencing and other -omics assays. A systematic assessment of the current literature can help to identify key trends and potential gaps in methodology and applications. We surveyed the literature on ML multi-omic data integration and quantitatively explored the goals, techniques and data involved in this field. We were particularly interested in examining how researchers use ML to deal with the volume and complexity of these datasets.

RESULTS: Our main finding is that the methods used are those that address the challenges of datasets with few samples and many features. Dimensionality reduction methods are used to reduce the feature count alongside models that can also appropriately handle relatively few samples. Popular techniques include autoencoders, random forests and support vector machines. We also found that the field is heavily influenced by the use of The Cancer Genome Atlas data set, which is accessible and contains many diverse experiments.

AVAILABILITY: All data and processing scripts are available at this GitLab repository: https://gitlab.com/polavieja_lab/ml_multi-omics_review/ or in Zenodo: https://doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.7361807.

SUPPLEMENTARY INFORMATION: Supplementary data are available at Bioinformatics online.

RevDate: 2023-01-11

Šigutová H, Šigut M, Pyszko P, et al (2023)

Seasonal Shifts in Bacterial and Fungal Microbiomes of Leaves and Associated Leaf-Mining Larvae Reveal Persistence of Core Taxa Regardless of Diet.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Microorganisms are key mediators of interactions between insect herbivores and their host plants. Despite a substantial interest in studying various aspects of these interactions, temporal variations in microbiomes of woody plants and their consumers remain understudied. In this study, we investigated shifts in the microbiomes of leaf-mining larvae (Insecta: Lepidoptera) and their host trees over one growing season in a deciduous temperate forest. We used 16S and ITS2 rRNA gene metabarcoding to profile the bacterial and fungal microbiomes of leaves and larvae. We found pronounced shifts in the leaf and larval microbiota composition and richness as the season progressed, and bacteria and fungi showed consistent patterns. The quantitative similarity between leaf and larval microbiota was very low for bacteria (~9%) and decreased throughout the season, whereas fungal similarity increased and was relatively high (~27%). In both leaves and larvae, seasonality, along with host taxonomy, was the most important factor shaping microbial communities. We identified frequently occurring microbial taxa with significant seasonal trends, including those more prevalent in larvae (Streptococcus, Candida sake, Debaryomyces prosopidis, and Neoascochyta europaea), more prevalent in leaves (Erwinia, Seimatosporium quercinum, Curvibasidium cygneicollum, Curtobacterium, Ceramothyrium carniolicum, and Mycosphaerelloides madeirae), and frequent in both leaves and larvae (bacterial strain P3OB-42, Methylobacterium/Methylorubrum, Bacillus, Acinetobacter, Cutibacterium, and Botrytis cinerea). Our results highlight the importance of considering seasonality when studying the interactions between plants, herbivorous insects, and their respective microbiomes, and illustrate a range of microbial taxa persistent in larvae, regardless of their occurrence in the diet. IMPORTANCE Leaf miners are endophagous insect herbivores that feed on plant tissues and develop and live enclosed between the epidermis layers of a single leaf for their entire life cycle. Such close association is a precondition for the evolution of more intimate host-microbe relationships than those found in free-feeding herbivores. Simultaneous comparison of bacterial and fungal microbiomes of leaves and their tightly linked consumers over time represents an interesting study system that could fundamentally contribute to the ongoing debate on the microbial residence of insect gut. Furthermore, leaf miners are ideal model organisms for interpreting the ecological and evolutionary roles of microbiota in host plant specialization. In this study, the larvae harbored specific microbial communities consisting of core microbiome members. Observed patterns suggest that microbes, especially bacteria, may play more important roles in the caterpillar holobiont than generally presumed.

RevDate: 2023-01-11

Chou PH, Hu MY, Guh YJ, et al (2023)

Cellular mechanisms underlying extraordinary sulfide tolerance in a crustacean holobiont from hydrothermal vents.

Proceedings. Biological sciences, 290(1990):20221973.

The shallow-water hydrothermal vent system of Kueishan Island has been described as one of the world's most acidic and sulfide-rich marine habitats. The only recorded metazoan species living in the direct vicinity of the vents is Xenograpsus testudinatus, a brachyuran crab endemic to marine sulfide-rich vent systems. Despite the toxicity of hydrogen sulfide, X. testudinatus occupies an ecological niche in a sulfide-rich habitat, with the underlying detoxification mechanism remaining unknown. Using laboratory and field-based experiments, we characterized the gills of X. testudinatus that are the major site of sulfide detoxification. Here sulfide is oxidized to thiosulfate or bound to hypotaurine to generate the less toxic thiotaurine. Biochemical and molecular analyses demonstrated that the accumulation of thiosulfate and hypotaurine is mediated by the sodium-independent sulfate anion transporter (SLC26A11) and taurine transporter (Taut), which are expressed in gill epithelia. Histological and metagenomic analyses of gill tissues demonstrated a distinct bacterial signature dominated by Epsilonproteobacteria. Our results suggest that thiotaurine synthesized in gills is used by sulfide-oxidizing endo-symbiotic bacteria, creating an effective sulfide-buffering system. This work identified physiological mechanisms involving host-microbe interactions that support life of a metazoan in one of the most extreme environments on our planet.

RevDate: 2023-01-11

Singh T, Sakai K, Ishida-Castañeda J, et al (2023)

Short-term improvement of heat tolerance in naturally growing Acropora corals in Okinawa.

PeerJ, 11:e14629.

Mass bleaching and subsequent mortality of reef corals by heat stress has increased globally since the late 20th century, due to global warming. Some experimental studies have reported that corals may increase heat tolerance for short periods, but only a few such studies have monitored naturally-growing colonies. Therefore, we monitored the survival, growth, and bleaching status of Acropora corals in fixed plots by distinguishing individual colonies on a heat-sensitive reef flat in Okinawa, Japan. The level of heat stress, assessed by the modified version of degree heating week duration in July and August, when the seawater temperature was the highest, was minimally but significantly higher in 2017 than in 2016; however, the same colonies exhibited less bleaching and mortality in 2017 than in 2016. Another study conducted at the same site showed that the dominant unicellular endosymbiotic algal species did not change before and after the 2016 bleaching, indicating that shifting and switching of the Symbiodiniaceae community did not contribute to improved heat tolerance. Colonies that suffered from partial mortality in 2016 were completely bleached at higher rates in 2017 than those without partial mortality in 2016. The present results suggest that either genetic or epigenetic changes in coral hosts and/or algal symbionts, or the shifting or switching of microbes other than endosymbionts, may have improved coral holobiont heat tolerance.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Jiang M, Li S, Li H, et al (2023)

Reprogramming of microbial community in barley root endosphere and rhizosphere soil by polystyrene plastics with different particle sizes.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(23)00035-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Polystyrene plastics is an emerging pollutant affecting plant performance and soil functioning. However, little information is available on the effects of microplastics and nanoplastics on plant root endophytic and rhizospheric soil microbial communities. Here, barley plants were grown in microplastics/nanoplastics -treated soil and the diversity, composition and function of bacteria and fungi in the root and rhizosphere soil were examined. At the seedling stage, greater changes of root endophytes were found compared with rhizosphere microorganisms under the plastic treatments. Nanoplastics decreased the richness and diversity of the fungal community, while microplastics increased the diversity of the root endophytic bacterial community. The network of the bacterial community under nanoplastics showed higher vulnerability while lower complexity than that under the control. However, the bacterial community under microplastics had a relatively higher resistance than the control. For the rhizosphere microbial community, no significant effect of plastics was found on the α-diversity index at the seedling stage. In addition, the nanoplastics resulted in higher sensitivity in the relative abundance and function of rhizosphere soil microbes than root endophytic microbes at the mature stage. Treatments of polystyrene plastics with different particle sizes reprogramed the rhizosphere and root endophytic microbial communities. Different effects of microplastics and nanoplastics were found on the diversity, composition, network structure and function of bacteria and fungi, which might be due to the variation in particle sizes. These results lay a foundation for learning the effects of polystyrene plastics with different particle sizes on the microorganisms in rhizosphere soil and plant roots, which may have important implications for the adaptation of plant-microbial holobiont in polystyrene plastics-polluted soils.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Baldo L, Tavecchia G, Rotger A, et al (2023)

Insular holobionts: persistence and seasonal plasticity of the Balearic wall lizard (Podarcis lilfordi) gut microbiota.

PeerJ, 11:e14511.

BACKGROUND: Integrative studies of animals and associated microbial assemblages (i.e., the holobiont) are rapidly changing our perspectives on organismal ecology and evolution. Insular vertebrates provide ideal natural systems to understand patterns of host-gut microbiota coevolution, the resilience and plasticity these microbial communities over temporal and spatial scales, and ultimately their role in the host ecological adaptation.

METHODS: Here we used the endemic Balearic wall lizard Podarcis lilfordi to dissect the drivers of the microbial diversity within and across host allopatric populations/islets. By focusing on three extensively studied populations/islets of Mallorca (Spain) and fecal sampling from individually identified lizards along two years (both in spring and autumn), we sorted out the effect of islet, sex, life stage, year and season on the microbiota composition. We further related microbiota diversity to host genetics, trophic ecology and expected annual metabolic changes.

RESULTS: All the three populations showed a remarkable conservation of the major microbial taxonomic profile, while carrying their unique microbial signature at finer level of taxonomic resolution (Amplicon Sequence Variants (ASVs)). Microbiota distances across populations were compatible with both host genetics (based on microsatellites) and trophic niche distances (based on stable isotopes and fecal content). Within populations, a large proportion of ASVs (30-50%) were recurrently found along the four sampling dates. The microbial diversity was strongly marked by seasonality, with no sex effect and a marginal life stage and annual effect. The microbiota showed seasonal fluctuations along the two sampled years, primarily due to changes in the relative abundances of fermentative bacteria (mostly families Lachnospiraceae and Ruminococcaceae), without any major compositional turnover.

CONCLUSIONS: These results support a large resilience of the major compositional aspects of the P. lilfordi gut microbiota over the short-term evolutionary divergence of their host allopatric populations (<10,000 years), but also indicate an undergoing process of parallel diversification of the both host and associated gut microbes. Predictable seasonal dynamics in microbiota diversity suggests a role of microbiota plasticity in the lizards' metabolic adaptation to their resource-constrained insular environments. Overall, our study supports the need for longitudinal and integrative studies of host and associated microbes in natural systems.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Marcos S, Parejo M, Estonba A, et al (2022)

Recovering High-Quality Host Genomes from Gut Metagenomic Data through Genotype Imputation.

Advanced genetics (Hoboken, N.J.), 3(3):2100065.

Metagenomic datasets of host-associated microbial communities often contain host DNA that is usually discarded because the amount of data is too low for accurate host genetic analyses. However, genotype imputation can be employed to reconstruct host genotypes if a reference panel is available. Here, the performance of a two-step strategy is tested to impute genotypes from four types of reference panels built using different strategies to low-depth host genome data (≈2× coverage) recovered from intestinal samples of two chicken genetic lines. First, imputation accuracy is evaluated in 12 samples for which both low- and high-depth sequencing data are available, obtaining high imputation accuracies for all tested panels (>0.90). Second, the impact of reference panel choice in population genetics statistics on 100 chickens is assessed, all four panels yielding comparable results. In light of the observations, the feasibility and application of the applied imputation strategy are discussed for different species with regard to the host DNA proportion, genomic diversity, and availability of a reference panel. This method enables leveraging insofar discarded host DNA to get insights into the genetic structure of host populations, and in doing so, facilitates the implementation of hologenomic approaches that jointly analyze host and microbial genomic data.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Lyu D, DL Smith (2022)

The root signals in rhizospheric inter-organismal communications.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1064058.

Root exudates play a key role in mediating plant-plant and plant-rhizomicrobiome interactions, including regulating biochemical/physiological aspects of plant-associated microorganisms, to enhance host plant growth and resilience. Root exudates can act as signals to reduce the competition from neighboring plants and recruiting/choreographing a wide range of diverse rhizomicrobiome members to make the host plant a good fit with its immediate environment. Root exudate production is a dynamic and key process, but there is a limited understanding of the metabolites or metabolic pathways involved in the inter-organismal communications facilitated by them. Given the well-known symbiotic relationships between plants and associated rhizomicrobiome members, adding root exudates to microbial isolation media may allow some of the large segments of rhizomicrobiome members that are not currently culturable to be grown in vitro. This will provide new insights into how root signals orchestrate associated microbes, will benefit agricultural production in the face of challenges posed by climate change, and will help to sustainably provide food for a growing global human population.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Rodríguez-Varela R, Moore KHS, Ebenesersdóttir SS, et al (2023)

The genetic history of Scandinavia from the Roman Iron Age to the present.

Cell, 186(1):32-46.e19.

We investigate a 2,000-year genetic transect through Scandinavia spanning the Iron Age to the present, based on 48 new and 249 published ancient genomes and genotypes from 16,638 modern individuals. We find regional variation in the timing and magnitude of gene flow from three sources: the eastern Baltic, the British-Irish Isles, and southern Europe. British-Irish ancestry was widespread in Scandinavia from the Viking period, whereas eastern Baltic ancestry is more localized to Gotland and central Sweden. In some regions, a drop in current levels of external ancestry suggests that ancient immigrants contributed proportionately less to the modern Scandinavian gene pool than indicated by the ancestry of genomes from the Viking and Medieval periods. Finally, we show that a north-south genetic cline that characterizes modern Scandinavians is mainly due to the differential levels of Uralic ancestry and that this cline existed in the Viking Age and possibly earlier.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Puetz LC, Delmont TO, Aizpurua O, et al (2021)

Gut Microbiota Linked with Reduced Fear of Humans in Red Junglefowl Has Implications for Early Domestication.

Advanced genetics (Hoboken, N.J.), 2(4):2100018.

Domestication of animals can lead to profound phenotypic modifications within short evolutionary time periods, and for many species behavioral selection is likely at the forefront of this process. Animal studies have strongly implicated that the gut microbiome plays a major role in host behavior and cognition through the microbiome-gut-brain axis. Consequently, herein, it is hypothesized that host gut microbiota may be one of the earliest phenotypes to change as wild animals were domesticated. Here, the gut microbiome community in two selected lines of red junglefowl that are selected for either high or low fear of humans up to eight generations is examined. Microbiota profiles reveal taxonomic differences in gut bacteria known to produce neuroactive compounds between the two selection lines. Gut-brain module analysis by means of genome-resolved metagenomics identifies enrichment in the microbial synthesis and degradation potential of metabolites associated with fear extinction and reduces anxiety-like behaviors in low fear fowls. In contrast, high fear fowls are enriched in gut-brain modules from the butyrate and glutamate pathways, metabolites associated with fear conditioning. Overall, the results identify differences in the composition and functional potential of the gut microbiota across selection lines that may provide insights into the mechanistic explanations of the domestication process.

RevDate: 2023-01-09

Margaryan A, Sinding MS, Carøe C, et al (2021)

The genomic origin of Zana of Abkhazia.

Advanced genetics (Hoboken, N.J.), 2(2):e10051.

Enigmatic phenomena have sparked the imagination of people around the globe into creating folkloric creatures. One prime example is Zana of Abkhazia (South Caucasus), a well-documented 19th century female who was captured living wild in the forest. Zana's appearance was sufficiently unusual, that she was referred to by locals as an Almasty-the analog of Bigfoot in the Caucasus. Although the exact location of Zana's burial site was unknown, the grave of her son, Khwit, was identified in 1971. The genomes of Khwit and the alleged Zana skeleton were sequenced to an average depth of ca. 3× using ancient DNA techniques. The identical mtDNA and parent-offspring relationship between the two indicated that the unknown woman was indeed Zana. Population genomic analyses demonstrated that Zana's immediate genetic ancestry can likely be traced to present-day East-African populations. We speculate that Zana might have had a genetic disorder such as congenital generalized hypertrichosis which could partially explain her strange behavior, lack of speech, and long body hair. Our findings elucidate Zana's unfortunate story and provide a clear example of how prejudices of the time led to notions of cryptic hominids that are still held and transmitted by some today.

RevDate: 2023-01-05
CmpDate: 2023-01-05

Wakimoto T (2023)

Biosynthesis of Bioactive Natural Products Derived from Theonellidae Family Marine Sponges.

Chemical & pharmaceutical bulletin, 71(1):1-8.

Marine sponges are among the most primitive animals and often contain unique, biologically active compounds. Several of these compounds have played an important roles as pharmaceutical leads for anti-cancer drugs, such as halichondrin B, which led to the development of an anti-breast cancer drug. Some compounds with remarkable biological activities are accumulated in significantly high concentrations in the sponge. How and why the marine sponges produce and accumulate bioactive natural products are long-standing questions with both biochemical and ecological implications, since in sponges, the animal-microbe symbioses are presumed to be responsible for the biosynthetic machinery, consisting of efficient enzymes and regulatory systems for the specific biological activities of medicinally relevant natural products. In this review, I focus on the chemically rich Theonellidae family sponges and discuss the biosynthesis of bioactive peptides and polyketides. In particular, the biosynthetic pathway of calyculin A suggests that crosstalk between the sponge host and bacterial symbiont confers a chemical defense system on the immobile animal-microbe holobiont.

RevDate: 2022-12-29

Cheng K, Tong M, Cai Z, et al (2022)

Prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbial communities associated with coral species have high host specificity in the South China Sea.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)08289-4 [Epub ahead of print].

Reef-building corals are well known for their obligate association with Symbiodiniaceae, and an array of other microbes, including bacteria, fungi, and symbiotic algae (i.e., total microbiome), which together form the coral holobiont. The total microbiome plays an intricate part in maintaining the homeostasis of the coral holobiont and is closely associated with host health. However, the composition of the coral associated microbiome and interaction between its different members remains elusive because few analyses have bridged taxonomically disparate groups. This research gaps have prevented a holistic understanding of the total microbiome. Thus, to simultaneously characterize the bacterial, fungal and symbiotic algal communities associated with different coral species, and explore the relationship between these symbionts and coral health, healthy and bleached tissues from four coral species, Acropora muricata, Galaxea fascicularis, Platygyra daedalea, and Pavona explanulata, were collected from the Xisha Islands of the South China Sea. Using high throughput sequencing, a high degree of host-specificity was observed among bacterial, fungal, and algal groups across coral species. There were no obvious changes in the microbial community structure of apparently healthy and bleached corals, but host bleaching allowed colonization of the holobionts by diverse opportunistic microbes, resulting in a significant elevation in the α-diversity of microbial communities. In addition, co-occurrence analysis of the coral microbiota also identified more complex microbial interactions in bleached corals than in healthy ones. In summary, this study characterized the structure of coral-associated microbiomes across four coral species, and systematically studied microbiome differences between healthy and bleached corals. The findings improve our understanding of the heterogeneity of symbiotic microorganisms and the impact of coral's physiological status on its associated microbial communities composition.

RevDate: 2022-12-24

Liu Y, Morelli M, Koskimäki JJ, et al (2022)

Editorial: Role of endophytic bacteria in improving plant stress resistance.

Frontiers in plant science, 13:1106701.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Nale JY, Thanki AM, Rashid SJ, et al (2022)

Diversity, Dynamics and Therapeutic Application of Clostridioides difficile Bacteriophages.

Viruses, 14(12):.

Clostridioides difficile causes antibiotic-induced diarrhoea and pseudomembranous colitis in humans and animals. Current conventional treatment relies solely on antibiotics, but C. difficile infection (CDI) cases remain persistently high with concomitant increased recurrence often due to the emergence of antibiotic-resistant strains. Antibiotics used in treatment also induce gut microbial imbalance; therefore, novel therapeutics with improved target specificity are being investigated. Bacteriophages (phages) kill bacteria with precision, hence are alternative therapeutics for the targeted eradication of the pathogen. Here, we review current progress in C. difficile phage research. We discuss tested strategies of isolating C. difficile phages directly, and via enrichment methods from various sample types and through antibiotic induction to mediate prophage release. We also summarise phenotypic phage data that reveal their morphological, genetic diversity, and various ways they impact their host physiology and pathogenicity during infection and lysogeny. Furthermore, we describe the therapeutic development of phages through efficacy testing in different in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo infection models. We also discuss genetic modification of phages to prevent horizontal gene transfer and improve lysis efficacy and formulation to enhance stability and delivery of the phages. The goal of this review is to provide a more in-depth understanding of C. difficile phages and theoretical and practical knowledge on pre-clinical, therapeutic evaluation of the safety and effectiveness of phage therapy for CDI.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Ramos Meyers G, Samouda H, T Bohn (2022)

Short Chain Fatty Acid Metabolism in Relation to Gut Microbiota and Genetic Variability.

Nutrients, 14(24):.

It is widely accepted that the gut microbiota plays a significant role in modulating inflammatory and immune responses of their host. In recent years, the host-microbiota interface has gained relevance in understanding the development of many non-communicable chronic conditions, including cardiovascular disease, cancer, autoimmunity and neurodegeneration. Importantly, dietary fibre (DF) and associated compounds digested by the microbiota and their resulting metabolites, especially short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), were significantly associated with health beneficial effects, such as via proposed anti-inflammatory mechanisms. However, SCFA metabolic pathways are not fully understood. Major steps include production of SCFA by microbiota, uptake in the colonic epithelium, first-pass effects at the liver, followed by biodistribution and metabolism at the host's cellular level. As dietary patterns do not affect all individuals equally, the host genetic makeup may play a role in the metabolic fate of these metabolites, in addition to other factors that might influence the microbiota, such as age, birth through caesarean, medication intake, alcohol and tobacco consumption, pathogen exposure and physical activity. In this article, we review the metabolic pathways of DF, from intake to the intracellular metabolism of fibre-derived products, and identify possible sources of inter-individual variability related to genetic variation. Such variability may be indicative of the phenotypic flexibility in response to diet, and may be predictive of long-term adaptations to dietary factors, including maladaptation and tissue damage, which may develop into disease in individuals with specific predispositions, thus allowing for a better prediction of potential health effects following personalized intervention with DF.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Rhimi S, Kriaa A, Mariaule V, et al (2022)

The Nexus of Diet, Gut Microbiota and Inflammatory Bowel Diseases in Dogs.

Metabolites, 12(12):.

Canine inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are of increasing interest in veterinary medicine. They refer to complex and debilitating conditions of dogs' gastrointestinal tract. Although little evidence for causal inferences is currently available, it is believed that IBD pathophysiology entails intricate interactions between environmental factors, the intestinal immune system, and the microbial communities that colonize the gut. To better understand the mechanisms underlying these disorders, leveraging factors associated with the development of these diseases is imperative. Of these factors, emerging evidence supports the role of dietary patterns as key players influencing the composition and function of gut microbes, with subsequent effects on health and disease. In this review, we particularly focus on addressing IBD in dogs and discuss how specific nutrients may elicit or relieve gut inflammation. Gaining mechanistic insights into such interplay and the underpinning mechanisms is key to inferring dietary recommendations, and setting up new and promising therapeutics.

RevDate: 2022-12-23

Schulz M, Schmitt I, Weber D, et al (2022)

Fungal Host Affects Photosynthesis in a Lichen Holobiont.

Journal of fungi (Basel, Switzerland), 8(12):.

Corals and lichens are iconic examples of photosynthetic holobionts, i.e., ecological and evolutionary units resulting from the tightly integrated association of algae and prokaryotic microbiota with animal or fungal hosts, respectively. While the role of the coral host in modulating photosynthesis has been clarified to a large extent in coral holobionts, the role of the fungal host in this regard is far less understood. Here, we address this question by taking advantage of the recent discovery of highly specific fungal-algal pairings corresponding to climatically adapted ecotypes of the lichen-forming genus Umbilicaria. Specifically, we compared chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics among lichen thalli consisting of different fungal-algal combinations. We show that photosynthetic performance in these lichens is not only driven by algal genotype, but also by fungal host species identity and intra-host genotype. These findings shed new light on the closely intertwined physiological processes of fungal and algal partners in the lichen symbiosis. Indeed, the specific combinations of fungal and algal genotypes within a lichen individual-and the resulting combined functional phenotype-can be regarded as a response to the environment. Our findings suggest that characterizing the genetic composition of both eukaryotic partners is an important complimentary step to understand and predict the lichen holobiont's responses to environmental change.

RevDate: 2022-12-22

Fontaine SS, KD Kohl (2022)

The microbiome buffers tadpole hosts from heat stress: a hologenomic approach to understand host-microbe interactions under warming.

The Journal of experimental biology pii:286161 [Epub ahead of print].

Phenotypic plasticity is an important strategy that animals employ to respond and adjust to changes in their environment. Plasticity may occur via changes in host gene expression or through functional changes in their microbiomes, which contribute substantially to host physiology. Specifically, the presence and function of host-associated microbes can impact how animals respond to heat stress. We previously demonstrated that "depleted" tadpoles, with artificially disrupted microbiomes, are less tolerant to heat than "colonized" tadpoles, with more natural microbiomes. However, the mechanisms behind these effects are unclear. Here, we compare gene expression profiles of the tadpole gut transcriptome, and tadpole gut microbial metagenome, between colonized and depleted tadpoles under cool or warm conditions. Our goal was to identify differences in host and microbial responses to heat between colonized and depleted tadpoles that might explain their observed differences in heat tolerance. We found that depleted tadpoles exhibited a much stronger degree of host gene expression plasticity in response to heat, while the microbiome of colonized tadpoles was significantly more heat sensitive. These patterns indicate that functional changes in the microbiome in response to heat may allow for a dampened host response, ultimately buffering hosts from the deleterious effects of heat stress. We also identified several specific host and microbial pathways that could be contributing to increased thermal tolerance in colonized tadpoles including amino acid metabolism, vitamin biosynthesis, and ROS scavenging pathways. Our results demonstrate that the microbiome influences host plasticity and the response of hosts to environmental stressors.

RevDate: 2022-12-22

Chen L, Li Z, Wu B, et al (2022)

Progressive evolution of secondary aquatic adaptation in hippos and cetaceans.

Cell discovery, 8(1):134.

RevDate: 2022-12-20

Espino-Vázquez AN, Córdova-López G, Cabrera-Rangel JF, et al (2023)

The Rhizopus Holobiont: A Model to Decipher Fungal-Bacterial-Viral Symbioses.

Methods in molecular biology (Clifton, N.J.), 2610:137-147.

Rhizopus microsporus is an early-diverging fungal species that inhabits the soil, is used for the fermentation of diverse Asian and African foods, and can be a pathogen of plants, animals, and humans.Toxin-producing strains of R. microsporus live in symbiosis with Gram-negative betaproteobacteria from the genus Mycetohabitans (Burkholderia sensu lato). These bacterial endosymbionts increase the metabolic plasticity of the fungal holobiont by producing the "mycotoxins," control their asexual reproduction, and influence their sexual success. Recently, we identified two viruses of the genus Narnavirus in some R. microsporus strains that harbor Mycetohabitans. By eliminating bacteria and/or viruses from host R. microsporus strains, we have been able to study the role of these symbionts in fungal biology. Remarkably, the absence of these bacterial and viral symbionts decreases sexual reproduction. In this chapter, the method developed to eliminate and genotype the Narnavirus RmNV-20S and RmNV-23S in R. microsporus is described in detail.

RevDate: 2022-12-15
CmpDate: 2022-12-15

Sangiorgio D, Cellini A, Donati I, et al (2022)

Taxonomical and functional composition of strawberry microbiome is genotype-dependent.

Journal of advanced research, 42:189-204.

INTRODUCTION: Specific microbial communities are associated to host plants, influencing their phenotype and fitness.Despite the rising interest in plant microbiome, the role of microbial communities associated with perennial fruit plants remains overlooked.

OBJECTIVES: This work provides the first comprehensive descriptionof the taxonomical and functional bacterial and fungal microbiota of below- and above-ground organsof three commercially important strawberry genotypes under cultural conditions.

METHODS: Strawberry-associatedfungal and bacterial microbiomes were characterised by Next-Generation Sequencing and the potential functions expressed by the bacterial microbiome were analysed by both in silico and in vitro characterisation of plant growth-promoting abilities of native bacteria. Additionally, the association between the strawberry microbiome, plant disease tolerance, plant mineral nutrient content, and fruit quality was investigated.

RESULTS: Results showed that thestrawberry core microbiome included 24 bacteria and 15 fungal operational taxonomicunits (OTUs).However, plant organ and genotype had a significant role in determining the taxonomical and functional composition of microbial communities. Interestingly, the cultivar with the highesttolerance against powdery mildew and leaf spot and the highest fruit productivity was the only one able to ubiquitously recruit the beneficial bacterium, Pseudomonasfluorescens, and to establish a mutualistic symbiosis with the arbuscular mycorrhizaRhizophagus irregularis.

CONCLUSION: This work sheds light on the interaction of cultivated strawberry genotypes with a variety of microbes and highlights the importance of their applications to increase the sustainability of fruit crop production.

RevDate: 2022-12-13

Biggs E, Taylor MW, DMRL Middleton (2022)

Beyond the theory: from holobiont concept to microbiome engineering.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

Holobiont research has increasingly moved from descriptive studies to sophisticated field- and laboratory-based manipulations, however the extent to which changes in the holobiont persist remains largely unknown. In this Burning Question, we ask whether the underlying principles of the holobiont concept, whereby an externally applied evolutionary pressure can lead to a beneficial change in host-associated microbial community composition, could be used to facilitate microbiome engineering and thereby addition of a new ecosystem service that persists across generations. The answer to this question has potential implications for diverse fields including symbiosis, conservation and biotechnology.

RevDate: 2022-12-12

Liberman R, Benayahu Y, D Huchon (2022)

Octocorals in the Gulf of Aqaba exhibit high photosymbiont fidelity.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1005471.

Symbiotic associations, widespread in terrestrial and marine ecosystems, are of considerable ecological importance. Many tropical coral species are holobionts, formed by the obligate association between a cnidarian host and endosymbiotic dinoflagellates of the family Symbiodiniaceae. The latter are abundant on coral reefs from very shallow water down to the upper mesophotic zone (30-70 m). The research on scleractinians has revealed that the photosymbiont lineages present in the cnidarian host play an important role in the coral's ability to thrive under different environmental conditions, such as light regime and temperature. However, little is known regarding octocoral photosymbionts, and in particular regarding those found deeper than 30 m. Here, we used ribosomal (ITS2) and chloroplast (23S) markers to uncover, for the first time, the dominant Symbiodiniaceae taxa present in 19 mesophotic octocoral species (30-70 m depth) from the Gulf of Aqaba/Eilat (northern Red Sea). In addition, using high-throughput sequencing of the ITS2 region we characterized both the dominant and the rare Symbiodiniaceae lineages found in several species across depth. The phylogenetic analyses of both markers were in agreement and revealed that most of the studied mesophotic octocorals host the genus Cladocopium. Litophyton spp. and Klyxum utinomii were exceptions, as they harbored Symbiodinium and Durusdinium photosymbionts, respectively. While the dominant algal lineage of each coral species did not vary across depth, the endosymbiont community structure significantly differed between host species, as well as between different depths for some host species. The findings from this study contribute to the growing global-catalogue of Cnidaria-Symbiodiniaceae associations. Unravelling the Symbiodiniaceae composition in octocoral holobionts across environmental gradients, depth in particular, may enable a better understanding of how specialized those associations are, and to what extent coral holobionts are able to modify their photosymbionts.

RevDate: 2022-12-12

Hodžić A, Dheilly NM, Cabezas-Cruz A, et al (2022)

The helminth holobiont: a multidimensional host-parasite-microbiota interaction.

Trends in parasitology pii:S1471-4922(22)00285-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Gastrointestinal helminths have developed multiple mechanisms by which they manipulate the host microbiome to make a favorable environment for their long-term survival. While the impact of helminth infections on vertebrate host immunity and its gut microbiota is relatively well studied, little is known about the structure and functioning of microbial populations supported by metazoan parasites. Here we argue that an integrated understanding of the helminth-associated microbiome and its role in the host disease pathogenesis may facilitate the discovery of specific microbial and/or genetic patterns critical for parasite biology and subsequently pave the way for the development of alternative control strategies against parasites and parasitic disease.

RevDate: 2022-12-10

Zhu Z, Liu Y, Hu H, et al (2022)

Nasonia-microbiome associations: a model for evolutionary hologenomics research.

Trends in parasitology pii:S1471-4922(22)00278-1 [Epub ahead of print].

In recent years, with the development of microbial research technologies, microbiota research has received widespread attention. The parasitoid wasp genus Nasonia is a good model organism for studying insect behavior, development, evolutionary genetics, speciation, and symbiosis. This review describes key advances and progress in the field of the Nasonia microbiome interactions. We provide an overview of the advantages of Nasonia as a model organism for microbiome studies, list research methods to study the Nasonia microbiome, and discuss recent discoveries in Nasonia microbiome research. This summary of the complexities of Nasonia-microbiome relationships will help to contribute to a better understanding of the interactions between animals and their microbiomes and establish a clear research direction for Nasonia-microbiome interactions in the future.

RevDate: 2022-12-10

Gruet C, Abrouk D, Börner A, et al (2022)

Wheat genome architecture influences interactions with phytobeneficial microbial functional groups in the rhizosphere.

Plant, cell & environment [Epub ahead of print].

Wheat has undergone a complex evolutionary history, which led to allopolyploidization and the hexaploid bread wheat Triticum aestivum. However, the significance of wheat genomic architecture for beneficial plant-microbe interactions is poorly understood, especially from a functional standpoint. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that wheat genomic architecture was an overriding factor determining root recruitment of microorganisms with particular plant-beneficial traits. We chose five wheat species representing genomic profiles AA (Triticum urartu), BB {SS} (Aegilops speltoides), DD (Aegilops tauschii), AABB (Triticum dicoccon) and AABBDD (Triticum aestivum) and assessed by qPCR their ability to interact with free-nitrogen fixers, 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate deaminase producers, 2,4-diacetylphloroglucinol producers and auxin producers via the phenylpyruvate decarboxylase pathway, in combination with Illumina MiSeq metabarcoding analysis of N fixers (and of the total bacterial community). We found that the abundance of the microbial functional groups could fluctuate according to wheat genomic profile, as did the total bacterial abundance. N fixer diversity and total bacterial diversity were also influenced significantly by wheat genomic profile. Often, rather similar results were obtained for genomes DD (Ae. tauschii) and AABBDD (T. aestivum), pointing for the first time that the D genome could be particularly important for wheat-bacteria interactions. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-12-09

Zhang X, Ma YN, Wang X, et al (2022)

Dynamics of rice microbiomes reveal core vertically transmitted seed endophytes.

Microbiome, 10(1):216.

BACKGROUND: Plants and their associated microbiota constitute an assemblage of species known as holobionts. The plant seed microbiome plays an important role in nutrient uptake and stress attenuation. However, the core vertically transmitted endophytes remain largely unexplored.

RESULTS: To gain valuable insights into the vertical transmission of rice seed core endophytes, we conducted a large-scale analysis of the microbiomes of two generations of six different rice varieties from five microhabitats (bulk soil, rhizosphere, root, stem, and seed) from four geographic locations. We showed that the microhabitat rather than the geographic location and rice variety was the primary driver of the rice microbiome assemblage. The diversity and network complexity of the rice-associated microbiome decreased steadily from far to near the roots, rice exterior to interior, and from belowground to aboveground niches. Remarkably, the microbiomes of the roots, stems, and seeds of the rice interior compartments were not greatly influenced by the external environment. The core bacterial endophytes of rice were primarily comprised of 14 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs), 10 of which, especially ASV_2 (Pantoea) and ASV_48 (Xanthomonas), were identified as potentially vertically transmitted taxa because they existed across generations, were rarely present in exterior rice microhabitats, and were frequently isolated from rice seeds. The genome sequences of Pantoea and Xanthomonas isolated from the parental and offspring seeds showed a high degree of average nucleotide and core protein identity, indicating vertical transmission of seed endophytes across generations. In silico prediction indicated that the seed endophytes Pantoea and Xanthomonas possessed streamlined genomes with short lengths, low-complexity metabolism, and various plant growth-promoting traits. We also found that all strains of Pantoea and Xanthomonas exhibited cellulase activity and produced indole-3-acetic acid. However, most strains exhibited insignificant antagonism to the major pathogens of rice, such as Magnaporthe oryzae and X. oryzae pv. oryzae.

CONCLUSION: Overall, our study revealed that microhabitats, rather than site-specific environmental factors or host varieties, shape the rice microbiome. We discovered the vertically transmitted profiles and keystone taxa of the rice microbiome, which led to the isolation of culturable seed endophytes and investigation of their potential roles in plant-microbiome interactions. Our results provide insights on vertically transmitted microbiota and suggest new avenues for improving plant fitness via the manipulation of seed-associated microbiomes.  Video Abstract.

RevDate: 2022-12-09

Nguyen BT, Dumack K, Trivedi P, et al (2022)

Plant associated protists - untapped promising candidates for agrifood tools.

Environmental microbiology [Epub ahead of print].

The importance of host-associated microorganisms and their biotic interactions for plant health and performance has been increasingly acknowledged. Protists, main predators and regulators of bacteria and fungi, are abundant and ubiquitous eukaryotes in terrestrial ecosystems. Protists are considered to benefit plant health and performance, but the community structure and functions of plant-associated protists remain surprisingly underexplored. Harnessing plant-associated protists and other microbes can potentially enhance plant health and productivity and sustain healthy food and agriculture systems. In this review, we summarize the knowledge of multifunctionality of protists and their interactions with other microbes in plant hosts, and propose a future framework to study plant-associated protists and utilize protists as agrifood tools for benefiting agricultural production. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

RevDate: 2022-12-08

Jochum M, Lee MD, Curry K, et al (2022)

Analysis of bronchoalveolar lavage fluid metatranscriptomes among patients with COVID-19 disease.

Scientific reports, 12(1):21125.

To better understand the potential relationship between COVID-19 disease and hologenome microbial community dynamics and functional profiles, we conducted a multivariate taxonomic and functional microbiome comparison of publicly available human bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) metatranscriptome samples amongst COVID-19 (n = 32), community acquired pneumonia (CAP) (n = 25), and uninfected samples (n = 29). We then performed a stratified analysis based on mortality amongst the COVID-19 cohort with known outcomes of deceased (n = 10) versus survived (n = 15). Our overarching hypothesis was that there are detectable and functionally significant relationships between BALF microbial metatranscriptomes and the severity of COVID-19 disease onset and progression. We observed 34 functionally discriminant gene ontology (GO) terms in COVID-19 disease compared to the CAP and uninfected cohorts, and 21 GO terms functionally discriminant to COVID-19 mortality (q < 0.05). GO terms enriched in the COVID-19 disease cohort included hydrolase activity, and significant GO terms under the parental terms of biological regulation, viral process, and interspecies interaction between organisms. Notable GO terms associated with COVID-19 mortality included nucleobase-containing compound biosynthetic process, organonitrogen compound catabolic process, pyrimidine-containing compound biosynthetic process, and DNA recombination, RNA binding, magnesium and zinc ion binding, oxidoreductase activity, and endopeptidase activity. A Dirichlet multinomial mixtures clustering analysis resulted in a best model fit using three distinct clusters that were significantly associated with COVID-19 disease and mortality. We additionally observed discriminant taxonomic differences associated with COVID-19 disease and mortality in the genus Sphingomonas, belonging to the Sphingomonadacae family, Variovorax, belonging to the Comamonadaceae family, and in the class Bacteroidia, belonging to the order Bacteroidales. To our knowledge, this is the first study to evaluate significant differences in taxonomic and functional signatures between BALF metatranscriptomes from COVID-19, CAP, and uninfected cohorts, as well as associating these taxa and microbial gene functions with COVID-19 mortality. Collectively, while this data does not speak to causality nor directionality of the association, it does demonstrate a significant relationship between the human microbiome and COVID-19. The results from this study have rendered testable hypotheses that warrant further investigation to better understand the causality and directionality of host-microbiome-pathogen interactions.

RevDate: 2022-12-07
CmpDate: 2022-12-07

Wang HY, Kang CZ, Wang YF, et al (2022)

[Medicinal plant microbiome: advances and prospects].

Zhongguo Zhong yao za zhi = Zhongguo zhongyao zazhi = China journal of Chinese materia medica, 47(20):5397-5405.

Medicinal plants are the main source of clinical medication in traditional Chinese medicine(TCM). China has achieved large-scale cultivation and production of medicinal plants. As an important resource for the sustainable development of agriculture in the future, microorganisms can also promote the green, ecological and high-quality development of Chinese medicine agriculture. However, research on the medicinal plant microbiome is still limited. Therefore, based on the development timeline of microbiome research, the present study reviewed the origin, technology, and hotspots of microbiome research and proposed some suggestions for future research according to the advances in medicinal plant microbiome.(1)Systematic investigation of medicinal plant microbiome on the species, genus, and family levels should be carried out on the medicinal plants of different chemotypes in order to reveal the coevolution of the microorganisms and their host plants.(2)Spatial and temporal research on medicinal plant microbiome should be performed to reveal the effects of microorganisms on the growth, development, and secondary metabolite accumulation of medicinal plants, as well as the underlying mechanisms.(3)Model medicinal plant species should be selected and microorganism-plant interaction research models should be established.(4)Core microbiome of medicinal plants should be explored for the future application of crucial microbes in the sustaina-ble agriculture of Chinese medicine.(5)Breeding of medicinal plant-associated microbes should be carried out to lay the foundation for novel medicinal plant breeding strategies.(6)High-throughput sequencing, traditional incubation, and isolation of microbes should be combined to study medicinal plant microbiome, thereby promoting the exploitation and application of uncultured microbial strains.(7)Platforms for the preservation of medicinal plant-associated microbe strains and data of their metabolites should be established and the exchange of information and cooperation between these platforms should be subsequently enhanced. With these suggestions, the efficient and rapid development of medicinal plant microbiome research is expected to be promoted.

RevDate: 2022-12-04

Kalra R, Conlan XA, M Goel (2022)

Recent advances in research for potential utilization of unexplored lichen metabolites.

Biotechnology advances pii:S0734-9750(22)00168-9 [Epub ahead of print].

Several research studies have shown that lichens are productive organisms for the synthesis of a broad range of secondary metabolites. Lichens are a self-sustainable stable microbial ecosystem comprising an exhabitant fungal partner (mycobiont) and at least one or more photosynthetic partners (photobiont). The successful symbiosis is responsible for their persistence throughout time and allows all the partners (holobionts) to thrive in many extreme habitats, where without the synergistic relationship they would be rare or non-existent. The ability to survive in harsh conditions can be directly correlated with the production of some unique metabolites. Despite the potential applications, these unique metabolites have been underutilised by pharmaceutical and agrochemical industries due to their slow growth, low biomass availability and technical challenges involved in their artificial cultivation. However, recent development of biotechnological tools such as molecular phylogenetics, modern tissue culture techniques, metabolomics and molecular engineering are opening up a new opportunity to exploit these compounds within the lichen holobiome for industrial applications. This review also highlights the recent advances in culturing the symbionts and the computational and molecular genetics approaches of lichen gene regulation recognized for the enhanced production of target metabolites. The recent development of multi-omics novel biodiscovery strategies aided by synthetic biology in order to study the heterologous expressed lichen-derived biosynthetic gene clusters in a cultivatable host offers a promising means for a sustainable supply of specialized metabolites.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Sylvain FÉ, Leroux N, Normandeau É, et al (2022)

Genomic and Environmental Factors Shape the Active Gill Bacterial Community of an Amazonian Teleost Holobiont.

Microbiology spectrum [Epub ahead of print].

Fish bacterial communities provide functions critical for their host's survival in contrasting environments. These communities are sensitive to environmental-specific factors (i.e., physicochemical parameters, bacterioplankton), and host-specific factors (i.e., host genetic background). The relative contribution of these factors shaping Amazonian fish bacterial communities is largely unknown. Here, we investigated this topic by analyzing the gill bacterial communities of 240 wild flag cichlids (Mesonauta festivus) from 4 different populations (genetic clusters) distributed across 12 sites in 2 contrasting water types (ion-poor/acidic black water and ion-rich/circumneutral white water). Transcriptionally active gill bacterial communities were characterized by a 16S rRNA metabarcoding approach carried on RNA extractions. They were analyzed using comprehensive data sets from the hosts genetic background (Genotyping-By-Sequencing), the bacterioplankton (16S rRNA) and a set of 34 environmental parameters. Results show that the taxonomic structure of 16S rRNA gene transcripts libraries were significantly different between the 4 genetic clusters and also between the 2 water types. However, results suggest that the contribution of the host's genetic background was relatively weak in comparison to the environment-related factors in structuring the relative abundance of different active gill bacteria species. This finding was also confirmed by a mixed-effects modeling analysis, which indicated that the dissimilarity between the taxonomic structure of bacterioplanktonic communities possessed the best explicative power regarding the dissimilarity between gill bacterial communities' structure, while pairwise fixation indexes (FST) from the hosts' genetic data only had a weak explicative power. We discuss these results in terms of bacterial community assembly processes and flag cichlid fish ecology. IMPORTANCE Host-associated microbial communities respond to factors specific to the host physiology, genetic backgrounds, and life history. However, these communities also show different degrees of sensitivity to environment-dependent factors, such as abiotic physico-chemical parameters and ecological interactions. The relative importance of host- versus environment-associated factors in shaping teleost bacterial communities is still understudied and is paramount for their conservation and aquaculture. Here, we studied the relative importance of host- and environment-associated factors structuring teleost bacterial communities using gill samples from a wild Amazonian teleost model (Mesonauta festivus) sampled in contrasting habitats along a 1500 km section of the Amazonian basin, thus ensuring high genetic diversity. Results showed that the contribution of the host's genetic background was weak compared to environment-related bacterioplanktonic communities in shaping gill bacterial assemblages, thereby suggesting that our understanding of teleost microbiome assembly could benefit from further studies focused on the ecological interplay between host-associated and free-living communities.

RevDate: 2022-11-26

Travesso M, Missionário M, Cruz S, et al (2022)

Combined effect of marine heatwaves and light intensity on the cellular stress response and photophysiology of the leather coral Sarcophyton cf. glaucum.

The Science of the total environment pii:S0048-9697(22)07562-3 [Epub ahead of print].

Marine heatwaves (MHW) are threatening tropical coral reef ecosystems, leading to mass bleaching events worldwide. The combination of heat stress with high irradiance is known to shape the health and redox status of corals, but research is biased toward scleractinian corals, while much less is known on tropical symbiotic soft corals. Here, we evaluated the cellular stress response and the photophysiological performance of the soft coral Sarcophyton cf. glaucum, popularly termed as leather coral, under different global change scenarios. Corals were exposed to different light intensities (high light, low light, ∼662 and 253 μmol photons m[-2] s[-1]) for 30 days (time-point 1) and a subsequent MHW simulation was carried out for 10 days (control 26 vs 32 °C) (time-point 2). Subsequently, corals were returned to control temperature and allowed to recover for 30 days (time-point 3). Photophysiological performance (maximum quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm), a measure of photosynthetic activity; dark-level fluorescence (F0), as a proxy of chlorophyll a content (Chl a); and zooxanthellae density) and stress biomarkers (total protein, antioxidants, lipid peroxidation, ubiquitin, and heat shock protein 70) were assessed in corals at these three time-points. Corals were especially sensitive to the combination of heat and high light stress, experiencing a decrease in their photosynthetic efficiency under these conditions. Heat stress resulted in bleaching via zooxanthellae loss while high light stress led to pigment (Chl a) loss. This species' antioxidant defenses, and protein degradation were particularly enhanced under heat stress. A recovery was clear for molecular parameters after 30 days of recovery, whereby photophysiological performance required more time to return to basal levels. We conclude that soft corals distributed along intertidal areas, where the light intensity is high, could be especially vulnerable to marine heatwave events, highlighting the need to direct conservation efforts toward these organisms.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Schaack B, Hindré T, Quansah N, et al (2022)

Microbiota-Derived Extracellular Vesicles Detected in Human Blood from Healthy Donors.

International journal of molecular sciences, 23(22): pii:ijms232213787.

The microbiota constitutes an important part of the holobiont in which extracellular vesicles (EVs) are key players in health, especially regarding inter- and intra-kingdom communications. Analysis of EVs from the red blood cell concentrates of healthy donors revealed variable amounts of OmpA and LPS in 12 of the 14 analyzed samples, providing indirect experimental evidence of the presence of microbiota EVs in human circulating blood in the absence of barrier disruption. To investigate the role of these microbiota EVs, we tracked the fusion of fluorescent Escherichia coli EVs with blood mononuclear cells and showed that, in the circulating blood, these EVs interacted almost exclusively with monocytes. This study demonstrates that bacterial EVs constitute critical elements of the host-microbiota cellular communication. The analysis of bacterial EVs should thus be systematically included in any characterization of human EVs.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Sampson TR (2022)

Introduction: Unraveling the complex contributions of indigenous microbes to neurological health and disease.

International review of neurobiology, 167:xi-xvi.

The complex interactions between the human body and its indigenous microbes have come into focus as key mediators of neurological health. With both established and emerging association studies, alterations to the gut microbiome are observed to co-occur with many neurological diseases. Whether these associations are due to microbiome-mediated contributions to human health or an effect of the neurological disease itself is largely unknown across conditions. Here, we have collected contributions from a broad group of experts that highlight gut microbiome impacts across numerous neurological conditions. Ranging from neurodevelopmental disorders, to Parkinson's disease, Alzheimer's disease, epilepsy, traumatic injury, and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, among others, we hope to provide a clearer picture of how our indigenous microbes impact neurological health. The study of these indigenous microbes will continue to reveal critical mechanisms that may 1 day be exploited for therapeutic benefits against these recalcitrant diseases.

RevDate: 2022-11-29
CmpDate: 2022-11-29

Payami H (2022)

The many genomes of Parkinson's disease.

International review of neurobiology, 167:59-80.

Genetic component of Parkinson's disease, once firmly believed non-existent, involves the human genome, mitochondrial genome, and the microbiome. Understanding the genomics of PD requires identification of PD-relevant genes and learning how they interact within the hologenome and with their environment. This chapter is an evidence-based perspective of a geneticist on how far we have come in this endeavor. The contemporary scientific society started with a naive and simplistic view of PD, evolved to accept that Parkinson's disease is probably the most complex disease there is, the progress we have made in discovering the genes and elucidating their functions, and now assembling the parts to create the whole.

RevDate: 2022-11-28
CmpDate: 2022-11-28

Thuesen NH, Klausen MS, Gopalakrishnan S, et al (2022)

Benchmarking freely available HLA typing algorithms across varying genes, coverages and typing resolutions.

Frontiers in immunology, 13:987655.

Identifying the specific human leukocyte antigen (HLA) allele combination of an individual is crucial in organ donation, risk assessment of autoimmune and infectious diseases and cancer immunotherapy. However, due to the high genetic polymorphism in this region, HLA typing requires specialized methods. We investigated the performance of five next-generation sequencing (NGS) based HLA typing tools with a non-restricted license namely HLA*LA, Optitype, HISAT-genotype, Kourami and STC-Seq. This evaluation was done for the five HLA loci, HLA-A, -B, -C, -DRB1 and -DQB1 using whole-exome sequencing (WES) samples from 829 individuals. The robustness of the tools to lower depth of coverage (DOC) was evaluated by subsampling and HLA typing 230 WES samples at DOC ranging from 1X to 100X. The HLA typing accuracy was measured across four typing resolutions. Among these, we present two clinically-relevant typing resolutions (P group and pseudo-sequence), which specifically focus on the peptide binding region. On average, across the five HLA loci examined, HLA*LA was found to have the highest typing accuracy. For the individual loci, HLA-A, -B and -C, Optitype's typing accuracy was the highest and HLA*LA had the highest typing accuracy for HLA-DRB1 and -DQB1. The tools' robustness to lower DOC data varied widely and further depended on the specific HLA locus. For all Class I loci, Optitype had a typing accuracy above 95% (according to the modification of the amino acids in the functionally relevant portion of the HLA molecule) at 50X, but increasing the DOC beyond even 100X could still improve the typing accuracy of HISAT-genotype, Kourami, and STC-seq across all five HLA loci as well as HLA*LA's typing accuracy for HLA-DQB1. HLA typing is also used in studies of ancient DNA (aDNA), which is often based on sequencing data with lower quality and DOC. Interestingly, we found that Optitype's typing accuracy is not notably impaired by short read length or by DNA damage, which is typical of aDNA, as long as the DOC is sufficiently high.

RevDate: 2022-11-26

Zhu W, Zhu M, Liu X, et al (2022)

Adaptive changes of coral Galaxea fascicularis holobiont in response to nearshore stress.

Frontiers in microbiology, 13:1052776.

Global change and local stressors are simultaneously affecting the nearshore corals, and microbiome flexibility may assist corals in thriving under such multiple stressors. Here, we investigated the effects of various environmental variables on Galaxea fascicularis holobiont from nearshore and offshore reefs. These nearshore reefs were more turbid, eutrophic, and warm than offshore reefs. However, coral physiological parameters did not differ significantly. Corals under stressful nearshore environments had low symbiont diversity and selected more tolerant Symbiodiniaceae. The bacterial diversity of offshore corals was significantly higher, and their community composition varied obviously. Diffusion limitations and environmental heterogeneity were essential in structuring microbial communities. Functional annotation analysis demonstrated significant differences between nearshore and offshore corals in bacterial functional groups. Environmental stress significantly reduced the complexity and connectivity of bacterial networks, and the abundances of keystone taxa altered considerably. These results indicated that corals could thrive nearshore through holobiont plasticity to cope with multiple environmental stresses.

RevDate: 2022-11-29

Duval C, Marie B, Foucault P, et al (2022)

Establishment of the Bacterial Microbiota in a Lab-Reared Model Teleost Fish, the Medaka Oryzias latipes.

Microorganisms, 10(11):.

Oryzias latipes is an important model organism for physiology, genetics, and developmental studies, and has also emerged as a relevant vertebrate model for aquatic ecotoxicology. Knowledge regarding its associated microbiota on the other hand is still scarce and limited to adults, despite the relevance of the associated microbiome to the host's biology. This study provides the first insights into the establishment of bacterial microbiota during early developmental stages of laboratory-reared medaka using a 16S-rRNA-sequencing-based approach. Major shifts in community compositions are observed, from a Proteobacteria-dominated community in larvae and juveniles to a more phylum-diverse community towards adulthood, with no obvious difference between female and male specimens. Major bacterial taxa found in adults, including genera Cetobacterium and ZOR0006, establish progressively and are rare during early stages. Dominance shifts are comparable to those documented in another major model teleost, the zebrafish. Results from this study provide a basis for future work investigating the influence of medaka-associated bacteria during host development.

RevDate: 2022-11-23

Fujiwara F, Miyazawa K, Nihei N, et al (2022)

Agroecosystem Engineering Extended from Plant-Microbe Interactions Revealed by Multi-Omics Data.

Bioscience, biotechnology, and biochemistry pii:6843571 [Epub ahead of print].

In an agroecosystem, plants and microbes coexist and interact with environmental factors such as climate, soil, and pests. However, agricultural practices that depend on chemical fertilizers, pesticides, and frequent tillage often disrupt the beneficial interactions in the agroecosystem. To reconcile the improvement of crop performance and reduction in environmental impacts in agriculture, we need to understand the functions of the complex interactions and develop an agricultural system that can maximize the potential benefits of the agroecosystem. Therefore, we are developing a system called the agroecosystem engineering system, which aims to optimize the interactions between crops, microbes, and environmental factors, using multi-omics analysis. This review first summarizes the progress and examples of omics approaches, including multi-omics analysis, to reveal complex interactions in the agroecosystem. The latter half of this review discusses the prospects of data analysis approaches in the agroecosystem engineering system, including causal network analysis and predictive modeling.

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RJR Experience and Expertise

Researcher

Robbins holds BS, MS, and PhD degrees in the life sciences. He served as a tenured faculty member in the Zoology and Biological Science departments at Michigan State University. He is currently exploring the intersection between genomics, microbial ecology, and biodiversity — an area that promises to transform our understanding of the biosphere.

Educator

Robbins has extensive experience in college-level education: At MSU he taught introductory biology, genetics, and population genetics. At JHU, he was an instructor for a special course on biological database design. At FHCRC, he team-taught a graduate-level course on the history of genetics. At Bellevue College he taught medical informatics.

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Robbins has been involved in science administration at both the federal and the institutional levels. At NSF he was a program officer for database activities in the life sciences, at DOE he was a program officer for information infrastructure in the human genome project. At the Fred Hutchinson Cancer Research Center, he served as a vice president for fifteen years.

Technologist

Robbins has been involved with information technology since writing his first Fortran program as a college student. At NSF he was the first program officer for database activities in the life sciences. At JHU he held an appointment in the CS department and served as director of the informatics core for the Genome Data Base. At the FHCRC he was VP for Information Technology.

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While still at Michigan State, Robbins started his first publishing venture, founding a small company that addressed the short-run publishing needs of instructors in very large undergraduate classes. For more than 20 years, Robbins has been operating The Electronic Scholarly Publishing Project, a web site dedicated to the digital publishing of critical works in science, especially classical genetics.

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Robbins is well-known for his speaking abilities and is often called upon to provide keynote or plenary addresses at international meetings. For example, in July, 2012, he gave a well-received keynote address at the Global Biodiversity Informatics Congress, sponsored by GBIF and held in Copenhagen. The slides from that talk can be seen HERE.

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Robbins is a skilled meeting facilitator. He prefers a participatory approach, with part of the meeting involving dynamic breakout groups, created by the participants in real time: (1) individuals propose breakout groups; (2) everyone signs up for one (or more) groups; (3) the groups with the most interested parties then meet, with reports from each group presented and discussed in a subsequent plenary session.

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Robbins has been engaged with photography and design since the 1960s, when he worked for a professional photography laboratory. He now prefers digital photography and tools for their precision and reproducibility. He designed his first web site more than 20 years ago and he personally designed and implemented this web site. He engages in graphic design as a hobby.

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This book examines how the growing knowledge of the huge range of animal-bacterial interactions, whether in shared ecosystems or intimate symbioses, is fundamentally altering our understanding of animal biology. Individuals from simple invertebrates to human are not solitary, homogenous entities but consist of complex communities of many species that likely evolved during a billion years of coexistence. Defining the individual microbe-host conversations in these consortia, is a challenging but necessary step on the path to understanding the function of the associations as a whole. The hologenome theory of evolution considers the holobiont with its hologenome as a unit of selection in evolution. This new view may have profound impact on understanding a strictly microbe/symbiont-dependent life style and its evolutionary consequences. It may also affect the way how we approach complex environmental diseases from corals (coral bleaching) to human (inflammatory bowel disease etc). The book is written for scientists as well as medically interested persons in the field of immunobiology, microbiology, evolutionary biology, evolutionary medicine and corals. R. Robbins

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Reprints and preprints of publications, slide presentations, instructional materials, and data compilations written or prepared by Robert Robbins. Most papers deal with computational biology, genome informatics, using information technology to support biomedical research, and related matters.

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